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Sample records for perimenopausal women electronic

  1. Psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women

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    Biswajit L Jagtap

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women in the perimenopausal period are reported to be vulnerable to psychiatric disorders. Aim: To assess the psychiatric morbidity in perimenopausal women aged 45–55 years. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional, observational, hospital-based study was conducted at the Department of Psychiatry in a tertiary care hospital attached to a medical college. The study sample consisted of consecutive women in perimenopause as diagnosed by a gynecologist and written informed consent for inclusion in the study. Women with a previous history of psychiatric illnesses, with a major medical illness, or who had undergone surgical menopause were excluded from the study. All women were evaluated with a brief questionnaire for collecting demographic and clinical information and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for assessing psychiatric disorders. Results: Of the 108 women in perimenopause included in the study, 31% had depressive disorder, 7% had anxiety, while 5% had depressive disorder with anxiety features. Psychiatric morbidity was significantly more in women having lesser education, from rural background, with a history of psychiatric illness in the family, a later age of menarche, and in the late stage of perimenopause. Conclusions: Women in the perimenopause affected by psychiatric morbidity were most commonly diagnosed with depression. As perimenopause is a time of vulnerability in women, attention to signs and symptoms of depression may be required so that they may lead a more productive life.

  2. Perimenopausal symptoms in Sri Lankan women.

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    Goonaratna, C; Fonseka, P; Wijeywardene, K

    1999-06-01

    To determine the types of perimenopausal symptoms (PMS) associated with the natural menopause and to make a preliminary assessment of the influence of PMS on household work, employment duties and social life, since no published data are available regarding these aspects in Sri Lankan women. A cross-sectional descriptive study of 403 women after natural menopause chosen randomly from four selected groups. A pre-tested coded questionnaire administered by trained women medical students to consenting menopausal women. An overwhelming majority of menopausal women (87.1%) had one or more PMS. The principal PMS reported were insomnia (57.8%), joint pains (55.8%), night sweats (55.6%), hot flushes (40.2%), irritability (35.3%) and headaches (33.3%). Of the 171 women employed outside the home, 38% noted some interference with employment duties. PMS causes much morbidity in Sri Lankan perimenopausal women.

  3. Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in Perimenopausal Women

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    Chung, Soo-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Jeon, Dong-Su; Park, Junsik; Kim, Yesol

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of perimenopausal women at a university hospital along with their menstrual characters. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding premenstrual symptoms was carried out in 100 perimenopausal women (43 to 53, years). The pattern of menstruation and, the intensity of dysmenorrhea were assessed; and further, the symptoms were classified according to their number, intensity, and persisten...

  4. Weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

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    Su, Mei-Chen; Lin, Hung-Ru; Chu, Nain-Feng; Huang, Chih-Hsung; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2015-07-01

    To develop a descriptive theory for the weight loss experiences of obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Obesity and metabolic syndrome both pose a threat to the health of perimenopausal women; therefore, understanding perimenopausal women's subjective feelings and experiences is beneficial to establishing effective prevention strategies. However, studies have rarely explored these relevant experiences. A qualitative study using the grounded theory method to establish a descriptive theory. Eighteen obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome aged 45-60 years participated in comprehensive interviews. 'Crossing the gaps to making life modifications' was the core category, and 'the awareness of weight gain and health alarm' was the antecedent condition. In the weight loss experience, the following three interaction categories were identified: (1) 'experiencing bad feelings,' (2) 'encountering obstacles' and (3) 'making efforts to transition to a new life.' Some women adhered to new life habits through perceiving social support and by using self-incentives. Finally, women enjoyed and mastered self-monitoring of their health in their new life, and practiced new changes as part of their life. However, some participants felt that making changes to their life was too time-consuming. Therefore, these women chose to live with their abnormal health without making changes. Obese perimenopausal women with metabolic syndrome experienced various gaps in their weight loss process. Although they struggled with many obstacles, these women were able to learn from their experiences and face their health challenges. These findings can guide healthcare professionals to provide appropriate interventions to understand the hidden health problems of this particular group of women. Healthcare professionals should develop a set of plans by which women receive a complete weight loss program and support from professionals and family. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Association between HIV status and psychological symptoms in perimenopausal women.

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    Looby, Sara E; Psaros, Christina; Raggio, Greer; Rivard, Corinne; Smeaton, Laura; Shifren, Jan; Grinspoon, Steven; Joffe, Hadine

    2018-01-29

    HIV-infected women are burdened by depression and anxiety, which may impact adherence to antiretroviral therapy and overall quality of life. Yet, little is known about the scope of psychological symptoms in the growing number of HIV-infected women reaching menopause, when affective symptoms are more prevalent in the general population. We conducted a longitudinal study to compare affective symptoms between perimenopausal HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected women. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) were completed at baseline and 12 months among 33 HIV-infected and 33 non-HIV-infected perimenopausal women matched by race, age, menstrual patterns, and BMI. Linear regression models estimated the relationship of baseline GAD-7 and CES-D scores with clinical factors. All women were perimenopausal at baseline, and the vast majority remained perimenopausal throughout follow-up. HIV status was associated with higher baseline CES-D scores (median [interquartile range] 21 [12, 29] vs 10 [5, 14]; P = 0.03) and GAD-7 scores (7 [5, 15] vs 2 [1, 7]; P = 0.01), controlling for smoking, substance use, and antidepressant use. Depressive symptoms and anxiety remained significantly higher in the HIV-infected women at 12 months (P ≤ 0.01). Significant relationships of depressive symptoms (P = 0.048) and anxiety (P = 0.02) with hot flash severity were also observed. Perimenopausal HIV-infected women experienced a disproportionately high level of affective symptom burden over a 12-month observation period. Given the potential for these factors to influence adherence to HIV clinical care and quality of life, careful assessment and referral for treatment of these symptoms is essential.

  6. Premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder in perimenopausal women.

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    Chung, Soo-Ho; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Lee, Arum; Jeon, Dong-Su; Park, Junsik; Kim, Yesol

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) of perimenopausal women at a university hospital along with their menstrual characters. A questionnaire survey regarding premenstrual symptoms was carried out in 100 perimenopausal women (43 to 53, years). The pattern of menstruation and, the intensity of dysmenorrhea were assessed; and further, the symptoms were classified according to their number, intensity, and persistence. The PMS criteria of American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) and PMDD criteria by American Psychiatric Association (APA) were evaluated. The approximate prevalence of PMS criteria was 95% and that of PMDD criteria was 23%. The most dominant symptoms were 'breast tenderness', 'abdominal bloating', 'and headache'. PMDD was significantly associated with the severity of dysmenorrhea (P = 0.020). There was no significant relation with age, height, weight, body mass index and the cycle of menstruation. Most women experience PMS and PMDD, which and have a significant impact on the activity of perimenopause women. However in most women that do not know well about PMS and PMDD. We should educate and inform women of PMS and PMDD, thus helping them increase their quality of life.

  7. Association between physical activity and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women.

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    Kim, Min-Ju; Cho, Juhee; Ahn, Younjhin; Yim, Gyeyoon; Park, Hyun-Young

    2014-10-03

    Physical activity may be an effective way of preventing or attenuating menopause-related symptoms, and it has been shown to improve quality of life in menopausal women. However, there have been some inconsistencies regarding between exercise and menopausal symptoms, and study investigating this association has been scarce in Korea. In this study, the association between physical activity and menopausal symptoms in perimenopausal women in Korea was assessed. This cross-sectional observational study was conducted between November 2012 and March 2013. In total, 2,204 healthy women aged 44-56 years were recruited from a healthcare center at the Kangbuk Samsung hospitals for investigating women's attitudes towards menopause. To investigate the influence of physical activity on perimenopause-associated symptoms, 631 perimenopausal women were selected for this study. Their physical activity levels were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) short form. The Menopause-specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was used to assess menopause-related symptoms. The study participants were, on average, 48.5 ± 2.7 years old and had a mean body mass index of 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2. The total MENQOL score and the psychosocial and physical subscores exhibited U-shaped trends in relation to the level of physical activity. Multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for confounding variables showed that perimenopausal women who performed moderate physical activity reported significantly lower psychosocial (β = -0.413, P = 0.012) and physical symptoms (β = -0.445, P = 0.002) than women who performed low physical activity. By contrast, a high level of physical activity did not influence the MENQOL total score and subscores relative to the low activity group. In addition, no associations were observed between physical activity and the vasomotor and sexual symptoms in any group. Moderate level of physical activity was associated

  8. Fracture risk in perimenopausal women treated with beta-blockers

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    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Kassem, M.

    2004-01-01

    beta2-Adrenergic receptors have been identified on human osteoblastic and osteoclastic cells, raising the question of a sympathetic regulation of bone metabolism. We investigated effects of treatment with beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-blockers) on bone turnover, bone mineral density...... (BMD), and fracture risk. Within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS) a population based, comprehensive cohort study of 2016 perimenopausal women, associations between treatment with beta-blockers and bone turnover and BMD were assessed in a cross-sectional design at the start of study....... Moreover, in a nested case-control design, fracture risk during the subsequent 5 years was assessed in relation to treatment with beta-blockers at baseline. Multiple regression- and logistic regression-analyses were performed. Treatment with beta-blockers was associated with a threefold increased fracture...

  9. Predictors of the quality of life of women in peri-menopausal period

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    Katarzyna Kanadys

    2016-09-01

    The quality of life of the peri-menopausal women examined was the highest with respect to depressive mood (DEP and anxiety/depressed mood (ANX, while it was the lowest with respect to the sense of attractiveness (ATT, and somatic symptoms (SOM. In addition, in the group of women in peri-menopausal period the quality of life was conditioned: level of depression, self-reported state of health, occurrence of menopausal symptoms, education level, and marital status.

  10. The perimenopausal transition of Filipino American midlife women: biopsychosociocultural dimensions.

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    Berg, J A

    1999-01-01

    To describe the biologic, psychological, social, and cultural (biopsychosociocultural) dimensions of the perimenopausal transition of Filipino American midlife women. A community-based sample of 165 women (a) self-identified as Filipino American, (b) ages 35 to 56 years, and (c) English language proficient was recruited from churches and social groups. Women in the study were born in the Philippines (93.3%), had lived in the United States an average of 18.4 +/- 8.7 years, were married or partnered (74.6%), had completed college (62.8%) or a graduate degree (15.9%), worked (full-time, 77.9%; part-time, 12.9%), had household incomes greater than $50,000 (>58%). Menopause ages were calculated from reports of last menstrual periods (natural, 48.9 +/- 4.9 years; surgical, 42.2 +/- 5.7 years). Neither the age at menarche nor the number of pregnancies and children born was significantly related to age at menopause. Calcium from food sources was generally low, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) revealed a 24.8% depression rate. The low prevalence of physical health problems confirms previous research that foreign-born individuals have better health than those born in the United States. The profile of this understudied group identified calcium intake, osteoporosis morbidity, and prevalence of depression as key areas for future study.

  11. Incidence of Oral Lichen Planus in Perimenopausal Women: A Cross-sectional Study in Western Uttar Pradesh Population

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    Mohan, Ravi Prakash Sasankoti; Gupta, Akanksha; Kamarthi, Nagaraju; Malik, Sangeeta; Goel, Sumit; Gupta, Swati

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hormonal fluctuations during menopause lead to endocrine changes in women, especially in their sex steroid hormone production. Studies have documented the role of estrogen and progesterone (Pg) on autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Lichen planus (LP), an autoimmune disorder, seen frequently in perimenopausal women, may also get affected by sex steroid hormones, but no direct relationship has been established yet. Aim: The aim of this study is to find the incidence of oral LP (OLP) in perimenopausal women and evaluate the factors associated with it. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over a period of 1 year. All the perimenopausal women (44.69 ± 3.79 years) who came to the dental outpatient department were evaluated for the presence of LP and various factors associated with it. Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 questionnaire was used for psychometric evaluation of perimenopausal women. Results: According to our study, incidence of LP in postmenopausal women was 10.91%, which is higher than incidence of LP in general population, i.e., 0.5% to 2.0%. Incidence of LP increased with the severity of depression in perimenopausal women (P = 0.000). Conclusion: The incidence of OLP is higher in perimenopausal women than in general population and increases significantly with increase in the severity of depression. LP in perimenopausal women can be mediated by declined level of estrogen and Pg directly or indirectly through causing depression that can trigger LP. PMID:28706407

  12. Change in bone mineral density and its determinants in pre- and perimenopausal Chinese women: the Hong Kong Perimenopausal Women Osteoporosis Study.

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    Ho, S C; Chan, S G; Yip, Y B; Chan, C S Y; Woo, J L F; Sham, A

    2008-12-01

    This 30-month study investigating bone change and its determinants in 438 perimenopausal Chinese women revealed that the fastest bone loss occurred in women undergoing menopausal transition but maintenance of body weight and physical fitness were beneficial for bone health. Soy protein intake also seemed to exert a protective effect. This 30-month follow-up study aims to investigate change in bone mineral density and its determinants in Hong Kong Chinese perimenopausal women. Four hundred and thirty-eight women aged 45 to 55 years were recruited through random telephone dialing and primary care clinic. Bone mass, body composition, lifestyle measurements were obtained at baseline and at 9-, 18- and 30-month follow-ups. Univariate and stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed with the regression coefficients of BMD/C (derived from baseline and follow-up measurements) as the outcome variables. Menopausal status was classified as pre- or postmenopausal or transitional. Menopausal status was the strongest determinant of bone changes. An annual bone loss of about 0.5% was observed among premenopausal, 2% to 2.5% among transitional, and about 1.5% in postmenopausal women. Multiple regression analyses, revealed that a positive regression slope of body weight was protective for follow-up bone loss at all sites. Number of pregnancy, soy protein intake and walking were protective for total body BMC. Higher baseline LM was also protective for neck of femur BMD. Maintenance of body weight and physical fitness were observed to have a protective effect on for bone loss in Chinese perimenopausal women.

  13. A Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Perimenopause Women with Mild-Moderate Depression

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    Sheng Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Up to 62% of perimenopausal women have depression symptoms. However, there is no efficacy treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of EA therapy and escitalopram on perimenopause women with mild-moderate depressive symptom. Method. A multicenter, randomized, positive-controlled clinical trial was conducted at 6 hospitals in China. 242 perimenopause women with mild-moderate depressive symptom were recruited and randomly assigned to receive 36 sessions of EA treatment or escitalopram treatment. The primary outcome measure was the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17. The secondary outcome measures include menopause-specific quality of life (MENQOL and serum sexual hormones which include estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Results. 221 (91.3% completed the study, including 116 in the EA group and 105 in the escitalopram group. The baseline levels of demographic and outcome measurements were similar in the two groups. In the intervention period, there was no difference between two groups. However, in the follow-up, both HAMD-17 and MENQOL were significantly decreased, and at week 24 the mean differences were −2.23 and −8.97, respectively. There were no significant differences in the change of serum sexual hormones between the two groups. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion. EA treatment is effective and safe in relieving depression symptom and improving the quality of life in the perimenopausal depression. Further research is needed to understand long-term efficacy and explore the mechanism of this intervention. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02423694.

  14. Significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance for Papanicolaou smears in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

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    Keating, J T; Wang, H H

    2001-04-25

    The current study was conducted to determine the significance of a diagnosis of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The reports for all Papanicolaou (Pap) smears viewed in the study institution's cytology laboratory over a 6-month period were reviewed. Women were divided into premenopausal (age ages 46-54 years), and postmenopausal (age > or = 55 years) categories. Slide review and 2-year follow-up were obtained for selected cases diagnosed as ASCUS. ASCUS cases among the perimenopausal women were compared with an age-matched control group. The total number of abnormal Pap smears in the premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal categories were 770 (6.8%), 104 (4.3%), and 67 (2.9%), with 482, 83, and 41 diagnoses of ASCUS, respectively. The ratio of ASCUS to squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) was 2.2 overall and 1.9, 7.5, and 4.1, respectively, for each group (P ASCUS cases appeared to have a higher percentage of nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio increase and nuclear membrane irregularities compared with the other categories (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively) and the perimenopausal group was found to have more ASCUS in metaplastic cells (P = 0.03). In perimenopausal women, slides diagnosed as ASCUS demonstrated more air-drying artifact than the control group (P = 0.004) but had less obvious atrophy (P = 0.01). Despite a decreased abnormality rate with increasing age, the results of the current study show that the perimenopausal and postmenopausal groups appear to have elevated ASCUS-to-SIL ratios. ASCUS appears to have a particularly low positive predictive value for SIL in perimenopausal women, and therefore most likely is overcalled in this age group. This may be attributable in part to air-drying artifact and subtle atrophic changes.

  15. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for vulvovaginal atrophy symptoms and vaginal rejuvenation in perimenopausal women

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    Arroyo C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available César Arroyo HM Montepríncipe University Hospital Laser Unit, Madrid, Spain Background: This study investigated a novel fractional carbon dioxide (CO2 laser for treatment of symptoms associated with vulvovaginal atrophy (VVA in perimenopausal women.Methods: The study included 21 perimenopausal women (mean age 45±7 years treated three times by CO2 laser resurfacing and coagulation of the vaginal canal tissue and mucosal tissue of the introitus. Vaginal health index (VHI scores were computed by the investigator at baseline and follow-ups. Subjects reported on sexual function, satisfaction, and improvement with treatment. A visual analog scale was used to measure discomfort with treatment.Results: Vaginal health and subject assessment of vaginal symptoms improved with successive treatments. At 12 weeks following the third treatment, 82% of the patients showed a statistically significant improvement in VHI (P<0.05. Additionally, 81% of subjects reported improvement in sexual gratification, 94% reported improvement in vaginal rejuvenation, and 100% reported satisfaction with treatment. VHI improvement remained significant at 6–8 months after treatments (P<0.01. Most patients (97% reported no to mild discomfort with treatment. Responses were mild and transient following treatment, with itching being the most commonly reported (20% side effect.Conclusion: In this study, fractional CO2 laser treatment was associated with improvement of vaginal health and amelioration of symptoms of VVA, resulting in improved sexual function in perimenopausal women. Treatment time was quick, and there was minimal discomfort associated with treatment. Investigation of clinical outcome in a larger study population is warranted. Keywords: genitourinary syndrome of menopause, vaginal rejuvenation, stress urinary incontinence, collagen remodeling, sexual dysfunction, vulvovaginal atrophy

  16. Cardiac autonomic function and hot flashes among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

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    Gibson, Carolyn J; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Schembri, Michael; Grady, Deborah; Huang, Alison J

    2017-07-01

    Abnormalities in autonomic function are posited to play a pathophysiologic role in menopausal hot flashes. We examined relationships between resting cardiac autonomic activity and hot flashes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Autonomic function was assessed at baseline and 12 weeks among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women (n = 121, mean age 53 years) in a randomized trial of slow-paced respiration for hot flashes. Pre-ejection period (PEP), a marker of sympathetic activation, was measured with impedance cardiography. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a marker of parasympathetic activation, was measured with electrocardiography. Participants self-reported hot flash frequency and severity in 7-day symptom diaries. Analysis of covariance models were used to relate autonomic function and hot flash frequency and severity at baseline, and to relate changes in autonomic function to changes in hot flash frequency and severity over 12 weeks, adjusting for age, body mass index, and intervention assignment. PEP was not associated with hot flash frequency or severity at baseline or over 12 weeks (P > 0.05 for all). In contrast, there was a trend toward greater frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes with higher RSA at baseline (β = 0.43, P = 0.06), and a positive association between change in RSA and change in frequency of moderate-to-severe hot flashes over 12 weeks (β = 0.63, P = 0.04). Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, variations in hot flash frequency and severity were not explained by variations in resting sympathetic activation. Greater parasympathetic activation was associated with more frequent moderate-to-severe hot flashes, which may reflect increased sensitivity to perceiving hot flashes.

  17. [Healthy habits and osteoporosis prevention in perimenopausal women from rural areas].

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    Pérez-Fernández, M Reyes; Almazán Ortega, Raquel; Martínez Portela, José M; Alves Pérez, M Teresa; Segura-Iglesias, M Carmen; Pérez-Fernández, Román

    2014-01-01

    The probability of developing osteoporosis decreases with an adequate supply of vitamin D, a balanced diet, and increased physical activity. In this study, we evaluated whether an educational intervention improves osteoporosis-related behavior in perimenopausal women from rural areas. A randomized experimental evaluation was performed of an educational intervention. The variables were physical activity, calcium intake and sun exposure in women from rural areas aged 45-54 years (n=216) at time 0 and 12 months after the educational intervention. In the control group (n=106), the information was sent by surface mail (month 0). In the intervention group (n=110), two interactive workshops were given (month 0). The topic of the workshops and the information sent by surface mail was healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. After 12 months, the intervention group, but not the control group, had increased their physical activity (p=0.006), sun exposure (p=0.029), and calcium intake (53% to 64%). A simple educational intervention in perimenopausal women from rural areas improved healthy habits for osteoporosis prevention. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

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    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  19. Response rates to oestrogen treatment in perimenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Tofteng, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise women with no response or with a good response to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), evaluated by change in bone mineral density (BMD). Design: Nested case-control study within a comprehensive cohort study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study...

  20. Evaluation Of Hormone Profile And Dexa Values in Premenopausal, Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

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    Esra Esen

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in 130 women, between 44-55 ages, admitted to outpatient clinic of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department of Trakya University Medical Faculty in order to make. comparison of hormone profile and DEXA values of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women . Three groups were allocated according to climacteric symptoms and menopause condition. Premenopausal group consisted of women who had regular menstruation and did not have any climacteric symptoms , perimenopausal group consisted of women who had menstruation disorder and climacteric symptoms within one year and postmenopausal group consisted of women who had last menstruation within more than one year and less than 5 years. Women who had prior osteoporosis diognosis and treatment, hormone replacement therapy, surgical menopause and menopause duration more than 5 years were excluded from the study. Age, body weight ,height, hormone profile including estradiol (E2, progesterone (P, follicule stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, parathyroid hormone (PTH, thyroid hormones (T3, T4, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and DEXA values representing bone mineral density (BMD of both groups were evaluated. In peri and postmenopausal groups, E2, P, FSH and LH values were significantly lower, while there was no significant difference for PTH and thyroid hormone levels comparing to premenopausal group. For DEXA values, T scores of L2-L4, L2, L3, L4, femur neck, trochanter, Wards and Z scores of femur neck, Wards area were significantly lower in peri and postmenopausal groups. It was demonstrated paralel to literature that BMD decreased in peri and early postmenopausal women associated with hormone profile changes, mainly lower E2.

  1. Educational intervention on cardiovascular parameters in perimenopausal women with a cardiovascular risk factor. Randomised clinical trial.

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    Soto Rodríguez, Anxela; García Soidán, José Luís; Arias Gómez, María Jesús; Del Álamo Alonso, Alberto; Leirós Rodríguez, Raquel; Pérez Fernández, María Reyes

    2018-03-09

    Randomised clinical trial performed in two urban health centres in Spain. To evaluate if educational intervention in women of perimenopausal age with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia could achieve significant changes in the reduction of biochemical and haemodynamic risk parameters. The study included 320 women aged between 45 and 60 years old who were diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia. They were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n=160) and the control group (n=160). The intervention group received three educational sessions and the control group received an informative leaflet sent by mail. Haemodynamic and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and one year later in both groups. Women in the intervention group showed a decrease in low density lipoprotein (P=.034), (-5.89±29.8; 95% CI: -13.1/0.27) and an increase in high density lipoprotein (P=.013), (2.71±10.6; 95% CI: -1.36/6.20), as well as improvements in systolic blood pressure (P=.016), (-2.16±11.8; 95% CI: -4.4/0.01) and frequency (P=.003), (-1.46±10.3; 95% CI: -3.34/0.42) compared to women in the control group. Women in the control group significantly increased glucose (P=.04), (4.84±15.5; 95% CI: -0.75/31.3) and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (P=.031), (3.61±14.7; 95% CI: 0.87/6.36) levels more than those in the experimental group. An educational intervention can be an effective method of reducing the parameters associated with an increased likelihood of cardiovascular disease in women at perimenopausal age with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. [Clinical trial with educational intervention in perimenopausal women with cardiovascular risk factor].

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    Soto-Rodríguez, Anxela; García-Soidán, José Luís; de Toro-Santos, Manuel; Rodríguez-González, Manuel; Arias-Gómez, M Jesús; Pérez-Fernández, María Reyes

    To assess whether an educational intervention in women in perimenopausal age with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and/or dyslipidemia could improve aspects of quality of life and exercise. A randomized clinical trial. physical activity, quality of life and weight in women aged 45-60 years (n = 320) at time 0 and 12 months after surgery. intervention group (IG): 3 interactive workshops on cardiovascular disease prevention and control group (CG): information by mail. The IG obtained better scores on the mental component of quality of life one year later (p cardiovascular risk factor improves aspects of quality of life and of healthy habits such as physical activity. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. A systematic review of the exercise effect on bone health: the importance of assessing mechanical loading in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

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    Sañudo, Borja; de Hoyo, Moisés; Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Carrasco, Luis; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Tejero, Sergio; Firth, Elwyn

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this systematic review were to determine the general effects of exercise on areal bone mineral density (BMD) in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to provide information on the most suitable bone-loading exercise regimens that may improve bone health in this population group. A computerized, systematic literature search was performed in the electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and The Cochrane Library, from January 2005 to November 2015, to identify all randomized controlled trials related to exercise in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. The initial search identified 915 studies, with a final yield of 10 studies. Only randomized controlled trials that examined the effects of exercise programs longer than 24 weeks in women aged 35 to 70 years were included. The 10 studies quantified at least BMD and described training variables adequately (training period, frequency, volume, intensity). Ten studies with moderate quality evidence (6.4 ± 1.8 points, range 4-9) were included. Significant changes in lumbar and femoral neck BMD were found mainly with high-impact exercise and whole body vibration interventions. While training effects must be interpreted with caution because of the heterogeneity of the protocols and exercises performed, this systematic review confirmed the effectiveness of impact exercises combined with other forms of training (vibration or strength training) to preserve BMD in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Despite the results possibly not representing a general dose-response relationship, we highlight the importance of quantifying loading intensity and frequency by means of accelerometry as these parameters are determinants for bone adaptation.

  4. Estimation of tissue and crevicular fluid oxidative stress marker in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Rampalli Viswa; Sailaja, Sistla; Reddy, Aileni Amarender

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate tissue and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) levels of the oxidative stress marker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in premenopausal, perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with chronic periodontitis. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of periodontitis and menopause induces oxidative stress. According to Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) criteria, women diagnosed with periodontitis were subdivided into three groups of 31 participants each 1. Premenopausal 2. Perimenopausal and 3. Postmenopausal. GCF and gingival tissue samples were collected from sites with maximum probing depth. Tissue DNA was extracted from the gingival sample and 8-OHdG in the extracted DNA, and GCF samples were measured using ELISA. There was a highly significant difference in the overall GCF 8-OHdG levels among the three groups with the pairwise difference being highly significant between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups. However, no overall significant differences in tissue 8-OHdG levels were found among the three groups. Pairwise, highly significant differences were found between the premenopausal-postmenopausal groups and perimenopausal-postmenopausal groups for tissue 8-OHdG levels. No significant correlations were found between various measure of periodontal disease and GCF/tissue 8-OHdG levels among all the groups. Premenopausal-postmenopausal and perimenopausal-postmenopausal transition resulted in significant increase in tissue and GCF 8-OHdG levels. However, no association was found between stages of reproductive ageing and tissue levels of 8-OHdG. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. No effect of Vitamin K1 intake on bone mineral density and fracture risk in perimenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Vestergaard, Peter; Charles, Peder

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vitamin K functions as a co-factor in the post-translational carboxylation of several bone proteins, including osteocalcin. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between vitamin K(1) intake and bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk in a perimenopausal...... Danish population. DESIGN: The study was performed within the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS), including a population-based cohort of 2,016 perimenopausal women. During the study approximately 50% of the women received hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Associations between vitamin K(1......) intake and BMD were assessed at baseline and after 5-years of follow-up (cross-sectional design). Moreover, associations between vitamin K(1) intake and 5-year and 10-year changes in BMD were studied (follow-up design). Finally, fracture risk was assessed in relation to vitamin K(1) intake (nested case...

  6. Effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision in Chinese women with perimenopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S; Mao, L; Chen, X; Bai, W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision on menopausal symptoms and diet/exercise habits. The randomized controlled study enrolled 60 patients with perimenopausal syndrome (Kupperman Menopause Index (KMI) score ≥15). The participants were randomized into either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). Women were interviewed with questionnaires about perimenopausal symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit. Their height and weight were measured. Women in the intervention group received health education, diet supervision and exercise supervision twice a week while those in the control group continued as normal. The total KMI score, scores of individual symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit were measured after intervention. The total KMI score, the individual KMI scores for paresthesia, irritability, depression/suspicious, fatigue, arthralgia/myalgia, and palpitations of the intervention group were significantly lower compared with the control group after intervention. The intake of cereal, meat, fats and oils of the intervention group were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline. The percentage of women with a regular exercise habit was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group after intervention. Twelve weeks intervention of health education combining diet and exercise supervision could improve perimenopausal symptoms and help the patients establish good living habits.

  7. Effects of essential oil exposure on salivary estrogen concentration in perimenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Doi, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Chizu; Sawano, Erika; Tarumi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    The menopausal transition is the time from the onset of menstrual changes until one year after the final menstrual period. During this phase, perimenopausal women experience a variety of health-related symptoms, which seemingly derive from declining level of estrogen secretion. It has long been recognized that some essential oils have the efficacy of alleviating menopausal symptoms. On the basis of this, it is possible that these essential oils have the potency to facilitate estrogen secretion in women. The present study investigated this possibility by examining if the olfactory exposure to the essential oil increase salivary estrogen concentration. We tested the effect of ten essential oils; clary sage, frankincense, geranium, lavender, jasmine absolute, neroli, rose otto, ylang ylang, orange and roman chamomile, which are thought to relieve perimenopasal symptoms. The results have shown increase of salivary estrogen concentration induced by exposure to geranium and rose otto compared to control odor. Together with the previous studies, the present study may give support to the notion that olfactory exposure to some essential oils can influence salivary concentration of estrogen.

  8. Effect of fat mass and lean mass on bone mineral density in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namwongprom S

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirianong Namwongprom,1 Sattaya Rojanasthien,2 Ampica Mangklabruks,3 Supasil Soontrapa,4 Chanpen Wongboontan,5 Boonsong Ongphiphadhanakul61Clinical Epidemiology Program and Department of Radiology, 2Department of Orthopaedics, 3Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Department of Orthopaedics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal and perimenopausal Thai women.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1579 healthy Thai women aged 40–90 years. Total body, lumbar spine, total femur, and femoral neck BMD and body composition were measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. To evaluate the associations between fat mass and lean mass and various measures of BMD, multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the regression coefficients for fat mass and lean mass, first in separate equations and then with both fat mass and lean mass in the same equation.Results: Among the study population, 1448 subjects (91.7% were postmenopausal and 131 (8.3% were perimenopausal. In postmenopausal women, after controlling for age, height, and duration of menopause, both fat mass and lean mass were positively correlated with BMD when they were analyzed independently of each other. When included in the same equation, both fat mass and lean mass continued to show a positive effect, but lean mass had a significantly greater impact on BMD than fat mass at all regions except for total body. Lean mass but not fat mass had a positive effect on BMD at all skeletal sites except the lumbar spine, after controlling for age and height in perimenopausal

  9. [Effect of treatment with diet on reducing levels of sex hormones in perimenopausal women with overweight and obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokieć, Katarzyna; Błońska, Aleksandra; Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Stec-Michalska, Krystyna

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, fight against obesity is a big challenge for the developed countries. Perimenopausal women are especially prone to becoming overweight and obese. This is due to changes in hormone levels and alterations in the sex hormones synthesis pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of sex hormones in overweight and obese women during menopause following the three month period of reducing diet. The study involved women aged 55±4,75 years. Group I - 33 overweight women (BMI 28,06±1,00 kg/m(2)). Group II - 32 obese women (BMI 34,22±3,79 kg/m(2)). Anthropometric measurements, body composition tested with Bodystat QuadScan 4000 analyzer and levels of sex hormones in the blood was determined before and after the three-months of reducing diet in both groups. Statistical data analysis was performed. After three-months of reducing diet it was noticed that levels of BMI, body fat, FSH, DHEA-S and androstenedione were decreased in a statistically significant manner. A significant increase in estradiol levels after reduction of visceral adipose tissue in both groups, overweight and obese women, was observed. However, only in the group of obese women, a decrease in BMI correlated with a significant increase in estradiol levels. Application of appropriate reducing diet in perimenopausal overweight and obese women has positive impact on visceral adipose tissue distribution and causes an increase in sex hormones levels. Perimenopausal overweight and obese women should pursue weight reduction to improve their chances of contracting cardiovascular diseases. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  10. Effects of a12-week endurance exercise program on adiposity and flexibility of Nigerian perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwumike, O O; Arowojolu, A O; Sanya, A O

    2011-12-20

    Menopause is a sign of aging in the woman. Loss of ovarian function induces a reduction in resting metabolic rate, physical energy expenditure, fat-free mass and abdominal adipose tissue accumulation. Location of adipose tissue deposit in abdominal region plays an important role in occurrence of hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although regular participation in physical exercise have been suggested to improve adiposity and body flexibility which are important health related components of physical fitness, few published studies are available on the effect of exercise on Nigerian menopausal women. This study investigated effects of a twelve-week endurance exercise program (EEP) on central and abdominal obesity as well as flexibility of perimenopausal and postmenopausal Nigerian women. The study employed a pretest- posttest control group design comprising a sample of 175 apparently healthy, literate, sedentary women within age range 40-59 years. They were workers in state and federal establishments in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo State, Nigeria. Based on history of their last menstrual period, women with regular or irregular menstrual cycle status were allocated into perimenopausal group and those who no longer menstruated into postmenopausal group. A table of random numbers was used for further allocation into perimenopausal exercise group (PEMEG, 45), postmenopausal exercise group (POMEG, 45) perimenopausal control group (PEMCG, 42) and postmenopausal control group (POMCG, 43). Waist Hip Ratio (WHR), Body Mass Index (BMI) as well as Hip and Trunk Flexibility (HTF) were evaluated at baseline and 4weekly intervals until end of 12th week. EEP consisted of a 10-station circuit of cardiovascular endurance, flexibility, coordination, abdominal and pelvic floor muscle exercises. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Mean age of participants was 52.3±4.1 years, 95% C.I (51.64-52.88) years. Significant

  11. Burning mouth syndrome – a common dental problem in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Ślebioda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Burning mouth syndrome (BMS is characterized by the presence of burning, paresthesia or pain of the oral mucosa in the absence of pathologic lesions revealed during the clinical examination [1-3]. Moreover, the pain may be accompanied by oral dryness, hypersensitivity to some food compounds and taste disorders [4-6]. Etiopathogenesis of this condition remains unclear. Potential local causative factors include among the others mechanical irritation, parafunctions and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system, contact allergy to dental materials and electro-galvanic phenomena. Potential systemic causes include diabetes mellitus, B group vitamin deficiency (vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12, folic acid and iron deficiency, hormonal imbalance, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric and neurological disorders and drug-induced side effects. The hypothesis concerning the role of hormonal changes in the development of BMS seems to be confirmed by a high incidence of this condition in perimenopausal women [2, 7, 8]. Up to now, due to an unclear etiology of the disease, the treatment is very often ineffective and mainly symptomatic, which may exacerbate patient’s anxiety and discomfort. In this paper we present the main etiologic factors of the burning mouth syndrome. We discuss the basic diagnostic and therapeutic methods and the influence of hormonal replacement therapy on the course of BMS based on the current medical reports.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome – a common dental problem in perimenopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szponar, Elżbieta

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by the presence of burning, paresthesia or pain of the oral mucosa in the absence of pathologic lesions revealed during the clinical examination. Moreover, the pain may be accompanied by oral dryness, hypersensitivity to some food compounds and taste disorders. Etiopathogenesis of this condition remains unclear. Potential local causative factors include among the others mechanical irritation, parafunctions and dysfunctions of the stomatognathic system, contact allergy to dental materials and electro-galvanic phenomena. Potential systemic causes include diabetes mellitus, B group vitamin deficiency (vitamins B1, B2, B6 and B12), folic acid and iron deficiency, hormonal imbalance, gastrointestinal diseases, psychiatric and neurological disorders and drug-induced side effects. The hypothesis concerning the role of hormonal changes in the development of BMS seems to be confirmed by a high incidence of this condition in perimenopausal women. Up to now, due to an unclear etiology of the disease, the treatment is very often ineffective and mainly symptomatic, which may exacerbate patient's anxiety and discomfort. In this paper we present the main etiologic factors of the burning mouth syndrome. We discuss the basic diagnostic and therapeutic methods and the influence of hormonal replacement therapy on the course of BMS based on the current medical reports. PMID:26327855

  13. Employment conditions and work-related stressors are associated with menopausal symptom reporting among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariola, Emily; Jack, Gavin; Pitts, Marian; Riach, Kathleen; Sarrel, Philip

    2017-03-01

    While many women undergo menopausal transition while they are in paid employment, the effect of poor working conditions on women's experience of the menopause has received scant empirical attention. We examined associations between employment conditions, work-related stressors, and menopausal symptom reporting among perimenopausal and postmenopausal working women. Data were drawn from an online survey conducted between 2013 and 2014 involving 476 perimenopausal and postmenopausal women working in the higher education sector in Australia. Survey questions assessed demographics; health-related variables; menopausal symptom reporting; employment status; presence of flexible working hours; presence of temperature control; job autonomy; and supervisor support. A forced entry multivariable regression analysis revealed that high supervisor support (β = -0.10, P = 0.04), being employed on a full-time basis (β = -0.11, P = 0.02), and having control over workplace temperature (β = -0.11, P = 0.02) were independently associated with lower menopausal symptom reporting. These findings may help inform the development of tailored occupational health policies and programs that cater for the needs of older women as they transition through menopause in the workplace.

  14. Women's experience of being well during peri-menopause: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    A research study was conducted to investigate women's experience of being well during the peri-menopause because much of the research investigating the experience of menopause has concentrated on its problematic and pathological aspects. For the majority of western women the reproductive transition of menopause is not problematic, however, the nature of the unproblematic or healthy menopause has not been investigated. The aim in conducting this research was to enhance understanding of the experience of being healthy or well during menopause. In so doing, recognition of the diversity of menopausal experiences may be strengthened. The research was approached from the disciplinary perspective of nursing, and was grounded in the methodology of Heideggerian interpretive phenomenology. Data was collected via unstructured, in-depth interviews and analysis was conducted utilising the repetitive and circular process developed by van Manen. The phenomenon of being healthy or well during menopause was expressed in the form of three major themes. These were the continuity of menstrual experience, the embodiment of menopausal symptoms, and the containment of menopause and menopausal symptoms. The experience of health and well being during menopause can accommodate the experience of symptoms when the experience of symptoms does not disrupt embodied existence and the continuity of menstrual patterns. Menopause is widely studied, yet only partly understood. While much is now known about the nature and influence of ovarian hormones, the physiology of menopausal changes, and the treatment of menopausal symptoms, little is known and understood about the experience of menopause. Research that has investigated the experience of menopause has largely focused on the problematic experiences. It is now known that the majority of women, regardless of cultural background, do not experience menopause in a problematic way (Utian 1977; Porter et al. 1996). However, the nature of such experience

  15. Puberty and Perimenopause: Reproductive Transitions and their Implications for Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Lindsay T.; Falconi, April

    2015-01-01

    This scoping review synthesizes existing research on two major transitions in females’ lives: puberty and perimenopause. These two periods of vast physiological change demarcate the beginning and the end of the reproductive life cycle and are associated with major neuroendocrine reorganization across two key systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Despite growing evidence suggesting that the timing and experience of puberty and perimenopause are related to various physical and mental health outcomes (e.g., mood disorders, metabolism, cardiovascular health, autoimmune conditions and cancer), these two processes are rarely examined together. In this paper, we bridge these disparate literatures to highlight similarities, isolate inconsistencies, and identify important areas for future research in women’s health. PMID:25797100

  16. [Evaluation of eating habits and nutritional behaviors of women in the perimenopausal period with the diagnosed celiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Podlaszewska, Grazyna; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate eating habits and nutritional behaviors of women in the perimenopausal period with celiac disease diagnosed within the last 4 years. The study covered a group of 26 women, at the age of 51-54 years, with celiac disease diagnosed in the last 4 years and staying on a gluten-free diet for 6 months to 4 years and agreed to participate in this studies. Information of nutrition were collected from the women, who, after an appropriate instruction, recorded the timing, type and amount of food consumed in the three days a week, selected at random. The amount of consumed portions was defined on the basis of the "Book of portions, products and dishes". The menus (78) were recorded in April and May. Collected data were prepared, based on a computer program Dietetyk 2009 Prof. The analysis of results achieved in this study enabled concluding that--from the viewpoint of the diagnosed disease--the nutritional patterns of the women were very appropriate. However, it failed to meet basic nutritional guidelines, which was reflected in, among other things, unsatisfactory intake of vegetables, fruits, oils and water, and in excessive intake of protein of animal origin. In addition, it did not cover demands resulting from the perimenopausal period the surveyed women were in, which is likely to facilitate, e.g. disorders in lipid metabolism and water-mineral balance, as well as development of osteoporosis. The general picture of behaviors, including the nutritional ones, pointed to a strong predominance of the diagnosed disease but also to the need of compensating for the resultant restrictions, with the latter being perceived by the surveyed women as health-promoting actions.

  17. Traditional chinese herbal medicine for perimenopausal depression of chinese women: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese herbal medicine (TCHM in treatment of perimenopausal depression (PD in China. Methods: To identify randomized controlled trials, an electronic search has been conducted through databases as follows: PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, Chinese Biological Medicine Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, and WanFang Digital Periodicals Database. Methodological quality was evaluated by Cochrane Collaboration's tool which is able to assess the risk of bias in Review Manager Software. What's more, meta-analysis was performed by using Cochrane Collaboration's RevMan 5.2 software, (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Cochrane Collaboration, Copenhagen, and Denmark. Dichotomous data were analyzed by using relative risk (RR and 95% confidence interval (CI. Continuous variables were analyzed using weighted mean differences (WMDs and 95% CI. Subgroup analysis was performed by the type of medicine which was used in the experimental group. Results: This meta-analysis includes 11 randomized control trials with 818 patients. Compared to the control group (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [1.03, 1.26], P = 0.009 and WMD: −2.09, 95% CI: [ −3.58, −0.18], the experimental group had a significant higher clinical efficacy rate and relatively lower Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D score. For clinical efficacy rate, the results varied depending on the detail treatment measures of the experimental group. In the experimental group with TCHM, no significant difference was observed (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: [0.97, 1.33], while in the experimental group combined with western medicine, a significant difference in the clinical efficacy rate between the experimental group and control group showed up (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: [1.01, 1.32], P = 0.04. For the HAM-D score, subgroup analyses revealed that the

  18. Contraception for the perimenopausal woman

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these women. Most of these methods also have beneficial non-contraceptive properties. Introduction. Falling pregnant in the perimenopausal years can potentially ... tinuation of use. The risk reduction in developing epithelial ovarian cancer in women using oral contraception is 40%. After 10 years of use the risk reduction.

  19. [Analysis of relationships between perimenopausal symptoms and professional functioning and life satisfaction--Subjective perception of the dependence in women aged 40+].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska, Iwona; Rasińska, Renata; Głowacka, Maria Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse and present the opinions of women in perimenopause on subjectively perceived symptoms characteristic of the climacteric period, and connected with their professional functioning, as well as to evaluate the effects of selected variables on the incidence and severity of these symptoms and the women's life satisfaction. The study included 250 professionally active women in perimenopausal age (40-57 years). The study used the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS) to evaluate life satisfaction of women and the Kupperman Index (KI) as quantitative and qualitative self-assessment of climacteric symptoms. The authors also used a questionnaire of their own design that contains an index of defined symptoms of perimenopause, which warrants the use of Pareto-Lorenz analysis. The obtained results prove the presence of statistically significant correlations between the occurrence and severity of menopausal symptoms and the place of enployment (p=0.04912), gynecological care (p=0.00325), hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (p=0.01523) and assessment of life satisfaction (p=0.0325). Among the symptoms particularly influencing effective professional functioning, women pointed out hot flashes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. There is a statistically significant correlation between the woman's place of employment, gynecological care, HRT, the evaluation of life satisfaction and the severity of perimenopausal symptoms. A set of symptoms whose presence and severity influence the sense of life satisfaction and evaluation of professional functioning was observed. Among the most frequently reported symptoms that exert an adverse effect on professional functioning of women are: hot flushes, irritability, reduced concentration and coordination, sleep disturbances, and increased sweating. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Bone mineral content in the spongiosa of the lumbar spine of healthy perimenopausal women measured by QCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montag, M.; Meyer-Galander, H.M.; Peters, P.E.; Doeren, M.; Montag, T.

    1988-01-01

    Healthy perimenopausal women (152) were examined by QCT to quantify the mineral content of the axial skeleton. The density was measured in the spongiosa of the L 2-4, using single energy technique and the Cann-Genant calibration phantom. The women, aged 37 to 64, had no history of pathological fractures, ovariectomy, metabolic disease, or hormone therapy. The age-related mean values were 25 mg K2HP04/cm 3 lower than the normal values reported by Genant et al. for 203 healthy American women. The 95% confidence interval was distinctly narrower (±40 mg/cm 3 ) than the American confidence interval (±60 mg/cm 3 ). To evaluate the relationship of the BMC to mechanical stress, the BMC was compared with body weight, body mass index (weight/height 2 ), and the lumbar muscle mass was estimated from cross sections of the paravertebral muscles in the CT images. The assumption that higher mechanical stress results in higher bone mineralization could not be confirmed. (orig.) [de

  1. Effects of a combination of Hypericum perforatum and Vitex agnus-castus on PMS-like symptoms in late-perimenopausal women: findings from a subpopulation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Die, Margaret Diana; Bone, Kerry M; Burger, Henry G; Reece, John E; Teede, Helena J

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that some of the symptoms typically attributed to menopause may be more related to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) than menopause, as perimenopausal women appear to be more prone to PMS-like symptoms, or at least to tolerate them less well. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a phytotherapeutic intervention comprising a combination of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) and Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree/berry) in the management of PMS-like symptoms in perimenopausal women. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted over 16 weeks on menopause-related symptoms. Data on PMS-like symptoms were collected at 4-weekly intervals from a small subgroup of late-perimenopausal women (n = 14) participating in this study. The primary endpoint was PMS scores measured on the Abrahams Menstrual Symptoms Questionnaire, comprising the subclusters of PMS-A (anxiety), PMS-D (depression), PMS-H (hydration), and PMS-C (cravings). Herbal combination therapy or placebo tablets were administered twice daily. At the end of the 16-week treatment phase, analyses of covariance showed the herbal combination to be superior to placebo for total PMS-like scores (p = 0.02), PMS-D (p = 0.006), and PMS-C clusters (p = 0.027). The active treatment group also showed significant reductions in the anxiety (p = 0.003) and hydration (p = 0.002) clusters, using paired-samples t tests. Results of trend analyses showed significant treatment group effects across the five phases for total PMS and all subscales, all in the clinically expected direction. No significant trends were evident in the placebo group. These results suggest a potentially significant clinical application for this phytotherapeutic combination in PMS-like symptoms among perimenopausal women. Further research is warranted through a randomized, controlled trial dedicated to investigation of these symptoms.

  2. Effect of exercise on the pulmonary system in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in a group of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrith Pakkala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hormonal levels influence dynamic lung function parameters. Significant increase in both progesterone (37% and estradiol (13.5%; where as, no change in plasma follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH was observed in exercising women in previous studies. Therefore, this study was intended to see the limitations of the pulmonary system in adaptability to exercise in proliferative phase of menstrual cycle in perimenopausal women. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted as a part of cardiopulmonary efficiency studies on two groups of nonathletes (n = 10 and athletes (n = 10 comparable in age and sex. Menstrual history was ascertained to confirm proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Dynamic lung functions were measured in both groups before exercise and immediately after exercise. Results: It was observed that exercise per se does not cause a statistically significant change in dynamic lung function parameters maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and MEF 25-75% in either of the groups. Conclusion: This finding supports the hypothesis that the respiratory system is not normally the most limiting factor in the delivery of oxygen even under the predominant influence of estrogen in proliferative phase, which is further accentuated by exercise.

  3. The Serum Level of Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 and Calcium-Phosphate Homeostasis in Obese Perimenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Holecki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma FGF-23 concentrations and its relationship with calcium-phosphate homeostasis were evaluated in 48 perimenopausal obese women and in 29 nonobese controls. Serum parathyroid hormone, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, CTX1, osteocalcin, total calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, and plasma intact FGF-23 concentrations were assessed. DXA of lumbar spine and femoral neck was performed to determine bone mineral density (BMD. Plasma iFGF-23 concentration was significantly higher in obese patients (by 42% and correlated with age and BMD of proximal femur (R=-0.346; R=0.285, resp. but not with markers of bone turnover. However, serum phosphorus level in obese subjects was significantly lower. iFGF-23 concentration correlated significantly with body mass index (R=0.292 and fat content (R=0.259 in all study subjects. Moreover, a significant correlation between iFGF-23 and iPTH (R=0.254 was found. No correlation between serum phosphorus or eGFR and plasma iFGF-23 and between eGFR and serum phosphorus was found. Elevated serum iFGF-23 concentration may partially explain lower phosphorus levels in the obese and seems not to reflect bone turnover.

  4. Correction ofvitamin D deficiency/insufficiency and assessment of 24-hour blood pressure parameters in perimenopausal women with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmiła Walerjewna Jankowska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both arterial hypertension and vitamin D deficiency are highly prevalent in the general population. Aim of the study was to assess blood pressure and its dynamics in 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM while correcting the vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency in perimenopausal women, who have grade 2 arterial hypertension. Material and methods: The study group consisted of 50 premenopausal women [48 (45–50 years] and 52 women in early (up to 5 years postmenopausal period [52 (50–54 years]. Total 25-(OHD blood plasma levels were assessed by immunoenzyme assay using DRG kit (Marburg, Germany. The total 25-(OHD blood plasma levels below 20 ng/ml were considered as vitamin D insufficiency, the concentration of 20–30 ng/ml – as deficiency, and the levels 30–60 ng/ml were considered normal. In the group of women with 25-(OHD deficiency/insufficiency two subgroups were isolated: IB subgroup (n = 25 and IIB (n = 21, which were introduced with treatment algorithm, including cholecalciferol administration at a daily dose of 2000 IU for 3 months. Results: Cholecalciferol therapy at a dose of 2000 IU per day for a period of 3 months has allowed reaching the optimum concentration of vitamin D in 80% of premenopausal hypertensive women, and in 76.2% of women in the early postmenopausal period. Correction of plasma vitamin D deficiency achieved by taking cholecalciferol, while using combined antihypertensive therapy (ramipril + indapamide allows to improve the following parameters assessed in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in premenopausal women: the mean daytime and nighttime systolic blood pressure, time index of 24-hour and daytime systolic blood pressure, nighttime blood pressure variability, systolic and diastolic blood pressure morning surge, and normalization of nighttime:daytime blood pressure ratio; in postmenopausal women the treatment allowed: the reduction of morning surge of

  5. Soy and legume seeds as sources of isoflavones: selected individual determinants of their consumption in a group of perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gacek

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze selected individual determinants of consumption of soy products and legumes by menopausal women. The analyzed individual characteristics included the level of general self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life. The study, using a questionnaire for the assessment of food product consumption frequency, and psychological tests (GSES, LOT-R, SWLS, was conducted in a group of 320 women aged between 45 and 55 years. Spearman’s coefficient of rank correlation and the Kruskal-Wallis test with the Dunn test for multiple comparisons were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05. Material and methods: The analyzed 45-55-year-old women consumed legume seeds several times a month on average, while the frequency of soy/soy product consumption was lower than once a month. Statistical analysis revealed that the frequency of soy product consumption increased with the level of self-efficacy, optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01. Also the increased frequency of legume seed consumption was associated with higher level of optimism and satisfaction with life (p < 0.01. Results: Intergroup comparisons of the average consumption frequency of these products confirmed that legume seeds were significantly more frequently chosen by women characterized by high rather than low levels of optimism (3.36 vs. 2.62, p < 0.001 and satisfaction with life (3.36 vs. 2.65, p < 0.01. Also soy products were preferred significantly more often by women with higher levels of optimism (2.00 vs. 1.38, p < 0.05 and satisfaction with life (2.02 vs. 1.39, p < 0.05. Conclusions : The consumption of legume seeds, and especially soy products, was revealed to be very low among perimenopausal women, and varied depending on the analyzed individual traits, with a tendency to more frequent ingestion by individuals with higher levels of self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life.

  6. Clinical value of real time 3D sonohysterography and 2D sonohysterography in comparison to hysteroscopy with subsequent histopathological examination in perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Dariusz; Guzikowski, Wojciech; Więcek, Jacek; Sioma-Markowska, Urszula

    2012-01-01

    In many publications the transvaginal ultrasound is regarded as the first step to diagnose the cause of uterine bleeding in perimenopausal women. In order to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the conventional ultrasound physiological saline solution was administered to the uterine cavity and after expansion of its walls the interior uterine cavity was examined. And this procedure is called 2D sonohysterography (SIS 2D). By the ultrasound scanners which enable to get 3D real time image a spatial evaluation of the uterine cavity is possible. Clinical value of the real time 3D sonohysterography and 2D sonohysterography compared to hysteroscopy with histopathological examination in perimenopausal women. The study concerned a group of 97 perimenopausal women with abnormal uterine bleeding. In all of them after a standard transvaginal ultrasonography a catheter was inserted into the uterine cavity. After expansion of the uterine walls by administering about 10 ml of 0,9% saline solution the uterine cavity was examined by conventional sonohysterography. Then a 3D imaging mode was activated and the uterine interior was examined by real time 3D ultrasonography. The ultrasound results were verified by hysteroscopy, the endometrial lesions were removed and underwent a histopathological examination. In two cases the SIS examination was impossible because of uterine cervix atresion. In the rest of examined group the SIS 2D sensitivity and specificity came up to 72 and 96% respectively. In the group of SIS 3D the sensitivity and specificity reached 83 and 99% respectively. Adding SIS 3D, a minimally invasive method, to conventional sonohysterography improves the precision of diagnosis of endometrial pathology, allows to get three-dimensional image of the uterine cavity and enables examination of endometrial lesions. The diagnostic precision of this procedure is similar to the results achieved by hysteroscopy.

  7. Prevalence of knee osteoarthritis amongst perimenopausal women in an urban resettlement colony in South Delhi.

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    Salve, Harshal; Gupta, Vivek; Palanivel, C; Yadav, Kapil; Singh, Bir

    2010-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in an urban resettlement colony in South Delhi to study the prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in women aged ≥40 years and treatment seeking behavior of women suffering from osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis was diagnosed by using clinical criteria given by American College of Rheumatology for diagnosis of Idiopathic Osteoarthritis of knee joints. A total 260 women were interviewed out of which 123 (47.3%) women were found to be suffering from knee osteoarthritis. Prevalence of osteoarthritis found to be increased with age. Less than half of those with osteoarthritis underwent treatment. With this high prevalence of osteoarthritis, there is need to spread awareness about the disease, its prevention, and rehabilitation in the community.

  8. Physical activity, evaluation of menopause, life satisfaction and influence tactics in marriage of perimenopausal women

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    Eugenia Mandal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Domination of the biomedical approach to menopause may imply creation of negative attitudes to the phenomenon, and at the same time negatively affect women’s life satisfaction and behaviour in the family. It is assumed that physical activity may be a defensive factor, as this type of activity may reduce the intensity of menopause symptoms. The aim of the research was to determine the relation between menopause evaluation, life satisfaction and tactics of influence employed in marriage by women who differ in involvement in physical exercise. Participants and procedure The research was conducted among 90 women, at the age of 45-55: 45 physically active women and 45 women who do not engage in any physical activity. The following research methods were used: the Menopause Evaluation Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS and the Questionnaire of Influence in Close Relations of Women and Men. Results Positive evaluation of menopause was related to involvement in physical exercise as well as to a stronger tendency to use positive strategies of exerting influence on one’s spouse. The research also showed a slight correlation between life satisfaction and involvement in physical exercise. Negative evaluation of menopause was related to avoiding physical activity. Conclusions Physical activity is more frequently related to a positive attitude towards menopause and the use of more positive tactics of exerting influence on one’s spouse, and slightly positively conducive to one’s life satisfaction level.

  9. Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Home For Patients Search FAQs Perimenopausal Bleeding and ... 2011 PDF Format Perimenopausal Bleeding and Bleeding After Menopause Gynecologic Problems What are menopause and perimenopause? What ...

  10. Contraception and hormonal management in the perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Margaret E; Faubion, Stephanie S; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Pruthi, Sandhya; Casey, Petra M

    2015-01-01

    This literature review focuses on contraception in perimenopausal women. As women age, their fecundity decreases but does not disappear until menopause. After age 40, 75% of pregnancies are unplanned and may result in profound physical and emotional impact. Clinical evaluation must be relied on to diagnose menopause, since hormonal levels fluctuate widely. Until menopause is confirmed, some potential for pregnancy remains; at age 45, women's sterility rate is 55%. Older gravidas experience higher rates of diabetes, hypertension, and death. Many safe and effective contraceptive options are available to perimenopausal women. In addition to preventing an unplanned and higher-risk pregnancy, perimenopausal contraception may improve abnormal uterine bleeding, hot flashes, and menstrual migraines. Long-acting reversible contraceptives, including the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), the etonogestrel subdermal implant (ESI), and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD), provide high efficacy without estrogen. LNG-IUS markedly decreases menorrhagia commonly seen in perimenopause. Both ESI and LNG-IUS provide endometrial protection for women using estrogen for vasomotor symptoms. Women without cardiovascular risk factors can safely use combined hormonal contraception. The CDC's Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use informs choices for women with comorbidities. No medical contraindications exist for levonorgestrel emergency-contraceptive pills, though obesity does decrease efficacy. In contrast, the Cu-IUD provides reliable emergency and ongoing contraception regardless of body mass index (BMI).

  11. Ultrasound assessment of endometrial cavity in perimenopausal women on oral progesterone for abnormal uterine bleeding: comparison of diagnostic accuracy of imaging with hysteroscopy-guided biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Subhankar; Dasgupta, Shyamal; Sharma, Partha Pratim; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Ghosh, Tarun Kumar

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effect of oral progesterone on the accuracy of imaging studies performed to detect endometrial pathology in comparison to hysteroscopy-guided biopsy in perimenopausal women on progesterone treatment for abnormal uterine bleeding. The study population comprised of women aged 40-55 years with complaints of abnormal uterine bleeding who were also undergoing oral progesterone therapy. Women with a uterus ≥ 12 weeks' gestation size, previous abnormal endometrial biopsy, cervical lesion on speculum examination, abnormal Pap smear, active pelvic infection, adnexal mass on clinical examination or during ultrasound scan and a positive pregnancy test were excluded. A transvaginal ultrasound followed by saline infusion sonography were done. On the following day, a hysteroscopy followed by a guided biopsy of the endometrium or any endometrial lesion was performed. Comparison between the results of the imaging study with the hysteroscopy and guided biopsy was done. The final analysis included 83 patients. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid transvaginal ultrasound had a positive likelihood ratio of 1.65, 5.45 and 5.4, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.47, 0.6 and 0.43, respectively. For detection of overall pathology, polyp and fibroid saline infusion sonography had a positive likelihood ratio of 4.4, 5.35 and 11.8, respectively, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.3, 0.2 and 0.15, respectively. In perimenopausal women on oral progesterone therapy for abnormal uterine bleeding, imaging studies cannot be considered as an accurate method for diagnosing endometrial pathology when compared to hysteroscopy and guided biopsy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Pre-Gelatinized Maca (Lepidium Peruvianum Chacon) used as a Non-Hormonal Alternative to HRT in Perimenopausal Women - Clinical Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, H O; Reich-Bilinska, H; Mscisz, A; Kedzia, B

    2006-06-01

    Roots of cruciferous plant Lepidium peruvianum Chacon cultivated in high plateaus of Andes and known under its common name Maca, have been traditionally-used as an energizing vegetable with therapeutic properties for both men and women. Maca has been recognized by natives of Peru as herbal remedy helping to treat conditions affecting menopausal women. The effects of Pre-Gelatinized Organic Maca (Maca-GO) on quantitative physiological responses and alleviation of symptoms contributing to menopausal discomfort in perimenopausal women was examined. IN THIS, FOUR MONTHS, DOUBLE BLIND, CROSSOVER, RANDOMIZED PILOT TRIAL, MONTHLY MEASUREMENTS OF THE FOLLOWING BLOOD SERUM CONSTITUENTS WERE TAKEN: Estrogen (E2), Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and Progesterone (PGS), Cortisol (CT), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), Thyroid Hormones (TSH, T3, T4), minerals (Ca, K, Fe) and lipid profile (Triglicerides, Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL). In monthly interviews conducted by gynecologist, body weight and blood pressure were registered and Menopausal Index according to Kupperman's was determined. Toxicity of Maca -GO determined on rats showed its safe use at the level of 7.5mg/kg body weight. A group of 20 women (aged 41-50 years), who fulfilled criteria of being in perimenopausal stage (E2 above 40pg/ml and FSH below 30IU/ml), were randomly allocated to two even groups, one receiving for two months Maca-GO and the other Placebo capsules followed by a crossover with treatment change for another two months period. All participants signed informed consent to participate. Two 500mg hard capsules with Maca-GO or Placebo were self-administered by participants twice daily with meals (total 2g/day). Two months administration of Maca-GO significantly alleviated symptoms of discomfort observed in majority of women involved in the study (74%-87%) as assessed by Kupperman's Menopausal index. This was associated with significant increase in E2 and FSH, Progesterone

  13. Contraception for the perimenopausal woman | Snyman | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contraception in the perimenopausal transition years is a very important aspect of women's health, and it is the responsibility of all health care workers to discuss and render adequate counselling in this regard. Failure to do so can have serious health and mental consequences caused by unplanned pregnancies. There are ...

  14. Optimal management of perimenopausal depression

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    Barbara L Parry

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Barbara L ParryDepartment of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, USAAbstract: Only recently has the perimenopause become recognized as a time when women are at risk for new onset and recurrence of major depression. Untreated depression at this time not only exacerbates the course of a depressive illness, but also puts women at increased risk for sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and osteoporosis. Although antidepressant medication is the mainstay of treatment, adjunctive therapy, especially with estrogen replacement, may be indicated in refractory cases, and may speed the onset of antidepressant action. Many, but not all, studies, report that progesterone antagonizes the beneficial effects of estrogen. Although some antidepressants improve vasomotor symptoms, in general they are not as effective as estrogen alone for relieving these symptoms. Estrogen alone, however, does not generally result in remission of major depression in most (but not all studies, but may provide benefit to some women with less severe symptoms if administered in therapeutic ranges. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs in addition to estrogen are usually more beneficial in improving mood than SSRIs or estrogen treatment alone for major depression, whereas the selective norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not require the addition of estrogen to exert their antidepressant effects in menopausal depression. In addition to attention to general health, hormonal status, and antidepressant treatment, the optimal management of perimenopausal depression also requires attention to the individual woman’s psychosocial and spiritual well being.Keywords: menopause, depression, management

  15. A history of repetitive cesarean section is a risk factor of anemia in healthy perimenopausal women: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012.

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    Jee Yoon Park

    Full Text Available To determine whether the delivery method is associated with the rate of anemia in later life, using the data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES.This study used data from the KNHANES 2010-2012. Among 25,534 participants, 8,126 cases were included in this study after exclusion of males and other inappropriate data. The study population was divided into three groups according to the delivery modes: vaginal delivery (VD only group, single cesarean delivery (SCD group and repetitive cesarean delivery (RCD group. The primary outcome was anemia and iron deficiency. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <12 g/dl in accordance with the World Health Organization criteria. Iron deficiency was defined as low transferrin saturation (TSAT or ferritin levels. Multivariate analysis was used for determination of association between the delivery modes and anemia.The mean age was 53.4 years and the median time from the last delivery to the survey was 25 years. The VD only group was composed of 6,493 (79.9% women, while 685 (8.4% were classified as the SCD group and 948 (11.7% were classified as a RCD group. The rates of anemia were 11.8%, 13.9%, and 19.7% in VD only group, SCD group, and RCD group, respectively. However, those groups were significantly different in many confounding factors. Therefore, to adjust those factors, multivariate analysis and subgroup analysis were followed. The odds of SCD for anemia and iron deficiency were not different from those of VD only. However, RCD was independently associated with anemia [Odds ratio(OR 1.47, 95% Confidence interval (CI 1.21-1.79, P <0.001] and iron deficiency (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.21-1.67, P <0.001 compared to VD only. In the subgroup analysis, RCD was significantly associated with anemia in perimenopausal women, women with iron deficiency, those without any comorbidity and those without anemia-prone treatment.Repetitive cesarean section may be a risk factor for future development

  16. Progesterone for Symptomatic Perimenopause Treatment - Progesterone politics, physiology and potential for perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, J C

    2011-01-01

    Perimenopause, women's normal midlife reproductive transition, is highly symptomatic for about 20% of women who are currently inaccurately counseled and inappropriately treated with oral contraceptives, menopausal hormone therapy or hysterectomy. About 80% of perimenopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms (VMS), 25% have menorrhagia, and about 10% experience mastalgia. The majority of women describe varying intensities of sleep, -coping or mood difficulties. Women are more symptomatic because common knowledge inaccurately says that estradiol (E2) levels are dropping/deficient. Evidence shows that with disturbed brain-ovary feedbacks, E2 levels average 26% higher and soar erratically - some women describe feeling pregnant! Also, ovulation and progesterone (P4) levels become insufficient or absent. The most symptomatic women have higher E2 and lower P4 levels. Because P4 and E2 complement/counterbalance each other's tissue effects, oral micronized P4 (OMP4 300 mg at -bedtime) is a physiological therapy for treatment-seeking, symptomatic perimenopausal women. Given cyclically (cycle d 14-27, or 14 on/off) in menstruating midlife women, OMP4 decreases cyclic VMS, improves sleep and premenstrual mastalgia. Menorrhagia is treated with ibuprofen 200mg/6h plus OMP4 cycle d 4-28. For insulin resistance, metformin plus cyclic or daily OMP4 decreases insulin resistance and weight gain. Non-responsive migraines need daily OMP4 plus usual therapies. VMS and insomnia in late perimenopause respond to daily OMP4. In summary, OMP4 is a physiology-based therapy that improves sleep, treats VMS, does not increase breast proliferation or cancer risk, increases bone formation and has beneficial cardiovascular effects. A controlled trial is testing OMP4 for perimenopausal VMS - more evidence-based data are needed.

  17. Menstruation, perimenopause, and chaos theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derry, Paula S; Derry, Gregory N

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that menstruation, including the transition to menopause, results from a specific kind of complex system, namely, one that is nonlinear, dynamical, and chaotic. A complexity-based perspective changes how we think about and research menstruation-related health problems and positive health. Chaotic systems are deterministic but not predictable, characterized by sensitivity to initial conditions and strange attractors. Chaos theory provides a coherent framework that qualitatively accounts for puzzling results from perimenopause research. It directs attention to variability within and between women, adaptation, lifespan development, and the need for complex explanations of disease. Whether the menstrual cycle is chaotic can be empirically tested, and a summary of our research on 20- to 40-year-old women is provided.

  18. Utilización habitual de medicamentos en mujeres perimenopáusicas residentes en Jaca Routine drug utilization in perimenopausal women living in Jaca (Spain

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    María Silvia Sanclemente Pérez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir la utilización habitual de medicamentos en mujeres perimenopáusicas y estudiar posibles factores relacionados. Métodos: Estudio observacional mediante entrevista directa en mujeres de 45 a 64años de edad adscritas a la zona de salud de Jaca. Resultados: El 69,4% de las mujeres consumían medicamentos de forma habitual, el 58,6% de las que tenían entre 45 y 54años, y el 81,6% de las de 55 a 64años (p=0,002. La probabilidad de consumir fármacos aumentaba con estar en la posmenopausia (p=0,011, referir alguna enfermedad crónica (pObjective: To describe routine drug utilization in perimenopausal women and to analyze related factors. Methods: We performed an observational study though face-to-face interviews with women aged 45-64 years old living in the health district of Jaca (Spain. Results: Among the women studied, 69.4% routinely used drugs: 58.6% of women aged 45-54 years old and 81.6% aged 55-64 (p=0.002. Factors associated with a greater probability of drug use were postmenopausal status (p=0.011, reported chronic diseases (p<0.001, poor or very poor self-perceived health (p=0.009, and having consulted a general physician at least once in the previous year (p=0.005. Conclusions: Routine drug utilization was frequent in the women studied. Drug utilization was associated with postmenopausal status, perceived health problems, and visits to general physicians.

  19. Combined effects of goserelin and tamoxifen on estradiol level, breast density, and endometrial thickness in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a randomised controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Zong, X; Yu, Y; Shao, G; Zhang, L; Qian, C; Bian, Y; Xu, X; Sun, W; Meng, X; Ding, X; Chen, D; Zou, D; Xie, S; Zheng, Y; Zhang, J; He, X; Sun, C; Yu, X; Ni, J

    2013-08-06

    This study is to investigate the effects of geserelin+tamoxifen (TAM) on estradiol level, breast density (BD), endometrial thickness (ET), and blood lipids in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer. This study recruited 110 premenopausal and perimenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer between 22 June 2008 and 31 December 2009 and randomly assigned them to receive either goserelin plus TAM or TAM alone for 1.5 years. Blood levels of sex hormones and lipids and ET were determined at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Contralateral BD was also measured at 0, 12, and 18 months. Five participants dropped out of the goserelin plus TAM group, and two participants dropped out of the TAM-alone group before initiation of endocrine therapy. The rest of patients received scheduled treatment and 3 years of median follow-up. No serious adverse effects were observed, and only two local recurrences have been observed in these patients. Estradiol level and BD were lower in the goserelin plus TAM group than in the TAM-alone group (Pwomen in the TAM-alone group exhibited endometrial thickening over the course of the study. Furthermore, no significant differences in blood lipid levels were reported between the two groups. The data from the current study demonstrated that the addition of goserelin to TAM results in downregulation of estradiol level, followed by significant reduction in BD and ET in premenopausal and perimenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer, which may eventually lead to better outcome in these patients.

  20. Social impact and healthcare- seeking behavior for urinary incontinence among perimenopausal women attending gynae out patient department in BSMMU

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    Fahmida Zabin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary incontinence (UI is a highly prevalent and burdensome condition among women.However,fewer than half of women with symptoms consult with a physician about incontinence, and determinant of treatment seeking are not well understood.Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, awareness and determinants of urinary incontinence (UI among women attending GOPD in BSMMU and the sociodemographic factors involved in their health care-seeking behaviour.Methods: Cross-sectional study was carried out in Gynaeout patient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University with a sample of 800 women aged 45 yrs and above.Results: A total of 1000 women were recruited for the study by purposive sampling,among them 800 agreed to participate and completed the questionnaire. Of these, 165 (20.6% were found to have UL Overall, the reason for not seeking medical attention was mainly embarrassment (40.6% at having to speak with doctor. Of the total study sample, 566 subjects (70.6% believed that UI was abnormal and worth reporting to a doctor. Coping mechanisms among incontinent women included frequent washing (58.3% and wearing a protective perineal pad (42.4%, changing underwear frequently (41.3%, decreasing fluid intake (19.8% and stopping all work (4.9%. Sufferers were most troubled by their inability to pray (64% maintain marital relationship (47%, limitation of their social activities (20%, difficulty in doing housework (14% and inconven­ience during shopping (13%. Most (56% found it most embarrassing to discuss UI with their husbands. The majority of women (51.9% believed child birth to be the major cause ofUI, followed by ageing (49.5%, menopause (34.2% and paralysis (25.3%. Most of the subjects (62.3% believe that UI can cause infection, some (20.5% believe that it can cause skin allergy and very few think that it can cause cancer or other disorders.Conclusions: Our findings indicate that although UI is

  1. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women

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    Abdulbari Bener

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period.Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed.Setting: Primary Health Care (PHC Centers in Qatar.Materials and Methods: A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2% and responded to the study.Results: The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%, followed by hypertension (6.6%, asthma (5.6% and CHD (2.5%, and the majority of subjects (69.5% had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was "aches in the back and neck" (49.2%, night sweat (37.2%, low backache (35.7%, feeling nervous (35.4% followed by "aches in the muscles/joints" (34.6%, hot flashes (33.3%, decreased social activities (28.3%, decreased leisure activities (47.6%, difficulty sleeping (28.9%, mood swings (25.4%, and decreased concentration (28.3%, sexual activity (24.1% and total energy level (26

  2. A measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction during premenopause, perimenopause and postmenopause in Arabian Qatari women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Falah, Anas

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an instrument, the menopause-specific quality-of-life satisfaction in the state of Qatar for the premenopausal, menopause and postmenopausal period. A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian Gulf women. Measurement-specific quality-of-life satisfaction questionnaires and face-to-face interviews were performed. Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1,500 women aged 40-60 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013, and 1,158 women agreed to participate (77.2%) and responded to the study. The mean age and standard deviation of the subjects was 50.9 ± 6.1. The median age of natural menopause in the present study was 49 years [mean and standard deviation 49.9 ± 2.7]. The rate of consanguineous marriages in the sample was found to be 30.3%. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages with regard to ethnicity, education level, occupation, type of housing condition, and consanguinity. There were statistically significance differences between menopausal stages concerning BMI groups, Systolic BP, Diastolic BP, physical activity, parity, and sheesha smoking habits. Meanwhile, the present study revealed that the most common disease was found to be diabetes mellitus (11.4%), followed by hypertension (6.6%), asthma (5.6%) and CHD (2.5%), and the majority of subjects (69.5%) had no specific disease. The most frequent symptom was aches in the back and neck (49.2%), night sweat (37.2%), low backache (35.7%), feeling nervous (35.4%) followed by aches in the muscles/joints (34.6%), hot flashes (33.3%), decreased social activities (28.3%), decreased leisure activities (47.6%), difficulty sleeping (28.9%), mood swings (25.4%), and decreased concentration (28.3%), sexual activity (24.1%) and total energy level (26.7%). The lowest reported symptoms were facial hair at 16

  3. Caracterización de mujeres en etapa climatérica en Brisas del Golfo, República Bolivariana de Venezuela (2005-2007 Characterization of perimenopause women in Brisas del Golfo, Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (2005-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Capote Bueno

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el climaterio es la etapa que comprende casi un tercio de la vida femenina y demanda en las mujeres una atención integral en salud. Objetivo: caracterizar a las mujeres en la etapa climatérica, del consultorio Brisas del Golfo. Métodos: se realizó un estudio descriptivo, el universo estuvo constituido por las 256 mujeres del consultorio Brisas del Golfo, en edades comprendidas entre los 45 y 59 años de edad, al que se le realizó un muestreo intencional y quedó la muestra constituida por 80 mujeres. Para la recolección de la información se aplicó una encuesta elaborada por la autora. Resultados: el 45 % de las mujeres eran casadas, incorporadas al trabajo fuera del hogar en un 56,2 %. Se encontraban en la etapa de la perimenopausia 45 (56,3 %, el hábito tóxico que primó fue el café 35 (77,7 %. Evaluaron la dinámica laboral y familiar de regular 15 (18,8 %. No estaban protegidas por algún método contraceptivo 36 (45 % de las mujeres y prevalecieron los síntomas vasomotores y psicológicos, dentro de estos: el calor, la ansiedad y el insomnio en un 52,5 %, 38,8 % y 36,3 %, respectivamente. Conclusiones: predominaron las mujeres con la secundaria terminada, con relaciones de pareja estables, y vinculadas laboralmente, con buena situación económica. Hubo alta incidencia de hábitos tóxicos con predominio del café. La mayoría no estaban controladas con métodos anticonceptivos. La dinámica de las relaciones fue buena y con mayor incidencia de síntomas vasomotores en la etapa perimenopáusica.Introduction: the perimenopause is the phase that comprises almost one third of female life in women and it demands comprehensive health care for women. Objective: to describe women in perimenopause at Brisas del Golfo clinic. Methods: we performed a descriptive study. The universe was 256 women in Brisas del Golfo clinic, who aged between 45 and 59 years old. They had undergone a purposive sample and the sample was made up

  4. The role of traditional Japanese medicine (Kampo) in the practice of psychosomatic medicine: the usefulness of Kampo in the treatment of the stress-related symptoms of women, especially those with peri-menopausal disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiroyama, Takahisa

    2013-10-22

    A serious problem currently plaguing the medical field is the widening gap between academic medicine, which studies the features and causes of illness, and the medical care that patients desire. An example of this gap can be observed in the practice of psychotherapy, which is effective only for certain patients. Kampo medicine that combines the advantages of Western medicine with those of traditional Japanese medicine is currently undergoing a revival in the healthcare sector. The therapeutic policies underlying Kampo medicine are based on the physical constitution and current symptoms of each patient. For this reason, Kampo medicine is referred to as "tailor-made medicine" and has properties similar to "mind and body" or psychosomatic medicine. Some women exhibit multiple undefined stress-related symptoms during the peri-menopausal period. In order to accurately diagnose and provide patient-specific treatment, physicians should not only investigate the various stress factors in patients' lives but should also provide a Sho, or a Kampo diagnosis. The therapeutic approach in Kampo medicine is aimed at harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit; this practice involves the use of narrative and holistic medication that treats the entire being of the patient, resulting in an increased number of specialized treatment plans.There are many Kampo prescriptions tailored to treat women who exhibit various stress-related symptoms. Both Kampo and psychosomatic medicine are based on the principles of narrative-based medicine, and by integrating these two medical systems, an ideal system can be devised to better cope with the various needs of patients. This new medical system established by integrating and harmonizing Western and Eastern medicine can be used for the treatment of women with stress-related symptoms.

  5. The detection of serum leptin in peri-menopausal woman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Ma Yongxiu; He Juan

    2001-01-01

    Serum leptin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E 2 ) were measured by RIA in 138 peri-menopausal women in order to clear the relations between them. The results showed that serum levels of all the four circulating hormones are all changed significantly in all subgroups. Compared with the women of childbearing age group, it changed with P < 0.05; P < 0.01 respectively. All the changes indicate: As a circulating hormone, leptin plays an important role in woman's normal physiology developing process along ages

  6. Menopause 101: A Primer for the Perimenopausal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abstracts Media Award Recipients Media Policy Media Requests Menopause 101: A primer for the perimenopausal The information ... about 2 years earlier. Common Body Changes at Menopause Each woman’s experience of menopause is different. Many ...

  7. The effect of curculigoside on mouse model of perimenopausal depression

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    Mingsan Miao

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: All doses of curculigoside are associated with reversing hormone (E2, T, FSH, and LH disorders in perimenopausal syndrome and adjusting imbalanced 5-HT and DA levels, representing a therapeutic effect in perimenopausal depression.

  8. Using ecological momentary assessment to investigate short-term variations in sexual functioning in a sample of peri-menopausal women from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Pakpour

    Full Text Available The investigation of short-term changes in female sexual functioning has received little attention so far. The aims of the study were to gain empirical knowledge on within-subject and within- and across-variable fluctuations in women's sexual functioning over time. More specifically, to investigate the stability of women´s self-reported sexual functioning and the moderating effects of contextual and interpersonal factors. A convenience sample of 206 women, recruited across eight Health care Clinics in Rasht, Iran. Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine fluctuations of sexual functioning over a six week period. A shortened version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI was applied to assess sexual functioning. Self-constructed questions were included to assess relationship satisfaction, partner's sexual performance and stress levels. Mixed linear two-level model analyses revealed a link between orgasm and relationship satisfaction (Beta = 0.125, P = 0.074 with this link varying significantly between women. Analyses further revealed a significant negative association between stress and all six domains of women's sexual functioning. Women not only reported differing levels of stress over the course of the assessment period, but further differed from each other in how much stress they experienced and how much this influenced their sexual response. Orgasm and sexual satisfaction were both significantly associated with all other domains of sexual function (P<0.001. And finally, a link between partner performance and all domains of women`s sexual functioning (P<0.001 could be detected. Except for lubrication (P = 0.717, relationship satisfaction had a significant effect on all domains of the sexual response (P<0.001. Overall, our findings support the new group of criteria introduced in the DSM-5, called "associated features" such as partner factors and relationship factors. Consideration of these criteria is important and necessary for

  9. Cost-effectiveness of an exercise intervention program in perimenopausal women : the Fitness League Against MENopause COst (FLAMENCO) randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Gallo, Francisco Javier; López del Amo, María Puerto; Ruiz-Cabello, Pilar; Andrade, Ana; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Peces-Rama, Antonio Rubén; Spacírová, Zuzana; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; García-Mochón, Leticia; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Martín-Martín, Jose Jesús; Aranda, Pilar; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of women that do not reach the recommended level of physical activity is worrisome. A sedentary lifestyle has negative consequences on health status and increases health care costs. The main objective of this project is to assess the cost-effectiveness of a primary

  10. Acupuncture Improves Peri-menopausal Insomnia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Cong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhen; Yuan, Lu-Hua; Xie, Chen; Yang, Wen-Jia; Yu, Xin-Tong; Yu, Huan; Chen, Yun-Fei

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the short-term efficacy of acupuncture for the treatment of peri-menopausal insomnia (PMI). Design: A randomized, participant-blind, placebo-controlled trial consisted of the acupuncture group (n = 38) and placebo-acupuncture group (n = 38). Setting: A tertiary teaching and general hospital. Participants: 76 peri-menopausal women with insomnia disorder based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Third Edition. Interventions: A 10-session of acupuncture at bilateral Shenshu (BL 23) and Ganshu (BL 18) with unilateral Qimen (LR 14) and Jingmen (GB 25) or Streitberger needles at the same acupoints was performed for over 3 weeks. Measurements: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) with over-night polysomnography (PSG) exam were completed at baseline and post-treatment. After the treatments, the decrease from baseline in PSQI score was 8.03 points in acupuncture group and 1.29 points in placebo-acupuncture group. The change from baseline in ISI score was 11.35 points in acupuncture group and 2.87 points in placebo-acupuncture group. In PSG data, acupuncture significantly improved the sleep efficiency and total sleep time, associated with less wake after sleep onset and lower percent stage 1 after the treatment. No significant differences from baseline to post-treatment were found in placebo-acupuncture group. Acupuncture can contribute to a clinically relevant improvement in the short-term treatment of PMI, both subjectively and objectively. Acupuncture for peri-menopause insomnia: a randomized controlled trial, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=12118 ChiCTR-IPR-15007199, China. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Impact of beverage consumption, age, and site dependency on dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements in perimenopausal women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Huan-Chu; Kuo, Duen-Pang; Chen, Yen-Lin

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the best site for bone mineral density (BMD) measurements based on T -scores, age, and beverage consumption. In this prospective study, 271 women stratified by age (average age: 61.9 years) underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning of their lumbar spine, hips, and forearms. Osteoporosis was defined as a BMD of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass based on a reference population of adult women (translated as a T -score ≤ -2.5), as measured by DEXA. Participants were also evaluated regarding alcohol and caffeine consumption by a semiquantitative questionnaire. A significant discrepancy was observed in the classification of osteoporosis at different locations, with hip and forearm showing the best correlation (Pearson's r = 0.627, p consumption. In the group ≤ 50 years of age, lumbar spine and forearm T -scores were only associated with alcohol consumption. In the group over 50 years of age, hip and forearm T -scores were only associated with caffeine consumption. Bone mineral density measurements at the hip and forearm correlated with caffeine consumption in elderly Taiwanese women. This is an important finding since age and caffeine consumption are known risk factors for osteoporosis.

  12. The effects of compounded bioidentical transdermal hormone therapy on hemostatic, inflammatory, immune factors; cardiovascular biomarkers; quality-of-life measures; and health outcomes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kenna; Neuenschwander, Pierre F; Kurdowska, Anna K

    2013-01-01

    Menopause impacts 25 million women world wide each year, and the World Health Organization estimates 1.2 billion women will be postmenopausal by 2030. Menopause has been associated with symptoms of hot flashes, night sweats, dysphoric mood, sleep disturbance, and conditions of cardiovascular disease, depression, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, depression, dementia, and frailty. Conventional hormone replacement therapy results in increased thrombotic events, and an increased risk of breast cancer and dementia as evidenced in large prospective clinical trials including Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study I and the Women's Health Initiative. A possible mechanism for these adverse events is the unfavorable net effects of conjugated equine estrogens and medroxyprogesterone acetate on the hemostatic balance and inflammatory and immune factors. Physiologic sex steroid therapy with transdermal delivery for peri/postmenopausal women may offer a different risk/benefit profile, yet long-term studies of this treatment model are lacking. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term effects of compounded bioidentical transdermal sex steroid therapy including estriol, estradiol, progesterone, DHEA, and testosterone on cardiovascular biomarkers, hemostatic, inflammatory, immune signaling factors; quality-of-life measures; and health outcomes in peri/postmenopausal women within the context of a hormone restoration model of care. A prospective, cohort, closed-label study received approval from the Human Subjects Committee. Recruitment from outpatient clinics at an academic medical center and the community at large resulted in three hundred women giving signed consent. Seventy-five women who met strict inclusion/exclusion criteria were enrolled. Baseline hormone evaluation was performed along with baseline experimental measures. Following this, women received compounded transdermal bioidentical hormone therapy of BiEst (80%Estriol/20%Estradiol), and

  13. Endometriosis presenting as carcinoma colon in a perimenopausal woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuja Muthyala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is a common benign disease of reproductive age women, and can involve the intestinal tract. Inconsistent clinical presentation, similar features on radiological imaging and colonoscopy with other inflammatory and malignant lesions of the bowel makes the preoperative diagnosis of bowel endometriosis difficult. We present a case of a 42-year-old perimenopausal female clinically presented, investigated and managed in the lines of carcinoma of sigmoid colon. She underwent terminal ileac resection with end to end anastomoses, Hartmann′s procedure and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy. The histopathological report revealed endometriosis of small intestine, large intestine, mesentery, right ovary and adenomyoma of uterus. Thus, bowel endometriosis should also be considered as differential diagnosis in reproductive age women with gastrointestinal symptoms or intestinal mass of uncertain diagnosis.

  14. A pilot study of the feasibility of long-term human bone balance during perimenopause using a 41Ca tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, S.K.; Prior, J.; Gelbart, Z.; Johnson, R.R.; Lentle, B.C.; Paul, M.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms governing calcium fluxes during bone remodeling processes in perimenopausal women are poorly known. Despite higher, albeit erratic, estradiol levels in perimenopause, spine bone loss is greater than during the first five years past the final menstrual flow when estradiol becomes low. Understanding changes during this dynamic transition are important to prevent fragility fractures in midlife and older women. The exploration of long-lived 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 1.04 x 10 5 yrs) tracer measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) leads to the possibility of monitoring bone remodeling balance. With this new technology, we explored a pilot long-term feasibility study of bone health by measuring the 41 Ca trace element in urine for six years from premenopausal to later perimenopausal phases in one midlife woman. We measured bone mineral density in parallel

  15. Sexuality in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokoff, Patricia J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews psychological and biological aspects of effects of menopause on sexuality. Discusses population studies revealing that postmenopausal status is associated with decline in some components of sexual functioning. Notes that little research has examined psychological response to menopause and its effect on sexual functioning. Research on…

  16. Perimenopause and emergence of an Alzheimer's bioenergetic phenotype in brain and periphery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mosconi

    Full Text Available After advanced age, female sex is the major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD. The biological mechanisms underlying the increased AD risk in women remain largely undetermined. Preclinical studies identified the perimenopause to menopause transition, a neuroendocrine transition state unique to the female, as a sex-specific risk factor for AD. In animals, estrogenic regulation of cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRglc falters during perimenopause. This is evident in glucose hypometabolism and decline in mitochondrial efficiency which is sustained thereafter. This study bridges basic to clinical science to characterize brain bioenergetics in a cohort of forty-three, 40-60 year-old clinically and cognitively normal women at different endocrine transition stages including premenopause (controls, CNT, n = 15, perimenopause (PERI, n = 14 and postmenopause (MENO, n = 14. All participants received clinical, laboratory and neuropsychological examinations, 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG-Positron Emission Tomography (PET FDG-PET scans to estimate CMRglc, and platelet mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COX activity measures. Statistical parametric mapping and multiple regression models were used to examine clinical, CMRglc and COX data across groups. As expected, the MENO group was older than PERI and controls. Groups were otherwise comparable for clinical measures and distribution of APOE4 genotype. Both MENO and PERI groups exhibited reduced CMRglc in AD-vulnerable regions which was correlated with decline in mitochondrial COX activity compared to CNT (p's<0.001. A gradient in biomarker abnormalities was most pronounced in MENO, intermediate in PERI, and lowest in CNT (p<0.001. Biomarkers correlated with immediate and delayed memory scores (Pearson's 0.26≤r≤0.32, p≤0.05. These findings validate earlier preclinical findings and indicate emergence of bioenergetic deficits in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women, suggesting that the optimal window of

  17. Overweight, obesity and female sexuality in perimenopause: a preliminary report

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    Grażyna Jarząbek-Bielecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The research was conducted among patients of the Department of Perinatology and Gynaecology of the Poznań University of Medical Sciences. Its aim was to investigate the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopausal period. Preliminary results of the research are presented in the thesis, which was as a matter of fact intended as a preliminary report. The examination of sexual functions of the patients was performed with the use of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI form. Material and methods: Sixty-one women during the perimenopausal period filled out the survey, with the average age of these women being 51 years. Forty-two of the examined women had an appropriate body mass index (BMI, i.e. between 18.5 and 25, while for 19 of the women, the BMI was above normal. For statistical analysis and in order to assess the differences between the two above-mentioned groups of patients, the nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was applied. A statistically significant value was assumed at p < 0.05. The results of the conducted research indicated no such difference between the women with differing BMI for the specific domains of the FSFI test. Results: The results obtained show that research in the area needs to be continued. Conclusions: All the hitherto existing scientific studies also seem to indicate that the influence of overweight and obesity on female sexuality during the perimenopause has not yet been unambiguously proven. Beyond any doubt, however, sexual disorders appear in women at this time of life and the factors which determine them can vary greatly. Given the character of the situation, women ought to be supported both by a team of specialists representing different branches of medicine as well as by their relatives. The whole situation also calls for more research of the important subject matter.

  18. Genotypes of vitamin D and estrogen receptors in pre and perimenopausal women from Córdoba, Argentina Genotipos de los receptores de vitamina D y de estrógeno en mujeres pre y perimenopáusicas de Córdoba, Argentina

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    María Ulla

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes and their relationship with the lumbar spine or femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy pre and perimenopausal women from Córdoba (Argentina and adjacent areas. Genotypes were assessed by restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction technique. Bsm I and Fok I for vitamin D receptor gene and XbaI and PvuII for estrogen receptor gene were used as restrictases. Two hundred and ten healthy pre and perimenopausal women were recruited and analyzed by age. Calcemia and serum parathyroid hormone did not change, but serum P and b-CrossLaps decreased with age. Femoral neck bone mineral density decreased significantly after 30 years old. Vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotype frequencies were similar to those from other Caucasian women. No association between vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes with the lumbar spine or femoral neck bone mineral density has been detected. Analysis of interaction between vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genes using covariates such as age, height and body mass index did not show any influence of the combination of those genotypes on bone mineral density. Lifestyle, smoking and alcohol intake had no effect on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density. To conclude, these data do not support the hypothesis that vitamin D receptor and estrogen receptor genotypes influence on lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density in healthy pre and perimenopausal women from this area of Argentina.El propósito del estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de los genotipos de los receptores de vitamina D y de estrógeno y su relación con la densidad mineral ósea en mujeres sanas pre y perimenopáusicas de la ciudad de Córdoba y alrededores. Los genotipos se determinaron con la técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y análisis de los polimorfismos de

  19. A pilot study of the feasibility of long-term human bone balance during perimenopause using a {sup 41}Ca tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, S.K. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel) and Department of Therapeutic Radiology-Radiation Oncology, University of Minnesota, 420 Delaware Street SE, Mayo Mail Code 494, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: huixx019@umn.edu; Prior, J. [Deparment of Medicine/Endocrinology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., V5Z 1C6 (Canada); Gelbart, Z. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, B.C., V6T2A3 (Canada); Johnson, R.R. [TRIUMF, Vancouver, B.C., V6T2A3 (Canada); Lentle, B.C. [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, V8M 1V4 (Canada); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2007-06-15

    The mechanisms governing calcium fluxes during bone remodeling processes in perimenopausal women are poorly known. Despite higher, albeit erratic, estradiol levels in perimenopause, spine bone loss is greater than during the first five years past the final menstrual flow when estradiol becomes low. Understanding changes during this dynamic transition are important to prevent fragility fractures in midlife and older women. The exploration of long-lived {sup 41}Ca (T {sub 1/2} = 1.04 x 10{sup 5} yrs) tracer measurements using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) leads to the possibility of monitoring bone remodeling balance. With this new technology, we explored a pilot long-term feasibility study of bone health by measuring the {sup 41}Ca trace element in urine for six years from premenopausal to later perimenopausal phases in one midlife woman. We measured bone mineral density in parallel.

  20. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Endometrial Changes in Peri-menopausal and Post-menopausal Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A 2 Years Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damle, Rajshri P; Dravid, N V; Suryawanshi, Kishor H; Gadre, Arundhati S; Bagale, Priya S; Ahire, Neelam

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the Common presenting complaint in Gynaecology Outpatient Department in all age groups. It is due to the anovulatory cycles which are commonly seen in adolescent and peri-menopausal women. Abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. Histopathological examination of endometrial sample remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometrial pathology. To study the clinicopathological spectrum of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal age groups. The study included prospective analysis of 119 cases of endometrial samples in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding above 40 years of age. The specimens were routinely processed and H&E stained slides were studied. Patients were categorized into peri-menopausal (40-49 years) and post-menopausal (> 50 years) age group. A total of 119 specimens of endometrium were analyzed. Maximum number (73.94%) of cases were from peri-menopausal age group. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (48.86%) followed by post-menopausal bleeding (26.05%). In peri-menopausal age group proliferative endometrium (35.22%) was the predominant histopathological pattern followed by endometrial hyperplasia (23.86%). Atrophic endometrium (25.80%) was the most frequent finding followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.35%) in post-menopausal age group. Three cases of endometrial carcinoma were reported in post-menopausal age group only. A thorough histopathological work up and clinical correlation is mandatory in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding above the age of 40 years to find out organic lesions. Careful screening can detect early cancer of endometrium which has excellent prognosis and it will help in further management.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women at a gynecological clinic in Shanghai%上海某妇科门诊围绝经期及绝经后期妇女抑郁症状检出率及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晶; 仇剑崟; 顾红亮; 杨慧琳; 陈静; 王祖承

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hormonal fluctuations during the perimenopausal period are often associated with both physical and psychological symptoms so women are at high risk of depression during this period. However, the complex interaction of biopsychosociul factors in the development of depression during the menopause are not, as yet, fully known.Objective: Assess the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the risk factors for depressive symptoms in perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women in Shanghai, China.Methods: 287 perimenopausal and early postmenopausal women 45-55 years of age were randomly selected from a gynecological clinic at a women's hospital in Shanghai. Respondents completed three questionnaires: a demographic profile questionnaire, Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Kupperman Menopausal Index(KMI).Results: The most frequent menopausal symptoms reported in the KMI by these respondents were hot flashes ( 84.0% ), arthralgia and myalgia ( 83.3% ), fatigue ( 81.5% ) and palpitations ( 74.9% ). Using the cutoff score of 5 on the BDI, 104 of the subjects ( 36.2%;95% CI = 30.6%- 41.8% )had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Compared to those without significant depressive symptoms,those with depressive symptoms were significantly less likely to have had breast-feed their children; more likely to have a family history of menopausal symptoms; more likely to be unmarried, divorced or widowed; and had a smaller mean household living space. After excluding the 4 items about depression, the mean(SD) adjusted total score of the 7 remaining items on the KMI was significantly higher in the depressed group [ 14.7( 6. 5) vs 11.6 (5.5); t = 4.11, P < 0. 001 ]. Four factors remained independently related to having clinically significant depressive symptom in the logistic regression analysis: family history of menopausal symptoms ( OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.15-5.12), high adjusted total KMI score (2.79, 1.49-5.26), no prior breastfeeding (2

  2. Expression of chemokine receptor CXCR3 in female patients with dry eye at perimenopause

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    Hong Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the expression and clinical significance of chemotactic factor receptor-3(CXCR3of female patients conjunctival with dry eye at perimenopause. METHODS: Thirty dry eye case(60 eyesin the patient at perimenopause of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University and thirty dry eye cases(60 eyesin patient at non-perimenopause were selected. The conjunctival epithelial cells at perimenopause and non-perimenopause in dry eye cases were obtained by impression cytology methods, and then immersed into the centrifugal tube with corresponding number respectively and the expression of CXCR3 in conjunctival epithelium of at perimenopause and non-perimenopause in dry eye cases were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The break-up time(BUTand Schirmer Ⅰ test result of perimenopause was significantly lower than those of non-perimenopause(F=4.076, 5.023; PPr=-0.753, r=-0.684; PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: CXCR3 plays an inflammatory mediators role in dry eye mechanism and its expression level reflects the progress of dry eye at perimenopause.

  3. THE USE OF HORMONES DURING THE PERIMENOPAUSAL PERIOD IN SLOVENIA

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    Damir Franić

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. We want to collect data on the use of hormone therapy (HT in perimenopausal women in Slovenia. These data were to serve as the basis for evaluation of the most frequently prescribed HT, and of the distribution of prescriptions by Slovene health regions. Consequently, the percent of women aged 40–65 years, current hormone replacement therapy (HRT users was to be assessed.Methods. The analysis was made on the basis of the data collected by the automatic processing of prescriptions (AOR. Reliability of the data has been excellent since the introduction of the health insurance card. The data on drug use are expressed as defined daily doses (DDD per 1000 inhabitants aged 40–65 years. The information on the number of women in a certain age group and their number in a certain medical region was obtained from the Statistical Institute of Slovenia and from the database of the Institute of Health Insurance of Slovenia. DDD is a technical unit, by means of which drug use can be compared. DDD is a mean daily dose of the drug prescribed for the main indication in adults, the unit being 1 gram of the active substance. The AOR data have become reliable after 2001, therefore our analysis comparised the years 2001 and 2002. Comparison of the data was done using the list of drugs prepared according to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification (ATC for coding drugs.Results.  HRT (at least one pack was found to be used by 12.5% of women in 2001 and 12.4% in 2002. The estimated percent of women receiving HRT for at least 6 months was 6.5% in 2001 and 6.4% in 2002. Considering DDD, most frequently prescribed drugs were estrogens and monophasic estrogens + progesterone, these in the age groups 45–55 years; beyond this age HT was used decreasingly. Conjugated equine estrogen and antiandrogens combined with estrogens were prescribed the least. By medical regions, most systemic hormones were prescribed in the Ljubljana and Novo mesto

  4. Quality of life in perimenopausal women working in the health and educational system Calidad de vida en mujeres climatéricas que trabajan en el sistema sanitario y educativo Qualidade de vida em mulheres climatéricas que trabalham no sistema sanitário e educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Márquez Membrive

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the association between the professional activity and the perceived quality of life in climacteric women who work in Health and Education. A descriptive and cross-sectional study was developed in a sample of 203 climacteric women, together with a correlation analysis of labor factors’ influence on health-related quality of life. Significant differences were found between working women’s quality of life and some labor conditions. The perceived quality of life in perimenopausal women who work in Education is higher than that of those working in Health (p=0.004. Nursing professionals can develop health programs that deal with the work conditions that negatively influence the perceived quality of life in climacteric women.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la asociación entre la actividad profesional y la calidad de vida percibida en mujeres climatéricas que trabajan en las áreas sanitaria y educativa. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal, en una muestra de 203 mujeres climatéricas, junto al análisis correlacional de la influencia de los factores laborales en la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre la calidad de vida de las trabajadoras y algunas condiciones laborales. La calidad de vida percibida por las mujeres perimenopáusicas que trabajan en educación es superior a la de las que trabajan en salud (p=0,004. Los profesionales de Enfermería pueden elaborar programas de salud, que aborden las condiciones de trabajo que influyen negativamente en la calidad de vida percibida por las mujeres climatéricas.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a associação entre a atividade profissional e a qualidade de vida percebida em mulheres climatéricas que trabalham nas áreas da saúde e educação. Realizou-se estudo descritivo e transversal, numa amostra de 203 mulheres climatéricas, juntamente com análise correlacional da

  5. Prevalence of depressive symptoms among perimenopausal female teachers for both Primary and High School levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Eugenia Jáuregui-Durán,

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Depression is the main cause of disability-adjustedlost years around the world; hormonal changes which happen duringmenopause seem to increase susceptibility to develop depression.Aim: To establish depressive symptoms prevalence among femaleteachers aged 45 to 55 living at the Metropolitan Area of the Cityof Bucaramanga. Method: Cross-sectional survey with CES-D.Multivariated analysis was made to adjust confounding caused bydemographic and sexual/reproductive history variables with clinicallysignificant depressive symptoms (CSDS. Results: 581 womenparticipated (age average 50.3 years, 19.2% took hormonal therapy(HT; 50.2% (95%CI 45.3-55.2 were at their menopause. CES-Dscore oscillated between 0 and 39 points (average 13.6, beingsuperior among women with more time of amenorrhea, but not accordingto age, marital status, HT or sexual life. CSDS prevalencewas 32.4% (95%CI 28.6-36.3, but adjusted by predictive valuesallows to estimate a depression prevalence in 11.5%. The associatedfactors with CSDS were age (prevalence rate –PR– 0.948,95%CI 0.912-0.986, to have active sexual life (PR 0.492, 95%CI0.384-0.632, amenorrhea time (PR 1.57, 95%IC 1.057, IC 95%1.035-1.080, being divorced (PR 0.604, 95%CI 0.371-0.983, beingsingle (PR 0.590, 95%CI 0.381-0.914 and living out of wedlock.(PR 1.707, 95%CI 1.352-2.155. Conclusions: The depressionprevalence among perimenopauseal female teachers is similar to thegeneral population, being their risk factors similar to ones alreadyinformed in the medical literature.

  6. The perimenopausal aging transition in the female rat brain: decline in bioenergetic systems and synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Yao, Jia; Sancheti, Harsh; Feng, Tao; Melcangi, Roberto C; Morgan, Todd E; Finch, Caleb E; Pike, Christian J; Mack, Wendy J; Cadenas, Enrique; Brinton, Roberta D

    2015-07-01

    The perimenopause is an aging transition unique to the female that leads to reproductive senescence which can be characterized by multiple neurological symptoms. To better understand potential underlying mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause, the present study determined genomic, biochemical, brain metabolic, and electrophysiological transformations that occur during this transition using a rat model recapitulating fundamental characteristics of the human perimenopause. Gene expression analyses indicated two distinct aging programs: chronological and endocrine. A critical period emerged during the endocrine transition from regular to irregular cycling characterized by decline in bioenergetic gene expression, confirmed by deficits in fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) brain metabolism, mitochondrial function, and long-term potentiation. Bioinformatic analysis predicted insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (AMPK/PGC1α) signaling pathways as upstream regulators. Onset of acyclicity was accompanied by a rise in genes required for fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and mitochondrial function. Subsequent chronological aging resulted in decline of genes required for mitochondrial function and β-amyloid degradation. Emergence of glucose hypometabolism and impaired synaptic function in brain provide plausible mechanisms of neurological symptoms of perimenopause and may be predictive of later-life vulnerability to hypometabolic conditions such as Alzheimer's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perimenopausal risk of falling and incidence of distal forearm fracture.

    OpenAIRE

    Winner, S. J.; Morgan, C. A.; Evans, J. G.

    1989-01-01

    A postal survey of 2000 women and 2000 men sampled from the electoral roll in Oxford was undertaken to ascertain whether changes with age in the risk of falling might explain the stepwise increases in age specific incidence rates of distal forearm fracture which occur in women at around the age of 50. Corrected response rates were 83% for women and 72% for men. In women, but not in men, there was a rise in the risk of falling from 45 years, peaking in the 55-59 year age group, and sinking to ...

  8. Evaluation of trait and state anxiety levels in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Silvestri Tomassoni, Roberto; Guerrero-López, José Benjamín; Salinas, Margus

    2018-03-01

    Our objective was to evaluate levels of trait and state anxiety in a group of peri- and postmenopausal women and to explore the relation of hormonal therapy to levels of anxiety. Peri- (n = 63) and postmenopausal (n = 236) women were evaluated between March and September 2013. The assessed variables were menopausal status, anxiety (using the state and trait anxiety inventory), and sociodemographic and clinical variables. Use of psychotropic medications and hormone therapy was also ascertained. The mean age of the participants was 51.9 years, ranging from 31 to 69 years. The mean state anxiety scores, as well as the mean trait anxiety scores, were higher in perimenopausal than postmenopausal women. High state anxiety (above the 75th percentile), but not high trait anxiety, was related to perimenopausal status. Anxiety levels appeared to be higher among perimenopausal than postmenopausal women, as also occurs with depressive symptoms. Anxiety state provides data about recent anxiety symptoms in women; however, anxiety trait could be present in some women before perimenopause. Our findings suggest that perimenopause is a period with increased anxiety levels in some women.

  9. Potential Benefits of Berberine in the Management of Perimenopausal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Caliceti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women after menopause and 56% of all causes of death in Western European countries. Nowadays, with increasing life span, women spend approximately one-third of their life-time in postmenopausal state; therefore, the development of new strategies to improve the prevention and treatment of menopause-associated pathologies is important topic in clinical practice. The studies to assess the safety of hormone replacement therapy in women with estrogen deficiency have not been conclusive due to the relative contraindications; therefore, hormone replacement therapy is prescribed only in selected cases and for a limited time. For this reason, today women are encouraged to use naturally available compounds to prevent or to attenuate menopausal symptoms and correlated pathologies, with fewer side effects. Among these compounds, berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid derived from plants of the generis Berberis, has been recognized as being capable of decreasing oxidative stress, LDL, triglycerides, and insulin resistance and of improving the mood. This review describes the cellular and clinical effects associated with the use of berberine, which suggest that this molecule could be an effective natural supplement to ensure a smooth peri- and postmenopausal transition.

  10. History of hot flashes and aortic calcification among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C; Kuller, Lewis H; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Matthews, Karen A

    2010-03-01

    Menopausal hot flashes are considered largely a quality-of-life issue. However, emerging research also links hot flashes to cardiovascular risk. In some investigations, this risk is particularly apparent among women using hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether a longer history of reported hot flashes over the study period was associated with greater aortic and coronary artery calcification. Interactions with hormone therapy use were examined in an exploratory fashion. Participants included 302 women participating in the Healthy Women Study, a longitudinal study of cardiovascular risk during perimenopause and postmenopause, which was initiated in 1983. Hot flashes (any/none) were assessed when women were 1, 2, 5, and 8 years postmenopausal. Electron beam tomography measures of coronary artery calcification and aortic calcification were completed in 1997-2004. Associations between the number of visits with report of hot flashes, divided by the number of visits attended, and aortic or coronary artery calcification (transformed) were examined in linear regression models. Interactions by hormone therapy use were evaluated. Among women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (b = 2.87, SE = 1.21, P history of hot flashes and coronary artery calcification. Among postmenopausal women using hormone therapy, a longer history of reported hot flashes measured prospectively was associated with increased aortic calcification, controlling for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Hot flashes may signal adverse cardiovascular changes among certain postmenopausal women.

  11. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  12. A Clinicopathological Study of Women with Adnexal Masses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The causes of acute pain can also be due to rupture of ovarian cyst, torsion of adnexa with or without a tumor, hemorrhage into a cyst, acute pelvic infections and non-gynecological as well. Malignancy has to be kept in mind in perimenopausal and menopausal women. Clinical diagnosis is based on symptoms like reverse ...

  13. Large twisted ovarian fibroma in menopausal women: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian fibroma is the most common benign solid tumors of the ovary, commonly misdiagnosed as uterine fibromaor as malignant ovarian tumors. It occurs generally in older perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Occasionally large fibromas may undergo torsion causing acute abdominal pain. Doppler ...

  14. Symptom experience of Filipino American midlife women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J A; Taylor, D L

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perimenopausal symptom experience of Filipino American midlife women with particular emphasis upon estrogen-related menopause symptoms (day sweats, hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness). A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was used to generate symptom experience data for 165 Filipina Americans between the ages of 35 and 56 who self-identified as Filipina American and were English-language proficient. The community-based sample completed questionnaires composed of sample characteristic questions and a 51-item menstrual symptom checklist with menopause-related symptoms embedded in it. Sample characteristics and symptom experience were compared among age groups of 35 to 39 (n = 39), 40 to 44 (n = 40), 45 to 49 (n = 37), and 50 to 56 (n = 49) and by perimenopausal phase, defined as premenopausal (n = 85), transitional (n = 33), and menopausal/postmenopausal (n = 47). The most reported individual symptoms were "felt energetic" (86.1%) and "well-being" (83.6%). Estrogen-related menopause symptoms were reported as "vaginal dryness" (39.4%), "hot flashes" (37.6%), "day sweats" (27.9%), and "night sweats" (24.2%) by the total sample. Distress associated with estrogen-related menopause symptoms was reported by 17% (n = 28) of all women. Subjects' chi 2 tests indicated that 50-to-56-year-old women were more likely to report fatigue/sleep symptoms, physical symptoms, and estrogen-related menopause symptoms than all other age groups. When compared by perimenopausal phase, transitional women were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity for day sweats. Premenopausal women were more likely to report minimal or mild severity and women in the perimenopausal transition were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity on estrogen-related menopause symptoms. Filipino American midlife women appear to consider the perimenopausal transition in a positive light and experience little distress associated with

  15. Anterior Abdominal Wall Leiomyoma Arising De Novo in a Perimenopausal Woman

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    Hamed A. Al-Wadaani

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Extrauterine or extraintestinal leiomyomas are extremely uncommon especially in the pre-peritoneal area or within the anterior abdominal wall muscles. These tumors have been ascribed to intraoperative seeding during resection of a fibroid or a leiomyoma of gut, to exogenous hormone replacement therapy or a major derangement of glucose and/or lipid metabolism. So far, there is no published report of de novo origin of anterior abdominal wall pure leiomyoma in the literature. The author herein reports a case of perimenopausal multiparous woman without any listing of previous gynecological surgery or hormone therapy who presented with a large pre-peritoneal intramuscular leiomyoma of the anterior abdominal wall. The patient underwent complete primary resection with amelioration of her symptoms.

  16. Electronic Communities: a Forum for Supporting Women Professionals and Students in Technical and Scientific Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, Peg Boyle; Muller, Carol B.; Cunningham, Christine M.; Single, Richard M.

    In this article, we report on electronic discussion lists (e-lists) sponsored by MentorNet, the National Electronic Industrial Mentoring Network for Women in Engineering and Science. Using the Internet, the MentorNet program connects students in engineering and science with mentors working in industry. These e-lists are a feature of MentorNet's larger electronic mentoring program and were sponsored to foster the establishment of community among women engineering and science students and men and women professionals in those fields. This research supports the hypothesis that electronic communications can be used to develop community among engineering and science students and professionals and identifies factors influencing the emergence of electronic communities (e-communities). The e-lists that emerged into self-sustaining e-communities were focused on topic-based themes, such as balancing personal and work life, issues pertaining to women in engineering and science, and job searching. These e-communities were perceived to be safe places, embraced a diversity of opinions and experiences, and sanctioned personal and meaningful postings on the part of the participants. The e-communities maintained three to four simultaneous threaded discussions and were sustained by professionals who served as facilitators by seeding the e-lists with discussion topics. The e-lists were sponsored to provide women students participating in MentorNet with access to groups of technical and scientific professionals. In addition to providing benefits to the students, the e-lists also provided the professionals with opportunities to engage in peer mentoring with other, mostly female, technical and scientific professionals. We discuss the implications of our findings for developing e-communities and for serving the needs of women in technical and scientific fields.

  17. A retrospective analysis of dermatoses in the perimenopausal population attending a tertiary care centre in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamma Aboobacker

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The leading dermatoses being eczema and urticaria in the perimenopausal population probably accounts for a tendency of exaggerated response to external factors. The population studied in the current study might be of significance due to complete lack of treatment in the form of hormone replacement therapy (HRT, while routine sun exposure and cultural practices predominate. However, evaluation with respect to individual factors is beyond the scope of the current study and may be necessary to define a causal relationship.

  18. [Effect of Electroacupuncture on Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Ovary (HPO) Axis in Rats with Peri-menopausal Depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xi-Rong; Ren, Lu; Li, Chun-Ri

    2017-02-25

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on the hormones derived from the hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (HPO) axis, so as to explore the neuroendocrine mechanism induced by EA on rats with perimenopausal depression disorder. Sixty female sprague-dawley rats were randomly divided into blank control group, model group, sham-operation (sham) group, clomipramine group, and electroacupuncture (EA) group, with 12 rats in each group. Perimenopausal depression model was established by bilateral ovariectomy combined with chronic unpredictable stimulation.The EA group received continuous treatment at "Baihui" (GV 20), "Shenshu" (BL 23) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) once a day for 28 days. Estrous cycle and sucrose preference test were monitored, and serum estradiol (E 2 ), luteinizing hormone (LH), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), and β-endorphin (β-EP) were detected by ELISA. Compared to the blank control group, sugar water consumpution rates decreased in the model group and sham group ( P Electroacupuncture can relieve the symptoms of rat with perimenopausal depression by regulating the hormone secretion in HPO axis.

  19. Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes Among Medicaid-Eligible Pregnant and Postpartum Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Miller, Alana; Assef, Sara; Ashford, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    To describe perceptions and beliefs about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use during pregnancy among pregnant and newly postpartum women. An exploratory, qualitative descriptive study. University-affiliated prenatal clinics. Twelve pregnant or recently postpartum women who reported use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Semistructured focus groups were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. The transcripts were coded to consensus and analyzed with MAXQDA software (version 11) using content analysis. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) Attraction to E-Cigarettes as a Harm Reduction Strategy, (b) Uncertainty Regarding the Health Effects of E-Cigarettes; (c) Ambivalence Regarding Novel Product Characteristics; and (d) Behaviors Reflected Dual Use and Often Complete Relapse to Traditional Cigarettes. Pregnant women are initially attracted to e-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy, but they often return to traditional cigarettes in the postpartum period. Nurses should counsel pregnant women on the adverse effects of fetal exposure to nicotine. Evidence-based nursing interventions are needed to prevent relapse during the postpartum period. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Associação entre depressão na perimenopausa e níveis séricos de estradiol e hormônio folículo-estimulante Association between depression in the perimenopause and serum levels of estradiol (E2 and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio N Soares

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A perimenopausa é freqüentemente associada ao surgimento de alterações físicas e emocionais. Estudos prévios indicam uma associação entre variações dos hormônios folículo-estimulante (FSH, luteinizante (LH bem como de estrógenos e o surgimento de transtornos do humor, particularmente depressão. Este estudo investigou a correlação entre mudanças nos níveis de estradiol (E2 e FSH e a sintomatologia depressiva em mulheres na perimenopausa. MÉTODOS: Cinqüenta mulheres foram recrutadas nos atendimentos de uma clínica de menopausa e de um serviço psiquiátrico para realização de ensaio clínico com uso de 17 b-estradiol ou placebo. Selecionaram-se mulheres em perimenopausa (idade entre 40 e 55 anos, presença de alterações vasomotoras, irregularidade menstrual nos últimos 6 meses e/ou amenorréia há no máximo 12 meses, níveis de FSH>20 UI/L e com diagnóstico de transtorno depressivo pelo DSM-IV (transtorno depressivo maior, transtorno distímico ou transtorno depressivo sem outra especificação. Dosagens séricas iniciais e finais (semana 12 de FSH e E2, bem como avaliações da sintomatologia depressiva (escores da MADRS foram analisadas e suas correlações investigadas. RESULTADOS: As pacientes apresentaram mudanças (pOBJECTIVES: Previous studies suggest that the perimenopause is a period of increased risk for physical and emotional disturbances. The intense fluctuation in hormone levels during the perimenopause has been associated with the presence of depressive symptoms. The present study investigated the association between levels of estradiol (E2 and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH and the severity of depressive symptoms of women in the perimenopause. METHODS: Fifty perimenopausal women (age: 40-55 years, all meeting DSM-IV criteria for depressive disorders [major depressive disorder, dysthymia or depressive disorders NOS], with irregular periods and FSH levels > 20 IU/L were selected from a larger

  1. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31-40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31-40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers.

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice of Electronic Cigarette Use Among Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Katrina S; Farquhar, Brooke; Chisolm, Margaret S; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H; Terplan, Mishka

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a relatively recent phenomenon, serving dual roles as an alternative vehicle for nicotine delivery and a smoking-cessation tool. The purpose of this study was to determine pregnant women's knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding electronic cigarettes. A voluntary, anonymous survey was distributed to a convenience sample of pregnant women presenting to a university-based outpatient clinic. After survey completion, participants received information about smoking cessation and e-cigarettes. Data were examined using χ² and Fisher exact tests and analysis of variance. Stata was used for the analysis. Of the 326 surveys distributed, 316 were completed (97%). Of the 316 participants, 42 (13%) reported having ever used e-cigarettes. Only 2 (0.6%) reported current daily use. Ever users were slightly older (27.3 years vs 25.4 years; P = 0.007) and more likely to be current smokers (43% vs. 14%; P e-cigarettes contain nicotine, 61% that e-cigarettes can be addictive, and 43% that e-cigarettes are less harmful to a fetus than traditional cigarettes. Among ever users, the most common reasons given for the use of e-cigarettes were the perception of less harm than traditional cigarettes (74%) and help with smoking cessation (72%). Misconceptions about e-cigarettes are common among pregnant women, potentially motivating use that may pose risks to both maternal and child health. Screening and education regarding e-cigarettes should be included in prenatal care. Future research in this area is necessary, including research examining pregnancy outcomes among women who use e-cigarettes.

  3. Serum estradiol does not differentiate stress, mixed and urge incontinent women around menopause. A report from the Women's Health in the Lund Area (WHILA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Maria Andrada; Källén, Karin; Lidfeldt, Jonas; Samsioe, Göran; Teleman, Pia

    2011-11-01

    To outline serum estradiol levels in perimenopausal women with stress, mixed or urge incontinence. We believe the majority of urgency symptoms in perimenopausal women to be caused by a pelvic floor dysfunction and a hypermobility of the bladder neck. If this is the case, there would be no difference in estradiol levels between the groups. University hospital. In the observational Women's Health in the Lund Area study, a subset of 400/2221 women reporting urinary incontinence completed a detailed questionnaire regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and had their serum steroid hormone levels measured. Statistical analyses were made by Chi-square test, nonparametrical tests, ANOVA, multi- and univariate logistic regression analysis. Stress incontinence was reported by 196, mixed incontinence by 153 and urge incontinence by 43 women; in 369, serumestradiol values were available. Serum estradiol did not differ significantly between stress incontinent (median 49.5 pmo/l, range 2.63-875.4), urge incontinent (median 31.6 pmol/l, range 2.63-460.7) or mixed incontinent women (median 35.5 pmol/l, range 2.63-787.9, p=0.62). Logistic regression analysis correcting for age, parity, hormonal status, smoking, hysterectomy and BMI also failed to show any difference in estradiol levels between the groups (p=0.41-0.58). No significant differences in serum estradiol levels between stress, mixed or urge incontinent perimenopausal women could be demonstrated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The menopausal experience among indigenous women of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Alwi, S A R; Lee, P Y; Awi, I; Mallik, P S; Md Haizal, M N

    2009-12-01

    To document the common menopausal symptoms and quality of life in indigenous women of Sarawak in Malaysia. A face-to-face interview using the Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire was conducted with 276 indigenous Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years to determine the mean age of menopause and common symptoms (divided into vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual domains) associated with menopause. The mean age at menopause of postmenopausal women was 50.78 +/- 2.47 years (range 47.3-58.2 years). The most common symptoms reported were aching in muscles and joints (82.6%), lack of energy (77.5%) and low backache (77.2%). The typical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, night sweats, sweating and vaginal dryness were experienced by 42.4%, 34.8%, 29.7% and 49.3%, respectively of the women studied. Perimenopausal women (n = 114) experienced the most physical and psychosocial symptoms, while postmenopausal women (n = 102) experienced most sexual symptoms. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women were reported to suffer more than premenopausal women (p < 0.001) within the four domains of symptoms (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical and sexual). The menopausal symptoms in this study correspond to those in other studies on Asian women but the prevalence of typical and classical menopausal symptoms was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women. The perimenopausal women had the most significant decrease in quality of life, followed by postmenopausal women and premenopausal women. Vasomotor symptoms had a predominant influence on the quality of life.

  5. Endocrine identification of menopausal status of Sudanese women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, M. M. M.

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to identify the menopausal statues of Sudanese women which is critically important in determining the treatment strategy for infertile patients. In this study samples were collected from two hundred Sudanese women, aged between 35 and 62. They were from different social classes and are not suffering any systemic or endocrine disease. They were not exposed to any surgical intervention by complete hysterectomy or partial removal of ovaries or thyroidectomy. Reproductive hormones were determined for these women. Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) was adopted for the measurement of serum prolactin, follicle stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used for the determination of estradiol and esterone, whereas, enzyme immunoassay (tube format) was used for the determination of serum testosterone. Average menopausal age for Sudanese women was determined in this study and found to be 43.0±4.2 which is lower than that of the neighboring countries. A new classification system was developed during this study which uses a combination of symptoms together with hormonal profile in order to identify the menopausal status of women. The three key tools of this system are FSH and LH level together with the absence of menstrual cycle during the last three months. The new classification scheme had successfully differentiated the early peri-menopausal women from pre-menopausal ones. The early peri-menopausal women according to the new classification scheme are suffering cycle irregularities and amenorrhea but with normal hormonal levels. The new classification scheme is now, clearly indicating that amenorrhea with normal hormonal levels may be an indication to the beginning of the peri-menopausal life. The big challenge faced during this study had been the sub-classification of the peri-menopausal stage as it is not a single homogeneous stage but a wide heterogenous and transitional stage extending from

  6. Diagnostic test of endometrial cytobrush in cases of perimenopausal and postmenopausal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijono Andrijono

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Perimenopausal menopausal hemorrhage can be due to by a variety of causative factors. One of its dangerous causes is atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma. There are a number of risk factors for the occurrence of endometrial carcinoma. The group that has this risk belongs to high-risk group. In this high-risk group, it is necessary to have a method to identify the changes in endometrial abnormality. One of the alternatives is the examination of endometrial cytology. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and correlation test between endometrial cytology and endometrial histology. This study was a diagnostic test of cytological examination of the endometrium as compared with endometrial histology. Endometrial cytology was performed with a modification of cytubrush and IUD shell. Specimen was dissolved into the centrifuged NaCl, and its deposits were then processed for cytological examination with Papanicolaou and Giemsa staining. After the taking of cytology, the process was continued with curettage of the endometrium, and the specimens were processed for cytological examination. Both of them were examined by anatomic pathologist. Statistical analysis used diagnostic test using histological examination of curetage specimens as gold standard. During the period of study 45 study samples were collected, among which 12 (26.66% were endometrial adenocarcinoma, 6 (13.33% with atypical hyperplasia, 11 (24.44% with non-atypical hyperplasia, 15 (33.33% were samples without abnormality, and one sample with endometritis. Actual correlation value was 57.8%, correlation because of possibility 3.38%, and correlation not because of possibility 54.42%, potential correlation not because of possibility 96.62%, and Kappa value 0.56. It was concluded that cytological examination of the endometriurn with cytobrush could be employed as a screening method in the abnormalities of endometrial thickness, with

  7. Women's health in menopause with a focus on hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, A H E M; Franke, H R

    2009-02-01

    In menopause transition many women have vasomotor symptoms which may affect their normal daily activities. With the decline in oestrogen levels, risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) become more apparent, especially hypertension. The onset of hypertension can cause a variety of complaints that are often attributed to the menopause. Risk factor identification is poorly managed in middle-aged women and should be the first step in the evaluation and treatment of women with perimenopausal symptoms. In women at low risk for CHD, there is still a window of opportunity for safe hormone prescription in the first years proximal to menopause. (Neth Heart J 2009;17:68-72.).

  8. What to Ask Women Composers: Feminist Fieldwork in Electronic Dance Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Olszanowski

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE This article reflects upon the research methods employed for microfemininewarfare (2012, an interactive database documentary that investigates female electronic dance music (EDM artists. The purpose of the documentary is to feature the contributions of women as composers, to show how they came to be composers and to reveal the tactics used to approach significant issues of gender in the male-dominated world of EDM. I highlight the theoretical and methodological processes that went into the making of this documentary, subtitled “exploring women’s space in electronic music”. By constructing “electronic music by women” as a category, two objectives are addressed: first, the visibility of women’s contribution to the musical tradition is heightened; and, second, it allows an exploration of the broadening of discourses about female subjectivity. This article showcases feminist research-creation and friendship-as-method as effective research methods to glean meaningful content when applied to EDM fieldwork.

  9. Use of vaginal estrogen in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Goukasian, Irina; Lidegaard, Oejvind

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We know little about the use of vaginal estrogen in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. We aimed to assess the prevalence of vaginal estrogen use in Denmark. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed as a nationwide cross-sectional study of all Danish women aged 40-79 years......, living in Denmark during the period 2007-2013. The Danish Prescription Register delivered data permitting us to assess the prevalence, age and regional geographical belonging of women purchasing prescribed vaginal estradiol. The number of women using over-the-counter vaginal estriol products...... was estimated from sale statistics from the same register. RESULTS: In 2013, 10.2% of all Danish women between 40 and 79 years of age used vaginal estradiol. The prevalence of women using this type of vaginal estrogen increased from 8.5% in year 2007 to 10.2% in 2013. The use peaked at 16.5% in women aged 60...

  10. Understanding women's experience of memory over the menopausal transition: subjective and objective memory in pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkenstein, Anne E; Bryant, Christina A; Judd, Fiona K; Ong, Ben; Kinsella, Glynda J

    2016-12-01

    Many women complain of forgetfulness during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to examine women's subjective perception of memory and their objective memory performance across the menopausal transition. One hundred thirty women, aged 40 to 60 years were recruited from outpatient Menopause and Gynaecological clinics at the Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne. Women were divided into menopausal stage groups according to the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop criteria based on menstrual patterns. All women completed self-report measures of depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms; attitude to menopause; and various aspects of memory, including memory contentment, frequency of forgetting, sense of control over memory, and use of memory strategies. Women also completed a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation assessing memory and executive function. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessment showed no difference between premenopausal (n = 36), perimenopausal (n = 54), and postmenopausal (n = 40) groups in performance on memory and executive tasks. Perimenopausal women, however, reported significantly more frequent forgetting (η = 0.09, P memory (η = 0.08, P memory. During the menopausal transition women with a more negative attitude to menopause and more intense depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep symptoms are more vulnerable to feeling less content with their memory.

  11. Quality of the relationship and menopausal symptoms of menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Jarecka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and intensity of menopausal symptoms, taking into account the length of one’s relationship, its nature and one’s assessment of it. Participants and procedure The study included 200 women between the ages of 45 and 68, with secondary or higher education, married or in cohabiting relationships. Women were divided into three groups depending on the experience related to menopause: premenopause (46 respondents, perimenopause (75 respondents, and postmenopause (79 respondents. The study used a survey of self-design, the “Women’s Health” Questionnaire (WHQ by M. Hunter, and the “Partner Relations Questionnaire” (PFB by K. Hahlweg. Results Most menopausal symptoms – including those of the greatest severity – are experienced by women in perimenopausal and postmenopausal phases, but one’s own relationship’s assessment is the lowest in postmenopausal women. In this group of women, relevant and significant relations between the dimensions of the quality of the relationship and the menopausal symptoms are the most numerous. The most essential assessment was the one relating to intimacy – its poor evaluation is accompanied by higher intensity of experienced depression symptoms, somatic symptoms, and disorders of memory and concentration, sex and sleep, and also the sum of menopausal symptoms is higher. In all three groups, no significant differences in the severity of menopausal symptoms were observed between women in marital and cohabiting relationships. In women in the perimenopausal phase, the shorter the length of the relationship (its seniority, the greater is the severity of sexual dysfunction symptoms, whereas in women in the postmenopausal stage, along with the length of the relationship, the severity of psychological and somatic symptoms increases. Conclusions One should find that the perimenopausal and postmenopausal phases are particularly difficult for women

  12. The Role of Hippocampal Estradiol Receptor-α in a Perimenopausal Affective Disorders-Like Rat Model and Attenuating of Anxiety by Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hormone replacement therapy is the principal treatment for perimenopausal affective disorders which can cause severe side effects. The present study compared the effects of electroacupuncture (EA and estradiol treatment on perimenopausal affective disorders at the behavioral and cellular levels. In this randomized experimental in vivo study, adult female rats were divided into intact, ovariectomy, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS, and ovariectomy and CUS combination groups. After week 6, all groups were subdivided to three subgroups of control, EA, and estradiol treatment. The behavioral parameters in the open field and the elevated plus maze tests were assessed before and after treatments. Alterations of serum steroid hormones and changes of estradiol receptor-α (ER-α immunofluorescence neurons in the hippocampus sections were evaluated. EA treatment caused more antianxiety effects than estradiol treatment in CUS group (P<0.05. Notably, estradiol and EA treatments had better significant behavioral effects when the models were not estrogen-deficient. Importantly, within each group, compared to the control group, the numbers of ER-α-positive neurons were significantly larger in EA subgroups. Therefore, EA had antianxiety effects on perimenopausal affective disorders caused by CUS but not by estrogen deficiency and upregulation of hippocampus ER-α neurons may contribute to its mechanism of action.

  13. Sexual functioning and practices in a multi-ethnic study of midlife women: baseline results from SWAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Virginia S; Johannes, Catherine B; Avis, Nancy E; Mohr, Beth; Schocken, Miriam; Skurnick, Joan; Ory, Marcia

    2003-08-01

    This study examined the sexual practices and function of midlife women by ethnicity (African American, Caucasian, Chinese, Hispanic, Japanese) and menopausal status. Sexual behavior was compared in 3,262 women in the baseline cohort of SWAN. Participants were 42 to 52 years old, premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and not hysterectomized or using hormones. Analysis used multivariate proportional odds regression. In our sample, 79% had engaged in sex with a partner in the last 6 months, and a third considered sex to be very important. Common reasons for no sex (n = 676) were lack of partner (67%), lack of interest (33%), and fatigue (16%). Compared with Caucasians, Japanese and Chinese women were less likely, and African Americans more likely, to report sex as very important (p practices. Perimenopause status was associated only with higher frequencies of masturbation and pain during intercourse.

  14. The effect of hormone replacement therapy on serum homocysteine levels in perimenopausal women : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, AE; Bak, AAA; Lindemans, J; Planellas, J; Bennink, HJTC; Hofman, A; Grobbee, DE; Witteman, JCM

    2001-01-01

    Serum homocysteine levels may be lowered by hormone replacement therapy, but randomized controlled trial data are scarce. We performed a single center randomized placebo-controlled trial to assess the 6 months effect of hormone replacement therapy compared with placebo on fasting serum homocysteine

  15. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  16. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  17. Gender-specific mental health care needs of women veterans treated for psychiatric disorders in a Veterans Administration Women's Health Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Laura J; Ghadiali, Nafisa Y

    2015-04-01

    This pilot study aims to ascertain the prevalence of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal influences on mental health, and of gynecologic conditions that could interact with psychiatric conditions, among women veterans receiving psychiatric care within a Veterans Administration (VA) Women's Health Clinic (WHC). Participants included all women veterans (N=68) who received psychiatric evaluations within a VA WHC over a 5-month period. This setting encompasses colocated and coordinated primary care, gynecologic and mental health services. Evaluations included a Women's Mental Health Questionnaire, a psychiatric interview, and medical record review. Deidentified data were extracted from a clinical data repository for this descriptive study. High proportions of study participants reported that their emotional problems intensified premenstrually (42.6%), during pregnancy (33.3%), in the postpartum period (33.3%), or during perimenopause (18.2%). Unintended pregnancy (70.0% of pregnancies) and pregnancy loss (63.5% of women who had been pregnant) were prominent sex-linked stressors. Dyspareunia (22.1% of participants) and pelvic pain (17.6% of participants) were frequent comorbidities. Among women veterans receiving psychiatric care within a VA WHC, there are high rates of self-reported premenstrual, perinatal, and perimenopausal influences on mental health. This population also has substantial comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with dyspareunia and pelvic pain. This underscores the importance of recognizing and addressing women veterans' sex-specific care needs, including interactions among reproductive cycle phases, gynecologic pain, and psychiatric symptoms. The findings support the need for greater awareness of the sex-specific mental health needs of women veterans, and for more definitive studies to further characterize these needs.

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding unrelated to structural uterine abnormalities: management in the perimenopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Lorenzo; Zanetti, Isabella; Orlandini, Cinzia; Petraglia, Felice; Luisi, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is one of the commonest health problems encountered by women and a frequent phenomenon during menopausal transition. The clinical management of AUB must follow a standardized classification system to obtain the better diagnostic pathway and the optimal therapy. The PALM-COEIN classification system has been approved by the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO); it recognizes structural causes of AUB, which can be measured visually with imaging techniques or histopathology, and non-structural entities such as coagulopathies, ovulatory dysfunctions, endometrial and iatrogenic causes and disorders not yet classified. In this review we aim to evaluate the management of nonstructural causes of AUB during the menopausal transition, when commonly women experience changes in menstrual bleeding patterns and unexpected bleedings which affect their quality of life.

  19. Postmastectomy Electron Beam Chest Wall Irradiation in Women With Breast Cancer: A Clinical Step Toward Conformal Electron Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirova, Youlia M.; Campana, Francois; Fournier-Bidoz, Nathalie; Stilhart, Anne; Dendale, Remi; Bollet, Marc A.; Fourquet, Alain

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Electron beam radiotherapy of the chest wall with or without lymph node irradiation has been used at the Institut Curie for >20 years. The purpose of this report was to show the latest improvements of our technique developed to avoid hot spots and improve the homogeneity. Methods and Materials: The study was split into two parts. A new electron irradiation technique was designed and compared with the standard one (dosimetric study). The dose distributions were calculated using our treatment planning software ISIS (Technologie Diffusion). The dose calculation was performed using the same calculation parameters for the new and standard techniques. Next, the early skin toxicity of our new technique was evaluated prospectively in the first 25 patients using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria (clinical study). Results: The maximal dose found on the five slices was 53.4 ± 1.1 Gy for the new technique and 59.1 ± 2.3 Gy for the standard technique. The hot spots of the standard technique plans were situated at the overlap between the internal mammary chain and chest wall fields. The use of one unique field that included both chest wall and internal mammary chain volumes solved the problem of junction. To date, 25 patients have been treated with the new technique. Of these patients, 12% developed Grade 0, 48% Grade 1, 32% Grade 2, and 8% Grade 3 toxicity. Conclusions: This report describes an improvement in the standard postmastectomy electron beam technique of the chest wall. This new technique provides improved target homogeneity and conformality compared with the standard technique. This treatment was well tolerated, with a low rate of early toxicity events

  20. Longitudinal changes in sexual functioning as women transition through menopause: results from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A

    2009-01-01

    Sexual functioning is an important component of women's lives. The extent to which the menopausal transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopausal transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. This was a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42 to 52 years at baseline recruited at seven US sites (N = 3,302) in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort-eligible women had an intact uterus, had at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either premenopausal or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study's designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; and degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. With adjustment for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause but declined during postmenopause. The menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. With adjustment for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional

  1. Progesterone and Bone: Actions Promoting Bone Health in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanadin Seifert-Klauss

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 and progesterone (P4 collaborate within bone remodelling on resorption (E2 and formation (P4. We integrate evidence that P4 may prevent and, with antiresorptives, treat women's osteoporosis. P4 stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro. Menarche (E2 and onset of ovulation (P4 both contribute to peak BMD. Meta-analysis of 5 studies confirms that regularly cycling premenopausal women lose bone mineral density (BMD related to subclinical ovulatory disturbances (SODs. Cyclic progestin prevents bone loss in healthy premenopausal women with amenorrhea or SOD. BMD loss is more rapid in perimenopause than postmenopause—decreased bone formation due to P4 deficiency contributes. In 4 placebo-controlled RCTs, BMD loss is not prevented by P4 in postmenopausal women with increased bone turnover. However, 5 studies of E2-MPA co-therapy show greater BMD increases versus E2 alone. P4 fracture data are lacking. P4 prevents bone loss in pre- and possibly perimenopausal women; progesterone co-therapy with antiresorptives may increase bone formation and BMD.

  2. Evidence-based practice in women's health: hormone therapy for women at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, M E

    2001-01-01

    Women's health providers, especially midwives, must take into account the known benefits and risks, as well as the "unknown," when recommending the use of hormone therapy for menopausal women, especially as it relates to heart disease, breast cancer, impaired cognition, and osteoporosis. The most recent evidence available from various studies about the benefits and risks of estrogen and hormone therapy at menopause suggests that, although hormone therapy may be protective in some women against heart disease and osteoporosis, evidence is less certain about the benefits of hormone protection against impaired cognition and the risks of breast cancer with use. The clinical approach used by midwives in which individualizing care based on each woman's health status history as well as preferences is highly appropriate for women in the perimenopausal and menopausal period.

  3. Building New Networks from the Old: Women's Experiences with Electronic Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayoshi, Pamela

    1994-01-01

    Presents research to support the argument that patterns of interaction deeply entrenched within a patriarchal system cannot be undermined simply by offering access to a new medium such as computer-mediated communication. Claims that, in moving away from traditional discourse forms that oppress and marginalize women, scholars run the risk of those…

  4. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend menopause symptoms (P menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  5. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  6. Women who quit maquiladora work on the U.S.-Mexico border: assessing health, occupation, and social dimensions in two transnational electronics plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, S; Samuels, S; Ramirez, M

    1998-05-01

    This cohort study of 725 women examined the health, occupational, and social factors that contribute to quitting work in two transnational electronics maquiladoras (assembly plants) in Tijuana, Mexico. The estimated cumulative probabilities of quitting were 68% and 81% by 1 and 2 years of employment. After adjusting for other factors, women who had a history of smoking or surgery and those who returned to work after a paid leave due to illness were more likely to quit. In contrast, women with a history of chronic illness had lower quitting rates. The nationality of the company and the work shift also significantly influenced quitting rates, but demographic characteristics and health care visits did not have a significant effect. Women selectively leave maquiladora employment, often due to health-related events. The healthy worker effect is difficult to measure in a mobile population with high turnover.

  7. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: how to approach hypertension in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.

  8. The influence of electronic-word-of-mouth on consumer decision-making for beauty products in a Kuwaiti Women's online community

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaidari, N; Coughlan, J

    2014-01-01

    Online communities are an important source of electronic-word-of-mouth (eWOM), however few studies have examined these types of messages within the Middle Eastern context. This study focuses on Kuwaiti women as members of an online beauty forum; previous work has suggested a mediating effect of gender with women being more likely to trust and follow-up word-of-mouth with a purchase. A conceptual model, based on existing theoretical contributions, provides the basis of a coding framework for t...

  9. Factors related to the practice of breast self examination (BSE and Pap smear screening among Malaysian women workers in selected electronics factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsuddin K

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Malaysian Ministry of Health promotes breast self-examination (BSE for all women, and Pap smear screening every three years for all sexually active women ages 20 years and above. The objectives of this paper were to examine the practice of these two screening tests among women production workers in electronics factories, and to identify factors related to practice. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of women production workers from ten electronics factories. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire from a total of 1,720 women. The chi-square test, odds ratio and binomial logistic regression were used in bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Prevalence rates were 24.4% for BSE once a month, and 18.4% for Pap smear examination within the last three years. Women who were significantly more likely to perform BSE every month were 30 years and older, Malays, with upper secondary education and above, answered the BSE question correctly, and had a Pap smear within the last three years. The proportion of women who had a Pap smear within the last three years were significantly higher among those who were older, married, with young children, on the contraceptive pill or intra-uterine device, had a medical examination within the last five years, answered the Pap smear question correctly, and performed BSE monthly. Conclusion Screening practice rates in this study were low when compared to national rates. Socio-demographic and health care factors significantly associated with screening practice are indicative of barriers which should be further understood so that more effective educational and promotional strategies could be developed.

  10. Factors associated with poor sleep during menopause: results from the Midlife Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca L; Flaws, Jodi A; Mahoney, Megan M

    2018-05-01

    Poor sleep is one of the most common problems reported during menopause, and is known to vary throughout the menopause transition. The objective of this study was to describe the dynamics of poor sleep among participants of the Midlife Women's Health Study and to identify risk factors associated with poor sleep during the menopausal transition. Annual responses to surveys that included questions about the frequency of sleep disturbances and insomnia were analyzed to determine the likelihood of persistent poor sleep throughout the menopausal transition and the correlation of responses to the different sleep-related questions, including frequency of restless sleep during the first year of the study. Responses to questions about a large number of potential risk factors were used to identify risk factors for poor sleep. Poor sleep in premenopause was not predictive of poor sleep in perimenopause, and poor sleep in perimenopause was not predictive of poor sleep in postmenopause. Frequencies of each of the measures of poor sleep were highly correlated. For all sleep outcomes, high frequency of depression was related to a high frequency of poor sleep. Vasomotor symptoms were also significantly related with a higher frequency of all poor sleep outcomes. A history of smoking was also associated with higher frequencies of insomnia and sleep disturbances. The risk factors identified for poor sleep, depression and vasomotor symptoms, were consistently associated with poor sleep throughout the menopausal transition. The likelihood of these risk factors changed from premenopause, through perimenopause, and into postmenopause, however, which could explain changes in sleep difficulties across the menopausal transition. Treatment of these risk factors should be considered when addressing sleep difficulties in menopausal women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-11-01

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  12. [Benefits of an educational intervention on diet and anthropometric profile of women with one cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Rodríguez, Anxela; García Soidán, José Luís; de Toro Santos, Manuel; Lagoa Labrador, Fiz; Failde Garrido, José M; Pérez Fernández, María Reyes

    2016-05-20

    To assess whether an educational intervention in perimenopausal women with hypertension, diabetes mellitus and/or dyslipidaemia would improve adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern and achieve changes in anthropometric parameters. Randomized clinical trial of parallel groups: 320 women (45-60 years) in 2 urban primary care services. hip and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), total, visceral and trunk fat (bioimpedance measures) and adherence to Mediterranean diet (MEDAS-14 questionnaire). Intervention group: 3 interactive workshops on prevention of cardiovascular disease, and control group: information by post. Two hundred and thirty women completed the study (113 control group and 117 intervention group). The differences between groups were significant in all parameters one year later. In the intragroup comparison, the intervention group maintained their BMI and improved adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The control group increased their BMI, abdominal and hip circumference and fat parameters (total, visceral and trunk fat). A simple educational intervention in perimenopausal women with cardiovascular risk can improve their healthy habits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. [Quality of life and related factors among climacteric women from south Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lorenzi, Dino R S; Saciloto, Bruno; Artico, Graziela R; Fontana, Sabrina K R

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life in climacteric and associated factor among women from Southeast Brazil. A cross-section study of 506 women aged between 45 and 60 years old attended at a university climacteric clinic from South Brazil from June to October 2002. Hysterectomized women, as well as hormonal therapy or hormonal contraceptive users were excluded. The quality of life was evaluated by the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ). Statistical analysis was performed with multiple linear regression analysis. The average of the age among the studied women was 51.3 (+/- 4.5) years old. About 15.4% were premenopausal, 34.4% perimenopausal and 50.2% postmenopausal women. The quality of life showed up deteriorated among the studied women. The factors related with quality of life were: the educational level (p < 0.01), the confirmation of smoking in the last year (p < 0.01), regular physical activity (p < 0.01), the confirmation of previous co-morbidities (p < 0.01) and the menopausal status (p < 0.01). A higher educational level, as well as the confirmation of regular physical activity led to a significant increase on their life quality. Smoking and previous clinical co-morbidities were responsible for the lower scores of quality of life. The pre-menopause was associated with a higher life quality level if compared to peri and post menopause. No differences in relation to the scores of life were identified among the perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Nevertheless the menopausal status showed up associated to the quality of life, the results of the study pointed out that the climacteric is not just influenced by biological factors, but also by psychosocial and cultural factors.

  14. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  15. Longitudinal Changes in Sexual Functioning as Women Transition Through Menopause: Results from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avis, Nancy E.; Brockwell, Sarah; Randolph, John F.; Shen, Shunhua; Cain, Virginia S.; Ory, Marcia; Greendale, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Sexual functioning is an important component of women’s lives. The extent to which the menopause transition is associated with decreased sexual functioning remains inconclusive. This study seeks to determine if advancing through the menopause transition is associated with changes in sexual functioning. Design A prospective, longitudinal cohort study of women aged 42–52 at baseline recruited at 7 US sites (N=3302) in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Cohort eligible women had an intact uterus, at least one ovary, were not currently using exogenous hormones, were either pre- or early perimenopausal, and self-identified as one of the study’s designated racial/ethnic groups. Data from the baseline interview and six annual follow-up visits are reported. Outcomes are self-reported ratings of importance of sex; frequency of sexual desire, arousal, masturbation, sexual intercourse, and pain during intercourse; degree of emotional satisfaction and physical pleasure. Results Adjusting for baseline age, chronological aging, and relevant social, health, and psychological parameters, the odds of reporting vaginal or pelvic pain increased and desire decreased by late perimenopause. Masturbation increased at early perimenopause, but declined during postmenopause. Menopausal transition was unrelated to other outcomes. Health, psychological functioning, and importance of sex were related to all sexual function outcomes. Age, race/ethnicity, marital status, change in relationship, and vaginal dryness were also associated with sexual functioning. Conclusions Pain during sexual intercourse increases and sexual desire decreases over the menopausal transition. Masturbation increases during the early transition, but then declines in postmenopause. Adjusting for other factors, the menopausal transition was not independently associated with reports of the importance of sex, sexual arousal, frequency of sexual intercourse, emotional satisfaction with

  16. Cadmium, follicle-stimulating hormone, and effects on bone in women age 42-60 years, NHANES III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Carolyn M., E-mail: 2crgallagher@optonline.net [PhD Program in Population Health and Clinical Outcomes Research, Stony Brook University, Health Sciences Center L3-R071, Stony Brook, New York 11794-8338 (United States); Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States); Moonga, Baljit S. [Stony Brook University School of Dental Medicine, New York (United States); Kovach, John S. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook, New York (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Increased body burden of environmental cadmium has been associated with greater risk of decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and older women, and an inverse relationship has been reported between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and BMD in middle-aged women; however, the relationships between cadmium and FSH are uncertain, and the associations of each with bone loss have not been analyzed in a single population. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations between creatinine-adjusted urinary cadmium (UCd) and FSH levels, and the associations between UCd and FSH with BMD and osteoporosis, in postmenopausal and perimenopausal women aged 42-60 years. Methods: Data were obtained from the Third National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey, 1988-1994 (NHANES III). Outcomes evaluated were serum FSH levels, femoral bone mineral density measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and osteoporosis indicated by femoral BMD cutoffs based on the international standard. Urinary cadmium levels were analyzed for association with these outcomes, and FSH levels analyzed for association with bone effects, using multiple regression. Subset analysis was conducted by a dichotomous measure of body mass index (BMI) to proxy higher and lower adipose-synthesized estrogen effects. Results: UCd was associated with increased serum FSH in perimenopausal women with high BMI (n=642; {beta}=0.45; p{<=}0.05; R{sup 2}=0.35) and low BMI (n=408; {beta}=0.61; p{<=}0.01; R{sup 2}=0.34). Among perimenopausal women with high BMI, BMD was inversely related to UCd ({beta}=-0.04; p{<=}0.05) and FSH ({beta}=-0.03; p{<=}0.05). In postmenopausal women with low BMI, an incremental increase in FSH was associated with 2.78 greater odds for osteoporosis (109 with and 706 without) (OR=2.78; 95% CI=1.43, 5.42; p{<=}0.01). Conclusion: Long-term cadmium exposure at environmental levels is associated with increased serum FSH, and both FSH

  17. Abnormal uterine bleeding in perimenopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, S R; Lumsden, M A

    2017-10-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is one of the commonest presenting complaints encountered in a gynecologist's office or primary-care setting. The wider availability of diagnostic tools has allowed prompt diagnosis and treatment of an increasing number of menstrual disorders in an office setting. This White Paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of transvaginal ultrasound, blind endometrial sampling and diagnostic hysteroscopy. Once a proper diagnosis has been established, appropriate therapy may be embarked upon. Fortunately, only a minority of such patients will have premalignant or malignant disease. When bleeding is sufficient to cause severe anemia or even hypovolemia, prompt intervention is called for. In most of the cases, however, the abnormal uterine bleeding will be disquieting to the patient and significantly affect her 'quality of life'. Sometimes, reassurance and expectant management will be sufficient in such patients. Overall, however, in cases of benign disease, some intervention will be required. The use of oral contraceptive pills especially those with a short hormone-free interval, the insertion of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system, the incorporation of newer medical therapies including antifibrinolytic drugs and selective progesterone receptor modulators and minimally invasive treatments have made outpatient therapy increasingly effective. For others, operative hysteroscopy and endometrial ablation are proven therapeutic tools to provide both long- and short-term relief of abnormal uterine bleeding, thus avoiding, or deferring, hysterectomy.

  18. Factors related to declining luteal function in women during the menopausal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, N; Crawford, S L; Lasley, W L; Luborsky, J L; Matthews, K A; McConnell, D; Randolph, J F; Gold, E B; Greendale, G A; Korenman, S G; Powell, L; Sowers, M F; Weiss, G

    2008-05-01

    Reproductive hormones are incompletely characterized during the menopause transition (MT). Increased anovulation and decreased progesterone accompany progress through the MT. The Daily Hormone Study (DHS) of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) included 848 women aged 43-53 yr at baseline who collected daily urine for one cycle or up to 50 d annually for 3 yr. LH, FSH, estrone conjugates, and pregnanediol glucuronide levels were assessed. Cycles were classified by presumed luteal (ovulatory) status and bleeding. Hormones were related to time in study, age, menopausal status, and selected variables. Ovulatory-appearing cycles declined from 80.9% at baseline to 64.7% by the third assessment (H3). Cycles presumed anovulatory and not ending with bleeding by 50 d (anovulatory/nonbleeding) increased from 8.4 to 24% by H3 and were associated with progress to early perimenopause [odds ratio (OR) = 2.66; confidence interval (CI) = 1.17-6.04] or late perimenopause (OR = 56.21; CI = 18.79-168.12; P school education (OR = 3.51; CI = 1.62-7.62). Anovulatory cycles ending with bleeding remained at about 10% from baseline to H3; compared with ovulatory cycles, they were associated with obesity (OR = 4.68; CI = 1.33-16.52) and more than high school education (OR = 2.12; CI = 1.22-3.69; P = 0.02). Serum estradiol in both the highest and lowest categories was associated with anovulatory/nonbleeding collections. Pregnanediol glucuronide decreased 6.6% for each year on study. Insulin sensitivity measures did not relate strongly to menstrual cycle hormones. Anovulation without bleeding represents progression of the MT. A small but detectable decrease in luteal progesterone excretion occurs as women progress through the MT.

  19. Sleepiness and health in midlife women: results of the National Sleep Foundation's 2007 Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasens, Eileen R; Twerski, Sarah R; Yang, Kyeongra; Umlauf, Mary Grace

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Sleep in America poll, a random-sample telephone survey, provided data for this study of sleep in community-dwelling women aged 40 to 60 years. The majority of the respondents were post- or perimenopausal, overweight, married or living with someone, and reported good health. A subsample (20%) reported sleepiness that consistently interfered with daily life; the sleepy subsample reported more symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, depression and anxiety, as well as more problems with health-promoting behaviors, drowsy driving, job performance, household duties, and personal relationships. Hierarchical regression showed that sleepiness along with depressive symptoms, medical comorbidities, obesity, and lower education were associated with poor self-rated health, whereas menopause status (pre-, peri- or post-) was not. These results suggest that sleep disruptions and daytime sleepiness negatively affect the daily life of midlife women.

  20. Attitudes of pregnant women towards personally controlled electronic, hospital-held, and patient-held medical record systems: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlivan, Julie A; Lyons, Sarah; Petersen, Rodney W

    2014-09-01

    On July 1, 2012 the Australian Government launched the personally controlled electronic health record (PCEHR). This article surveys obstetric patients about their medical record preferences and identifies barriers to adoption of the PCEHR. A survey study was conducted of antenatal patients attending a large Australian metropolitan hospital. Consecutive patients completed questionnaires during the launch phase of the PCEHR system. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on demographics, computer access and familiarity, preference for medical record system, and perceived benefits and concerns. Of 528 women eligible to participate, 474 completed the survey (89.8%). Respondents had high levels of home access to a computer (90.5%) and the Internet (87.1%) and were familiar with using computers in daily life (median Likert scale of 9 out of 10). Despite this, respondents preferred hospital-held paper records, and only one-third preferred a PCEHR; the remainder preferred patient-held records. Compared with hospital-held paper records, respondents felt a PCEHR would reduce the risk of lost records (padvantages and disadvantages with the PCEHR, although the majority still prefer existing record systems. To increase uptake, confidentiality, privacy, and control concerns need to be addressed.

  1. Sexual activity and perceived health among Finnish middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helenius Hans

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing awareness of the need to address sexual and orgasm experiences as part of life quality and an understanding of the great individual differences between women play roles in women's health and medical care across the specialities. Information is lacking as to how negative attitude toward self (NATS and performance impairment (PI are associated with sexual activity of middle-aged women. We examined the associations of sexual experience, orgasm experience, and lack of sexual desire with perceived health and potential explanatory variables of NATS and PI. Methods Questionnaire was mailed to 2 population-based random samples of menopausal or soon-to-be menopausal women (n = 5510, 70% response stratified according to age (42–46 and 52–56 years. In multivariate analyses of the associations with the outcome variables, perceived health, NATS, and PI were used as covariates in 6 models in which exercise, menstrual symptoms, and illness indicators were taken into account as well. Results Sexual activity variables were associated with perceived health. When present, NATS formed associations with sexual and orgasm experiences, whereas strenuous exercise formed associations with orgasm among 42–46-year-old women alone. Strenuous exercise was not associated with orgasm experience among older women. Conclusion NATS and PI are closely tied to orgasm experiences and the meaning of the roles needs to be exposed. Sexual activity deserves to be addressed more actively in patient contact at least with perimenopausal women.

  2. Comparison and evaluation of dietary quality between older and younger Mexican-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignotti, Giselle A P; Vega-López, Sonia; Keller, Colleen; Belyea, Michael; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Coonrod, Dean; Permana, Paska

    2015-10-01

    To compare and evaluate the dietary quality of young and older sedentary Mexican-American women. Understanding key dietary concerns, while considering developmental transition periods and cultural relevance, can provide insight for developing appropriate nutrition interventions. Cross-sectional dietary data were collected using unannounced 24 h diet recalls to assess nutrient intake adequacy (Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method) and dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010). Mujeres en Acción and Madres para la Salud, two community-based physical activity interventions. Participants were 139 young (28 (sd 6) years) and 124 older (55 (sd 7) years) overweight/obese sedentary Mexican-American women (BMI=25·0-35·0 kg/m2) of low socio-economic status. Older women consumed less Ca, Fe, folate, empty calories and energy from carbohydrate, but more fruit, vegetables, greens and beans, and fibre than younger women (all P<0·05). Over 60 % of all participants had an intake below recommendations for fibre, Ca, vitamin E, vitamin C and folate. Both groups had low total HEI-2010 scores (62 for older and 63 for younger women; NS), with 57 % of older and 48 % of younger women classified as having a poor diet. Despite differences in nutrient requirements according to developmental transition periods (childbearing v. perimenopausal), overall, older and younger Mexican-American women generally had low-quality diets and may benefit from dietary quality improvement.

  3. Bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, F.; Ahmad, M.; Hasan, S.; Khurshid, R.

    2011-01-01

    Diminished bone strength increases the frequency of osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Weight and gonadal status are important determinants of bone mass in women. This study tried to find out the bone strength and its determinants in peri- and postmenopausal age groups of women. Methods: One hundred and twenty females with age range 25 - 66 years were included in the study. According to their age and menstrual status they were divided into premenopausal (30) peri menopausal (50) and postmenopausal (40). Body Mass Index (MBI) and bone related blood parameter, serum calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and estradiol were estimated. Bone mineral density was taken by peripheral densitometer. Results: Blood chemical parameters were not significantly different in these groups. The p-value of serum estradiol was highly significant in peri- and postmenopausal groups. BMI was significantly high in postmenopausal as compared to pre and perimenopausal groups. Conclusion: Early menopause, low levels of oestrogen and BMI values can all affect the health of bones in elderly women. (author)

  4. Assessment of menopausal symptoms using modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS among middle age women in Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Syed

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Menopausal symptoms can be assessed by several tools, and can be influenced by various socio-demographic factors. Objectives To determine the commonly reported menopausal symptoms among Sarawakian women using a modified Menopause Rating Scale (MRS. Methods By using modified MRS questionnaire, 356 Sarawakian women aged 40-65 years were interview to document of 11 symptoms (divided into somatic, psychological and urogenital domain commonly associated with menopause. Results The mean age of menopause was 51.3 years (range 47 - 56 years. The most prevalent symptoms reported were joint and muscular discomfort (80.1%; physical and mental exhaustion (67.1%; and sleeping problems (52.2%. Followed by symptoms of hot flushes and sweating (41.6%; irritability (37.9%; dryness of vagina (37.9%; anxiety (36.5%; depressive mood (32.6%. Other complaints noted were sexual problem (30.9%; bladder problem (13.8% and heart discomfort (18.3%. Perimenopausal women (n = 141 experienced higher prevalence of somatic and psychological symptoms compared to premenopausal (n = 82 and postmenopausal (n = 133 women. However urogenital symptoms mostly occur in the postmenopausal group of women. Conclusions The prevalence of menopausal symptoms using modified MRS in this study correspond to other studies on Asian women however the prevalence of classical menopausal symptoms of hot flushes, sweating was lower compared to studies on Caucasian women.

  5. Attitudes of women after the age of 50 towards preventive screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórzyńska, Hanna; Krawczyk-Suszek, Marlena; Kulik, Teresa B; Pacian, Anna; Stefanowicz, Agata; Skowronek, Anna

    2017-12-23

    Prevention is one of the major branches of the health sector. The National Health Programme encompasses main risk factors, elimination of which may lead to a reduced incidence of illnesses in the society. At the same time, the criteria of selecting people eligible for preventive screening are established according to risk groups determined by sex, as well as age in the population of women. The perimenopausal and menopausal period contributes to occurrence of numerous systemic diseases and to an increased risk of illnesses, especially cancers. The objective of the research was to evaluate the performance of preventive screening tests of women after 50 aimed at early detection of cervical and breast cancer. Furthermore, the research estimated frequency of pathological lesions detected and regularity of their monitoring. The research covered 150 women after 50 years of age. The database was statistically examined with STATISTICA software. A low percentage of the respondents, in comparison to the risk increasing with age, had a Pap test (61.3%) and mammography (51.3%) in the last two years. In the case of women whose latest Pap test or mammography showed abnormalities and was the basis for diagnosing pathological lesions, 69.2% of them were under regular medical supervision if abnormalities were identified by a Pap test and 68.7% if lesions were detected in breast structure. In the examined group we observed a small percentage of women undergo Pap tests and mammography. Furthermore, medical recommendations regarding early detection of cancers are frequently ignored and disregarded by patients.

  6. Peripheral QCT: a low risk procedure to identify women predisposed to osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Rueegsegger, E.; Rueegsegger, P.

    1989-01-01

    A low-risk procedure is described for the precise quantitation of changes of trabecular and cortical bone density at peripheral measuring sites. The method is based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Bone parameters are calculated for a sample volume common to all examinations of a patient. This is achieved by matching stacks of tomograms according to the cross sectional area of the bone measured. With the help of a special-purpose CT system the described procedure enables a reproducibility for trabecular and cortical bone parameters of 0.3% (1 SD) at a local radiation dose of of 0.1 mSv (10 mrem). The method was used to assess the individual changes in bone density of 39 perimenopausal women during an observation period of 2 to 3 years. The results are grouped according to their menstrual state. Regularly menstruating women experience minute or no changes in bone density. After menopause the interindividual differences are considerable: some women lose bone excessively, others remain relatively stable. The frequency distribution of the rate of bone loss appears to be bimodal. Hence women can be classified in fast losers and slow losers. We conclude that the rate of bone loss may be most helpful in the identification of those women predisposed to osteoporosis. (author)

  7. Risk factors for high blood pressure in women attending menopause clinics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-10

    We analysed risk factors for high blood pressure (BP) among women around menopause. Eligible women were consecutively attending first-level outpatient menopause clinics in Italy for general counseling or treatment of menopausal symptoms. During the visit BP was measured three times. The mean of second and third of the three diastolic BP values for women was >90mm of mercury and/or reporting any current pharmacological treatment for high BP were considered hypertensive. Out of 45,204 women who entered the study with information on blood pressure, 12,150 had high BP. The odds ratios (OR) of high BP increased with age: in comparison with women aged or =58, respectively. Women with high BP were less educated than those without (OR education >12 versus 26. In comparison with women reporting no regular physical activity, the multivariate OR of high BP was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.87-0.99) for women reporting regular activity. In comparison with peri-menopausal women, post-menopausal women were at increased risk (OR 1.14, 95% CI, 1.03-1.24) and the risk tended to increase with age at menopause. Current use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) was associated with a lower risk of high BP (OR 0.88, 95% CI, 0.84-0.94). This large cross-sectional study suggests that, after taking into account the effect of age, post-menopausal women are at greater risk of high BP, but current HRT use slightly lowers the risk. Other determinants of high BP were low level of education, overweight, and low level of physical activity.

  8. Effects of estradiol and venlafaxine on insomnia symptoms and sleep quality in women with hot flashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensrud, Kristine E; Guthrie, Katherine A; Hohensee, Chancellor; Caan, Bette; Carpenter, Janet S; Freeman, Ellen W; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Landis, Carol A; Manson, JoAnn; Newton, Katherine M; Otte, Julie; Reed, Susan D; Shifren, Jan L; Sternfeld, Barbara; Woods, Nancy F; Joffe, Hadine

    2015-01-01

    Determine effects of low-dose estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine on self-reported sleep measures in menopausal women with hot flashes. 3-arm double-blind randomized trial. Participants assigned in a 2:2:3 ratio to 17β estradiol 0.5 mg/day (n = 97), venlafaxine XR 75 mg/day (n = 96), or placebo (n = 146) for 8 weeks. Academic research centers. 339 community-dwelling perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with ≥2 bothersome hot flashes per day. Insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]) and sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) at baseline, week 4 and 8; 325 women (96%) provided ISI data and 312 women (92%) provided PSQI data at baseline and follow-up. At baseline, mean (SD) hot flash frequency was 8.1/day (5.3), mean ISI was 11.1 (6.0), and mean PSQI was 7.5 (3.4). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in ISI at week 8 was -4.1 points (-5.3 to -3.0) with estradiol, -5.0 points (-6.1 to -3.9) with venlafaxine, and -3.0 points (-3.8 to -2.3) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.09 for estradiol and 0.007 for venlafaxine). Mean (95% CI) change from baseline in PSQI at week 8 was -2.2 points (-2.8 to -1.6) with estradiol, -2.3 points (-2.9 to -1.6) with venlafaxine, and -1.2 points (-1.7 to -0.8) with placebo (P overall treatment effect vs. placebo 0.04 for estradiol and 0.06 for venlafaxine). Among perimenopausal and postmenopausal women with hot flashes, both low dose oral estradiol and low-dose venlafaxine compared with placebo modestly reduced insomnia symptoms and improved subjective sleep quality. NCT01418209 at www.clinicaltrials.gov. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Menopause is associated with articular cartilage degeneration: a clinical study of knee joint in 860 women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Chao; Xiang, Guangheng; Weng, Qiaoyou; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Deheng; Wang, Qingqing; Zhang, Di; Zhou, Bin; He, Dengwei; Chen, Hongliang

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between menopause and severity of knee joint cartilage degeneration using a magnetic resonance imaging-based six-level grading system, with six cartilage surfaces, the medial and lateral femoral condyle, the femoral trochlea, the medial and lateral tibia plateau, and the patella. The study cohort comprised 860 healthy women (age 36-83 y), and 5,160 cartilage surfaces were analyzed. Age, weight, height, age at natural menopause, and years since menopause (YSM) were obtained. Cartilage degeneration was assessed using a magnetic resonance imaging-based six-level grading system. After removing the age, height, and weight effects, postmenopausal women had more severe cartilage degeneration than pre- and perimenopausal women (P  0.05). No significant difference was observed in lateral tibia plateau and lateral femoral condyle in postmenopausal women. Menopause is associated with cartilage degeneration of knee joint. After menopause, cartilage showed progressive severe degeneration that occurred in the first 25 YSM, suggesting estrogen deficiency might be a risk factor of cartilage degeneration of the knee joint. Further studies are needed to investigate whether age or menopause plays a more important role in the progression of cartilage degeneration in the knee joint.

  10. Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women have unique health issues. And some of the health issues that affect both men and women can affect women differently. Unique issues ... and men also have many of the same health problems. But these problems can affect women differently. ...

  11. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  12. Longitudinal study of weight, energy intake and physical activity change across two decades in older Scottish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiffany C; Gryka, Anna A; Aucott, Lorna S; Duthie, Garry G; Macdonald, Helen M

    2017-05-01

    The perimenopausal and postmenopausal periods are times of pronounced physiological change in body mass index (BMI), physical activity and energy intake. Understanding these changes in middle age could contribute to formation of potential public health targets. A longitudinal cohort of 5119 perimenopausal women from the Aberdeen Prospective Osteoporosis Screening Study (APOSS) recruited between 1990 and 1994, with follow-up visits at 1997-1999 and 2009-2011. At each visit, participants were weighed, measured and completed socioeconomic and demographic questionnaires. Participants at the first visit were asked to recall body weights at 20, 30 and 40 years of age. We assessed trends in BMI, physical activity and energy intake across and within visits. Over 2 decades, obesity prevalence doubled from 14% to 28% of the participants, with 69% of participants being categorised as overweight or obese. Greater than 70% of participants gained >5% of their baseline BMI with weight gain occurring across all weight categories. Energy intake and physical activity levels (PALs) did not change during the 2 decades after menopause (p trend=0.06 and 0.11, respectively), but, within the second visit, energy intake increased concomitantly with a decrease in physical activity across increasing quartiles of BMI (p trend <0.001 for all). Overweight and obesity increased by over 50% over the course of 20 years. Weight gain occurred across the adult life course regardless of starting weight. The marked increase in dietary intake and decrease in PALs in middle age suggest a potential critical period for intervention to curb excess weight gain. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Stress at the place of work and cognitive functions among women performing intellectual work during peri- and post-menopausal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Juńczyk, Tomasz; Pawełczak-Barszczowska, Adrianna; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-10-06

    The analysis of the relationship between stress at work and results of cognitive functions amongst women, at peri- and post-menopausal age, performing intellectual work. The study group included women, aged 45-66 years old, employed as intellectual workers. Research instruments were: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; computer tests of the CNS Vital Signs; the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, and a questionnaire designed by the author. The results were statistically analyzed. Nearly a half of respondents experienced high stress at the place of work; 1/3 - on the average level, on a low level - every fifth. The largest number of respondents experienced stress caused by social contacts. Among a half of the women, stress was caused by the lack of awards at work, followed by the lack of support. Slightly fewer of them experienced stress caused by the feeling of psychological load related to the complexity of work or the feeling of uncertainty caused by the organization of work. Every third woman experienced stress due to the sense of responsibility or the lack of control. The smallest number experienced stress caused by physical arduousness, the sense of threat and unpleasant working conditions. The examined women obtained the best results with respect to simple attention, the worst results - with respect to the reaction time. The results concerning the remaining 9 cognitive functions were ranked in the middle of the aforementioned results. The intensity of stress at work and factors which caused this stress, negatively correlated with simple attention of women in the early peri-menopausal period, while positively correlating with the psychomotor and processing speed of women in the late peri-menopausal period. Among the post-menopausal women, negative correlations were observed between the majority of cognitive functions and the intensity of stress at work, and the majority of factors which caused this stress. Cognitive functions of the examined women

  14. Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Sham, Aprille

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between menopause status and attitude toward menopause, and also its relationship with quality of life (QoL) of Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40 to 59 years were recruited through computer-generated random telephone dialing. Information was obtained through telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Women were classified into 3 groups: premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Menopause Belief Scale and Utian Quality of Life Scale (QoL) were used to measure respondents' attitude toward menopause and their QoL. Information on social, health, and lifestyle factors was also collected. The mean age of the participants was 49.4 ± 5.2 years. Respondents generally had a positive attitude toward menopause. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were noted to have significantly higher attitude score toward menopause. No significant differences in QoL score were noted among women of the 3 menopause statuses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that women with more positive attitude toward menopause tended to have higher QoL score. Furthermore, better self-reported health status, doing physical activities, higher education level, being married, and non-smoking status were associated with better QoL. Postmenopausal women tended to have more positive attitude toward menopause. Although menopause status did not seem to be associated with QoL, attitude toward menopause, self-reported health status, as well as social and lifestyle factors were associated with QoL in Chinese midlife women.

  15. Women Fellows of INAE | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Women Fellows of INAE. INAE - Indian National Academy of Engineering. Ms. Alpa Sheth Civil Engineering. Prof. Bharathi Bhat Electronics & Communication Engineering. Prof. Dipanwita Roy Chowdhury Computer Engineering and Information Technology. Prof. Kamala Krithivasan Computer Engineering and Information ...

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards menopause among highly educated Asian women in their midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, Fouzia R; Jonker, Leon; Qazi, Roshan A

    2014-12-01

    To determine knowledge levels, and attitudes and perceptions towards, menopause among highly educated Asian women in their midlife. A cross-sectional survey. Five teaching institutions in Hyderabad, Pakistan. In total, 200 out of 225 (89% response rate) teachers, lecturers and professors, aged 40-59 years, were surveyed in 2013 using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age of responders was 48 years. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women attributed for 58%, whereas 42% were postmenopausal. All women had a masters degree; 15% had a PhD degree. Forty-six percent of responders thought they had sufficient knowledge about the menopause and 87% had positive perceptions about it, with 76% feeling life was easier and calmer as a result of it. Reported negative perceptions included 30% of women experiencing feelings of grumpiness, irritability, altered work capability and loss of femininity. Health professionals were an information resource. of 60% of cases, only 5% of participants knew about hormone replacement therapy and none knew about available alternative therapies. Despite the fact that the majority of women felt well informed and exhibited a positive attitude towards menopause, a strong urge for more knowledge was expressed. Public health care systems should mobilize resources and take measures to improve women's awareness and knowledge about menopause-related changes through a variety of educational tools and media, including the Internet. A recommendation would be for physicians to provide more information about menopausal symptoms and also therapies to alleviate these symptoms, regardless of the patient's socioeconomic background. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. [Life satisfaction and self-esteem among women in the menopausal time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaczek, Zbigniew; Saracen, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The period of menopause is usually a long-lasting, running process, with strong hormone changes which are manifested with somatic disorders and the lability of the emotional state. The degree of severity of the occurence of these symptoms can be variously bolstered. These changes can affect the quality of life and ones self-esteem. To assess the level of self-esteem of biopsychosocial functioning women in the menopausal time and the impact of menopause on women's quality of life. A group of 90 women in perimenopausal aged 49-61 were enrolled in the study. Standardized psychological questionnaires (Kupperman Index, SES Rosenberg and WHOQoL-BREF) were used. Additional data was collected by using a questionnaire developed by the authors. In statistical analysis χ2, analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation models were used. A significant correlation relationship between level of education and the sphere of psychological evaluation (p life in the social (p 25 indicating the correct (in the normal or higher range) self-esteem. In the studied group, women believe that they have the correct (in the normal or higher range) self-esteem. The surveyed women found as good their quality of life, the highest rated was social and psychological sphere, the lowest score received sphere of physical functioning (somatic). A statistically significant correlations were achieved between home and professional activity, and the assessment of the quality of life in the social and environmental sphere. The analysis showed a significant association correlation between level of education of women and the sphere of psychological evaluation.

  18. Menopausal women requesting egg/embryo donation: examining health screening guidelines for assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Taleen; Bachmann, Gloria; Ayers, Charletta

    2016-07-01

    As more postreproductive women opt to pursue pregnancy with advanced assisted reproductive technologies (ART), the menopausal practitioner will become more involved in counseling, screening, and referral of premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women for these services. This review was conducted with the aim of (1) evaluating ART screening practices as they pertain to postreproductive women, and (2) reviewing the outcomes of ART using oocyte donation in postreproductive women. A total of 950 unique records were found on PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google Scholar. Of these, 252 records were screened for relevance based on their titles and abstracts. With further review of these 252 records, 93 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility, and 63 were excluded based on relevance to our study. Finally, 30 studies were included in our qualitative synthesis. Despite the increasing use of ART in postreproductive women, there are limited guidelines for determining candidacy with regard to maternal health, the most comprehensive of which are the guidelines from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). Although the American Society for Reproductive Medicine guidelines state that healthy women over 50 who are prepared for parenthood are candidates for ART through oocyte donation, they note that older women should be counseled as to the increased obstetric risk associated with advanced maternal age. With aging, particularly for those women who are menopausal and postmenopausal, the woman and her fetus, however, are at risk of increased morbidity and mortality as compared with younger, healthy pregnant women. Because national trends suggest that women are delaying childbearing, the cohort of postreproductive women looking toward ART using donor oocytes as a fertility option will expand and menopausal practitioners will often participate in the ART counseling of these women. Because maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality increase in

  19. Transdermal hormone therapy in postmenopausal women: A review of metabolic effects and drug delivery technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan W Kopper

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nathan W Kopper, Jennifer Gudeman, Daniel J ThompsonKV Pharmaceutical, St. Louis, MO, USAAbstract: Vasomotor symptoms (VMS associated with menopause can cause significant discomfort and decrease the quality of life for women in the peri-menopausal and post-menopausal stages of life. Hormone therapy (HT is the mainstay of treatment for menopausal symptoms and is currently the only therapy proven effective for VMS. Numerous HT options are available to treat VMS, including estrogen-only and estrogen-progestogen combination products to meet the needs of both hysterectomized and nonhysterectomized women. In addition to selecting an appropriate estrogen or estrogen-progestogen combination, consideration should be given to the route of administration to best suit the needs of the patient. Delivery systems for hormone therapy include oral tablets, transdermal patches, transdermal topical (nonpatch products, and intravaginal preparations. Oral is currently the most commonly utilized route of administration in the United States. However, evidence suggests that oral delivery may lead to some undesirable physiologic effects caused by significant gut and hepatic metabolism. Transdermal drug delivery may mitigate some of these effects by avoiding gut and hepatic first-pass metabolism. Advantages of transdermal delivery include the ability to administer unmetabolized estradiol directly to the blood stream, administration of lower doses compared to oral products, and minimal stimulation of hepatic protein production. Several estradiol transdermal delivery technologies are available, including various types of patches, topical gels, and a transdermal spray.Keywords: estradiol, hormone therapy, menopause, transdermal drug delivery, vasomotor symptoms

  20. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  1. Caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues for women with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited attention has been paid to the issue of reproductive health as it affects women with intellectual disabilities, despite reproductive health being a vital issue in public health policy for women in the general population. This paper describes caregiver awareness of reproductive health issues relative to women with intellectual disabilities who are being cared for in welfare institutions in Taiwan. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study which recruited 1,152 caregivers (response rate = 71.87% from 32 registered disability welfare institutions in Taiwan. We classified their understanding/awareness of reproductive health issues into four domains: menstrual (1 and menopause (2 issues, sex education (3, and reproductive health services (4. Each domain had five associated yes/no questions and the total score for the four domains was out of a maximum of 20. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 software. Results We found that most of the caregivers were familiar with matters concerning sex education, menopause, and reproductive health services, but they lacked adequate understanding of issues associated with menstruation in women with ID. Many aspects of reproductive health such as "menstrual pain", "age at menarche", "masturbation", "diet during perimenopause", and "publicly available reproductive health services" were issues in which caregivers lacked adequate knowledge and required further instruction. Logistic regression analysis revealed that female caregivers with a university degree, and those who had experience assisting with reproductive health care were more inclined to have higher reproductive health awareness scores than their counterparts. Conclusions This study highlights that service providers should offer appropriate reproductive health education to institutional caregivers, and that more attention be focused on the personal experiences and concerns of intellectually disabled

  2. Attitudes toward menopause in HIV-infected and at-risk women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Hartel

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Diana Hartel1, Yungtai Lo1, Carolyn Bauer2, Nancy Budner1, Andrea A Howard1, Michelle Floris-Moore1, Julia H Arnsten1,2, Nanette Santoro3, Ellie E Schoenbaum1,2,31Departments of Epidemiology and Population Health, 2Medicine, and 3Obstetrics and Gynecology and Women’s Health, Montefiore Medical Center and Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAObjective: To study attitudes toward menopause in women with or at risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV aged 35 to 60 in New York City, NY, USA.Design: Data were obtained at the baseline interview in a cohort study of menopause. Of 502 participating women, 92 were postmenopausal and 162 were perimenopausal.Results: Overall, 37.5% of women had a relatively favorable attitude toward menopause. African Americans had a 72% greater odds of a positive attitude (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.16–2.57 than all other groups after adjusting for covariates. Hispanic women had the least favorable view of menopause. Experience of >3 menopausal symptoms and negative life events—being a witness to a murder, and the death of a child—were significantly associated with negative attitudes towards menopause (OR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.42–0.93 and OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.43–0.93, respectively. Depressive symptoms, street drug use, and having a domestic partner, which is significant in single variable analyses, did not remain independent predictors in multivariate results. HIV status, menopause status, and age at interview were not associated with menopause attitudes.Conclusions: HIV-infected, drug-using, low-income women showed generally unfavorable attitudes towards menopause. High stress life events coupled with a high prevalence of depressive symptoms indicate this population has special needs marked by the menopause transition into older age.Keywords: menopause, attitudes, HIV, street drug users

  3. Assessment of Menopausal Symptoms During Perimenopause and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sweating; sleep disturbances; joint pains; and urogenital symptoms such as ... Sciences (SPSS) software version 17.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago,. IL, USA). Results are .... Council National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD) identified that ...

  4. PERIMENOPAUSAL WRIST FRACTURE - AN OPPORTUNITY FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of Medscheme's administrative databases to study ... management of a wrist fracture between 1995 and 1998, and ... reviewed dual-energy ... from three general practices in the UK. ... and Torgerson6 estimated the total cost of treating osteoporotic .... us adults from fHANES Ill. / Bone Miner Res 1997; U, 1761-1768.

  5. Quality of life among menopausal women: A community-based study in a rural area of West Bengal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Nabarun; Majumdar, Somak; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Das, Sulagna

    2017-01-01

    During menopausal transition, there is a lot of fluctuation in the hormone levels making the peri and postmenopausal women susceptible to various mental and physical disorders. There is considerably lack of awareness about the effects of the menopausal symptoms in women in India. Studies on issues relating to menopause, especially among rural women, are also lacking. With this background, the current study was carried out in a rural area of West Bengal with the objective to assess the quality of life (QOL) of peri-menopausal women. The study was carried out among 100 peri and postmenopausal women (40-60 years) in Dearah village of West Bengal which is the rural field practice area of All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health during February-March 2014. The questionnaire used as study tool had two parts - Part 1: Sociodemographic characteristics. Part 2: About QOL due to menopausal symptoms based on four domains (vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual) using the 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Occurrence of vasomotor symptoms was average with 60% of them reporting hot flushes and 47% sweating. Most prevalent psychosocial symptoms reported were feeling of anxiety and nervousness (94%) and overall depression (88%). Physical symptoms were quite varying in occurrence with some symptoms such as feeling tired or worn out, decrease in physical strength and lack of energy occurring in 93% of the women to only 5% suffering from growth of facial hair. Overall sexual changes were reported among 49% who reported of avoiding intimacy with a partner and 26% complained of vaginal dryness. The results support that menopause causes both physical and psychiatric problems. Education, creating awareness and providing suitable intervention to improve their QOL are important which should be imparted to menopausal women at both individual and community level.

  6. Entorno familiar, laboral, manifestaciones clínicas y enfermedades crónicas en mujeres de edad mediana Family and work environment, clinical manifestations of chronic diseases present in mean-age women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Heredia Hernández

    2009-09-01

    and 59 from La Lisa, Playa, and Marianao municipalities, seen from January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2007. Different variables were studied and responses were considered as favorable or unfavorable by criteria established in survey. RESULTS: there was a predominance of hand and feet cramps in 79,5 % of perimenopausal women, and 82,4 % of postmenopausal ones, as well as the flushs or warmths in 53,8 % of perimenopausal ones, and 76,5 % of the postmenopausal ones. In the latter there was a predominance of psychological symptoms in those with an unfavorable work environment. Family environment influenced significantly in presence of a great number of clinical symptoms in the perimenopausal ones, and in work environment of the postmenopausal ones. There is an increase in appearance of some chronic diseases after menopause: high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis, with the 52,9 %, 29,4 % and 11,8 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: there were clinical manifestations in the perimenopausal ones and in the postmenopausal ones too. Environment had its influence, e.g. for the first ones the family one was significant, and for the latter, the work one.The more frequent chronic diseases in postmenopause were the high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis.

  7. Delivering Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program or the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children: Benefit Use and Impacts on Food Security and Foods Consumed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Anne R; Briefel, Ronette R; Collins, Ann M; Rowe, Gretchen M; Klerman, Jacob A

    2017-03-01

    The Summer Electronic Benefit Transfers for Children (SEBTC) demonstration piloted summer food assistance through electronic benefit transfers (EBTs), providing benefits either through the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) EBT. To inform food assistance policy and describe how demonstrations using WIC and SNAP models differed in benefit take-up and impacts on food security and children's food consumption. Sites chose to deliver SEBTC using the SNAP or WIC EBT system. Within each site, in 2012, households were randomly assigned to a benefit group or a no-benefit control group. Grantees (eight states and two Indian Tribal Organizations) selected school districts serving many low-income children. Schoolchildren were eligible in cases where they had been certified for free or reduced-price meals during the school year. Before the demonstration, households in the demonstration sample had lower incomes and lower food security, on average, than households with eligible children nationally. Grantees provided selected households with benefits worth $60 per child per summer month using SNAP or WIC EBT systems. SNAP-model benefits covered most foods. WIC-model benefits could only be used for a specific package of foods. Key outcomes were children's food security (assessed using the US Department of Agriculture food security scale) and food consumption (assessed using food frequency questions). Differences in mean outcomes between the benefit and control groups measured impact, after adjusting for household characteristics. In WIC sites, benefit-group households redeemed a lower percentage of SEBTC benefits than in SNAP sites. Nonetheless, the benefit groups in both sets of sites had similar large reductions in very low food security among children, relative to no-benefit controls. Children receiving benefits consumed more healthful foods, and these impacts were larger in WIC

  8. Women's series: by women, for women?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuitert, L.; Spiers, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the striking phenomena in the 19th century publishing history is the abundant publication of publisher''s series. This contribution concerns series specifically meant for women. The focus is on Dutch literary series for women, mostly 19th century.

  9. Electronic technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su

    2010-07-01

    This book is composed of five chapters, which introduces electronic technology about understanding of electronic, electronic component, radio, electronic application, communication technology, semiconductor on its basic, free electron and hole, intrinsic semiconductor and semiconductor element, Diode such as PN junction diode, characteristic of junction diode, rectifier circuit and smoothing circuit, transistor on structure of transistor, characteristic of transistor and common emitter circuit, electronic application about electronic equipment, communication technology and education, robot technology and high electronic technology.

  10. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  11. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  12. Women boxers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gems, Gerald; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula

    2014-01-01

    of women as the weak sex. Vaudeville provided women with an opportunity to present physical performances that surpassed the restrictions placed on women within the mainstream middle-class society. This article includes biographical sketches of some of the outstanding female boxers of the era by drawing......This article fills a gap in the very limited literature on women's boxing by examining the gendered space in which women engaged in the sport as participants in saloons, vaudeville theatres and the prize ring. In doing so, they challenged the contemporary gender order and disputed the notion...

  13. Evaluation of depressive symptoms in mid-aged women: report of a multicenter South American study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro; Ojeda, Eliana; Sánchez, Sandra C; Morales-Luna, Ingrid F; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate depressive symptoms and related factors among mid-aged women using the 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10). This was a cross-sectional multicenter study in which women aged 40 to 65 from various South American countries were surveyed with the CESD-10 and a general questionnaire containing personal and partner data. In all, 864 women were interviewed from Colombia (Afro-Colombian, n = 215), Ecuador (Mestizo, n = 202), Perú (Quechua at high altitude, n = 231), and Paraguay (Mestizo, n = 216). Mean age of the whole sample was 49.1 ± 6.0 years. Although the rate of postmenopausal status was similar among studied sites, differences were observed in relation to age, parity, hormone therapy use, hot flush rate, sedentary lifestyle, chronic medical conditions, habits, and partner aspects. Median total CESD-10 score for all sites was 7.0, with a 36.0% (n = 311) having scores equal to 10 or more (suggestive of depressed mood). Higher scores were observed for Afro-Colombian and Quechua women, and also for postmenopausal and perimenopausal ones. Multivariate linear regression analysis found that depressed mood (higher CESD-10 total scores) was significantly associated with ethnicity (Afro-Colombian), hot flush severity, hormone therapy use, sedentary lifestyle, postmenopause, perceived unhealthy status, and lower education. Higher monthly coital frequency and having a healthy partner without premature ejaculation was related to lower scores, hence less depressed mood. In this mid-aged female South American sample, depressive symptoms correlated to menopausal status and related aspects, ethnicity, and personal and partner issues. All these features require further research.

  14. Electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Frank E.; Morris, Christopher

    2005-05-17

    A system capable of performing radiography using a beam of electrons. Diffuser means receive a beam of electrons and diffuse the electrons before they enter first matching quadrupoles where the diffused electrons are focused prior to the diffused electrons entering an object. First imaging quadrupoles receive the focused diffused electrons after the focused diffused electrons have been scattered by the object for focusing the scattered electrons. Collimator means receive the scattered electrons and remove scattered electrons that have scattered to large angles. Second imaging quadrupoles receive the collimated scattered electrons and refocus the collimated scattered electrons and map the focused collimated scattered electrons to transverse locations on an image plane representative of the electrons' positions in the object.

  15. Whole body retention of Tc-99m Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) in monitoring skeletal calcium status in post-menopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Rangarajan, V.; Samuel, A.M.; Joshi, D.P.; Ray, S.; Raste, A.S.; Gadhre

    2003-01-01

    The detection and estimation of skeletal calcium loss has become an important consideration in the management of post-menopausal women. The need to supplement large amounts of calcium of 1000-1500 mg per day is recommended to forestall the risk of skeletal fractures. The added supplementation of estrogens and progesterone for several years is also recommended to prevent bone calcium loss. The need to record the calcium status in post-menopausal women is becoming necessary in the present scenario. A total of 159 women in the peri-menopausal, menopausal and post-menopausal groups were selected. None of them had other systemic diseases. They were healthy and not on any medication. They were randomly grouped into 3 groups. One was considered as control and no medication was advised. The second group was advised 1000-1500 mg of calcium carbonate daily. The third group was given the same dose of calcium, but also received additionally another 2 mg of estradiol daily. Whole Body Retention (WBR) studies of Tc-99m MDP were carried out before starting treatment and at 6 monthly intervals for a period of 5 years. Serum calcium and alkaline phosphatase were estimated on fasting samples at the start of the study and at every 6 monthly intervals. WBR studies were done using a shadow shield whole body counter attached with a 5 inch diameter sodium iodide crystal detector and a 5 mm wide slit collimator. The WBR of Tc-99m MDP at 24 hours was found to be 27.55 ± 6.76% in women in the peri-menopausal age range of 25-45 years. It was also observed that at the time of menopause 13.3% of the women had WBR values above 2 SD of the normal values. This suggests that calcium loss from the skeleton is present only in a small number of women at menopause. However in women who were not supplemented with calcium or subjected to hormonal and calcium treatment, the number of women who showed loss of bone calcium increased within a period of 1-2 years after menopause. This simple method of WBR

  16. Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrons, Electronic Publishing, and Electronic Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Edwin B.; Lynch, Clifford A.

    1985-01-01

    Provides a perspective on electronic publishing by distinguishing between "Newtonian" publishing and "quantum-mechanical" publishing. Highlights include media and publishing, works delivered through electronic media, electronic publishing and the printed word, management of intellectual property, and recent copyright-law issues…

  18. LRP5 coding polymorphisms influence the variation of peak bone mass in a normal population of French-Canadian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroux, Sylvie; Elfassihi, Latifa; Cardinal, Guy; Laflamme, Nathalie; Rousseau, François

    2007-05-01

    Bone mineral density has a strong genetic component but it is also influenced by environmental factors making it a complex trait to study. LRP5 gene was previously shown to be involved in rare diseases affecting bone mass. Mutations associated with gain-of-function were described as well as loss-of-function mutations. Following this discovery, many frequent LRP5 polymorphisms were tested against the variation of BMD in the normal population. Heel bone parameters (SOS, BUA) were measured by right calcaneal QUS in 5021 healthy French-Canadian women and for 2104 women, BMD evaluated by DXA at two sites was available (femoral neck (FN) and lumbar spine (LS)). Among women with QUS measures and those with DXA measures, 26.5% and 32.8% respectively were premenopausal, 9.2% and 10.7% were perimenopausal and 64.2% and 56.5% were postmenopausal. About a third of the peri- and postmenopausal women never received hormone therapy. Two single nucleotide coding polymorphisms (Val667Met and Ala1330Val) in LRP5 gene were genotyped by allele-specific PCR. All bone measures were tested individually for associations with each polymorphism by analysis of covariance with adjustment for non genetic risk factors. Furthermore, haplotype analysis was performed to take into account the strong linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms. The two LRP5 polymorphisms were found to be associated with all five bone measures (L2L4 and femoral neck DXA as well as heel SOS, BUA and stiffness index) in the whole sample. Premenopausal women drove the association as expected from the proposed role of LRP5 in peak bone mass. Our results suggest that the Val667Met polymorphism is the causative variant but this remains to be functionally proven.

  19. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-04-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition.

  20. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  1. Empowering Women

    OpenAIRE

    UNCTAD; World Bank

    2018-01-01

    This note addresses practices for reducing gender inequalities and for empowering women to make a positive contribution to development through agricultural investments. Women make a crucial contribution to the agriculture sector and account for over 40 percent of agricultural labor in developing countries. However, they are frequently marginalized and their contributions under-acknowledged...

  2. Women's studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    On March 31, 1997, the Association for Women Geoscientists will award two Chrysalis Scholarships to women who have returned to school after an interruption in their education for a year or longer. The $750 awards will be given to geoscience master's or Ph.D. candidates to cover expenses in finishing their theses.The application deadline is February 28, 1997.

  3. High androgens in postmenopausal women and the risk for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease: the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meun, Cindy; Franco, Oscar H; Dhana, Klodian; Jaspers, Loes; Muka, Taulant; Louwers, Yvonne; Ikram, M Arfan; Fauser, Bart C J M; Kavousi, Maryam; Laven, Joop S E

    2018-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is closely linked to hyperandrogenism. In PCOS, hyperandrogenism has been associated with metabolic disturbances which increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To assess the association of high serum androgen levels, as a postmenopausal remnant of PCOS, with the prevalence of atherosclerosis and incidence of CVD in postmenopausal women. The Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Median follow up was 11.36 years. General community. 2578 women aged over 55. Exclusion criteria were missing informed consent or follow-up data, perimenopausal status, menopause by surgical intervention or at an unnatural age (age 62). None. Linear, logistic, and cox regression models assessed the association of top quartiles (P75) of serum testosterone, free androgen index (FAI), dehydroepiandrosterone, and androstenedione and SHBG with coronary artery calcium, carotid intima media thickness (IMT), pulse wave velocity, peripheral artery disease and incidence of coronary heart disease, stroke, and CVD. Mean age (standard deviation) was 70.19 (8.71) years and average time since menopause 19.85 (9.94) years. Highest quartile FAI was associated with higher pulse wave velocity [β (95%CI): 0.009 (0.000;0.018)]. Highest quartile dehydroepiandrosterone [β (95%CI): -0.008 (-0.015;-0.001)] and androstenedione [β (95%CI): -0.010 (-0.017;-0.003)] levels were associated with a lower IMT. We found no association between high androgen levels and incident stroke, coronary heart disease, or cardiovascular disease. Postmenopausal high androgen levels were not associated with an increased risk for CVD. Cardiovascular health in women with PCOS might be better than was anticipated. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  4. A Group of 500 Women Whose Health May Depart Notably From the Norm: Protocol for a Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnelle, Christoph; Minford, Eunice J; McHardy, Vanessa; Keep, Jane

    2017-11-23

    Longitudinal studies of women's health often seek to identify predictors of good health. Research has shown that following simple guidelines can halve women's mortality. The ongoing Australian Longitudinal Study of Women's Health (ALSWH) shows that Australian women are getting better at reducing their smoking and alcohol use, and are generally diligent about attending recommended health screenings, but are becoming less successful at dealing with obesity. There are communities of women who live unusually healthy lives (Rosetans, Seventh-Day Adventists, traditional Japanese women), but their lifestyles are unlikely to be adopted widely. Universal Medicine (UM) is a complementary-to-medicine approach that emphasizes personal empowerment and the importance of menstrual health symptoms. This survey investigates whether the approximately 500 women associated with UM exhibit health status significantly above the norm. As part of this investigation, questions for a newly developed menstrual attitudes questionnaire will also be evaluated. A quantitative cross-sectional survey of women in a UM cohort was designed with the help of three focus groups of women at three life stages: in menses, peri-menopausal, and menopausal. The menstrual attitudes portion of the survey incorporates the insights of these women regarding female health issues. The survey also includes 41 questions taken from the ALSWH. Focus groups generated additional questions about symptoms experienced and attitudes toward female health issues. ALSWH questions, including a range of health scales like the Short Form 36 (SF-36), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Perceived Control Scale, Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, and the Multi-Item Summed Score for Perceived Stress, along with questions about experienced major health events, were investigated and incorporated if considered suitable. The validity of the menstrual attitudes questionnaire will be evaluated with Cohen's kappa. ALSWH

  5. Electron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, H.; Mogami, A.

    1975-01-01

    A device for measuring electron densities at a given energy level in an electron beam or the like having strong background noise, for example, in the detection of Auger electric energy spectrums is described. An electron analyzer passes electrons at the given energy level and at the same time electrons of at least one adjacent energy level. Detecting means associated therewith produce signals indicative of the densities of the electrons at each energy level and combine these signals to produce a signal indicative of the density of the electrons of the given energy level absent background noise

  6. Electron/electron acoustic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gary, S.P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron acoustic wave becomes a normal mode of an unmagnetized collisionless plasma in the presence of two electron components with similar densities, but strongly disparate temperatures. The characteristic frequency of this mode is the plasma frequency of the cooler electron component. If these two electron components have a relative drift speed several times the thermal speed of the cooler component, the electron/electron acoustic instability may arise. This paper describes the parametric dependences of the threshold drift speed and maximum growth rate of this instability, and compares these with the same properties of the electron/ion acoustic instability. Under the condition of zero current, the electron/ion acoustic instability typically has the lower threshold drift speed, so that observation of the electron/electron acoustic instability is a strong indication of the presence of an electrical current in the plasma

  7. Women's health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nurse midwives This list may not be all-inclusive. References Freund K. Approach to women's health. In: ... of Gynecology and Obstetrics at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD. Review provided by VeriMed ...

  8. women's entrepreneurship

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-17

    May 17, 2016 ... It describes the economic benefits to women's economic empowerment, .... Public procurement makes up a significant proportion of a ...... vides a comparison of cost effectiveness of programs), Cho and Honorati (2013),.

  9. Leibniz's women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Patricia

    2004-12-01

    Enlightenment natural philosophers were linked to one another in an extended correspondence network, but the female participants in this international Republic of Letters are rarely mentioned. Gottfried Leibniz relied on several such women not only for financial patronage, but also for intellectual stimulation. Although this hardworking and underpaid librarian at the Hanoverian Court is now one of the world's most famous mathematical philosophers, the women on whom he depended for ideas as well as support have been largely forgotten.

  10. Involving women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbo, J

    1994-01-01

    I am a primary health care (PHC) coordinator working with the May Day Rural project, a local NGO involved in integrated approaches and programs with rural communities in the Ga District of the Greater-Accra region in Ghana. When we talk about the community development approach we must first and foremost recognize that we are talking about women, because in the developing world frequent childbirths mean that her burden of mortality is higher than a man's; her workload is extremely heavy--whether in gardening, farming, other household duties, caring for the sick, or the rearing of children; she has a key role in PHC and community development, because men are always looking for greener pastures elsewhere, leaving the women behind. Women's concerns are critical in most health care projects and women and children are their main beneficiaries. Why not include women in the management team, project design, implementation and evaluation processes? That is what the May Day Rural project is practicing, encouraging women's participation and creating a relationship of trust. full text

  11. Electronic emission and electron guns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the process of electron emission from metal surface. Although electrons move freely in conductors like metals, they normally do not leave the metal without some manipulation. In fact, heating and bombardment are the two primary ways in which electrons are emitted through the use of a heating element behind the cathode (termed thermionic emission) or as a result of bombardment with a beam of electrons, ions, or metastable atoms (termed secondary emission). Another important emission mechanism called Explosive Electron Emission (EEE) is also often used in various High Voltage Pulse Power Systems to generate very high current (few hundreds of kA) pulsed electron beams. The electron gun is the device in that it shoots off a continuous (or pulsed) stream of electrons. A brief idea about the evolution of the electron gun components and their basis of functioning are also discussed. (author)

  12. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Diaz Cordero, Marlon Steven

    2017-01-01

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces

  13. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    "[to] promote the understanding and, acceptance of and growth in the number of electronic transactions .... Chapter III of the ECT Act is based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic. Commerce ... Communications Technology Law 146. 22.

  14. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help ...

  15. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  16. Opening Up High Technology Careers to Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Describes a program that aims at increasing the number of women technicians in computer and other electronics industries. Discusses how more women are entering the computer field in Massachusetts, the stigma of technical work, typical assignments, lack of short-term courses, and recent responses to needs. (CT)

  17. Histopathological Findings of Endometrial Samples and its Correlation Between the Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women in Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S; Makaju, R; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, A

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is considered as one of the most common problems among women. The therapy is incomplete without knowing the underlying pathology. To determine the types and frequency of endometrial pathologies in patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding at Dhulikhel Hospital Kathmandu university Hospital. This is retrospective study total 100 cases were included over a period of one year of Abnormal Uterine bleeding. Out of 100 cases of Abnormal uterine bleeding, 61% were due to non-organic cause with a commonest histopathological findings proliferative endometrium. 27% cases were due to organic cause with pregnancy related condition as most common finding. 12% were reported as inadequate. The rate of postmenopausal bleeding declined with increasing age in the postmenopausal period and endometritis was the predominant finding. There is an age specific association of Abnormal uterine bleeding with increased incidence in perimenopausal age group. Postmenopausal bleeding declined with increasing with endometritis the most common finding. Dilation and curettage is helpful to exclude other organic pathology. It is useful for diagnosis and to know pathological incidence of organic lesions in cases of Abnormal uterine bleeding prior to surgery.

  18. Quality of Life in Women with Stage 1 Stress Urinary Incontinence after Application of Conservative Treatment—A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ptak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress urinary incontinence (SUI influences quality of life in female patients. In this study, we used ICIQ LUTS QoL (The International Consultation Incontinence Questionnaire Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms quality of life to determine the quality of life (QoL in various domains in patients with stage 1 SUI. The study included 140 perimenopausal women subjected to urodynamic tests at the Department of Gynaecology, Endocrinology and Gynaecologic Oncology, Pomeranian Medical University, Police (Poland in 2013–2015. The study subjects were divided into two groups, A and B. Each patient completed two questionnaires, an original survey developed by the authors and the validated ICIQ LUTS QoL. Two exercise programs, each lasting for 3 months and consisting of 4 weekly sessions, were recommended to the study subjects. The program for Group A included exercises for pelvic floor muscles (PFM with simultaneous tension of the transverse abdominal muscle (TrA, and the program for Group B, PFM exercises without TrA tension. After completing the exercise programs, patients with stage 1 SUI, both from Group A and from Group B, showed a significant improvement in most QoL domains measured with ICIQ LUTS QoL. However, more beneficial effects of the training were observed in the group subjected to PFM exercises with TrA tension.

  19. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Electronic Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-01-01

    Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks...

  2. Women and the media in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, M H

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of and portrayal of women in the Malaysian media are summarized here in detail. Women's access to training in journalism and education is on average better than that of men. There are 3 communications departments in institutions of higher learning in Malaysia, and all enroll more women than men, probably because of women's better language skills and desire to enter a "glamourous" profession. Women's participation in journalism, except for women's magazines, is much more limited, especially at higher levels. Women's abilities are not lacking, as shown by the number of awards Malaysian women journalists have won, but it is felt that women are not assertive, cannot work late or night shifts, cannot be transferred, because of family and domestic obligations. Perhaps journalism curricula should offer women extra courses in effective family management, public speaking or human relations, or assign cadet journalists women mentors. In Malaysia women are generally portrayed in print, electronic and advertising media as either decorative, foolish, consumption driven, or sex objects. Exploitative poses predominate in ads for male markets, such as automobiles and liquor. Sexual roles for women and girls are depicted as those of subservient or silly housewife or in other negative or traditional roles.

  3. Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, F. W.

    1989-01-01

    Describes various stages involved in the applications of electronic media to the publishing industry. Highlights include computer typesetting, or photocomposition; machine-readable databases; the distribution of publications in electronic form; computer conferencing and electronic mail; collaborative authorship; hypertext; hypermedia publications;…

  4. Sticker electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-09-08

    Electronic stickers may be manufactured on flexible substrates (110, 120, 130) as layers and packaged together. The package may then have an adhesive applied to one side to provide capability for sticking the electronic devices to surfaces. The stickers can be wrappable, placed on surfaces, glued on walls or mirrors or wood or stone, and have electronics (112, 122, 132) which may or may not be ultrathin. Packaging for the electronic sticker can use polymer on cellulose manufacturing and/or three dimensional (3-D) printing. The electronic stickers may provide lighting capability, sensing capability, and/or recharging capabilities.

  5. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  6. Electronic Commerce and Electronic Business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    This special issue is motivated by the recent upsurge of research activity in the areas of electronic commerce and electronic business both in India and all over the world. The current ... Monte Carlo methods for pricing financial options are then.

  7. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K; Gascó, M; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I; Milano, M; Panagiotopoulos, P; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P; Sæbø, Ø

    2016-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies.This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  8. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information

  9. Clasificación del síndrome climatérico en mujeres de edad mediana, Ciudad de La Habana, 2003 (I Classification of the climaterium syndrome in women of middle-aged women. Havana City 2003 (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariadna Corral Martín

    2009-03-01

    ,2 % of study women classified as asymptomatic, and with light climateric syndrome, respectively. Age group from 40 to 49 years include the 11,6 % of women presenting with a very inconvenient syndrome, the 56,8 % was in menopause stage, and the 9,3 % in the peri-menopause. CONCLUSIONS: in Havana City, both, whiting the total classification and the subscales, there was a female predominance, classified at asymptomatic level, very slight, and slight. More near interval to menopause age, peri-menopause, and overweight, were the more unfavourable situations for this syndrome.

  10. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  11. `Twisted' electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, Hugo; Kaminer, Ido; Grillo, Vincenzo; Leuchs, Gerd; Padgett, Miles J.; Boyd, Robert W.; Segev, Mordechai; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2018-04-01

    Electrons have played a significant role in the development of many fields of physics during the last century. The interest surrounding them mostly involved their wave-like features prescribed by the quantum theory. In particular, these features correctly predict the behaviour of electrons in various physical systems including atoms, molecules, solid-state materials, and even in free space. Ten years ago, new breakthroughs were made, arising from the new ability to bestow orbital angular momentum (OAM) to the wave function of electrons. This quantity, in conjunction with the electron's charge, results in an additional magnetic property. Owing to these features, OAM-carrying, or twisted, electrons can effectively interact with magnetic fields in unprecedented ways and have motivated materials scientists to find new methods for generating twisted electrons and measuring their OAM content. Here, we provide an overview of such techniques along with an introduction to the exciting dynamics of twisted electrons.

  12. Women, conflict, and culture in former Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojsavljevic, J

    1995-02-01

    The civil war in the former Yugoslavia has taken a toll on the women's movement which has disintegrated across male-defined nationalist borders. The women's movement in this area got its start during the Second World War but was disbanded under communism until women's groups began to form in the 1970s. Today the women's movement has lost the power to oppose the war and has been unable to prevent widespread violence perpetuated against women. Some feminists who have refused to embrace nationalism and patriotism have been vilified and have had to seek refuge abroad. Recently, however, hundreds of nongovernmental organizations have been formed to provide support to women and children victimized by the war. Women have been raped and impregnated as a strategy of male warfare, and raped women who refused an abortion were ostracized. War-related rape has yet to be fully recognized as an international human rights violation, and the issue is being used as political propaganda in the former Yugoslavia while it is ignored elsewhere. Sensationalist reporting of these rapes has further victimized women and made them unable to give voice to their trauma. War also increases women's suffering by destroying economic and social welfare systems. Oxfam is helping women record their testimonies of war and reconstruct the fabric of their societies through programs which provide income-generation and training in micro-enterprises. In addition, Oxfam is strengthening electronic communication and networking among women's groups throughout the region.

  13. Rebellious Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    At the background of a short presentation of concepts of discourse (in particular in Jürgen Habermas and Michel Foucault) and of the concept of shari'a a Spanish court case against an imam in reference to his publication on Women in Islam, where sura 4 verse 34 of the Quran is a central reference...

  14. Women's Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Arlene Kaplan

    1978-01-01

    The women's movement may show us some of the changes to come in the content and form of the social sciences. Among issues which will be increasingly addressed are those of work and the family, personal growth and social responsibility, and the emotional component in rational, objective, and scientific enterprise. (Author/GC)

  15. Women's worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.

  16. Psychometric attributes of the Cervantes short-form questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Ruiz, Miguel A; Baquedano, Laura; Sánchez, Sonia; Argudo, Cristina; Fernández-Abellán, Mariela; González, Silvia; Iglesias, Eva; Calleja, Jackie; Presa, Jesus; Duque, Alfonso; Ruiz, Fernando; Otero, Borja; Rejas, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the psychometric properties of the Cervantes scale short-form (SF) in the peri- and post-menopausal periods. Outpatients women 45-65 years with menstrual problems associated with the climacteric syndrome were analysed. Original and SF versions of the Cervantes scale were administered along with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) scales. Conceptual model, burden of administration, feasibility, reliability, criteria validity and construct validity were assessed. 317 women [55.7±5.3 years (mean±standard deviation)] were recruited: 75.4% were post- and 22.3% were peri-menopausal. The Cervantes-SF was completed in 2.5±1.6min, and 86% answered all items. Cronbach's α was 0.820, and ranged from 0.510 (Aging) to 0.918 (Vasomotor Symptoms) for individual dimensions. The scale structure matched the structure of the original version, χ(2)/(degrees of freedom)=3.6, Comparative Fit Index=0.848, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.850, and root mean square error of approximation=0.099, although differences were found between sexual activity statuses. Criteria validity was good (r=0.890), concurrent validity was congruent with a priori hypothesis using either the EQ-5D or the WPAI scales. The scale discriminated significantly the severity of both vasomotor and genital climacteric associated symptoms. The Cervantes-SF has shown good psychometric properties for measuring Health related quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal women who regularly attended gynaecology clinics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  18. Advanced Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-21

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2017-0114 TR-2017-0114 ADVANCED ELECTRONICS Ashwani Sharma 21 Jul 2017 Interim Report APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...NUMBER Advanced Electronics 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62601F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4846 Ashwani Sharma 5e. TASK NUMBER...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. (RDMX-17-14919 dtd 20 Mar 2018) 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Space Electronics

  19. Electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    An introduction to the various techniques in electron spectroscopy is presented. These techniques include: (1) UV Photoelectron spectroscopy, (2) X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy, (3) Auger electron spectroscopy, (4) Electron energy loss spectroscopy, (5) Penning ionization spectroscopy and (6) Ion neutralization spectroscopy. The radiations used in each technique, the basis of the technique and the special information obtained in structure determination in atoms and molecules by each technique are summarised. (A.K.)

  20. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  1. Electronics Industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Robert; Carroll-Garrison, Martina; Donovan, Daniel; Fisher, John; Guemmer, Paul; Harms, Robert; Kelly, Timothy; Love, Mattie; McReynolds, James; Ward, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    .... Government action to preserve strategic access to semiconductor producers is clearly needed to ensure DoD electronic systems can be built without compromising sensitive technology, though every...

  2. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  3. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  4. The electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hestenes, David; Weingartshofer, Antonio

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous successes of the Dirac equation and quantum electro-dynamics have established the electron as the best understood of the fundamental constituents of matter. Nevertheless, physicists agree that the electron still has secrets to reveal. Moreover, powerful new theoretical and experimental tools for probing those secrets have been sharpened during the last decade. This workshop was organized to bring theorists and experimentalists together to discuss their common goal of knowing the electron. Present state and future prospects for progress toward that goal are here described. The theoretical papers encompass a wide range of views on the electron. Several argue that the 'Zitter-bewegung' is more than a mathematical peculiarity of the Dirac equation, that it may well be a real physical phenomenon and worthy of serious study, theoretically and experimentally. Besides generating the electron spin and magnetic moment, the 'Zitterbewegung' may be a vital clue to electron structure and self-interaction. Some of the papers employ a radical new formulation of the Dirac theory which reveals a hidden geo-metric structure in the theory that supports a 'Zitterbewegung' inter-pretation. For the last half century the properties of electrons have been probed primarily by scattering experiments at ever higher energies. Recently, however, two powerful new experimental techniques have emerged capable of giving alternative experimental views of the electron. First, techniques for confining single electrons for long term study have led to the most accurate measurements of the electron magnetic moment. Second, the interaction of high intensity laser fields with atoms and electrons have revealed striking new phenomena such as multiphoton ionization. refs.; figs.; tabs

  5. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Crain, John M. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  6. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Women's Club

    2012-01-01

     Coffee Morning Tuesday 7th February 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant n°2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of cheque to Terre des Hommes Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited.You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  7. Women's club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee MorningTuesday 9th October 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) 1st Floor, Club Room 3 Presentation of the charity to benefit from the Christmas Sale “Nous aussi”. Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  8. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Women's Club

    2014-01-01

        CERN WOMEN’S CLUB Coffee Morning Tuesday 8th Avril 2014, 9:30 – 14:00 Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  9. Women's Club

    CERN Document Server

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning   Tuesday 24th  April 2012, 9:00 – 14:00 Bldg 504, Ground Floor Spring Jumble Sale   Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/

  10. Grassroots Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kay

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic, social and political changes that have occurred in Russia over the last 10 years have had a profound effect on Russian women’s lives. Economic reform has brought poverty, insecurity and high levels of anxiety and stress to much of the population, both male and female. The impact of these changes on women was amplified in the early 1990s by their structural positioning both within the workforce and within the population, brought about by the legacies of the Soviet planned economy, Soviet attitudes to gender and long established demographic trends. Alongside these historical influences, ‘new’ essentialist attitudes towards gender and the appropriate roles and responsibilities of women in post-Soviet Russian society have been strongly promoted through the media, political and social discourses, imposing new pressures and dilemmas on many post-Soviet Russian women. Numerous women’s organisations have been established in Russia since the early 1990s, many of them with a specific remit of helping Russian women to overcome the upheavals and hardships which they face. Struggling to survive themselves with very few resources and minimal external support, Russia’s grassroots women’s organisations have nonetheless offered practical help and advice and emotional support and solidarity to their members. This paper is based on the findings of a period of intensive fieldwork carried out in 1995-6 with grassroots women’s organisations in Moscow and three Russian provincial centres. It will present the aims, activities and impact of the groups studied. It will also investigate the ways in which these groups and their membership positioned themselves in relation to the development of essentialist attitudes and opinions on gender within Russia on the one hand, and a dialogue with ‘western’ feminist theory and practice on the other.

  11. Women's Health Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women's Health Topics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options Linkedin Pin it Email Print National Women's Health Week May 13 - 19, 2018 Join us ...

  12. Women's club

    CERN Document Server

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

        CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet for tea, coffee, and a chat. We will meet every 3rd Tuesday of the month, starting on 20th March 2012, in building 504 (Restaurant 2) in room E-005. 20th March at 9-11am 17th April at 9-11am 22nd May at 9-11am 19th June at 9-11am For more details contact Mme Jean RODERICK, +41 (0) 76 426 61 08, jean.chow.roderick@gmail.com http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC-華人茶敍 越來�...

  13. Women's Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club des Cernoises

    2012-01-01

    Coffee Morning Tuesday 13th  March 2012, 9:00 – 11:00 - Bldg 504 (Restaurant No 2 – DSR) - 1st Floor, Club Room 3. German Theme Those interested in helping should come along. New arrivals and all members are cordially invited. You can enrol for membership, renew membership, find out about and sign up for our activities. Visit our website: http://club-womensclub.web.cern.ch/Club-WomensClub/     CWC – Chinese Women's Community at CERN With an increasing number of Chinese people working at CERN, there are also surely an increasing number of Chinese women in the area, who are not always familiar with the environment, languages, or the people. In the context of the CERN Women’s Club, let's meet together and chat about integrating into the local community, available activities, commerce’s, restaurants, etc. It is also obviously a good opportunity to meet new friends. Everyone is welcome to join us to meet fo...

  14. Celebrate Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Carolyn M.; Baradar, Mariam

    This teachers' guide to activities celebrating Women's History Month focuses on women whose important contributions have been omitted from history textbooks. Women's History Month grew from a 1977 celebration of Women's History Week and is intended to bring women's history into the school curriculum. International Women's Day, celebrated on March…

  15. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take  recommended vaccination and shouldn’t  be afraid of using them.

  16. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  17. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  18. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  19. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  20. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  1. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  2. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  3. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  4. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  6. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.

  7. Electron Emitters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2002-01-01

    When two carbon-nanotube coated electrodes are placed at a small distance from each other, electron emission from carbon nanotubes allows a DC or AC electrical current to flow between these two electrodes...

  8. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  9. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  10. Researcher Women

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin Lipták

    2016-01-01

    I think that the equal opportunity and the underprivileged marginal labour-market layers’ significance play an important role in the economics of our days, so the women’s labour-market participation. Analysing the Hungarian data lines, we can see that the women’s labour-market participation significantly lags behind the men’s. I wish to prove with a questionnaire survey that in the North-Hungarian region the women’s labour-market situation and the career opportunities of the researcher women ...

  11. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Zvolánková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  12. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jessica; Hollis, Joseph Razzell; Wood, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    The combination of printing technology with manufacturing electronic devices enables a new paradigm of printable electronics, where 'smart' functionality can be readily incorporated into almost any product at low cost. Over recent decades, rapid progress has been made in this field, which is now emerging into the industrial andcommercial realm. However, successful development and commercialisation on a large scale presents some significant technical challenges. For fully-printable electronic systems, all the component parts must be deposited from solutions (inks), requiring the development of new inorganic, organic and hybrid materials.A variety of traditional printing techniques are being explored and adapted forprinting these new materials in ways that result in the best performing electronicdevices. Whilst printed electronics research has initially focused on traditional typesof electronic device such as light-emitting diodes, transistors, and photovoltaics, it is increasingly apparent that a much wider range of applications can be realised. The soft and stretchable nature of printable materials makes them perfect candidates forbioelectronics, resulting in a wealth of research looking at biocompatible printable inks and biosensors. Regardless of application, the properties of printed electronicmaterials depend on the chemical structures, processing conditions, device architecture,and operational conditions, the complex inter-relationships of which aredriving ongoing research. We focus on three particular 'hot topics', where attention is currently focused: novel materials, characterisation techniques, and device stability. With progress advancing very rapidly, printed electronics is expected to grow over the next decade into a key technology with an enormous economic and social impact.

  13. Researcher Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Lipták

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available I think that the equal opportunity and the underprivileged marginal labour-market layers’ significance play an important role in the economics of our days, so the women’s labour-market participation. Analysing the Hungarian data lines, we can see that the women’s labour-market participation significantly lags behind the men’s. I wish to prove with a questionnaire survey that in the North-Hungarian region the women’s labour-market situation and the career opportunities of the researcher women lags behind the men’s slightly. Based on my research, beyond the women’s traditional home tasks have appeared the claims for work derives from the employment, so the double burden is put into practice, too. we can explain with the difficulties of the compatibility of childbearing and the work, the undertaking extra limited tasks of the workplace, providing extra performance which is sensible for the women, that in the North-Hungarian region the female career path move more slowly than the men’s.

  14. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  15. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  16. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  17. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  18. Electron accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramyan.

    1981-01-01

    The USSR produces an electron accelerator family of a simple design powered straight from the mains. The specifications are given of accelerators ELITA-400, ELITA-3, ELT-2, TEUS-3 and RIUS-5 with maximum electron energies of 0.3 to 5 MeV, a mean power of 10 to 70 kW operating in both the pulsed and the continuous (TEUS-3) modes. Pulsed accelerators ELITA-400 and ELITA-3 and RIUS-5 in which TESLA resonance transformers are used are characterized by their compact size. (Ha)

  19. Electronic cigarette

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    As we know E-cigarette is becoming increasingly popular all over the world. It is a new product that the most of smoking people would like to buy and use. However, we are not realizing advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarette clearly. My objective was to research the development of electronic cigarette whether it is under control or a good way of marketing. The thesis has two main parts. They include answers to questions what is electronic cigarette and how to manage the whole industry...

  20. Care coordination in bone health screening between individual behaviors and health care services among Korean-American women across three age groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Shin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrated continuous care is important to prevent and treat brittle bone status in the aging process; however, minority groups often have limited access to health services. The purpose of this study was to identify the care coordination among women’s perceptions about their bone health, information from health care providers, and the results of Bone Mineral Density (BMD tests across three age groups. The study was a cross-sectional comparative design. A total of 63 Korean American women completed both the assessment of BMD of the femoral neck and an interview survey. One’s own risks of osteoporosis, screening behaviors, and health care providers’ advice were analyzed according to three age (pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal groups, BMD levels, and health insurance coverage. Overall, health insurance coverage and having a primary health care provider of Korean American women were 59.0% and 32.0%, respectively; 61.9% had lower than normal BMD levels, which were significantly increased by advanced age. Individual awareness of risks of osteoporosis and screening behaviors were significantly higher in peri-menopausal than in pre- and post-menopausal groups, but no differences were found in health care providers’ information. The awareness and care providers’ information by BMD level or health insurance did not differ. The findings show a discrepancy between individual perceptions and behaviors and health care providers’ recommendations regard to bone health. Health behaviors should be guided by professional health care providers. The women in the post-menopausal stage need to be educated about the high risk of osteoporosis and its management.

  1. Electronic School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Educator, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This issue of "The Electronic School" features a special forum on computer networking. Articles specifically focus on network operating systems, cabling requirements, and network architecture. Tom Wall argues that virtual reality is not yet ready for classroom use. B.J. Novitsky profiles two high schools experimenting with CD-ROM…

  2. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e-government/e-governance...

  3. Electronics department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in 1978 of some of the groups within the Electronics Department. The work covered includes plant protection and operator studies, reliability techniques, application of nuclear techniques to mineral exploration, applied laser physics, computing and, lastly, research instrumentation. (author)

  4. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  5. Electron linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loew, G A; Schriber, S O [ed.

    1976-11-01

    A study was made of the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field. These machines were classified according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for x-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. Industrial machines discussed include linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a c-w, 1 GeV, 100..mu..A electron linac is raised, and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of rf superconductivity is summarized. A review is given of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e/sup +-/ storage rings, and recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC, is described.

  6. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  7. Electronic seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyck, E.

    1981-01-01

    An electronic seal is presented for a volume such as container for fissile materials. The seal encloses a lock for barring the space as well as a device for the detection and the recording of the intervention of the lock. (AF)

  8. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friese, T.

    1981-09-01

    A short survey is given on nuclear radiation detectors and nuclear electronics. It is written for newcomers and those, who are not very familiar with this technique. Some additional information is given on typical failures in nuclear measurement systems. (orig.) [de

  9. Electron linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    To study the present status of the thousand or so electron linacs in the world, and future trends in the field, we have classified these machines according to their use: medical, industrial, and nuclear physics. In the medical category, two types of electron linacs are discussed: the conventional ones which are used for X-ray and electron therapy, and those which may in the future be used for negative pion therapy. The section on industrial machines includes linacs for radiographic and other specialized applications. In the nuclear physics category, the status of conventional low- and medium-energy as well as high duty cycle linacs is reviewed. The question of how one might obtain a C.W., 1 GeV, 100 μA electron linac is raised and various options using recirculation and stretchers are examined. In this connection, the status of RF superconductivity is summarized. Following, there is a review of linacs for injectors into synchrotrons and e +- storage rings. The paper ends with a description of recent work done to upgrade the only multi-GeV linac, namely SLAC. (author)

  10. Healthcare for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Health Care for Women What women with Spina Bilda need to know about sexuality, ... the risk of a urinary tract infection. For women who do not catheterize, they should also urinate ...

  11. Women's Heart Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Email: Click for e-News archive The Women's Heart Foundation is a 501c3 dedicated to prevention, ... Care Initiative® to achieve excellence of care of women. Executive nurses, civic leaders, women survivors and sponsors ...

  12. Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Osteoporosis Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women Osteoporosis and Hispanic Women It is a common misconception that osteoporosis only ... seizures. Are There Any Special Issues for Hispanic Women Regarding Bone Health? Several studies indicate a number ...

  13. Immunization for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ACOG Update on Zika Virus Pregnancy Attention pregnant women! Pregnant women, their unborn babies, and newborns have a higher ... a new MMWR Influenza Vaccination Coverage Among Pregnant Women - United States, 2016-17 Influenza Season September 26, ...

  14. Women and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  15. Myths, Management and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, George E.; Pryatel, Holly A.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses some of the outmoded but still prevailing misconceptions about women in management positions. Suggestions are offered for increasing the number of women managers and providing equal treatment and opportunity for women. (MF)

  16. Women's Earnings: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Mary

    1999-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, women's real earnings rose whereas those of men declined. Even as the gender pay gap narrowed, earnings differences between white women and black and Hispanic women continued to grow. (Author)

  17. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and ... blood sugar. Follow Us on Twitter There is good news. Diabetes can be controlled by maintaining a ...

  18. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women with diabetes can make a difference. Other Resources from the FDA FDA Information on Diabetes Treatment ... for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health Topics Resources for You YourDiabetesInfo.org American Diabetes Association Get ...

  19. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression in Older Women More in Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth ...

  20. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression in Older Women ...

  1. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take ...

  2. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main page content Skip to search Skip to topics menu Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  3. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression in Older Women More in Women's Health Topics Mammography Women and ...

  4. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's ... Archive Combination Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing Education ...

  5. Women of ATLAS - International Women's Day 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Biondi, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Women play key roles in the ATLAS Experiment: from young physicists at the start of their careers to analysis group leaders and spokespersons of the collaboration. Celebrate International Women's Day by meeting a few of these inspiring ATLAS researchers.

  6. Women NGO's and Women Empowerment in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    more effective and offer greater benefits in the development of Nigeria and. Nigerian women. ... taboos averse to women education should be dismantled. Keywords: ... were gender blind, and gave no specific place to gender issues in Nigeria.

  7. Calidad de vida en la mujer de edad mediana Life quality in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margeris Yanes Calderón

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y descriptivo de 76 pacientes climatéricas atendidas en un período mayor de 2 años. Más del 65 % de las pacientes se encontraban en la perimenopausia. Del total de la muestra, 55 recibieron tratamiento hormonal y necesitaron al menos 2 meses de tratamiento para referir una notable mejoría de los síntomas iniciales. Actualmente, las mujeres viven más años que antes. Hace un siglo, pocas eran las que llegaban a los 50 años de edad, pero ahora su esperanza de vida es de casi 80 años, lo que quiere decir que la mujer común puede vivir más de un tercio de su vida después de la menopausia. Una clave para sacar el mejor partido de esos años es tomar las decisiones correctas en lo que atañe a su salud. Se considera muy útil la permanencia de esta consulta para la orientación, manejo y seguimiento de la mujer en esta etapa de la vida.A retrospective descriptive study of 76 climateric patients seen by doctor during two years or more was carried out. Over 65% were at perimenopause phase. Fifty-five were under hormone therapy and required at least 2 months of treatment to be able to experience some real improvement of initial symptoms. At present, women live longer than in the past. A century ago, few women reached 50 years of age but nowadays, their life expectancy is about 80 years, which means that the common woman can live more than one third of her life after the menopausal phase has begun. One important key to take the best advantage of these years is to take the right decisions as far as her health state is concerned. It is considered highly convenient to keep this medical service to give advice, to manage and follow-up women in this life stage.

  8. The Case for Women Mentoring Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Betty Ann; Tietjen-Smith, Tara

    2016-01-01

    The authors argue that there will be a critical mass of women in leadership positions in kinesiology and across higher education for substantial gender-based mentoring to take place in the 21st century. First, the current state of women in higher education leadership, trends in mentoring, and the reasons it is important for women who have…

  9. Electronic Nose and Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyay, Rajib

    Human beings have five senses, namely, vision, hearing, touch, smell and taste. The sensors for vision, hearing and touch have been developed for several years. The need for sensors capable of mimicking the senses of smell and taste have been felt only recently in food industry, environmental monitoring and several industrial applications. In the ever-widening horizon of frontier research in the field of electronics and advanced computing, emergence of electronic nose (E-Nose) and electronic tongue (E-Tongue) have been drawing attention of scientists and technologists for more than a decade. By intelligent integration of multitudes of technologies like chemometrics, microelectronics and advanced soft computing, human olfaction has been successfully mimicked by such new techniques called machine olfaction (Pearce et al. 2002). But the very essence of such research and development efforts has centered on development of customized electronic nose and electronic tongue solutions specific to individual applications. In fact, research trends as of date clearly points to the fact that a machine olfaction system as versatile, universal and broadband as human nose and human tongue may not be feasible in the decades to come. But application specific solutions may definitely be demonstrated and commercialized by modulation in sensor design and fine-tuning the soft computing solutions. This chapter deals with theory, developments of E-Nose and E-Tongue technology and their applications. Also a succinct account of future trends of R&D efforts in this field with an objective of establishing co-relation between machine olfaction and human perception has been included.

  10. Electronics Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    countries in developing market nations in Asia (such as Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, Malaysia , China and Vietnam). The competition for the knowledge, economic...Intel, Infineon Technologies, STMicroelectronics, Samsung Electronics, Texas Instruments, AMD Spansion, Philips Semiconductor, Freescale... Samsung ($19.7B), #5 Toshiba ($9.8B), #6 TSMC ($9.7B), #7 Hynix ($8.0B) and #8 Renesas ($7.9B) (McGrath, 2007, p. 3). Samsung , headquartered in

  11. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  12. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  13. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  14. Electronic sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    Electronic sputtering covers a range of phenomena from electron and photon stimulated desorption from multilayers to fast heavy ion-induced desorption (sputtering) of biomolecules. In this talk the author attempted. Therefore, to connect the detailed studies of argon ejection from solid argon by MeV ions and keV electrons to the sputtering of low temperatures molecular ices by MeV ions then to biomolecule ejection from organic solids. These are related via changing (dE/dx) e , molecular size, and transport processes occurring in materials. In this regard three distinct regions of (dE/dx) e have been identified. Since the talk this picture has been made explicit using a simple spike model for individual impulsive events in which spike interactions are combined linearly. Since that time also the molecular dynamics programs (at Virginia and Uppsala) have quantified both single atom and dimer processes in solid Ar and the momentum transport in large biomolecule sputtering. 5 refs

  15. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other ... YourDiabetesInfo.org American Diabetes Association Get Other FDA Publications for Women For Women Homepage FDA Diabetes Information ...

  16. The Women's Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Catharine R.; And Others

    Barnard College has created a Women's Center that devotes itself to the task of reaffirming the dignity, autonomy, and equality of women. For too long society has held that women are less rational than men, less capable than men, and thus that educating women is less useful than educating men. Replacing myth with fact is the responsibility of…

  17. Women in 1974.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citizens Advisory Council on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    This is a report on the legal, political and social status of women in the year1974. The report includes the laws passed by Congress for equal rights for women, laws for equal pay, amendments that provide for flexible working hours and childbearing leave for women; and some cases of job discrimination against women. Legal amendments to insure…

  18. Detectors - Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregeault, J.; Gabriel, J.L.; Hierle, G.; Lebotlan, P.; Leconte, A.; Lelandais, J.; Mosrin, P.; Munsch, P.; Saur, H.; Tillier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The reports presents the main results obtained in the fields of radiation detectors and associated electronics. In the domain of X-ray gas detectors for the keV range efforts were undertaken to rise the detector efficiency. Multiple gap parallel plate chambers of different types as well as different types of X → e - converters were tested to improve the efficiency (values of 2.4% at 60 KeV were reached). In the field of scintillators a study of new crystals has been carried out (among which Lutetium orthosilicate). CdTe diode strips for obtaining X-ray imaging were studied. The complete study of a linear array of 8 CdTe pixels has been performed and certified. The results are encouraging and point to this method as a satisfying solution. Also, a large dimension programmable chamber was used to study the influence of temperature on the inorganic scintillators in an interval from -40 deg. C to +150 deg. C. Temperature effects on other detectors and electronic circuits were also investigated. In the report mentioned is also the work carried out for the realization of the DEMON neutron multidetector. For neutron halo experiments different large area Si detectors associated with solid and gas position detectors were realized. In the frame of a contract with COGEMA a systematic study of Li doped glasses was undertaken aiming at replacing with a neutron probe the 3 He counters presently utilized in pollution monitoring. An industrial prototype has been realised. Other studies were related to integrated analog chains, materials for Cherenkov detectors, scintillation probes for experiments on fundamental processes, gas position sensitive detectors, etc. In the field of associated electronics there are mentioned the works related to the multidetector INDRA, data acquisition, software gamma spectrometry, automatic gas pressure regulation in detectors, etc

  19. Women Urologists: Changing Trends in the Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltzman, Amanda; Hebert, Kristi; Richman, Ashley; Prats, Samantha; Togami, Joanna; Rickey, Leslie; Montgomery, Melissa

    2016-05-01

    To characterize the current workforce of women urologists in the United States. An anonymous electronic survey was sent to all members of the Society of Women in Urology and all female non-Society of Women in Urology members of the American Urologic Association. The survey was distributed in January of 2015. Demographic, work, and personal life data were collected. Of 1563 e-mails with a link to our survey sent to women urologists in the United States, 365 surveys were completed for a 23% response rate. The average age of all participants was 39 years (range 25-73 years). Practicing women urologists had an average age of 44 years (range 32-65 years) compared to the average age (53 years) of all practicing urologists reported in the 2014 American Urologic Association Census. The majority of practicing female urologists live and work in a population of >1 million whereas a few live and work in rural areas. Practicing women urologists are most likely to work academic or group practice. Twenty percent of practicing women urologists reported working part-time, but almost 70% report working >50 hours/week. Women urologists in the United States are younger than their male counterparts and most work full-time in urban academic centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  1. Electronic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regel-Rosocka, Magdalena

    2018-03-01

    E-waste amount is growing at about 4% annually, and has become the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. Over 50 million tons of e-waste are produced globally each year, and some of them end up in landfills causing danger of toxic chemicals leakage over time. E-waste is also sent to developing countries where informal processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) causes serious health and pollution problems. A huge interest in recovery of valuable metals from WEEE is clearly visible in a great number of scientific, popular scientific publications or government and industrial reports.

  2. Electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-Y.; Hughes, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to cathode ray tubes, and particularly to color picture tubes of the type useful in home television receivers and therefore to electron guns. The invention is especially applicable to self-converging tube-yoke combinations with shadow mask tubes of the type having plural-beam in-line guns disposed in a horizontal plane, an apertured mask with vertically oriented slit-shaped apertures, and a screen with vertically oriented phosphor stripes. The invention is not, however, limited to use in such tubes and may in fact be used, e.g., in dot-type shadow mask tubes and index-type tubes. (Auth.)

  3. Bolometer electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenig, D.E.

    1981-01-01

    High quality is required to the electronic which works with bolometer made of metal for measuring the radiation power in plasmaphysical experiments. If the bandwidth is to be 1 kHz, and the time constant of the bolometer is about 160 ms by high overall gain the critical parameters are the noise of the amplifier, pick up to the system, stability and decoupling of common mode signals. The high overall gain is necessary to be able to measure lowest radiation power. The design made is a good approach to the desired property. (orig.) [de

  4. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  5. Nuclear electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero B, E.

    1989-01-01

    The rapid technical development of Colombia over the past years, resulted among others, a considerable increase in the number of measuring instrumentation and testing laboratories, scientific research and metrology centers, in industry, agriculture, public health, education on the nuclear field, etc. IAN is a well organized institution with qualified management, trained staff and reasonably equipped laboratories to carry out tasks as: Metrology, standardization, quality control and maintenance and repair of nuclear instruments. The government of Colombia has adopted a policy to establish and operate through the country maintenance and repair facilities for nuclear instrumentation. This policy is reflected in the organization of electronic laboratories in Bogota-IAN

  6. Media discourse on women and political participation in Nigeria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Media discourse on women and political participation in Nigeria in the context of ... of social relations between men and women and how this inform power, ... As a social issue, discourse on gender within the media (print, electronic and social ...

  7. [Occupational health status of electronics manufacturing female employees in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, T T; Mei, L Y

    2018-02-06

    Electronics industry is a typical labor-intensive industry in China. There are a lot of female workers and various occupational hazard factors in the workplace. This article reviewed the characteristics of employment of women in electronics industry, occupational hazards of exposure, protective measures, occupational disease situation, influence of reproductive health and mental health, and occupational health management. Electronics female emplyees have the priority in reproductive health and mental health. Besides, this group has poor protective measures, occupational health management and policy should be taken to enhance the level of women health in electronics industry.

  8. Challenges before Women Scientists, Technologists & Engineers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sastry Indrakanti

    Women & Social responsibility. ➢ Women and Human Resource. Development & Management. ➢ Women and Agricultural & Rural. Development. ➢ Women & Technological Development. ➢ Women and Medicine & Health Care. ➢ Women and Education. ➢ Women and Population Growth. ➢ Women and Indian Economy.

  9. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  10. Electron foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimas, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    ISEE particle and wave data are noted to furnish substantial support for the basic features of the velocity dispersed model at the foreshock boundary that was proposed by Filbert and Kellogg (1979). Among many remaining discrepancies between this model and observation, it is noted that unstable reduced velocity distributions have been discovered behind the thin boundary proposed by the model, and that these are at suprathermal energies lying far below those explainable in terms of an oscillating, two-stream instability. Although the long-theorized unstable beam of electrons has been found in the foreshock, there is still no ready explanation of the means by which it could have gotten there. 16 references

  11. Women and AIDS caregiving: women's work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songwathana, P

    2001-01-01

    In this ethnographic study, I examine personal, kinship, and social obligations and the role of women in the traditional Thai family. Under what circumstances do women take on the responsibility to care or not care, and how do they cope with the disease and care when they are also infected? Fifteen women who were afflicted or affected by HIV/AIDS participated in in-depth interviews and participant observations. Analysis employed mainly qualitative methods following Spradley. I show that women who are responsible for caring for both themselves and others, including members of their immediate families or extended family members, face a double jeopardy by virtue of their inferior role and status. When HIV-infected women experience illness, sometimes they feel split; they are incapable of functioning normally, yet they are obligated to do "What they've got to do." Women as carers feel that they have to care because they want to free someone else from suffering despite the fact that they are also suffering. Women roles as family carers seem to be both psychologically and socially constructed. AIDS care is not just a labour of love, but also is done in the spirit of work following Buddhist beliefs of karma and metta. In conclusion, traditional, persistent gender imbalances and inequalities influence women's sexuality, vulnerability, responsibility, and caregiving. When women become infected with HIV and sick with AIDS, their quality of life drops because of the physical, psychological, cultural value, and economic burdens of care they face. AIDS then necessitates rather than prevents women from fulfilling their multiple roles. Consequently, there is a need for greater support especially among Thai women who are afflicted and affected with AIDS.

  12. Albanian women in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Antoneta; Alushllari, Mirela; Mico, Silvana

    2015-12-01

    In this report, presented at the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, we describe the status of women physicists in Albania and offer some statistical data illustrating the present situation. Undergraduate physics enrollment by girls is high and stable, more women are receiving financial support for doctoral studies, women are well represented in recent academic promotions, and recently women scientists have been appointed to several leadership positions. However, both women and men are challenged by the overall low levels of funding for research and by issues of availability and affordability of child care.

  13. Women in public life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The UN Division for the Advancement of Women publication has devoted an issue to the role of women in public lie based on an analysis of women's status in industrialized countries presented in Vienna, Austria, in May 1991. Women already contribute to political life and make a difference in politics, but societal institutions and government processes have not yet adapted to this fact. Women's nongovernmental organizations promote women's interests at the governmental level, but often do not have the economic or political power as do other interests groups such as trade unions. Women often participation public life via their membership in women's organizations, community action groups, voluntary organizations, and other close to home groups. They prefer to participate in activities which are problem solving rather than institution building. These activities and groups operate outside established political institutions and are not considered as part of public and political life. Society's exclusion of women from leadership positions in public life keeps it from benefiting from the special contributions that women bring to decision making. Women show a tendency to have different leadership styles than men (e.g., ability to relate to people affected by their decisions), which are most needed for the modern world. They often do not campaign just for women's issues, but, once in office, they do tend to become more involved in women's issues. Women have affected positive changes in career and child care, often on a non-Socialist agenda, in various countries (e.g. Norway). This effect is referred to as the politics of motherhood. More access to politics and public life calls for removal of structural and situational barriers including the glass ceiling, discrimination, insufficient funds, and bearing most of the responsibility for child care. The UN women's groups has drafted a platform for interregional consultation on women's role in public life and scheduled the 4th

  14. Perimenopausal wrist fracture - An opportunity for prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Those identified were subjected to further review to establish rates of osteoporosis and/or hip fracture. Osteoporosis and/or hip fracture rates were also determined for a control population. Main outcome measures: Osteoporosis investigation and management rates in controls v, subjects who had experienced a previous ...

  15. Insomnia during menopause and perimenopause: clinical characteristics and therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Claudio N.

    2006-01-01

    Transtornos do sono e insônia são mais freqüentemente observados entre as mulheres do que entre os homens durante a vida adulta. Entre outros fatores, especula-se que alta comorbidade psiquiátrica para transtornos afetivos e ansiosos entre as mulheres contribua para maior ocorrência de insônia. Além disso, períodos de intensa variabilidade hormonal (por exemplo, gestação e puerpério, perimenopausa) parecem estar relacionados com maior incidência de insônia e de transtornos respiratórios do so...

  16. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  17. Advanced electron beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirotsu, Yoshihiko; Yoshida, Yoichi

    2007-01-01

    After 100 years from the time of discovery of electron, we now have many applications of electron beam in science and technology. In this report, we review two important applications of electron beam: electron microscopy and pulsed-electron beam. Advanced electron microscopy techniques to investigate atomic and electronic structures, and pulsed-electron beam for investigating time-resolved structural change are described. (author)

  18. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  19. Breast Pain in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effective, some women feel better when changing bra styles and cutting back on salt and caffeine. Breast ... Childbirth Women Men Seniors Your Health Resources Healthcare Management End-of-Life Issues Insurance & Bills Self Care ...

  20. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  1. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV: Get the Facts on HIV Testing, Prevention, and Treatment Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... How can you lower your chance of HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  2. Toxoplasmosis and Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...

  3. Women and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Infection with ... of parasites can lead to unique consequences for women. Some examples are given below. Infection with Toxoplasma ...

  4. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Women For Women Homepage FDA Diabetes Information for Patients Page Last Updated: 02/16/2018 Note: If ... FDA Archive Combination Products Advisory Committees Regulatory Information Safety Emergency Preparedness International Programs News & Events Training & Continuing ...

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression ...

  6. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicines and Devices Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the ... Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA Office of Women's Health is partnering ...

  7. Women Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report summarizes the history of women Veterans in the military and as Veterans. It profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2015, and illustrates how...

  8. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression ...

  9. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Topics Mammography Women and Diabetes HPV, HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More ... Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety ...

  11. Improving women's lives

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC has supported poor women in develop- ing countries ... and business management. Thanks to ... to local levels has changed the face of gov- ... Although formidable challenges ... Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.

  12. Reforming Water, Adding Women?

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Karen Kershaw

    Progressive social movements around water and women's rights. • Drought prone state ... What role does civil society (NGOs, CBOs, networks, academia) play in this ... Women's presence in the public sphere improved but class, caste, martial ...

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression ...

  14. National Women's Science Congress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TSC

    This National Women's Science Congress is planned essentially to bring women to the forefront ... The following areas are indicative of this wide coverage, in each of which ... C. V. Raman, two great scientists of the world; Marie Curie Mahila.

  15. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on testing your blood sugar. Follow Us on Twitter There is good news. Diabetes can be controlled ... Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National ...

  16. College Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health - Learn the facts about HPV, HIV, and birth control. College Women's Social Media Toolkit - Share health tips with your campus community. College Women's Campaign - Find out how your school can join. Sign up for email alerts. Order ...

  17. Adult Education for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagappa, T. R.

    1980-01-01

    Apathy, indifference, and neglect has characterized adult education for women in India. The National Adult Education Programme must focus attention and funding on women if the extremely low percentage of female literacy is to be improved. (SK)

  18. Heart Failure in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Biykem; Khalaf, Shaden

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in women, and they tend to develop it at an older age compared to men. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is more common in women than in men and accounts for at least half the cases of heart failure in women. When comparing men and women who have heart failure and a low left ventricular ejection fraction, the women are more symptomatic and have a similarly poor outcome. Overall recommendations for guideline-directed medical therapies show no differences in treatment approaches between men and women. Overall, women are generally underrepresented in clinical trials for heart failure. Further studies are needed to shed light into different mechanisms, causes, and targeted therapies of heart failure in women. PMID:29744014

  19. Women Journalists Working Conditions and Their Suitability in the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sasikala

    2016-05-01

    technique. The sample frame for the study includes both male and female journalists of print and electronic media. The respondents comprised of editors, sub- editors, reporters, programme executives and free lancers in both print and electronic media. The data was obtained using the questionnaire and it was analyzed using percentage analysis method. The findings reveals that women journalists are encouraged and given freedom to organize their work and do not face major discrimination in their working spot on the basis of gender and they are also given decision – making position in the media and their positions in the media is satisfactory. Regarding, importance given for women issues in the media, both men and women journalist consider women issues as one of the important issue and women issues are portrayed adequately in the media.

  20. Women and schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Thara, R.; Kamath, Shantha

    2015-01-01

    Women's mental health is closely linked to their status in society. This paper outlines the clinical features of women with schizophrenia and highlights the interpersonal and social ramifications on their lives. There is no significant gender difference in the incidence and prevalence of schizophrenia. There is no clear trend in mortality, although suicides seem to be more in women with schizophrenia. In India, women face a lot of problems, especially in relation to marriage, pregnancy, child...

  1. Women Fellows of INSA | Women in Science | Initiatives | Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Fellows of INSA. Women Fellows of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy ... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young age of 52, after a ...

  2. Women Young Scientists of INSA | Women in Science | Initiatives ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Initiatives; Women in Science; Women Young Scientists of INSA. Women Young Scientists of INSA. INSA - Indian National Science Academy .... Charusita Chakravarty, one of the stars of our community of women scientists, at a young ...

  3. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  4. Women in Leading Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Anita

    2016-01-01

    The questions related to the role of women in the world of labour and to the rate of female and male employees are issues that have been discussed since long ago. Equality of women and the fight against the discrimination of women are hot topics not only for the "weaker sex" as there are abundant research and literature dealing with the…

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... raise awareness about diverse women of different ages, races, ethnic backgrounds, and health conditions participating in clinical trials. Visit the Women in Clinical Trials webpage to learn how women with diabetes can make a difference. Other Resources from the FDA FDA Information on ...

  6. Women of Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    The Indispensability of Women in Conflict Resolution in the Niger Delta ... The situation leads to a shift in gender roles with a dramatic increase in the number of women .... organization is to work in partnership with the Nigerian Government and the .... that “women are the impartial arbitrators in family or clan disputes or.

  7. Teaching Women's History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, George

    1995-01-01

    Argues that women's history should stress the broad sociological view of women's roles not only in politics but in mundane, day-to-day life throughout all of history, rather that reducing women's history to a few token figures. Notes that many college and secondary texts and testing materials have recognized the trend toward the inclusion of…

  8. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA Office of Women's Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse ...

  9. Managerial Success for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Elaine R.

    1977-01-01

    The author's personal account of her experiences in being promoted from an engineer with limited management responsibility to vice president of a large company in New York City. She notes that many women are still isolated from the executive society, which puts the burden on those women who do achieve positions of power to help those women who…

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Follow FDA En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women ...

  11. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Skip to common links HHS U.S. Department of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug Administration ... Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ...

  12. Women's Work in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, D. Radha; Ravindran, M.

    1983-01-01

    The proportion of women in paid employment in India is very low, and working women tend to be concentrated in low-wage, low-status, unskilled jobs, especially in agriculture. Even for the few women working in the modern sector, discrimination is pervasive, and change seems unlikely to occur soon. (IS)

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Devices Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ... about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical ...

  14. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  15. Psychotherapy and Women's Liberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, Jean

    1976-01-01

    Personality theories and scientific data on women frequently contribute negatively to the psychotherapy of female clients. This paper examines some of the background factors which have shaped our information about women, and then reviews some contemporaneous approaches to the therapy of women. (Author)

  16. Women, the Poorer Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Maureen

    The purpose of this document is to present statistics which show clearly that poverty is a women's issue. The position of poor women relative to the total population living below the Federal poverty line is demonstrated. Income levels are analyzed to reveal the percentages of women whose annual income is below $5,000. The relationship of income…

  17. Pennsylvania Women's Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Kathryn; And Others

    Women have undergone a revolution in their self-perception and their traditional relationships to work, money, marriage, and family. These social changes have implications for every aspect of women's lives, including their mental health. Because of the special problems and conflicts confronting women today, data need to be analyzed on policies,…

  18. Educating Women in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Sally

    1987-01-01

    Surveys literature on the history of coeducation, focusing on the marginalization of women. Discusses these themes: republican education; female literacy; the girls' academy; women and the history of teaching; life-cycle patterns; the migration of teachers from New England; black women teachers; urbanization and feminization; immigration; students…

  19. Longevity of Women Superintendents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethna, Kim C.

    2014-01-01

    Public schools are facing a leadership crisis regarding the lack of women superintendents in the United States. Although, historically, women have dominated the positions of classroom teachers and outnumbered men in receiving administrative leadership certificates, there is a disproportion in the number of men and women superintendents leading the…

  20. Making women's voices heard: technological change and women's employment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng Choon Sim, C

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the 1994-96 UN University Institute for New Technologies policy research project on technological change and women's employment in Asia. The project was conducted to provide a voice for nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) representing women workers. It focuses on the Malaysian experience in terms of the impact of technology on women's work and employment in the telecommunications and electronic industry. The results of the NGO research project revealed that the shift to a more intensive production has no uniform impact on women. Although new jobs were created, women employment status remains vulnerable. Meaning, female workers are afraid of the technological redundancy, casualization of labor, as well as health and safety hazards associated with new technology. A good example of the effect of industrialization to women¿s rights is the situation in Malaysia. Although cutting edge technology, combined with restructuring, has yielded some benefits in terms of a vastly expanded network and services, better performances and economies of scale, employment situation of the majority of women still remained in the low-skilled or semi-skilled categories. In order to upgrade women employment status along with the technological advancement, open communication and cooperation of all types is needed to ensure a successful outcome.

  1. [Health for women; women for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    This document describes a proposed new health policy for Colombian women. The rationale for the new policy, known as "Health for women, women for health", is discussed, and the general and specific objectives, program description, actions and strategies are presented for each of 5 subprograms. The subprograms cover health promotion and self-care for women, reproductive and sexual health care, prevention of abuse and services for women and children who are victims of violence, mental health, and occupational health Changes in Colombian society and living conditions and in the role of women over the past few decades have been reflected in changing epidemiologic profiles, life expectancy, and demands placed on health services. The Health for women, women for health policy takes into account social discrimination against women and its impact on female health. The subprogram of health promotion and self-care is intended to complement, reinforce, and broaden preventive interventions already offered by the health services. The subprogram will require a mobile interdisciplinary team to conduct educational campaigns and to coordinate activities. Promotional actions include staff training in a gender focus on health and health policy for women, development of a health manual for women, and a mass media campaign on self-care for women. The subprogram for reproductive health and sexuality will reorient existing maternal health services away from their emphasis on increasing coverage of prenatal care, promoting births in health facilities, and actions to reduce infant mortality and toward services appropriate to the different phases of the female reproductive cycle. The subprogram will include provision of family planning services, preventing and managing high risk pregnancies, providing adequate care in maternity centers for labor and delivery, and preventing avoidable maternal deaths. Reviewing and revising existing legislation to protect reproductive health is among proposed

  2. Osteoporosis and Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Asian American Women Osteoporosis and Asian American Women Asian American women are at high risk for ... medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ...

  3. Women and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aegerter, Irene [Sulzer Brothers Limited, Swiss Association ' Women for Energy' (Switzerland)

    1989-07-01

    Surveys in most countries show, that women's attitude towards nuclear energy differ quite a bit from that of men. Why is this so and what can be done about it? The difference is that a cigarette is a familiar risk. But only few women are familiar with nuclear risks, especially radioactivity, be it scientifically or emotionally. Women in general are less inclined to technical subjects. Technical matters still are male. Technical issues are - by education and in schools - (at least in Switzerland) no female subjects. Therefore we have to change this in order to change women's attitudes towards technical subjects. How can women become more technology-oriented?.

  4. Women and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, Irene

    1989-01-01

    Surveys in most countries show, that women's attitude towards nuclear energy differ quite a bit from that of men. Why is this so and what can be done about it? The difference is that a cigarette is a familiar risk. But only few women are familiar with nuclear risks, especially radioactivity, be it scientifically or emotionally. Women in general are less inclined to technical subjects. Technical matters still are male. Technical issues are - by education and in schools - (at least in Switzerland) no female subjects. Therefore we have to change this in order to change women's attitudes towards technical subjects. How can women become more technology-oriented?

  5. Bipolar Disorder in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Kesebir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The research on gender's role in bipolar disorders has drawn significant interest recently. The presentation and course of bipolar disorder differs between women and men. Women experience depressive episodes, dysphoric mood, mixed states, rapid cycling and seasonal patterns more often than men. Comorbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders laso occur more frequently in women than men. On the other hand men with bipolar disorder are also more likely than women to have problems with drug or alcohol abuse. The pregnancy and postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of bipolar disorder in women.

  6. Electron-electron Bremsstrahlung for bound target electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, E.

    2008-01-01

    For the process of electron-electron (e-e) Bremsstrahlung the momentum and energy distributions of the recoiling electrons are calculated in the laboratory frame. In order to get the differential cross section and the photon spectrum for target electrons which are bound to an atom, these formulae are multiplied by the incoherent scattering function and numerically integrated over the recoil energy. The effect of atomic binding is most pronounced at low energies of the incident electrons and for target atoms of high atomic numbers. The results are compared to those of previous calculations. (authors)

  7. Electron Beam Generation in Tevatron Electron Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  8. Electron beam generation in Tevatron electron lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamerdzhiev, V.; Kuznetsov, G.; Shiltsev, V.; Solyak, N.; Tiunov, M.

    2006-01-01

    New type of high perveance electron guns with convex cathode has been developed. Three guns described in this article are built to provide transverse electron current density distributions needed for Electron Lenses for beam-beam compensation in the Tevatron collider. The current distribution can be controlled either by the gun geometry or by voltage on a special control electrode located near cathode. We present the designs of the guns and report results of beam measurements on the test bench. Because of their high current density and low transverse temperature of electrons, electron guns of this type can be used in electron cooling and beam-beam compensation devices

  9. Women in Leading Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rácz Anita

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The questions related to the role of women in the world of labour and to the rate of female and male employees are issues that have been discussed since long ago. Equality of women and the fight against the discrimination of women are hot topics not only for the “weaker sex” as there are abundant research and literature dealing with the question whether feminism, the lengthy pursuit for the equality of women can be regarded successful or there are still much to do for the elimination of negative discrimination of women at workplaces. In this context, I examine in my study whether the increasing of the share of female employees, the action plans on raising the share of executive positions filled by women, and the related conferences live up to the expectations, and can women really have the same place on the labour market as men have.

  10. Hypertension in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.

  11. Violence against Amazon women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vera Lúcia de Azevedo; Souza, Maria de Lourdes de; Monticelli, Marisa; Oliveira, Marília de Fátima Vieira de; Souza, Carlos Benedito Marinho de; Costa, Carlos Alberto Leal da; Brüggemann, Odaléa Maria

    2009-01-01

    This quantitative and exploratory study analyzed violence against Amazon women presented in print media according to type and severity, and whether aggressors fell under the Maria da Penha law. A total of 181 issues of a regional newspaper were consulted. Based on content analysis, 164 items addressing violence against women were selected and 46 were included in the corpus of analysis. Results were gathered in three thematic groups: women killed with cruelty, sexual violence against women regardless of age, and violence against women and the limitations of the Maria da Penha law. Violence against these women varied in terms of form and severity, including up to homicide. Women are submitted to sexual violence from childhood through adulthood. The enforcement of this law shows the community it has a means to cope with this social phenomenon.

  12. Incontinência urinária entre mulheres climatéricas brasileiras: inquérito domiciliar Urinary incontinence among climateric Brazilian women: household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Guarisi

    2001-10-01

    and its associated factors in perimenopause women using a population-based household survey. METHODS: A descriptive, exploratory cross-sectional population-based study with secondary analysis of a population-based household survey on perimenopause and menopause was conducted among women living in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Through a sampling process, 456 women between 45 and 60 years old were selected. Complaints of urinary incontinence and related risk factors, such as age, socioeconomic status, education level, race, parity, smoking habits, body mass index, previous gynecological surgeries, menopausal status, and hormonal replacement therapy were explored. Data were collected through home interviews using an adapted version of the structured pre-tested questionnaire elaborated by the International Health Foundation, International Menopause Society and the American Menopause Society. Statistical analysis were performed using prevalence rates (CI 95%. RESULTS: Thirty-five percent of the interviewees referred stress urinary incontinence. None of the sociodemographic factors studied was associated to the risk of urinary incontinence. In addition, parity did not significantly change the risk of urinary incontinence. Other factors, such as previous gynecological surgeries, body mass index, and smoking habits, were not associated with the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence. Also, menopausal status and hormonal replacement therapy did not change the risk of stress urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Though there was a high prevalence of stress urinary incontinence among perimenopause women, there was not found any associations with sociodemographic and reproductive factors.

  13. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aratani, Michi [Office of Regional Collaboration, Institute for Environmental Sciences, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-09-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  14. Women residents, women physicians and medicine's future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Karen

    2007-08-01

    The number of women in medicine has increased dramatically in the last few decades, and women now represent half of all incoming medical students. Yet residency training still resembles the historical model when there were few women in medicine. This article reviews the issues facing women in residency today. Data suggest that the experience of female residents is more negative than that of males. Unique challenges facing female residents include the existence of gender bias and sexual harassment, a scarcity of female mentors in leadership positions, and work/family conflicts. Further research is needed to understand the experience of female residents and to identify barriers that hinder their optimal professional and personal development. Structural and cultural changes to residency programs are needed to better accommodate the needs of female trainees.

  15. Women scientists joining Rokkasho women to sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aratani, Michi; Sasagawa, Sumiko

    1999-01-01

    Women scientists generally play a great role in the public acceptance (PA) for the national policy of atomic energy developing in Japan. The reason may be that, when a woman scientist stands in the presence of women audience, she will be ready to be accepted by them as a person with the same gender, emotion and thought to themselves. A case of interchange between the Rokkasho women and the women scientists either resident at the nuclear site of Rokkasho or staying for a short time at Rokkasho by invitation has been described from the viewpoint of PA for the national policy of atomic energy developing, and more fundamentally, for promotion of science education. (author)

  16. Women in physics in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique [CNRS-University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  17. Women's Athletics: Coping with Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepner, Barbara J., Ed.

    This book is a collection of papers discussing controversial topics in women's athletics. Section one, "Overview--Women's Rights," includes articles on women's rights and equal opportunities in sports, the emergence of women in sports, and significant events in a century of American women's sports. Section two, "Women's Intercollegiate…

  18. Women in physics in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives

  19. Women's dreaming: women, sexuality and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, E

    1996-01-01

    This essay opens by invoking the dreams of women that arise from their life experiences and lead women, despite their powerlessness, to desire to create a different kind of society. The essay continues by exploring the relationship between analysis and practice and the contention that analysis of a problem shapes development practice, social policy, research priorities, and activism. Poverty provides an example of a complex, chaotic phenomenon that is often reduced to simplistic, measurable variables such as income or consumption deprivation. Attention is then paid to the population debate where linkages between the analytical framework and program development are clear. These simplified linkages led to macro analysis of events played out on the micro level and to the choice of women rather than men as the most effective change agents. The 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, however, gave rise to a new analytical framework emphasizing women's empowerment, women's health, women's rights, and men's participation and responsibility. This approach embraces the complexity of the situation and, thus, provides a road map for effective programs and policies. The next section of the essay considers gender analysis and how this concept leads to a demand on the part of women for access to men's privileges and a climate of confrontation arising from this demand. The inadequacies of using a woman-centered gender analysis as a framework for understanding male behavior are also discussed. Alternative concepts from the feminist movement are explored for their usefulness in generating social change, and the efforts of the Bangladesh Rural Achievement Committee to improve female literacy are used as an example of the value of cooperative, consciousness-raising groups. It is concluded that radical changes will be required to realize women's dreams of social changes.

  20. Interplay between electron-phonon and electron-electron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, O.; Gunnarsson, O.; Han, J.E.; Crespi, V.H.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the interplay between electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions for alkali-doped fullerides and high temperature superconductors. Due to the similarity of the electron and phonon energy scales, retardation effects are small for fullerides. This raises questions about the origin of superconductivity, since retardation effects are believed to be crucial for reducing effects of the Coulomb repulsion in conventional superconductors. We demonstrate that by treating the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions on an equal footing, superconductivity can be understood in terms of a local pairing. The Jahn-Teller character of the important phonons in fullerides plays a crucial role for this result. To describe effects of phonons in cuprates, we derive a t-J model with phonons from the three-band model. Using exact diagonalization for small clusters, we find that the anomalous softening of the half-breathing phonon as well as its doping dependence can be explained. By comparing the solution of the t-J model with the Hartree-Fock approximation for the three-band model, we address results obtained in the local-density approximation for cuprates. We find that genuine many-body results, due to the interplay between the electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, play an important role for the the results in the t-J model. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  2. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance

  3. First Mayan Women's Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teissedre, S

    1997-01-01

    In October 1997, over 200 participants attended the First Mayan Women's Congress in Mexico and called for financial assistance, capacity building, and training to help Mayan women escape poverty. The Congress was initiated by the UN Development Fund for Women in collaboration with the Small Grants Program of the UN Development Program. Traditionally, Mayan women and men have played distinct roles in society, and efforts are underway to increase gender sensitivity and achieve a new balance of power. Mayan women attending the Congress reported that they face daily challenges in gaining their husbands' approval for participation in income-generating activities outside of the home. Eventually, however, some husbands also start working in these enterprises and are learning to assume their share of domestic responsibilities. Mayan women have been forced to reevaluation their role in society by a prevailing agricultural and environmental crisis as well as a high unemployment rate. Crafts that were once produced only for household consumption are now considered for export. Because the women need funds to initiate income-generating activities, the Conference linked women's groups with development practitioners, policy-makers, and donors. The women requested financial aid for more than 30 specific projects, and Congress participants agreed to pursue innovate strategies to support the enterprises with funds, training, and technical assistance. The Congress also encouraged environmental nongovernmental organizations to include Mayan women in mainstream development activities. This successful Congress will be duplicated in other Mexican states.

  4. Women and political representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  5. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  6. Abd-Allah, Dr. Adel-Gamil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abd-Allah, Dr. Adel-Gamil. Vol 12, No 4 (2000) - Articles CORRELATION BETWEEN UTERINE ARTERY FLOW VELOCITY WAVEFORMS AND ENDOMETRIAL HISTOPATHOLOGY IN WOMEN WITH PERIMENOPAUSAL AND POSTMENOPAUSAL BLEEDING. Details. ISSN: 1110-5607. AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Women in service uniforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Karaszewska; Maciej Muskała

    2012-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on th...

  8. Chlamydia and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-02

    This women's health podcast focuses on chlamydia, its severe health consequences for women if left untreated, and the importance of annual chlamydia screening.  Created: 4/2/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 4/2/2009.

  9. WOMEN IN FAMILY BUSINESS

    OpenAIRE

    Mr Anshu

    2012-01-01

    The role of women in family businesses is explored in the paper. Although recognized as generally very important players, the role of women is often defined as invisible in business decision-making, supportive in men’s traditional business domains and only rarelyadequately recognized and rewarded. The paper explores possible differences in the views of men and women who manage small family firms. Their attitudes opposing the traditional business roles ofwomen, different views on managerial, o...

  10. Women And Leadership Roles

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh Indira J

    2003-01-01

    Women and Leadership Roles is culled from workshops conducted by Prof. Indira Parikh at the IIMA. From 1980 till date programmes exploring issues facing Women in Management are offered at the Institute. Issues surrounding leadership, work roles and authority are debated. The objectives are to explore the influence of the transformation of organisations on womens roles in the corporate world; to explore leadership roles and also individual life-spaces; to discover wholesome ways to actualise d...

  11. Obesity and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on obesity in women and girls. It discusses obesity-related health risks and includes tips to help achieve and maintain a healthy weight.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  12. Women in Otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell Ferster, Ashley P; Hu, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Advances in gender equality have been sought in the field of medicine for centuries, including the specialty of otolaryngology. Currently, about 14.5% of practicing otolaryngologists are women. Strides have been made to support equality by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery through the development of the Women in Otolaryngology Section in 2010, among other efforts. This article reviews the literature of women in otolaryngology, as well as current trends toward equality among otolaryngologists of all genders.

  13. Hypertension in women

    OpenAIRE

    Hage, Fadi G; Mansur, Sulaf J; Xing, Dongqi; Oparil, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in both men and women. The prevalence and severity of hypertension rise markedly with age, and blood pressure control becomes more difficult with aging in both genders, particularly in women. In addition, there are forms of hypertension that occur exclusively in women, e.g., hypertension related to menopause, oral contraceptive use, or pregnancy (e.g., chronic hypertension, gestationa...

  14. Women in crime

    OpenAIRE

    Campaniello, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, women’s participation in the labor market has increased considerably in most countries and is converging toward the participation rate of men. Though on a lesser scale, a similar movement toward gender convergence seems to be occurring in the criminal world, though many more men than women still engage in criminal activity. Technological progress and social norms have freed women from the home, increasing their participation in both the labor market and the crime market. ...

  15. Gestational Diabetes and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on gestational diabetes (GDM) to help educate women who may have been diagnosed with GDM now or in the past. GDM is a condition that can lead to pregnancy complications.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  16. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  17. Electron-electron coincidence spectroscopies at surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefani, G.; Iacobucci, S.; Ruocco, A.; Gotter, R.

    2002-01-01

    In the past 20 years, a steadily increasing number of electron-electron coincidence experiments on atoms and molecules have contributed to a deeper understanding of electron-electron correlation effects. In more recent years this technique has been extended to the study of solid surfaces. This class of one photon IN two electrons OUT experiments will be discussed with an emphasis on grazing incidence geometry, that is expected to be particularly suited for studying surfaces. The crucial question of which is the dominant mechanism that leads to ejection of pairs of electron from the surface will be addressed. It will be shown that, depending on the kinematics chosen, the correlated behaviour of the pairs of electrons detected might be singled out from independent particle one

  18. Women in service uniforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Karaszewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the problems of women who work in the uniformed services with the particular emphasis on the performing of the occupation of the prison service. It presents the legal issues relating to equal treatment of men and women in the workplace, formal factors influencing their employment, the status of women in prison, and the problems of their conducting in the professional role. The article also presents the results of research conducted in Poland and all over the world, on the functioning of women in prison and their relations with officers of the Prison Service, as well as with inmates.

  19. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  20. Health of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the problems that women face in social, health, and nutritional areas in India. India's 135th ranking in the Human Development Index reflects the marginalization of women, the aged, the poor, the disabled, lower castes, and other neglected groups. The sex ratio has declined. Maternal mortality is high. 84% of rural women and 42% of urban women rely on untrained persons during childbirth. The systems of education, religion, health care, law, employment, and the mass media promote gender discrimination. Patriarchal structures resist efforts to build a gendered perspective and to provide gender sensitivity within health care and development. Women experience deficits in educational development, rest, food, recreation, and freedom of movement and action. Girls lack sufficient breast feeding and health care from a health system that is 80% private. 40% of the population is poor and needs access to affordable health services. Inadequate diets and nutrition have long term health consequences. Women's health deteriorates due to early marriage and childbearing. Adequate nutrition is exacerbated by high food prices, limits in the Public Distribution System, and the shift to non-edible cash crops. The family planning program focuses on women, despite the prevailing belief that women are not in a position to make decisions. Responsible use of modern contraception requires adequate health infrastructure, personnel, and gender sensitivity. The new emphasis on reproductive health must address the issues of unsafe abortion, reproductive tract infections, women's domestic burden, violence, and mental health.

  1. Womens Business Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — Women's Business Centers (WBCs) represent a national network of nearly 100 educational centers throughout the United States and its territories, which are designed...

  2. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  3. Married Professional Women: How They Feel about the Women's Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Janet Dreyfus

    1979-01-01

    Investigated how married professional women feel about the women's movement. Data revealed that the majority were working to change societal definitions of women's roles but that a sizable minority had little interest in the women's movement. The women's movement has also brought about increased role conflicts for many. (Author/BEF)

  4. (Non) value in women`s magazines

    OpenAIRE

    Denisa Elena CHIRIŢĂ

    2012-01-01

    Dedicated to a specific audience, women willing to be professionally successful and financially independent, the current magazines for women tend to alter the feminism`s mission stated at the beginning of the XXth century. It seems that the “new woman”, promoted by those magazines, has a single purpose: not to hide anymore her sexuality. The pages dedicated to this „liberation” abound in diets, pieces of advice, testimonials of a “more exciting sex”1, daily sensuality, leading towards a new p...

  5. Jobs: women's double burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Whereas international conventions and national laws provide equal opportunities for women in employment, the reality of women's lives keeps a disproportionate number of women unemployed, underemployed, and living in poverty. The UN itself, which officially is working toward equity among its employees, has a staff composed of just 32.6% women, and women comprise only 10.5% of the top end of the hierarchy. In areas where women's labor force participation has increased dramatically, women typically earn 30-40% less than men doing the same job or else their employment is limited to "traditional female" service positions. The fact that women and girls have received an inadequate education makes it extremely difficult to break the barriers of discrimination in developing countries. The empowerment of women will break the education barrier, and, when that falls, many other barriers will follow suit. Efforts are already underway to break structural barriers caused by economic and social policies. For example, a more flexible pattern of work has been proposed which will include the voluntary assumption of flexible hours, job-sharing, and part-time work. The concept of work is also being broadened to include the important human services that women traditionally provide on a volunteer basis. This will lead to a valuation of women's contribution to society which can be added to calculations of gross domestic product. Women also need protection as they attempt to eke out a living in the informal sector which has been the traditional avenue for women to earn money. This sector is not protected by law and is subject to extortion by officials and by male competitors. A variety of measures is under consideration to increase the protection of informal sector workers. Women also need protection in the conventional work place, especially as they enter fields traditionally reserved for men. These questions are important even in the context of global unemployment because these issues

  6. Health screenings for women over age 65

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health maintenance visit - women - over age 65; Physical exam - women - over age 65; Yearly exam - women - over age 65; Checkup - women - over age 65; Women's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - women - over ...

  7. Review: Disabled Addicted Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Hemmati

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Women have suffered from drug abuse for conturies, although formal Treatment assistance for women has been recognized as important only during the past few decades. The nature and underlying reasons for women's drug abuse differ from men’s behavior in many ways. It is finally understood that research on men will not simply translate into effective solutions for women as well. Here deal with the many issues that can arise in working with disabled women suffered from drug abuse because biologically, Culturally, and socially, their experience is different from that of men and other women and key theme For this discourse is that a woman who suffered from drug abuse is first and foremost a woman. Disabled women also have specific issues that must acknowledge and incorporate into the counseling, social work and other experince, so, here review is based on more than 25 years of the collective experience and firsthand knowledge of Monique Cohen and their Counselors at The CASPAR outpatient Clinic in Cambridge, Massachusett (2000 about women with drug abuse and alcoholism. The clinic Provides omprehensive substance abuse treatment to Individuals and Families struggling with either one or multiple addictions.

  8. Women: A Select Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusnerz, Peggy A., Comp.; Pollack, Ann M., Comp.

    This select bibliography lists books, monographs, journals and newsletters which relate to feminism, women's studies, and other perspectives on women. Selections are organized by topic: general, bibliographies, art and literature, biography/autobiography, economics, education, family and marriage, history, politics and sex roles. Also included is…

  9. Women in rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, I

    1980-01-01

    The integration of women in rural development means something more than mere labor involvement, but there has never been a clear definition of what it means. 4 principal concerns of policy-makers are briefly described as they affect women: unemployment and inadequate employment; 2) the satisfaction of basic needs and women's participation in decision-making; 3) population issues; and 4) rural-to-urban migration. The actual inter-household and inter-personal distribution of more work and higher productivity work could result in some hard-working people working even longer hours because of additional tasks with others losing their intermittent employment opportunities due to mechanization. These contradictions can be particularly acute for women. The non-material basic need of decision-making powers is more important in the case of women than of men, yet the personal status of women is being threatened by the institution-building that accompanies peasant-based agricultural intensification plans and anti-poverty programs. The education of females has been seen as a possible factor favoring family planning. In addition, education for women can mean access to public information and new expectations from life for themselves. At this time more women than men seem to be migrating to towns and cities in a number of countries with varied economic structures. 3 cases studies of agricultural development in Kenya, Bangladesh and Java, Indonesia are presented.

  10. Urinary retention in women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary retention in women. Urinary retention in women is often transient and of no known cause. ... stones, constipation, urethral cancer, uterine fibroids ... present with abnormal bladder function secondary to ... (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or myelography ... full blood count, urea, electrolytes and creatinine can ...

  11. Women Deans: Leadership Becoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol A.; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2009-01-01

    The term "leadership" metaphorically embodies a gendered hierarchy of labour. In this study women deans' values were found to be incongruent with the masculine discourse creating inner conflicts and alternative discourses. Data collected from 10 women deans from both male-dominated and female-dominated colleges were used to deconstruct leadership…

  12. Entrepreneurs: Women and Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Lilialyce

    A program was designed to meet the needs of Kentucky women who wished to supplement their incomes by producing articles in their homes for sale. Its three-phase objective was to identify women who already had knitting skills and train them to produce a finished product; to provide basic knowledge about how to run a small business; and to provide…

  13. Women as Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Linda L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses theories that socialization or "the system" cause women's problems in management, contending that both contribute. Analyzes women manager's problems in using and misusing power and coping with stress. Discusses public/private sector differences. Suggests that networking and constructive self-analysis can alleviate some problems. (AYC)

  14. The Modularization of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Yen; Brockmann, C. Thomas

    The standard classification of women's roles into the traditional, dual career, and single parent constellations is unnecessarily restrictive and stereotyping. These categories reflect neither the myriad of role choices facing women today, nor the forces shaping the resulting contexts. This paper focuses upon modules, the component task or…

  15. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression in Older Women More in Women's Health Topics ... Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos on Flickr FDA Archive Combination ...

  16. Violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiva, M

    1999-01-01

    In India, violence against women is increasing and takes many forms while laws to protect women are ignored. Despite this fact, the new reproductive and child health program ignores sexual violence. Health personnel can respond by: 1) accepting the magnitude of the problem; 2) investigating the deaths of young women; 3) documenting findings; 4) ensuring that sexual abuse is recognized as a public health problem; 5) disseminating findings; 6) ensuring the protection of female field workers; 7) recognizing violence as an occupational health hazard; 8) facilitating the empowerment of women; 9) training women in self-defense; 10) ensuring that colleges and training institutes address violence as a women's health concern; 11) studying the psychological effects of violence; 12) collaborating with the National Commission for Women and the National Human Rights Commission; and 13) advocating for incorporation of sexual violence as a reproductive health issue in the national reproductive health program. In particular, domestic violence is a pervasive violation of women's human rights and has been resistant to social advances because of its "hidden" nature. Domestic violence exists because husbands believe they have an absolute right over the sexuality of their wives. Abusive husbands also abuse their daughters while sons learn violent behavior from their fathers. Crimes must be considered irrespective of whether they are committed outside or inside the home.

  17. Women, Families, and Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Marian B.; And Others

    Services to imprisoned women under the age of 21 and the effects of incarceration on inmate mothers and their children are the two major subjects discussed in this report of a study conducted at the two state prison facilities for women in North Carolina. Information on these topics was obtained through site visits, interviews with staff and…

  18. Oral Health and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-12

    This women's health podcast focuses on the importance of maintaining good oral health during pregnancy.  Created: 5/12/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/12/2009.

  19. Women Lead the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Female corporate leaders are becoming more common, but that does not mean it was a snap for them to get there. Much has been said about the hard road faced by women who seek top spots in corporate America. Many point out, for instance, that women executives still often are paid less than their male counterparts, and that they face stereotypes,…

  20. Women and Private Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Helene A.

    This speech focuses on women and private pension plans, such as private pension coverage and smaller benefit amounts. Pension issues affecting women as employees include participation in plans, vesting, break-in service, benefit accruals, integration with Social Security, sex-based actuarial tables, portability, inflation, and individual…

  1. Career Development of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Anna M., Ed.; Vetter, Louise, Ed.

    The five major papers whose full texts are included address themselves to various topics that can influence the lives of women in their career choices and advancement. Federal Legislation: Impact on Women's Careers, Mary Allen Jolley, discusses sex discrimination, legal gains made over the past 10 years, sex role stereotyping, and vocational…

  2. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Women in many African countries have a legal right to own land, but ... And so, Banda says, “we've come to see that changing the law and the ... Because the people in charge ... women's insecure tenure, despite gender-neutral statutory laws.

  3. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Monitoring Devices FDA Diabetes Information on WebMD Order Free Women's Health Publications Women's Health Information on Twitter Information from Other Government Agencies and Offices National Diabetes Education Program Diabetes Information on MedlinePlus Diabetes and Depression ...

  4. Women in Science Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine June 12, 2018, 11 am - 12:30 pm ET Washington, DC Report Discussion Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate . EDUCATION Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education High School Graduates who Completed

  5. What Women Have Wrought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Marjorie

    1988-01-01

    Reviews four books: "Counter Cultures" (Susan Porter Benson); "Once a Cigar Maker" (Patricia A. Cooper); "To Toil the Livelong Day" (Carol Groneman and Mary Beth North eds.); and "Gender at Work" (Ruth Milkman). The works examine cultural stereotypes about the nature of work and women and they attempt to dispel the ideas that women are less…

  6. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign-up for a ... to help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse Women in Clinical ...

  7. Married Women's Retirement Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana Pozzebon; Olivia S. Mitchell

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we examine the economic and family determinants of married women's retirement behavior. A model of wives' retirement decisions is developed and tested empirically using data on working married women. Estimated response parameters are compared to those obtained previously for male workers. Our findings are directly relevant to policy questions regarding pension and Social Security reform.

  8. Women's Health Insurance Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health Policy Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Women’s Health Insurance Coverage Published: Oct 31, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... that many women continue to face. Sources of Health Insurance Coverage Employer-Sponsored Insurance: Approximately 57.9 million ...

  9. Heart Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States, 1 in 4 women dies from heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease in both men and women is narrowing ... the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart itself. This is called coronary artery disease, and ...

  10. [Violence towards pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E

    2001-12-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.

  11. Plantar Pressure During Gait in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.

  12. Plasmaspheric electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, G.K.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements of the plasmaspheric electron content are reviewed with particular reference to the ATS-6 radio beacon experiment. From the review, it appears likely that measurement of the plasmaspheric electron content is the only one capable of monitoring electron fluxes continuously between L 1 and L 2. Some recent important results deduced from plasmaspheric electron content measurements are discussed

  13. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  14. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  15. Venous thromboembolism in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Group, ESHRE Capri Workshop; Skouby, Sven Olaf

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a specific reproductive health risk for women. METHODS Searches were performed in Medline and other databases. The selection criteria were high-quality studies and studies relevant to clinical reproductive medicine. Summaries were presented and discussed...... is associated with an inherited thrombophilia in men and women. Changes in the coagulation system and in the risk of clinical VTE in women also occur during pregnancy, with the use of reproductive hormones and as a consequence of ovarian stimulation when hyperstimulation syndrome and conception occur together...... therapy (HRT) increases the VTE risk 2- to 4-fold. There is a synergistic effect between thrombophilia and the various reproductive risks. Prevention of VTE during pregnancy should be offered to women with specific risk factors. In women who are at high risk, CHC and HRT should be avoided. CONCLUSIONS...

  16. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  17. 121 WOMEN AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: IGBO WOMEN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their economy is the major area of importance over other sectors of life. They ensured that .... instance, a woman must have her husband's consent to open a bank account. Women are known ... in gainful employment because she should stay at home and depend on her husband and .... Okpoko, A.I. (2002). Empowering ...

  18. Discrimination against women and the human rights of women

    OpenAIRE

    Žunić Natalija

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the concept of the human rights of women and its connection with the phenomenon and the instances of discrimination against women. Discrimination against women, its social visibility and the fight against it, within the idea of the rights and the equality of women, are a source of many theoretical debates. Academic discussions and a powerful influence of the women's movement have brought about the establishment and the exercise of the human rights of women at different...

  19. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  20. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  1. Electron-electron interactions in artificial graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Esa

    2013-03-01

    Recent advances in the creation and modulation of graphenelike systems are introducing a science of ``designer Dirac materials.'' In its original definition, artificial graphene is a man-made nanostructure that consists of identical potential wells (quantum dots) arranged in an adjustable honeycomb lattice in the two-dimensional electron gas. As our ability to control the quality of artificial graphene samples improves, so grows the need for an accurate theory of its electronic properties, including the effects of electron-electron interactions. Here we determine those effects on the band structure and on the emergence of Dirac points, and discuss future investigations and challenges in this field.

  2. International Women's Day speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts.

  3. Electronic payment systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mláka, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis analysis issue of electronic payment systems. It discusses their use for payments on the internet and sending funds via e-mail. The first part is devoted to the theoretical definition and legislation of the issuance of electronic money and activities of electronic money institutions. The main part of the work clearly focuses on the use of e-wallets, which is an integral part of electronic payment systems. E-wallet of electronic payment system Moneybookers is considered as...

  4. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  5. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  6. Neutrinos in the Electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschmieder, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    I will show that one half of the rest mass of the electron consists of electron neutrinos and that the other half of the rest mass of the electron consists of the mass in the energy of electric oscillations. With this composition we can explain the rest mass of the electron, its charge, its spin and its magnetic moment We have also determined the rest masses of the muon neutrino and the electron neutrino

  7. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  8. Heart Disease in Hispanic Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease in Women Heart Disease in Hispanic Women “I thought it couldn’t be true,” says ... disease is their No. 1 killer. Why Hispanic women? While heart disease doesn’t discriminate, you could ...

  9. Women and Diabetes -- Diabetes Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Women and Diabetes - Diabetes Medicines Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 1-800-332-1088 to request a form. Diabetes Medicines The different kinds of diabetes medicines are ...

  10. Financial Literacy Education for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecke, Jodi; Taylor, Edward W.; Hira, Tahira K.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring the pedagogical approaches of four women's financial literacy education programs, this chapter provides an overview of trends and needs in financial education for women and offers pedagogical strategies for teaching women about finance.

  11. Migration of women: Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Ivnik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is a result of a field work in three asylum seekers centres in Serbia. The author deals with migrant and refugee women's experiences on the western Balkan route. The methodology used is mainly semi-structured and un-structured interviews with migrants, employees in asylum seekers centres and local inhabitants. The article examines the specific experiences of migrant and refugee women on their way into Europe. It focuses on the different forms of violence they face, on the experiences of pregnant women and on the changes to their situations during the mobility process. It further deals with the legislation concerning refugees and tries to show how legislation indirectly creates threats to women migrants while at the same time depriving them of power and victimizing them. It is based on understanding the legislature as a male-centred, which means that it is mainly shaped by experiences of men while often not examining the specific experiences and needs of women. The author notes that refugee women need to submit to the dominant representation of them as victims, even though there is a great deal of autonomy, solidarity and perseverance in the stories of the women interviewed.

  12. Women and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, A

    1996-01-01

    Smoking kills over half a million women each year and is the most important preventable cause of female premature death in several developed countries. However, in many countries, cigarette smoking still tends to be regarded as a mainly male problem. This paper explores the reasons why more attention needs to be paid to issues around smoking and women, even in countries which currently have low levels of female cigarette smoking. The article includes an overview of current patterns and trends of smoking among women, and the factors which influence smoking uptake and cessation in women compared to men. The experience of countries with the longest history of widespread female smoking is used to identify some of the key challenges facing developed and developing countries. Tobacco companies have identified women as a key target group, therefore particular attention is given to the ways in which they have attempted to reach women through advertising and other marketing strategies. It is concluded that in order to halt and ultimately reverse the tobacco epidemic among women, tobacco control policies need to encompass both gender-specific and gender-sensitive approaches. Examples are given of the types of action that are needed in relation to research, public policy and legislation, and education.

  13. Osteoporosis in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdahl, Bente L

    2017-07-01

    The scope of this review was to review the newest developments in the context of the existing knowledge on premenopausal bone fragility. Fragility fractures are common in postmenopausal women and men and diagnostic criteria for osteoporosis have been agreed and multiple pharmacological treatments have been developed over the last 25 years. In premenopausal women, fragility fractures and very low bone mass are uncommon and osteoporosis in premenopausal women has therefore attracted much less interest. Recent studies have highlighted that lifestyle and dietary habits affect premenopausal bone mass. Bone mass may be improved by sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D together with increased physical activity in premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis. If pharmacological treatment is needed, teriparatide has been demonstrated to efficiently increase bone mass; however, no fracture studies and no comparative studies against antiresorptive therapies have been conducted. Pregnancy affects bone turnover and mass significantly, but pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare and heterogeneous condition. The diagnosis of osteoporosis should only be considered in premenopausal women with existing fragility fractures, diseases or treatments known to cause bone loss or fractures. Secondary causes of osteoporosis should be corrected or treated if possible. The women should be recommended sufficient intake of calcium and vitamin and physical activity. In women with recurrent fractures or secondary causes that cannot be eliminated, for example glucocorticoid or cancer treatment, pharmacological intervention with bisphosphonates or teriparatide (not in the case of cancer) may be considered.

  14. Women's work in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonder, Bette R; Bazyk, Susan; Reilly, Bridget; Toyota, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe women's work in Maya communities in the Guatemala Highlands, along with some of the trends accompanying the rapid societal change there. Over the course of six years, observations and interviews focused on two specific groups of women. The first were traditional, home-based women, the second, teachers in a primary school. Resulting transcripts and field notes were analyzed by the researchers to identify themes related to the women's perspectives on work, the patterns of their work activities, and the importance of work in their lives. Women who had been interviewed were asked to reflect on the themes identified. All the women engaged in paid work activities and were responsible for obligatory tasks in the home. The traditional group preserved the tradition of weaving, but remained largely illiterate, while the emerging group was literate, but did not learn to weave. Cultural change is both positive and negative, as described by these women. It is important to understand the particular values of the culture, and to recognize that these may not conform to Western (that is to say U.S.) beliefs and practices.

  15. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  16. Women, 'madness' and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardes, Jennifer Jane

    2018-03-21

    The positive relationship between exercise and mental health is often taken for granted in today's society, despite the lack of academic literature evidencing this symbiosis. Gender is considered a significant determinant in a number of mental health diagnoses. Indeed, women are considered twice as likely as men to experience the most pervasive mental health condition, depression. Exercise for women's mental health is promoted through various macrolevel charity, as well as microlevel, campaigns that influence government healthcare policy and National Health Service guidelines. Indeed, 'exercise prescriptions' in the treatment of depression is not uncommon. Yet, this link between exercise as a treatment for women's mental health has not always been so pervasive. In fact, an examination of asylum reports and medical journals from the late 19th century highlights a significant shift in attitude towards the role of exercise in the treatment of women's emotional states and mental health. This paper specifically examines how this treatment of women's mental health through exercise has moved from what might be regarded as a focus on exercise as a 'cause' of women's mental ailments to exercise promoted as a 'cure'. Unpacking the changing medical attitudes towards exercise for women in line with larger sociopolitical and historic contexts reveals that while this shift towards exercise promotion might prima facie appear as a less essentialist view of women and their mental and physical states, it inevitably remains tied to larger policy and governance agendas. New modes of exercise 'treatment' for women's mental health are not politically neutral and, thus, what appear to emerge as forms of liberation are, in actuality, subtler forms of regulation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  18. Practical XHV electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Cho, Boklae; Oshima, Chuhei

    2008-01-01

    We have developed practical XHV chambers of a electron gun, of which the operating pressures are 1x10 -9 Pa in a stainless-steel one and 4x10 -9 Pa in a permalloy one. By mounting a noble single-atom electron source with high brightness and high spatial coherence on the electron gun including electron optics, we demonstrated highly collimated electron-beam emission: ∼80% of the total emission current entered the electron optics. This ratio was two or three orders of magnitude higher than those of the conventional electron sources. In XHV, in addition, we confirmed stable electron emission up to 20 nA, which results in the specimen current high enough for scanning electron microscopes. (author)

  19. Hereditary angioedema in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouillet Laurence

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Women with hereditary angioedema (HAE are more likely to be symptomatic that men. Hormonal factors (puberty, contraception, pregnancy,.... play a significant role in the precipitation or worsening of the condition in women. So, combined contraceptive pills are not indicated and progestogen pill must be preferred. During pregnancy, attack rate can increase (38-48% of women. C1Inhibitor concentrate and tranexamic acid can be used during pregnancy. Attenuated androgens for long term prophylaxis are effective but side effects appear more often in female patients. These side effects are dose dependant and can be attenuated by titrating the dose down the lowest effective level.

  20. Violence Against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulu, Emma; Miedema, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Globalization theories have proliferated over the past two decades. However, global developments have yet to be systematically incorporated into theories around violence against women. This article proposes to add a global level to the existing ecological model framework, popularized by Lori Heise in 1998, to explore the relationships between global processes and experiences of violence against women. Data from the Maldives and Cambodia are used to assess how globalized ideologies, economic development and integration, religious fundamentalisms, and global cultural exchange, as components of a larger globalization process, have affected men and women’s experiences and perceptions of violence against women. PMID:26215287

  1. Women Physicists Speak Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Rachel; Guo, Stacy

    2005-10-01

    More than 1350 women physicists from more than 70 countries responded to a survey designed to identify issues important to women in physics. Women physicists had many areas of concern, notably discrimination and career/family balance. However, they also had many successes in physics. The majority would choose physics again and felt that they had progressed in their careers at least as quickly as their colleagues. Many spoke eloquently about their love of physics, the support they had received from others, and about their own determination and hard work.

  2. Status of women microbiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashket, E R; Robbins, M L; Leive, L; Huang, A S

    1974-02-08

    The general picture that emerges from this study is that the woman microbiologist, upon entering the professional job market, faces (i) slower advancement; (ii) restricted extramural recognition; and (iii) fewer positions of a supervisory or administrative nature, when compared to men. Most striking is the salary differential, which increases with increasing educational level, with increasing rank, and with increasing seniority. From the beginning of her professional training, the woman microbiologist feels handicapped by lack of encouragement and proper role models. She generally receives little advice regarding her professional future and rarely feels pushed to take the most challenging position. Should she be married, she feels that her mobility is severely restricted. Even though the subjective nature of these feelings may be interpreted as projections of failure, subtle inducements for women to stay at lower levels may well exist, in addition to more objective measurements, such as lower salary levels and slower professional advancement. Despite these handicaps, professional women continue to work. As a group, they work for the same reasons that men do, they work as long and as hard as men do, and they remain at their positions as long as men do. Women and men rate themselves equally as to job performance, degree of independence, and publication rate. On the basis of this study, it should not be surprising that women professionals are less visible than men and that only a small proportion of women become what is considered successful by the usual external criteria. If women were to receive continued encouragement, scientific contact, and professional recognition at each stage of their professional lives, they would undoubtedly become more visible. The lack of encouragement and selfconfidence leading to isolation, which then leads to lack of recognition, is a vicious circle that must be broken for the woman professional. This can be done most easily for the

  3. Entrepreneurship Womens Business

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tony Bledsoe; Rebecca J. Oatsvall

    2010-01-01

    One outstanding impact in the twenty first century US economy is the phenomenally expanding role and importance of women entrepreneurs. The Center for Women’s Business Research reports “nearly 10.4 million firms are 50% or more owned by women, employing more than 12.8 million people, and generating $1.9 trillion in sales.” (2007) This growth is evidenced by the fact that majority women-owned firms grew at twice the rate of all firms between 1997 and 2006. (Center for Women’s Business Research...

  4. Individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP study: a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Del Carmen Macías-Cortés

    Full Text Available Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression.A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority, three-arm trial with a 6 week follow-up study was conducted. The study was performed in a public research hospital in Mexico City in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred thirty-three peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to DSM-IV (moderate to severe intensity were included. The outcomes were: change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Depression Inventory and Greene Scale, after 6 weeks of treatment, response and remission rates, and safety. Efficacy data were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test.After a 6-week treatment, homeopathic group was more effective than placebo by 5 points in Hamilton Scale. Response rate was 54.5% and remission rate, 15.9%. There was a significant difference among groups in response rate definition only, but not in remission rate. Fluoxetine-placebo difference was 3.2 points. No differences were observed among groups in the Beck Depression Inventory. Homeopathic group was superior to placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale (8.6 points. Fluoxetine was not different from placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale.Homeopathy and fluoxetine are effective and safe antidepressants for climacteric women. Homeopathy and fluoxetine were significantly different from placebo in response definition only

  5. Individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP study): a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cortés, Emma Del Carmen; Llanes-González, Lidia; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depression. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of individualized homeopathic treatment versus placebo and fluoxetine versus placebo in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, superiority, three-arm trial with a 6 week follow-up study was conducted. The study was performed in a public research hospital in Mexico City in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred thirty-three peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to DSM-IV (moderate to severe intensity) were included. The outcomes were: change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Beck Depression Inventory and Greene Scale, after 6 weeks of treatment, response and remission rates, and safety. Efficacy data were analyzed in the intention-to-treat population (ANOVA with Bonferroni post-hoc test). After a 6-week treatment, homeopathic group was more effective than placebo by 5 points in Hamilton Scale. Response rate was 54.5% and remission rate, 15.9%. There was a significant difference among groups in response rate definition only, but not in remission rate. Fluoxetine-placebo difference was 3.2 points. No differences were observed among groups in the Beck Depression Inventory. Homeopathic group was superior to placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale (8.6 points). Fluoxetine was not different from placebo in Greene Climacteric Scale. Homeopathy and fluoxetine are effective and safe antidepressants for climacteric women. Homeopathy and fluoxetine were significantly different from placebo in response definition only. Homeopathy, but

  6. Efficacy of individualized homeopathic treatment and fluoxetine for moderate to severe depression in peri- and postmenopausal women (HOMDEP-MENOP): study protocol for a randomized, double-dummy, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías-Cortés, Emma del Carmen; Aguilar-Faisal, Leopoldo; Asbun-Bojalil, Juan

    2013-04-23

    The perimenopausal period refers to the interval when women's menstrual cycles become irregular and is characterized by an increased risk of depressive symptoms. Use of homeopathy to treat depression is widespread but there is a lack of clinical trials about its efficacy in depression in peri- and postmenopausal women. Previous trials suggest that individualized homeopathic treatments improve depression. In classical homeopathy, an individually selected homeopathic remedy is prescribed after a complete case history of the patient. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of the homeopathic individualized treatment versus placebo or fluoxetine in peri- and postmenopausal women with moderate to severe depression. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, double-dummy, three-arm trial with a six-week follow-up study was designed. The study will be conducted in a public research hospital in Mexico City (Juárez de México Hospital) in the outpatient service of homeopathy. One hundred eighty nine peri- and postmenopausal women diagnosed with major depression according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (moderate to severe intensity) will be included. The primary outcome is change in the mean total score among groups on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression after the fourth and sixth week of treatment. Secondary outcomes are: Beck Depression Inventory change in mean score, Greene's Scale change in mean score, response and remission rates and safety. Efficacy data will be analyzed in the intention-to-treat population. To determine differences in the primary and secondary outcomes among groups at baseline and weeks four and six, data will be analyzed by analysis of variance for independent measures with the Bonferroni post-hoc test. This study is the first trial of classical homeopathy that will evaluate the efficacy of homeopathic individualized treatment using C-potencies versus placebo or

  7. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  8. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  9. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  10. Security for women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    International Rescue Committee

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available An assessment by the International Rescue Committee in 1996 in Kibondo District, Tanzania, indicated that 27 per cent of women between the ages of 12 and 49 had experienced sexual violence since becoming refugees.

  11. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Email Print Diabetes is a serious illness that affects over 29 million people in the United States. ... help doctors learn more about how diabetes medicines affect women during pregnancy. Diabetes and Pregnancy (CDC) Diverse ...

  12. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  13. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes. Food Safety for People with Diabetes Your Glucose Meter - easy-to-read booklet for women Other ... Information on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need ...

  14. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research on Women's Health to raise awareness about diverse ... Federal, State & Local Officials Consumers Health Professionals Science & Research Industry Scroll back to top Popular Content Home ...

  15. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to take diabetes ... talk with your health care provider about your diabetes treatment. Diabetes Medicines - easy-to-read booklet for women ...

  16. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. The FDA Office of Women's Health is partnering with the NIH Office of Research ...

  17. How Women Manage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuer, Dale

    1988-01-01

    Discusses why women managers are overrepresented in low-level, low-status positions; why they are in go-nowhere staff roles, managing functions not people; and why so few hold top management positions in America's organizations. (JOW)

  18. Women and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be more vulnerable to brain damage than teen boys who drink. Women also may be more susceptible than men to alcohol-related blackouts, defined as periods of memory loss of events during intoxication without loss of consciousness. ...

  19. Cancer and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Infographics Cancer and Alcohol Web Features Breast Cancer Awareness Breast Cancer in Young Women Cancer and Men ... in Childhood Cancer, the Flu, and You Cervical Cancer Awareness Colorectal Cancer Awareness Gynecologic Cancer Awareness Health Disparities ...

  20. Women demand development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, I

    2000-07-01

    This study was conducted by a research team in Dar es Salaam to identify which policy changes might strengthen rural food security in Tanzania. The participatory research revealed much about the impact of gender and culture on food security. In both districts of Ngorongoro and Shinyanga, control of resources favored men. They managed the income from high-value resources like cattle, cotton, and maize, while women managed low-value resources like milk, hides, and goats. Also, it was evident that in both districts, violence against women had an impact on women's confidence and levels of control, and was felt to exacerbate food insecurity. In view of this, the research recommends support to groups of women and youths to organize themselves and lobby for change, as well as support to government and other officials to help them listen to those voices and respond more effectively.

  1. Women Scientists in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    participate in large numbers not just in learning ... earlier reports and give a summary of the situation .... noting best practices and recommendations that ..... service. This certainly has helped women working in organizations. In fact India has ...

  2. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Beware of Illegally Sold Diabetes Treatments Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ... care provider about how to manage diabetes during pregnancy. Medicine and Pregnancy Fact Sheet Pregnancy Registries - Sign- ...

  3. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you need depends on your health and the type of diabetes you have. Use these resources to help you ... Diabetes and Pregnancy Some women develop diabetes for the first time ...

  4. Democracy and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Jalil

    2009-01-01

    New research on broader determinants of health has culminated into the new paradigm of social determinants of health. The fundamental view that underlies this new paradigm is that socioeconomic and political contexts in which people live have significant bearing upon their health and well-being. Unlike a wealth of research on socioeconomic determinants, few studies have focused on the role of political factors. Some of these studies examine the role of political determinants on health through their mediation with the labour environments and systems of welfare state. A few others study the relationship between polity regimes and population health more directly. However, none of them has a focus on women's health. This study explores the interactions, both direct and indirect, between democracy and women's health. In doing so, it identifies some of the main health vulnerabilities for women and explains, through a conceptual model, how democracy and respect for human rights interacts with women's health. PMID:21836777

  5. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us on Twitter There is good news. Diabetes can be controlled by maintaining a healthy diet, exercising, ... Diverse Women in Clinical Trials Campaign Clinical trials can help doctors learn more about treatments for diabetes. ...

  6. Women in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Antwerp, Dacia

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the special vocational needs of women who are planning careers in corporate management. Suggests three basic areas that counselors should cover with these clients: goals, expertise, and teamwork. (HMV)

  7. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... women Other FDA Information on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people ... back to top Popular Content Home Latest Recalls Report an Adverse Event MedWatch Safety Alerts News Releases ...

  8. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for example diarrhoeal disease or malnutrition). Social and economic costs The social and economic costs of intimate partner and sexual violence are ... Gynecologists (FIGO) and the UN Joint Programme on Essential Services Package for Women Subject to Violence. (1) ...

  9. Women and Land

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participation-oriented research methods are much more likely to bring about .... Examining the specific types of relations that women have to land reveals the ways ..... information – builds capacity to acquire sound qualitative data and, thereby, ...

  10. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diabetes for the first time when they become pregnant. This is called gestational (jes-Tay-shun-ul) diabetes. Other women have diabetes before they get pregnant. Use these resources to help you talk to ...

  11. Women in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, Dorothy Rosenthal

    1978-01-01

    Literature written since 1973 about the individual woman physician and the situation of United States women in medicine is examined and reviewed. Discrimination problems, identity conflicts, and a "typical" personality profile are some of the issues addressed. (Author/ KR)

  12. Women and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Food Safety for People with Diabetes Your Glucose Meter - easy-to-read booklet for women Other FDA ... on Diabetes How to Report Problems with Glucose Meters Diabetes Treatments Some people with diabetes need to ...

  13. Sexual Health (Women)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Easy Advocacy Checklists for Association Events Messaging Tools Recruiting Advocates Local Market Planning Training Webinars News & Events ... you can still get pregnant. Most birth control methods are safe for women with diabetes. Talk with ...

  14. Heart disease and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007188.htm Heart disease and women To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. People often DO NOT consider heart disease a woman's disease. Yet cardiovascular disease is the ...

  15. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smokers appear less attractive and prematurely old. 5 Women have been extensively targeted by tobacco marketing. These ads are dominated by themes associating cigarettes with social desirability, independence, weight control and having fun. Like most other ...

  16. IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IMPROVING WOMEN'S LIVES Practical support for women gives communities a better future. October 26 ... Organized into small cooperatives, the women produce and market argan oil using a mix of traditional and modern methods. At the same time ... arts and craft. Technology helps Asian women balance family and work.

  17. Athene in Academe: Women Mentoring Women in the Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, Joyce

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally conceived, mentoring has a male orientation that ignores women's experience as "same" and "other" in academia and the problems of men mentoring women and of women mentors socializing mentees into acceptance of the patriarchal system. An alternative view values women's unique position and critiques existing power structures. (SK)

  18. Women in the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-06

    Army womenpower re- quirements with no apparent end in sight. No country, not even Russia or Israel, has ever made a conscious decision to include...provide a basis for decision making. iiI CHAPTER ONE AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW Few books have been written which outline the history of military women...with a bill introducing the Women’s Army Auxillary Corps (WAAC). In order 7 that the Army could maintain control over this sensitive issue, General

  19. Maintaining women's oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, A L; Bonci, L

    2001-07-01

    Women must adopt health-promoting strategies for both general health and the oral cavity, because the health of a woman's body and oral cavity are bidirectional. For general health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should actively advise women to minimize alcohol use, abstain from or cease smoking, stay physically active, and choose the right foods to nourish both the body and mind. For oral health-maintenance strategies, dental practitioners should advise women on how to prevent or control oral infections, particularly dental caries and periodontal diseases. Specifically, women need to know how to remove plaque from the teeth mechanically, use appropriate chemotherapeutic agents and dentifrices, use oral irrigation, and control halitosis. Dental practitioners also need to stress the importance of regular maintenance visits for disease prevention. Adolescent women are more prone to gingivitis and aphthous ulcers when they begin their menstrual cycles and need advice about cessation of tobacco use, mouth protection during athletic activities, cleaning orthodontic appliances, developing good dietary habits, and avoiding eating disorders. Women in early to middle adulthood may be pregnant or using oral contraceptives with concomitant changes in oral tissues. Dental practitioners need to advise them how to take care of the oral cavity during these changes and how to promote the health of their infants, including good nutrition. Older women experience the onset of menopause and increased vulnerability to osteoporosis. They may also experience xerostomia and burning mouth syndrome. Dental practitioners need to help women alleviate these symptoms and encourage them to continue good infection control and diet practices.

  20. Economic entrepreneurship of women

    OpenAIRE

    Eugeniusz Niedzielski

    2014-01-01

    The study contains an analysis of size and conditions of running business by women. It also refers to the motives of starting own business. The analysis confirmed that although there is no “male” and “female” entrepreneurship, running own business by women is much more hampered by providing care for children, especially for the small ones, than in case of men. Regardless of gender, success of business prejudice personality and situational traits. Development of entrepreneurship, especially in...