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Sample records for perfusion speed isolation

  1. Isolated limb perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rosalyn; Chantier, Nariane

    1994-12-08

    Growing concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma has brought about a need for information on this disorder and the treatment available. Isolated limb perfusion is a relatively new technique used in only a few hospitals. An increased knowledge base will lead to a better understanding of the nursing care required and to a more in-depth care plan.

  2. Characterizing potential heart agents with an isolated perfused heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Camin, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used an isolated perfused heart system for characterizing potential myocardial perfusion radiopharamaceuticals. Rabbit or guinea pig (GP) hearts are removed and perfused through the aorta with a blood-free buffer. Heart rate and ventricular pressure are monitored as indices of viability. Tc-99m-MAA is 96-100% retained in these hearts, and Tc-99m human serum albumin shows less than 5% extraction. Tl-201 is 30-40% extracted. It is known that in-vivo, Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2//sup +/ is taken up by rabbit heart but not by GP or human heart. Analogous results are obtained with the isolated perfused heart model, where the complex is extracted well by the isolated rabbit heart (24%) but not by the GP heart (<5%). Values are unchanged if human, rabbit or GP blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex. Tc-99m)dmpe)/sub 3//sup +/ is also taken up by rabbit but not by GP hearts in-vivo. However, isolated perfused hearts of both species extract this complex well (45-52%). Heart uptake is diminished to <7% if the complex is pre-equilibrated with human blood. GP blood produces a moderate inhibition (in GP hearts only) and rabbit blood has no effect. This suggests that a human or GP blood factor may have a significant effect on heart uptake of this complex. Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ is taken up well by both rabbit and GP hearts in-vivo, and is extracted 100% by both isolated perfused hearts. Heart retention remains high (73-75%) in the presence of human blood

  3. Effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, J.B. (Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (USA)); Evans, D.H. (Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME, USA)

    1981-06-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of /sup 22/Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro /sup 36/Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion.

  4. The effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, J.B.; Evans, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of 22 Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro 36 Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion. (Auth.)

  5. Sulphonylurea drugs reduce hypoxic damage in the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbersen, R; Moons, M M; Wouterse, A C; Dijkman, H B; Kramers, C; Smits, P; Russel, F G

    2000-08-01

    Sulphonylurea drugs have been shown to protect against hypoxic damage in isolated proximal tubules of the kidney. In the present study we investigated whether these drugs can protect against hypoxic damage in a whole kidney preparation. Tolbutamide (200 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM) were applied to the isolated perfused rat kidney prior to changing the gassing from oxygen to nitrogen for 30 min. Hypoxic perfusions resulted in an increased fractional excretion of glucose (FE % glucose 14.3+/-1.5 for hypoxic perfusions vs 4.9+/-1.6 for normoxic perfusions, mean +/- s.e. mean, P<0.05), which could be completely restored by 200 microM tolbutamide (5.7+/-0.4 for tolbutamide vs 14.3+/-1.5 for untreated hypoxic kidneys, P<0.01). Furthermore, tolbutamide reduced the total amount of LDH excreted in the urine (220+/-100 mU for tolbutamide vs. 1220+/-160 mU for untreated hypoxic kidneys, P<0.01). Comparable results were obtained with glibenclamide (10 microM). In agreement with the effect on functional parameters, ultrastructural analysis of proximal tubules showed increased brush border preservation in tolbutamide treated kidneys compared to untreated hypoxic kidneys. We conclude that glibenclamide and tolbutamide are both able to reduce hypoxic damage to proximal tubules in the isolated perfused rat kidney when applied in the appropriate concentrations.

  6. Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

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    A.S. França

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg and heparinized (500 U. The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min. The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM in the Krebs solution. Increasing Ca2+ concentrations did not alter the flow-pressure relationship. In the third group a similar protocol was performed but the rat tail vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution containing PE (0.1 µg/ml. There was an enhancement of the effect of PE with increasing external Ca2+ and flow. PE vasopressor responses increased after endothelial damage with air and CHAPS, suggesting an endothelial modulation of the tone of the rat tail vascular bed. These experiments validate the perfusion of the rat tail vascular bed as a method to investigate vascular reactivity

  7. Phosphorus NMR of isolated perfused morris hepatomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.A.; Meyer, R.A.; Brown, T.R.; Sauer, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing techniques for the study of perfused solid tumors by NMR. Tissue-isolated solid hepatomas were grown to 1-2 cm diameter as described previously. The arterial supply was isolated and the tumors perfused (0.5 - 1.0 ml/min) in vitro at 25 C with a 15% suspension of red blood cells in Krebs-Henseliet solution. 31 P-NMR spectra were acquired at 162 MHz in a specially-designed NMR probe using a solenoidal coil. Intracellular pH (monitored from the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate) and ATP levels were stable for up to 6 hrs during perfusion. During 30 min of global ischemia, ATP decreased by 75% and pH fell from 7.0 to 6.7. These changes were reversed by 1 hr reperfusion. In addition to ATP and phosphate, the spectra included a large resonance due to phosphomonoesters, as well as peaks consistent with glycerylphosphocholine, glyceryl-phosphoethanolamine, phosphocreatine, NAD, and UDPG. However, the most novel feature of the spectra was the presence of an unidentified peak in the phosphonate region (+ 16.9 ppm). The peak was not present in spectra of muscle, liver, brain, kidney, or fat tissues excised from the same animals. They are presently attempting to identify the compound that gives rise to this peak and to establish its metabolic origin

  8. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, [3H]testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with [3H]testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis

  9. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  10. desensitisation and calcium-sensitivity in the isolated perfused rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    -induced desensitisation to noradrenaline were studied in the isolated perfused rat tail artery. Responses to the activators noradrenaline (NA). (3μM) and potassium chloride (KCl) (100mM) were obtained in Ca2+-buffered saline. Activators ...

  11. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolated limb perfusion electrochemotherapy for the treatment of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After completing staging procedures, the lesion was approached with surgery and intraoperative electrochemotherapy (ECT) administration of bleomycin in isolated limb perfusion. A second session of surgery and ECT was performed one month later, followed by three additional monthly sessions of ECT. During periodic ...

  13. Secretion of neurotensin from isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Pedersen, J; Knuthsen, S; Bernabei, M

    1988-01-01

    The secretion and molecular nature of immunoreactive neurotensin (NT) was studied following stimulation of an isolated perfused porcine ileal segment with glucose, triglyceride and intra-arterial infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Secreted peptides were separated using gel chromatography...... in doses from 10(-10) to 10(-8) M stimulated NT release in a dose-related manner. Following gel chromatography only the intact peptide and no smaller or larger molecular size immunoreactive components were observed. The study showed that both luminal and humoral stimuli release NT from the isolated pig...

  14. Tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Cadenas, Cristina; Fernández Martínez, Nélida; Sierra Vega, Matilde; Diez Liébana, Maria J; Gonzalo Orden, Jose M; Sahagún Prieto, Ana M; García Vieitez, Juan J

    2012-11-01

    To determine the tissue distribution of enrofloxacin after intramammary or simulated systemic administration in isolated perfused sheep udders by measuring its concentration at various sample collection sites. 26 udders (obtained following euthanasia) from 26 healthy lactating sheep. For each isolated udder, 1 mammary gland was perfused with warmed, gassed Tyrode solution. Enrofloxacin (1 g of enrofloxacin/5 g of ointment) was administered into the perfused gland via the intramammary route or systemically via the perfusion fluid (equivalent to a dose of 5 mg/kg). Samples of the perfusate were obtained every 30 minutes for 180 minutes; glandular tissue samples were obtained at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base after 180 minutes. The enrofloxacin content of the perfusate and tissue samples was analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. After intramammary administration, maximun perfusate enrofloxacin concentration was detected at 180 minutes and, at this time, mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was detected and mean tissue enrofloxacin concentration was 123.80, 54.48, 36.72, and 26.42 μg/g of tissue at 2, 4, 6, and 8 cm from the teat base, respectively. Following systemic administration, perfusate enrofloxacin concentration decreased with time and, at 180 minutes, tissue enrofloxacin concentrations ranged from 40.38 to 35.58 μg/g of tissue. By 180 minutes after administration via the intramammary or systemic route in isolated perfused sheep mammary glands, mean tissue concentration of enrofloxacin was greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit growth of 90% of many common mastitis pathogens in sheep. Use of either route of administration (or in combination) appears suitable for the treatment of acute mastitis in sheep.

  15. Effects of Constant Flow vs. Constant Pressure Perfusion on Fluid Filtration in Severe Hypothermic Isolated Blood-Perfused Rat Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW  = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p  Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within the Constant flow group and between the groups at cessation of the experiments. In hypothermic rat lungs perfused at constant flow, fluid filtration coefficient per gram P LW and B/P ratio increased more than 10-fold concerted by increased

  16. Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance in isolated perfused rat pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Seo, Yoshiteru; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was applied to measure phosphorus energy metabolites in isolated perfused rat pancreas. The gland was perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25 degree C). 31 P resonances of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP, ADP, inorganic phosphate (P i ) and phosphomonoesters (PMEs) were observed in all the preparations of pancreas. In different individual preparations, the resonance of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of PCr and ATP in individual preparations, however, remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 h. When the perfusion was stopped, the levels of ATP and PCr decreased, while the levels of PME and P i increased. At that time, the P i resonance shfted to a higher magnetic field, indicating that the tissue pH decreased. On reperfusion, the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds and the tissue pH were restored to their initial resting levels. Continuous infusion of 0.1 μM acetylcholine caused marked and sustained increases in the flow of pancreatic juice and protein output. During the stimulation the tissue levels of phosphorus compounds remained unchanged, while the tissue pH was decreased slightly

  17. Hypercapnic acidosis modulates inflammation, lung mechanics, and edema in the isolated perfused lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Hilde R; Bersten, Andrew D; Barr, Heather A; Doyle, Ian R

    2007-12-01

    Low tidal volume (V(T)) ventilation strategies may be associated with permissive hypercapnia, which has been shown by ex vivo and in vivo studies to have protective effects. We hypothesized that hypercapnic acidosis may be synergistic with low V(T) ventilation; therefore, we studied the effects of hypercapnia and V(T) on unstimulated and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated isolated perfused lungs. Isolated perfused rat lungs were ventilated for 2 hours with low (7 mL/kg) or moderately high (20 mL/kg) V(T) and 5% or 20% CO(2), with lipopolysaccharide or saline added to the perfusate. Hypercapnia resulted in reduced pulmonary edema, lung stiffness, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in the lavage and perfusate. The moderately high V(T) did not cause lung injury but increased lavage IL-6 and perfusate IL-6 as well as TNF-alpha. Pulmonary edema and respiratory mechanics improved, possibly as a result of a stretch-induced increase in surfactant turnover. Lipopolysaccharide did not induce significant lung injury. We conclude that hypercapnia exerts a protective effect by modulating inflammation, lung mechanics, and edema. The moderately high V(T) used in this study stimulated inflammation but paradoxically improved edema and lung mechanics with an associated increase in surfactant release.

  18. Complete inhibition of creatine kinase in isolated perfused rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossel, E.T.; Hoefeler, H.

    1987-01-01

    Transient exposure of an isolated isovolumic perfused rat heart to low concentrations (0.5 mM) of perfusate-born iodoacetamide resulted in complete inhibition of creatine kinase and partial inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the heart. At low levels of developed pressure, hearts maintained mechanical function, ATP, and creatine phosphate levels at control values. However, iodoacetamide-inhibited hearts were unable to maintain control values of end diastolic pressure or peak systolic pressure as work load increased. Global ischemia resulted in loss of all ATP without loss of creatine phosphate, indicating lack of active creatine kinase. These results indicate that isovolumic perfused rat hearts are able to maintain normal function and normal levels of high-energy phosphates without active creatine kinase at low levels of developed pressure. 31 P-NMR of the heart was carried out

  19. Percutaneous Isolated Hepatic Perfusion for the Treatment of Unresectable Liver Malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgmans, Mark C., E-mail: m.c.burgmans@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Leede, Eleonora M. de, E-mail: e.m.de-leede@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Martini, Christian H., E-mail: c.h.martini@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Anesthesiology (Netherlands); Kapiteijn, Ellen, E-mail: h.w.kapiteijn@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology (Netherlands); Vahrmeijer, Alexander L., E-mail: a.l.vahrmeijer@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Erkel, Arian R. van, E-mail: a.r.van-erkel@lumc.nl [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Liver malignancies are a major burden of disease worldwide. The long-term prognosis for patients with unresectable tumors remains poor, despite advances in systemic chemotherapy, targeted agents, and minimally invasive therapies such as ablation, chemoembolization, and radioembolization. Thus, the demand for new and better treatments for malignant liver tumors remains high. Surgical isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) has been shown to be effective in patients with various hepatic malignancies, but is complex, associated with high complication rates and not repeatable. Percutaneous isolated liver perfusion (PHP) is a novel minimally invasive, repeatable, and safer alternative to IHP. PHP is rapidly gaining interest and the number of procedures performed in Europe now exceeds 200. This review discusses the indications, technique and patient management of PHP and provides an overview of the available data.

  20. Percutaneous Isolated Hepatic Perfusion for the Treatment of Unresectable Liver Malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgmans, Mark C.; Leede, Eleonora M. de; Martini, Christian H.; Kapiteijn, Ellen; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Erkel, Arian R. van

    2016-01-01

    Liver malignancies are a major burden of disease worldwide. The long-term prognosis for patients with unresectable tumors remains poor, despite advances in systemic chemotherapy, targeted agents, and minimally invasive therapies such as ablation, chemoembolization, and radioembolization. Thus, the demand for new and better treatments for malignant liver tumors remains high. Surgical isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) has been shown to be effective in patients with various hepatic malignancies, but is complex, associated with high complication rates and not repeatable. Percutaneous isolated liver perfusion (PHP) is a novel minimally invasive, repeatable, and safer alternative to IHP. PHP is rapidly gaining interest and the number of procedures performed in Europe now exceeds 200. This review discusses the indications, technique and patient management of PHP and provides an overview of the available data.

  1. Cell-swelling-induced taurine release from isolated perfused rat liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, H. S.; Meijer, A. J.; Gustafson, L. A.; Jörning, G. G.; Leegwater, A. C.; Maas, M. A.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Astrocytes and lymphocytes are able to release significant amounts of taurine during periods of hypotonicity to reduce the increase in cell volume. To investigate this mechanism in the liver, we studied the release of free amino acids from isolated perfused rat liver during hypotonicity. The

  2. Kinetics of reversible-sequestration of leukocytes by the isolated perfused rat lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goliaei, B.

    1980-08-01

    The kinetics and morphology of sequestration and margination of rat leukocytes were studied using an isolated perfused and ventilated rat lung preparation. Whole rat blood, bone marrow suspension, or leukocyte suspensions, were used to perfuse the isolated rat lung. The lung was also perfused with latex particle suspensions and the passage of particles through the lung capillaries was studied. When a leukocyte suspension was perfused through the lung in the single-pass mode, the rate of sequestration decreased as more cells were perfused. In contrast, latex particles of a size comparable to that of leukocytes were totally stopped by the lung. When the leukocyte suspension was recirculated through the lung, cells were rapidly removed from circulation until a steady state was reached, after which no net removal of cells by the lung occurred. These results indicate that leukocytes are reversibly sequestered from circulation. The sequestered cells marginated and attached to the luminal surface of the endothelium of post-capillary venules and veins. A mathematical model was developed based on the assumption that the attachment and detachment of leukocytes to blood vessel walls follows first-order kinetics. The model correctly predicts the following characteristics of the system: (a) the kinetics of the sequestration of leukocytes by the lung; (b) the existence of a steady state when a suspension of leukocytes is recirculated through the lung; and (c) the independence of the fraction of cells remaining in circulation from the starting concentration for all values of starting concentration. (ERB)

  3. EFFECT OF ETHANOL ON HEPATOBILIARY TRANSPORT OF CATIONIC DRUGS - A STUDY IN THE ISOLATED-PERFUSED RAT-LIVER, RAT HEPATOCYTES AND RAT MITOCHONDRIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEEN, H; MEIJER, DKF; Merema, M.T.

    The effect of ethanol on the hepatic uptake of various cationic drugs was studied in isolated perfused rat livers, isolated rat hepatocytes and isolated rat liver mitochondria. In isolated rat hepatocytes and in isolated perfused rat livers, the uptake of the model organic cation

  4. Concentration of (+/-)-propranolol in isolated, perfused lungs of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollery, C T; Junod, A F

    1976-01-01

    1 The metabolism and the accumulation of (+/-)-propranolol have been studied in isolated lungs of the rat, perfused with an artificial medium. 2 Little or no metabolism took place during the perfusion periods (up to 10 minutes). 3 Accumulation was observed with high tissue/medium ratios for substrate concentrations of 0.2 muM to 1 mM; there was evidence for saturability, but no real plateau could be seen. The presence of two binding sites with different affinities was established. 4 Cold greatly inhibited the accumulation process at low substrate concentrations, but had no effect at 1 mM propranolol. 5 Inhibition of accumulation was measured in the presence of imipramine, desmethylimipramine, nortryptiline, chlorpromazine and of Na+-free medium. Cocaine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline had no effect. Lidocaine enhanced the accumulation process. Release of previously bound propranolol was accelerated in the presence of propranolol and imipramine, unaffected by a Na+-free medium and decreased by cold and by lidocaine. 6 Experiments on lung tissue slices yielded qualitatively similar results to those obtained with perfused lungs. Ouabain and KCN had no or little effect on propranolol accumulation. PMID:1276542

  5. Management of isolated nonresectable liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients: a case-control study of isolated hepatic perfusion with melphalan versus systemic chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, L. B. J.; Koopman, M.; van de Velde, C. J. H.; Mol, L.; van Persijn van Meerten, E. L.; Hartgrink, H. H.; Kuppen, P. J. K.; Vahrmeijer, A. L.; Nortier, J. W. R.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Punt, C.; Gelderblom, H.

    2010-01-01

    To compare the median overall survival of patients with isolated nonresectable liver metastases in comparable groups of patients treated with either isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with melphalan or systemic chemotherapy. Colorectal cancer patients with isolated liver metastases, who underwent IHP,

  6. The uptake and metabolism of cystamine and taurine by isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.; Kodavanti, U.P.; Smith, L.L.; Mehendale, H.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cystamine has been reported to be taken up by the lung slices and metabolized to taurine via hypotaurine through enzymatic processes. The objective of these studies was to determine whether intact isolated, ventilated and perfused rat and rabbit lungs also posses similar characteristics. The lungs were isolated from male New Zealand white rabbits and S-D rats and perfused with 20 μM [ 14 C] cystamine (Sp. Act., 16.4 mCi/mmol) for 60 min and 30 min, respectively. Cystamine and its metabolites in lung as well as in perfusate were separated by TLC and quantitated using scintillation spectrometry. Similar experiments were also conducted with 20 μM taurine to investigate its fate in perfused lungs. Significant pulmonary uptake of cystamine and taurine occurred during perfusion. Cystamine was metabolized to [ 14 C] hypotaurine and [ 14 C] taurine. No further metabolism of taurine was evident in rat or rabbit lungs. Inclusion of 1 nM GSH did not significantly alter the ability of lungs to sequester cystamine, but the metabolism of hypotaurine to taurine was decreased. It was evident that cystamine was metabolized to taurine by perfused lungs in the same way as in lung slices

  7. Conversion of p-tyrosine to p-tyramine in the isolated perfused rat kidney: Modulation by perfusate concentrations of p-tyrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brier, M.E.; Bowsher, R.R.; Henry, D.P.; Mayer, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    The authors used the isolated perfused rat kidney to evaluate the role of renal decarboxylation of p-tyrosine as the source of urinary p-tyramine. Kidneys were perfused with concentrations of p-tyrosine ranging from 0.02 mM to 2.0 mM. p-Tyramine was measured by a sensitive and specific radioenzymatic assay. An increase in the perfusate concentration of p-tyrosine resulted in a significant increase in p-tyramine production that was blocked by the addition of NSD-1015, an inhibitor of aromatic-1-amino decarboxylase (AADC). They conclude p-tyrosine is the precursor for the renal production of p-tyramine, renal AADC catalyzes the formation of urinary p-tyramine, synthesized p-tyramine is predominantly excreted in the urine, and p-tyramine synthesis is modulated by the arterial delivery of p-tyrosine to the kidney

  8. Metabolism of 1-[14C]nitropyrene in isolated perfused rat livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Dutcher, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), a constituent of diesel exhaust, is carcinogenic to rats and is a bacterial and mammalian mutagen. Biliary and fecal excretion of 1-NP metabolites are the major routes of excretion in rats, suggesting that hepatic metabolism plays a dominant role in determining the biological fate of 1-NP. The purpose of this investigation was to quantitate 1-[14C]NP metabolites formed in isolated perfused rat livers and excreted in bile from rats. Perfused rat livers displayed a capacity for oxidation, reduction, acetylation, and conjugation of 1-NP (or its metabolites). Reduction of 1-NP followed by N-acetylation was the major metabolic pathway observed in the perfused livers. Acetylaminopyrene (AAP) was the major metabolite detected, with total quantities (150 nmol) accounting for about 60% of the total 1-[14C]NP dose (258 nmol) added to the perfusate. Considerably smaller quantities of aminopyrene and hydroxynitropyrenes were also detected. Livers perfused with 1-[14C]NP excreted about 36 nmol equivalents of 1-[14C]NP (12% of the total 1-NP dose) in bile after 60 min. Some of the biliary metabolites were tentatively identified as metabolites of the mercapturic acid pathway. The spectrum of biliary metabolites was qualitatively identical to that seen in bile from intact rats. Quantities of 14C covalently bound to hepatic macromolecules from perfused livers were 0.4 nmol 1-NP eq/g liver. The data from this study indicate that the liver may be an important site for metabolism of 1-NP

  9. New method of isolation and perfusion of rat pancreas for phosphorus nucletic resonance study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takehisa; Kanno, Tomio; Murakami, Masataka; Watari, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    1988-02-01

    Phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (/sup 31/P-NMR) was applied to measure phosphorus metabolites in the pancreas. Rat pancreatic gland was isolated and perfused with a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution at room temperature (25 deg C). Removal of the duodenum from the pancreas made it possible to record /sup 31/P-NMR spectra only from the pancreatic tissue. /sup 31/P signals of creatine phosphate (PCr), ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were observed in all the glands. In different individual glands, the Signal intensity of PCr varied, but those of ATP were almost the same. The initial levels of all the phosphorus metabolites in individual glands remained almost unchanged during perfusion with the standard solution for 2 hours. When the perfusion was stopped, signal intensity of ATP and PCr decreased while Pi resonance increased and shifted to a higher magnetic field, indicating tissue acidification. On re-perfusion, each resonance and tissue pH were restored to the respective initial resting levels. Continuous stimulation with 0.3 ..mu..M acetylcholine (ACh) or 0.1 nM CCK-8 caused a markedly larger increase in pancreatic exocrine secretion than that observed in the perfused pancreas which was prepared by the previous method. Continuous stimulation with 0.1 ..mu..M ACh caused a marked and sustained increase in pancreatic exocrine secretion. During the stimulation, the resonances of phosphorus energy metabolites and tissue pH remained almost unchanged. These results indicate that the isolated perfused rat pancreas which is prepared by our new method is a useful preparation for analysis of secretion-metabolism coupling in the exocrine pancreas.

  10. Major amputation for intractable extremity melanoma after failure of isolated limb perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapma, M. R.; Vrouenraets, B. C.; Nieweg, O. E.; van Geel, A. N.; Noorda, E. M.; Eggermont, A. M. M.; Kroon, B. B. R.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyse indications and results of amputation for intractable extremity melanoma after failure of isolated limb perfusion (ILP). METHODS: Between 1978 and 2001, 451 patients with loco-regional advanced extremity melanoma underwent 505 ILPs. Amputation of the

  11. Uptake, incorporation and metabolism of (3H)triolein in the isolated perfused rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.T.; Palazzo, A.J.; Williams, J.L. Jr.; Malik, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the uptake and metabolism of exogenous triglyceride in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. When infused into the rabbit heart, [9,10-3H(N)]triolein was retained and incorporated into a lipid fraction that had the chromatographic mobility of authentic triolein. Incorporation of labeled triolein was not likely to be the result of a lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis/resynthesis cycle, since: (i) The distribution of radioactivity following administration of [3H]oleic acid was markedly different from the distribution of radioactivity following the administration of [3H]triolein; (ii) heparin was administered to the rabbits at the time of sacrifice; and (iii) the hearts were perfused with a protein-free buffer for 20 min prior to the labelling period. When isoproterenol was administered to hearts labelled with [3H]triolein, there was an increased output of total radioactivity, composed of labelled free fatty acids, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol. In these same hearts, there was an increased output of glycerol in response to isoproterenol. However, following the administration of bradykinin or angiotensin II, neither the radioactivity nor the glycerol content of the perfusate was changed. These data suggest that [3H]triolein is selectively incorporated into the triglyceride pool of the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Furthermore, this [3H]triolein is available to hormonally-activated lipolytic enzymes

  12. [Dynamics of the amino acid composition of the medium during cultivation of isolated organs by the directed perfusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, V A; Gitel'zon, I I; Nefedov, V P; Trubachev, I N

    1975-07-01

    The dynamics of the amino acid composition of the medium under conditions of adequate perfusion of the isolated organs of a dog (sternum, kidney and liver) was studied. It was found that after a 6-hour perfusion of the complex of organs the amount in the perfusion medium of such amino acids as histidine, lysine, alanine, considerably increased, whereas the amount of arginine, serine, aspartic acid, threonine with glutamine, isoleucine, proline, leucine and valine decreased as compared with their initial concentration. The dynamics of the amino acid medium composition during a 4-hour perfusion was studied in experiments with the isolated sternum. The concentration of alanine, lysine and histidine increased in the medium. At the same time there was seen a decrease in the concentration of serine, aspartic acid, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenyl-alanine.

  13. Radiation exposure to surgical staff during hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with 99m Technetium labeled red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Ulrik Sloth; Straalman, Kristina; Schmidt, Grethe

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) is an effective method in the treatment of recurrent melanomas and soft tissue sarcomas. To avoid systemic toxicity, leakage from the limb perfusate into the systemic circulation is real-time monitored by administration of a radioactive agent...

  14. Isolated Liver Perfusion Using Percutaneous Methods:[ql An Experimental Study in the Pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnek, Jan; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Persson, Bo; Stridbeck, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolated perfusion of the liver using radiological methods. Methods: Twenty-one pigs, weighing about 20 kg, were divided into three groups. By transjugular and transfemoral approaches two occlusion balloons were placed in the inferior vena cava cranial and caudal, respectively, to the origin of the hepatic veins. One occlusion balloon was placed transfemorally in the common hepatic artery. Another occlusion balloon was inserted in the main branch of the portal vein via the transjugular-transhepatic approach in 11 pigs (groups 1 and 2), and in 10 pigs (group 3) by a percutaneous transhepatic route. After inflation of the balloons, patency of the isolated liver circulation was evaluated by recirculation of 99 Tc m -labelled human albumin during 30 min. Blood tests were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min to evaluate leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation. Results: Increasing leakage to the systemic circulation from the isolated liver circulation was observed in groups 1 and 2. In the third group the leakage was less than 10%. Conclusion: In an experimental animal model, isolated perfusion of the liver with minor leakage to the systemic circulation may be achieved using radiological methods

  15. Double-Balloon Catheter for Isolated Liver Perfusion: An Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Harnek, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Further development of a previously described interventional method for isolated liver perfusion (ILP) with a new double-lumen balloon catheter, and evaluation of the side-effects of such isolation.Methods: In six pigs a double-balloon occlusion catheter was placed via the transjugular approach with its tip in the portal vein. One of the balloons was positioned in the inferior vena cava (IVC), cranial to the origin of the hepatic veins and the other balloon in the portal vein. By the transfemoral approach, a single-balloon occlusion catheter was placed in the IVC caudal to the origin of the hepatic veins. A third catheter was placed by the transfemoral route with the occlusion balloon in the proper hepatic artery. After inflation of all balloons 99 Tc m -labelled human serum albumin was recirculated through the liver. The isolation was evaluated by repeated measurement of radioactivity levels in peripheral blood. Laboratory tests of liver and pancreas function, and hemoglobin, were taken before, at the end of, and 3 days after the procedure. Blood gases were tested at the beginning and end of the procedure.Results: One pig died during the procedure due to technical failure and was excluded from the study. In the other pigs leakage from the isolated liver to the systemic circulation increased slowly, up to 9.7% (mean) during 30 min of recirculation of the perfusate through the liver. Laboratory tests were normal in all pigs except insignificant acidosis directly after the procedure and the slight elevation of s-ALAT after 3 days.Conclusions: Only minor leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation was noted during ILP performed with a new, double-balloon catheter. There were no serious side effects

  16. Differential uptake of FDG and DG during post-ischaemic reperfusion in the isolated, perfused rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garlick, P.B.; Medina, R.A.; Southworth, R.; Marsden, P.K. [Department of Radiological Sciences, Guy' s, King' s and St. Thomas' School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 2-deoxyglucose (DG) are widely used as tracers of glucose uptake in the myocardium. Although there is agreement that the two analogues behave similarly to glucose under control conditions, there is growing evidence that some interventions (e.g. insulin stimulation or ischaemia/reperfusion) cause differential changes in their behaviour. The addition of a two-surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and a dual-perfusion cannula to our recently developed PET and NMR dual-acquisition (PANDA) system allows us to collect PET (FDG) images and phosphorus-31 NMR (2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate) spectra simultaneously from each independently perfused coronary bed of the heart. We have used this technique to study the effect of regional ischaemia/reperfusion on FDG and DG uptake in the isolated, perfused rat heart. During control perfusion, FDG uptake was almost identical in both coronary beds. When one coronary bed was made ischaemic, FDG uptake ceased on that side but continued on the control side. Reperfusion failed to restore FDG uptake. In contrast, NMR spectra showed that, during reperfusion, the uptake and phosphorylation of DG did not differ between the two coronary beds. The results thus demonstrate that regional myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion has different effects on the uptake of FDG and DG in the isolated, perfused rat heart. (orig.)

  17. Differential uptake of FDG and DG during post-ischaemic reperfusion in the isolated, perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, P.B.; Medina, R.A.; Southworth, R.; Marsden, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 2-deoxyglucose (DG) are widely used as tracers of glucose uptake in the myocardium. Although there is agreement that the two analogues behave similarly to glucose under control conditions, there is growing evidence that some interventions (e.g. insulin stimulation or ischaemia/reperfusion) cause differential changes in their behaviour. The addition of a two-surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and a dual-perfusion cannula to our recently developed PET and NMR dual-acquisition (PANDA) system allows us to collect PET (FDG) images and phosphorus-31 NMR (2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate) spectra simultaneously from each independently perfused coronary bed of the heart. We have used this technique to study the effect of regional ischaemia/reperfusion on FDG and DG uptake in the isolated, perfused rat heart. During control perfusion, FDG uptake was almost identical in both coronary beds. When one coronary bed was made ischaemic, FDG uptake ceased on that side but continued on the control side. Reperfusion failed to restore FDG uptake. In contrast, NMR spectra showed that, during reperfusion, the uptake and phosphorylation of DG did not differ between the two coronary beds. The results thus demonstrate that regional myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion has different effects on the uptake of FDG and DG in the isolated, perfused rat heart. (orig.)

  18. Initial intramuscular perfusion pressure predicts early skeletal muscle function following isolated tibial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Norbert P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The severity of associated soft tissue trauma in complex injuries of the extremities guides fracture treatment and decisively determines patient's prognosis. Trauma-induced microvascular dysfunction and increased tissue pressure is known to trigger secondary soft tissue damage and seems to adversely affect skeletal muscle function. Methods 20 patients with isolated tibial fractures were included. Blood pressure and compartment pressure (anterior and deep posterior compartment were measured continuously up to 24 hours. Corresponding perfusion pressure was calculated. After 4 and 12 weeks isokinetic muscle peak torque and mean power of the ankle joint in dorsal and plantar flexion were measured using a Biodex dynamometer. Results A significant inverse correlation between the anterior perfusion pressure at 24 hours and deficit in dorsiflexion at 4 weeks was found for both, the peak torque (R = -0.83; p Conclusion The functional relationship between the decrease in intramuscular perfusion pressures and muscle performance in the early rehabilitation period indicate a causative and prognostic role of early posttraumatic microcirculatory derangements and skeletal muscle function. Therapeutic concepts aimed at effective muscle recovery, early rehabilitation, and decreased secondary tissue damage, should consider the maintenance of an adequate intramuscular perfusion pressure.

  19. Toxicity and Kinetics of (3H)Microcystin-LR in Isolated Perfused Rat Livers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-20

    with a Waters 490 multiwavelength detector, as described by Robinson et al. (1989). A C-18 column (Adsorbosphere HS, 4.6 x 250 mm, 5 Am, Alltech ...1988). The isolated perfused liver has several advantages over other model systems for the study of hepatotoxins. Unlike the in-vitro cell systems

  20. Monitoring system for isolated limb perfusion based on a portable gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orero, A.; Muxi, A.; Rubi, S.; Duch, J.; Vidal-Sicart, S.; Pons, F.; Roe, N.; Rull, R.; Pavon, N.; Pavia, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The treatment of malignant melanoma or sarcomas on a limb using extremity perfusion with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and melphalan can result in a high degree of systemic toxicity if there is any leakage from the isolated blood territory of the limb into the systemic vascular territory. Leakage is currently controlled by using radiotracers and heavy external probes in a procedure that requires continuous manual calculations. The aim of this work was to develop a light, easily transportable system to monitor limb perfusion leakage by controlling systemic blood pool radioactivity with a portable gamma camera adapted for intraoperative use as an external probe, and to initiate its application in the treatment of MM patients. Methods: A special collimator was built for maximal sensitivity. Software for acquisition and data processing in real time was developed. After testing the adequacy of the system, it was used to monitor limb perfusion leakage in 16 patients with malignant melanoma to be treated with perfusion of TNF-α and melphalan. Results: The field of view of the detector system was 13.8 cm, which is appropriate for the monitoring, since the area to be controlled was the precordial zone. The sensitivity of the system was 257 cps/MBq. When the percentage of leakage reaches 10% the associated absolute error is ±1%. After a mean follow-up period of 12 months, no patients have shown any significant or lasting side-effects. Partial or complete remission of lesions was seen in 9 out of 16 patients (56%) after HILP with TNF-α and melphalan. Conclusion: The detector system together with specially developed software provides a suitable automatic continuous monitoring system of any leakage that may occur during limb perfusion. This technique has been successfully implemented in patients for whom perfusion with TNF-α and melphalan has been indicated. (orig.)

  1. Monitoring system for isolated limb perfusion based on a portable gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orero, A.; Muxi, A.; Rubi, S.; Duch, J. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Vidal-Sicart, S.; Pons, F. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Inst. d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); Red Tematica de Investigacion Cooperativa en Cancer (RTICC), Barcelona (Spain); Roe, N. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); CIBER de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain); Rull, R. [Servei de Cirurgia, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Pavon, N. [Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular, CSIC - UV, Valencia (Spain); Pavia, J. [Servei de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital Clinic, Barcelona (Spain); Inst. d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Background: The treatment of malignant melanoma or sarcomas on a limb using extremity perfusion with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-{alpha}) and melphalan can result in a high degree of systemic toxicity if there is any leakage from the isolated blood territory of the limb into the systemic vascular territory. Leakage is currently controlled by using radiotracers and heavy external probes in a procedure that requires continuous manual calculations. The aim of this work was to develop a light, easily transportable system to monitor limb perfusion leakage by controlling systemic blood pool radioactivity with a portable gamma camera adapted for intraoperative use as an external probe, and to initiate its application in the treatment of MM patients. Methods: A special collimator was built for maximal sensitivity. Software for acquisition and data processing in real time was developed. After testing the adequacy of the system, it was used to monitor limb perfusion leakage in 16 patients with malignant melanoma to be treated with perfusion of TNF-{alpha} and melphalan. Results: The field of view of the detector system was 13.8 cm, which is appropriate for the monitoring, since the area to be controlled was the precordial zone. The sensitivity of the system was 257 cps/MBq. When the percentage of leakage reaches 10% the associated absolute error is {+-}1%. After a mean follow-up period of 12 months, no patients have shown any significant or lasting side-effects. Partial or complete remission of lesions was seen in 9 out of 16 patients (56%) after HILP with TNF-{alpha} and melphalan. Conclusion: The detector system together with specially developed software provides a suitable automatic continuous monitoring system of any leakage that may occur during limb perfusion. This technique has been successfully implemented in patients for whom perfusion with TNF-{alpha} and melphalan has been indicated. (orig.)

  2. NMR study of damage on isolated perfused rat heart exposed to ischemia and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xuechun; Yan Yongbin; Zhang Riqing; Fan Lili

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is the most common and primary cause of myocardium damage. Numerous conventional techniques and methods have been developed for ischemia and reperfusion studies. However, because of damage to the heart sample, most of these techniques can not be used to continuously monitor the full dynamic course of the myocardial metabolic pathway. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil technique, which overcomes the limitations of conventional instrumentation, can be used to quantitatively study every stage of the perfused heart (especially after perfusion stoppage) continuously, dynamically, and without damage under normal or designed physiological conditions at the molecular level. In this paper, 31 P-NMR was used to study the effects of ischemia and hypoxia on isolated perfused hearts. The results show that complete hypoxia caused more severe functional damage to the myocardial cells than complete ischemia

  3. Feasibility study on retinal vascular bypass surgery in isolated arterially perfused caprine eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Wu, W; Zhang, X; Fan, W; Shen, L

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the feasibility of bypassing occluded segments of retinal venous main vessels in isolated, arterially perfused caprine eyes via the closed-sky vitrectomy approach using keratoprosthesis. Methods Isolated caprine eyes were used in this study. For each eye, the retinal vessel was perfused by Krebs solution via ophthalmic artery, and pars plana vitrectomy was performed using temporary keratoprosthesis. All retinal micro-vascular maneuvers were performed in a closed-sky eyeball. The main retinal vein was blocked by endodiathermy at the site of the vessel's first branching. Two openings, several millimeters apart, were created by vascular punctures in both the main vein and its branch vein wall straddling the induced occluded segment. Catheterization was achieved using a flexible polyimide tube, with each end inserted into the vessel wall opening. A sealed connection between the vessel and the tube was obtained by endodiathermy. Bypass of the occluded retinal vein segment was thus achieved, and the patency of this vascular bypass was confirmed by intravascular staining. Results Puncturing, catheterization, and endodiathermy were viable by closed-sky approach using keratoprosthesis. Bypassing of the occluded retinal main vein segment was accomplished with the combination of these maneuvers. Good results were obtained in 23 of 38 (60%) caprine eyes. Conclusions This study demonstrated that bypassing the occluded segment of retinal main vein can be successfully performed in a closed-sky eyeball model of isolated, arterially perfused caprine eye. This early work indicated that the more advanced retinal vascular bypass surgery in in vivo eye may be feasible in the future. PMID:21921946

  4. Low pulmonary artery flush perfusion pressure combined with high positive end-expiratory pressure reduces oedema formation in isolated porcine lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Schließmann, Stephan J; Wagner, Giskard; Goebel, Ulrich; Priebe, Hans-Joachim; Guttmann, Josef; Kirschbaum, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Flush perfusion of the pulmonary artery with organ protection solution is a standard procedure before lung explantation. However, rapid flush perfusion may cause pulmonary oedema which is deleterious in the lung transplantation setting. In this study we tested the hypotheses that high pulmonary perfusion pressure contributes to the development of pulmonary oedema and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) counteracts oedema formation. We expected oedema formation to increase weight and decrease compliance of the lungs on the basis of a decrease in alveolar volume as fluid replaces alveolar air spaces. The pulmonary artery of 28 isolated porcine lungs was perfused with a low-potassium dextrane solution at low (mean 27 mmHg) or high (mean 40 mmHg) pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during mechanical ventilation at low (4 cmH 2 O) or high (8 cmH 2 O) PEEP, respectively. Following perfusion and storage, relative increases in lung weight were smaller (p < 0.05) during perfusion at low PAP (62 ± 32% and 42 ± 26%, respectively) compared to perfusion at high PAP (133 ± 54% and 87 ± 30%, respectively). Compared to all other PAP–PEEP combinations, increases in lung weight were smallest (44 ± 9% and 27 ± 12%, respectively), nonlinear intratidal lung compliance was largest (46% and 17% respectively, both p < 0.05) and lung histology showed least infiltration of mononuclear cells in the alveolar septa, and least alveolar destruction during the combination of low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. The findings suggest that oedema formation during pulmonary artery flush perfusion in isolated and ventilated lungs can be reduced by choosing low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. PAP–PEEP titration to minimize pulmonary oedema should be based on lung mechanics and PAP monitoring

  5. Spatio-temporal analysis of blood perfusion by imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaunseder, Sebastian; Trumpp, Alexander; Ernst, Hannes; Förster, Michael; Malberg, Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) has attracted much attention over the last years. The vast majority of works focuses on methods to reliably extract the heart rate from videos. Only a few works addressed iPPGs ability to exploit spatio-temporal perfusion pattern to derive further diagnostic statements. This work directs at the spatio-temporal analysis of blood perfusion from videos. We present a novel algorithm that bases on the two-dimensional representation of the blood pulsation (perfusion map). The basic idea behind the proposed algorithm consists of a pairwise estimation of time delays between photoplethysmographic signals of spatially separated regions. The probabilistic approach yields a parameter denoted as perfusion speed. We compare the perfusion speed versus two parameters, which assess the strength of blood pulsation (perfusion strength and signal to noise ratio). Preliminary results using video data with different physiological stimuli (cold pressure test, cold face test) show that all measures are influenced by those stimuli (some of them with statistical certainty). The perfusion speed turned out to be more sensitive than the other measures in some cases. However, our results also show that the intraindividual stability and interindividual comparability of all used measures remain critical points. This work proves the general feasibility of employing the perfusion speed as novel iPPG quantity. Future studies will address open points like the handling of ballistocardiographic effects and will try to deepen the understanding of the predominant physiological mechanisms and their relation to the algorithmic performance.

  6. Polarographic measurement of ascorbate washout in isolated perfused rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, T.; Kuikka, J.T.; Reneman, R.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    To study the myocardial washout of ascorbate, the applicability of polarographic detection of ascorbate ions by a platinum electrode (sensitive area 0.03 mm2) was investigated, in both a calibration setup (sampling flow along the electrode: 100 microliter X s-1) and isolated, retrogradely perfused rabbit hearts. In the calibration setup at pH 7.4, the sensitivity of the electrode was 70 microA/mol. This sensitivity increased moderately with increasing pH (13%/unit pH) and increasing sampling flow rate (14% at an increase from 100 to 150 microliter X s-1). In the isolated hearts, ascorbate infused into the aorta was detected in a right ventricular drain by the electrode as well as by the use of 14 C-labeled ascorbate. Both recorded time courses were similar except for a scaling factor dependent on flow velocity. During continuous infusion the arteriovenous difference of ascorbate was 2 +/- 2% (SD), indicating a relatively low consumption of ascorbate by the isolated heart. The authors conclude that polarographic measurement of ascorbate in the coronary effluent of an isolated rabbit heart can be performed on-line and relatively easily

  7. Luminal and basolateral uptake of insulin in isolated perfused, proximal tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, S.; Nielsen, J.T.; Christensen, E.I.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was performed to quantitate compare the luminal and the peritubular uptake of 125 I-insulin in isolated, perfused, proximal tubules from rabbit kidneys. 125 I-insulin was added in physiological concentrations to either the perfusate or the bath fluid for 30 min. The luminal uptake in 30 min averaged 0.76 pg/mm at physiological concentrations and 18.0 pg/mm at high insulin concentrations. About 15-41% of the absorbed insulin was digested and 125 I-insulin at physiological and high concentrations in the bath was 0.136 and 0.318 pg, respectively. The data indicates that insulin is bound/absorbed at the basolateral membranes both by a saturable specific mechanism and a nonspecific, nonsaturable mechanism. The basolateral absorption constituted 15.2 and 1.8% of the total tubular extraction of insulin at physiological and high insulin concentrations, respectively. Electron microscope autoradiography showed that, after luminal as well as basolateral endocytosis, insulin was exclusively accumulated in endocytic vacuoles and lysosomes

  8. Correlation between melphalan pharmacokinetics and hepatic toxicity following hyperthermic isolated liver perfusion for unresectable metastatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Pilati, Pierluigi; Da Pian, Pierpaolo; Forlin, Marco; Corazzina, Susanna; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo; Innocente, Federico; Ori, Carlo; Casara, Dario; Ujka, Francesca; Nitti, Donato; Lise, Mario

    2007-02-01

    In the present work, we report on the results of our pilot study of hyperthermic isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with melphalan alone for patients with unresectable metastatic liver tumors refractory to conventional treatments, with particular regard to the correlation between pharmacokinetic findings and hepatic toxicity. Inclusion criteria were unresectable liver metastases, hepatic parenchyma replacement isolation of the liver and drug distribution volumes of the perfusion circuit were assessed by a radiolabeled albumin-based method. Drug concentrations in perfusate and plasma were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Twenty patients with unresectable liver metastases underwent IHP. No intraoperative mortality occurred. Treatment-related systemic toxicity was minimal and reversible. Three patients (15%) experienced grade 4 hepatic toxicity and died due to liver failure and subsequent multiorgan failure. Other six patients had significant (grade 3-4) but transitory hepatic toxicity. Complete and partial responses were observed in three and nine out of 17 evaluable patients, respectively (overall response rate = 70%). The pharmacokinetics study showed a 3% mean perfusate-to-plasma drug leakage (range 1-6%). Logistic regression analysis showed that drug concentration in the perfusate circuit, but not preoperative tests, significantly and independently correlated with hepatic toxicity (P = 0.028). Following melphalan-based IHP, objective tumor regression could be observed in a remarkable percentage of patients refractory to standard treatments. However, hepatic toxicity and related mortality were significant. Our findings suggest that drug dosage personalization based on the measurement of drug distribution volumes might minimize

  9. Cavitation enhances coagulated size during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound ablation in an isolated liver perfusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lu-Yan; Liu, Shan; Chen, Zong-Gui; Zou, Jian-Zhong; Wu, Feng

    2016-11-24

    To investigate whether cavitation enhances the degree of coagulation during pulsed high-intensity focussed ultrasound (HIFU) in an isolated liver perfusion system. Isolated liver was treated by pulsed HIFU or continuous-wave HIFU with different portal vein flow rates. The cavitation emission during exposure was recorded, and real-time ultrasound images were used to observe changes in the grey scale. The coagulation size was measured and calculated. HIFU treatment led to complete coagulation necrosis and total cell destruction in the target regions. Compared to exposure at a duty cycle (DC) of 100%, the mean volumes of lesions induced by 6 s exposure at DCs of 50% and 10% were significantly larger (P cavitation activity for the pulsed-HIFU (P > .05). For continuous-wave HIFU exposure, there was a significant decrease in the necrosis volume and cavitation activity for exposure times of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 s with increasing portal perfusion rates. Perfusion flow rates negatively influence cavitation activity and coagulation volume. Ablation is significantly enhanced during pulsed HIFU exposure compared with continuous-wave HIFU.

  10. Arterio-venous anastomoses in isolated, perfused rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conhaim, Robert L; Segal, Gilad S; Watson, Kal E

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that large-diameter (>25 μm) arterio-venous shunt pathways exist in the lungs of rats, dogs, and humans. We investigated the nature of these pathways by infusing specific-diameter fluorescent latex particles (4, 7, 15, 30, or 50 μm) into isolated, ventilated rat lungs perfused at constant pressure. All lungs received the same mass of latex (5 mg), which resulted in infused particle numbers that ranged from 1.7 × 10 7 4 μm particles to 7.5 × 10 4 50 μm particles. Particles were infused over 2 min. We used a flow cytometer to count particle appearances in venous effluent samples collected every 0.5 min for 12 min from the start of particle infusion. Cumulative percentages of infused particles that appeared in the samples averaged 3.17 ± 2.46% for 4 μm diameter particles, but ranged from 0.01% to 0.17% for larger particles. Appearances of 4 μm particles followed a rapid upslope beginning at 30 sec followed by a more gradual downslope that lasted for up to 12 min. All other particle diameters also began to appear at 30 sec, but followed highly irregular time courses. Infusion of 7 and 15 μm particles caused transient but significant perfusate flow reductions, while infusion of all other diameters caused insignificant reductions in flow. We conclude that small numbers of bypass vessels exist that can accommodate particle diameters of 7-to-50 μm. We further conclude that our 4 μm particle data are consistent with a well-developed network of serial and parallel perfusion pathways at the acinar level. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  11. Effects of lysosomal inhibitors on 125I-insulin and 125I-asialofetuin degradation by the isolated, perfused rat liver and isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.F.; Moss, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    To further evaluate the role of the lysosomal system in insulin degradation, the authors have compared the effects of inhibitors of lysosomal function on the degradation of 125 I-insulin with 125 I-asialofetuin, a lysosomally targeted molecule, by the intact, perfused rat liver and the isolated rat hepatocyte. The inhibitors employed were chloroquine ( 125 microM), NH 4 Cl (10 mM), and leupeptin (50 micrograms/ml). In the intact, perfused liver the observed inhibition of 125 I-asialofetuin degradation at 30 min was as follows: chloroquine, 38%; NH 4 Cl, 32%; and leupeptin, 86%. Chloroquine also inhibited 125 I-insulin degradation in the intact, perfused liver (29%), but NH 4 Cl and leupeptin had no effect. Using the isolated hepatocyte, the observed values for inhibition of 125I-asialofetuin at 60 min were: chloroquine, 85%; NH 4 Cl, 76%; and leupeptin, 81%. Chloroquine produced a 28% inhibition of 125I-insulin degradation, while NH 4 Cl and leupeptin had no effect. Chloroquine and NH 4 Cl decreased cell-associated radioactivity when isolated hepatocytes were incubated with 125I-asialofetuin (leupeptin had no effect), whereas chloroquine caused a 107% increase in cell-associated radioactivity when 125I-insulin was added to the incubation media (NH 4 Cl and leupeptin had no effect). These results indicate that the effects of chloroquine on insulin degradation are an extralysosomal action and that lysosomes appear not to be involved in the physiologic degradation of the insulin molecule

  12. A capillary-based perfusion phantom for simulation of brain perfusion for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciak, A.; Kronfeld, A.; Mueller-Forell, W.; Wille, C.; Kempski, O.; Stoeter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The measurement of the CBF is a non-standardized procedure and there are no reliable gold standards. This abstract shows a capillary-based perfusion-phantom for CE-DSC-MRI. It has equivalent flow properties to those within the tissue capillary system of the human brain and allows the validation of the Siemens Perfusion (MR) software. Materials and Methods: The perfusion phantom consists of a dialyzer for the simulation of the capillary system, a feeding tube for simulation of the AIF and a pulsatile pump for simulation of the heart. Using this perfusion phantom, the exact determination of the gold standard CBF due to the well-known geometry of the phantom is easy. It was validated based on different perfusion measurements. These measurements were investigated with standard software (Siemens Perfusion MR). The software determined the CBF within the capillary system. Based on this CBF, a comparison to the gold standard was made with several different flow speeds. After AIF selection, a total of 726 CBF data points were automatically extracted by the software. Results: This results in a comparison of the gold standard CBF to these 726 CBF values. Therefore, a reproducible and reliable deviation estimation between gold standard CBF and measured CBF using the software was computed. It can be shown that the deviation between gold standard and software-based evaluation ranges between 1 and 31 %. Conclusion: There is no significance for any correlation between flow speed and amount of deviation. The mean measured CBF is 11.4 % higher than the gold standard CBF (p-value < 0.001). Using this kind of perfusion-phantom, the validation of different software systems allows reliable conclusions about their quality. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance of perfused tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpen, M.D.; Allison, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of perfusion on the NMR signal observed in NMR imaging is studied in a phantom and in two isolated perfused canine lungs. It is observed that perfusion in tissue has little effect on longitudinal relaxation times. Transverse relaxation rates are observed to correlate linearly with rates of perfusion, in accordance with a model presented. (author)

  14. The influence of Poly-Vinyl-Chloride tubing on the isolated perfused rat´s heart.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1950-01-01

    There are types of poly-vinyl-chloride tubing sold and used for medical and biological purposes which deteriorate heart action in a few minutes. A simple method for testing P.V.C. tubing can be found in the isolated rat's he art perfused according to Langendorff.

  15. Prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia: study by 99mTc-sestamibi radionuclide scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ahmed M; Rayan, Mona; Adel, Amr; Demerdash, Salah; Atef, Mohamed; Abdallah, Mohamed; Nammas, Wail

    2014-02-01

    We explored the prevalence and pattern of abnormal myocardial perfusion in patients with isolated coronary artery ectasia (CAE), as demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy. Prospectively, we enrolled 35 patients with angiographically documented CAE and no significant coronary obstruction, who underwent elective coronary angiography. Patients underwent Stress-rest (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy within 4 days of coronary angiography. They were divided into 2 groups: group I: with normal perfusion scan; and group II: with reversible perfusion defects. The mean age was 49.6 ± 6.9 years; 34 (97.1 %) were males. Seventy-nine (75.2 %) arteries were affected by CAE. Among 79 arteries affected by CAE, affection was diffuse in 37 (46.8 %). Thirteen (37.1 %) patients had normal perfusion scan (group I), whereas 22 (62.9 %) had reversible perfusion defects (group II). Among 22 patients with reversible perfusion defects, 20 (90.9 %) had mild and 2 (9.1 %) had moderate ischemia. Among 49 myocardial segments with reversible perfusion defects, 22 (44.9 %) were basal, 18 (36.7 %) mid-, and 9 (18.4 %) apical segments. Diffuse CAE was significantly more prevalent in group II versus group I, in all 3 major coronary arteries (p < 0.05 for all). In patients with isolated CAE who underwent elective coronary angiography, reversible perfusion defects demonstrated by (99m)Tc-sestamibi scintigraphy were rather prevalent, mostly mild, more likely to affect the basal and mid-segments of the myocardium, and more frequently associated with diffuse ectasia.

  16. Perfusion-induced changes in cardiac contractility depend on capillary perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, M A; Heslinga, J W; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    1998-02-01

    The perfusion-induced increase in cardiac contractility (Gregg phenomenon) is especially found in heart preparations that lack adequate coronary autoregulation and thus protection of changes in capillary pressure. We determined in the isolated perfused papillary muscle of the rat whether cardiac muscle contractility is related to capillary perfusion. Oxygen availability of this muscle is independent of internal perfusion, and perfusion may be varied or even stopped without loss of function. Muscles contracted isometrically at 27 degrees C (n = 7). During the control state stepwise increases in perfusion pressure resulted in all muscles in a significant increase in active tension. Muscle diameter always increased with increased perfusion pressure, but muscle segment length was unaffected. Capillary perfusion was then obstructed by plastic microspheres (15 microns). Flow, at a perfusion pressure of 66.6 +/- 26.2 cmH2O, reduced from 17.6 +/- 5.4 microliters/min in the control state to 3.2 +/- 1.3 microliters/min after microspheres. Active tension developed by the muscle in the unperfused condition before microspheres and after microspheres did not differ significantly (-12.8 +/- 29.4% change). After microspheres similar perfusion pressure steps as in control never resulted in an increase in active tension. Even at the two highest perfusion pressures (89.1 +/- 28.4 and 106.5 +/- 31.7 cmH2O) that were applied a significant decrease in active tension was found. We conclude that the Gregg phenomenon is related to capillary perfusion.

  17. Pitch link loads reduction of variable speed rotors by variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Dong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the pitch link loads of variable speed rotors, variable tuning frequency fluidlastic isolators are proposed. This isolator utilizes the variation of centrifugal force due to the change of rotor speed to change the tuning port area ratio, which can change the tuning frequency of the isolator. A rotor model including the model of fluidlastic isolator is coupled with a fuselage model to predict the steady responses of the rotor system in forward flight. The aeroelastic analyses indicate that distinct performance improvement in pitch link load control can be achieved by the utilization of variable frequency isolators compared with the constant tuning frequency isolators. The 4/rev (per revolution pitch link load is observed to be reduced by 87.6% compared with the increase of 56.3% by the constant frequency isolator, when the rotor speed is reduced by 16.7%. The isolation ability at different rotor speeds in different flight states is investigated. To achieve overall load reduction within the whole range of rotor speed, the strategy of the variation of tuning frequency is adjusted. The results indicate that the 4/rev pitch link load within the whole rotor speed range is decreased.

  18. Initial multicentre experience of high-speed myocardial perfusion imaging: comparison between high-speed and conventional single-photon emission computed tomography with angiographic validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, Johanne [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); The Prince Charles Hospital, Brisbane (Australia); Prvulovich, Elizabeth M.; Bomanji, Jamshed B. [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Fish, Matthews B. [Sacred Heart Medical Center (SHMC), Springfield, OR (United States); Berman, Daniel S.; Slomka, Piotr J. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Sharir, Tali [Procardia Maccabi Healthcare Services (PMHS), Tel Aviv (Israel); Martin, William H. [Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC), Nashville, TN (United States); DiCarli, Marcelo F. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital (BWH), Boston, MA (United States); Ziffer, Jack A. [Baptist Hospital of Miami (BHM), Miami, FL (United States); Shiti, Dalia [Spectrum-Dynamics, Caesarea (Israel); Ben-Haim, Simona [University College London Hospital, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)

    2013-07-15

    High-speed (HS) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a recently developed solid-state camera shows comparable myocardial perfusion abnormalities to those seen in conventional SPECT. We aimed to compare HS and conventional SPECT images from multiple centres with coronary angiographic findings. The study included 50 patients who had sequential conventional SPECT and HS SPECT myocardial perfusion studies and coronary angiography within 3 months. Stress and rest perfusion images were visually analysed and scored semiquantitatively using a 17-segment model by two experienced blinded readers. Global and coronary territorial summed stress scores (SSS) and summed rest scores (SRS) were calculated. Global SSS {>=}3 or coronary territorial SSS {>=}2 was considered abnormal. In addition the total perfusion deficit (TPD) was automatically derived. TPD >5 % and coronary territorial TPD {>=}3 % were defined as abnormal. Coronary angiograms were analysed for site and severity of coronary stenosis; {>=}50 % was considered significant. Of the 50 patients, 13 (26 %) had no stenosis, 22 (44 %) had single-vessel disease, 6 (12 %) had double-vessel disease and 9 (18 %) had triple-vessel disease. There was a good linear correlation between the visual global SSS and SRS (Spearman's {rho} 0.897 and 0.866, respectively; p < 0.001). In relation to coronary angiography, the sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of HS SPECT and conventional SPECT by visual assessment were 92 % (35/38), 83 % (10/12) and 90 % (45/50) vs. 84 % (32/38), 50 % (6/12) and 76 % (38/50), respectively (p < 0.001). The sensitivities, specificities and accuracies of HS SPECT and conventional SPECT in relation to automated TPD assessment were 89 % (31/35), 57 % (8/14) and 80 % (39/49) vs. 86 % (31/36), 77 % (10/13) and 84 % (41/49), respectively. HS SPECT allows fast acquisition of myocardial perfusion images that correlate well with angiographic findings with overall accuracy by visual

  19. Detection of reactive oxygen species in isolated, perfused lungs by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schudt Christian

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sources and measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS in intact organs are largely unresolved. This may be related to methodological problems associated with the techniques currently employed for ROS detection. Electron spin resonance (ESR with spin trapping is a specific method for ROS detection, and may address some these technical problems. Methods We have established a protocol for the measurement of intravascular ROS release from isolated buffer-perfused and ventilated rabbit and mouse lungs, combining lung perfusion with the spin probe l-hydroxy-3-carboxy-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine (CPH and ESR spectroscopy. We then employed this technique to characterize hypoxia-dependent ROS release, with specific attention paid to NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide formation as a possible vasoconstrictor pathway. Results While perfusing lungs with CPH over a range of inspired oxygen concentrations (1–21 %, the rate of CP• formation exhibited an oxygen-dependence, with a minimum at 2.5 % O2. Addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD to the buffer fluid illustrated that a minor proportion of this intravascular ROS leak was attributable to superoxide. Stimulation of the lungs by injection of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA into the pulmonary artery caused a rapid increase in CP• formation, concomitant with pulmonary vasoconstriction. Both the PMA-induced CPH oxidation and the vasoconstrictor response were largely suppressed by SOD. When the PMA challenge was performed at different oxygen concentrations, maximum superoxide liberation and pulmonary vasoconstriction occurred at 5 % O2. Using a NADPH oxidase inhibitor and NADPH-oxidase deficient mice, we illustrated that the PMA-induced superoxide release was attributable to the stimulation of NADPH oxidases. Conclusion The perfusion of isolated lungs with CPH is suitable for detection of intravascular ROS release by ESR spectroscopy. We employed this technique to

  20. Isolated thoracic perfusion with chemofiltration for progressive malignant pleural mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aigner KR

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl Reinhard Aigner, Emir Selak, Sabine Gailhofer Department of Surgical Oncology, Medias Klinikum, Burghausen, Germany Introduction: Therapy of malignant pleural mesothelioma and especially the adequate role of surgery in this context remain the subject of controversial discussions. Radical surgery in particular, which is associated with substantial morbidity, failed to translate into a definite survival advantage. We report on interim results of an ongoing Phase II study of regional chemotherapy in terms of isolated thoracic perfusion with chemofiltration (ITP-F.Patients and methods: Twenty-eight patients (25 male, 3 female, mean age 63.4 years with advanced pleural mesothelioma were included in this study. Isolation of the chest was achieved by insertion of a venous and arterial stop-flow balloon catheter via a femoral access. The aorta and inferior vena cava were blocked at the level of the diaphragm and the upper arms were blocked by pneumatic cuffs. Chemotherapy, consisting of 60 mg/m² cisplatin and 15 mg/m² mitoxantrone, was administered directly into the aorta. The isolated circuit was maintained for 15 minutes followed by ~45 minutes of chemofiltration with a hemoprocessor until 5 L of filtrate were reached. The endpoints of the study were overall survival and quality of life (QoL.Results: Out of 28 patients enrolled in the study, 5 had prior surgeries, 10 patients had systemic chemotherapy, and 5 patients additional irradiation. In all patients in restaging, clinical progress was noted. In all, 162 cycles were administered. Due to chemofiltration, toxicity was within tolerable limits, revealing World Health Organization grade I leucopenia and thrombocytopenia in 9 patients and mucositis grade I in 6 patients. The major surgical complication was inguinal lymphatic fistula in 40% of the cases. Gastrointestinal toxicity and/or neurotoxicity were never observed. One-year survival was 49%, 2-year and 3-year survival was 31%, and 5

  1. Inhibition of mirtazapine metabolism by Ecstasy (MDMA) in isolated perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidfar, Sanaz; Ardakani, Yalda H; Lavasani, Hoda; Rouini, Mohammadreza

    2017-06-28

    Nowadays MDMA (3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine), known as ecstasy, is widely abused among the youth because of euphoria induction in acute exposure. However, abusers are predisposed to depression in chronic consumption of this illicit compound. Mirtazapine (MRZ), an antidepressant agent, may be prescribed in MDMA-induced depression. MRZ is extensively metabolized in liver by CYP450 isoenzymes. 8-hydroxymirtazapine (8-OH) is mainly produced by CYP2D6. N-desmethylmirtazapine (NDES) is generated by CYP3A4. MDMA is also metabolized by the mentioned isoenzymes and demonstrates mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) in association with CYP2D6. Several studies revealed that MDMA showed inhibitory effects on CYP3A4. In the present study, our aim was to evaluate the impact of MDMA on the metabolism of MRZ in liver. Therefore, isolated perfused rat liver model was applied as our model of choice in this assessment. The subjects of the study were categorized into two experimental groups. Rats in the control group received MRZ-containing Krebs-Henselit buffer (1 μg/ml). Rats in the treatment group received aqueous solution of 1 mg/ml MDMA (3 mg/kg) intraperitoneally 1 hour before receiving MRZ. Perfusate samples were analyzed by HPLC. Analyses of perfusate samples showed 80% increase in the parent drug concentrations and 50% decrease in the concentrations of both metabolites in our treatment group compared to the control group. In the treatment group compared to the control group, AUC (0-120) of the parent drug demonstrated 50% increase and AUC (0-120) of 8-OH and NDES showed 70% and 60% decrease, respectively. Observed decrease in metabolic ratios were 83% and 79% for 8-OH and NDES in treatment group compared to control group, respectively. Hepatic clearance (CL h ) and intrinsic clearance (Cl int ) showed 20% and 60% decrease in treatment group compared to control group. All findings prove the inhibitory effects of ecstasy on both CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 hepatic isoenzymes. In

  2. Regional MRI Perfusion Measures Predict Motor/Executive Function in Patients with Clinically Isolated Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrosini Z. Papadaki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS demonstrate brain hemodynamic changes and also suffer from difficulties in processing speed, memory, and executive functions. Objective. To explore whether brain hemodynamic disturbances in CIS patients correlate with executive functions. Methods. Thirty CIS patients and forty-three healthy subjects, matched for age, gender, education level, and FSIQ, were administered tests of visuomotor learning and set shifting ability. Cerebral blood volume (CBV, cerebral blood flow (CBF, and mean transit time (MTT values were estimated in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM and normal-appearing deep gray Matter (NADGM structures, using a perfusion MRI technique. Results. CIS patients showed significantly elevated reaction time (RT on both tasks, while their CBV and MTT values were globally increased, probably due to inflammatory vasodilation. Significantly, positive correlation coefficients were found between error rates on the inhibition condition of the visuomotor learning task and CBV values in occipital, periventricular NAWM and both thalami. On the set shifting condition of the respective task significant, positive associations were found between error rates and CBV values in the semioval center and periventricular NAWM bilaterally. Conclusion. Impaired executive function in CIS patients correlated positively with elevated regional CBV values thought to reflect inflammatory processes.

  3. Chamber-specific effects of hypokalaemia on ventricular arrhythmogenicity in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    of hypokalaemic perfusion (2.5 mm K(+) for 30 min) were assessed in isolated guinea-pig heart preparations using simultaneous recordings of volume-conducted electrocardiogram and monophasic action potentials from six ventricular epicardial sites. Effective refractory periods, ventricular fibrillation thresholds...... for re-entrant tachyarrhythmias. Taken together, these findings suggest that proarrhythmic effects of hypokalaemia are mostly attributed to increased LV arrhythmogenicity in the guinea-pig heart....

  4. Release of galanin from isolated perfused porcine adrenal glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Ehrhart-Bornstein, M; Messell, T

    1991-01-01

    We found a high concentration of galanin in extracts of porcine adrenal glands (114 pmol/g). By immunohistochemistry, galanin was localized to groups of medullary cells previously shown to produce norepinephrine. To study mechanisms for the release of galanin, we developed the following in vitro...... model: isolated perfused porcine adrenals with intact splanchnic nerve supply. When the nerves were electrically stimulated, epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion increased 276- and 291-fold, respectively, and galanin release increased up to 1,300-fold. Acetylcholine at 10(-6) M stimulated galanin...... release, and hexamethonium almost abolished the response to nerve stimulation. Galanin infusions had no effect on epinephrine and norepinephrine secretion in concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M, but increased both cortisol and aldosterone secretion (P less than 0.05). Splanchnic nerve stimulation...

  5. Kidney in potassium depletion. II. K+ handling by the isolated perfused rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, M.; Katz, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    In a companion paper the authors reported a large increment in Na + -K + -ATPase activity and [ 3 H]ouabain binding the inner stripe of outer medullary collecting tubules from K-depleted rats. To test the hypothesis that the increased number of Na + -K + pumps in these animals may be involved in potassium reabsorption they examined the effect of ouabain on K excretion by isolated, perfused kidneys from rats fed a K-free diet for 3 wk. Kidneys from K-depleted rats retain potassium avidly, both the fractional (FE/sub K/) and absolute K excretion being approximately fivefold lower than in control kidneys. Ouabain (5 mM) increased FE/sub K/ in kidneys from each K-depleted rat; similar results were obtained when kidneys were perfused with low and high potassium concentrations. In contrast, ouabain produced a variable effect in control kidneys, that depended on the perfusate potassium concentration. In K-depleted rats amiloride did not significantly alter K excretion and did not block the ouabain-induced kaliuresis, suggesting that the latter is not due to enhanced secretion secondary to increased distal fluid delivery. These results provide evidence for ouabain-sensitive potassium reabsorption in kidneys of chronically K-depleted rats, and suggest an explanation for the increased Na + -K + -ATPase observed in such animals

  6. Active Oxygen Metabolites and Thromboxane in Phorbol Myristate Acetate Toxicity to the Isolated, Perfused Rat Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laurie Jean

    When administered intravenously or intratracheally to rats, rabbits and sheep, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) produces changes in lung morphology and function are similar to those seen in humans with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, it is thought that information about the mechanism of ARDS development can be gained from experiments using PMA-treated animals. Currently, the mechanisms by which PMA causes pneumotoxicity are unknown. Results from other studies in rabbits and in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs suggest that PMA-induced lung injury is mediated by active oxygen species from neutrophils (PMN), whereas studies in sheep and rats suggest that PMN are not required for the toxic response. The role of PMN, active oxygen metabolites and thromboxane (TxA_2) in PMA-induced injury to isolated, perfused rat lungs (IPLs) was examined in this thesis. To determine whether PMN were required for PMA to produce toxicity to the IPL, lungs were perfused for 30 min with buffer containing various concentrations of PMA (in the presence or absence of PMN). When concentrations >=q57 ng/ml were added to medium devoid of added PMN, perfusion pressure and lung weight increased. When a concentration of PMA (14-28 ng/ml) that did not by itself cause lungs to accumulate fluid was added to the perfusion medium containing PMN (1 x 10 ^8), perfusion pressure increased, and lungs accumulated fluid. These results indicate that high concentrations of PMA produce lung injury which is independent of PMN, whereas injury induced by lower concentrations is PMN-dependent. To examine whether active oxygen species were involved in mediating lung injury induced by PMA and PMN, lungs were coperfused with the oxygen radical scavengers SOD and/or catalase. Coperfusion with either or both of these enzymes totally protected lungs against injury caused by PMN and PMA. These results suggest that active oxygen species (the hydroxyl radical in particular), mediate lung injury in

  7. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  8. Isolated lung perfusion with gemcitabine for the treatment of pulmonary metastases : Experimental study in a rat model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putte, B.P. van

    2003-01-01

    Isolated lung perfusion is an experimental surgical technique for the treatment of pulmonary metastases in order to improve the current 5-year survival of approximately 40 % after surgical resection of manually palpable metastases. Several drugs have been tested in animals models and five phase I

  9. Anionic and cationic drug secretion in the isolated perfused rat kidney after neonatal surgical induction of ureteric obstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gier, R.P.E. de; Feitz, W.F.J.; Masereeuw, R.; Wouterse, A.C.; Smits, D.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the pathophysiological changes of renal tubular drug transport mechanisms in congenital renal obstruction, by developing a model for perfusing the isolated kidney (IPK) after neonatal surgical induction of partial ureteric obstruction in Hanover Wistar rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS:

  10. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced acute lung injury in an isolated perfused rabbit-lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masato; Nishida, Osamu; Nakamura, Fujio; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that propofol has antioxidant potential. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate ALI by acting as a free-radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of propofol on oxidant-induced ALI induced by purine and xanthine oxidase (XO), in isolated perfused rabbit lung, in two series of experiments. In series 1, we examined the relationship between the severity of ALI and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In series 2, we evaluated the effects of propofol on attenuating ALI and the dose dependence of these effects. The lungs were perfused for 90 min, and we evaluated the effects on the severity of ALI by monitoring the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), and the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure (Ppc). In series 1, treatment with catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) prior to the addition of purine and XO resulted in complete prevention of ALI, suggesting that H2O2 may be involved closely in the pathogenesis of ALI. In series 2, pretreatment with propofol at concentrations in excess of 0.5 mM significantly inhibited the increases in the Kfc values, and that in excess of 0.75 mM significantly inhibited the increase in the Ppa values. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced ALI in an isolated perfused rabbit lung model, probably due to its antioxidant action.

  11. Compartment analysis of 125I-labelled albumin washout from coronary vessels of isolated perfused hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Eap Ng; Seh-Hoon Song

    1978-01-01

    Albumin labelled with 125 I was used as a tracer to investigate the washout kinetics of plasma from the coronary circulation of isolated perfused feline hearts. Compartmentalization with experimental results showed at least two compartments. The model was compared with a three-compartment model found previously for red blood cells. The results indicate that there is a separation of plasma and RBC in the coronary microcirculation. (author)

  12. HYPERTHERMIC ISOLATED REGIONAL PERFUSION WITH CISPLATIN IN THE LOCAL TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS CANINE OSTEOSARCOMA - ASSESSMENT OF SHORT-TERM EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGINKEL, RJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; MEUTSTEGE, FJ; OOSTERHUIS, JW; UGES, DRA; KOOPS, HS

    To increase the effect of cisplatin on locoregional osteosarcoma, the short-term effect of hyperthermic isolated regional perfusion (HIRP) with cisplatin (30 mg/L extremity volume) was studied in 28 dogs with spontaneous osteogenic sarcoma, using clinical, radiological, and histological parameters.

  13. Isolated hepatic perfusion as a treatment for uveal melanoma liver metastases (the SCANDIUM trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Roger; Ny, Lars; Eilard, Malin Sternby

    2014-01-01

    for patients with liver metastases is between 6 and 12 months, and no treatment has in randomized trials ever been shown to prolong survival. A previous phase II trial using isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) has suggested a 14-month increase in overall survival compared with a historic control group consisting...... of the longest surviving patients in Sweden during the same time period (26 versus 12 months). METHODS/DESIGN: This is the protocol for a multicenter phase III trial randomizing patients with isolated liver metastases of uveal melanoma to IHP or best alternative care (BAC). Inclusion criteria include liver....... The planned sample size is 78 patients throughout five years. DISCUSSION: Patients with isolated liver metastases of uveal melanoma origin have a short expected survival and no standard treatment option exists. This is the first randomized clinical trial to evaluate IHP as a treatment option with overall...

  14. TNFa-based isolated limb perfusion in the rat : development of a model and analysis of efficacy determining factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.R. Manusama (Eric)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIsolated limb perfusion (lLP) with high dose TNFa in combination with IFNr and melphalan in patients with melanoma in transit metastases confined to the limb has recently been reported to result in much higher complete tumor response rates than after the standard therapy of ILP with

  15. The effect of age on outcomes after isolated limb perfusion for advanced extremity malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H G; Wilkinson, M J; Smith, M J F; Strauss, D C; Hayes, A J

    2018-06-22

    Isolated limb perfusion (ILP) is a well-established treatment for patients with advanced extremity malignancies unsuitable for limb-conserving surgery. However, little is known about the outcomes of this treatment in elderly patients. We sought to determine the effects of age on the tolerability and efficacy of ILP for advanced extremity malignancy. Patients undergoing ILP at our institution between January 2005 and January 2018 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Patients were stratified by pathology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcoma, other) and age (<75 years and ≥75 years). Outcomes of interest were perioperative morbidity and mortality, locoregional toxicities, response rates and oncological outcomes. During the study period, a total of 189 perfusions were attempted. Successful perfusions were performed in 179 patients, giving a technical success rate of 94.7%. No difference in perfusion success rates, severe locoregional toxicity and perioperative morbidity or mortality was noted between those aged <75 years and ≥75 years. The overall response rate in melanoma was 82.4%, and no difference in response rates or oncological outcomes between age groups was noted in these patients. The overall response rate in soft-tissue sarcoma was 63.5%, with no difference in response rates noted between age groups. However, patients aged <75 years with soft-tissue sarcoma had prolonged local recurrence-free survival compared with older patients (13 versus 6 months), possibly due to the prevalence of chemosensitive subtypes in the younger age group. ILP is an effective treatment for advanced extremity malignancies in the elderly, with comparable response rates and toxicities to younger patients. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. [Cytostatic hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) in VFN (General Faculty Hospital in Prague)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spacek, M; Mitás, P; Lacina, L; Krajsová, I; Hodková, G; Salmay, M; Spunda, R; Brlicová, L; Lindner, J

    2011-01-01

    Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) is a standardized method of treatment in selected patients with in-transient locoregional recurrence/methastasis of melanoma or, some other soft tissue tumors (incl. sarcoma etc.) Authors present history and current status of this treatment modality in General University Hospital in Prague. During one year period (7/2009-6/2010) 10 patients were indicated for this procedure. We performed 13 procedures (3x redo), 11 in lower extremity and 2 in upper extremity. There was no serious complication in this cohort of patiens. Multidisciplinar approach is indicated in melanoma patients care.

  17. Testing the biocompatibility of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution by using an isolated perfused bovine retina organ culture model - an alternative to animal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januschowski, Kai; Zhour, Ahmad; Lee, Albert; Maddani, Ramin; Mueller, Sebastien; Spitzer, Martin S; Schnichels, Sven; Schultheiss, Maximilian; Doycheva, Deshka; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Szurman, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The effects of a glutathione-containing intra-ocular irrigation solution, BSS Plus©, on retinal function and on the survival of ganglion cells in whole-mount retinal explants were studied. Evidence is provided that the perfused ex vivo bovine retina can serve as an alternative to in vivo animal testing. Isolated bovine retinas were prepared and perfused with an oxygen-saturated standard irrigation solution, and an electroretinogram was recorded to assess retinal function. After stable b-waves were detected, the isolated retinas were perfused with BSS Plus for 45 minutes. To investigate the effects of BSS Plus on photoreceptor function, 1mM aspartate was added to the irrigation solution in order to obtain a-waves, and the ERG trace was monitored for 75 minutes. For histological analysis, isolated whole retinal mounts were stored for 24 hours at 4°C, in the dark. The percentages of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer and in the outer and inner nuclear layers were estimated by using an ethidium homodimer-1 stain and the TUNEL assay. General swelling of the retina was examined with high-resolution optical coherence tomography. During perfusion with BSS Plus, no significant changes in a-wave and b-wave amplitudes were recorded. Retinas stored for 24 hours in BSS Plus showed a statistically significant smaller percentage (52.6%, standard deviation [SD] = 16.1%) of cell death in the retinal ganglion cell layer compared to the control group (69.6%, SD = 3.9, p = 0.0031). BSS Plus did not seem to affect short-term retinal function, and had a beneficial effect on the survival of retinal ganglion cells. This method for analysing the isolated perfused retina represents a valuable alternative for testing substances for their retinal biocompatibility and toxicity. 2012 FRAME.

  18. The Hepatoprotective Effects of Corn Silk against Dose-induced Injury of Ecstasy (MDMA Using Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk (CS is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate hepatoprotective activity of CS by Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion System (IRLP. Methods: Hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, and 100 mg kg-1 was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity by IRLP. Phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined as gallic acid and quercetin equivalents from a calibration curve, respectively. IRLP system is ideal for studying biochemical alterations of chemicals with minimum neuro-hormonal effects. In this study, the liver was perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentration of hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk (10, 20, 40, 50,100mg/kg, added to the buffer, and perfused for 2 hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including amino-transferees activities and the level of GSH, were assessed as indicators of liver viability. Consequently, sections of liver tissues were examined for any histopathological changes. Results: Histopathological changes in liver tissues were related to hydro-alcoholic extract of corn silk concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. Also, 50 and 100mg/kg doses caused significant (P<0.05 histopathological changes. Level of GSH in samples perfused with hydro-alcoholic extract increased compared to the control group. Conclusion: Hepatoprotective effect of CS is due to decreased lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms might also be involved.

  19. The impact of short chain fatty acids on GLP-1 and PYY secretion from the isolated perfused rat colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Gabe, Maria Buur Nordskov; Svendsen, Berit

    2018-01-01

    chain fatty acids (SCFAs) produced by local bacterial fermentation are suggested to activate the colonic free fatty acid receptors FFAR2 (GPR43) and FFAR3 (GPR41), stimulating the colonic L-cells. We used the isolated perfused rat colon as a model of colonic endocrine secretion and studied the effects...

  20. Brain perfusion and cognitive function changes in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimova, I.Y.; Efimova, N.Y.; Triss, S.V.; Lishmanov, Y.B.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of our study was to estimate brain perfusion and cognitive function (CF) in patients with arterial hypertension (AH) before and after hypotensive therapy. The study included 15 patients (mean age, 53.0±5.7 years) with previously untreated or ineffectively treated essential hypertension of the second degree. All patients underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning with 99m Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of hypotensive therapy (angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitor or diuretics). The brain perfusion was significantly lower (15-22%) in all regions of AH patients. These patients showed a 25% decrease in attention and psychomotor speed as well as a 14% decrease in mentation. Six months of hypotensive therapy led to an increase in brain perfusion by an average of 7-11% in all brain regions. After treatment these patients demonstrated an average 11-18% improvements in attention and psychomotor speed, as well as an average 10% improvement in abstract mentation. Marked signs of brain hypoperfusion and impaired CF: decrease in attention, slowing psychomotor speed and mentation was found in hypertensive patients even without focal neurological symptomatology. Twenty-four weeks of hypotensive treatment with ACE inhibitors or diuretics had a positive effect on cerebral perfusion and led to CF improvement. (author)

  1. Perfusion of the isolated rat brain with [14C]-Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Agurell, S.; Krieglstein, J.; Rieger, H.

    1977-01-01

    There is controversy over whether Δ 1 -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 1 -THC) or its metabolites is responsible for the behavioural and cardiovascular effects of cannabis. It has been shown that, even in the absence of metabolism, Δ 1 -THC was capable of altering the EEG of isolated perfused rat brain, and must therefore contribute to the psychoactivity of cannabis. TLC studies showed no evidence for brain metabolism of [ 14 C]-Δ 1 -THC, and in particular the 7-hydroxylated metabolite (7-OH-Δ 1 -THC) could not be detected. A disproportionate amount of CNS activity in the rat cannot therefore be attributed to 7-OH-Δ 1 -THC on the basis that it is formed at or near its locus of action. (U.K.)

  2. A Review of Liver Perfusion Method in Toxicology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The isolated perfused rat liver is an accepted method in toxicology studies. The isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL is a useful experimental system for evaluating hepatic function without the influence of other organ systems, undefined plasma constituents, and neural-hormonal effects. Methods: The untreated male rats (180-220gr body weight were anesthetised with ether and then surgery with proper method. The abdomen was opened through a midline and one transversal incision and the bile duct was cannulated. Heparin sodium solution (0.5 ml; 500 U/ml in 0.9% NaCl was injected via the abdominal vena cava to prevent blood clotting. The liver inferior venacava was cannulated with PE-10 tubing and secured. The portal vein was immediately cannulated with an 23gr catheter which was secured and then liver was perfused in situ by Krebs- Henseleit buffer (pH 7.4; saturated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2; 37°C at a flow rate of 20 ml/min for 3hr. Temperature, perfusion pressure, flow rate and perfusion fluid pH were closely monitored during the perfusion. Results: Transferase enzymes (ALT, AST alterations can be widely used as a measure of biochemical alterations in order to assess liver damage due to use of drugs such as isoniazid (INH and animal and plant toxins. Accumulated material in gallbladder are valuable samples to assess the level of Glutathione (GSH. Sections of perfused liver tissue can also be effectively analyzed for pathological aspects such as necrosis, fibrosis, cellularity. Conclusion: The isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL is a useful and Sutible experimental system for evaluating hepatic function. In this system, the effects of adjacent organs, on the liver is minimized

  3. Multi-objective PID Optimization for Speed Control of an Isolated Steam Turbine using Gentic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kr. Singh; D. Boolchandani; S.G. Modani; Nitish Katal

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on multi-objective optimization of the PID controllers for optimal speed control for an isolated steam turbine. In complex operations, optimal tuning plays an imperative role in maintaining the product quality and process safety. This study focuses on the comparison of the optimal PID tuning using Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II) against normal genetic algorithm and Ziegler Nichols methods for the speed control of an isolated steam turbine. Isolated steam turbine...

  4. Perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detects recurrent isolated vertigo caused by cerebral hypoperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Jiang, Li; Luo, Man; Li, Jiaoxing; Li, Weidong; Sheng, Wenli

    2015-06-01

    The etiology of isolated vertigo has been a substantial diagnostic challenge for both neurologists and otolaryngologists. This study was designed to detect recurrent isolated vertigo due to cerebral hypoperfusion using perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (PWI). We recruited isolated vertigo patients whose clinical condition was suspected to be caused by hypodynamics of the brain; these individuals formed the case group. We generated two additional groups: a negative group composed of vertigo patients whose symptoms were caused by problems associated with the ear and a healthy control group. Each subject underwent PWI, and seven regions of interest (ROIs) were chosen. The relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and mean transit time (MTT) were obtained from each ROI. We further calculated the absolute difference of relative parameter values between two mirrored ROIs. The significant difference in the relative MTT from the mirrored cerebellar ROI (|rMTTleft-right|) of the case group was larger than those from the negative and healthy control groups (p = 0.026 and p = 0.038, respectively). Signal differences in |rrCBVleft-right| and |rrCBFleft-right| were not found among the three groups. In summary, disequilibrium in the rMTT of the bilateral cerebellum in the case group implied that hypoperfusion of the posterior circulation could trigger recurrent isolated vertigo and could be shown efficiently using PWI.

  5. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma : The value of adjuvant radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssens, KMJ; van Ginkel, RJ; Pras, E; Suurmeijer, AJH; Hoekstra, HJ

    Background: The aim was to investigate the value of adjuvant radiotherapy for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma after hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan followed by limb-saving surgery. Methods: From 1991 to 2003, 73 patients (median age, 54

  6. Biosynthesis of agmatine in isolated mitochondria and perfused rat liver: studies with 15N-labelled arginine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    An important but unresolved question is whether mammalian mitochondria metabolize arginine to agmatine by the ADC (arginine decarboxylase) reaction. 15N-labelled arginine was used as a precursor to address this question and to determine the flux through the ADC reaction in isolated mitochondria obtained from rat liver. In addition, liver perfusion system was used to examine a possible action of insulin, glucagon or cAMP on a flux through the ADC reaction. In mitochondria and liver perfusion, 15N-labelled agmatine was generated from external 15N-labelled arginine. The production of 15N-labelled agmatine was time- and dose-dependent. The time-course of [U-15N4]agmatine formation from 2 mM [U-15N4]arginine was best fitted to a one-phase exponential curve with a production rate of approx. 29 pmol·min−1·(mg of protein)−1. Experiments with an increasing concentration (0– 40 mM) of [guanidino-15N2]arginine showed a Michaelis constant Km for arginine of 46 mM and a Vmax of 3.7 nmol·min−1·(mg of protein)−1 for flux through the ADC reaction. Experiments with broken mitochondria showed little changes in Vmax or Km values, suggesting that mitochondrial arginine uptake had little effect on the observed Vmax or Km values. Experiments with liver perfusion demonstrated that over 95% of the effluent agmatine was derived from perfusate [guanidino-15N2]arginine regardless of the experimental condition. However, the output of 15N-labelled agmatine (nmol·min−1·g−1) increased by approx. 2-fold (P<0.05) in perfusions with cAMP. The findings of the present study provide compelling evidence that mitochondrial ADC is present in the rat liver, and suggest that cAMP may stimulate flux through this pathway. PMID:15656789

  7. A capillary-based perfusion phantom for simulation of brain perfusion for MRI; Ein kapillarbasiertes Phantom zur Simulation der Gehirnperfusion mit der Magnet-Resonanz-Tomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciak, A.; Kronfeld, A.; Mueller-Forell, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie; Wille, C. [Fachhochschule Bingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Informatik; Kempski, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurochirurgische Pathophysiologie; Stoeter, P. [CEDIMAT, Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Inst. of Neuroradiology

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The measurement of the CBF is a non-standardized procedure and there are no reliable gold standards. This abstract shows a capillary-based perfusion-phantom for CE-DSC-MRI. It has equivalent flow properties to those within the tissue capillary system of the human brain and allows the validation of the Siemens Perfusion (MR) software. Materials and Methods: The perfusion phantom consists of a dialyzer for the simulation of the capillary system, a feeding tube for simulation of the AIF and a pulsatile pump for simulation of the heart. Using this perfusion phantom, the exact determination of the gold standard CBF due to the well-known geometry of the phantom is easy. It was validated based on different perfusion measurements. These measurements were investigated with standard software (Siemens Perfusion MR). The software determined the CBF within the capillary system. Based on this CBF, a comparison to the gold standard was made with several different flow speeds. After AIF selection, a total of 726 CBF data points were automatically extracted by the software. Results: This results in a comparison of the gold standard CBF to these 726 CBF values. Therefore, a reproducible and reliable deviation estimation between gold standard CBF and measured CBF using the software was computed. It can be shown that the deviation between gold standard and software-based evaluation ranges between 1 and 31 %. Conclusion: There is no significance for any correlation between flow speed and amount of deviation. The mean measured CBF is 11.4 % higher than the gold standard CBF (p-value < 0.001). Using this kind of perfusion-phantom, the validation of different software systems allows reliable conclusions about their quality. (orig.)

  8. Dynamic perfusion CT: Optimizing the temporal resolution for the calculation of perfusion CT parameters in stroke patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemena, Andreas [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: andreas.kaemena@charite.de; Streitparth, Florian; Grieser, Christian; Lehmkuhl, Lukas [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Jamil, Basil [Department of Radiotherapy, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Schumannstr. 20/21, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Wojtal, Katarzyna; Ricke, Jens; Pech, Maciej [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the influence of different temporal sampling rates on the accuracy of the results from cerebral perfusion CTs in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Material and methods: Thirty consecutive patients with acute stroke symptoms received a dynamic perfusion CT (LightSpeed 16, GE). Forty millilitres of iomeprol (Imeron 400) were administered at an injection rate of 4 ml/s. After a scan delay of 7 s, two adjacent 10 mm slices at 80 kV and 190 mA were acquired in a cine mode technique with a cine duration of 49 s. Parametric maps for the blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were calculated for temporal sampling intervals of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 s using GE's Perfusion 3 software package. In addition to the quantitative ROI data analysis, a visual perfusion map analysis was performed. Results: The perfusion analysis proved to be technically feasible with all patients. The calculated perfusion values revealed significant differences with regard to the BF, BV and MTT, depending on the employed temporal resolution. The perfusion contrast between ischemic lesions and healthy brain tissue decreased continuously at the lower temporal resolutions. The visual analysis revealed that ischemic lesions were best depicted with sampling intervals of 0.5 and 1 s. Conclusion: We recommend a temporal scan resolution of two images per second for the best detection and depiction of ischemic areas.

  9. Tissue ablation accelerated by peripheral scanning mode with high-intensity focused ultrasound: a study on isolated porcine liver perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Rui; Yin, Li; Yang, Han; Wang, Qi; Wu, Feng; Zou, Jian Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of accelerated tissue ablation using a peripheral scanning mode with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and to explore the effect of flow rate on total energy consumption of the target tissues. Using a model of isolated porcine liver perfusion via the portal vein and hepatic artery, we conducted a scanning protocol along the periphery of the target tissues using linear-scanned HIFU to carefully adjust the varying focal depth, generator power, scanning velocity and line-by-line interval over the entire ablation range. Porcine livers were divided into four ablation groups: group 1, n = 12, with dual-vessel perfusion; group 2, n = 11, with portal vein perfusion alone; group 3, n = 10, with hepatic artery perfusion alone; and group 4, n = 11, control group with no-flow perfusion. The samples were cut open consecutively at a thickness of 3 mm, and the actual ablation ranges were calculated along the periphery of the target tissues after triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Total energy consumption was calculated as the sum of the energy requirements at various focal depths in each group. On the basis of the pre-supposed scanning protocol, the peripheral region of the target tissue formed a complete coagulation necrosis barrier in each group with varying dose combinations, and the volume of the peripheral necrotic area did not differ significantly among the four groups (p > 0.05). Furthermore, total energy consumption in each group significantly decreased with the corresponding decrease in flow rate (p Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenxian; Feng, Youzhen; Lu, Weibiao; Xie, Xie; Xiong, Zhilin; Jing, Zhen; Cai, Xiangran; Huang, Li'an

    2016-11-15

    To determine the morphological changes of intracranial arteries and whole-brain perfusion in undetermined isolated vertigo (UIV) patients using 320-detector row computed tomography (CT). A total of 150 patients who underwent CT angiography (CTA) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging were divided into UIV group and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) group. Sixty individuals with sex- and age-matched without vertigo and cerebral diseases served as the control. The morphological changes of intracranial arteries, perfusion parameters and vascular risk factors (VRFs) were analyzed, calculated and compared. In UIV patients, hypertension (HT), hyperlipidemia and number of VRFs≥3 occurred more commonly (P<0.0125, respectively). The incidence of vertebral artery dominance (VAD), vertebral artery stenosis (VAS) and basilar artery curvature (BAC) were significantly higher (P<0.0125, respectively). HT was an independent risk predictor of non-VAD (OR: 5.411, 95%CI: 1.401; 20.900, P=0.014). HT and VAD associated with BAC served as risk predictors (OR: 4.081, 95%CI: 1.056;15.775, P=0.041 and OR: 6.284, 95%CI: 1.848; 21.365, P=0.003, respectively). The absolute difference in relative values of CTP parameters from cerebellum and brainstem were significantly different (P<0.05), and hypoperfusion was found in the territories of the non-VAD side and the BAC cohort (P<0.05, respectively). On the basis of multiple VRFs, morphological changes of vertebrobasilar artery (VBA) and the unilateral hypoperfusion of the cerebellum and brainstem, that acts as a herald for IV occurrence, which should be paid cautious attention to UIV patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of adrenaline and high Ca2+ on the mechanical performance and oxygen consumption of the isolated perfused trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Gesser, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In heart muscle from mammals, catecholamines frequently evoke an oxygen waste and reduce efficiency. It was examined if this also applies to fish in which heart muscle activity is often restricted by oxygen availability. In the isolated perfused heart from rainbow trout, adrenaline (0.5 micro...

  12. Comparison of myocardial perfusion imaging between the new high-speed gamma camera and the standard anger camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Chikamori, Taishiro; Hida, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) solid-state detectors have been recently introduced into the field of myocardial perfusion imaging. The aim of this study was to prospectively compare the diagnostic performance of the CZT high-speed gamma camera (Discovery NM 530c) with that of the standard 3-head gamma camera in the same group of patients. The study group consisted of 150 consecutive patients who underwent a 1-day stress-rest 99m Tc-sestamibi or tetrofosmin imaging protocol. Image acquisition was performed first on a standard gamma camera with a 15-min scan time each for stress and for rest. All scans were immediately repeated on a CZT camera with a 5-min scan time for stress and a 3-min scan time for rest, using list mode. The correlations between the CZT camera and the standard camera for perfusion and function analyses were strong within narrow Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Using list mode analysis, image quality for stress was rated as good or excellent in 97% of the 3-min scans, and in 100% of the ≥4-min scans. For CZT scans at rest, similarly, image quality was rated as good or excellent in 94% of the 1-min scans, and in 100% of the ≥2-min scans. The novel CZT camera provides excellent image quality, which is equivalent to standard myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography, despite a short scan time of less than half of the standard time. (author)

  13. Isolated limb perfusion with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma : Three time periods at risk for amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ginkel, Robert J.; Thijssens, Katja M. J.; Pras, Elisabeth; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Suurmeijer, Albert J. H.; Hoekstra, Harald J.

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term limb salvage rate and overall survival after isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with tumor necrosis factor alpha and melphalan for locally advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS). Methods: From 1991 to 2003, 73 patients (36 men, 37 women,

  14. Effects of thyroid state on respiration of perfused rat and guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, L.C.; Wallace, P.G.; Berry, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thyroid state on the respiration of the isolated heart were investigated using retrograde perfused rat and guinea pig hearts. In both species, hypothyroidism caused a marked depression in circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and in the respiration of the isolated, retrograde perfused heart. Hypothyroidism was caused by injecting animals with Na 131 I. The effects on myocardial respiration could be attributed to changes in the contraction frequency and in the oxygen consumption per beat, with little contribution from basal respiration. Treatment of animals with thyroxine elevated plasma thyroid hormones to a similar extent in rats and guinea pigs. In the latter, thyroxine treatment was associated with substantial increases in the contraction frequency and the oxygen consumption per beat of the isolated heart. In contrast, only small changes were apparent in the retrograde perfused rat heart, observations that were confirmed in rat hearts perfused at near physiological work loads. It was concluded that rat hearts isolated from normal animals function at near maximal thyroid state, in contrast to the guinea pig heart, which requires higher circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones to attain maximal responses

  15. Hydrogen ion changes and contractile behavior in the perfused rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cingolani, H.E.; Maas, A.H.J.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of acid-base alterations was analyzed using isolated rat hearts perfused at constant coronary perfusion pressure, and stimulated to contract at constant rate. The amount of shortening in the major axis and its derivative were measured to assess myocardial contractility. Both the

  16. Role of glycolysis in maintenance of the action potential duration and contractile activity in isolated perfused rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H; Tuschmidt, R; Bricknell, O; Girardier, L

    1980-01-01

    1. Changing substrates from glucose to pyruvate in paced isolated rat hearts, perfused by the Langendorff technique at 65 cm H2O with a Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, produced effects which are opposite to those of ouabain treatment: negative inotropy, decreased work efficiency, hyperpolarization, increased maximum rate of rise and amplitude of the action potential, increased conduction velocity. 2. All the effects resulting from perfusion with pyruvate can be reversed by adding ouabain at a concentration of 100 microM. 3. The correlation between various tissue metabolises and change in contractile force (delta F), rate of tension development [maximum + (dF/dt)] and rate of relaxation [maximum -(dF/dt)] was studied by multiple linear regression. No significant correlation was found with either glycogen content and tissue lactate or with cAMP and cGMP. A weak negative correlation was found with ATP and phosphocreatine. The strongest correlation was found 76 to 807 nM/g in passing from glucose- to pyruvate-containing perfusion solution. 4. In vitro tests performed with a solution containing high energy phosphates and magnesium at concentrations equal to their calculated values in the cytosol (pH 7.0) showed that a significant negative correlation exists between citrate concentration (range: 1 and 1500 M) and free calcium concentration in the micromole range. 5. It is concluded that the effects of pyruvate (non glucose substrate) perfusion could be mediated by a decrease in cytosolic-free calcium resulting from an increase in intracellular citrate. The observation that all these effects can be reversed by ouabain is taken as a circumstantial evidence of a common mechanism.

  17. Post ischemic reperfusion and anoxic perfusion in the isolated heart: alteration in distribution of radionuclides and in protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, S S; Oratz, M; Rothschild, M A [Veterans Administration Hospital, New York (USA)

    1980-12-01

    Reperfusion after ischemia and perfusion with total anoxia were studied in the isolated guinea pig heart model, Deprivation of oxygen in both situations resulted in a marked shift of circulation from the left to the right ventricle, with markedly increased spaces of distribution of sup(99m)Tc radionuclides and albumin in the latter. In view of the complexities of measuring protein synthesis during ischemia, continuous anoxic perfusion was used to evaluate this parameter in anoxic induced arrest. There was a profound fall in protein synthesis associated with this arrest, accompanied by a fall in ATP, creatine phosphate, glycogen, potassium, and a rise in lactate production. The fall in protein synthesis was more marked in the left ventricle. The changes in synthesis were almost completely prevented by initiating cardiac arrest with high K/sup +/ (16 meq/l) at the same time as anoxia; energy metabolism remained near normal, and recovery of contractility was nearly complete. The studies demonstrated the differences in vascular distribution between the ventricles after ischemia or with perfusion anoxia, the possible difference in availability of substrate to the two ventricles under these conditions, as well as the difference in protein synthetic response, and further support the protective effect of potassium induced arrest on the hypoxic heart.

  18. Radionuclide leakage monitoring during hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for treatment of local melanoma metastasis in an extremity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Ida F; Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Schmidt, Grethe

    2015-01-01

    (99m) Tc-labelled tracer infused into the isolated limb circulation. RESULTS: One hundred and sixteen of 131 procedures were completed. In 13%, a leakage of ≥10% was detected; in 6% (n = 8), the cytotoxic drug was never infused because of constant leakage; in 7% (n = 9), leakage ≥10% was measured......INTRODUCTION: The aim is to describe the importance of leakage monitoring in hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (ILP). It is generally recommended that leakage should not exceed 10% because of risk of systemic toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data retrieved by retrospective analysis of 131...... were observed in 14%. Three of the patients with leakage ≥10% were successfully treated in a repeated procedure. CONCLUSION: Leakage monitoring using a threshold of 10% during ILP saves the patients from systemic toxicity, however, at the expense of early termination or cancellation of ILP treatment...

  19. Synergistic antitumor activity of histamine plus melphalan in isolated limb perfusion: preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Flavia; Hoving, Saske; Seynhaeve, Ann L B; van Tiel, Sandra T; Guetens, Gunther; de Bruijn, Ernst A; Eggermont, Alexander M M; ten Hagen, Timo L M

    2004-11-03

    We have previously shown how tumor response of isolated limb perfusion (ILP) with melphalan was improved when tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was added. Taking into account that other vasoactive drugs could also improve tumor response to ILP, we evaluated histamine (Hi) as an alternative to TNF-alpha. We used a rat ILP model to assess the combined effects of Hi and melphalan (n = 6) on tumor regression, melphalan uptake (n = 6), and tissue histology (n = 2) compared with Hi or melphalan alone. We also evaluated the growth of BN-175 tumor cells as well as apoptosis, necrosis, cell morphology, and paracellular permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after Hi treatment alone and in combination with melphalan. The antitumor effect of the combination of Hi and melphalan in vivo was synergistic, and Hi-dependent reduction in tumor volume was blocked by H1 and H2 receptor inhibitors. Tumor regression was observed in 66% of the animals treated with Hi and melphalan, compared with 17% after treatment with Hi or melphalan alone. Tumor melphalan uptake increased and vascular integrity in the surrounding tissue was reduced after ILP treatment with Hi and melphalan compared with melphalan alone. In vitro results paralleled in vivo results. BN-175 tumor cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of combined treatment than HUVECs, and Hi treatment increased the permeability of HUVECs. Hi in combination with melphalan in ILP improved response to that of melphalan alone through direct and indirect mechanisms. These results warrant further evaluation in the clinical ILP setting and, importantly, in organ perfusion.

  20. Perfusion of the isolated rat brain with (/sup 14/C)-. delta. /sup 1/-tetrahydrocannabinol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B; Agurell, S [Dept. of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, BMC, Uppsala (Sweden); Krieglstein, J; Rieger, H

    1977-12-01

    There is controversy over whether ..delta../sup 1/-tetrahydrocannabinol (..delta../sup 1/-THC) or its metabolites is responsible for the behavioural and cardiovascular effects of cannabis. It has been shown that, even in the absence of metabolism, ..delta../sup 1/-THC was capable of altering the EEG of isolated perfused rat brain, and must therefore contribute to the psychoactivity of cannabis. TLC studies showed no evidence for brain metabolism of (/sup 14/C)-..delta../sup 1/-THC, and in particular the 7-hydroxylated metabolite (7-OH-..delta../sup 1/-THC) could not be detected. A disproportionate amount of CNS activity in the rat cannot therefore be attributed to 7-OH-..delta../sup 1/-THC on the basis that it is formed at or near its locus of action.

  1. Normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated porcine liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme K; Chambers, Brenton; Fink, Michael A; Wang, Bao Zhong; Houston, Shane; Eastwood, Glenn; Calzavacca, Paolo; Glassford, Neil; Skene, Alison; Jones, Daryl A; Jones, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a major life-saving procedure, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) has increased the pool of potential liver donors. However, DCD livers are at increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to protect, evaluate and, in future, transplant DCD livers. We conducted proof-of-concept experiments using a DCD model in the pig to assess the short-term (4 hours) feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP. Using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion, and physiological perfusion pressures, we achieved NELP and evidence of function (bile production, paracetamol removal, maintenance of normal ammonia and lactate levels) for 4 hours in pig livers subjected to 15 and 30 minutes of cardiac arrest before explantation. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of human DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.

  2. Perfusion device for liver preservation ex vivo before transplantation: first experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Reznik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Successful liver transplantation including from donors with a sudden irreversible cardiac arrest requires the use of modern hardware and technical support to maintain, select and sustain organ viability for the period from harvesting to transplantation to the recipient.Materials and methods. Hardware-software system (HSS developed by the Russian State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics (RTC was used for testing of normothermic perfusion of donor’s liver ex vivo. The experiment was conducted on the isolated pig liver (Duroc breed in accordance with the ethical principles.Result. During perfusion spontaneous recovery of bile outflow through the cannula installed in the common bile duct (volume of bile released – 240 ml was observed, and the color and uniformity of the perfused liver did not differ from the normal parameters. Biochemical indicators were stabilized at the physiological values after 40 minutes of perfusion procedure.Conclusion. Isolated liver transplant was completely restored after 30 minutes of warm ischemia and was functioning well due to ex vivo perfusion procedure on the new perfusion device. The first case of the new device usage for normothermic liver ex vivo demonstrated hopeful results to be further investigated.

  3. Modeling laser speckle imaging of perfusion in the skin (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Caitlin; Hayakawa, Carole K.; Choi, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Laser speckle imaging (LSI) enables visualization of relative blood flow and perfusion in the skin. It is frequently applied to monitor treatment of vascular malformations such as port wine stain birthmarks, and measure changes in perfusion due to peripheral vascular disease. We developed a computational Monte Carlo simulation of laser speckle contrast imaging to quantify how tissue optical properties, blood vessel depths and speeds, and tissue perfusion affect speckle contrast values originating from coherent excitation. The simulated tissue geometry consisted of multiple layers to simulate the skin, or incorporated an inclusion such as a vessel or tumor at different depths. Our simulation used a 30x30mm uniform flat light source to optically excite the region of interest in our sample to better mimic wide-field imaging. We used our model to simulate how dynamically scattered photons from a buried blood vessel affect speckle contrast at different lateral distances (0-1mm) away from the vessel, and how these speckle contrast changes vary with depth (0-1mm) and flow speed (0-10mm/s). We applied the model to simulate perfusion in the skin, and observed how different optical properties, such as epidermal melanin concentration (1%-50%) affected speckle contrast. We simulated perfusion during a systolic forearm occlusion and found that contrast decreased by 35% (exposure time = 10ms). Monte Carlo simulations of laser speckle contrast give us a tool to quantify what regions of the skin are probed with laser speckle imaging, and measure how the tissue optical properties and blood flow affect the resulting images.

  4. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance surface coil study of ischemic preconditioned isolated perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongbin; Luo Xuechun; Zhang Riqing; Wang Xiaoyin; Zuo Lin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    ischemic preconditioning (IPC) will protect the heart from the damage caused by a subsequent long ischemia period. 31 P spectra of isolated perfused rat heart measured by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil technique can be used to continually, dynamically and noninvasively obtain metabolism information. This paper explores the IPC mechanisms by NMR. This study shows that IPC has no effect on enhancing the ATP and PCr levels during reperfusion but makes significantly slows and smooths the changes of intracellular pH and ATP during ischemia periods. The ATP and PCr recovery rate of the IPC group after ischemia is significantly higher than that of the control group. In conclusion, the above results support that IPC can protect the rat heart by reducing damage during the ischemia period

  5. Effect of phenobarbital on 131I-bromosulfophthalein metabolism of isolated perfused liver of rats with alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate-induced chloestasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapalaga, D.; Suciu, A.; Schvartz, M.; Duca, S.

    1979-01-01

    In order to establish whether the increased bromosulfophthalein (BSP) secretion in the bile following phenobarbital administration is the consequence of change in the bile output or of the enzymatic induction, the dynamics of the elimination of 131 I-BSP was studied in animals treated with alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) and pehnobarbital in the conditions of isolated perfused liver. At the same time the levels of the conjugation enzyme of BSP were also determined. It was noted that after phenobarbital the biliary elimination of 131 I-BSP is in correlation with the important increase of the output; in the animals treated with ANIT, on the other hand, the biliary excretion of BSP is minimal. The biliary elimination is directly proportional to the increase of the bile output and reflects the changes found in the perfusate. Our findings allow us to assume that the increased biliary BSP excretion is the consequence of the increase of the bile output and in a smaller extent the result of the stimulation of the BSP, conjugation with glutathion. (author)

  6. Extended normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated human liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme; Fink, Michael; Wang, Bao Zhong; Eastwood, Glenn M; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Houston, Shane; Skene, Alison; Opdam, Helen; Jones, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) livers are at markedly increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to transplant DCD livers and may allow their use for artificial extracorporeal liver support of patients with fulminant liver failure. We conducted two proof-of-concept experiments using human livers after DCD to assess the feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP over an extended period. We applied extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion and physiological perfusion pressures to two livers obtained after DCD. We achieved NELP and evidence of liver function (bile production, paracetamol removal and maintenance of normal lactate levels) in both livers; one for 24 hours and the other for 43 hours. Histological examination showed areas of patchy ischaemia but preserved biliary ducts and canaliculi. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of extended DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.

  7. Radiation-induced increase in the release of amino acids by isolated, perfused skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenen, M.

    1989-01-01

    Local exposure of the hindquarter of the rat to 15Gy of gamma-radiation resulted, 4-6h after irradiation, in increased release of amino acids by the isolated, perfused hindquarter preparation, 70% of which is skeletal muscle. This increase in release involves not only alanine and glutamine, but also those amino acids not metabolized by muscle and, therefore, released in proportion to their occurrence in muscle proteins. Because metabolic parameters and content of energy-rich phosphate compounds in muscle remain unchanged, it is unlikely that general cellular damage is the underlying cause of the radiation-induced increase in amino acid release. The findings strongly favour the hypothesis that increased availability of amino acids results from enhanced protein break-down in skeletal muscle which has its onset shortly after irradiation. This radiation-induced disturbance in protein metabolism might be one of the pathogenetic factors in the aetiology of radiation myopathy. (author)

  8. Functional state of perfused liver tissue in X-ray irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Lapteva, T.A. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Biologii i Biofiziki)

    1981-01-01

    The results of studying the functional state of perfused liver tissue isolated from rats after irradiation in the 18.06x10/sup -2/ Kl/kg dose, which has been estimated by transamination process rate catalized alanine-(KF 2.6x1.2, ALT and aspartate by aminotransferases (KF 2.6x1.1, ACT), gluconeogenesis and urea production intensity presented. When comparing the results obtained on the perfused liver deprived of homeostatic body effects it has been found that the liver isolated from the body for the first 24 hours of the radiation sickness development possesses a higher radiation activity which manifests itself in intensification of the processes of gluconeogenesis and transamination with substrate addition. The third 24 hours upon irradiation in the isolated liver the intensity of the gluconeogenesis and transamination processes is attenuated.

  9. Tumour response after hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion for locally advanced melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Ida Felbo; Chakera, A H; Drejøe, Jennifer Berg

    2014-01-01

    AND METHODS: A total of 84 perfusions were performed (53 women, 31 men, median age 63 years) from 1993 to 2010. 95% of the perfusions were administered to the lower limbs and 5% to the upper limbs. The inclusion criteria were recurrent and/or clinically apparent cutaneous/subcutaneous extremity in....... Time from ILP to recurrence was a median of seven months (range 1-37 months) for patients with CR or PR. Survival was longer for patients with CR or PR than for patients showing NC or progression. Several patients had mild or moderate local toxicity reactions, two patients developed severe local...... to improve local disease control in patients with multiple and/or recurrent melanoma confined to an extremity if surgical excision is not possible. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  10. Pulmonary O2 transfer during pulsatile and non-pulsatile perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, A; Nicolaysen, G

    1980-07-01

    The importance of the perfusion pattern for the oxygen transfer has been examined in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with plasma at constant volume inflow. The lungs were ventilated with constant tidal volume and constant end-expiratory pressure. Following a standardized rise in FIO2 the rate of rise in pulmonary venous PO2 (delta PO2/delta t) was measured during alternately pulsatile and non-pulsatile perfusion in normal lungs and in lungs made edematous by elevation of left atrial pressure. In normal lungs there was no difference in delta PO2/delta t when the two modes of perfusion were compared. In edematous lungs delta PO/delta t was statistically higher during pulsatile perfusion, indicating a beneficial effect of flow- and pressure pulsations, e.g. a better distribution of V/Q ratios throughout the lungs. In a separate series of expts. the advancement of a high O2 front through the airways was measured, and the two perfusion patterns compared. Since no difference was found, we suggest that the phenomenon of "cardiogenic gas mixing" in the airways in vivo is a result of a direct action of the heart on the lungs rather than arterial pulsations.

  11. The functional state of perfused liver tissue in X-ray irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Lapteva, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    The results of studying the functional state of perfused liver tissue isolated from rates after irradiation in the 18.06x10 - 2 Kl/kg dose, which has been estimated by transamination process rate catalized alanine-(KF 2.6x1.2, ALT and aspartate by aminotransferases (KF 2.6x1.1, ACT), gluconeogenesis and urea production intensity presented. When comparing the results obtained on the perfused liver deprived of homeostatic body effects it has been found that the liver isolated from the body for the first 24 hours of the radiation sickness development possesses a higher radiation activity which manifests itself in intensification of the processes of gluconeogenesis and transamination with substrate addition. The third 24 hours upon irradiation in the isolated liver the intensity of the gluconeogenesis and transamination processes is attenuated

  12. Induction of chagasic-like arrhythmias in the isolated beating hearts of healthy rats perfused with Trypanosoma cruzi-conditioned medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rodriguez-Angulo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' myocardiopathy, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is characterized by microvascular alterations, heart failure and arrhythmias. Ischemia and arrythmogenesis have been attributed to proteins shed by the parasite, although this has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of substances shed by T. cruzi on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. We performed a triple ischemia-reperfusion (I/R protocol whereby the isolated beating rat hearts were perfused with either Vero-control or Vero T. cruzi-infected conditioned medium during the different stages of ischemia and subsequently reperfused with Tyrode's solution. ECG and heart rate were recorded during the entire experiment. We observed that triple I/R-induced bradycardia was associated with the generation of auricular-ventricular blockade during ischemia and non-sustained nodal and ventricular tachycardia during reperfusion. Interestingly, perfusion with Vero-infected medium produced a delay in the reperfusion-induced recovery of heart rate, increased the frequency of tachycardic events and induced ventricular fibrillation. These results suggest that the presence of parasite-shed substances in conditioned media enhances the arrhythmogenic effects that occur during the I/R protocol.

  13. Hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy: Evaluation with perfusion CT and perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.L.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Lutz, R.J.; Chang, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is planar hepatic artery perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS). Planar HAPS was performed with 2 mCi of [99mTc] macroaggregated albumin infused at 1 ml/min and compared with single photon emission CT (SPECT) HAPS and with a new study, CT performed during the slow injection of contrast material through the HAI catheter (HAI-CT). Thirteen patients underwent 16 HAI-CT studies, 14 planar HAPS studies, and 9 SPECT HAPS studies. In 13 of 14 studies (93%) HAI-CT and planar HAPS were in complete agreement as to the perfusion pattern of intrahepatic metastases and normal liver. In nine studies where all modalities were performed, the findings identified by HAI-CT and planar HAPS agreed in all cases, whereas the results of two SPECT scans disagreed with the other studies. With respect to perfusion of individual metastases, 14 of 14 HAI-CT studies, 12 of 13 planar HAPS studies, and 9 of 9 SPECT HAPS studies correctly demonstrated the perfusion status of individual lesions as indicated by the pattern of changes in tumor size determined on CT obtained before and after the perfusion studies. Hepatic artery infusion CT was superior for delineation of individual metastases, particularly small lesions, and for the evaluation of nonperfused portions of the liver. Planar HAPS detected extrahepatic perfusion in four patients, and this was not detected by HAI-CT. We conclude that HAI-CT and scintigraphy are complementary techniques. Hepatic artery infusion CT has advantages for the evaluation of intrahepatic perfusion, and planar HAPS is superior to HAI-CT for the detection of extrahepatic perfusion

  14. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, O.; Yasaka, M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Newton, M.R.; Thomas, D.L.; Chan, C.G.; Egan, G.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; O``Keefe, G.; Donnan, G.A.; McKay, W.J. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for PET and Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Stroke remains a devastating clinical event with few therapeutic options. In patients with acute stroke, we studied the cerebral perfusion and metabolic patterns with {sup 15}O-CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O and {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} positron emission tomography and correlated these findings to the clinical background. Forty three patients underwent 45 studies 0-23 days post-stroke (mean 7 days). Fifteen patients showed luxury perfusion (Group A), 10 had matched low perfusion and metabolism (B) and 3 showed mixed pattern including an area of misery perfusion (C). Seventeen showed no relevant abnormality (D) and there were no examples of isolated misery perfusion. Twelve of the 15 in Group A had either haemorrhagic transformation on CT, re-opening on angiography, or a cardioembolic mechanism. In contrast only 5/10 in Group B, 0/3 in Group C and 2/17 in Group D had these features. Although 7/10 in group B had moderate or large size infarcts on CT the incidence of haemorrhagic transformation was low (2/10) and significant carotid stenoses were more common in those studied (5/8) compared with the other groups. Misery perfusion was not seen beyond five days. Thus, luxury perfusion seems to be related to a cardio-embolic mechanism or reperfusion. Matched low perfusion and metabolism was associated with a low rate of haemorrhagic transformation despite a high incidence of moderate to large size infarcts. Misery perfusion is an early phenomenon in the evolution of ischaemic stroke.

  15. Production of acetone and conversion of acetone to acetate in the perfused rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavino, V.C.; Somma, J.; Philbert, L.; David, F.; Garneau, M.; Belair, J.; Brunengraber, H.

    1987-01-01

    The utilization of millimolar concentrations of [2- 14 C]acetone and the production of acetone from acetoacetate were studied in perfused livers from 48-h starved rats. We devised a procedure for determining, in a perfused liver system, the first-order rate constant for the decarboxylation of acetoacetate (0.29 +/- 0.09 h-1, S.E., n = 8). After perfusion of livers with [2- 14 C]acetone, labeled acetate was isolated from the perfusion medium and characterized as [1- 14 C]acetate. No radioactivity was found in lactate or 3-hydroxybutyrate. After 90 min of perfusion with [2- 14 C]acetone, the specific activity of acetate was 30 +/- 4% (n = 13) of the initial specific activity of acetone. We conclude that, in perfused livers from 2-day starved rats, acetone metabolism occurs for the most part via free acetate

  16. 50 Years of renal physiology from one man and the perfused tubule: Maurice B. Burg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kirk L; Moore, Antoni B

    2016-08-01

    Technical advancements in research techniques in science are made in slow increments. Even so, large advances from insight and hard work of an individual with a single technique can have astonishing ramifications. Here, we examine the impact of Dr. Maurice B. Burg and the isolated perfused renal tubule technique and celebrate the 50th anniversary of the publication by Dr. Burg and his colleagues of their landmark paper in the American Journal of Physiology in 1966. In this study, we have taken a scientific visualization approach to study the scientific contributions of Dr. Burg and the isolated perfused tubule preparation as determining research impact by the number of research students, postdoctoral fellows, visiting scientists, and national and international collaborators. Additionally, we have examined the research collaborations (first and second generation scientists), established the migrational visualization of the first generation scientists who worked directly with Dr. Burg, quantified the metrics indices, identified and quantified the network of coauthorship of the first generation scientists with their second generation links, and determined the citations analyses of outputs of Dr. Burg and/or his first generation collaborators as coauthors. We also review the major advances in kidney physiology that have been made with the isolated perfused tubule technique. Finally, we are all waiting for the discoveries that the isolated perfused preparation technique will bring during the next 50 years. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effect of adenosine1-receptor blockade on renin release from rabbit isolated perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihprecht, H; Lorenz, J N; Schnermann, J

    1990-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed to act within the juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) as a mediator of the inhibition of renin secretion produced by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of the adenosine1 (A1)-receptor blocker 8-cyclopentyl-1......,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX) on renin release from single isolated rabbit JGAs with macula densa perfused. The A1-receptor agonist, N6-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), applied in the bathing solution at 10(-7) M, was found to inhibit renin secretion, an effect that was completely blocked by adding CPX (10(-5) M) to the bath....... Applied to the lumen, 10(-5) M CPX produced a modest stimulation of renin secretion rates suppressed by a high NaCl concentration at the macula densa (P less than 0.05). The effect of changing luminal NaCl concentration on renin secretion rate was examined in the presence of CPX (10(-7) and 10(-5) M...

  18. Biliary excretion of ouabain in isolated perfused rat liver after treatment with microsomal enzyme inducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevasaari, K.; Alakare, B.; Kaerki, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment with spironolactone, phenobarbital and 3,4-benzpyrene on biliary excretion of ouabain was studied in isolated perfused rat liver system after a single dose of 3 H-ouabain. Spironolactone pretreatment (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 4 days) changed the time course of the excretion, thus accelerating the transport of ouabain into the bile. Phenobarbital pretreatment (75 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 4 days) enhanced bile flow and increased biliary excretion of ouabain only after 15 min. At longer time periods the increase in bile flow diluted the bile level of ouabain there being no difference in the amounts excreted into the bile between the treated and untreated groups. 3,4-benzpyrene pretreatment (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 4 days) was without efffect on biliary excretion of ouabain. The results suggest that spironolactone differs from phenobarbital in its enhancing effect on biliary excretion of ouabain, possibly through a specific effect on an unknown hepatic transport mechanism. (author)

  19. Ex vivo perfusion of human spleens maintains clearing and processing functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Pierre A; Milon, Geneviève; Brousse, Valentine; Correas, Jean-Michel; Dousset, Bertrand; Couvelard, Anne; Kianmanesh, Reza; Farges, Olivier; Sauvanet, Alain; Paye, François; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Ottone, Catherine; Khun, Huot; Fiette, Laurence; Guigon, Ghislaine; Huerre, Michel; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; David, Peter H

    2006-05-01

    The spleen plays a central role in the pathophysiology of several potentially severe diseases such as inherited red cell membrane disorders, hemolytic anemias, and malaria. Research on these diseases is hampered by ethical constraints that limit human spleen tissue explorations. We identified a surgical situation--left splenopancreatectomy for benign pancreas tumors--allowing spleen retrieval at no risk for patients. Ex vivo perfusion of retrieved intact spleens for 4 to 6 hours maintained a preserved parenchymal structure, vascular flow, and metabolic activity. Function preservation was assessed by testing the ability of isolated-perfused spleens to retain Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes preexposed to the antimalarial drug artesunate (Art-iRBCs). More than 95% of Art-iRBCs were cleared from the perfusate in 2 hours. At each transit through isolated-perfused spleens, parasite remnants were removed from 0.2% to 0.23% of Art-iRBCs, a proportion consistent with the 0.02% to 1% pitting rate previously established in artesunate-treated patients. Histologic analysis showed that more than 90% of Art-iRBCs were retained and processed in the red pulp, providing the first direct evidence of a zone-dependent parasite clearance by the human spleen. Human-specific physiologic or pathophysiologic mechanisms involving clearing or processing functions of the spleen can now be experimentally explored in a human tissue context.

  20. Effect of phenobarbital pretreatment on benzene biotransformation in the rat. Pt. 2. 9. 000 g supernatant and isolated perfused liver versus living rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, I.; Hatle, K.; Zizkova, L.

    1981-03-01

    Factors responsible for different quantitative effect of phenobarbital (PB) pretreatment on benzene metabolism to phenol in vivo and in vitro were studied in male Wistar rats. A more than 4-fold increase of benzene metabolism was observed with 9,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, 2.8- to 4-fold increase with isolated perfused liver; phenol formation in vivo after oral benzene was increased by PB 2-fold, but only shortly following benzene administration and the enhancement rapidly diminished to 1.15-fold increase in the total excreted phenol. Benzene concentrations in 9,000 g supernatant incubations were 2 mM, those with isolated perfused livers were up to 4 mM, but those in blood in vivo were below 0.3 mM; the effect of PB induction in vivo disappeared along with decreasing benzene and increasing phenol blood concentrations which surpassed benzene 2-3 h after oral benzene administration. The effect of benzene concentration on the manifestation of PB induction is also supported by almost a 2-fold increased phenol formation in PB rats over controls in vivo after repeated administration of benzene. The elimination of radioactive metabolites of orally administered benzene-/sup 14/C, in urine was markedly inhibited by intraperitoneal administration of phenol, but not by pyrocatechol, resorcinol or hydroquinol suggesting that phenol might inhibit benzene metabolism in vivo especially when its concentration exceeds that of benzene.

  1. The Hepatoprotection Provided by Taurine and Glycine against Antineoplastic Drugs Induced Liver Injury in an Ex Vivo Model of Normothermic Recirculating Isolated Perfused Rat Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid is a non-protein amino acid found in high concentration in different tissues. Glycine (Amino acetic acid is the simplest amino acid incorporated in the structure of proteins. Several investigations indicate the hepatoprotective properties of these amino acids. On the other hand, antineoplastic agents-induced serum transaminase elevation and liver injury is a clinical complication. The current investigation was designed to screen the possible hepatoprotective properties of taurine and glycine against antineoplastic drugs-induced hepatic injury in an ex vivo model of isolated perfused rat liver. Rat liver was perfused with different concentration (10 μM, 100 μM and 1000 μM of antineoplastic drugs (Mitoxantrone, Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, 5 Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin and Dacarbazine via portal vein. Taurine and glycine were administered to drug-treated livers and liver perfusate samples were collected for biochemical measurements (ALT, LDH, AST, and K+. Markers of oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species formation, lipid peroxidation, total antioxidant capacity and glutathione were also assessed in liver tissue. Antineoplastic drugs caused significant pathological changes in perfusate biochemistry. Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in drug treated livers. It was found that taurine (5 and 10 mM and glycine (5 and 10 mM administration significantly mitigated the biomarkers of liver injury and attenuated drug induced oxidative stress. Our data indicate that taurine and glycine supplementation might help as potential therapeutic options to encounter anticancer drugs-induced liver injury.

  2. In vitro culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes isolated by using a simplified manual perfusion method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santanu Panda

    Full Text Available In farm animals, there is no suitable cell line available to understand liver-specific functions. This has limited our understanding of liver function and metabolism in farm animals. Culturing and maintenance of functionally active hepatocytes is difficult, since they survive no more than few days. Establishing primary culture of hepatocytes can help in studying cellular metabolism, drug toxicity, hepatocyte specific gene function and regulation. Here we provide a simple in vitro method for isolation and short-term culture of functionally active buffalo hepatocytes.Buffalo hepatocytes were isolated from caudate lobes by using manual enzymatic perfusion and mechanical disruption of liver tissue. Hepatocyte yield was (5.3 ± 0.66×107 cells per gram of liver tissue with a viability of 82.3 ± 3.5%. Freshly isolated hepatocytes were spherical with well contrasted border. After 24 hours of seeding onto fibroblast feeder layer and different extracellular matrices like dry collagen, matrigel and sandwich collagen coated plates, hepatocytes formed confluent monolayer with frequent clusters. Cultured hepatocytes exhibited typical cuboidal and polygonal shape with restored cellular polarity. Cells expressed hepatocyte-specific marker genes or proteins like albumin, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, glucose-6-phosphatase, tyrosine aminotransferase, cytochromes, cytokeratin and α1-antitrypsin. Hepatocytes could be immunostained with anti-cytokeratins, anti-albumin and anti α1-antitrypsin antibodies. Abundant lipid droplets were detected in the cytosol of hepatocytes using oil red stain. In vitro cultured hepatocytes could be grown for five days and maintained for up to nine days on buffalo skin fibroblast feeder layer. Cultured hepatocytes were viable for functional studies.We developed a convenient and cost effective technique for hepatocytes isolation for short-term culture that exhibited morphological and functional characteristics of active hepatocytes

  3. Quantitative lung perfusion evaluation using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørstad, Åsmund; Corteville, Dominique M R; Fischer, Andre; Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-08-01

    To quantitatively evaluate lung perfusion using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI. The Fourier decomposition (FD) method is a noninvasive method for assessing ventilation- and perfusion-related information in the lungs, where the perfusion maps in particular have shown promise for clinical use. However, the perfusion maps are nonquantitative and dimensionless, making follow-ups and direct comparisons between patients difficult. We present an approach to obtain physically meaningful and quantifiable perfusion maps using the FD method. The standard FD perfusion images are quantified by comparing the partially blood-filled pixels in the lung parenchyma with the fully blood-filled pixels in the aorta. The percentage of blood in a pixel is then combined with the temporal information, yielding quantitative blood flow values. The values of 10 healthy volunteers are compared with SEEPAGE measurements which have shown high consistency with dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI. All pulmonary blood flow (PBF) values are within the expected range. The two methods are in good agreement (mean difference = 0.2 mL/min/100 mL, mean absolute difference = 11 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-FD = 150 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-SEEPAGE = 151 mL/min/100 mL). The Bland-Altman plot shows a good spread of values, indicating no systematic bias between the methods. Quantitative lung perfusion can be obtained using the Fourier Decomposition method combined with a small amount of postprocessing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  5. Isolation of xanthyletin, an inhibitor of ants' symbiotic fungus, by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazal, Cristiane de Melo; Domingues, Vanessa de Cássia; Batalhão, Jaqueline Raquel; Bueno, Odair Corrêa; Filho, Edson Rodrigues; da Silva, Maria Fátima G Fernandes; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, João Batista

    2009-05-08

    Xanthyletin, an inhibitor of symbiotic fungus (Leucoagaricus gongylophorus) of leaf-cutting ant (Atta sexdens rubropilosa), as well as suberosin, seselin and xanthoxyletin were isolated from Citrus sinensis grafted on Citrus limonia. A two-phase solvent system composed of hexane/ethanol/acetonitrile/water (10:8:1:1, v/v) was used for the high-speed counter-current chromatographic isolation of xanthyletin with high yield and over 99% purity as determined by liquid and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Identifications were performed by UV spectra, IR spectra, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR.

  6. DCE-MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma: perfusion quantification with Tofts model versus shutter-speed model--initial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajamovich, Guido H; Huang, Wei; Besa, Cecilia; Li, Xin; Afzal, Aneela; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Taouli, Bachir

    2016-02-01

    To quantify hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) perfusion and flow with the fast exchange regime-allowed Shutter-Speed model (SSM) compared to the Tofts model (TM). In this prospective study, 25 patients with HCC underwent DCE-MRI. ROIs were placed in liver parenchyma, portal vein, aorta and HCC lesions. Signal intensities were analyzed employing dual-input TM and SSM models. ART (arterial fraction), K (trans) (contrast agent transfer rate constant from plasma to extravascular extracellular space), ve (extravascular extracellular volume fraction), kep (contrast agent intravasation rate constant), and τi (mean intracellular water molecule lifetime) were compared between liver parenchyma and HCC, and ART, K (trans), v e and k ep were compared between models using Wilcoxon tests and limits of agreement. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed in 10 patients. ART and v e obtained with TM; ART, ve, ke and τi obtained with SSM were significantly different between liver parenchyma and HCC (p < 0.04). Parameters showed variable reproducibility (CV range 14.7-66.5% for both models). Liver K (trans) and ve; HCC ve and kep were significantly different when estimated with the two models (p < 0.03). Our results show differences when computed between the TM and the SSM. However, these differences are smaller than parameter reproducibilities and may be of limited clinical significance.

  7. Intra-peritoneal administration of interleukin-1 beta induces impaired insulin release from the perfused rat pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wogensen, L; Helqvist, S; Pociot, F

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a stimulatory effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) on insulin and glucagon release from the perfused rat pancreas, accompanied by selective lysis of 20% of beta-cells as assessed by electronmicroscopy. However, we have not observed an inhibitory action of IL-1...... beta on insulin release from the perfused pancreas as shown for isolated islets. To test whether periodical exposure of the endocrine pancreas to circulating IL-1 beta in vivo affects insulin release from the intact perfused pancreas, rats were treated with daily intraperitoneal injections of 4...

  8. Percutaneous Isolated Hepatic Perfusion as a Treatment for Isolated Hepatic Metastases of Uveal Melanoma: Patient Outcome and Safety in a Multi-centre Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, Thomas J.; Koch, Silvia A.; Lotz, Gösta; Gebauer, Bernhard; Willinek, Winfried; Engelke, Christoph; Brüning, Roland; Zeile, Martin; Wacker, Frank; Vogel, Arndt; Radeleff, Boris; Scholtz, Jan-Erik

    2017-01-01

    PurposePercutaneous isolated hepatic perfusion (PIHP) with Melphalan has been developed as a treatment for patients with isolated hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma. We discuss patient outcome and safety in a retrospective multi-centre study.Materials and MethodsBetween 2012 and 2016 18 patients with un-resectable isolated hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma received single or repeated PIHP with Melphalan (n = 35) at seven sites. Progression-free time, overall survival time (OS) and tumour response by means of RECIST 1.1 criteria were evaluated. Peri- and post-procedural adverse events (AE) were registered. Patients’ life quality was assessed using four-point scale questionnaires.ResultsOf 18 patients, initial PIHP treatment resulted in partial response (PR) in eight, stable disease (SD) in seven and progressive disease (PD) in three cases. Nine patients underwent second PIHP with PR in eight cases and PD in one case. Six patients were evaluated after third PIHP with PR in five patients and SD in one patient. Two patients received fourth PIHP with PD in both cases. Median OS was 9.6 months (range 1.6–41.0 months). Median progression-free survival time was 12.4 months (range 0.9–41.0 months) with 1-year survival of 44%. Most common post-procedural AE grade 3 and 4 were temporary leukopenia (n = 11) and thrombocytopenia (n = 8). Patients’ self-assessments showed good ratings for overall health and quality of life with only slight changes after PIHP, and a high degree of satisfaction with PIHP treatment.ConclusionPIHP with Melphalan proved to be a relatively safe, minimal-invasive and repeatable treatment for patients with non-resectable hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma.

  9. Percutaneous Isolated Hepatic Perfusion as a Treatment for Isolated Hepatic Metastases of Uveal Melanoma: Patient Outcome and Safety in a Multi-centre Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de; Koch, Silvia A., E-mail: silvia.koch@web.de [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Lotz, Gösta, E-mail: goesta.lotz@kgu.de [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive-Care Medicine and Pain Therapy (Germany); Gebauer, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.gebauer@charite.de [Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Campus Charité Mitte (Germany); Willinek, Winfried, E-mail: w.willinek@bk-trier.de [Brüderkrankenhaus Trier, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Engelke, Christoph, E-mail: engelke@ekweende.de [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Göttingen-Weende gGmbH, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Brüning, Roland, E-mail: r.bruening@asklepios.com; Zeile, Martin, E-mail: m.zeile@asklepios.com [Asklepios Klinik Barmbek, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Wacker, Frank, E-mail: wacker.frank@mh-hannover.de [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Vogel, Arndt, E-mail: vogel.arndt@mh-hannover.de [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology (Germany); Radeleff, Boris, E-mail: boris.radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de [Heidelberg University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Scholtz, Jan-Erik, E-mail: janerikscholtz@gmail.com [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposePercutaneous isolated hepatic perfusion (PIHP) with Melphalan has been developed as a treatment for patients with isolated hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma. We discuss patient outcome and safety in a retrospective multi-centre study.Materials and MethodsBetween 2012 and 2016 18 patients with un-resectable isolated hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma received single or repeated PIHP with Melphalan (n = 35) at seven sites. Progression-free time, overall survival time (OS) and tumour response by means of RECIST 1.1 criteria were evaluated. Peri- and post-procedural adverse events (AE) were registered. Patients’ life quality was assessed using four-point scale questionnaires.ResultsOf 18 patients, initial PIHP treatment resulted in partial response (PR) in eight, stable disease (SD) in seven and progressive disease (PD) in three cases. Nine patients underwent second PIHP with PR in eight cases and PD in one case. Six patients were evaluated after third PIHP with PR in five patients and SD in one patient. Two patients received fourth PIHP with PD in both cases. Median OS was 9.6 months (range 1.6–41.0 months). Median progression-free survival time was 12.4 months (range 0.9–41.0 months) with 1-year survival of 44%. Most common post-procedural AE grade 3 and 4 were temporary leukopenia (n = 11) and thrombocytopenia (n = 8). Patients’ self-assessments showed good ratings for overall health and quality of life with only slight changes after PIHP, and a high degree of satisfaction with PIHP treatment.ConclusionPIHP with Melphalan proved to be a relatively safe, minimal-invasive and repeatable treatment for patients with non-resectable hepatic metastases of uveal melanoma.

  10. Localisation and neural control of the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, T N; Schmidt, P; Poulsen, S S

    2001-01-01

    was abolished by infusion of hexamethonium (3x10(-5) M). Infusion of capsaicin (10(-5) M) caused a significant increase in the release of CGRP-LI to 485+/-82% of basal output (n=5). Our results suggest a dual origin of CGRP innervation of the porcine ileum (intrinsic and extrinsic). The intrinsic CGRP neurons...... extracts, CGRP-LI corresponded entirely to porcine CGRP plus smaller amounts of oxidised CGRP. Using isolated vascularly perfused segments of the ileum, we studied the release of CGRP-LI in response to electrical stimulation of the mixed extrinsic periarterial nerves and to infusion of different...... receive excitatory input by parasympathetic, possibly vagal, preganglionic fibres, via release of acetylcholine acting on nicotinic receptors. The stimulatory effect of capsaicin suggests that CGRP is also released from extrinsic sensory neurons....

  11. Processing of pulse oximeter signals using adaptive filtering and autocorrelation to isolate perfusion and oxygenation components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibey, Bennett; Subramanian, Hariharan; Ericson, Nance; Xu, Weijian; Wilson, Mark; Cote, Gerard L.

    2005-03-01

    A blood perfusion and oxygenation sensor has been developed for in situ monitoring of transplanted organs. In processing in situ data, motion artifacts due to increased perfusion can create invalid oxygenation saturation values. In order to remove the unwanted artifacts from the pulsatile signal, adaptive filtering was employed using a third wavelength source centered at 810nm as a reference signal. The 810 nm source resides approximately at the isosbestic point in the hemoglobin absorption curve where the absorbance of light is nearly equal for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. Using an autocorrelation based algorithm oxygenation saturation values can be obtained without the need for large sampling data sets allowing for near real-time processing. This technique has been shown to be more reliable than traditional techniques and proven to adequately improve the measurement of oxygenation values in varying perfusion states.

  12. Brain perfusion imaging using a Reconstruction-of-Difference (RoD) approach for cone-beam computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mow, M.; Zbijewski, W.; Sisniega, A.; Xu, J.; Dang, H.; Stayman, J. W.; Wang, X.; Foos, D. H.; Koliatsos, V.; Aygun, N.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: To improve the timely detection and treatment of intracranial hemorrhage or ischemic stroke, recent efforts include the development of cone-beam CT (CBCT) systems for perfusion imaging and new approaches to estimate perfusion parameters despite slow rotation speeds compared to multi-detector CT (MDCT) systems. This work describes development of a brain perfusion CBCT method using a reconstruction of difference (RoD) approach to enable perfusion imaging on a newly developed CBCT head scanner prototype. Methods: A new reconstruction approach using RoD with a penalized-likelihood framework was developed to image the temporal dynamics of vascular enhancement. A digital perfusion simulation was developed to give a realistic representation of brain anatomy, artifacts, noise, scanner characteristics, and hemo-dynamic properties. This simulation includes a digital brain phantom, time-attenuation curves and noise parameters, a novel forward projection method for improved computational efficiency, and perfusion parameter calculation. Results: Our results show the feasibility of estimating perfusion parameters from a set of images reconstructed from slow scans, sparse data sets, and arc length scans as short as 60 degrees. The RoD framework significantly reduces noise and time-varying artifacts from inconsistent projections. Proper regularization and the use of overlapping reconstructed arcs can potentially further decrease bias and increase temporal resolution, respectively. Conclusions: A digital brain perfusion simulation with RoD imaging approach has been developed and supports the feasibility of using a CBCT head scanner for perfusion imaging. Future work will include testing with data acquired using a 3D-printed perfusion phantom currently and translation to preclinical and clinical studies.

  13. Inhibitory effect of high [Mg2+] on the vasopressin-stimulated hydroosmotic permeability of the isolated perfused cortical collecting duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falkenstein D.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available High magnesium concentration inhibits the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP on smooth muscle contraction and platelet aggregation and also influences hepatocyte AVP receptor binding. The aim of this study was to determine the role of magnesium concentration [Mg2+] in AVP-stimulated water transport in the kidney collecting duct. The effect of low and high peritubular [Mg2+] on the AVP-stimulated osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf was evaluated in the isolated perfused rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD. Control tubules bathed and perfused with standard Ringer bicarbonate solution containing 1 mM Mg2+ presented a Pf of 223.9 ± 27.2 µm/s. When Mg2+ was not added to the bathing solution, an increase in the AVP-stimulated Pf to 363.1 ± 57.2 µm/s (P<0.05 was observed. An elevation of Mg2+ to 5 mM resulted in a decrease in Pf to 202.9 ± 12.6 µm/s (P<0.05. This decrease in the AVP-stimulated Pf at 5 mM Mg2+ persisted when the CCDs were returned to 1 mM Mg2+, Pf = 130.2 ± 20.3 µm/s, and was not normalized by the addition of 8-[4-chlorophenylthio]-adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, a cAMP analogue, to the preparation. These data indicate that magnesium may play a modulatory role in the action of AVP on CCD osmotic water permeability, as observed in other tissues.

  14. Metabolic variations of fatty acid in isolated rat heart reperfused after a transient global ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang; Michel Comet; Zhao Huiyang; Zhu Cuiying; Yuan Jimin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The fatty acid metabolism and the effect of glucose on it were studied in isolated and reperfused rat heat. Methods: 32 isolated working rat hearts were perfused in Langengdorff device with modified Krebs and were divided into normal and ischemia-reperfused group. Each group was also classified into two subgroups, modified krebs with or without glucose subgroup. 131 I-HA was injected into aorta of isolated working rat heart and then the radio-residue curves were acquired. Results: When the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs plus glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid was significantly decreased in normal group, but a remarkable increase of fatty acid catabolism was found in ischemia-reperfused group. While the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart was less than that in normal group. Conclusions: Transient ischemia damages the catabolism of myocardial fatty acid in mitochondria in some degree. In normal isolated working rat heart, the principal energy source is glucose. However, the major energy source is switched to catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart. This phenomenon may be related to compensative increase of fatty acid catabolism for replenishing the loss of energy during ischemia

  15. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Daniel T.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Young, Philip; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Siwik, Ernest S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  16. Calculating regional tissue volume for hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion: Four methods compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchin, D; Negri, A; Frigo, A C; Bui, F; Zucchetta, P; Bodanza, V; Gregianin, M; Campana, L G; Rossi, C R; Rastrelli, M

    2016-12-01

    Hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion (HILP) can be performed as an alternative to amputation for soft tissue sarcomas and melanomas of the extremities. Melphalan and tumor necrosis factor-alpha are used at a dosage that depends on the volume of the limb. Regional tissue volume is traditionally measured for the purposes of HILP using water displacement volumetry (WDV). Although this technique is considered the gold standard, it is time-consuming and complicated to implement, especially in obese and elderly patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the different methods described in the literature for calculating regional tissue volume in the HILP setting, and to validate an open source software. We reviewed the charts of 22 patients (11 males and 11 females) who had non-disseminated melanoma with in-transit metastases or sarcoma of the lower limb. We calculated the volume of the limb using four different methods: WDV, tape measurements and segmentation of computed tomography images using Osirix and Oncentra Masterplan softwares. The overall comparison provided a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.92 for the calculations of whole limb volume. In particular, when Osirix was compared with Oncentra (validated for volume measures and used in radiotherapy), the concordance was near-perfect for the calculation of the whole limb volume (CCC = 0.99). With methods based on CT the user can choose a reliable plane for segmentation purposes. CT-based methods also provides the opportunity to separate the whole limb volume into defined tissue volumes (cortical bone, fat and water). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication and perfusion culture of anatomically shaped artificial bone using stereolithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Dajiang; Asaoka, Teruo; Ushida, Takashi; Furukawa, Katsuko S

    2014-01-01

    Because patient bone defects are usually varied and complicated in geometry, it would be preferred to fabricate custom-made artificial bone grafts that are anatomically specific to individual patient defects. Using a rabbit femoral segment as a bone reconstruction model, we successfully produced customized ceramic scaffolds by stereolithography, which not only had an anatomically correct external shape according to computed tomography data but also contained an interconnecting internal network of channels designed for perfusion culture. Rabbit bone marrow stromal cells were isolated and cultured with these scaffolds using a novel oscillatory perfusion system that was stereolithographically fabricated to fit well to the unique scaffold shapes. After five days of three-dimensional culture with oscillatory perfusion, the cells attached and proliferated homogenously in the scaffolds. However, control cells inside the scaffolds cultured under static conditions were dead after prolonged in vitro culture. Cellular DNA content and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in the perfusion group versus the static group. Therefore, anatomically correct artificial bone can be successfully constructed using stereolithography and oscillatory culture technology, and could be useful for bone engraftment and defect repair. (paper)

  18. Effect of myocardial perfusion and metabolic interventions on cardiac kinetics of phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) I 123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Schoen, S.; Schmitt, W.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of regional myocardial perfusion and flow-independent adrenergic stimulation, as well as lactate-mediated inhibition of cardiac lipolysis, on cardiac IPPA uptake and metabolism was examined in canine hearts (flow studies) and in the isolated perfused Langendorff rat heart (metabolic interventions). In both normal and ischaemic myocardium, local perfusion is a major determinant of cardiac IPPA uptake. In pacing-induced hyperaemia, the strict flow-dependence of cardiac IPPA uptake is not preserved. Adrenergic stimulation raises the rate of oxidation of both palmitic acid /sup 14/C and IPPA. This change is reflected by increased metabolite production released into the perfusate and radioactivity clearance recorded externally. Lactate in high concentrations exerts the opposite effect on cardiac free fatty acid oxidation. IPPA is stored in this condition preferentially in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides.

  19. Effect of myocardial perfusion and metabolic interventions on cardiac kinetics of phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) I 123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Schoen, S.; Schmitt, W.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of regional myocardial perfusion and flow-independent adrenergic stimulation, as well as lactate-mediated inhibition of cardiac lipolysis, on cardiac IPPA uptake and metabolism was examined in canine hearts (flow studies) and in the isolated perfused Langendorff rat heart (metabolic interventions). In both normal and ischaemic myocardium, local perfusion is a major determinant of cardiac IPPA uptake. In pacing-induced hyperaemia, the strict flow-dependence of cardiac IPPA uptake is not preserved. Adrenergic stimulation raises the rate of oxidation of both palmitic acid 14 C and IPPA. This change is reflected by increased metabolite production released into the perfusate and radioactivity clearance recorded externally. Lactate in high concentrations exerts the opposite effect on cardiac free fatty acid oxidation. IPPA is stored in this condition preferentially in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides. (orig.)

  20. Role of adenosine 99MTc sestamibi myocardial perfusion spect in evaluation of symptomatic hypertensives with recent onset left bundle branch block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padma, S.; Sundaram, P.S.; Zachariah, M.; Hariads, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: Adenosine pharmacological stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging (AMPI) is the preferred imaging modality for IHD evaluation in pts with Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB). Good prognosis has been reported in recent onset LBBB pts with normal MPI. Our aim was to evaluate the utility and analyze the predictive value of SestaMIBI AMPI in symptomatic recent onset LBBB hypertensives for coronary artery disease evaluation. Methods: 29 hypertensive pts, age range 36-72yrs, mean 54+ 6 yrs, M:F- 21:8 with recent onset complete LBBB, under evaluation for typical/atypical angina who had AMPI between Nov 02-Nov 03, were retrospectively analyzed. LBBB was diagnosed ECG wise if there is prolonged QRS complex i.e. 0.125sec or more in sinus/supraventricular rhythm, a QS or rS complex in lead 1, and an R-wave peak time of 0.06sec in leads 1, V5 or V6 with no Q wave in same lead. Pts with prior Myocardial Infarct / revasularisation, pacemaker induced LBBB were excluded. Single day 6 min. Adenosine infusion Stress-rest 99m Tc MIBI gated MPI was performed with a dual head variable angle Gamma Camera at 76-degree angle. Coronary Angiogram (CAG) correlation was available in 24 pts. Results: Myocardial perfusion SPECT images were assessed visually and by a 20-segment model. Location, extent and severity of the LV perfusion defects were evaluated. 6/29 pts (20.7%) had normal stress-rest perfusion in all LV segments.12 (41.4%) had isolated septal fixed defect with normal perfusion in rest of the segments.3 pts (10.3%)showed isolated reversible septal defects while 8(27.6%) had reversible septal defects with reversible defects in other LV segments also. Pts with fixed septal perfusion defect showed moderate to good septal wall thickening in gated SPECT images. While all pts with multiple reversible perfusion defects had angiographically proven coronary artery disease (i.e. 3pts had LAD lesion, 2 had Triple vessel and 3 showed double vessel lesions), 1 out of 3 pts with isolated

  1. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waardell, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  2. Beneficial effects of hyperosmotic perfusion in the myocardium after ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts Efeitos benéficos da perfusão hiperosmótica no miocárdio após lesão isquemia/reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A simple method to reduce the ischemia/reperfusion injury that can accompany cardiac surgery would have great clinical value. This study was to investigate the effect of hyperosmotic perfusion on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated perfused rat hearts. METHOD: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided either to have their isolated hearts perfused with normal osmotic buffer or buffer made hyperosmotic by addition of glucose. Hearts were then subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Coronary flow, time to ischemic arrest, reperfusion arrhythmia, and ventricular function were recorded. Creatine phosphokinase leakage into the coronary artery, and myocardial content and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were also examined. RESULTS: Rat hearts with hyperosmotic perfusion showed higher coronary flow, a prolonged time to ischemic arrest (10.60 vs. 5.63 min, POBJETIVO: Um método simples para reduzir a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão que pode acompanhar a cirurgia cardíaca teria grande valor clínico. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da perfusão hiperosmótica na isquemia/reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos perfundidos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos machos Sprague-Dawley foram divididos aleatoriamente e tiveram os seus corações isolados perfundidos com tampão osmótico normal ou tampão hiperosmótico com a adição de glucose. Os corações foram então submetidos a 30 minutos de isquemia, seguida de 30 min de reperfusão. O fluxo coronariano, tempo de parada isquêmica, arritmia de reperfusão e da função ventricular foram registrados. Vazamento creatinofosfoquinase na artéria coronária, o miocárdio e atividade de superóxido dismutase e catalase foram também examinados. RESULTADOS: Crações de ratos com perfusão hiperosmótica apresentaram maior fluxo coronariano, tempo prolongado de parada isquêmica (10,60 vs. 5,63 min, P<0,005, menor pontuação de reperfus

  3. Blood perfusion and pH monitoring in organs by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vari, Sandor G.; Papazoglou, Theodore G.; Pergadia, Vani R.; Stavridi, Marigo; Snyder, Wendy J.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Duffy, J. T.; Weiss, Andrew B.; Thomas, Reem; Grundfest, Warren S.

    1994-01-01

    Sensitivity of laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in detecting a change in tissue pH, and blood perfusion was determined. Rabbits were anesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated. The arterial and venous blood supplies of the kidney were isolated and ligated to alter the perfusion. The femoral artery was cannulated to extract samples for blood gas analysis. A 308-nm XeCl was used as an excitation source. A 600 micrometers core diameter fiber was used for fluorescence acquisition, and the spectra analyzed by an optical multichannel analyzer (EG & G, OMA III). the corresponding intensity ratio R equals INADH / ICOLL was used as an index for respiratory acidosis. Blood perfusion was assessed using the following algorithm: (IELAS minus ICOLL) divided by (INADH minus ICOLL). The intensity ratio linearly decreased with the reduction of blood perfusion. When we totally occluded the artery the ratio decreased tenfold when compared to the ratio of a fully perfused kidney. Results of monitoring blood acidosis by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy shows a significant trend between pH and intensity ratio. Since all the slopes were negative, there is an obvious significant correlation between the pH and NADH.COLLAGEN RATIO. Blue-light-induced fluorescence measurements and ratio fluorometry is a sensitive method for monitoring blood perfusion and acidity or alkalinity of an organ.

  4. Effect of ADH on rubidium transport in isolated perfused rat cortical collecting tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, J.A.; Troutman, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    Unidirectional fluxes of 86Rb+ were measured as an indicator of potassium transport in isolated rat cortical collecting tubules perfused and bathed at 38 degrees C with isotonic solutions in which Rb+ replaced K+. Under control conditions the lumen-to-bath flux (Jl----b) was significantly less than the bath-to-lumen flux (Jb----l), indicating net Rb+ secretion. Net secretion increased approximately 180% after addition of 100 microU/ml of arginine vasopressin (ADH) to the bathing solution, due to a rapid and reversible increase in Jb----l from 4.6 +/- 0.8 to 9.0 +/- 1.9 pmol X min-1 X mm-1 with no significant change in Jl----b. The ADH effect was completely inhibited by 2 mM luminal Ba2+. The average transepithelial voltage (Ve) was not significantly different from zero in the control period but became lumen negative (-5 to -10 mV) after ADH. With 10(-5) M amiloride in the lumen Ve was lumen positive (+2 to +4 mV) and was unaltered by ADH or Ba2+, yet ADH produced a significant but attentuated increase in Jb----l with no change in Jl----b. The results indicate that ADH augments net K+ secretion either by an increase in the Ba2+-sensitive conductance of the apical membrane or by an increase in the electrochemical potential driving force for net Rb+ secretion through this pathway

  5. Preserved regulation of renal perfusion pressure by small and intermediate conductance K-Ca channels in hypertensive mice with or without renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waeckel, L.; Bertin, F.; Clavreul, N.

    2015-01-01

    -transgenic female mice expressing human angiotensinogen and renin (AR) genes received either control or a high-salt diet associated to a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor treatment (BLSL and ARSL). Changes in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) were measured in isolated perfused kidneys. BLSL and AR were moderately...

  6. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  7. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 ± 8.5%, range:3 ∼ 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 ± 42.7%, range:-217 ∼ -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome

  8. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 {+-} 8.5%, range:3 {approx} 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 {+-} 42.7%, range:-217 {approx} -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome.

  9. Chemosaturation with Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion for Unresectable Isolated Hepatic Metastases from Sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deneve, Jeremiah L., E-mail: Jeremiah.Deneve@Moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Cutaneous and Sarcoma Oncology (United States); Choi, Junsung [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Interventional Radiology (United States); Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Conley, Anthony P.; Stewart, Steven; Han, Dale [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Cutaneous and Sarcoma Oncology (United States); Werner, Philip; Chaudhry, Tariq A. [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Anesthesia (United States); Zager, Jonathan S., E-mail: Jonathan.Zager@Moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Department of Cutaneous and Sarcoma Oncology (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with unresectable liver metastases is challenging. Regional therapies to the liver have been developed that maximize treatment of the localized disease process without systemic toxic adverse effects. We discuss the procedural aspects of liver chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion (CS-PHP). Methods: We present as an illustration of this technique a case report of the treatment of unresectable metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the liver. Results: A randomized phase III trial for unresectable liver metastases from melanoma was recently completed comparing CS-PHP with melphalan vs. best alternative care (BAC). When compared with BAC, CS-PHP was associated with a significant improvement in hepatic progression-free survival (8.0 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001) and overall progression-free survival (6.7 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001), respectively. On the basis of these results, and given our experience as one of the treating institutions for this phase III trial, we appealed for compassionate use of CS-PHP in a patient with isolated bilobar unresectable hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma. Four target lesions were identified and monitored to assess treatment response. A total of 4 CS-PHP procedures were performed, with a 25 % reduction in size of the largest lesion observed and 16 month hepatic progression-free survival. Toxicity was mild (neutropenia) and manageable on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: CS-PHP offers several advantages for unresectable hepatic sarcoma metastases. CS-PHP is minimally invasive and repeatable, and it has a predictable and manageable systemic toxicity profile. For appropriately selected patients, CS-PHP can delay tumor progression and could potentially improve survival.

  10. Chemosaturation with Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion for Unresectable Isolated Hepatic Metastases from Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Choi, Junsung; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Conley, Anthony P.; Stewart, Steven; Han, Dale; Werner, Philip; Chaudhry, Tariq A.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Treatment of patients with unresectable liver metastases is challenging. Regional therapies to the liver have been developed that maximize treatment of the localized disease process without systemic toxic adverse effects. We discuss the procedural aspects of liver chemosaturation with percutaneous hepatic perfusion (CS-PHP). Methods: We present as an illustration of this technique a case report of the treatment of unresectable metastatic leiomyosarcoma of the liver. Results: A randomized phase III trial for unresectable liver metastases from melanoma was recently completed comparing CS-PHP with melphalan vs. best alternative care (BAC). When compared with BAC, CS-PHP was associated with a significant improvement in hepatic progression-free survival (8.0 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001) and overall progression-free survival (6.7 months CS-PHP vs. 1.6 months BAC, p < 0.0001), respectively. On the basis of these results, and given our experience as one of the treating institutions for this phase III trial, we appealed for compassionate use of CS-PHP in a patient with isolated bilobar unresectable hepatic metastases from leiomyosarcoma. Four target lesions were identified and monitored to assess treatment response. A total of 4 CS-PHP procedures were performed, with a 25 % reduction in size of the largest lesion observed and 16 month hepatic progression-free survival. Toxicity was mild (neutropenia) and manageable on an outpatient basis. Conclusion: CS-PHP offers several advantages for unresectable hepatic sarcoma metastases. CS-PHP is minimally invasive and repeatable, and it has a predictable and manageable systemic toxicity profile. For appropriately selected patients, CS-PHP can delay tumor progression and could potentially improve survival.

  11. Preparative isolation and purification of theaflavins and catechins by high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Zhonghua; Huang, Jian-an; Dong, Xinrong; Song, Lubing; Pan, Yu; liu, Fang

    2008-05-15

    High-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) has been applied for the separation of theaflavins and catechins. The HSCCC run was carried out with a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (1:5:1:5:0.25, v/v) by eluting the lower aqueous phase at 2 ml/min at 700 rpm. The results indicated that pure theaflavin, theaflavins-3-gallate, theaflavins-3'-gallate and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate could be obtained from crude theaflavins sample and black tea. The structures of the isolated compounds were positively confirmed by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR, MS analysis, HPLC data and TLC data. Meanwhile, catechins including epigallocatechin gallate, gallocatechin gallate, epicatechin gallate and epigallocatechin were isolated from the aqueous extract of green tea by using the same solvent system. This study developed a modified method combined with enrichment theaflavins method by using HSCCC for separation of four individual theaflavins, especially for better separation of theaflavins monogallates.

  12. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Sundskard, Martin M; Jonassen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Absence of pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with reduced postoperative oxygenation. Effects of active pulmonary artery perfusion were explored in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: 90...... perfusion with normothermic oxygenated blood during cardiopulmonary bypass appears to improve postoperative oxygenation in patients with COPD undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution does not seem to improve postoperative oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER...

  13. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  14. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  15. Michaëlis--Menten kinetics of phenazone elimination in the perfused pig liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, B; Tonnesen, K; Rabol, A

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to define the elimination kinetics of phenazone (NFN) in the isolated perfused pig liver. In five experiments phenazone was administered as constant infusion to obtain steady-state periods over a wide range of concentrations. The elimination of phenazone follo...

  16. Snowboard, wakeboard, dashboard? Isolated fracture of the lateral process of the talus in a high-speed road traffic accident.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ng, Evangeline Shimei

    2013-01-01

    We present a 23-year-old man who sustained an isolated fracture of the lateral process of the talus (LPT) in a head-on vehicle collision at a combined speed of 200 km\\/h. The driver of the other vehicle sustained fatal injuries at the scene. The LPT was openly reduced and fixed with successful outcome at 3 months. This case is unusual in the method of injury, in particular in relation to the isolated relatively minor injury sustained.

  17. Industrialization of a perfusion bioreactor: Prime example of a non-straightforward process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talò, G; Turrisi, C; Arrigoni, C; Recordati, C; Gerges, I; Tamplenizza, M; Cappelluti, A; Riboldi, S A; Moretti, M

    2018-02-01

    Bioreactors are essential enabling technologies for the translation of advanced therapies medicinal products from the research field towards a successful clinical application. In order to speed up the translation and the spread of novel tissue engineering products into the clinical routine, tissue engineering bioreactors should evolve from laboratory prototypes towards industrialized products. In this work, we thus challenged the industrialization process of a novel technological platform, based on an established research prototype of perfusion bioreactor, following a GMP-driven approach. We describe how the combination of scientific background, intellectual property, start-up factory environment, wise industrial advice in the biomedical field, design, and regulatory consultancy allowed us to turn a previously validated prototype technology into an industrial product suitable for serial production with improved replicability and user-friendliness. The solutions implemented enhanced aesthetics, ergonomics, handling, and safety of the bioreactor, and they allowed compliance with the fundamental requirements in terms of traceability, reproducibility, efficiency, and safety of the manufacturing process of advanced therapies medicinal products. The result is an automated incubator-compatible device, housing 12 disposable independent perfusion chambers for seeding and culture of any perfusable tissue. We validated the cell seeding process of the industrialized bioreactor by means of the Design of Experiment approach, whilst the effectiveness of perfusion culture was evaluated in the context of bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Study of therapeutic and histopathologic effects of corn silk\\'s aqueous and metanolic extract against dosage induced by MDMA in isolated rat liver perfusion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Karami

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corn silk is obtained from the plant Zea mays L. A traditional herbal medicine is in China. This has been used in many parts of the world to treat edema, kidney infections, gout, kidney stones, kidney diseases and prostate. Reports of the antioxidant effects of this material are available. Although little scientific resources are available to confirm its efficacy. In this study we tried to find out the antioxidant effect and preventing of hepatotoxicity effect of Corn silk with IRLP Isolated Rat Liver Perfusion system. Material and Methods: The aqueous and methanol extracts of dried Corn silk doses (10, 20, 40, 50 and 100 mg/kg was used. Albino Rats weighing 220-180 g were examined after anesthesia by diethyl ether, the abdominal cavity of the animal T-shaped pattern excision in the abdomen and around is opened.Then portal vein connected to the perfusion flow by using small scalp Vienna (No. 23 into the portal vein. After reaching perfusion flow rate to 20 ml per minute, extracts and fraction with above doses were added to perfusion buffer. Fluid outflows from the inferior vena cava, were collected for measurement of glutathione. One sample of the liver was removed for glutathione measurement and one sample was maintained in 10% formalin for histopathological examination. Differences between group means were estimated using oneway ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. Results: The results showed that reduced glutathione level increased significantly by aqueous and methanol extract in comparison with controls. Pathology results confirmed that by increasing dose of extracts, severity of tissue damage (hemorrhage, fibrosis, and necrosis is reduced. In samples taken at intervals of 120 minutes, changes in the glutathione of case groups showed significant difference in comparison with the control group (p<0.01. Conclusion: Findings indicated that aqueous and methanolic extracts of corn fiber, reduced hepatic damages of MDMA

  19. Epicardial excitation pattern as observed in the isolated revived and perfused fetal human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrer, D.; Büller, J.; Graaff, P.; Lo, G.I.; Meijler, F.L.

    1961-01-01

    The resuscitated fetal human heart can be used as an experimental tooI for the investigation of the excitatory process in the human heart. During perfusion the configuration of the epicardial electrocardiograms does not change appreciably. For accurate recording permitting a detailed analysis, the

  20. 31P-NMR studies on perfused mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, A.C.; Takeda, H.; Chance, B.

    1978-01-01

    From a metabolic viewpoint, the most important organ in the body is the liver. In contrast to more specialized organs such as heart and kidney which perform only one major function, the liver performs a number of major metabolic functions. Two of the most important functions are the catabolism and storage of foodstuffs (in the form of glycogen) and the control of most of the constituents of the blood (in particular, the blood glucose level). Most of these functions are localized within a single type of cell. One way that the liver is able to regulate these diverse reactions is by the control of the ATP level in the cell. Encouraged by the recent success of many groups in using 31 P-NMR to provide a continuous and non-destructive monitor of ATP levels in isolated cells, skeletal muscle, and perfused organs such as heart and kidney, 31 P-NMR was used to investigate ATP levels in perfused liver of mice

  1. Activation of rho is involved in the mechanism of hydrogen-peroxide-induced lung edema in isolated perfused rabbit lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Y; Ishii, Y; Kitamura, S; Sugiyama, Y

    2001-09-01

    Acute lung injury is attributed primarily to increased vascular permeability caused by reactive oxygen species derived from neutrophils, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Increased permeability is accompanied by the contraction and cytoskeleton reorganization of endothelial cells, resulting in intercellular gap formation. The Rho family of Ras-like GTPases is implicated in the regulation of the cytoskeleton and cell contraction. We examined the role of Rho in H2O2-induced pulmonary edema with the use of isolated perfused rabbit lungs. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine the role of Rho in increased vascular permeability induced by H2O2 in perfused lungs. Vascular permeability was evaluated on the basis of the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc, ml/min/cm H2O/100 g). We found that H2O2 (300 microM) increased lung weight, Kfc, and pulmonary capillary pressure. These effects of H2O2 were abolished by treatment with Y-27632 (50 microM), an inhibitor of the Rho effector p160 ROCK. In contrast, the muscular relaxant papaverine inhibited the H2O2-induced rise in pulmonary capillary pressure, but did not suppress the increases in lung weight and Kfc. These findings indicate that H2O2 causes pulmonary edema by elevating hydrostatic pressure and increasing vascular permeability. Y-27632 inhibited the formation of pulmonary edema by blocking both of these H2O2-induced effects. Our results suggest that Rho-related pathways have a part in the mechanism of H2O2-induced pulmonary edema. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Perfusion dyssynchrony analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiribiri, A.; Villa, A.D.M.; Sammut, E.; Breeuwer, M.; Nagel, E.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We sought to describe perfusion dyssynchrony analysis specifically to exploit the high temporal resolution of stress perfusion CMR. This novel approach detects differences in the temporal distribution of the wash-in of contrast agent across the left ventricular wall. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  3. Brain perfusion: computed tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Within recent years, the broad introduction of fast multi-detector computed tomography (CT) systems and the availability of commercial software for perfusion analysis have made cerebral perfusion imaging with CT a practical technique for the clinical environment. The technique is widely available at low cost, accurate and easy to perform. Perfusion CT is particularly applicable to those clinical circumstances where patients already undergo CT for other reasons, including stroke, head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and radiotherapy planning. Future technical developments in multi-slice CT systems may diminish the current limitations of limited spatial coverage and radiation burden. CT perfusion imaging on combined PET-CT systems offers new opportunities to improve the evaluation of patients with cerebral ischaemia or tumours by demonstrating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Yet CT is often not perceived as a technique for imaging cerebral perfusion. This article reviews the use of CT for imaging cerebral perfusion, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages and draws comparisons between perfusion CT and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  4. Cirurgia do arco aórtico com perfusão cerebral bilateral pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e da artéria carótida esquerda Aortic arch surgery with bilateral cerebral perfusion by isolation of brachiocephalic trunk and left carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdo José Carreira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar os resultados da técnica descrita por Carreira et al. com utilização de perfusão cerebral seletiva bilateral (PCSAB pelo isolamento do tronco braquiocefálico e artéria carótida esquerda. MÉTODOS: Quinze pacientes foram operados consecutivamente entre de junho de 2005 e setembro de 2007. Os dados foram analisados por programa informatizado Epi Info e significância estatística com p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A técnica de PCSAB é reprodutível e apresenta resultados semelhantes aos da literatura mundial. A excelente evolução neurológica e o fácil controle de sangramentos nas linhas de sutura podem ter contribuído com os resultados obtidos.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of a technique described by Carreira et al. using bilateral antegrade selective cerebral perfusion by isolating the brachiocephalic trunk and the left carotid artery. METHODS: Fifteen patients were operated between June 2005 and September 2007. Data analysis were performed using Epi Info and statistical significance was set at p0.05. CONCLUSION: The technique of bilateral selective cerebral perfusion described by Carreira et al. can be performed by others and presents similar results to the international literature. The excellent neurological outcome and easy bleeding control on surgical sutures lines are the major advantages of this new procedure.

  5. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the detection of silent ischemia in asymptomatic diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Glaucia Celeste Rossatto [Clinica Diagnoson and Hospital Aristides Maltez, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Servicos de Medicina Nuclear; Pavin, Elizabeth Joao; Parisi, Maria Candida R. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Department of Internal Medicine. Service of Endocrinology; Coelho, Otavio Rizzi; Almeida, Raitany C. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Department of Internal Medicine. Service of Cardiology; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo; Ramos, Celso Dario, E-mail: cdramos@unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Department of Radiology. Service of Nuclear Medicine; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo [Hospital Sirio-Libanes, Campinas, SP (Brazil). Service of Nuclear Medicine

    2013-01-15

    Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic patients with type 1 (DM1) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) without previous diagnoses of coronary artery disease (CAD) or cerebral infarction. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine consecutive asymptomatic patients (16 DM1, 43 DM2) underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi (MPS). They were evaluated for body mass index, metabolic control of DM, type of therapy, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, smoking, and familial history of CAD. Results: MPS was abnormal in 15 patients (25.4%): 12 (20.3%) with perfusion abnormalities, and 3 with isolated left ventricular dysfunction. The strongest predictors for abnormal myocardial perfusion were: age 60 years and above (p = 0.017; odds ratio [OR] = 6.0), peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.028; OR = 6.1), nephropathy (p = 0.031; OR = 5.6), and stress ECG positive for ischemia (p = 0.049; OR = 4.08). Conclusion: Silent myocardial ischemia occurs in more than one in five asymptomatic diabetic patients. The strongest predictors of ischemia in this study were: patient age, peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy and a stress ECG positive for ischemia. (author)

  6. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in the detection of silent ischemia in asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oki, Glaucia Celeste Rossatto; Pavin, Elizabeth Joao; Parisi, Maria Candida R.; Coelho, Otavio Rizzi; Almeida, Raitany C.; Etchebehere, Elba Cristina Sa de Camargo; Ramos, Celso Dario; Camargo, Edwaldo Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to evaluate myocardial perfusion in asymptomatic patients with type 1 (DM1) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) without previous diagnoses of coronary artery disease (CAD) or cerebral infarction. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine consecutive asymptomatic patients (16 DM1, 43 DM2) underwent myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with 99m Tc-sestamibi (MPS). They were evaluated for body mass index, metabolic control of DM, type of therapy, systemic arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, smoking, and familial history of CAD. Results: MPS was abnormal in 15 patients (25.4%): 12 (20.3%) with perfusion abnormalities, and 3 with isolated left ventricular dysfunction. The strongest predictors for abnormal myocardial perfusion were: age 60 years and above (p = 0.017; odds ratio [OR] = 6.0), peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.028; OR = 6.1), nephropathy (p = 0.031; OR = 5.6), and stress ECG positive for ischemia (p = 0.049; OR = 4.08). Conclusion: Silent myocardial ischemia occurs in more than one in five asymptomatic diabetic patients. The strongest predictors of ischemia in this study were: patient age, peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy and a stress ECG positive for ischemia. (author)

  7. Isolated working heart: description of models relevant to radioisotopic and pharmacological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depre, Christophe

    1998-01-01

    Isolated heart preparations are used to study physiological and metabolic parameters of the heart independently of its environment. Several preparations of isolated perfused heart are currently used, mainly the retrograde perfusion system and the working heart model. Both models allow investigations of the metabolic regulation of the heart in various physiological conditions (changes in workload, hormonal influences, substrate competition). These systems may also reproduce different pathological conditions, such as ischemia, reperfusion and hypoxia. Quantitation of metabolic activity can be performed with specific radioactive tracers. Finally, the effects of various drugs on cardiac performance and resistance to ischemia can be studied as well. Heart perfusion also revealed efficient methods to determine the tracer/tracee relation for radioisotopic analogues used with Positron Emission Tomography

  8. Perfusion CT in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Bernd; Roether, Joachim; Fiehler, Jens; Thomalla, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Modern multislice CT scanners enable multimodal protocols including non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion. A 64-slice CT scanner provides 4-cm coverage. To cover the whole brain, a 128 - 256-slice scanner is needed. The use of perfusion CT requires an optimized scan protocol in order to reduce exposure to radiation. As compared to non-enhanced CT and CT angiography, the use of CT perfusion increases detection rates of cerebral ischemia, especially small cortical ischemic lesions, while the detection of lacunar and infratentorial stroke lesions remains limited. Perfusion CT enables estimation of collateral flow in acute occlusion of large intra- or extracranial arteries. Currently, no established reliable thresholds are available for determining infarct core and penumbral tissue by CT perfusion. Moreover, perfusion parameters depend on the processing algorithms and the software used for calculation. However, a number of studies point towards a reduction of cerebral blood volume (CBV) below 2 ml/100 g as a critical threshold that identifies infarct core. Large CBV lesions are associated with poor outcome even in the context of recanalization. The extent of early ischemic signs on non-enhanced CT remains the main parameter from CT imaging to guide acute reperfusion treatment. Nevertheless, perfusion CT increases diagnostic and therapeutic certainty in the acute setting. Similar to stroke MRI, perfusion CT enables the identification of tissue at risk of infarction by the mismatch between infarct core and the larger area of critical hypoperfusion. Further insights into the validity of perfusion parameters are expected from ongoing trials of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke.

  9. Effects of perfusion pressure and insulin on (3H) cytochalasin B (CB) binding to control and diabetic rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleta, M.; Chan, T.

    1987-01-01

    Using ( 3 H) CB, they attempted to quantitate the changes in the amount of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular membranes (HSP) prepared from rat hearts perfused with insulin, under low and high pressure. Membranes isolated from non-perfused hearts showed a PM/HSP ratio of (0.593). Hearts perfused with low pressure showed a lower ratio of (0.474). Perfusion with insulin increased the ratio to (1.8), almost a 3-4 fold increase from low perfusion pressure. These data correlate with insulin effects in glucose transport and CB binding in the fat cells. High pressure perfusion increased the PM/HSP ratio by 1-2 fold. ( 3 H) 2-DG transport indicates a comparable increase in glucose uptake with high pressure, but with insulin only a 1.5 fold increase was observed. Initial data obtained from streptozotocin (STZ) injected diabetic rats indicate low CB binding in the PM fraction. Only insulin, but not high perfusion pressure increased PM/HSP ratio in the STZ-diabetic hearts. Their data imply that while both caused apparent translocation of glucose transporters, influences on cardiac glucose metabolism by work load are different. Furthermore, STZ induced diabetes affected only the high perfusion pressure-induced and not the insulin-stimulated change in CB binding

  10. Volume perfusion CT imaging of cerebral vasospasm: diagnostic performance of different perfusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Afat, Saif; Nikoubashman, Omid; Mueller, Marguerite; Wiesmann, Martin; Brockmann, Carolin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Schubert, Gerrit Alexander [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Bier, Georg [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Marc A. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Mainz, Department of Neuroradiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different volume perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of cerebral vasospasm compared to angiographic findings. Forty-one datasets of 26 patients (57.5 ± 10.8 years, 18 F) with subarachnoid hemorrhage and suspected cerebral vasospasm, who underwent VPCT and angiography within 6 h, were included. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the presence and severity of vasospasm on perfusion maps on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting <50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting >50 % of vascular territory). A third neuroradiologist independently assessed angiography for the presence and severity of vasospasm on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting < 50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting > 50 % of vessel diameter). Perfusion maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time to drain (TTD) were evaluated regarding diagnostic accuracy for cerebral vasospasm with angiography as reference standard. Correlation analysis of vasospasm severity on perfusion maps and angiographic images was performed. Furthermore, inter-reader agreement was assessed regarding findings on perfusion maps. Diagnostic accuracy for TTD and MTT was significantly higher than for all other perfusion maps (TTD, AUC = 0.832; MTT, AUC = 0.791; p < 0.001). TTD revealed higher sensitivity than MTT (p = 0.007). The severity of vasospasm on TTD maps showed significantly higher correlation levels with angiography than all other perfusion maps (p ≤ 0.048). Inter-reader agreement was (almost) perfect for all perfusion maps (kappa ≥ 0.927). The results of this study indicate that TTD maps have the highest sensitivity for the detection of cerebral vasospasm and highest correlation with angiography regarding the severity of vasospasm. (orig.)

  11. Standardized perfusion value of the esophageal carcinoma and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion parameter values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric-Stefanovic, A., E-mail: avstefan@eunet.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Saranovic, Dj., E-mail: crvzve4@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Sobic-Saranovic, D., E-mail: dsobic2@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Masulovic, D., E-mail: draganmasulovic@yahoo.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Artiko, V., E-mail: veraart@beotel.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Standardized perfusion value (SPV) is a universal indicator of tissue perfusion, normalized to the whole-body perfusion, which was proposed to simplify, unify and allow the interchangeability among the perfusion measurements and comparison between the tumor perfusion and metabolism. The aims of our study were to assess the standardized perfusion value (SPV) of the esophageal carcinoma, and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion measurements: blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) of the same tumor volume samples, which were obtained by deconvolution-based CT perfusion analysis. Methods: Forty CT perfusion studies of the esophageal cancer were analyzed, using the commercial deconvolution-based CT perfusion software (Perfusion 3.0, GE Healthcare). The SPV of the esophageal tumor and neighboring skeletal muscle were correlated with the corresponding mean tumor and muscle quantitative CT perfusion parameter values, using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r{sub S}). Results: Median SPV of the esophageal carcinoma (7.1; range: 2.8–13.4) significantly differed from the SPV of the skeletal muscle (median: 1.0; range: 0.4–2.4), (Z = −5.511, p < 0.001). The cut-off value of the SPV of 2.5 enabled discrimination of esophageal cancer from the skeletal muscle with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. SPV of the esophageal carcinoma significantly correlated with corresponding tumor BF (r{sub S} = 0.484, p = 0.002), BV (r{sub S} = 0.637, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.432, p = 0.005), and SPV of the skeletal muscle significantly correlated with corresponding muscle BF (r{sub S} = 0.573, p < 0.001), BV (r{sub S} = 0.849, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.761, p < 0.001). Conclusions: We presented a database of the SPV for the esophageal cancer and proved that SPV of the esophageal neoplasm significantly differs from the SPV of the skeletal muscle, which represented a sample of healthy

  12. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging identifies early perfusion abnormalities in diabetes and hypertension : Insights from a multicenter registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Tesche, Christian; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Pugliese, Francesca; Bamberg, Fabian; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: To identify patients with early signs of myocardial perfusion reduction, a reference base for perfusion measures is needed. Objective: To analyze perfusion parameters derived from dynamic computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

  13. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (I, 20.2 mg),, syringin (II, 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside (III, 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (IV, 20.4 mg), and pedunculoside (V, 45.1 mg) were obtained by one run of TBE-1000A HSCCC instrument with 1000 mL of column volume. Their structures were identified by IR, MS, and 1H and 13C NMR studies. Glycoside I was isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:25132792

  14. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2014-04-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside ( I , 20.2 mg),, syringin ( II , 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside ( III , 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyranoside ( IV , 20.4 mg), and pedunculoside ( V , 45.1 mg) were obtained by one run of TBE-1000A HSCCC instrument with 1000 mL of column volume. Their structures were identified by IR, MS, and 1 H and 13 C NMR studies. Glycoside I was isolated from this plant for the first time.

  15. ISOLATION OF GLYCOSIDES FROM THE BARKS OF ILEX ROTUNDA BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTER-CURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Chun; Chao, Zhimao; Sun, Wen; Wu, Xiaoyi; Ito, Yoichiro

    2013-01-01

    Semi-preparative and preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) were successfully used for isolation of glycosides from 50% ethanol extract of the dried barks of Ilex rotunda Thunb. (Aquifoliaceae) by using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:6:7, v/v/v). From 1.0 g of the extract, syringaresinol 4',4"-di-o-β-d-glucopyranoside (I, 20.2 mg),, syringin (II, 56.8 mg), sinapaldehyde glucoside (III, 26.2 mg),, syringaresinol 4'-o-β-d-glucopyra...

  16. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  17. The effect of cigarette smoke on the metabolism of arachidonic acid in isolated hamster lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maennistoe, J.; Toivonen, H.; Hartiala, J.; Bakhle, Y.S.; Uotila, P.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of cigarette smoke on the metabolism of exogenous arachidonic acid (AA) were investigated in isolated hamster lungs. Arachidonate was injected into the pulmonary circulation and the metabolites were analysed from the nonrecirculating perfusion effluent by thin layer chromatography. After the pulmonary injection of 66 nmol of 14C-AA about 20% of the injected radioactivity appeared in the perfusion effluent mostly as metabolites in six minutes. When isolated lungs were ventilated with cigarette smoke during the perfusion, the amounts of PGF2 alpha, PGE2 and two unidentified metabolite groups increased in the lung effluent. In two other experimental series hamsters were exposed to cigarette smoke before the lung perfusion either once for 30 min or during one hour daily for ten consecutive days. Neither pre-exposures caused any changes in the amounts of arachidonate metabolites in the lung effluent

  18. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure

  19. Effects of vasopressin on the isolated perfused human collecting tubule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, N; Trizna, W; Bar-Khayim, Y; Fine, L G

    1981-05-01

    Cortical collecting tubules (CCT) were dissected from the surviving normal tissue of human kidneys removed at operation for either carcinoma or calculus. These CCT's were perfused in vitro shortly after the nephrectomy was performed. Transtubular potential differences in different tubules varied from +3.2 to -2.0 mV and were reduced towards zero by lowering the temperature or by adding ouabain to the bath. In the absence of vasopressin, tubules were essentially impermeable to water with extremely low net water fluxes even in the presence of a transtubular osmotic gradient. Addition of vasopressin to the bath caused the transtubular osmotic water permeability coefficient to increase to values of 125, 175, and 155 X 10(-4) cm/sec in three tubules thus studied. These results demonstrate close similarities between the human CCT and the more extensively studied rabbit CCT.

  20. Intra-Arterial MR Perfusion Imaging of Meningiomas: Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intravenous MR Perfusion Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Lum

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of IA MR perfusion to characterize meningioma blood supply.Studies were performed in a suite comprised of an x-ray angiography unit and 1.5T MR scanner that permitted intraprocedural patient movement between the imaging modalities. Patients underwent intra-arterial (IA and intravenous (IV T2* dynamic susceptibility MR perfusion immediately prior to meningioma embolization. Regional tumor arterial supply was characterized by digital subtraction angiography and classified as external carotid artery (ECA dural, internal carotid artery (ICA dural, or pial. MR perfusion data regions of interest (ROIs were analyzed in regions with different vascular supply to extract peak height, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, and mean transit time (MTT. Linear mixed modeling was used to identify perfusion curve parameter differences for each ROI for IA and IV MR imaging techniques. IA vs. IV perfusion parameters were also directly compared for each ROI using linear mixed modeling.18 ROIs were analyzed in 12 patients. Arterial supply was identified as ECA dural (n = 11, ICA dural (n = 4, or pial (n = 3. FWHM, rCBV, and rCBF showed statistically significant differences between ROIs for IA MR perfusion. Peak Height and FWHM showed statistically significant differences between ROIs for IV MR perfusion. RCBV and MTT were significantly lower for IA perfusion in the Dural ECA compared to IV perfusion. Relative CBF in IA MR was found to be significantly higher in the Dural ICA region and MTT significantly lower compared to IV perfusion.

  1. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  2. Isolation and Purification of Oridonin from the Whole Plant of Isodon rubescens by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunYue Yu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Semi-preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC was successfully used for isolation and purification of oridonin from Isodon rubescens by using a two-phase-solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (2.8:5:2.8:5, v/v/v/v. The targeted compound isolated, collected and purified by HSCCC was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. A total of 40.6 mg of oridonin with the purity of 73.5% was obtained in less than 100 min from 100 mg of crude Isodon rubescens extract. The chemical structure of the compound was identified by IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  3. Utilization by the isolated perfused rat liver of N-acetyl-D-(1-/sup 14/C)galactosamine and N-brace/sup 3/H)-acetyl-D-galactosamine for the biosynthesis of glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacNicoll, A D; Wusteman, F S; Powell, G M; Curtis, C G [University Coll., Cardiff (UK)

    1978-08-15

    The isolated perfused rat liver system has been used to monitor the utilization of N-(/sup 3/H)acetyl-D-galactosamine and N-acetyl-D-(1-/sup 14/C)galactosamine for the biosynthesis of radiolabeled glycoproteins, which are subsequently secreted into the plasma. Both radiolabels appear in a number of different glycoproteins, predominantly as sialic acid and N-acetylglucosamine. The ratio of labelled sialic acid to labelled N-acetylglucosamine varies for different glycoproteins, but the bulk of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine is incorporated without deacetylation.

  4. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutcu, Semra; Serter, Selim; Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray; Nese, Nalan; Pekindil, Goekhan; Coskun, Teoman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  5. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutcu, Semra [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Serter, Selim, E-mail: serterselim@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Nese, Nalan [Department of Pathology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Pekindil, Goekhan [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Coskun, Teoman [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  6. Isolated limb perfusion electrochemotherapy for the treatment of an advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hoof in a mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-year-old female saddle horse was referred for evaluation of a seven month, non-healing erosive lesion of the right hind hoof with proliferation and bleeding of the underlying soft tissues. This lesion had been twice surgically treated as a canker but rapidly recurred. Histological examination of the second excision revealed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. At presentation, the horse was mildly depressed, lame and partially non-weight-bearing on the right hind leg, which exhibited a 10 x 10 cm erosive and proliferative lesion remodeling the hoof. After completing staging procedures, the lesion was approached with surgery and intraoperative electrochemotherapy (ECT administration of bleomycin in isolated limb perfusion. A second session of surgery and ECT was performed one month later, followed by three additional monthly sessions of ECT. During periodic recheck, the mare showed continuous improvement. One year after presentation, the mare was in complete remission and her gait markedly improved. ECT was well-tolerated and resulted in improved local control of a tumor in a challenging anatomical district.

  7. Compartmented pyruvate in perfused working heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenger, R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyruvate compartmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied in isolated perfused working guinea pig hearts. The mean intracellular pyruvate (Pyr) contents increased with perfusate Pyr (0-2 mM) but varied only slightly with glucose (0-10 mM) and additional insulin (0.04-5 U/l), respectively. With 5-10 mM glucose plus 5 U/l insulin, but not with Pyr or lactate (Lac) as substrates, a near equilibrium between the LDH and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase seemed to exist. Evidence for an inhibitory effect of Pyr on the activity of the LDH system of the perfused hearts was not obtained. With [U- 14 C]glucose as sole substrate, the specific activity of coronary venous Lac was near half that of precursor glucose. 14 CO 2 production was thus in quantitative agreement with rates of pyruvate oxidation that were determined as glucose uptake minus (Pyr + Lac) release. In contrast, with 0.2 mM [1- 14 C]Pyr plus 5 mM glucose, the ratio of 14 CO 2 production to specific activity of Lac overestimated Pyr oxidation judged from myocardial substrate balances and O 2 uptake, respectively; here, at least three pools of [ 14 C]HCO-3 and [ 14 C]lac, respectively, were kinetically demonstrable during washout of trace amounts of 14 C-labeled Pyr. Evidently, the specific activity of Lac was equivalent to that of mitochondrial oxidized Pyr provided [ 14 C]glucose was the sole or major precursor of cellular pyruvate. However, exogenously applied [1- 14 C]Pyr of high specific activity seemed to induce intracellular formation of both a highly and lowly labeled Pyr; the latter Pyr compartment did not seem in ready equilibrium with the cell physiologically prevailing highly labeled Pyr pool

  8. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  9. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging without contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosian, Petros; Graf, Hansjoerg; Schick, Fritz; Boss, Andreas; Schraml, Christina; Schwenzer, Nina F.; Claussen, Claus D.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of magnetic resonance imaging techniques providing perfusion-related contrast weighting without administration of contrast media are reported and analysed systematically. Especially common approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion imaging allowing quantitative assessment of specific perfusion rates are described in detail. The potential of ASL for perfusion imaging was tested in several types of tissue. After a systematic comparison of technical aspects of continuous and pulsed ASL techniques the standard kinetic model and tissue properties of influence to quantitative measurements of perfusion are reported. For the applications demonstrated in this paper a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation approach followed by true fast imaging with steady precession (true FISP) data recording was developed and implemented on whole-body scanners operating at 0.2, 1.5 and 3 T for quantitative perfusion measurement in various types of tissue. ASL imaging provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of tissue perfusion rates in vivo. Images recorded from kidney, lung, brain, salivary gland and thyroid gland provide a spatial resolution of a few millimetres and sufficient signal to noise ratio in perfusion maps after 2-5 min of examination time. Newly developed ASL techniques provide especially high image quality and quantitative perfusion maps in tissues with relatively high perfusion rates (as also present in many tumours). Averaging of acquisitions and image subtraction procedures are mandatory, leading to the necessity of synchronization of data recording to breathing in abdominal and thoracic organs. (orig.)

  10. Hepatic arterial perfusion increases in the early stage of severe acute pancreatitis patients: Evaluation by perfusion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyasu, Sho; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Togashi, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Although hepatic perfusion abnormalities have been reported in patients with acute pancreatitis, hepatic perfusion with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not been quantitatively evaluated in humans. Therefore, we investigated hepatic perfusion in patients with SAP using perfusion CT. Materials and methods: Hepatic perfusion CT was performed in 67 patients with SAP within 3 days after symptom onset. The patients were diagnosed as having SAP according to the Atlanta criteria. Fifteen cases were established as a control group. Perfusion CT was obtained for 54 s beginning with a bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast agent (600–630 mgI/kg) at a flow rate of 4 ml/s. Perfusion data were analyzed by the dual-input maximum slope method to obtain hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) and hepatic portal perfusion (HPP). Finally, we compared HAP and HPP in SAP patients with those in the control group, respectively. Results: Average HAP was significantly higher in SAP patients than in the control group (75.1 ± 38.0 vs. 38.2 ± 9.0 ml/min/100 ml; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in average HPP between SAP patients and the control group (206.7 ± 54.9 vs. 204.4 ± 38.5 ml/min/100 ml; p = 0.92). Conclusion: Using quantitative analysis on perfusion CT, we first demonstrated an increase of HAP in the right hepatic lobe in SAP patients.

  11. Improved visualization of delayed perfusion in lung MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risse, Frank; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Semmler, Wolfhard; Puderbach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The investigation of pulmonary perfusion by three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was proposed recently. Subtraction images are generated for clinical evaluation, but temporal information is lost and perfusion defects might therefore be masked in this process. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple analysis strategy and classification for 3D-DCE-MRI perfusion datasets in the lung without omitting the temporal information. Materials and methods: Pulmonary perfusion measurements were performed in patients with different lung diseases using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with a time-resolved 3D-GRE pulse sequence. 25 3D-volumes were acquired after iv-injection of 0.1 mmol/kg KG Gadolinium-DTPA. Three parameters were determined for each pixel: (1) peak enhancement S n,max normalized to the arterial input function to detect regions of reduced perfusion; (2) time between arterial peak enhancement in the large pulmonary artery and tissue peak enhancement τ to visualize regions with delayed bolus onset; and (3) ratio R = S n,max /τ was calculated to visualize impaired perfusion, irrespectively of whether related to reduced or delayed perfusion. Results: A manual selection of peak perfusion images is not required. Five different types of perfusion can be found: (1) normal perfusion; (2) delayed non-reduced perfusion; (3) reduced non-delayed perfusion; (4) reduced and delayed perfusion; and (5) no perfusion. Types II and IV could not be seen in subtraction images since the temporal information is necessary for this purpose. Conclusions: The analysis strategy in this study allows for a simple and observer-independent visualization and classification of impaired perfusion in dynamic contrast-enhanced pulmonary perfusion MRI by using the temporal information of the datasets.

  12. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  13. Automatic assessment of cardiac perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsson, Henrik B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on Active Appearance Models (AAM) is applied for automatic registration of myocardial perfusion MRI. A semi-quantitative perfusion assessment of the registered image sequences is presented. This includes the formation of perfusion maps for three parameters; maximum up...

  14. Can preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy predict changes in left ventricular perfusion and function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Johansen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe wanted to evaluate whether preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) could predict changes in cardiac symptoms and postoperative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).METHODSNinety-two patients with stable angina...... in 26%. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), which was normal before operation in 45%, improved in 40% of all patients. The increase in LVEF was not related to the preoperative pattern of perfusion defects. Of 30 patients with normalized perfusion after CABG, 29 (97%) had reversible defects...... that reversible or partly reversible perfusion defects at a preoperative MPS have a high chance of normalized myocardial perfusion assessed by MPS 6 months after operation. Normal perfusion is obtained almost exclusively in territories with reversible ischaemia. Symptoms improved in nearly all patients and LVEF...

  15. [Dynamics of the amino acid composition of the medium during cultivation of isolated liver and kidney by the controlled perfusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, V A; Gitel'zon, I I; Nefedov, V P; Trubachev, I N

    1975-11-01

    The dynamics of the medium amino acid composition was studied during a 6-hour perfusion of dog kidney and liver by a mixture of autogenic plasma and medium 199 (a ratio of 2 : 3). In comparison to the initial level the amount of histidine during 6-hour cultivation of the kidney was found to increase 2.2 times, that of glutamic acid--1.7 times, and of alanine and lysine--1.6 times. At the same time the amount of arginine, serine and asparagic acid became 3.3 times and of glutamine and threonine--2.5 times lower. With the liver perfusion the level of glutaminic acid became 2.9 times, of alanine--2.3 times, of cystine--2 times and of glycine--1.5 times higher. With the liver perfusion the level of arginine decreased so rapidly that none was found in the medium after a 2-hour perfusion. The described method of amino acid analysis during the cultivation of the organs could serve as means for elaborating and correcting the culture media.

  16. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  17. Ex-vivo machine perfusion for kidney preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Matyas; Selzner, Markus

    2018-06-01

    Machine perfusion is a novel strategy to decrease preservation injury, improve graft assessment, and increase organ acceptance for transplantation. This review summarizes the current advances in ex-vivo machine-based kidney preservation technologies over the last year. Ex-vivo perfusion technologies, such as hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion and controlled oxygenated rewarming, have gained high interest in the field of organ preservation. Keeping kidney grafts functionally and metabolically active during the preservation period offers a unique chance for viability assessment, reconditioning, and organ repair. Normothermic ex-vivo kidney perfusion has been recently translated into clinical practice. Preclinical results suggest that prolonged warm perfusion appears superior than a brief end-ischemic reconditioning in terms of renal function and injury. An established standardized protocol for continuous warm perfusion is still not available for human grafts. Ex-vivo machine perfusion represents a superior organ preservation method over static cold storage. There is still an urgent need for the optimization of the perfusion fluid and machine technology and to identify the optimal indication in kidney transplantation. Recent research is focusing on graft assessment and therapeutic strategies.

  18. Cyclooxygenase-2-dependent bronchoconstriction in perfused rat lungs exposed to endotoxin.

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, S.; Nüsing, R.; von Bethmann, A.; Featherstone, R. L.; Klein, T.; Brasch, F.; Müller, K. M.; Ullrich, V.; Wendel, A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), widely used to study the mechanisms of gram-negative sepsis, increase airway resistance by constriction of terminal bronchioles. The role of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and their prostanoid metabolites in this process was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pulmonary resistance, the release of thromboxane (TX) and the expression of COX-2 mRNA were measured in isolated blood-free perfused rat lungs exposed to LPS. RESULTS: LPS induced the release of T...

  19. Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKCδ expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

  20. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....

  1. Brain Perfusion Changes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mititelu, R.; Mazilu, C.; Ghita, S.; Rimbu, A.; Marinescu, G.; Codorean, I.; Bajenaru, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the latest advances in medical treatment and neuro critical care, patients suffering spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) still have a very poor prognosis, with a greater mortality and larger neurological deficits at the survivors than for ischemic stroke. Many authors have shown that there are many mechanisms involved in the pathology of SICH: edema, ischemia, inflammation, apoptosis. All of these factors are affecting brain tissue surrounding hematoma and are responsible of the progressive neurological deterioration; most of these damages are not revealed by anatomical imaging techniques. The aim of our study was to asses the role of brain perfusion SPECT in demonstrating perfusion changes in SICH patients. Method: 17 SICH pts were studied. All pts underwent same day CT and brain SPECT with 99mTcHMPAO, 24h-5d from onset of stroke. Results: 14/17 pts showed a larger perfusion defect than expected after CT. In 2 pts hematoma diameter was comparable on CT and SPECT; 1pt had quasinormal aspect of SPECT study. In pts with larger defects, SPECT revealed a large cold spot with similar size compared with CT, and a surrounding hypo perfused area. 6/17 pts revealed cortical hyper perfusion adjacent to hypo perfused area and corresponding to a normal-appearing brain tissue on CT. In 3 pts we found crossed cerebellar diaskisis.In 2 pts we found cortical hypo perfused area in the contralateral cortex, with normal appearing brain tissue on CT. Conclusions: Brain perfusion SPECT revealed different types of perfusion changes in the brain tissue surrounding hematoma. These areas contain viable brain tissue that may be a target for future ne uroprotective strategies. Further studies are definitely required to demonstrate prognostic significance of these changes, but we can conclude that brain perfusion SPECT can play an important role in SICH, by early demonstrating functional changes responsible of clinical deterioration, thus allowing prompt

  2. FROG INTESTINAL PERFUSION TO EVALUATE DRUG PERMEABILITY: APPLICATION TO P-gp AND CYP3A4 SUBSTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelima eYerasi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTo evaluate the reliability of using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique for permeability assessment of carrier transported drugs which are also substrates for CYP enzymes. Single Pass Intestinal Perfusion (SPIP studies were performed in frogs of the species Rana tigrina using established method for rats with some modifications after inducing anesthesia. Effective permeability coefficient (Peff of losartan and midazolam was calculated in the presence and absence of inhibitors using the parallel-tube model. Peff of losartan when perfused alone was found to be 0.427 ± 0.27×10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, significant change in Peff was observed. Peff of midazolam when perfused alone was found to be 2.03 ± 0.07 × 10-4cm/s and when it was co-perfused with inhibitors, no significant change in Peff was observed. Comparison of Peff calculated in frog with that of other available models and also humans suggested that the Peff values are comparable and reflected well with human intestinal permeability. It is possible to determine the Peff value for compounds which are dual substrates of P-gp and CYP3A4 using in situ frog intestinal perfusion technique. The calculated Peff values correlated well with reported Peff values of probe drugs. comparison of the Peff value of losartan obtained with that of reported human’s Peff and Caco 2 cell data, and comparison of the Peff value of midazolam with that of reported rat’s Peff, we could conclude that SPIP from model can be reliably used in preclinical studies for permeability estimation. This model may represent a valuable alternative to the low speed and high cost of conventional animal models (typically rodents for the assessment of intestinal permeability.

  3. Developing a Benchmarking Process in Perfusion: A Report of the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A.; Newland, Richard F.; Fenton, Carmel; McDonald, Michael; Willcox, Timothy W.; Merry, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Improving and understanding clinical practice is an appropriate goal for the perfusion community. The Perfusion Downunder Collaboration has established a multi-center perfusion focused database aimed at achieving these goals through the development of quantitative quality indicators for clinical improvement through benchmarking. Data were collected using the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration database from procedures performed in eight Australian and New Zealand cardiac centers between March 2007 and February 2011. At the Perfusion Downunder Meeting in 2010, it was agreed by consensus, to report quality indicators (QI) for glucose level, arterial outlet temperature, and pCO2 management during cardiopulmonary bypass. The values chosen for each QI were: blood glucose ≥4 mmol/L and ≤10 mmol/L; arterial outlet temperature ≤37°C; and arterial blood gas pCO2 ≥ 35 and ≤45 mmHg. The QI data were used to derive benchmarks using the Achievable Benchmark of Care (ABC™) methodology to identify the incidence of QIs at the best performing centers. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-five procedures were evaluated to derive QI and benchmark data. The incidence of the blood glucose QI ranged from 37–96% of procedures, with a benchmark value of 90%. The arterial outlet temperature QI occurred in 16–98% of procedures with the benchmark of 94%; while the arterial pCO2 QI occurred in 21–91%, with the benchmark value of 80%. We have derived QIs and benchmark calculations for the management of several key aspects of cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a platform for improving the quality of perfusion practice. PMID:22730861

  4. Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome in diabetic feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jie [Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J. [Washington University School of Medicine, The Program in Physical Therapy, St. Louis, MO (United States); Muccigross, David; Hildebolt, Charles F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gao, Fabao [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Curci, John [Washington University School of Medicine, The Department of Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in the diabetic foot based on the concept of angiosomes of the foot. Five healthy volunteers and five participants with diabetes (HbA1c = 7.2 ± 1.8 %) without a history of peripheral artery disease were examined. The non-contrast perfusion measurements were performed during a toe flexion challenge. Absolute perfusion maps were created and two regions (medial and lateral) on the maps were segmented based on angiosomes. Regional difference in the perfusion of foot muscle was readily visualized in the MRI perfusion angiosomes during the challenge. In the participants with diabetes, the perfusion during toe flexion challenge was significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). The average perfusion for the medial plantar region of the right foot was lower in subjects with diabetes (38 ± 9 ml/min/100 g) than in healthy subjects (93 ± 33 ml/min/100 g). Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome maps demonstrate the feasibility of determining regional perfusion in foot muscles during toe challenge and may facilitate evaluation of muscle perfusion in diabetic feet. (orig.)

  5. Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome in diabetic feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jie; Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J.; Muccigross, David; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Gao, Fabao; Curci, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in the diabetic foot based on the concept of angiosomes of the foot. Five healthy volunteers and five participants with diabetes (HbA1c = 7.2 ± 1.8 %) without a history of peripheral artery disease were examined. The non-contrast perfusion measurements were performed during a toe flexion challenge. Absolute perfusion maps were created and two regions (medial and lateral) on the maps were segmented based on angiosomes. Regional difference in the perfusion of foot muscle was readily visualized in the MRI perfusion angiosomes during the challenge. In the participants with diabetes, the perfusion during toe flexion challenge was significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). The average perfusion for the medial plantar region of the right foot was lower in subjects with diabetes (38 ± 9 ml/min/100 g) than in healthy subjects (93 ± 33 ml/min/100 g). Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome maps demonstrate the feasibility of determining regional perfusion in foot muscles during toe challenge and may facilitate evaluation of muscle perfusion in diabetic feet. (orig.)

  6. Dual-energy perfusion-CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauß, M.; Stiller, W.; Pahn, G.; Fritz, F.; Kieser, M.; Werner, J.; Kauczor, H.U.; Grenacher, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT)-perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas for assessing the differences in perfusion, permeability and blood volume of healthy pancreatic tissue and histopathologically confirmed solid pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and methods: 24 patients with histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma were examined prospectively with a 64-slice dual source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 dual-energy (DE) acquisitions every 1.5 s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). 80 kV p , 140 kV p , and weighted average (linearly blended M0.3) 120 kV p -equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool (Body-PCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) for estimating perfusion, permeability, and blood volume values. Color-coded parameter maps were generated. Results: In all 24 patients dual-energy CT-perfusion was. All carcinomas could be identified in the color-coded perfusion maps. Calculated perfusion, permeability and blood volume values were significantly lower in pancreatic carcinomas compared to healthy pancreatic tissue. Weighted average 120 kV p -equivalent perfusion-, permeability- and blood volume-values determined from DE image data were 0.27 ± 0.04 min −1 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04 min −1 (p −1 vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 *0.5 min −1 (p = 0.06) and 0.49 ± 0.07 min −1 vs. 1.28 ± 0.11 min −1 (p p the standard deviations of the kV p 120 kV p -equivalent values were manifestly smaller. Conclusion: Dual-energy CT-perfusion of the pancreas is feasible. The use of DECT improves the accuracy of CT-perfusion of the pancreas by fully exploiting the advantages of enhanced iodine contrast at 80 kV p in combination with the noise reduction at 140 kV p . Therefore using dual-energy perfusion data could improve the delineation of pancreatic carcinomas

  7. In-vivo quantitative evaluation of perfusion zones and perfusion gradient in the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Michel; Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; Cheng, Angela; Mangum, Michael; Liang, Jinyang; Teotia, Sumeet; Livingston, Edward H.; Zuzak, Karel J.

    2013-03-01

    The selection of well-vascularized tissue during DIEP flap harvest remains controversial. While several studies have elucidated cross-midline perfusion, further characterization of perfusion to the ipsilateral hemiabdomen is necessary for minimizing rates of fat necrosis or partial fat necrosis in bilateral DIEP flaps. Eighteen patients (29 flaps) underwent DIEP flap harvest using a prospectively designed protocol. Perforators were marked and imaged with a novel system for quantitatively measuring tissue oxygenation, the Digital Light Hyperspectral Imager. Images were then analyzed to determine if perforator selection influenced ipsilateral flap perfusion. Flaps based on a single lateral row perforator (SLRP) were found to have a higher level of hemoglobin oxygenation in Zone I (mean %HbO2 = 76.1) compared to single medial row perforator (SMRP) flaps (%HbO2 = 71.6). Perfusion of Zone III relative to Zone I was similar between SLRP and SMRP flaps (97.4% vs. 97.9%, respectively). These differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Perfusion to the lateral edge of the flap was slightly greater for SLRP flaps compared SMRP flaps (92.1% vs. 89.5%, respectively). SMRP flaps had superior perfusion travelling inferiorly compared to SLRP flaps (88.8% vs. 83.9%, respectively). Overall, it was observed that flaps were better perfused in the lateral direction than inferiorly. Significant differences in perfusion gradients directed inferiorly or laterally were observed, and perforator selection influenced perfusion in the most distal or inferior aspects of the flap. This suggests broader clinical implications for flap design that merit further investigation.

  8. Perfusion vector - a new method to quantify myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images: a simulation study with validation in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minarik, David; Senneby, Martin; Wollmer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) largely relies on visual assessment by the physician of the localization and extent of a perfusion defect. The aim of this study was to introduce the concept of the perfusion vector as a new objective quantitative method...

  9. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...

  10. Fully automated motion correction in first-pass myocardial perfusion MR image sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milles, Julien; van der Geest, Rob J; Jerosch-Herold, Michael; Reiber, Johan H C; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a novel method for registration of cardiac perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The presented method is capable of automatically registering perfusion data, using independent component analysis (ICA) to extract physiologically relevant features together with their time-intensity behavior. A time-varying reference image mimicking intensity changes in the data of interest is computed based on the results of that ICA. This reference image is used in a two-pass registration framework. Qualitative and quantitative validation of the method is carried out using 46 clinical quality, short-axis, perfusion MR datasets comprising 100 images each. Despite varying image quality and motion patterns in the evaluation set, validation of the method showed a reduction of the average right ventricle (LV) motion from 1.26+/-0.87 to 0.64+/-0.46 pixels. Time-intensity curves are also improved after registration with an average error reduced from 2.65+/-7.89% to 0.87+/-3.88% between registered data and manual gold standard. Comparison of clinically relevant parameters computed using registered data and the manual gold standard show a good agreement. Additional tests with a simulated free-breathing protocol showed robustness against considerable deviations from a standard breathing protocol. We conclude that this fully automatic ICA-based method shows an accuracy, a robustness and a computation speed adequate for use in a clinical environment.

  11. The effect of the use of a TNF-alpha inhibitor in hypothermic machine perfusion on kidney function after transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diuwe, Piotr; Domagala, Piotr; Durlik, Magdalena; Trzebicki, Janusz; Chmura, Andrzej; Kwiatkowski, Artur

    2017-08-01

    One of the most important problems in transplantation medicine is the ischemia/reperfusion injury of the organs to be transplanted. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitor etanercept on the machine perfusion hypothermia of renal allograft kidney function and organ perfusion. No statistically significant differences were found in the impact of the applied intervention on kidney machine perfusion during which the average flow and vascular resistance were evaluated. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of delayed graft function (DGF). Fewer events in patients who received a kidney from the etanercept treated Group A compared to the patients who received a kidney from the control Group B were observed when comparing the functional DGF and occurrence of acute rejection episodes, however, there was no statistically significant difference. In summary, no effect of treatment with etanercept an inhibitor of TNF-alpha in a hypothermic machine perfusion on renal allograft renal survival and its perfusion were detected in this study. However, treatment of the isolated organ may be important for the future of transplantation medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion pump : Functional evaluation of a new machine perfusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A.; Maathuis, M. H. J.; Hart, N. A. 't; Bellekom, A. A.; Hofker, H. S.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Verkerke, G. J.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; Verdonck, P.; Ploeg, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.

    2006-01-01

    To improve preservation of donor livers, we have developed a portable hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system as an alternative for static cold storage. A prototype of the system was built and evaluated on functionality. Evaluation criteria included 24 h of adequate pressure controlled perfusion,

  13. Metabolism in the isolated rat heart: comparison of 125I-BMIPP with 125I-IPPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Cheng Aiping; Xu Lanwen; Qiao Weiwei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The fatty acid metabolism in myocardium is recently one of the most interesting subjects in nuclear cardiology. The purpose of this study was to clarify the metabolic fate of 125 I-labeled 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R, S)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid ( 125 I-BMIPP) and 15-(p-[ 125 I] iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid ( 125 I-IPPA) by means of isolated rat hearts. Methods: Ten isolated rat hearts were prepared and perfused with 125 I-BMIPP (5 rats) or 125 I-IPPA (5 rats) for 3 h following a basic perfusion of 30 min. After perfusion, the radioactivity in the recirculated buffer was measured. The metabolites in the buffer were then extracted and analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). Results: At the beginning (5 rain) of 125 I-BMIPP perfusion, the main radioactive peak appeared on HPLC at 37 min, which remained after 3 h perfusion. Several small peaks eluting were found before the parent peak at 30, 26, 21, 16, 12 and 9 min, respectively. At the beginning (5 min) of 125 I-IPPA perfusion, the main peak appeared on HPLC at 33 min, which disappeared after 3 h. Conclusions: 125 I-BMIPP strongly inhibited beta-oxidation, therefore appeared suitable for myocardial metabolic imaging. 125 I-IPPA was metabolized rapidly. (authors)

  14. Vicarious audiovisual learning in perfusion education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Thomas E; Holt, David W

    2010-12-01

    Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video.These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW stand-alone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today's perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important role in how we teach perfusion in the future, as simulation technology becomes more prevalent.

  15. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa))

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis.

  16. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis

  17. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  18. Variation in Perfusion Strategies for Neonatal and Infant Aortic Arch Repair: Contemporary Practice in the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David B; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Hill, Kevin; Wallace, Amelia S; Bateson, Brian; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2016-09-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used as an adjunct or alternative to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for neonates and infants undergoing aortic arch repair. Clinical studies have not demonstrated clear superiority of either strategy, and multicenter data regarding current use of these strategies are lacking. We sought to describe the variability in contemporary practice patterns for use of these techniques. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2010-2013) was queried to identify neonates and infants whose index operation involved aortic arch repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. Perfusion strategy was classified as isolated DHCA, RCP (with less than or equal to ten minutes of DHCA), or mixed (RCP with more than ten minutes of DHCA). Data were analyzed for the entire cohort and stratified by operation subgroups. Overall, 4,523 patients (105 centers) were identified; median age seven days (interquartile range: 5.0-13.0). The most prevalent perfusion strategy was RCP (43%). Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and mixed perfusion accounted for 32% and 16% of cases, respectively. In all, 59% of operations involved some period of RCP. Regional cerebral perfusion was the most prevalent perfusion strategy for each operation subgroup. Neither age nor weight was associated with perfusion strategy, but reoperations were less likely to use RCP (31% vs 45%, P RCP and DHCA in the RCP group was longer than the DHCA time in the DHCA group (45 vs 36 minutes, P neonates and infants. In contemporary practice, RCP is the most prevalent perfusion strategy for these procedures. Use of DHCA is also common. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain possible relative merits of the various perfusion techniques. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis in the perfusing liver of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borovikova, G.V.; Dokshina, G.A.; Ermakova, G.N.; Mashkova, N.Yu.

    1981-01-01

    It was shown on the perfusing liver taken from rats on the 1st and 3d days after irradiation in a dose of 18.06x10 -2 C/kg that insulin (400 μunits/ml) and taurine (40 mg%) exerted an inhibiting action on the rate of gluconeogenesi.s and transamination, catalyzed by alanine aminoferase and aspartate aminoferase, in a soluble fraction of the irradiated rat liver. The gluconeogenic capacity and the reactivity of the isolated organ were shown to decrease on the 3d day after irradiation [ru

  20. Effects of Scirpusin B, a polyphenol in passion fruit seeds, on the coronary circulation of the isolated perfused rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Matsumoto, Nozomi Gotoh, Shoko Sano, Kenkichi Sugiyama, Tatsuhiko Ito, Yohei Abe, Yumi Katano, Akira Ishihata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Piceatannol, a polyphenol which is contained in passion fruits seed, is a derivative of resveratrol and is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasorelaxing activities. Passion fruits seed also contains a dimer of Piceatannol, Scirpusin B. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Scirpusin B on the coronary circulation of the isolated rat heart. Methods: Hearts were isolated from male Fischer 344 rats (5 – 6 months old, and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 (37 °C at constant pressure (75 cmH2O by Langendorff’s method. Piceatannol or Scirpusin B (10, 30 and 100 μM was injected as a bolus into the aortic cannula and coronary flow (CF was continuously measured by the electromagnetic flow meter. In some experiments, rat hearts were pretreated with L-NAME (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase or Diclofenac (an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase to reveal the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO and vasodilating prostanoids in the effect of Scirpusin B. Results: Scirpusin B increased CF up to 108.2 % of the initial value, while Piceatannol did not increase CF. In addition; Scirpusin B increased CF concentration-dependently. Pretreatment with L-NAME or Diclofenac significantly attenuated the Scirpusin B-induced coronary vasodilatation. Scirpusin B did not change the heart rate either left ventricular pressure. Conclusion: This study shows that Scirpusin B could increase CF via production of NO and vasodilating prostanoids.

  1. Preparative isolation and purification of hainanmurpanin, meranzin, and phebalosin from leaves of Murraya exotica L. using supercritical fluid extraction combined with consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongwei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Xiaojing; Zou, Yong; Xu, Xinjun

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consecutive preparation method for the isolation and purification of hainanmurpanin, meranzin, and phebalosin from leaves of Murraya exotica L. The process involved supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 , solvent extraction, and two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Pressure, temperature, and the volume of entrainer were optimized as 27 MPa, 52°C, and 60 mL by response surface methodology in supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 , and the yield of the crude extracts was 7.91 g from 100 g of leaves. Subsequently, 80% methanol/water was used to extract and condense the three compounds from the crude extracts, and 4.23 g of methanol/water extracts was obtained. Then, a two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography procedure was developed for the isolation of the three target compounds from methanol/water extracts, including conventional high-speed countercurrent chromatography for further enrichment and consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography for purification. The yield of concentrates from high-speed countercurrent chromatography was 2.50 g from 4.23 g of methanol/water extracts. Finally, the consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography produced 103.2 mg of hainanmurpanin, 244.7 mg of meranzin, and 255.4 mg of phebalosin with purities up to 97.66, 99.36, and 98.64%, respectively, from 900 mg of high-speed countercurrent chromatography concentrates in one run of three consecutive sample loadings without exchanging a solvent system. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Characteristics of Brain Perfusion in Patients of Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Jae Woo; Kang, Young Kang

    2008-01-01

    It was well known that cerebral blood perfusion is normal or diffusely decreased in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Actually we interpreted brain perfusion SPECT images of PD patients in the clinical situation, we observed various cerebral perfusion patterns in patients with PD. So we performed brain perfusion SPECT to know the brain perfusion patterns of PD patients and the difference of perfusion patterns according to the sex and the age. Also we classified PD patients into small groups based on the brain perfusion pattern. Two hundred nineteen patients (M: 70, F: 149, mean age: 62.9±6.9 y/o) who were diagnosed as PD without dementia clinically and 55 patients (M: 15, F: 40, mean age: 61.4±9.2 y/o) as normal controls who had no past illness history were performed 99m Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and neuropsychological test. At first, we compared all patients with PD and normal controls. Brain perfusion in left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, left transverse temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left superior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right caudate tail were lower in patients with PD than normal controls. Secondly, we compared male and female patients with PD and normal controls, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT showed more decreased cerebral perfusion in left hemisphere than right side in both male and female patients compared to normal controls. And there was larger hypoperfusion area in female patients compared with male. Thirdly, we classified patients with PD and normal controls into 4 groups according to the age and compared brain perfusion respectively. In patient below fifties, brain perfusion in both occipitoparietal and left temporal lobe were lower in PD group. As the patients with PD grew older, hypoperfusion area were shown in both frontal, temporal and limbic lobes. Fourthly, We were able to divide patients into small groups based on cerebral perfusion pattern. There was normal cerebral blood

  3. Functional improvement after carotid endarterectomy: demonstrated by gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. E.; Yoo, J. Y.; Kim, D. G.; Moon, D. H.

    2005-01-01

    Scientific documentation of neurologic improvement following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) has not been established. The purpose of this prospective study is to investigate whether CEA performed for the internal carotid artery flow lesion improves gait and cerebrovascular hemodynamic status in patients with gait disturbance. We prospectively performed pre- and postCEA gait analysis and acetazolamide stress brain perfusion SPECT (Acz-SPECT) with Tc-99m ECD in 91 patients (M/F: 81/10, mean age: 64.1 y) who had gait disturbance before receiving CEA. Gait performance was assessed using a Vicon 370 motion analyzer. The gait improvement after CEA was correlated to cerebrovascular hemodynamic change as well as symptom duration. 12 hemiparetic stroke patients (M/F=9/3, mean age: 51 y) who did not receive CEA as a control underwent gait analysis twice in a week interval to evaluate whether repeat testing of gait performance shows learning effect. Of 91 patients, 73 (80%) patients showed gait improvement (change of gait speed > 10%) and 42 (46%) showed marked improvement (change of gait speed > 20%), but no improvement was observed in control group at repeat test. Post-operative cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement was noted in 49 (54%) of 91 patients. There was marked gait improvement in patients group with cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement compared to no change group (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement and cerebrovascular hemodynamic improvement were noted in 53% and 61% of the patient who had less than 3 month history of symptom compared to 31% and 24% of the patients who had longer than 3 months, respectively (p<0.05). Marked gait improvement was obtained in patients who had improvement of cerebrovascular hemodynamic status on Acz-SPECT after CEA. These results suggest functional improvement such as gait can result from the improved perfusion of misery perfusion area, which is viable for a longer period compared to literatures previously reported

  4. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  5. Calcium-sensitivity of smooth muscle contraction in the isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sensitivity of smooth muscle contraction were studied in the isolated perfused rat tail artery, employing the activators noradrenaline (NA) (3ìM) sand potassium chloride (KC1) (100mM). Experiments were conduced in Ca2+ - buffered saline.

  6. Optimized isolation enables Ex vivo analysis of microglia from various central nervous system regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Alexander H.; Boddeke, Hendricus W. G. M.; Brouwer, Nieske; Biber, Knut

    2007-01-01

    Ex vivo analysis is an accurate and convenient way to study in vivo microglia phenotype and function. However, current microglia isolation protocols for ex vivo analysis show many differences in isolation steps (perfusion, removal of meninges and blood vessels, mechanical dissociation, enzymatic

  7. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S.; Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    1996-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p 0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  8. Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowski, B.; Haenggi, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Beck, A.; Aurich, V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The development of a computerized method which allows a direct quantitative comparison of perfusion parameters. The display should allow a clear direct comparison of brain perfusion parameters in different vascular territories and over the course of time. The analysis is intended to be the basis for further evaluation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The method should permit early diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm. Materials and Methods: The Angiotux 2D-ECCET software was developed with a close cooperation between computer scientists and clinicians. Starting from parameter images of brain perfusion, the cortex was marked, segmented and assigned to definite vascular territories. The underlying values were averages for each segment and were displayed in a graph. If a follow-up was available, the mean values of the perfusion parameters were displayed in relation to time. The method was developed under consideration of CT perfusion values but is applicable for other methods of perfusion imaging. Results: Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images allows an immediate comparison of these parameters and follow-up of mean values in a clear and concise manner. Values are related to definite vascular territories. The tabular output facilitates further statistic evaluations. The computerized analysis is precisely reproducible, i. e., repetitions result in exactly the same output. (orig.)

  9. Cytoplasmic binding and disposition kinetics of diclofenac in the isolated perfused rat liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Kuhlmann, Olaf; Hung, Daniel Y; Roberts, Michael S

    2000-01-01

    The binding kinetics of diclofenac to hepatocellular structures were evaluated in the perfused rat liver using the multiple indicator dilution technique and a stochastic model of organ transit time density.The single-pass, in situ rat liver preparation was perfused with buffer solution (containing 2% albumin) at 30 ml min−1. Diclofenac and [14C]-sucrose (extracellular reference) were injected simultaneously as a bolus dose into the portal vein (six experiments in three rats). An analogous series of experiments was performed with [14C]-diclofenac and [3H]-sucrose.The diclofenac outflow data were analysed using three models of intracellular distribution kinetics, assuming (1) instantaneous distribution and binding (well-mixed model), (2) ‘slow' binding at specific intracellular sites after instantaneous distribution throughout the cytosol (slow binding model), and (3) ‘slowing' of cytoplasmic diffusion due to instantaneous binding (slow diffusion model).The slow binding model provided the best description of the data. The rate constants for cellular influx and sequestration were 0.126±0.026 and 0.013±0.009 s−1, respectively. The estimated ratio of cellular initial distribution volume to extracellular volume of 2.82 indicates an almost instantaneous distribution in the cellular water space, while the corresponding ratio of 5.54 estimated for the apparent tissue distribution volume suggests a relatively high hepatocellular binding. The non-instantaneous intracellular equilibration process was characterized by time constants of the binding and unbinding process of 53.8 and 49.5 s, respectively. The single-pass availability of diclofenac was 86%. The results obtained with [14C]-diclofenac and [3H]-sucrose were not statistically different. PMID:10903973

  10. Comparison with myocardial perfusion MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT in the diagnostic performance of coronary artery disease. A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Kunihiro; Kubota, Makoto; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic abilities of stress myocardial perfusion MRI (myocardial perfusion MRI) and myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a meta-analysis method. We investigated the diagnostic abilities of MRI and SPECT in similar subject groups in reports written in English or Japanese. The reports to be used for analysis were selected according to a ''screening standard,'' which was established in advance. After consolidating the data from the selected reports, we compared the integrated odds ratio, the point estimation values of sensibility/specificity, and the summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. For the analysis, six reports were selected (subjects: 153, coronary-artery target sites: 447). Meta-analysis revealed that the diagnostic ability of myocardial perfusion MRI was superior to that of myocardial perfusion SPECT regarding each of the parameters. This is considered to be supportive evidence of the usefulness of myocardial perfusion MRI. (author)

  11. Tc-99m DTPA perfusion scintigraphy and color coded duplex sonography in the evaluation of minimal renal allograft perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, H.J.; Platsch, G.; Wolf, F.; Guenter, E.; Becker, D.; Rupprecht, H.; Neumayer, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The clinical impact of perfusion scintigraphy versus color coded Duplex sonography was evaluated, with respect to their potential in assessing minimal allograft perfusion in vitally threatened kidney transplants, i.e. oligoanuric allografts suspected to have either severe rejection or thrombosis of the renal vein or artery. Methods: From July 1990 to August 1994 the grafts of 15 out of a total of 315 patients were vitally threatened. Technetium-99m DTPA scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography were performed in all patients. For scintigraphic evaluation of transplant perfusion analog scans up to 60 min postinjection, and time-activity curves over the first 60 sec after injection of 370-440 MBq Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate acid (DTPA) were used and classified by a perfusion score, the time between renal and iliac artery peaks (TDiff) and the washout of the renogram curve. Additionally, evaluation of excretion function and assessment of vascular or urinary leaks were performed. By color coded Duplex sonography the perfusion in all sections of the graft as well as the vascular anastomoses were examined and the maximal blood flow velocity (Vmax) and the resistive index (RI) in the renal artery were determined by means of the pulsed Doppler device. Pathologic-anatomical diagnosis was achieved by either biopsy or post-explant histology in all grafts. Results: Scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography could reliably differentiate minimal (8/15) and not perfused (7/15) renal allografts. The results were confirmed either by angiography in digital subtraction technique (DSA) or the clinical follow up. Conclusion: In summary, perfusion scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography are comparable modalities to assess kidney graft perfusion. In clinical practice scintigraphy and colorcoded Doppler sonography can replace digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of minimal allograft perfusion. (orig.) [de

  12. Water permeability of acinar cell membranes in the isolated perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward, M C; Seo, Y; Rawlings, J M; Case, R M

    1990-01-01

    1. The diffusive water permeability of epithelial cell membranes in the perfused rabbit mandibular salivary gland was measured at 37 degrees C by a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation method using an extracellular relaxation reagent, gadolinium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd(DTPA)). 2. In glands perfused with a HEPES-buffered solution containing 10 mmol l-1 Gd(DTPA), the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation of the water protons showed two exponential components. The water compartment responsible for the slower component corresponded in magnitude to 71 +/- 5% of the wet weight of the gland, and was attributed to the exchangeable intracellular water of the acinar cells. 3. The rate constant for water efflux from the cells was estimated to be 4.1 +/- 0.1 s-1 which would be consistent with a diffusive membrane permeability (Pd) of approximately 3 x 10(-3) cm s-1. Stimulation with acetylcholine (10(-6) mol l-1) did not cause any detectable change in membrane water permeability. 4. Since the basolateral membrane probably provides the main pathway for water efflux, the osmotic water permeability of this barrier (expressed per gland) was estimated to be less than 6.2 cm3 s-1. This would be insufficient to account for the generation of a near-isosmotic fluid at the flow rates observed during secretion, and suggests that a substantial fraction of the flow of water occurs via a paracellular route. PMID:1966053

  13. A pump-free microfluidic 3D perfusion platform for the efficient differentiation of human hepatocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Louis Jun Ye; Chong, Lor Huai; Jin, Lin; Singh, Pawan Kumar; Lee, Poh Seng; Yu, Hanry; Ananthanarayanan, Abhishek; Leo, Hwa Liang; Toh, Yi-Chin

    2017-10-01

    The practical application of microfluidic liver models for in vitro drug testing is partly hampered by their reliance on human primary hepatocytes, which are limited in number and have batch-to-batch variation. Human stem cell-derived hepatocytes offer an attractive alternative cell source, although their 3D differentiation and maturation in a microfluidic platform have not yet been demonstrated. We develop a pump-free microfluidic 3D perfusion platform to achieve long-term and efficient differentiation of human liver progenitor cells into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs). The device contains a micropillar array to immobilize cells three-dimensionally in a central cell culture compartment flanked by two side perfusion channels. Constant pump-free medium perfusion is accomplished by controlling the differential heights of horizontally orientated inlet and outlet media reservoirs. Computational fluid dynamic simulation is used to estimate the hydrostatic pressure heads required to achieve different perfusion flow rates, which are experimentally validated by micro-particle image velocimetry, as well as viability and functional assessments in a primary rat hepatocyte model. We perform on-chip differentiation of HepaRG, a human bipotent progenitor cell, and discover that 3D microperfusion greatly enhances the hepatocyte differentiation efficiency over static 2D and 3D cultures. However, HepaRG progenitor cells are highly sensitive to the time-point at which microperfusion is applied. Isolated HepaRG cells that are primed as static 3D spheroids before being subjected to microperfusion yield a significantly higher proportion of HLCs (92%) than direct microperfusion of isolated HepaRG cells (62%). This platform potentially offers a simple and efficient means to develop highly functional microfluidic liver models incorporating human stem cell-derived HLCs. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 2360-2370. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  15. Regional cortical hyper perfusion on perfusion CT during postical motor deficit: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Postictal neurologic deficit is a well-known complication mimicking the manifestation of a stroke. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Todd's paralysis correlating with reversible postictal parenchymal changes on perfusion CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In this case, perfusion CT and MR imaging were helpful in the differential diagnosis of stroke-mimicking conditions.

  16. Ventilation and perfusion display in a single image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.J.P. de; Botelho, M.F.R.; Pereira, A.M.S.; Rafael, J.A.S.; Pinto, A.J.; Marques, M.A.T.; Pereira, M.C.; Baganha, M.F.; Godinho, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of ventilation and perfusion display onto a single image is presented. From the data on regions of interest of the lungs, three-dimensional histograms are created, containing as parameters X and Y for the position of the pixels, Z for the perfusion and colour for local ventilation. The perfusion value is supplied by sets of curves having Z proportional to the local perfusion count rate. Ventilation modulates colour. Four perspective views of the histogram are simultaneously displayed to allow visualization of the entire organ. Information about the normal ranges for both ventilation and perfusion is also provided in the histograms. (orig.)

  17. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  18. Isolated Left Pulmonary Artery Agenesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansel Ansal Balcı

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral pulmonary artery agenesis without any cardiovascular malformation is a rare anomaly. We present the imaging findings of a patient who was diagnosed as isolated left pulmonary artery agenesis. A 27-year-old female patient was admitted to our hospital due to dyspnea during exercise for five years. Chest X-ray revealed minimally small left pulmonary hilum and left lung. She was admitted to our clinic with the suspicion of pulmonary artery pathology. Absent perfusion of the left lung with normal ventilation was visualized on scintigraphy. MDCT angiography of pulmonary arteries showed absent left main pulmonary artery with systemic collaterals around left hemithorax. Pulmonary artery agenesis can be asymptomatic and isolated until adulthood. Both scintigraphy and CT angiography images of pulmonary artery agenesis of a patient are rare in the literature. Pulmonary ventilation- perfusion scintigraphy can be used not only for pulmonary embolism but also pathologies involving pulmonary artery and its branches. (MIRT 2012;21:80-83

  19. CT perfusion of the liver during selective hepatic arteriography. Pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Shuji; Sawada, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma by using CT perfusion during selective hepatic arteriography. A total of 44 patients underwent liver CT perfusion study by injection of contrast medium via the hepatic artery. CT-perfusion parameters including arterial blood flow, arterial blood volume, and arterial mean transit time in the liver parenchyma and liver tumor were calculated using the deconvolution method. The CT-perfusion parameters and vascularity of the tumor were compared. A complete analysis could be performed in 36 of the 44 patients. For liver tumor and liver parenchyma, respectively, arterial blood flow was 184.6±132.7 and 41.0±27.0 ml/min/100 g, arterial blood volume was 19.4±14.6 and 4.8±4.2 ml/100 g, and arterial mean transit time was 8.9±4.2 and 10.2±5.3 sec. Arterial blood flow and arterial blood volume correlated significantly with the vascularity of the tumor; however no correlation was detected between arterial mean transit time and the vascularity of the tumor. This technique could be used to quantify pure hepatic arterial blood perfusion. (author)

  20. Quantitative perfusion imaging in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, F.G.; Gaa, T.; Zimmer, F.; Ong, M.M.; Riffel, P.; Hausmann, D.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Weis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recognized for its superior tissue contrast while being non-invasive and free of ionizing radiation. Due to the development of new scanner hardware and fast imaging techniques during the last decades, access to tissue and organ functions became possible. One of these functional imaging techniques is perfusion imaging with which tissue perfusion and capillary permeability can be determined from dynamic imaging data. Perfusion imaging by MRI can be performed by two approaches, arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. While the first method uses magnetically labelled water protons in arterial blood as an endogenous tracer, the latter involves the injection of a contrast agent, usually gadolinium (Gd), as a tracer for calculating hemodynamic parameters. Studies have demonstrated the potential of perfusion MRI for diagnostics and also for therapy monitoring. The utilization and application of perfusion MRI are still restricted to specialized centers, such as university hospitals. A broad application of the technique has not yet been implemented. The MRI perfusion technique is a valuable tool that might come broadly available after implementation of standards on European and international levels. Such efforts are being promoted by the respective professional bodies. (orig.) [de

  1. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Hiroyasu; Munechika, Hirotsugu [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-06-01

    Serial images of uterine leiomyoma in gradient-echo, echo-planar, magnetic resonance imaging were taken to draw a {delta}R2{sup *} curve after intravenous bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. The {delta}R2{sup *} integral was calculated from a {delta}R2{sup *} curve to have relative perfusion of uterine leiomyoma. We then, evaluated the amount of perfusion correlated with MR findings, size and number of leiomyoma or the clinical symptoms and established that perfusion was correlated positively with the findings of T2 weighted images and clinical symptoms but not with other MR findings or size and number of leiomyoma. In conclusion, we presumed that the clinical symptoms could be reduced by decreasing of an amount of perfusion of uterine leiomyoma in some means. However, it remained uncertain why severe clinical symptoms were associated with a high amount of perfusion in uterine leiomyomas. (author)

  2. Regional myocardial perfusion of cardioplegic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugene, J.; Lyons, K.P.; Ott, R.A.; Gelezunas, V.L.; Chang, C.W.; Kowall, M.G.; Haiduc, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    We compared the regional myocardial perfusion of blood cardioplegic solution (BCP) and crystalloid cardioplegic solution (CCP) in 14 mongrel dogs. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established at 28 degrees C, and a hydraulic occluder was placed around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. In group 1 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were ligated; in group 2 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were left in situ. After the aorta was clamped, BCP and CCP were alternately perfused at 200 ml/min. The occluder was inflated to produce moderate, severe, and critical LAD stenosis, and regional perfusion was measured by xenon-133 washout with the Silicon Avalanche Radiation Detector. BCP infusion produced a consistently higher aortic pressure, but CCP flow was better than BCP flow under all conditions, particularly without coronary collaterals. Regional myocardial perfusion of CCP is superior to BCP

  3. Consideration of Normal Variation of Perfusion Measurements in the Quantitative Analysis of Myocardial Perfusion SPECT: Usefulness in Assessment of Viable Myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lim, Il Han; Kim, Ki Bong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Although automatic quantification software of myocardial perfusion SPECT provides highly objective and reproducible quantitative measurements, there is still some limitation in the direct use of quantitative measurements. In this study we derived parameters using normal variation of perfusion measurements, and tried to test the usefulness of these parameters. In order to calculate normal variation of perfusion measurements on myocardial perfusion SPECT, 55 patients (M:F=28:27) of low-likelihood for coronary artery disease were enrolled and 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress SPECT studies were performed. Using 20-segment model, mean (m) and standard deviation (SD) of perfusion were calculated in each segment. As a myocardial viability assessment group, another 48 patients with known coronary artery disease, who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) were enrolled. 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress / 201 Tl 24-hr delayed SPECT was performed before CABG and SPECT was followed up 3 months after CABG. From the preoperative 24-hr delayed SPECT, Q delay (perfusion measurement), Δ delay (Q delay .m) and Z delay ((Q delay .m)/SD) were defined and diagnostic performances of them for myocardial viability were evaluated using area under curve (AUC) on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Segmental perfusion measurements showed considerable normal variations among segments. In men, the lowest segmental perfusion measurement was 51.8±6.5 and the highest segmental perfusion was 87.0±5.9, and they are 58.7±8.1 and 87.3±6.0, respectively in women. In the viability assessment, Q delay showed AUC of 0.633, while those for Δ delay and Z delay were 0.735 and 0.716, respectively. The AUCs of Δ delay and Z delay were significantly higher than that of Q delay (p=0.001 and 0.018, respectively). The diagnostic performance of Δ delay , which showed highest AUC, was 85% of sensitivity and 53% of specificity at the optimal cutoff of -24.7. On automatic

  4. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  5. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogami, M; Kulkarni, R; Wang, H; Reif, R; Wang, R K [University of Washington, Department of Bioengineering, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-08-31

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing. (laser biophotonics)

  6. Laser speckle contrast imaging of skin blood perfusion responses induced by laser coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogami, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Wang, H.; Reif, R.; Wang, R. K.

    2014-08-01

    We report application of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), i.e., a fast imaging technique utilising backscattered light to distinguish such moving objects as red blood cells from such stationary objects as surrounding tissue, to localise skin injury. This imaging technique provides detailed information about the acute perfusion response after a blood vessel is occluded. In this study, a mouse ear model is used and pulsed laser coagulation serves as the method of occlusion. We have found that the downstream blood vessels lacked blood flow due to occlusion at the target site immediately after injury. Relative flow changes in nearby collaterals and anastomotic vessels have been approximated based on differences in intensity in the nearby collaterals and anastomoses. We have also estimated the density of the affected downstream vessels. Laser speckle contrast imaging is shown to be used for highresolution and fast-speed imaging for the skin microvasculature. It also allows direct visualisation of the blood perfusion response to injury, which may provide novel insights to the field of cutaneous wound healing.

  7. Persufflation (or gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott, William E; Tempelman, Linda A; Taylor, Michael J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2012-06-01

    Improved preservation techniques have the potential to improve transplant outcomes by better maintaining donor organ quality and by making more organs available for allotransplantation. Persufflation, (PSF, gaseous oxygen perfusion) is potentially one such technique that has been studied for over a century in a variety of tissues, but has yet to gain wide acceptance for a number of reasons. A principal barrier is the perception that ex vivo PSF will cause in vivo embolization post-transplant. This review summarizes the extensive published work on heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas PSF, discusses the differences between anterograde and retrograde PSF, and between PSF and other conventional methods of organ preservation (static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion). Prospective implications of PSF within the broader field of organ transplantation, and in the specific application with pancreatic islet isolation and transplant are also discussed. Finally, key issues that need to be addressed before PSF becomes a more widely utilized preservation strategy are summarized and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [An automatic system controlled by microcontroller for carotid sinus perfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X L; Wang, M Y; Fan, Z Z; He, R R

    2001-08-01

    To establish a new method for controlling automatically the carotid perfusion pressure. A cheap practical automatic perfusion unit based on AT89C2051 micro controller was designed. The unit, LDB-M perfusion pump and the carotid sinus of an animal constituted an automatic perfusion system. This system was able to provide ramp and stepwise updown perfusion pattern and has been used in the research of baroreflex. It can insure the precision and reproducibility of perfusion pressure curve, and improve the technical level in corresponding medical field.

  9. Insulin degradation products from perfused rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, W.C.; Hamel, F.G.; Liepnieks, J.; Peavy, D.; Frank, B.; Rabkin, R.

    1989-01-01

    The kidney is a major site for insulin metabolism, but the enzymes involved and the products generated have not been established. To examine the products, we have perfused rat kidneys with insulin specifically iodinated on either the A14 or the B26 tyrosine. Labeled material from both the perfusate and kidney extract was examined by Sephadex G50 and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In perfusate from a filtering kidney, 22% of the insulin-sized material was not intact insulin on HPLC. With the nonfiltering kidney, 10.6% was not intact insulin. Labeled material from HPLC was sulfitolyzed and reinjected on HPLC. By use of 125 I-iodo(A14)-insulin, almost all the degradation products contained an intact A-chain. By use of 125 I-iodo(B26)-insulin, several different B-chain-cleaved products were obtained. The material extracted from the perfused kidney was different from perfusate products but similar to intracellular products from hepatocytes, suggesting that cellular metabolism by kidney and liver are similar. The major intracellular product had characteristics consistent with a cleavage between the B16 and B17 amino acids. This product and several of the perfusate products are also produced by insulin protease suggesting that this enzyme is involved in the degradation of insulin by kidney

  10. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass for open heart surgery in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Grønlykke, Lars; Risom, Emilie C

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Available evidence has been inconclusive on whether pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with decreased or increased mortality, pulmonary events, and serious adverse events (SAEs) after open heart surgery. To our knowledge, no previous systematic...... handsearched retrieved study reports and scanned citations of included studies and relevant reviews to ensure that no relevant trials were missed. We searched for ongoing trials and unpublished trials in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and at clinicaltrials......). We used GRADE principles to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included in this review four RCTs (210 participants) reporting relevant outcomes. Investigators randomly assigned participants to pulmonary artery perfusion with blood versus no perfusion during CPB. Only one trial included...

  11. Red blood cells augment transport of reactive metabolites of monocrotaline from liver to lung in isolated and tandem liver and lung preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, L.C.; Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J. (Department of Veterinary Pharmacology, University of California, Davis (United States))

    1991-09-01

    Monocrotaline (MCT) is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that causes pulmonary hypertension in rats by mechanisms which remain largely unknown. MCT is thought to be activated in the liver to a reactive intermediate that is transported to the lung where it causes endothelial injury. The authors previous pharmacokinetic work demonstrated significant sequestration of radioactivity in red blood cells (RBCs) of rats treated with (14C)MCT. To determine whether this RBC sequestration might be important in the transport of reactive MCT metabolites, they compared the effect of inclusion of RBCs in the perfusion buffer on the extent of covalent binding of (14C)MCT to rat lungs in tandem liver-lung preparations. The potential effect of RBCs in stabilizing reactive intermediates was evaluated by preperfusion of isolated liver preparations with (14C)MCT with and without RBCs, separation and washing of the RBC fraction, and subsequent (90 min later) perfusion of washed RBCs or buffer alone in isolated perfused lungs. Covalent binding to lung tissues was determined by exhaustive methanol/chloroform extractions of unbound label from homogenized lung tissue followed by scintillation counting of residual 14C. Covalent binding was expressed as picomole MCT molecular weight equivalents/mg protein. Comparison of the relative capability of these isolated organ preparations for conversion of MCT to polar metabolites was done by extraction and HPLC analysis of perfusate at the end of the experiment. Isolated livers converted 65-85% of MCT to polar metabolites compared with less than 5% conversion in the isolated lungs. Inclusion of RBCs in the buffer of tandem lung liver preparations perfused with 400 microM (14C)MCT increased the covalent binding to the lung from 97 {plus minus} 25 (buffer alone) to 182 {plus minus} 36 (buffer + RBC) pmol/mg protein.

  12. Red blood cells augment transport of reactive metabolites of monocrotaline from liver to lung in isolated and tandem liver and lung preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, L.C.; Lame, M.W.; Morin, D.; Wilson, D.W.; Segall, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    Monocrotaline (MCT) is a pyrrolizidine alkaloid that causes pulmonary hypertension in rats by mechanisms which remain largely unknown. MCT is thought to be activated in the liver to a reactive intermediate that is transported to the lung where it causes endothelial injury. The authors previous pharmacokinetic work demonstrated significant sequestration of radioactivity in red blood cells (RBCs) of rats treated with [14C]MCT. To determine whether this RBC sequestration might be important in the transport of reactive MCT metabolites, they compared the effect of inclusion of RBCs in the perfusion buffer on the extent of covalent binding of [14C]MCT to rat lungs in tandem liver-lung preparations. The potential effect of RBCs in stabilizing reactive intermediates was evaluated by preperfusion of isolated liver preparations with [14C]MCT with and without RBCs, separation and washing of the RBC fraction, and subsequent (90 min later) perfusion of washed RBCs or buffer alone in isolated perfused lungs. Covalent binding to lung tissues was determined by exhaustive methanol/chloroform extractions of unbound label from homogenized lung tissue followed by scintillation counting of residual 14C. Covalent binding was expressed as picomole MCT molecular weight equivalents/mg protein. Comparison of the relative capability of these isolated organ preparations for conversion of MCT to polar metabolites was done by extraction and HPLC analysis of perfusate at the end of the experiment. Isolated livers converted 65-85% of MCT to polar metabolites compared with less than 5% conversion in the isolated lungs. Inclusion of RBCs in the buffer of tandem lung liver preparations perfused with 400 microM [14C]MCT increased the covalent binding to the lung from 97 ± 25 (buffer alone) to 182 ± 36 (buffer + RBC) pmol/mg protein

  13. Value of chest X-ray combined with perfusion scan versus ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M. R.; Turkstra, F.; van Marwijk Kooy, M.; Oostdijk, A. H.; van Beek, E. J.; Büller, H. R.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of ventilation scanning, as adjunct to perfusion lung scintigraphy, in acute pulmonary embolism is to allow for the classification of segmental perfusion defects as mismatched, which is generally accepted as proof for the presence of pulmonary embolism. We examined whether this

  14. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - possibilities of diagnosing CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonevska, A.

    1998-01-01

    A reviewing the diagnostic methods used in the intricate process of evaluating CAD patients in a attempt to establish the role played by radionuclide methods in the diagnostic strategy is done. The perfusion cardiotropic radiopharmaceuticals used and the various methods of evaluating myocardial are discussed. Although 210 Tl-chloride is the most widely used myocardial perfusion agent, recently 99m Tc-MIBI is proposed as an alternative because of its advantages. Myocardial perfusion assessment is done by various techniques depending on the specific aim, each of them having its proper advantages and shortcomings. The inference is reached that regardless of the routine practical implementation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and comprehensive studies along this line in course, there are problems still not well enough clarified awaiting solution

  15. Goal-directed-perfusion in neonatal aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnjevar, Robert Anton; Purbojo, Ariawan; Muench, Frank; Juengert, Joerg; Rueffer, André

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of mortality and morbidity in congenital cardiac surgery has always been and remains a major target for the complete team involved. As operative techniques are more and more standardized and refined, surgical risk and associated complication rates have constantly been reduced to an acceptable level but are both still present. Aortic arch surgery in neonates seems to be of particular interest, because perfusion techniques differ widely among institutions and an ideal form of a so called "total body perfusion (TBP)" is somewhat difficult to achieve. Thus concepts of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), regional cerebral perfusion (RCP/with cardioplegic cardiac arrest or on the perfused beating heart) and TBP exist in parallel and all carry an individual risk for organ damage related to perfusion management, chosen core temperature and time on bypass. Patient safety relies more and more on adequate end organ perfusion on cardiopulmonary bypass, especially sensitive organs like the brain, heart, kidney, liver and the gut, whereby on adequate tissue protection, temperature management and oxygen delivery should be visualized and monitored.

  16. [Effect of glucocorticoides on the release of amino acids in the perfused rat hindquarter (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienhaus, R; Tharandt, L; Zais, U; Staib, W

    1975-06-01

    The release of amino acids by skeletal muscle was studied in the isolated perfused rat hindquarter. Adrenalectomy depressed the formation of glutamine and alanine as well as the efflux of all other amino acids measured. Betamethasone--a synthetic glucocorticoid--caused a significant increase in the efflux of nearly all amino acids up to the level of normal controls. The release of amino acids was also increased in perfused hindquarters of diabetic rats. On the other hand, insulin exhibited a depressing effect on the release of amino acids by hindquarters of normal rats. The metabolic integrity of the muscle tissue was proved by measuring creatine phosphate, ATP, ADP and water content as well as by the significant insulin effect on glucose uptake and on [14C]leucine incorporation into muscle proteins.

  17. Impairment of myocardial perfusion in children with sickle cell disease; Alteration de la perfusion myocardique chez l'enfant drepanocytaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury, C. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Acar, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital des Enfants, Service de Cardiologie Pediatrique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Montalembert, M. de [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Pediatrie Generale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    While brain, bone and spleen strokes are well documented in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), impairment of myocardial perfusion is an unknown complication. Non invasive techniques such as exercise testing and echocardiography have a low sensitivity to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with SCD. We have prospectively assessed myocardial perfusion with Tl-201 SPECT in 23 patients with SCD (10 female, 13 male, mean age 12 {+-} 5 years). Myocardial SPECT was performed after stress and 3 hours later after reinjection on a single head gamma camera equipped with a LEAP collimator (64 x 64 matrix size format, 30 projections over 180 deg C, 30 seconds per step). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography at rest on the same day. Myocardial perfusion was impaired in 14/23 patients: 9 reversible defects and 5 fixed defects. The left ventricular cavity was dilated in 14/23 patients. The mean LVEF was 63 {+-} 9%. There was no relationship between myocardial perfusion and left ventricular dilation or function. The frequent impairment of myocardial perfusion in children with SCD could lead to suggest a treatment with hydroxyurea, an improvement of perfusion can be noted with hydroxyurea. (author)

  18. Sodium addition and/or oxygen saturation of iohexol during normal and reduced perfusion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence on contractile force (CF) and the propensity for ventricular fibrillation (VF) from infusing the non-ionic contrast medium iohexol during normal (75 cm H 2 O) and reduced perfusion pressure (35 cm H 2 O) were investigated in the isolated rabbit heart. Both during normal and reduced perfusion pressure iohexol (150 mg I/ml) with oxygen saturation caused a smaller reduction of CF than iohexol without oxygen. During reduced pressure iohexol with sodium addition (28 mM NaCl) caused less depression of CF than iohexol without sodium. The combination of sodium addition and oxygen saturation had the least influence on CF. Iohexol (350 mg I/ml) without sodium had a similar fibrillatory propensity during both normal and reduced pressure. Enriching iohexol with 28 mM NaCl decreased the risk of VF. The decrease was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. The risk of VF from oxygen saturation of iohexol (350 mg I/ml, without sodium) was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. It is concluded that a small addition of sodium and/or oxygen saturation of a non-ionic monomeric contrast medium have beneficial effects on the heart both during normal perfusion pressure and during ischemia. (orig.)

  19. TU-A-9A-10: Verification of Photoacoustic Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging Using DCE-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A; Krutulis, M; Verleker, A; Stantz, K

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We propose to verify quantifiable perfusion information generated by a Photoacoustic Computed Tomography (PCT) scanner using Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced CT (DCE-CT), and to investigate physicsbased models of acoustic properties of tissue and photon transport to improve quantification. These corrections first necessitate a skin identifying algorithms to reduce speed-of-sound blurring and empirical photon correction methods. Methods: Xenograft mice (n=5) of breast cancer was imaged using DCE-CT which was followed by DCE-PCT. To obtain CT perfusion data, each mouse was i.v. injected (0.2mL Isovue @0.5mL/min) and subsequent radio-opaque time curves fit to a 2-compartmental model on a voxel-wise basis. For DCE-PCT, different concentrations of ICG (250, 125, and 62.5 micro-Molar) were injected at the same rate, but also acquired at different sampling rates (3, 6, and 12 seconds). The time intensity curves from PCT were fit to a 1-compartmental model on a voxel by voxel basis. The images were coregistered (Oncentra) based on the structural similarities of the tumor vasculature after which we compared both the contrastenhanced dynamics and the vascular physiology. Results: Moderate to high doses of ICG impact the washin phase of the PCT contrast due to photon losses as a function of depth. A semi-automatic algorithm has been developed to identify the skin margin, and subsequent MC and empirical models of photon transport and variations in speed-of-sound are being evaluated. Conclusion: From our results we find that there is a need to apply photon and speed-of-sound corrections to our PCT data to improve the quantifiable image data at depth in the tumor for PCT. The dose and injection rate may help in reducing large systematic effects. Our project is partially funded by a NIH SBIR grant

  20. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Ii, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation x 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current

  1. Gray matter perfusion correlates with disease severity in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Randall R; Schuff, Norbert; Miller, Robert G; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-03-09

    The goal of this study is to determine if regional brain perfusion, as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, is correlated with clinical measures of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease severity. The presence of such a relationship would indicate a possible role for ASL perfusion as a marker of disease severity and upper motor neuron involvement in ALS. Disease severity was assessed in 16 subjects with ALS (age 54 +/- 11) using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and the pulmonary function measure, forced vital capacity (FVC). Upper motor neuron involvement was assessed by testing rapid tapping of the fingers and feet. Magnetic resonance perfusion images were coregistered with structural T1-weighted MRI, corrected for partial volume effects using the structural images and normalized to a study-specific atlas. Correlations between perfusion and ALS disease severity were analyzed, using statistical parametric mapping, and including age as a factor. Analyses were adjusted for multiple clusters. ALS severity, as measured by the ALSFRS and FVC, was correlated with gray matter perfusion. This correlation was predominantly observed in the hemisphere contralateral to the more affected limbs. ALSFRS scores correlated with perfusion in the contralateral frontal and parietal lobe (p frontal lobe (p frontal lobe (p Upper motor neuron involvement, as measured by rapid finger tapping, correlated bilaterally with perfusion in the middle cingulate gyrus (p < 0.001). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) severity is correlated with brain perfusion as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. This correlation appears to be independent of brain atrophy. ASL perfusion may be a useful tool for monitoring disease progression and assessing treatment effects in ALS.

  2. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  3. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias E-mail: matthias.koenig@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2003-03-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be

  4. Perfusion MRI in CNS disease: current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Le-Huu, M.; Stieltjes, B.; Tengg, H. von; Weber, M.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Today there are several indications for cerebral perfusion MRI. The major indications routinely used in increasing numbers of imaging centers include cerebrovascular disease, tumor imaging and recently psychiatric disorders. Perfusion MRI is based on the injection of a gadolinium chelate and the rapid acquisition of images as the bolus of contrast agent passes through the blood vessels in the brain. The contrast agent causes a signal change; this signal change over time can be analysed to measure cerebral hemodynamics. The quality of brain perfusion studies is very dependent on the contrast agent used: a robust and strong signal decrease with a compact bolus is needed. MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA) is the first of a new class of paramagnetic MR contrast agents with a weak affinity for serum proteins. Due to the interaction of Gd-BOPTA with serum albumin, MultiHance presents with significantly higher T1- and T2-relaxivities enabling a sharper bolus profile. This article reviews the indications of perfusion MRI and the performance of MultiHance in MR perfusion of different diseases. Previous studies using perfusion MRI for a variety of purposes required the use of double dose of contrast agent to achieve a sufficiently large signal drop to enable the acquisition of a clear input function and the calculation of perfusion rCBV and rCBF maps of adequate quality. Recent studies with Multi-Hance suggest that only a single dose of this agent is needed to cause a signal drop of about 30% which is sufficient to allow the calculation of high quality rCBV and rCBF maps. (orig.)

  5. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...... of the involved RF pulses are taken into account. A small flow-independent off-set may be present in the data. The off-set is explained by the model. Based on the correspondence between the phantom and the in vivo models, it is shown that the lowest flow values that could be measured in the phantom correspond...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom....

  6. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I.K.; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, H

    2000-01-01

    Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...... of the involved RF pulses are taken into account. A small flow-independent off-set may be present in the data. The off-set is explained by the model. Based on the correspondence between the phantom and the in vivo models, it is shown that the lowest flow values that could be measured in the phantom correspond...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom...

  7. Influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Zi Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma. METHODS:Forty patients with primary open angle glaucoma from January 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were used as observation group and 40 families were used as control group. Circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in 24h were determined to obtain systolic ocular perfusion pressure(SOPP, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure(DOPPand mean ocular perfusion pressure(MOPP. Pearson linear correlation was used to analyze the correlation of circadian MOPP fluctuation with cup-disc ratio, mean defect(MDand the picture standard deviation(PSD. RESULTS:The fluctuation of MOPP, SOPP and DOPP of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group(Pr=-0.389, 95%CI:-0.612~-0.082; P=0.011, was positively correlated with PSD(r=0.512, 95%CI:0.139 ~0.782; P=0.008; no correlation was found between it and the vertical cup-disc ratio(r=0.115, 95%CI:0.056~0.369; P=0.355. CONCLUSION:Ocular perfusion pressure fluctuations in patients with primary open angle glaucoma may reflect the severity of the disease and may make the situation aggravating. Therefore through perfusion pressure monitor in 24h may help us understand the ocular blood flow and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  8. Meta-Analysis of Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Coronary Disease; Echocardiography; Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial; Hemodynamics; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Myocardial Perfusion Imaging; Perfusion; Predictive Value of Tests; Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Positron Emission Tomography; Multidetector Computed Tomography; Echocardiography, Stress; Coronary Angiography

  9. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Damiano; Eid, Marwen; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Jin, Kwang Nam; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Tesche, Christian; Mangold, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  10. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Latina (Italy); Eid, Marwen [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  11. Lung perfusion scintigraphy by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takanobu

    1990-01-01

    The initial study reports the characteristic performance using lung segmental phantom filled in Tc-99m pertechnetate. To evaluate the segmental defect in lung perfusion scintigraphy, we applied Bull's-eye analysis in addition to planar image set. Bull's-eye analysis especially facilitated the interpretation in both middle and lower lobes. Subsequently, to evolute the clinical application of Bull's-eye analysis, pulmonary scintigraphy was performed on 10 normal subjects and 60 patients with several pulmonary diseases. Of interest, Bull's-eye analysis, however, encouraged the interpretation in both lower lobes. To calculate the extention and severity of perfusion defect, the present study describes Bull's-eye analysis. Quantitative scoring showed higher in patients with lung cancer than those with pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study focus that Bull's-eye analysis can be useful for evaluating perfusion in patients with a couple of pulmonary diseases. (author)

  12. Reversible ventilation and perfusion abnormalities in unilateral obstructed lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.E.; Jones, R.L.; King, E.G.; Sproule, B.J.; Fortune, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    An intraluminal carcinoid tumor obstructing the left mainstem bronchus produced hypoxemia through alteration in ventilation/perfusion matching. Studies of regional lung function using 133-xenon (/sup 133/Xe) and a multiprobe computerized instrumentation system documented a reduction of perfusion to 22 percent and ventilation to 6 percent of the total. There was negligible washout of intravenously injected /sup 133/Xe from the left lung consistent with air trapping. Four days after left mainstem bronchial sleeve resection, perfusion, ventilation and washout of injected xenon had significantly improved and by four months postresection, all measurements were virtually normal, although complete restoration of perfusion in relation to ventilation was delayed. Regional lung function studied with a multiprobe system in this patient provided a clinical model for the study of ventilation and perfusion inter-relationships in large airway obstruction and demonstrated that a prolonged time may be required for return of perfusion to normal

  13. Differences in cerebral perfusion deficits in mild traumatic brain injury and depression using single photon emission computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer eRomero

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have shown decreased perfusion in the prefrontal cortex following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. However, similar hypoperfusion can also be observed in depression. Given the high prevalence of depressive symptoms following mTBI, it is unclear to what extent depression influences hypoperfusion in TBI.Methods: Mild TBI patients without depressive symptoms (mTBI-noD, n = 39, TBI patients with depressive symptoms (mTBI-D, n = 13, and 15 patients with major depressive disorder, but no TBI (MDD were given 99-m T-ECD SPECT scans within 2 weeks of injury. All subjects completed tests of information processing speed, complex attention, and executive functioning, and a self-report questionnaire measuring symptoms of psychological distress. Between group comparisons of quantified SPECT perfusion were undertaken, using univariate and multivariate (partial least squares analyses.Results: mTBI-D and mTBI-noD groups did not differ in terms of cerebral perfusion. However, patients with MDD showed hypoperfusion in several frontal (orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and superior frontal cortex, superior temporal, and posterior cingulate regions. The mTBI-D group showed poorer performance on a measure of complex attention and working memory, compared to both the mTBI-noD and MDD groups.Conclusions: These results suggest that depressive symptoms do not affect SPECT perfusion in the sub-acute phase following a mild TBI. Conversely, MDD is associated with hypoperfusion primarily in frontal regions.

  14. Differences in cerebral perfusion deficits in mild traumatic brain injury and depression using single-photon emission computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Kristoffer; Black, Sandra E; Feinstein, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown decreased perfusion in the prefrontal cortex following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). However, similar hypoperfusion can also be observed in depression. Given the high prevalence of depressive symptoms following mTBI, it is unclear to what extent depression influences hypoperfusion in TBI. Mild TBI patients without depressive symptoms (mTBI-noD, n = 39), TBI patients with depressive symptoms (mTBI-D, n = 13), and 15 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), but no TBI were given 99m T-ECD single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans within 2 weeks of injury. All subjects completed tests of information processing speed, complex attention, and executive functioning, and a self-report questionnaire measuring symptoms of psychological distress. Between-group comparisons of quantified SPECT perfusion were undertaken using univariate and multivariate (partial least squares) analyses. mTBI-D and mTBI-noD groups did not differ in terms of cerebral perfusion. However, patients with MDD showed hypoperfusion compared to both TBI groups in several frontal (orbitofrontal, middle frontal, and superior frontal cortex), superior temporal, and posterior cingulate regions. The mTBI-D group showed poorer performance on a measure of complex attention and working memory compared to both the mTBI-noD and MDD groups. These results suggest that depressive symptoms do not affect SPECT perfusion in the sub-acute phase following a mild TBI. Conversely, MDD is associated with hypoperfusion primarily in frontal regions.

  15. Characteristics of Brain Perfusion in Patients of Parkinson's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Jae Woo; Kang, Young Kang [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    It was well known that cerebral blood perfusion is normal or diffusely decreased in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Actually we interpreted brain perfusion SPECT images of PD patients in the clinical situation, we observed various cerebral perfusion patterns in patients with PD. So we performed brain perfusion SPECT to know the brain perfusion patterns of PD patients and the difference of perfusion patterns according to the sex and the age. Also we classified PD patients into small groups based on the brain perfusion pattern. Two hundred nineteen patients (M: 70, F: 149, mean age: 62.9{+-}6.9 y/o) who were diagnosed as PD without dementia clinically and 55 patients (M: 15, F: 40, mean age: 61.4{+-}9.2 y/o) as normal controls who had no past illness history were performed {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and neuropsychological test. At first, we compared all patients with PD and normal controls. Brain perfusion in left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, left transverse temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left superior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right caudate tail were lower in patients with PD than normal controls. Secondly, we compared male and female patients with PD and normal controls, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT showed more decreased cerebral perfusion in left hemisphere than right side in both male and female patients compared to normal controls. And there was larger hypoperfusion area in female patients compared with male. Thirdly, we classified patients with PD and normal controls into 4 groups according to the age and compared brain perfusion respectively. In patient below fifties, brain perfusion in both occipitoparietal and left temporal lobe were lower in PD group. As the patients with PD grew older, hypoperfusion area were shown in both frontal, temporal and limbic lobes. Fourthly, We were able to divide patients into small groups based on cerebral perfusion pattern. There was normal

  16. CT Perfusion Characteristics Identify Metastatic Sites in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue perfusion plays a critical role in oncology because growth and migration of cancerous cells require proliferation of new blood vessels through the process of tumor angiogenesis. Computed tomography (CT perfusion is an emerging functional imaging modality that measures tissue perfusion through dynamic CT scanning following intravenous administration of contrast medium. This noninvasive technique provides a quantitative basis for assessing tumor angiogenesis. CT perfusion has been utilized on a variety of organs including lung, prostate, liver, and brain, with promising results in cancer diagnosis, disease prognostication, prediction, and treatment monitoring. In this paper, we focus on assessing the extent to which CT perfusion characteristics can be used to discriminate liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors from normal liver tissues. The neuroendocrine liver metastases were analyzed by distributed parameter modeling to yield tissue blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, permeability (PS, and hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, for tumor and normal liver. The result reveals the potential of CT perfusion as a tool for constructing biomarkers from features of the hepatic vasculature for guiding cancer detection, prognostication, and treatment selection.

  17. Selective Heart, Brain and Body Perfusion in Open Aortic Arch Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Sven; Kari, Fabian; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-09-01

    Open aortic arch replacement is a complex and challenging procedure, especially in post dissection aneurysms and in redo procedures after previous surgery of the ascending aorta or aortic root. We report our experience with the simultaneous selective perfusion of heart, brain, and remaining body to ensure optimal perfusion and to minimize perfusion-related risks during these procedures. We used a specially configured heart-lung machine with a centrifugal pump as arterial pump and an additional roller pump for the selective cerebral perfusion. Initial arterial cannulation is achieved via femoral artery or right axillary artery. After lower body circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for the distal arch anastomosis, we started selective lower body perfusion simultaneously to the selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and heart perfusion. Eighteen patients were successfully treated with this perfusion strategy from October 2012 to November 2015. No complications related to the heart-lung machine and the cannulation occurred during the procedures. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 239 ± 33 minutes, the simultaneous selective perfusion of brain, heart, and remaining body lasted 55 ± 23 minutes. One patient suffered temporary neurological deficit that resolved completely during intensive care unit stay. No patient experienced a permanent neurological deficit or end-organ dysfunction. These high-risk procedures require a concept with a special setup of the heart-lung machine. Our perfusion strategy for aortic arch replacement ensures a selective perfusion of heart, brain, and lower body during this complex procedure and we observed excellent outcomes in this small series. This perfusion strategy is also applicable for redo procedures.

  18. Reduced perfusion in Broca's area in developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Huo, Yuankai; Wang, Zhishun; Bansal, Ravi; Williams, Steven C R; Lythgoe, David; Zelaya, Fernando O; Peterson, Bradley S

    2017-04-01

    To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups. We detected lower regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) at rest in the stuttering group compared with healthy controls in Broca's area bilaterally and the superior frontal gyrus. rCBF values in Broca's area bilaterally correlated inversely with the severity of stuttering and extended posteriorly into other portions of the language loop. We also found increased rCBF in cerebellar nuclei and parietal cortex in the stuttering group compared with healthy controls. Findings were unchanged in child-only analyses and when excluding participants with comorbid illnesses or those taking medication. rCBF is reduced in Broca's region in persons who stutter. More severe stuttering is associated with even greater reductions in rCBF to Broca's region, additive to the underlying putative trait reduction in rCBF relative to control values. Moreover, a greater abnormality in rCBF in the posterior language loop is associated with more severe symptoms, suggesting that a common pathophysiology throughout the language loop likely contributes to stuttering severity. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1865-1874, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Accuracy and feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR imaging in the assessment of lung perfusion: comparison with Tc-99 MAA perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Akkoclu, A.; Degirmenci, B.; Cooper, R.A.; Sengun, B.; Gulcu, A.; Osma, E.; Ucan, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to correlate findings of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion scintigraphy in cases where there was a suspicion of abnormal pulmonary vasculature, and to evaluate the usefulness of MRI in the detection of perfusion deficits of the lung. METHODS: In all, 17 patients with suspected abnormality of the pulmonary vasculature underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. T1-weighted 3D fast-field echo pulse sequences were obtained (TR/TE 3.3/1.58 ms; flip angle 30 deg ; slice thickness 12 to 15 mm). The dynamic study was acquired in the coronal plane following administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine. A total of 8 to 10 sections repeated 20 to 25 times at intervals of 1 s were performed. Perfusion lung scintigraphy was carried out a maximum of 48 h before the MR examination in all cases. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the clinical data and results of other imaging methods, reviewed all coronal sections. MR perfusion images were independently assessed in terms of segmental or lobar perfusion defects in the 85 lobes of the 17 individuals, and the findings were compared with the results of scintigraphy. RESULTS: Of the 17 patients, 8 were found to have pulmonary emboli, 2 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with emphysema, 2 bullous emphysema, 2 Takayasu arteritis and 1 had a hypoplastic pulmonary artery. Pulmonary perfusion was completely normal in 2 cases. In 35 lobes, perfusion defects were detected using both methods, in 4 with MR alone and in 9 only with scintigraphy. There was good agreement between MRI and scintigraphy findings (kappa=0.695). CONCLUSION: Pulmonary perfusion MRI is a new alternative to scintigraphy in the evaluation of pulmonary perfusion for various lung disorders. In addition, this technique allows measurement and quantification of pulmonary perfusion abnormalities

  20. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, A.N.; Valle, V.M.; Montoya, M.J.; Eskenazi, E.S.; Montiel, M.L.; Cueto, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  1. Reduced Perfusion in Broca’s Area in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Huo, Yuankai; Wang, Zhishun; Bansal, Ravi; Williams, Steven C. R.; Lythgoe, David; Zelaya, Fernando O.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study resting cerebral blood flow in children and adults with developmental stuttering. Methods We acquired pulsed arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging data in 26 participants with stuttering and 36 healthy, fluent controls. While covarying for age, sex, and IQ, we compared perfusion values voxel-wise across diagnostic groups and assessed correlations of perfusion with stuttering severity within the stuttering group and with measures of motor speed in both groups. Results We detected lower regional Cerebral Blood Flow (rCBF) at rest in the stuttering group compared to healthy controls in Broca’s area bilaterally and the superior frontal gyrus. rCBF values in Broca’s area bilaterally correlated inversely with the severity of stuttering and extended posteriorly into other portions of the language loop. We also found increased rCBF in cerebellar nuclei and parietal cortex in the stuttering group compared to healthy controls. Findings were unchanged in child-only analyses and when excluding participants with comorbid illnesses or those taking medication. Conclusions rCBF is reduced in Broca’s region in persons who stutter. More severe stuttering is associated with even greater reductions in rCBF to Broca’s region, additive to the underlying putative trait reduction in rCBF relative to control values. Moreover, a greater abnormality in rCBF in the posterior language loop is associated with more severe symptoms, suggesting that a common pathophysiology throughout the language loop likely contributes to stuttering severity. PMID:28035724

  2. Nuclear cardiology: Myocardial perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seldin, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion studies continue to be a major focus of research, with new investigations of the relationship of exercise-redistribution thallium imaging to diagnosis, prognosis, and case management. The redistribution phenomenon, which seemed to be fairly well understood a few years ago, is now recognized to be much more complex than originally thought, and various strategies have been proposed to clarify the meaning of persistent defects. Pharmacologic intervention with dipyridamole and adenosine has become available as an alternative to exercise, and comparisons with exercise imaging and catheterization results have been described. Thallium itself is no longer the sole single-photon perfusion radiopharmaceutical; two new technetium agents are now widely available. In addition to perfusion studies, advances in the study of ventricular function have been made, including reports of studies performed in conjunction with technetium perfusion studies, new insights into cardiac physiology, and the prognostic and case-management information that function studies provide. Finally, work has continued with monoclonal antibodies for the identification of areas of myocyte necrosis. 41 references

  3. MRI of pulmonary perfusion; MRT der Lungenperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Risse, F.; Semmler, W. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Kauczor, H.-U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Lung perfusion is a crucial prerequisite for effective gas exchange. Quantification of pulmonary perfusion is important for diagnostic considerations and treatment planning in various diseases of the lungs. Besides disorders of pulmonary vessels such as acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, these also include diseases of the respiratory tract and lung tissue as well as pulmonary tumors. This contribution presents the possibilities and technical requirements of MRI for diagnostic work-up of pulmonary perfusion. (orig.) [German] Die Perfusion der Lunge ist eine entscheidende Voraussetzung fuer einen effektiven Gasaustausch. Die Bestimmung der Lungenperfusion ist bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen der Lunge fuer Diagnostik und Therapieplanung bedeutsam. Hierzu zaehlen neben Erkrankungen der Lungengefaesse wie akute Lungenembolie und pulmonale Hypertension ebenso Erkrankungen der Atemwege, des Lungengeruests und Lungentumoren. In diesem Beitrag werden die Moeglichkeiten und technischen Voraussetzungen der MRT zur Diagnostik der Lungenperfusion dargestellt. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for perfusion quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, during bolus passage of a paramagnetic contrast agent, is used world-wide to obtain parameters that reflect the pathological state of tissue. Abnormal perfusion occurs in diseases such as stoke and tumour. Consequently, perfusion quantication could have signi cant...... clinical value both in diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies. One approach for perfusion quanti cation involves using the contrast mechanism that a ects the transverse relaxation rates of the magnetization, R2 or R 2 , since this provides the most pronounced effect. However, the linearity between...

  5. Treatment and prevention of serious complications after arterial perfusion chemotherapy of esophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaoyong; Song Taimin; Guo Hongqiang; Li Naxin; Ma Guizhen; Li Huizhi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cause of severe complications after arterial perfusion for esophageal cancer and the methods of prevention. Methods: 368 cases of esophageal cancer were treated with arterial perfusion of drugs for chemotherapy. The treatment numbers were 909 including 215 males and 153 females with the age ranging from 39 to 86. These patients were verified as esophageal cancers histopathologically. Selective angiography of the relevant esophageal segments and drugs for perfusion chemotherapy were undertaken. Results: The complications included one case of paralysis due to spinal cord injury, two cases with esophageal perforation and three cases of necrotic esophagitis. The case of paralysis died of original disease one month after the treatment. Of the cases of esophageal perforation, one formed the esophagus-trachea fistula and survived for eight months after being esophageal stent implantation and the other formed esophagus-mediastinum fistula and died of massive hemorrhage after six weeks. Three cases of necrotic esophagitis occurred at the normal segments of the esophagus and formed esophgeal perforation. Of these three cases, one formed esophago-bronchial fistula and survived up to now after creating drainage stoma of stomach. Two cases of the esophagus-mediastinum and esophagus-bronchus fistula died of severe infection. Conclusions: Severe complications of esophageal arterial catheterization with drugs for chemotherapy are rare. Less harmful, non-ionization contrast medium, low cellular toxicity drugs for chemotherapy with proper doses and concentrations should be selected together with optimal speed of infusion. Esophageal internal stent placement drainage stoma creation of stomach should be the useful adjunct for severe complications. (authors)

  6. Isolation of Flavonoids From Wild Aquilaria sinensis Leaves by an Improved Preparative High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mao-Xun; Liang, Yao-Guang; Chen, He-Ru; Huang, Yong-Fang; Gong, Hai-Guang; Zhang, Tian-You; Ito, Yoichiro

    2018-01-01

    Four flavonoids including apigenin-7,4'-dimethylether, genkwanin, quercetin, and kaempferol were isolated in a preparative or semi-preparative scale from the leaves of wild Aquilaria sinensis using an improved preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography apparatus. The separations were performed with a two-phase solvent system composed of hexane-ethyl acetate, methanol-water at suitable volume ratios. The obtained fractions were analyzed by HPLC, and the identification of each target compound was carried out by ESI-MS and NMR. The yields of the above four target flavonoids were 4.7, 10.0, 11.0 and 4.4%, respectively. All these four flavonoids exhibited nitrite scavenging activities with the clearance rate of 12.40 ± 0.20%, 5.84 ± 0.03%, 28.10 ± 0.17% and 5.19 ± 0.11%, respectively. Quercetin was originally isolated from the Thymelaeaceae family, while kaempferol was isolated from the Aquilaria genus for the first time. In cytotoxicity test these two flavonoids exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against HepG2 cells with the IC50 values of 12.54 ± 1.37 and 38.63 ± 4.05 μM, respectively. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Hill, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    SPECT with perfusion tracers is useful in a number of circumstances: (1) In acute cerebral infarction while the CT scan may be normal for several days after onset of symptoms, the uptake of SPECT perfusion tracers will be altered immediately after the onset of the stroke. Even when the CT scan has become abnormal, the physiologic abnormality may exceed the anatomic abnormality. One may, therefore be able to measure the extent of the reversibly ischemic tissue early enough to justify more agressive therapeutic interventions. (2) For endarterectomy and other surgical and medical therapies serial measurements of regional cerebral perfusion with SPECT may provide a readily available tool to assess their efficacy. (3) SPECT perfusion imaging may become the method of choice for the diagnosis and evaluation of Alzheimer's disease. (4) In patients with epilepsy, the extent and location of the abnormally perfused focus may be important to medical and surgical management. Follow-up examination may be useful in documenting the effectiveness of therapy

  8. Pathologic evaluation of normal and perfused term placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Mathiesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This study reports for the 1st time the incidence and interobserver variation of morphologic findings in a series of 34 term placentas from pregnancies with normal outcome used for perfusion studies. Histologic evaluation of placental tissue is challenging, especially when it comes to defining...... "normal tissue" versus "pathologic lesions." A scoring system for registration of abnormal morphologic findings was developed. Light microscopic examination was performed independently by 2 pathologists, and interobserver variation was analyzed. Findings in normal and perfused tissue were compared...... and selected findings were tested against success parameters from the perfusions. Finally, the criteria for frequent lesions with fair to poor interobserver variation in the nonperfused tissue were revised and reanalyzed. In the perfused tissue, the perfusion artefact "trophoblastic vacuolization," which...

  9. Development of an Extracorporeal Perfusion Device for Small Animal Free Flaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M Fichter

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal perfusion (ECP might prolong the vital storage capabilities of composite free flaps, potentially opening a wide range of clinical applications. Aim of the study was the development a validated low-cost extracorporeal perfusion model for further research in small animal free flaps.After establishing optimal perfusion settings, a specially designed extracorporeal perfusion system was evaluated during 8-hour perfusion of rat epigastric flaps followed by microvascular free flap transfer. Controls comprised sham-operation, ischemia and in vivo perfusion. Flaps and perfusate (diluted blood were closely monitored by blood gas analysis, combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy and Indocyanine-Green angiography. Evaluations were complemented by assessment of necrotic area and light microscopy at day 7.ECP was established and maintained for 8 hours with constant potassium and pH levels. Subsequent flap transfer was successful. Notably, the rate of necrosis of extracorporeally perfused flaps (27% was even lower than after in vivo perfusion (49%, although not statistically significant (P = 0,083. After sham-operation, only 6% of the total flap area became necrotic, while 8-hour ischemia led to total flap loss (98%. Angiographic and histological findings confirmed these observations.Vital storage capabilities of microvascular flaps can be prolonged by temporary ECP. Our study provides important insights on the pathophysiological processes during extracorporeal tissue perfusion and provides a validated small animal perfusion model for further studies.

  10. Isolation and purification of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii by enzymatic hydrolysis combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Xi, Xingjun; Wang, Mei; Fan, Li; Geng, Yanling; Wang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis pretreatment combined with high-speed counter-current chromatography for the transformation and isolation of arctigenin from Fructus Arctii was successfully developed. In the first step, the extract solution of Fructus Arctii was enzymatic hydrolyzed by β-glucosidase. The optimal hydrolysis conditions were 40°C, pH 5.0, 24 h of hydrolysis time, and 1.25 mg/mL β-glucosidase concentration. Under these conditions, the content of arctigenin was transformed from 2.60 to 12.59 mg/g. In the second step, arctigenin in the hydrolysis products was separated and purified by high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (10:25:15:20, v/v), and the fraction was analyzed by HPLC, ESI-MS, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Finally, 102 mg of arctigenin with a purity of 98.9% was obtained in a one-step separation from 200 mg of hydrolyzed sample. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Recep; Kantarci, Mecit; Genc, Berhan; Ogul, Hayri; Gundogdu, Betul; Yilmaz, Omer

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare life-threatening parasitic infection. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging has the potential to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about the tissue perfusion characteristics. The purpose of this study was the examination of the characteristic features and feasibility of CTP in AE liver lesions. Material and Methods: CTP scanning was performed in 25 patients who had a total of 35 lesions identified as AE of the liver. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), portal venous perfusion (PVP), arterial liver perfusion (ALP), and hepatic perfusion indexes (HPI) were computed for background liver parenchyma and each AE lesion. Results: Significant differences were detected between perfusion values of the AE lesions and background liver tissue. The BV, BF, ALP, and PVP values for all components of the AE liver lesions were significantly lower than the normal liver parenchyma (p<0.01). Conclusions: We suggest that perfusion imaging can be used in AE of the liver. Thus, the quantitative knowledge of perfusion parameters are obtained via CT perfusion imaging. PMID:29531482

  12. Patient satisfaction with coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, myocardial perfusion MRI, SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and conventional coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, S.; Rief, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Richter, F.; Roehle, R. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Schoenenberger, E. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate patient acceptance of noninvasive imaging tests for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), including single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI), stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coronary CT angiography (CTA) in combination with CT myocardial stress perfusion (CTP), and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Intraindividual comparison of perception of 48 patients from the CORE320 multicentre multinational study who underwent rest and stress SPECT-MPI with a technetium-based tracer, combined CTA and CTP (both with contrast agent, CTP with adenosine), MRI, and CCA. The analysis was performed by using a validated questionnaire. Patients had significantly more concern prior to CCA than before CTA/CTP (p < 0.001). CTA/CTP was also rated as more comfortable than SPECT-MPI (p = 0.001). Overall satisfaction with CT was superior to that of MRI (p = 0.007). More patients preferred CT (46 %; p < 0.001) as a future diagnostic test. Regarding combined CTA/CTP, CTP was characterised by higher pain levels and an increased frequency of angina pectoris during the examination (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a higher degree of pain during SPECT-MPI with adenosine stress compared to physical exercise (p = 0.016). All noninvasive cardiac imaging tests are well accepted by patients, with CT being the preferred examination. (orig.)

  13. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  14. Nifedipine and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahan, A.; Devaux, J.Y.; Amor, B.

    1986-01-01

    Heart disease in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis may be due in part to myocardial ischemia caused by a disturbance of the coronary microcirculation. To determine whether abnormalities of myocardial perfusion in this disorder are potentially reversible, we evaluated the effect of the coronary vasodilator nifedipine on myocardial perfusion assessed by thallium-201 scanning in 20 patients. Thallium-201 single-photon-emission computerized tomography was performed under control conditions and 90 minutes after 20 mg of oral nifedipine. The mean (+/- SD) number of left ventricular segments with perfusion defects decreased from 5.3 +/- 2.0 to 3.3 +/- 2.2 after nifedipine (P = 0.0003). Perfusion abnormalities were quantified by a perfusion score (0 to 2.0) assigned to each left ventricular segment and by a global perfusion score (0 to 18) for the entire left ventricle. The mean perfusion score in segments with resting defects increased from 0.97 +/- 0.24 to 1.26 +/- 0.44 after nifedipine (P less than 0.00001). The mean global perfusion score increased from 11.2 +/- 1.7 to 12.8 +/- 2.4 after nifedipine (P = 0.003). The global perfusion score increased by at least 2.0 in 10 patients and decreased by at least 2.0 in only 1. These observations reveal short-term improvement in thallium-201 myocardial perfusion with nifedipine in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. The results are consistent with a potentially reversible abnormality of coronary vasomotion in this disorder, but the long-term therapeutic effects of nifedipine remain to be determined

  15. Renal perfusion image using harmonic ultrasound with microbble contrast agent: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Jae Ho; Han, Dong Chul; Lee, Hi Bahl; Choi, Deuk Lin; Eun, Hyo Won; Lee, Hun Jae

    2003-01-01

    To compare, in terms of their feasibility and normal range, 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging and renal perfusion imaging using harmonic ultrasound (US) with a microbubble contrast agent for the evaluation of renal perfusion after renal transplantation. During a six-month period, thirty patients who had received a renal transplant underwent both 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging and renal perfusion imaging using harmonic US with a microbubble contrast agent. Sonographic renal perfusion images were obtained before and after a bolus injection of the microbubble contrast agent Levovist TM (SH U 5084; Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) every 3 seconds for 3 minutes. Sonographic renal perfusion images were converted into a renal perfusion curve by a computer program and T peak of the curve thus obtained was compared with that of the 99m Tc-DTPA curve. Average T peak of the 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion curve was 16.2 seconds in the normal group and 39.6 seconds in the delayed perfusion group, while average T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 23.7 seconds and 46.2 seconds, respectively. T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve showed a good correlation with that of the 99m Tc-DTPA curve (correlation coefficient=0.8209; p=0.0001). The cut-off value of T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 35 seconds (sensitivity=90%, specificity=95%). In patients who have received a renal transplant, the findings of renal perfusion imaging using harmonic US with a microbubble contrast agent show close correlation with those of 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging. The optimal cut-off value of T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 35 seconds

  16. Myocardial perfusion in type 2 diabetes with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Birger; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether acute angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition would improve myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve in a subpopulation of normotensive patients with diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), both independent risk factors of coronary...... disease. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated the response of regional myocardial perfusion to acute ACE inhibition with i.v. infusion of perindoprilat (vs saline infusion as control, minimum interval 3 days) in 12 diabetic patients with LVH. Myocardial perfusion was quantified...... with controls, maximal perfusion was reduced in patients (1.8+/-0.6 vs 2.5+/-1.0 ml min(-1) g(-1); P2.7+/-1.0 vs 3.6+/-1.3; P=0.059). During perindoprilat infusion, myocardial perfusion reserve in patients increased to 3.9+/-0.9 ( P

  17. A Unifying model of perfusion and motion applied to reconstruction of sparsely sampled free-breathing myocardial perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    The clinical potential of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is currently limited by respiratory induced motion of the heart. This paper presents a unifying model of perfusion and motion in which respiratory motion becomes an integral part of myocardial perfusion...... quantification. Hence, the need for tedious manual motion correction prior to perfusion quantification is avoided. In addition, we demonstrate that the proposed framework facilitates the process of reconstructing DCEMRI from sparsely sampled data in the presence of respiratory motion. The paper focuses primarily...... on the underlying theory of the proposed framework, but shows in vivo results of respiratory motion correction and simulation results of reconstructing sparsely sampled data....

  18. Use of radioactive glucosamine in the perfused rat liver to prepare α1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) with 3H- or 14C-labelled sialic acid and N-acetylglucosamine residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, N.N. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A method was developed whereby [1- 14 C]glucosamine was used in a perfused rat liver system to prepare over 2 mg of α 1 -acid glycoprotein with highly radioactive sialic acid and glucosamine residues. The liver secreted radioactive α 1 -acid glycoprotein over a 4-6 h period, and this glycoprotein was purified from the perfusate by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose at pH3.6. The sialic acid on the isolated glycoprotein had a specific radioactivity of 3.1 Ci/mol, whereas the glucosamine-specific radioactivity was 4.3 Ci/mole. The latter amino-sugar residues on the isolated protein were only 13-fold less radioactive than the initially added [1- 14 C]glucosamine. Orosomucoid with a specific radioactivity of 31.3 μCi/mg of protein was obtainable by using [6- 3 H]glucosamine. Many other radioactive glycoproteins were found to be secreted into the perfusate by the liver. Thus this experimental system should prove useful for obtaining other serum glycoproteins with highly radioactive sugar moieties. (author)

  19. The effect of dexmedetomidine on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in healthy piglets with normal and lowered blood pressure anaesthetized with propofol-remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Rasmussen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Background During anaesthesia and surgery, in particular neurosurgery, preservation of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation (CPO) is essential for normal postoperative brain function. The isolated effects on CPO of either individual anaesthetic drugs or entire anaesthetic protocols are of importance...

  20. Adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT and adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT for the assessment of acute chest pain: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weininger, Markus [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ramachandra, Ashok [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Fink, Christian [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany); Rowe, Garrett W.; Costello, Philip [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Henzler, Thomas [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Recent innovations in CT enable the evolution from mere morphologic imaging to dynamic and functional testing. We describe our initial experience performing myocardial stress perfusion CT in a clinical population with acute chest pain. Methods and materials: Myocardial stress perfusion CT was performed on twenty consecutive patients (15 men, 5 women; mean age 65 ± 8 years) who presented with acute chest pain and were clinically referred for stress/rest SPECT and cardiac MRI. Prior to CT each patient was randomly assigned either to Group A or to Group B in a consecutive order (10 patients per group). Group A underwent adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT using a novel “shuttle” mode on a 2nd generation dual-source CT. Group B underwent adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT using the same CT scanner in dual-energy mode. Two experienced observers visually analyzed all CT perfusion studies. CT findings were compared with MRI and SPECT. Results: In Group A 149/170 myocardial segments (88%) could be evaluated. Real-time perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 86% (84%) sensitivity, 98% (92%) specificity, 94% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (92%) negative predictive value in comparison with perfusion MRI for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. In Group B all myocardial segments were available for analysis. Compared with MRI, dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 93% (94%) sensitivity, 99% (98%) specificity, 92% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (94%) negative predictive value for detecting hypoperfused myocardial segments. Conclusion: Our results suggest the clinical feasibility of myocardial perfusion CT imaging in patients with acute chest pain. Compared to MRI and SPECT both, dynamic real-time perfusion CT and first-pass dual-energy perfusion CT showed good agreement for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects.

  1. Adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT and adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT for the assessment of acute chest pain: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, Markus; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Ramachandra, Ashok; Fink, Christian; Rowe, Garrett W.; Costello, Philip; Henzler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recent innovations in CT enable the evolution from mere morphologic imaging to dynamic and functional testing. We describe our initial experience performing myocardial stress perfusion CT in a clinical population with acute chest pain. Methods and materials: Myocardial stress perfusion CT was performed on twenty consecutive patients (15 men, 5 women; mean age 65 ± 8 years) who presented with acute chest pain and were clinically referred for stress/rest SPECT and cardiac MRI. Prior to CT each patient was randomly assigned either to Group A or to Group B in a consecutive order (10 patients per group). Group A underwent adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT using a novel “shuttle” mode on a 2nd generation dual-source CT. Group B underwent adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT using the same CT scanner in dual-energy mode. Two experienced observers visually analyzed all CT perfusion studies. CT findings were compared with MRI and SPECT. Results: In Group A 149/170 myocardial segments (88%) could be evaluated. Real-time perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 86% (84%) sensitivity, 98% (92%) specificity, 94% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (92%) negative predictive value in comparison with perfusion MRI for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. In Group B all myocardial segments were available for analysis. Compared with MRI, dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 93% (94%) sensitivity, 99% (98%) specificity, 92% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (94%) negative predictive value for detecting hypoperfused myocardial segments. Conclusion: Our results suggest the clinical feasibility of myocardial perfusion CT imaging in patients with acute chest pain. Compared to MRI and SPECT both, dynamic real-time perfusion CT and first-pass dual-energy perfusion CT showed good agreement for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects.

  2. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talakic, Emina; Schoellnast, Helmut; Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut; Stauber, Rudolf; Quehenberger, Franz

    2017-01-01

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p < 0.05) between SAF and HVPG, and -0.68 (p < 0.01) between HVPG and SCL. Using a cut-off value of 125 ml/min/100 ml for SCL, sensitivity for detection of a HVPG of ≥12 mmHg was 94%, and specificity 100%. There was no significant correlation between hepatic perfusion parameters and HVPG. CT perfusion in patients with cirrhosis showed a strong correlation between SCL and HVPG and may be used for detection of severe portal hypertension. (orig.)

  3. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talakic, Emina; Schoellnast, Helmut [Medical University of Graz, Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut [Medical University of Graz, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation Surgery, Graz (Austria); Stauber, Rudolf [Medical University of Graz, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastoenterology and Hepatology, Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, Franz [Medical University of Graz, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Graz (Austria)

    2017-10-15

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p < 0.05) between SAF and HVPG, and -0.68 (p < 0.01) between HVPG and SCL. Using a cut-off value of 125 ml/min/100 ml for SCL, sensitivity for detection of a HVPG of ≥12 mmHg was 94%, and specificity 100%. There was no significant correlation between hepatic perfusion parameters and HVPG. CT perfusion in patients with cirrhosis showed a strong correlation between SCL and HVPG and may be used for detection of severe portal hypertension. (orig.)

  4. Hemodynamic study on liver cirrhosis: clinical application of CT perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Li; Yang Jianyong; Xie Hongbo; Yang Xufeng; Yan Chaogui; Li Ziping; Zeng Fang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate hepatic perfusion parameters with helical CT, and to study the relationship between hepatic perfusion parameters and the severity of liver cirrhosis. Methods: Dynamic single-section computed tomography (CT) of the liver was performed in 40 participants, including 27 patients with liver cirrhosis and 13 patients without liver disease (control subjects). CT scans were obtained at a single level to include the liver, spleen, aorta, and portal vein. On each CT scan, the attenuation of these organs was measured in regions of interest to provide time-density curves. The arterial, portal venous, and total perfusion of the liver and the hepatic perfusion index were assessed. Results: In the control group, hepatic arterial perfusion, portal venous perfusion, and total hepatic perfusion were (0.2823 ± 0.0969) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , (1.1788 ± 0.4004) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , and (1.4563 ± 0.4439) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively. Hepatic perfusion index was (19.73 ±5.81)%. These hepatic perfusion parameters correlated significantly with the severity of liver cirrhosis. Hepatic arterial perfusion decreased in Child A and B cirrhotic patients [ (0.1685 ± 0.1068) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 and (0.1921 ± 0.0986) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively]. Comparing to Child A and B cirrhotic patients, hepatic arterial perfusion in Child C cirrhotic patients [(0.3072 · 0.1145) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 ] raised significantly. Portal venous perfusion decreased significantly in Child B and C cirrhotic patients [(0.6331±0.2070) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 and (0.5702 ± 0.3562) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively]. Total hepatic blood flow reduced markedly in Child B and C cirrhotic patients [(0.8252 ± 0.2952) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 and (0.8774 ± 0.4118) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively]. Hepatic perfusion index increased in Child C cirrhotic patients (37.48 ± 16.65)%. Conclusion: Dynamic single-section CT showed potential in quantifying hepatic perfusion parameters, and hepatic perfusion

  5. Static inflation attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in an isolated rat lung in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shang Jyh; Wang, David; Yeh, Diana Yu-Wung; Hsu, Kang; Hsu, Yung Hsiang; Chen, Hsing I

    2004-08-01

    Ischemia (I)/reperfusion (R) lung injury is an important clinical issue in lung transplantation. In the present study, we observed the effects of lung static inflation, different perfusates, and ventilatory gas with nitrogen or oxygen on the I/R-induced pulmonary damage. A total of 96 male Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The lung was isolated in situ. In an isolated lung, the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), lung weight gain (LWG), lung weight (LW)/body weight (BW) ratio, and protein concentration in BAL fluid (PCBAL) were measured or calculated to evaluate the degree of lung injury. Histologic examinations with hematoxylin-eosin staining were performed. I/R caused lung injury, as reflected by increases in Kfc, LWG, LW/BW, and PCBAL. The histopathologic picture revealed the presence of hyaline membrane formation and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. These values were significantly attenuated by static lung inflation. The I/R lung damage appeared to be less in the lung perfused with whole blood than in the lung perfused with an isotonic solution. Therapy with ventilatory air (ie, nitrogen or oxygen) did not alter the I/R lung damage. The data suggest that lung inflation is protective to I/R injury, irrespective of the type of ventilatory air used for treatment. The preservation of the lung for transplantation is better kept at a static inflation state and perfused with whole blood instead of an isotonic physiologic solution.

  6. Going skin deep: A direct comparison of penetration potential of lipid-based nanovesicles on the isolated perfused human skin flap model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-12-01

    Phospholipid-based nanocarriers are attractive drug carriers for improved local skin therapy. In the present study, the recently developed isolated perfused human skin flap (IPHSF) model was used to directly compare the skin penetration enhancing potential of the three commonly used nanocarriers, namely conventional liposomes (CLs), deformable liposomes (DLs) and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs). Two fluorescent markers, calcein (hydrophilic) or rhodamine (lipophilic), were incorporated individually in the three nanosystems. The nanocarrier size ranged between 200 and 300nm; the surface charge and entrapment efficiency for both markers were dependent on the lipid composition and the employed surfactant. Both carrier-associated markers could not penetrate the full thickness human skin, confirming their suitability for dermal drug delivery. CLs exhibited higher retention of both markers on the skin surface compared to DLs and SLNs, indicating a depo formation. DLs and SLNs enabled the deeper penetration of the two markers into the skin layers. In vitro and ex vivo skin penetration studies performed on the cellophane membrane and full thickness pig/human skin, respectively, confirmed the findings. In conclusion, efficient dermal drug delivery can be achieved by optimization of a lipid nanocarrier on the suitable skin-mimicking model to assure system's accumulation in the targeted skin layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A C; Calegaro, J U.M. [Fundacao Hospitalar do Distrito Federal, Distrito Federal (Brazil). Unidade de Medicina Nuclear

    1982-07-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized.

  8. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A.C.; Calegaro, J.U.M.

    1982-01-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized. (author) [es

  9. MR-based assessment of pulmonary ventilation-perfusion in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Wan Mingxi; Guo Youmin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To show the feasibility and value in the diagnosis of airway obstruction and pulmonary embolism with MR oxygen-enhanced ventilation combined with pulmonary perfusion imaging. Methods: Eight canines were implemented for peripheral pulmonary embolism by intravenous injection of gelfoam granules at pulmonary segmental arterial level, and five of them were formed airway obstruction models by inserting self-made balloon catheter at second-bronchia. The oxygen-enhanced MR ventilation imaging was introduced by subtracting the images of pre- and post- inhaled pure oxygen. The MR pulmonary perfusion imaging was achieved by the first-pass contrast agent method. Moreover, the manifestation of MR ventilation and perfusion imaging was observed and contradistinguished with that of general pathologic anatomy, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and pulmonary angiography. Results: The manifestations of airway obstruction regions in MR ventilation and perfusion imaging were matched, but those of pulmonary embolism regions were dismatched. The defect range of airway obstruction in MR ventilation image was smaller than that in ventilation scintigraphy. The abnormal perfusion regions of pulmonary embolism were divided into defect regions and reduce regions based on the time courses of signal intensity changes. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis on pulmonary embolism by MR ventilation combined with perfusion technique were 75.0% and 98.1%. The diagnostic results were in good coherence with ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography (K=0.743, 0.899). Conclusion: The MR oxygen-enhanced ventilation combined with pulmonary perfusion imaging can be used to diagnose the airway and vascular abnormity in lung. This technique resembles the ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. It can provide quantitative functional information and better spatial and temporal resolution, and possesses the value of clinical application

  10. Patient-specific coronary blood supply territories for quantitative perfusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkaroff, Constantine; Biglands, John D.; Greenwood, John P.; Plein, Sven; Boyle, Roger D.; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Magee, Derek R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Myocardial perfusion imaging, coupled with quantitative perfusion analysis, provides an important diagnostic tool for the identification of ischaemic heart disease caused by coronary stenoses. The accurate mapping between coronary anatomy and under-perfused areas of the myocardium is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, in the absence of the actual coronary anatomy during the reporting of perfusion images, areas of ischaemia are allocated to a coronary territory based on a population-derived 17-segment (American Heart Association) AHA model of coronary blood supply. This work presents a solution for the fusion of 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion images and 3D MR angiography data with the aim to improve the detection of ischaemic heart disease. The key contribution of this work is a novel method for the mediated spatiotemporal registration of perfusion and angiography data and a novel method for the calculation of patient-specific coronary supply territories. The registration method uses 4D cardiac MR cine series spanning the complete cardiac cycle in order to overcome the under-constrained nature of non-rigid slice-to-volume perfusion-to-angiography registration. This is achieved by separating out the deformable registration problem and solving it through phase-to-phase registration of the cine series. The use of patient-specific blood supply territories in quantitative perfusion analysis (instead of the population-based model of coronary blood supply) has the potential of increasing the accuracy of perfusion analysis. Quantitative perfusion analysis diagnostic accuracy evaluation with patient-specific territories against the AHA model demonstrates the value of the mediated spatiotemporal registration in the context of ischaemic heart disease diagnosis. PMID:29392098

  11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ventilation and Perfusion in the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, Gordon Kim (Inventor); Hopkins, Susan Roberta (Inventor); Buxton, Richard Bruce (Inventor); Pereira De Sa, Rui Carlos (Inventor); Theilmann, Rebecca Jean (Inventor); Cronin, Matthew Vincent (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods, devices, and systems are disclosed for implementing a fully quantitative non-injectable contrast proton MRI technique to measure spatial ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) matching and spatial distribution of ventilation and perfusion. In one aspect, a method using MRI to characterize ventilation and perfusion in a lung includes acquiring an MR image of the lung having MR data in a voxel and obtaining a breathing frequency parameter, determining a water density value, a specific ventilation value, and a perfusion value in at least one voxel of the MR image based on the MR data and using the water density value to determine an air content value, and determining a ventilation-perfusion ratio value that is the product of the specific ventilation value, the air content value, the inverse of the perfusion value, and the breathing frequency.

  12. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrison, W.W. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Department of Medical Education, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV (United States); Snyder, K.V.; Hopkins, L.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roach, C.J. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, E.N. [Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nazir, R. [Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hanson, E.H., E-mail: eric.hanson@amigenics.co [College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  13. Towards robust deconvolution of low-dose perfusion CT: Sparse perfusion deconvolution using online dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruogu; Chen, Tsuhan; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an important functional imaging modality in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases, particularly in acute stroke and vasospasm. However, the post-processed parametric maps of blood flow tend to be noisy, especially in low-dose CTP, due to the noisy contrast enhancement profile and the oscillatory nature of the results generated by the current computational methods. In this paper, we propose a robust sparse perfusion deconvolution method (SPD) to estimate cerebral blood flow in CTP performed at low radiation dose. We first build a dictionary from high-dose perfusion maps using online dictionary learning and then perform deconvolution-based hemodynamic parameters estimation on the low-dose CTP data. Our method is validated on clinical data of patients with normal and pathological CBF maps. The results show that we achieve superior performance than existing methods, and potentially improve the differentiation between normal and ischemic tissue in the brain. PMID:23542422

  14. Angiotensin extraction by trout tissues in vivo and metabolism by the perfused gill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.R.; Kullman, D.; Narkates, A.J.; Oparil, S.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma clearance and tissue accumulation of 125I-angiotensin I, [Asp1, Ile5]ANG I, and [14C]sucrose, an inert volume reference, were measured after a bolus injection into the dorsal aorta of rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Retention and metabolism of ANG I to angiotensin II (ANG II) and their constituent 1-4 peptide by the gill were examined using an isolated perfused arch preparation in which outflow from the respiratory and central filamental (venous) pathways was separated. Clearance of ANG I from plasma is multiexponential, reflecting dilution and tissue extraction. Liver, bile, gonads, corpuscles of Stannius, and white skeletal muscle accumulate more 125I than 14C; gill tissue accumulates less 125I than 14C. ANG I and II are retained by the perfused gill longer than the inert vascular marker sucrose, even though the distribution volumes of the former are less. The gill respiratory pathway converts ANG I to ANG II whereas the venous pathway metabolizes either ANG I or II to the 1-4 peptide and other metabolites. The gill respiratory pathway is in series with the systemic vasculature, has a large blood-cell contact area, and, like the mammalian lung, is ideally suited to activate ANG I. The gill venous pathway is in parallel with the systemic vasculature and removes ANG II from the circulation. During stress, elevated plasma catecholamines may reduce venous perfusion and thereby help maintain elevated circulating ANG II levels through reduced venous metabolism

  15. Isolation of Kupffer Cells and Hepatocytes from a Single Mouse Liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio-Vergara, Marcela; Tencerova, Michaela; Morgantini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Liver perfusion is a common technique used to isolate parenchymal and non-parenchymal liver cells for in vitro experiments. This method allows hepatic cells to be separated based on their size and weight, by centrifugation using a density gradient. To date, other methods allow the isolation of only...... one viable hepatic cellular fraction from a single mouse; either parenchymal (hepatocytes) or non-parenchymal cells (i.e., Kupffer cells or hepatic stellate cells). Here, we describe a method to isolate both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells from a single mouse liver, thereby providing the unique...... advantage of studying different liver cell types that have been isolated from the same organism....

  16. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul

    2010-01-01

    mlh(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success rate...

  17. Some processes of energy saving and expenditure occurring during ethanol perfusion in the isolated liver of fed rats; a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin Henri

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the isolated liver of fed rats, a 10 mM ethanol perfusion rapidly induced a rapid 25% decrease in the total ATP content, the new steady state resulting from both synthesis and consumption. The in situ rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis without activation of the respiration was increased by 27%, implying an increased energy demand. An attempt to identify the ethanol-induced ATP-consuming pathways was performed using 31P and 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Results Ethanol (i transiently increased sn-glycerol-3-phosphate formation whereas glycogenolysis was continuously maintained; (ii decreased the glycolytic ATP supply and (iii diminished the intracellular pH in a dose-dependent manner in a slight extend. Although the cytosolic oxidation of ethanol largely generated H+ (and NADH, intracellular pHi was maintained by (i the large and passive excretion of cellular acetic acid arising from ethanol oxidation (evidenced by exogenous acetate administration, without energetic cost or (ii proton extrusion via the Na+-HCO3- symport (implying the indirect activation of the Na+-K+-ATPase pump and thus an energy use, demonstrated during the addition of their specific inhibitors SITS and ouabaïn, respectively. Conclusion Various cellular mechanisms diminish the cytosolic concentration of H+ and NADH produced by ethanol oxidation, such as (i the large but transient contribution of the dihydroxyacetone phosphate / sn-glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle between cytosol and mitochondria, mainly implicated in the redox state and (ii the major participation of acetic acid in passive proton extrusion out of the cell. These processes are not ATP-consuming and the latter is a cellular way to save some energy. Their starting in conjunction with the increase in mitochondrial ATP synthesis in ethanol-perfused whole liver was however insufficient to alleviate either the inhibition of glycolytic ATP synthesis and/or the implication of Na+-HCO3- symport and

  18. PREPARATIVE ISOLATION AND PURIFICATION OF THREE GLYCINE-CONJUGATED CHOLIC ACIDS FROM PULVIS FELLIS SUIS BY HIGH-SPEED COUNTERCURRENT CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH ELSD DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    He, Jiao; Li, Jing; Sun, Wenji; Zhang, Tianyou; Ito, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Coupled with evaporative light scattering detection, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) method was developed for preparative isolation and purification of three glycine-conjugated cholic acids, glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDCA), glycohyodeoxycholic acid (GHDCA) and glycohyocholic acid (GHCA) from Pulvis Fellis Suis (Pig gallbladder bile) for the first time. The separation was performed with a two-phase solvent system consisted of chloroform-methanol-water-acetic acid (65:30:...

  19. Dual energy CT for the assessment of lung perfusion-Correlation to scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Sven F.; Becker, Christoph R.; Hacker, Marcus; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of dual energy CT in the assessment of pulmonary perfusion with reference to pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy. Thirteen patients received both dual energy CT (DECT) angiography (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Median time between scans was 3 days (range, 0-90). DECT perfusion maps were generated based on the spectral properties of iodine. Two blinded observes assessed DECT angiograms, perfusion maps and scintigrams for presence and location of perfusion defects. The results were compared by patient and by segment, and diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion imaging was calculated regarding scintigraphy as standard of reference. Diagnostic accuracy per patient showed 75% sensitivity, 80% specificity and a negative predictive value of 66%. Sensitivity per segment amounted to 83% with 99% specificity, with 93% negative predictive value. Peripheral parts of the lungs were not completely covered by the 80 kVp detector in 85% of patients. CTA identified corresponding emboli in 66% of patients with concordant perfusion defects in DECT and scintigraphy. Dual energy CT perfusion imaging is able to display pulmonary perfusion defects with good agreement to scintigraphic findings. DECT can provide a pulmonary CT angiogram, high-resolution morphology of the lung parenchyma and perfusion information in one single exam

  20. Dual energy CT for the assessment of lung perfusion-Correlation to scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Sven F.; Becker, Christoph R. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Johnson, Thorsten R.C. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany)], E-mail: thorsten.johnson@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2008-12-15

    Purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of dual energy CT in the assessment of pulmonary perfusion with reference to pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy. Thirteen patients received both dual energy CT (DECT) angiography (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Median time between scans was 3 days (range, 0-90). DECT perfusion maps were generated based on the spectral properties of iodine. Two blinded observes assessed DECT angiograms, perfusion maps and scintigrams for presence and location of perfusion defects. The results were compared by patient and by segment, and diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion imaging was calculated regarding scintigraphy as standard of reference. Diagnostic accuracy per patient showed 75% sensitivity, 80% specificity and a negative predictive value of 66%. Sensitivity per segment amounted to 83% with 99% specificity, with 93% negative predictive value. Peripheral parts of the lungs were not completely covered by the 80 kVp detector in 85% of patients. CTA identified corresponding emboli in 66% of patients with concordant perfusion defects in DECT and scintigraphy. Dual energy CT perfusion imaging is able to display pulmonary perfusion defects with good agreement to scintigraphic findings. DECT can provide a pulmonary CT angiogram, high-resolution morphology of the lung parenchyma and perfusion information in one single exam.

  1. Cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundley, Kshama; Chowdhury, D.; Lele, V.R.; Lele, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Twelve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients were studied by SPECT cerebral perfusion imaging 1 hour post injection of 15 mCi of 99m Tc-ECD under ideal conditions with a triple head gamma camera (Prism 3000 X P LEUHR), fanbeam collimators followed by Folstein Mini Mental Status Examination (FMMSE) and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) staging on the same day. All 12 patients were male, in the age range of 23-45 y (mean 31 y). The infected status was diagnosed by ELISA (10 patients) or Western blot (5 patients). The interval between diagnosis and imaging ranged from 1 month - 35 months (mean 15.3 months). Two patients were alcoholic and 2 were smokers. None of them had CNS disorder clinically. ADC staging and FMMSE could be performed in 4 patients. Two patients were normal (stage 0) and 2 were subclinical (stage 0.5) on ADC staging. FMMSE revealed normal or near normal status (mean score 35; maximum score 36). Cerebral perfusion images were interpreted simultaneously by 3 observers blind towards history and examination using semi-quantitative and quantitative methods by consensus. It revealed multiple areas of hypoperfusion, viz. temporal (11 patients (91 %), parietal 10 patients (83%), frontal 9 patients (75%, pre and post central gyrus 7 patients (58%), occipital 6 patients (50%) cingulate gyrus and cerebellum 5 patients (41%) and thalamic in 2 patients (16%). Hyper perfusion in caudate nuclei was noted in 10 patients (83%). The study reveals presence of multiple perfusion abnormalities on cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients who have normal/near normal mental status suggesting precedence of perfusion abnormality over clinically apparent mental deficit

  2. Automatic Detection of Myocardial Boundaries in MR Cardio Perfusion Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Luuk; Breeuwer, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases often result in reduced blood perfusion of the myocardium (MC). Recent advances in MR allow fast recordingof contrast enhanced myocardial perfusion scans. For perfusion analysis the myocardial boundaries must be traced. Currently this is done manually. In this paper a method

  3. Prevention of reperfusion lung injury by lidocaine in isolated rat lung ventilated with higher oxygen levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lidocaine, an antiarrhythmic drug has been shown to be effective against post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in heart. However, its effect on pulmonary reperfusion injury has not been investigated. AIMS: We investigated the effects of lidocaine on a postischaemic reperfused rat lung model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lungs were isolated and perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseilet buffer containing 4% bovine serum albumin, and ventilated with 95% oxygen mixed with 5% CO2. Lungs were subjected to ischaemia by stopping perfusion for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for 10 minutes. Ischaemia was induced in normothermic conditions. RESULTS: Postischaemic reperfusion caused significant (p < 0.0001 higher wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure compared to control lungs. Lidocaine, at a dose of 5mg/Kg b.w. was found to significantly (p < 0.0001 attenuate the increase in the wet-to-dry lung weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure and peak airway pressure observed in post-ischaemic lungs. CONCLUSION: Lidocaine is effective in preventing post-ischaemic reperfusion injury in isolated, perfused rat lung.

  4. The VGF-Derived Neuropeptide TLQP-21 Shows No Impact on Hormone Secretion in the Isolated Perfused Rat Pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte Bayer; Svendsen, B; Holst, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    investigated the impact of TLQP-21 on insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin secretion in the perfused rat pancreas. We found that administration of 5 and 50 nM TLQP-21 had no impact on pancreatic hormone secretion at 3.5 or 8 mM glucose levels. Increasing TLQP-21 (200 nM) and glucose concentration (3.5 and 16 m...

  5. [Myokard-Perfusions-SPECT. Myocardial perfusion SPECT - Update S1 guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Bengel, Frank; Burchert, Wolfgang; Dörr, Rolf; Hacker, Marcus; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Schäfers, Michael A; Schmidt, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Vom Dahl, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Rainer

    2017-08-14

    The S1 guideline for myocardial perfusion SPECT has been published by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and is valid until 2/2022. This paper is a short summary with comments on all chapters and subchapters wich were modified and amended.

  6. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  7. Perfusion CT in childhood stroke—Initial observations and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebedin, D., E-mail: doris.zebedin@medunigraz.at [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital LKH Graz (Austria); Sorantin, E.; Riccabona, M. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital LKH Graz (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: To report the preliminary results of contrast-enhanced perfusion multi-detector CT for diagnoses of perfusion disturbances in children with clinical suspicion of stroke. Patients and methods: Within the last two years emergency perfusion CT was performed in ten children (age: 8–17 years, male:female = 3:7) for assessment of suspected childhood stroke. These intracranial perfusion CT, intracranial CT-digital subtraction angiography (CT-DSA) and extracranial CT-angiography (CTA) studies were retrospectively reviewed and compared with MRI, follow-up CT, catheter angiography and final clinical diagnosis. The total dose length product (DLP) for the entire examination was recorded. The image quality of perfusion CT-maps, CT-DSA and CTA were evaluated with a subjective three-point scale ranging from very good to non-diagnostic image quality rating perfusion disturbance, intracranial peripheral vessel depiction, and motion- or streak artifacts. Results: In nine of ten children perfusion CT showed no false positive or false negative results. In one of ten children suffering from migraine focal hypo-perfusion was read as perfusion impairment potentially indicating early stroke, but MRI and MRA follow-up were negative. Overall, perfusion-CT with CT-DSA was rated very good in 80% of cases for the detection of perfusion disturbances and vessel anatomy. Conclusions: In comparison to standard CT, contrast-enhanced perfusion CT improves CTs’ diagnostic capability in the emergency examination of children with a strong suspicion of ischemic cerebral infarction.

  8. Myocardial perfusion imaging with dual energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Spandorfer, Adam; Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI offers the possibility to directly detect the presence of myocardial perfusion defects. • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI allows differentiating between reversible and fixed myocardial perfusion defects. • The combination of coronary CT angiography and dual-energy sCTMPI can improve the ability of CT to detect hemodynamically relevant coronary artery disease. - Abstract: Dual-energy CT (DECT) enables simultaneous use of two different tube voltages, thus different x-ray absorption characteristics are acquired in the same anatomic location with two different X-ray spectra. The various DECT techniques allow material decomposition and mapping of the iodine distribution within the myocardium. Static dual-energy myocardial perfusion imaging (sCTMPI) using pharmacological stress agents demonstrate myocardial ischemia by single snapshot images of myocardial iodine distribution. sCTMPI gives incremental values to coronary artery stenosis detected on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by showing consequent reversible or fixed myocardial perfusion defects. The comprehensive acquisition of CCTA and sCTMPI offers extensive morphological and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have revealed that dual-energy sCTMPI shows promising diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared to single-photon emission computed tomography, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiac MRI. The aim of this review is to present currently available DECT techniques for static myocardial perfusion imaging and recent clinical applications and ongoing investigations.

  9. Perfluorocarbon-perfused 23 gauge three-dimensional vitrectomy for complicated diabetic tractional retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorocarbon liquid (PCL)-perfused vitrectomy has been shown in previous studies to be feasible, safe, and to have advantages in managing complicated cases of tractional retinal detachment. The present study had the objectives of describing the anatomical results and measuring surgical time and PCL consumption when combining PCL-perfused techniques with modern vitrectomy equipment. Methods A prospective, interventional consecutive case series was investigated. We enrolled patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy and poor vision. A 23 gauge PCL-perfused vitrectomy was done with three-dimensional settings. During the procedure, we assessed the degree of surgical bleeding, visualization quality, and difficulty of membrane dissections. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and anatomical success were assessed at one and 3 months of follow-up. Results Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. There were no statistical significant changes in intraocular pressure and visual acuity throughout the follow-up period. Surgery was performed in a hemorrhage-free environment in almost all cases, with good visualization and low technical difficulty. The mean complete surgical time was 94.92 ± 25.03 minutes. The mean effective vitrectomy time was 22.50 ± 19.04 minutes and the mean PCL consumption was 25.08 ± 9.76 mL, with a speed of 1.11 mL/minute. Anatomical success was 67% at 3 months. Conclusion Although the technique proved to have some advantages in managing complicated cases of diabetic tractional retinal detachment, there was a high consumption of PCL. A redesign of the entire system is needed in order to decrease the amount of PCL needed for the technique. PMID:22267907

  10. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  11. Myocardial function and perfusion in the CREST syndrome variant of progressive systemic sclerosis. Exercise radionuclide evaluation and comparison with diffuse scleroderma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follansbee, W.P.; Curtiss, E.I.; Medsger, T.A. Jr.; Owens, G.R.; Steen, V.D.; Rodnan, G.P.

    1984-01-01

    Myocardial function and perfusion were evaluated in 22 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with the CREST syndrome using exercise and radionuclide techniques, pulmonary function testing, and chest roentgenography. The results were compared with a similar study of 26 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis with diffuse scleroderma. The prevalence of thallium perfusion abnormalities was similar in the groups with CREST syndrome and diffuse scleroderma, (64 percent versus 77 percent), but the defects were significantly smaller in the CREST syndrome (p less than 0.01). Reperfusion thallium defects in the absence of extramural coronary artery disease were seen in 38 percent of patients with diffuse scleroderma. This finding was not seen in any of the patients with the CREST syndrome. In diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of both right and left ventricular function were related to larger thallium perfusion defects. In the CREST syndrome, abnormalities of left ventricular function were minor, were seen only during exercise, and were unrelated to thallium perfusion defects. Abnormal resting right ventricular function was seen in 36 percent of the patients with the CREST syndrome and was associated with an isolated decrease in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide. It is concluded that the cardiac manifestations of the CREST syndrome are distinct from those found in diffuse scleroderma. Unlike diffuse scleroderma, abnormalities of left ventricular function in the CREST syndrome are minor and are unrelated to abnormalities of coronary perfusion. Right ventricular dysfunction in the CREST syndrome appears to be primarily related to pulmonary vascular disease

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of intracellular ions in perfused from heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, D.; Fossel, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular sodium, potassium, and lithium were observed in a perfused frog heart by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A perfusate buffer containing the shift reagent, dysprosium tripolyphosphate, was used in combination with mathematical filtering or presaturation of the extracellular resonance to separate the intra- and extracellular sodium NMR signals. Addition of 10 μM ouabain to the perfusate, perfusion with a zero potassium, low-calcium buffer, and replacement of 66% of the perfusate sodium with lithium resulted in changes in the intracellular sodium levels. An increase of 45% in the intracellular sodium was observed when changing the pacing rate from 0 to 60 beats/min (with proportional changes for intermediate pacing rates). The ratio of intracellular potassium to sodium concentration was determined to be 2.3 by NMR, indicating that a substantial amount of the intracellular potassium is undetectable with these NMR method. In addition, intracellular lithium was observed during perfusion with a lithium-containing perfusate

  13. Evaluation of Microvascular Perfusion and Resuscitation after Severe Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yann-Leei L; Simmons, Jon D; Gillespie, Mark N; Alvarez, Diego F; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, Mohammad A; Schneider, Andrew M; Richards, William O

    2015-12-01

    Achieving adequate perfusion is a key goal of treatment in severe trauma; however, tissue perfusion has classically been measured by indirect means. Direct visualization of capillary flow has been applied in sepsis, but application of this technology to the trauma population has been limited. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of standard indirect measures of perfusion to direct imaging of the sublingual microcirculatory flow during trauma resuscitation. Patients with injury severity scores >15 were serially examined using a handheld sidestream dark-field video microscope. In addition, measurements were also made from healthy volunteers. The De Backer score, a morphometric capillary density score, and total vessel density (TVD) as cumulative vessel area within the image, were calculated using Automated Vascular Analysis (AVA3.0) software. These indices were compared against clinical and laboratory parameters of organ function and systemic metabolic status as well as mortality. Twenty severely injured patients had lower TVD (X = 14.6 ± 0.22 vs 17.66 ± 0.51) and De Backer scores (X = 9.62 ± 0.16 vs 11.55 ± 0.37) compared with healthy controls. These scores best correlated with serum lactate (TVD R(2) = 0.525, De Backer R(2) = 0.576, P trauma patients, and seems to provide real-time assessment of microcirculatory perfusion. This study suggests that in severe trauma, many indirect measurements of perfusion do not correlate with microvascular perfusion. However, visualized perfusion deficiencies do reflect a shift toward anaerobic metabolism.

  14. Tezosentan reduces the microvascular filtration coefficient in isolated lungs from rats subjected to cecum ligation and puncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, Vladimir; Sovershaev, Mikhail; Andreasen, Thomas; Skogen, Vegard; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Bjertnaes, Lars

    2005-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that the non-selective endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor blocker tezosentan antagonizes ovine acute lung injury (ALI) following infusion of endotoxin or ET-1 by reducing the enhanced lung microvascular pressure, although we could not exclude the possibility of a simultaneous decline in microvascular permeability. In the present study, our aim was to find out if tezosentan reverses the rise in microvascular filtration coefficient (Kfc) in rat lungs that have been isolated and perfused 12 h after cecum ligation and puncture (CLP) or infusion of ET-1. Wistar rats (n = 42) were subjected to CLP. Postoperatively, rats were randomized to a CLP group (n = 7) and a CLP + tezosentan group (n = 7); the latter received tezosentan 30 mg/kg. A sham-operated group (n = 5) underwent laparotomy without CLP. Twelve hours postoperatively, the lungs were isolated and perfused with blood from similarly treated rats that also were used to assess plasma concentration of ET-1 and protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) in lung tissue. Additionally, isolated blood perfused lungs from healthy rats were randomized to a control group (n = 8), an ET-1 group (n = 7) subjected to pulmonary arterial injection of ET-1 10 nM, and an ET-1 + tezosentan group (n = 7) that received tezosentan 30 mg/kg. All lung preparations received papaverine 0.1 microg/kg added to the perfusate for vasoplegia. Pulmonary hemodynamic variables, Kfc and lung compliance (CL) were assessed. After CLP, the plasma concentration of ET-1 increased. Papaverine abolished the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 and the pulmonary vascular pressures remained close to baseline throughout the experiments. Both CLP and injection of ET-1 caused significant changes in Kfc and CL that were prevented in tezosentan-treated rats. Compared to sham-operated animals, CLP increased the content of PKCalpha by 50% and 70% in the cytosolic and the membrane fractions of lung tissue homogenates, respectively. Tezosentan prevented the

  15. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging in persistent hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Carra-Dalliere, Clarisse; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafe, Alain; Thouvenot, Eric [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Service de Neuroradiologie, Montpellier (France); Roubertie, Agathe [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Service de Neuropediatrie, Montpellier (France)

    2012-03-15

    Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks. Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences. From each perfusion MRI acquisition two regions of interest were delineated on each hemisphere and, the index of flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and time to peak were recorded and asymmetry indices from each perfusion parameter were calculated. Perfusion alterations were detected during the attacks. In one case, we observed, after 3 h of left hemiparesia, hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. In the other case, who presented a familial hemiplegic migraine attack, on the third day of a persistent aura consisting of right hemiplegia and aphasia, PWI revealed hyperperfusion of the left hemisphere. Asymmetry indices for temporal parameters (mean transit time and time to peak) were the most sensitive. These findings resolved spontaneously after the attacks without any permanent sequel or signs of cerebral ischemia on follow-up MRI. PWI should be indicated for patients with migraine attacks accompanied by auras to assess the sequential changes in cerebral perfusion and to better understand its pathogenesis. (orig.)

  16. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging in persistent hemiplegic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Carra-Dalliere, Clarisse; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafe, Alain; Thouvenot, Eric; Roubertie, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks. Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences. From each perfusion MRI acquisition two regions of interest were delineated on each hemisphere and, the index of flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and time to peak were recorded and asymmetry indices from each perfusion parameter were calculated. Perfusion alterations were detected during the attacks. In one case, we observed, after 3 h of left hemiparesia, hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. In the other case, who presented a familial hemiplegic migraine attack, on the third day of a persistent aura consisting of right hemiplegia and aphasia, PWI revealed hyperperfusion of the left hemisphere. Asymmetry indices for temporal parameters (mean transit time and time to peak) were the most sensitive. These findings resolved spontaneously after the attacks without any permanent sequel or signs of cerebral ischemia on follow-up MRI. PWI should be indicated for patients with migraine attacks accompanied by auras to assess the sequential changes in cerebral perfusion and to better understand its pathogenesis. (orig.)

  17. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of sarcoplasmic oxygenation in the red cell-perfused rat heart

    OpenAIRE

    Jelicks, L.A.; Wittenberg, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The proximal histidine N delta H proton of deoxymyoglobin experiences a large hyperfine shift resulting in its 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal appearing at approximately 76 ppm (at 35 degrees C), downfield of the diamagnetic spectral region. 1H NMR of this proton is used to monitor sarcoplasmic oxygen pressure in isolated perfused rat heart. This method monitors intracellular oxygenation in the whole heart and does not reflect oxygenation in a limited region. The deoxymyoglobin res...

  18. Magnetic resonance cardiac perfusion imaging-a clinical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunold, Peter; Schlosser, Thomas; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) with its clinical appearance of stable or unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in developed countries. In view of increasing costs and the rising number of CAD patients, there has been a major interest in reliable non-invasive imaging techniques to identify CAD in an early (i.e. asymptomatic) stage. Since myocardial perfusion deficits appear very early in the ''ischemic cascade'', a major breakthrough would be the non-invasive quantification of myocardial perfusion before functional impairment might be detected. Therefore, there is growing interest in other, target-organ-specific parameters, such as relative and absolute myocardial perfusion imaging. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been proven to offer attractive concepts in this respect. However, some important difficulties have not been resolved so far, which still causes uncertainty and prevents the broad application of MR perfusion imaging in a clinical setting. This review explores recent technical developments in MR hardware, software and contrast agents, as well as their impact on the current and future clinical status of MR imaging of first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging. (orig.)

  19. Magnetic resonance cardiac perfusion imaging-a clinical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunold, Peter; Schlosser, Thomas; Barkhausen, Joerg [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) with its clinical appearance of stable or unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in developed countries. In view of increasing costs and the rising number of CAD patients, there has been a major interest in reliable non-invasive imaging techniques to identify CAD in an early (i.e. asymptomatic) stage. Since myocardial perfusion deficits appear very early in the ''ischemic cascade'', a major breakthrough would be the non-invasive quantification of myocardial perfusion before functional impairment might be detected. Therefore, there is growing interest in other, target-organ-specific parameters, such as relative and absolute myocardial perfusion imaging. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been proven to offer attractive concepts in this respect. However, some important difficulties have not been resolved so far, which still causes uncertainty and prevents the broad application of MR perfusion imaging in a clinical setting. This review explores recent technical developments in MR hardware, software and contrast agents, as well as their impact on the current and future clinical status of MR imaging of first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging. (orig.)

  20. Acid perfusion test in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    An acid perfusion test, isotope scanning, endoscopy, and esophageal biopsy were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. A positive acid perfusion test within 30 min (APT) and within 5 min (TAPT) was found in 70.2% and 37.6% of the patients, respectively. A positive APT was found significantly more often in patients with than without endoscopic esophagitis, whereas a positive TAPT was found significantly more often in patients with severe symptoms than in patients with moderate symptoms, and in a significantly higher proportion of patients with than without GER by scintigraphy. Neither the APT nor the TAPT showed any dependency on the presence of histologic esophagitis. Most (97%) patients with a negative acid perfusion test, in addition to typical symptoms, also presented with scintigraphic, endoscopic, or histologic evidence of GER disease. Although it shows that the acid perfusion test, particularly when early positive, may serve as a weak predictor of the severity of GER disease, the present study gives little support to the test's clinical usefulness.

  1. Simultaneous determination of left ventricular perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremillet, E.; Champailler, A.; Esquerre, J.P.; Ouhayoun, E.; Coca, F.; Furber, A.; Le Jeune, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a very useful tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. The evaluation of left ventricular function during stress testing in also very useful to determine the prognosis of coronary artery disease. This chapter highlights three different imaging methods to assess left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion/ The first one consists of sequential dual isotope myocardial SPECT with ECG-gating. The second concerns magnetic resonance imaging and the third explores first pass exercise ventriculography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy simultaneously evaluated by means of 99m Tc-sestamibi. (authors)

  2. Perfusion directed 3D mineral formation within cell-laden hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Stephen William; Shridhar, Shivkumar Vishnempet; Zhang, Kairui; Albrecht, Lucas; Filip, Alex; Horton, Jason; Soman, Pranav

    2018-06-08

    Despite the promise of stem cell engineering and the new advances in bioprinting technologies, one of the major challenges in the manufacturing of large scale bone tissue scaffolds is the inability to perfuse nutrients throughout thick constructs. Here, we report a scalable method to create thick, perfusable bone constructs using a combination of cell-laden hydrogels and a 3D printed sacrificial polymer. Osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were encapsulated within a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel and 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) pipes were used to create perfusable channels. A custom-built bioreactor was used to perfuse osteogenic media directly through the channels in order to induce mineral deposition which was subsequently quantified via microCT. Histological staining was used to verify mineral deposition around the perfused channels, while COMSOL modeling was used to simulate oxygen diffusion between adjacent channels. This information was used to design a scaled-up construct containing a 3D array of perfusable channels within cell-laden GelMA. Progressive matrix mineralization was observed by cells surrounding perfused channels as opposed to random mineral deposition in static constructs. MicroCT confirmed that there was a direct relationship between channel mineralization within perfused constructs and time within the bioreactor. Furthermore, the scalable method presented in this work serves as a model on how large-scale bone tissue replacement constructs could be made using commonly available 3D printers, sacrificial materials, and hydrogels. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  3. Tc-99m DTPA perfusion scintigraphy and color coded duplex sonography in the evaluation of minimal renal allograft perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, H.J.; Platsch, G.; Wolf, F. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Guenter, E.; Becker, D. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine 1; Rupprecht, H.; Neumayer, H.H. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine 4

    1997-08-01

    Aim: The clinical impact of perfusion scintigraphy versus color coded Duplex sonography was evaluated, with respect to their potential in assessing minimal allograft perfusion in vitally threatened kidney transplants, i.e. oligoanuric allografts suspected to have either severe rejection or thrombosis of the renal vein or artery. Methods: From July 1990 to August 1994 the grafts of 15 out of a total of 315 patients were vitally threatened. Technetium-99m DTPA scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography were performed in all patients. For scintigraphic evaluation of transplant perfusion analog scans up to 60 min postinjection, and time-activity curves over the first 60 sec after injection of 370-440 MBq Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate acid (DTPA) were used and classified by a perfusion score, the time between renal and iliac artery peaks (TDiff) and the washout of the renogram curve. Additionally, evaluation of excretion function and assessment of vascular or urinary leaks were performed. By color coded Duplex sonography the perfusion in all sections of the graft as well as the vascular anastomoses were examined and the maximal blood flow velocity (Vmax) and the resistive index (RI) in the renal artery were determined by means of the pulsed Doppler device. Pathologic-anatomical diagnosis was achieved by either biopsy or post-explant histology in all grafts. Results: Scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography could reliably differentiate minimal (8/15) and not perfused (7/15) renal allografts. The results were confirmed either by angiography in digital subtraction technique (DSA) or the clinical follow up. Conclusion: In summary, perfusion scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography are comparable modalities to assess kidney graft perfusion. In clinical practice scintigraphy and colorcoded Doppler sonography can replace digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of minimal allograft perfusion. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Studie war es, das

  4. Isolation and Purification of Two Isoflavones from Hericium erinaceum Mycelium by High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinzhe; Fan, Peng; Feng, Simin; Shao, Ping; Sun, Peilong

    2018-03-02

    High-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was used to separate and purify two isoflavones for the first time from Hericium erinaceum ( H. erinaceum ) mycelium using a two-phase solvent system composed of chloroform-dichloromethane-methanol-water (4:2:3:2, v / v / v / v ). These two isoflavones were identified as genistein (4',5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, C 15 H 10 O₅) and daidzein (4',7-dihydroxyisoflavone, C 15 H 10 O₄), using infrared spectroscopy (IR), electro-spary ionisation mass (ESI-MS), ¹H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and 13 C-NMR spectra. About 23 mg genistein with 95.7% purity and 18 mg daidzein with 97.3% purity were isolated from 150 mg ethanolic extract of H. erinaceum mycelium. The results demonstrated that HSCCC was a feasible method to separate and purify genistein and daidzein from H. erinaceum mycelium.

  5. Detectable perfusion changes in MAG3 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuter, B.; Bernar, A.; Roach, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of 120 MBq 99m Tc-MAG 3 instead of 600 MBq 99m Tc-DTPA in renal imaging has degraded the images obtained during the perfusion phase. An increase of the minimum detectable change (MDC) in blood flow (BF) would also be expected. In transplant patients, renal BF is an important factor in patient management and the MDC should be small to allow early detection of reduced perfusion. We determined the mean and coefficient of variation (CoV: standard deviation/mean) of three renal perfusion indices as a function of counts in the time-activity curves (TACs). Transplant patients were given a dose of about 300 MBq of 99m Tc-MAG3 and images acquired at 8 fps for 60s. TACs made up from 8, 4, 2 or I images per second allowed calculation of renal perfusion indices as if doses of 300, 150, 75 and 38 MBq had been administered. Perfusion indices based on area under the TACs up to the arterial peak (API), the maximum slopes of the TACs (SPI) and the maximum slope of renal TAC and height of arterial TAC (BPI) were calculated by our routine renal software package. As the administered dose decreased, the CoV rose for all indices, least for BPI and most for API. BPI CoV increased from ∼10% at 300 MBq to 20% at 75 MBq, but API CoV rose from 6% to 46%. Mean BPI was stable over the dose range, but mean API showed a systematic increase of about 50% over the 300 MBq result. We conclude that at 120 MBq the MDC (expressed as 2*CoV) in BF is 30-60%, whereas at 600 MBq it may be as low as 10%, allowing earlier confident detection of a change in BF. The BPI was the preferred perfusion index as its mean value changed little and it had the least CoV at lower activities. The data also imply that relative kidney perfusion in the one individual will be much less accurate with 120 MBq of MAG 3

  6. Enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging in diagnosing pulmonary embolism: preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaoyong; Du Jing; Zhang Zhaoqi; Guo Xi; Yan Zixu; Jiang Hong; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging (MRPP) in diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography (MRPA) and pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Methods: Fourteen patients were definitely diagnosed as PE, whose ages were from 19 to 71 years old and mean 45.5 ± 19.8 years old. All patients under went MRPA and MRPP and 3 patients were examined again after thrombolytic treatment. Five patients underwent pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Setting ROI in top, middle, bottom of lung area and abnormal area respectively, we detected signal intensity and time-signal curve to obtain the transformation rate of signal (TROS) during perfusion peak value. Results: In 14 pulmonary embolism patients, MRPA found 62 branches of pulmonary artery obstruction. Fifty-five abnormal pulmonary perfusion zones were found by MRPP, and the above results were very alike. The coincidence was 88.71%. In 14 cases, MRPP could show 25 subsegments lesion below segments. In 5 patients who had both results Of MRPP and ECT at the same time. MRPP shows 33 perfusion defect zones and 37 segments were found by ECT, the sensitivity was 89.19%. After thrombolytic treatment, both the status of the affected pulmonary artery improved markedly and perfusion defect zones reduced obviously in 3 cases by MRPP and MRPA. TROS in normal perfusion zones perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones had significant difference (t=22.882, P<0.01). Conclusion: Contrast enhanced MR pulmonary perfusion can show both perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones in pulmonary embolism. Time-signal curve can show the period of maximum no perfusion zones in pulmonary artery embolism zones. And the amplitude of fluctuation is small with miminum TROS. MRPP has significant values especially in showing pulmonary artery embolism in segments and subsegments. Using both MRPP and

  7. Role of myocardial perfusion SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I.; Chun, K.; Won, K.; Lee, H.; Park, J.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y.; Shim, B.; Lee, J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: It is important that early diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients, but there are few reports on the prevalence of stress-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities and the rates of cardiac event in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the scan findings on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic patients. Methods: We performed pharmacological stress test and gated perfusion SPECT in 69 diabetic patients without cardiovascular symptom (mean age: 65 year, male 31 and female 38). Patients underwent two-day imaging protocol and stress study was performed injection of Tc-99m MIBI during adenosine infusion. We followed up these patients by reviewing medical records. Results: Fifty-two of 69 patients (74.5%) showed normal scan findings and 17 patients (24.6%) showed reversible or fixed perfusion defects. Three of 52 patients with normal scan findings showed decreased LV ejection fraction and decreased wall motion. Twenty-three patients with normal scan findings were possible to follow up for more than 1yr (mean time: 18.3±3.3 mo.) and they all had no cardiac event. Three patients with reversible perfusion defects were performed coronary angioplasty. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a noninvasive method and maybe useful in early diagnosis and predicting prognosis in diabetic patients

  8. The advantage of high relaxivity contrast agents in brain perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, F.; Hermier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate MRI characterization of brain lesions is critical for planning therapeutic strategy, assessing prognosis and monitoring response to therapy. Conventional MRI with gadolinium-based contrast agents is useful for the evaluation of brain lesions, but this approach primarily depicts areas of disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) rather than tissue perfusion. Advanced MR imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast agent-enhanced perfusion MRI provide physiological information that complements the anatomic data available from conventional MRI. We evaluated brain perfusion imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy). The contrast-enhanced perfusion technique was performed on a Philips Intera 1.5-T MR system. The technique used to obtain perfusion images was dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, which is highly sensitive to T2* changes. Combined with PRESTO perfusion imaging, SENSE is applied to double the temporal resolution, thereby improving the signal intensity curve fit and, accordingly, the accuracy of the derived parametric images. MultiHance is the first gadolinium MR contrast agent with significantly higher T1 and T2 relaxivities than conventional MR contrast agents. The higher T1 relaxivity, and therefore better contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, leads to significantly improved detection of BBB breakdown and hence improved brain tumor conspicuity and delineation. The higher T2 relaxivity allows high-quality T2*-weighted perfusion MRI and the derivation of good quality relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps. We determined the value of MultiHance for enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion imaging of histologically proven (by surgery or stereotaxic biopsy) intraaxial brain tumors (n=80), multiple sclerosis lesions (n=10), abscesses (n=4), neurolupus (n=15) and stroke (n=16). All the procedures carried out were safe and no adverse events occurred. The acquired perfusion images were of good quality in

  9. Myocardial perfusion as an indicator of graft patency after coronary artery bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolibash, A.J.; Call, T.D.; Bush, C.A.; Tetalman, M.R.; Lewis, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Stress and resting myocardial perfusion were assessed in 38 patients who received 96 grafts. Stress perfusion was evaluated with thallium-201 and resting myocardial blood flow distribution with radiolabeled particles. When both stress and rest perfusion were normal, graft patency was 82% (51 of 62 grafts). Graft patency was also high (81%, 13 of 16) in areas where stress perfusion abnormalities resolved or become less apparent at rest. However, when stress perfusion defects remained unchanged at rest, the graf was likely to be occuluded (73%, 11 of 15). Maintenance of normal rest perfusion or improvement of rest perfusion postoperatively was also associated with a high graft patency rate (80%, 35 of 44), whereas the development of new rest perfusion defects postoperatively implied graft occlusion

  10. Pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging—A review of methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, Christopher S.; Swift, Andrew J.; Hughes, Paul J.C. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, KobeUniversity Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Schiebler, Mark [UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Wild, Jim M., E-mail: j.m.wild@sheffield.ac.uk [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • This article represents an overview of the methodology and clinical applications of pulmonary MRA and perfusion imaging. • Both contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced metholodology for MRA and perfusion are covered. • The current clinical uses and future directions of MRA and MR perfusion are discussed. - Abstract: The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology. In many centres pulmonary MR angiography and dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion MRI are now well established in the routine workflow of patients particularly with pulmonary hypertension and thromboembolic disease. However, these imaging modalities offer exciting new directions for future research and clinical use in other respiratory diseases where consideration of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange can provide insight in to pathophysiology.

  11. Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Sturge - Weber Syndrome : Comparison with MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ko, Tae Sung; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluate the characteristic perfusion changes in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome by comparison of the findings of brain MR images and perfusion SPECT images. 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-ECD interictal brain SPECTs were performed on 5 pediatric patients with Struge-Weber syndrome within 2 weeks after MR imaging. Brain SPECTs of three patients without calcification showed diminished perfusion in the affected area on MR image. A 3 month-old patient without brain atrophy or calcification demonstrated paradoxical hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere, and follow-up perfusion SPECT revealed decreased perfusion in the same area. The other patient with advanced calcified lesion and atrophy on MR image showed diffusely decreased perfusion in the affected hemisphere, but a focal area of increased perfusion was also noted in the ipsilateral temporal lobe on SPECT. In conclusion, brain perfusion of the affected area of Sturge-Weber syndrome patients was usually diminished, but early or advanced patients may show paradoxical diffuse or focal hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere. Further studies are needed for better understanding of these perfusion changes and pathophysiology of Struge-Weber syndrome.

  12. Pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging—A review of methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Christopher S.; Swift, Andrew J.; Hughes, Paul J.C.; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Schiebler, Mark; Wild, Jim M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This article represents an overview of the methodology and clinical applications of pulmonary MRA and perfusion imaging. • Both contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced metholodology for MRA and perfusion are covered. • The current clinical uses and future directions of MRA and MR perfusion are discussed. - Abstract: The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology. In many centres pulmonary MR angiography and dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion MRI are now well established in the routine workflow of patients particularly with pulmonary hypertension and thromboembolic disease. However, these imaging modalities offer exciting new directions for future research and clinical use in other respiratory diseases where consideration of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange can provide insight in to pathophysiology.

  13. Investigating structural and perfusion deficits due to repeated head trauma in active professional fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Virendra; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Banks, Sarah J; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Yang, Zhengshi; Cordes, Dietmar; Bernick, Charles

    2018-01-01

    Repeated head trauma experienced by active professional fighters results in various structural, functional and perfusion damage. However, whether there are common regions of structural and perfusion damage due to fighting and whether these structural and perfusion differences are associated with neuropsychological measurements in active professional fighters is still unknown. To that end, T1-weighted and pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI on a group of healthy controls and active professional fighters were acquired. Voxelwise group comparisons, in a univariate and multivariate sense, were performed to investigate differences in gray and white matter density (GMD, WMD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) between the two groups. A significantly positive association between global GMD and WMD was obtained with psychomotor speed and reaction time, respectively, in our cohort of active professional fighters. In addition, regional WMD deficit was observed in a cluster encompassing bilateral pons, hippocampus, and thalamus in fighters (0.49 ± 0.04 arbitrary units (a.u.)) as compared to controls (0.51 ± 0.05a.u.). WMD in the cluster of active fighters was also significantly associated with reaction time. Significantly lower CBF was observed in right inferior temporal lobe with both partial volume corrected (46.9 ± 14.93 ml/100 g/min) and non-partial volume corrected CBF maps (25.91 ± 7.99 ml/100 g/min) in professional fighters, as compared to controls (65.45 ± 22.24 ml/100 g/min and 35.22 ± 12.18 ml/100 g/min respectively). A paradoxical increase in CBF accompanying right cerebellum and fusiform gyrus in the active professional fighters (29.52 ± 13.03 ml/100 g/min) as compared to controls (19.43 ± 12.56 ml/100 g/min) was observed with non-partial volume corrected CBF maps. Multivariate analysis with both structural and perfusion measurements found the same clusters as univariate analysis in addition to a cluster in right precuneus

  14. Investigating structural and perfusion deficits due to repeated head trauma in active professional fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Mishra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repeated head trauma experienced by active professional fighters results in various structural, functional and perfusion damage. However, whether there are common regions of structural and perfusion damage due to fighting and whether these structural and perfusion differences are associated with neuropsychological measurements in active professional fighters is still unknown. To that end, T1-weighted and pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling MRI on a group of healthy controls and active professional fighters were acquired. Voxelwise group comparisons, in a univariate and multivariate sense, were performed to investigate differences in gray and white matter density (GMD, WMD and cerebral blood flow (CBF between the two groups. A significantly positive association between global GMD and WMD was obtained with psychomotor speed and reaction time, respectively, in our cohort of active professional fighters. In addition, regional WMD deficit was observed in a cluster encompassing bilateral pons, hippocampus, and thalamus in fighters (0.49 ± 0.04 arbitrary units (a.u. as compared to controls (0.51 ± 0.05a.u.. WMD in the cluster of active fighters was also significantly associated with reaction time. Significantly lower CBF was observed in right inferior temporal lobe with both partial volume corrected (46.9 ± 14.93 ml/100 g/min and non-partial volume corrected CBF maps (25.91 ± 7.99 ml/100 g/min in professional fighters, as compared to controls (65.45 ± 22.24 ml/100 g/min and 35.22 ± 12.18 ml/100 g/min respectively. A paradoxical increase in CBF accompanying right cerebellum and fusiform gyrus in the active professional fighters (29.52 ± 13.03 ml/100 g/min as compared to controls (19.43 ± 12.56 ml/100 g/min was observed with non-partial volume corrected CBF maps. Multivariate analysis with both structural and perfusion measurements found the same clusters as univariate analysis in addition to a cluster in right

  15. Whole body perfusion for hybrid aortic arch repair: evolution of selective regional perfusion with a modified extracorporeal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Philip; Walsh, Graham; Walsh, Stephanie; O'Neil, Michael; Gelinas, Jill; Chu, Michael W A

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing hybrid aortic arch reconstruction require careful protection of vital organs. We believe that whole body perfusion with tailored dual circuitry may help to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Our circuit has evolved from a secondary circuit utilizing a cardioplegia delivery device for lower body perfusion to a dual-oxygenator circuit. This allows individually controlled regional perfusion with ease of switching from secondary to primary circuit for total body flow. The re-design allows for separate flow and temperature regulation with two oxygenators in parallel. All patients underwent a single-stage operation for simultaneous treatment of arch and descending aortic pathology via a sternotomy, using a hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique. We report six consecutive patients undergoing hybrid arch and frozen elephant trunk reconstruction using a dual-oxygenator circuit. Five patients underwent elective surgery and one was emergent. One patient had an acute dissection while three underwent concomitant procedures, including a Ross procedure and two valve-sparing root reconstructions. Three cases were redo sternotomies. The mean pump time was 358 ± 131 min, the aortic cross clamp time 243 ± 135 min, the cardioplegia volume of 33,208 ml ± 16,173, cerebral ischemia 0 min, lower body ischemia 76 ± 34 min and the average lower body perfusion time was 142 min. Two patients did not require any donor blood products. The median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS) were two days and 10 days, respectively. The average peak serum lactate on CPB was 7.47 mmol/L and, at admission to the ICU, it was 3.37 mmol/L. Renal and respiratory failure developed in the salvage acute type A dissection patient. No other complications occurred in this series. Whole body perfusion as delivered through individually controlled dual-oxygenator circuitry allows maximum flexibility for hybrid aortic arch reconstruction. A modified circuit perfusion

  16. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-12-01

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  17. Basic consideration of diffusion/perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Ishii, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microscopic motion of biological system such as molecular diffusion of water and microcirculation of blood in the capillary network (perfusion) has been proposed to cause signal attenuation as an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Quantitative imaging of the IVIM phenomenon was attempted to generate from a set of spin-echo (SE) sequences with or without sensitization by motion probing gradient (MPG). The IVIM imaging is characterized by a parameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which is an integration of both the diffusion and the perfusion factor on voxel-by-voxel basis. Hard ware was adjusted to avoid image artifact mainly produced by eddy current. Feasibility of the method was tested using bottle phantom filled with water at different temperature and acetone, and the calculated ADC values of these media corresponded well with accepted values of diffusion. The method was then applied to biological system to investigate mutual participation of diffusion/perfusion on the ADC value. The result of tumor model born on nude mouse suggested considerable participation of perfusion factor which immediately disappeared after sacrificing the animal. Meanwhile, lower value of sacrificed tissue without microcirculation was suggested to have some restriction of diffusion factor by biological tissue. To substantiate the restriction effect on the diffusion, a series of observation have made on a fiber phantom, stalk of celory with botanical fibers and human brain with nerve fibers, in applying unidirectional MPG along the course of these banch of fiber system. The directional restriction effect of diffusion along the course of fiber (diffusion anisotrophy) was clearly visualized as directional change of ADC value. The present method for tissue characterization by diffusion/perfusion on microscopic level will provide a new insight for evaluation of functional derangement in human brain and other organs. (author)

  18. The effect of pregnancy and estradiol-17 beta treatment on the biliary transport maximum of dibromosulfophthalein, and the glucuronide conjugates of 5-phenyl-5-p-hydroxyphenyl[14C]hydantoin and [14C]morphine in the isolated perfused rat liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auansakul, A.C.; Vore, M.

    1982-01-01

    The biliary transport maximum (Tm) of three organic axions was determined in the isolated perfused livers of untreated female (control), estradiol-17 beta (E2)-treated female (1 mg/kg/day, s.c. for 14 days), and pregnant (19-21 days of gestation) rats. Dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP), 5-phenyl-5-p-hydroxyphenyl[ 14 C]hydantoin (HPPH) and [ 14 C]morphine were infused continuously into the perfusate for a total dose of 41.2, 18, or 40.5 mumol, respectively. The concentration of [ 14 C]HPPH and [ 14 C]morphine declined in the perfusate, whereas the concentrations of [ 14 C]HPPH glucuronide and [ 14 C]morphine glucuronide increased during the 90-min experiment, indicating that the rate of formation of the glucuronide exceeded its rate of excretion in bile. E2 treatment decreased the Tm (nmol/min/g liver) for [ 14 C]HPPH glucuronide and [ 14 C]morphine glucuronide but not for DBSP, whereas pregnancy decreased the Tm for all three organic anions. Pregnancy, and to a lesser extent E2 treatment, increased liver weight. When expressed per whole liver, the Tm was not altered by pregnancy for any of three organic anions. E2 treatment increased the Tm for DBSP, had no effect on the Tm for HPPH glucuronide and decreased the Tm for [ 14 C]morphine glucuronide. These data suggest the presence of multiple carriers for organic anions which are differentially affected by estrogen treatment and pregnancy

  19. Possibilities of differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions by computed tomography perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmina Sefić Pašić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate possibilities of computed tomography (CT perfusion in differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions based on their characteristic vascularization through perfusion parameters analysis. Methods Prospective study was conducted on 50 patients in the period 2009-2012. Patients were divided in two groups: benign and malignant lesions. The following CT perfusion parameters were analyzed: blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, capillary permeability surface area product (PS, hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, and impulse residual function (IRF. During the study another perfusion parameter was analyzed: hepatic perfusion index (HPI. All patients were examined on Multidetector 64-slice CT machine (GE with application of perfusion protocol for liver with i.v. administration of contrast agent. Results In both groups an increase of vascularization and arterial blood flow was noticed, but there was no significant statistical difference between any of 6 analyzed parameters. Hepatic perfusion index values were increased in all lesions in comparison with normal liver parenchyma. Conclusion Computed tomography perfusion in our study did not allow differentiation of benign and malignant liver lesions based on analysis of functional perfusion parameters. Hepatic perfusion index should be investigated in further studies as a parameter for detection of possible presence of micro-metastases in visually homogeneous liver in cases with no lesions found during standard CT protocol

  20. Perfusion scintigraphy of the hand with sup(99m)Tc labelled microspheres - an alternative to angiography in the diagnosis of peripheral perfusion disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnahl, H M; Hedde, J P [Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Strahleninstitut

    1979-12-01

    sup(99m)Tc labelled microspheres were injected in the A. brachialis in addition to angiography of the hand in 15 patients. The hereby obtained results show good correlation between angiography and scintigraphy. The completely normal perfusion scintigram of the hand allows to dispense with angiography. The pathological scan, however, requires angiography. Perfusion scintigraphy of the hand seems to be most useful in the follow-up of therapeutic effects in perfusion disturbances.

  1. Effects of perfusion detect on the measurement of left ventricular mass, ventricular volume and post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2002-01-01

    The presence of perfusion defect may influence the left ventricular mass (LVM) measurement by quantitative gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (QGS), and ischemic myocardium, usually showing perfusion defect may produce post-stress LV dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluated the effects of extent and reversibility of perfusion defect on the automatic measurement of LVM by QGS and to investigate the effect of reversibility of perfusion defect on post-stress LV dysfunction. Forty-six patients (male/female=34:12, mean age=64 years) with perfusion defect on myocardial perfusion SPECT underwent rest and post-stress QGS. Forty patients (87%) showed reversible defect. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF), and LV myocardial volume were obtained from QGS by autoquant program, and LVM was calculated by multiplying the LV myocardial volume by the specific gravity of myocardium. LVMs measured at rest and post-stress QGS showed good correlation, and higher correlation was founded in the subjects with fixed perfusion defect and with small defect (smaller than 20%). There were no significant differences in EDVs, ESVs and EFs between obtained by rest and post-stress QGS in patients with fixed myocardial defect. Whereas, EF obtained by post-stress QGS was lower than that by rest QGS in patients with reversible defect and 10 (25%) of them showed decreases in EF more than 5% in post-stress QGS, as compared to that of rest QGS. Excellent correlations of EDVs, ESVs, EFs between rest and post-stress QGS were noted. Patients with fixed defect had higher correlation between defect can affect LVM measurement by QGS and patients with reversible defect shows post-stress LV dysfunction more frequently than patients with fixed perfusion defect

  2. Visualization of myocardial perfusion derived from coronary anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, M.A.; Bescos, J.O.; Breeuwer, M.; Vilanova, A.; Gerritsen, F.A.; Gröller, M.E.; Nagel, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Visually assessing the effect of the coronary artery anatomy on the perfusion of the heart muscle in patients with coronary artery disease remains a challenging task. We explore the feasibility of visualizing this effect on perfusion using a numerical approach. We perform a computational simulation

  3. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van; Zaknun, John J.; Maes, Alex; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon; Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina; Bal, C.S.; Dondi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  4. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  5. Phase correction of MR perfusion/diffusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenevert, T.L.; Pipe, J.G.; Brunberg, J.A.; Yeung, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and perfusion MR sequences are exceptionally sensitive to minute motion and, therefore, are prone to bulk motions that hamper ADC/perfusion quantification. The authors have developed a phase correction algorithm to substantially reduce this error. The algorithm uses a diffusion-insensitive data set to correct data that are diffusion sensitive but phase corrupt. An assumption of the algorithm is that bulk motion phase shifts are uniform in one dimension, although they may be arbitrarily large and variable from acquisition to acquisition. This is facilitated by orthogonal section selection. The correction is applied after one Fourier transform of a two-dimensional Fourier transform reconstruction. Imaging experiments on rat and human brain demonstrate significant artifact reduction in ADC and perfusion measurements

  6. Ventilation perfusion radionuclide imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, S.J.; Hawkins, T.; Keavey, P.M.; Gascoigne, A.D.; Corris, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    There is increasing interest in ventilation perfusion (V/Q) imaging in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis because of the data these scans provide on the dynamic V/Q relationships in such patients undergoing single lung transplantation. We analysed the V/Q scans of 45 consecutive patients with advanced cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis being considered for single lung transplantation. Scans were classified according to the presence, severity and degree of matching of defects in ventilation and perfusion images and the results were compared with the data obtained from lung function tests. Ventilation images showed defects in 13 (29%) and ''washout delay'' in 15 (33%) patients; 10 (22%) patients had asymmetric distribution of ventilation with one lung receiving >60% of total ventilation. Perfusion images showed normal perfusion in 8 (18%), mild defects in 18 (40%) and major defects in 19 (42%) patients. The distribution of perfusion between lungs was significantly asymmetric in 20 (45%) patients. V/Q images were matched in 15 (33%), mildly mismatched in 15 (33%) and severely mismatched in 15 (33%) patients, but the degree of V/Q mismatch did not show a relationship to KCO, PaO 2 or A-aO 2 gradient. The appearances were atypical of pulmonary embolism in eight patients. (Author)

  7. Feasibility of high-resolution quantitative perfusion analysis in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut, Eva; Zarinabad, Niloufar; Wesolowski, Roman; Morton, Geraint; Chen, Zhong; Sohal, Manav; Carr-White, Gerry; Razavi, Reza; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2015-02-12

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is playing an expanding role in the assessment of patients with heart failure (HF). The assessment of myocardial perfusion status in HF can be challenging due to left ventricular (LV) remodelling and wall thinning, coexistent scar and respiratory artefacts. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of quantitative CMR myocardial perfusion analysis in patients with HF. A group of 58 patients with heart failure (HF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF ≤ 50%) and 33 patients with normal LVEF (LVEF >50%), referred for suspected coronary artery disease, were studied. All subjects underwent quantitative first-pass stress perfusion imaging using adenosine according to standard acquisition protocols. The feasibility of quantitative perfusion analysis was then assessed using high-resolution, 3 T kt perfusion and voxel-wise Fermi deconvolution. 30/58 (52%) subjects in the HF group had underlying ischaemic aetiology. Perfusion abnormalities were seen amongst patients with ischaemic HF and patients with normal LV function. No regional perfusion defect was observed in the non-ischaemic HF group. Good agreement was found between visual and quantitative analysis across all groups. Absolute stress perfusion rate, myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) and endocardial-epicardial MPR ratio identified areas with abnormal perfusion in the ischaemic HF group (p = 0.02; p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). In the Normal LV group, MPR and endocardial-epicardial MPR ratio were able to distinguish between normal and abnormal segments (p = 0.04; p = 0.02 respectively). No significant differences of absolute stress perfusion rate or MPR were observed comparing visually normal segments amongst groups. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution voxel-wise perfusion assessment in patients with HF.

  8. Perfusion lung scanning: differentiation of primary from thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona, R.; Kreisman, H.; Novales-Diaz, J.; Derbekyan, V.

    1985-01-01

    Of eight patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, final diagnosis established by autopsy or angiography, four had primary hypertension and four hypertension from thromboembolism. The perfusion lung scan was distinctly different in the two groups. The lung scan in primary pulmonary hypertension was associated with nonsegmental, patchy defects of perfusion, while in thromboembolic hypertensives it was characterized by segmental and/or lobar defects of perfusion with or without subsegmental defects. The perfusion lung scan is a valuable, noninvasive study in the evaluation of the patient with pulmonary hypertension of undetermined cause and in the exclusion of occult large-vessel pulmonary thromboembolism

  9. Simultaneous Multiagent Hyperpolarized 13C Perfusion Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Morze, Cornelius; Bok, Robert A.; Reed, Galen D.

    2014-01-01

    in simulations. "Tripolarized" perfusion MRI methods were applied to initial preclinical studies with differential conditions of vascular permeability, in normal mouse tissues and advanced transgenic mouse prostate tumors. Results: Dynamic imaging revealed clear differences among the individual tracer...... distributions. Computed permeability maps demonstrated differential permeability of brain tissue among the tracers, and tumor perfusion and permeability were both elevated over values expected for normal tissues. Conclusion: Tripolarized perfusion MRI provides new molecular imaging measures for specifically...

  10. Optimization of the isolation and cultivation of Cyprinus carpio primary hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhong, Fan; Chenghua, He; Guofang, Liu; Haibin, Zhang

    2008-10-01

    The aquatic environment is affected by numerous chemical contaminants. There is an increasing need to identify these chemicals and to evaluate their potential toxicity towards aquatic life. In this research we optimized techniques for primary cell culture of Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes as one adjunct model for ecotoxicological evaluation of the potential hazards of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment. In this study, Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes were isolated by mechanical separation, two-step collagenase perfusion, and pancreatin digestion. The hepatocytes or parenchymal cells could be separated from cell debris and from non-parenchymal cells by low-speed centrifugation (Percoll gradient centrifugation). The harvested hepatocytes were suspended in DMEM, M199 (cultured in 5% CO(2)), or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO(2)) medium then cultured at 17, 27, or 37 degrees C. Cell yield was counted by use of a hemocytometer, and the viability of the cells was assessed by use of the Trypan blue exclusion test. Results from these studies showed that the best method of isolation was pancreatin digestion (the cell yield was 2.7 x 10(8) per g (liver weight) and the viability was 98.4%) and the best medium was M199 (cultured in 5% CO(2)) or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO(2)). The optimum culture temperature was 27 degrees C. The primary hepatocytes culture of Cyprimus carpio grew well and satisfied requirements for most toxicological experiments in this condition.

  11. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuru Aaro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion analysis. According to perfusion properties, we first devise a novel mathematical function to form a perfusion model. A simple yet accurate approach is further introduced to extract cardiac systolic and diastolic phases from the heart, so that this cardiac information may be utilized to accelerate the perfusion analysis and improve its sensitivity in detecting pulmonary perfusion abnormalities. This makes perfusion analysis not only fast but also robust in computation; consequently, perfusion analysis becomes computationally feasible without using contrast media. Our clinical case studies with 52 patients show that this technique is effective for pulmonary embolism even without using contrast media, demonstrating consistent correlations with computed tomography (CT and nuclear medicine (NM studies. This fluoroscopical examination takes only about 2 seconds for perfusion study with only low radiation dose to patient, involving no preparation, no radioactive isotopes, and no contrast media.

  12. Myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with myocardial bridging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Wei; Qiu Hong; Yang Weixian; Wang Feng; He Zuoxiang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging was used to assess myocardial ischemia in patients with myocardial bridging. Methods: Ninety-six patients with myocardial bridging of the left anterior descending artery documented by coronary angiography were included in this study. All under- went exercise or pharmacological stress myocardial perfusion SPECT assessing myocardial ischemia. None had prior myocardial infarction. One year follow-up by telephone interview was performed in all patients. Results The mean stenotic severity of systolic phase on angiography was (65 ± 19)%. In the SPECT study, 20 of 96 (20.8%) patients showed abnormal perfusion. This percentage was significantly higher than that of stress electrocardiogram (ECG). The higher positive rate of SPECT perfusion images was showed in the group of patients with severe systolic narrowing (≥75%) than that with mild-to-moderate systolic narrowing (50% vs 6.3%, P<0.001). The prevalence of abnormal image was significantly higher in ELDERLY PEOPLE; patients with STT change on rest ECG than in those with normal rest ECG (54.2% vs 9.7%, P<0.001). During follow-up, one patient with abnormal SPECT perfusion image sustained angina and accepted percutaneous coronary intervention, and no cardiac event occurred in patients with normal images. Conclusions: Stress myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging can be used effectively for assessing myocardial ischemia and has potential prognostic value for patients with myocardial bridging. (authors)

  13. Effects of ethanol and hyperosmotic perfusates on albumin synthesis and release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothschild, M.A.; Oratz, M.; Schreiber, S.S.; Mongelli, J.

    1986-01-01

    Sucrose and ethanol inhibit albumin synthesis; sucrose via an osmotic mechanism and ethanol during its metabolism. The present study was undertaken to compare the effects of both of these agents on albumin synthesis and secretion, and to see if ethanol inhibition could be related to an osmotic effect. Male, fed rabbits served as liver donors in all studies. There were a total of 35 studies: 13 control; 10 ethanol (39 to 52 mM); 4 cycloheximide (0.5 mM), and 8 sucrose (1%). Plasma volume was measured with 125 I-albumin (human) and extracellular volume measured with either /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid or [ 14 C]sucrose. During perfusion, rabbit albumin content in the perfusate was measured immunologically every 15 to 30 min for 225 min. Interstitial albumin efflux was measured by the rate of appearance in the perfusate of 125 I-albumin given to 10 other rabbits 3 days prior to hepatic removal and perfusion. During the initial 75 min of perfusion, 74% of the in vivo equilibrated exchangeable 125 I-albumin appeared in the perfusate, and during this period the rabbit albumin that entered the perfusate was taken to represent efflux from the interstitial volume plus synthesis. Rabbit albumin appearing in the perfusate during the later period of 150 min was taken to represent mainly synthesis and was used to calculate the amount of albumin that would be synthesized in 75 min. The difference between these two values would be hepatic interstitial albumin appearing in the perfusate

  14. Compact Laser Doppler Flowmeter (LDF Fundus Camera for the Assessment of Retinal Blood Perfusion in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielle Mentek

    Full Text Available Noninvasive techniques for ocular blood perfusion assessment are of crucial importance for exploring microvascular alterations related to systemic and ocular diseases. However, few techniques adapted to rodents are available and most are invasive or not specifically focused on the optic nerve head (ONH, choroid or retinal circulation. Here we present the results obtained with a new rodent-adapted compact fundus camera based on laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF.A confocal miniature flowmeter was fixed to a specially designed 3D rotating mechanical arm and adjusted on a rodent stereotaxic table in order to accurately point the laser beam at the retinal region of interest. The linearity of the LDF measurements was assessed using a rotating Teflon wheel and a flow of microspheres in a glass capillary. In vivo reproducibility was assessed in Wistar rats with repeated measurements (inter-session and inter-day of retinal arteries and ONH blood velocity in six and ten rats, respectively. These parameters were also recorded during an acute intraocular pressure increase to 150 mmHg and after heart arrest (n = 5 rats.The perfusion measurements showed perfect linearity between LDF velocity and Teflon wheel or microsphere speed. Intraclass correlation coefficients for retinal arteries and ONH velocity (0.82 and 0.86, respectively indicated strong inter-session repeatability and stability. Inter-day reproducibility was good (0.79 and 0.7, respectively. Upon ocular blood flow cessation, the retinal artery velocity signal substantially decreased, whereas the ONH signal did not significantly vary, suggesting that it could mostly be attributed to tissue light scattering.We have demonstrated that, while not adapted for ONH blood perfusion assessment, this device allows pertinent, stable and repeatable measurements of retinal blood perfusion in rats.

  15. Abnormalities of Microcirculation and Intracranial and Cerebral Perfusion Pressures in Severe Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the states of microcirculation, cerebral perfusion intracranial pressures in patients with isolated severe brain injury (SBI and to determine their possible relationships. Subjects and methods. 148 studies were performed in 16 victims with SBI. According to the outcome of brain traumatic disease, the patients were divided into two groups: 1 those who had a good outcome (n=8 and 2 those who had a fatal outcome (n=8. Microcirculation was examined by skin laser Doppler flowmetry using a LAKK-01 capillary blood flow laser analyzer (LAZMA Research-and-Production Association, Russian Federation. All the victims underwent surgical interventions to remove epi-, subdural, and intracerebral hematomas. A Codman subdural/intraparenchymatous intracranial pressure (ICD sensor (Johnson & Johnson, United Kingdom was intraoperatively inserted in the victims. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP was calculated using the generally accepted formula: CPP = MBP (mean blood pressure — ICD. ICD, CPP, and microcirculation were studied on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Their values were recorded simultaneously. Ninety and 58 studies were conducted in the group of patients with good and fatal outcomes, respectively. Results. No correlation between the changes in MBP, ICD, and microcirculatory parameters suggested that the value of ICD was determined by the nature of brain damage and it was the leading and determining indicator in the diagnosis and treatment of secondary cerebral lesions. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations directly correlated with ICD, which indicated that they might be used to evaluate cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebral circulation indirectly in victims with severe brain injury. Conclusion. The laser Doppler flowmetric technique makes it possible not only to qualitatively, but also quantitatively determine changes in the tissue blood flow system in severe brain injury. With this technique, both the local and central

  16. Standardization of an isolated pig heart preparation with parabiotic circulation: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrucci Júnior O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we standardized an experimental model of parabiotic circulation of isolated pig heart. The isolated heart was perfused with arterial blood from a second animal as support and submitted to regional ischemia for 30 min, followed by total ischemia for 90 min and reperfusion for 90 min. Parameters for measurement of ventricular performance using different indices measured directly or indirectly from intraventricular pressure were defined as: maximum peak pressure, final diastolic pressure, pressure developed, first derivative of maximum pressure (dP/dt max, first derivative of minimum pressure (dP/dt min, systolic stress of the left ventricle (sigmas, and maximum elastance of the left ventricle. Isolated hearts subjected to regional and global ischemia presented significant worsening of all measured parameters. Less discriminative parameters were dP/dt max and dP/dt min. Elastance was the most sensitive parameter during the reperfusion period, demonstrating an early loss of ventricular function during reperfusion. The model proved to be stable and reproducible and permitted the study of several variables in the isolated heart, such as ischemia and reperfusion phenomena, the effects of different drugs, surgical interventions, etc. The model introduces an advantage over the classical models which use crystalloid solutions as perfusate, because parabiotic circulation mimics heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation.

  17. Prognostic Value of Quantitative Stress Perfusion Cardiac Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut, Eva C; Villa, Adriana D M; Di Giovine, Gabriella; Dancy, Luke; Bosio, Filippo; Gibbs, Thomas; Jeyabraba, Swarna; Schwenke, Susanne; Williams, Steven E; Marber, Michael; Alfakih, Khaled; Ismail, Tevfik F; Razavi, Reza; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2018-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the prognostic usefulness of visual and quantitative perfusion cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) ischemic burden in an unselected group of patients and to assess the validity of consensus-based ischemic burden thresholds extrapolated from nuclear studies. There are limited data on the prognostic value of assessing myocardial ischemic burden by CMR, and there are none using quantitative perfusion analysis. Patients with suspected coronary artery disease referred for adenosine-stress perfusion CMR were included (n = 395; 70% male; age 58 ± 13 years). The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, aborted sudden death, and revascularization after 90 days. Perfusion scans were assessed visually and with quantitative analysis. Cross-validated Cox regression analysis and net reclassification improvement were used to assess the incremental prognostic value of visual or quantitative perfusion analysis over a baseline clinical model, initially as continuous covariates, then using accepted thresholds of ≥2 segments or ≥10% myocardium. After a median 460 days (interquartile range: 190 to 869 days) follow-up, 52 patients reached the primary endpoint. At 2 years, the addition of ischemic burden was found to increase prognostic value over a baseline model of age, sex, and late gadolinium enhancement (baseline model area under the curve [AUC]: 0.75; visual AUC: 0.84; quantitative AUC: 0.85). Dichotomized quantitative ischemic burden performed better than visual assessment (net reclassification improvement 0.043 vs. 0.003 against baseline model). This study was the first to address the prognostic benefit of quantitative analysis of perfusion CMR and to support the use of consensus-based ischemic burden thresholds by perfusion CMR for prognostic evaluation of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Quantitative analysis provided incremental prognostic value to visual assessment and

  18. Improved exercise myocardial perfusion during lidoflazine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1983-01-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a study of 6 patients with severe classic angina pectoris, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise

  19. Visceral Perfusion Scintigraphy with {sup 131}I-Labelled Albumin Macroaggregates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, H.; Yamada, H.; Kitani, K.; Nagatani, M.; Takeda, T.; Migita, T.; Iio, M; Kameda, H. [University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1969-05-15

    The blood supply through the hepatic artery, superior mesenteric artery and portal vein to the visceral organs was studied in 60 cases of various hepatic disorders by scintigraphy after the selective introduction of {sup 131}I MAA by means of visceral arterial catheterization or percutaneous splenic puncture. A comparison of the radioactivities of the liver and the spleen after celiac arterial infusion (celiac perfusion scanning) indicated how much blood in the celiac artery was distributed to the two major arterial branches - the hepatic and splenic. Dominant perfusion was found through the hepatic branch in liver cirrhosis, whereas significantly dominant splenic blood perfusion was found in idiopathic non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. This remarkable contrast of the mode of celiac perfusion in two disorders indicated the etiological difference of these diseases. In malignant neoplasm of the liver, the dominant or exclusive celiac arterial perfusion was found in the tumour region. In these cases, liver scanning by the splenic injection of MAA (portal perfusion scanning) delineated the tumour region as a negative defect similar to the conventional {sup 198}Au colloid scanning. Consequently, from these two perfusion scintigrams the 'key and key-hole' pattern was demonstrated. It was concluded that a neoplastic lesion, primary or metastatic, has the predominant blood supply through the hepatic artery rather than through the portal vein. Celiac perfusion scanning of liver cystosis revealed multiple negative defects. This information was useful for differentiating a malignant tumour, which is usually impossible by conventional liver scanning. Celiac perfusion scanning was also useful for the diagnosis of arterial venous communication. In one case of liver .cancer with cirrhosis and another case with stomach varices, the arterial-v.enous communication was indicated by the appearance of the lung contour in the celiac perfusion scan. In both cases, the combined presence

  20. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui [Konkuk University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr {approx} 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1{approx}9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI.

  1. Large cerebral perfusion defects observed in brain perfusion SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Young; Kim, Hahn Young; Roh, Hong Gee; Han, Seol Heui

    2007-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a memory disorder characterized by an episode of antegrade amnesia and bewilderment which persists for several hours. We analyzed brain perfusion SPECT findings and clinical outcome of patients who suffered from TGA. From September 2005 to August 2007, 12 patients underwent Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT for neuroimaging of TGA. All patients also underwent MRI and MRA including DWI (MRI). Among them, 10 patients who could be chased more than 6 months were included in this study. Their average age was 60.74.0 yrs (M: F = 2: 8) and the average duration of amnesia was 4.42.2 hrs (1 hr ∼ 7 hrs). Duration from episode of amnesia to SPECT was 4.32.4 days (1∼9 days). Precipitating factors could be identified in 6 patients: emotional stress 3, hair dyeing 1, taking a nap 1 and angioplasty 1. SPECT and MRI was visually assessed, No cerebral perfusion defect was observed on SPECT in 3 patients and their clinical outcome was all good. Among 7 patients who had cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT, 3 patients had good clinical outcome, while others did not: one had hypercholesterolemia, another had depression, and 2 patients with cerebral perfusion defects at both temporoparetal cortex was later diagnosed as early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MRI was negative in 6 patients and 3 of them had excellent clinical outcome while other 3 were diagnosed as hypercholesterolemia, early AD and MCI. Among 4 patients with positive MRI, 3 showed good clinical outcome and their MRI showed lesions at medial temporal cortex and/or vertebral artery. One patient with microcalcification at left putamen was diagnosed to have depression. Large cerebral perfusion defects on SPECT may herald psychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases of transient global amnesia patients which usually shows negative MRI

  2. Modeling and Operational Testing of an Isolated Variable Speed PMSG Wind Turbine with Battery Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAROTE, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modeling and operational testing of an isolated permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG, driven by a small wind turbine with a battery energy storage system during wind speed and load variations. The whole system is initially modeled, including the PMSG, the boost converter and the storage system. The required power for the connected loads can be effectively delivered and supplied by the proposed wind turbine and energy storage systems, subject to an appropriate control method. Energy storage devices are required for power balance and power quality in stand alone wind energy systems. The main purpose is to supply 230 V / 50 Hz domestic appliances through a single-phase inverter. The experimental waveforms, compared to the simulation results, show a good prediction of the electrical variable parameters. Furthermore, it can be seen that the results validate the stability of the supply.

  3. Improvements in the technique of vascular perfusion-fixation employing a fluorocarbon-containing perfusate and a peristaltic pump controlled by pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, J; Qvortrup, Klaus; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    A new improved technique for whole-body perfusion-fixation of rats and other small animals is described. The driving force is a peristaltic pump which is feedback regulated by a pressure transducer that monitors the blood-perfusion pressure in the left ventricle of the heart. The primary perfusate...... to cannulate the heart; the outer and inner barrels of the cannula are connected to the peristaltic pump and to the pressure transducer, respectively. The tissue oxygen tension in the rat is monitored by a subcutaneous oxygen electrode. Measurements showed that tissue hypoxia/anoxia did not develop before......-fixative is composed of a blood substitute--13.3% oxygenated fluorocarbon FC-75--in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with a 2% glutaraldehyde. The secondary perfusate-fixative is composed of 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with 20 mM CaCl2. A double-barrelled, self-holding cannula is used...

  4. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion imaging with dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Sven F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum Grosshadern, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, LMU Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany); Hoegl, Sandra; Fisahn, Juergen; Irlbeck, Michael [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Anesthesiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Maxien, Daniel; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Becker, Christoph R.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT) ventilation imaging in combination with DE perfusion mapping for a comprehensive assessment of ventilation, perfusion, morphology and structure of the pulmonary parenchyma. Two dual-energy CT acquisitions for xenon-enhanced ventilation and iodine-enhanced perfusion mapping were performed in patients under artificial respiration. Parenchymal xenon and iodine distribution were mapped and correlated with structural or vascular abnormalities. In all datasets, image quality was sufficient for a comprehensive image reading of the pulmonary CTA images, lung window images and pulmonary functional parameter maps and led to expedient results in each patient. With dual-source CT systems, DECT of the lung with iodine or xenon administration is technically feasible and makes it possible to depict the regional iodine or xenon distribution representing the local perfusion and ventilation. (orig.)

  5. Impairment of myocardial perfusion in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maunoury, C.; Acar, P.; Montalembert, M. de

    2003-01-01

    While brain, bone and spleen strokes are well documented in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), impairment of myocardial perfusion is an unknown complication. Non invasive techniques such as exercise testing and echocardiography have a low sensitivity to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with SCD. We have prospectively assessed myocardial perfusion with Tl-201 SPECT in 23 patients with SCD (10 female, 13 male, mean age 12 ± 5 years). Myocardial SPECT was performed after stress and 3 hours later after reinjection on a single head gamma camera equipped with a LEAP collimator (64 x 64 matrix size format, 30 projections over 180 deg C, 30 seconds per step). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography at rest on the same day. Myocardial perfusion was impaired in 14/23 patients: 9 reversible defects and 5 fixed defects. The left ventricular cavity was dilated in 14/23 patients. The mean LVEF was 63 ± 9%. There was no relationship between myocardial perfusion and left ventricular dilation or function. The frequent impairment of myocardial perfusion in children with SCD could lead to suggest a treatment with hydroxyurea, an improvement of perfusion can be noted with hydroxyurea. (author)

  6. Clinical investigation of large perfusion defect cases with 201Tl exercise myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morota, Motoi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    1999-01-01

    We investigated retrospectively the clinical significance of large perfusion defect on 201 Thallium myocardial scintigraphy from the records of 833 patients during the past 3 years from 1991 to 1994. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to the extent of perfusion defect; cases with normal perfusion (n=561), with small perfusion defect (n=211) and with large perfusion defect (n=61). We found that the proportions of cases with large perfusion defect was significantly larger than that of cases with small perfusion defect in myocardial disease (MD; hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and post myocarditis combined) (P 201 Thallium myocardial scintigraphy and that complication of diabetes mellitus and clinical symptoms may be useful in differentiating IHD from MD. (author)

  7. Plasma protein concentration and control of coronary vascular resistance in isolated rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avolio, A. P.; Spaan, J. A.; Laird, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Isolated externally paced (300 beats/min) rat hearts were perfused at constant pressure (70 mmHg) using a modified Krebs-Henseleit solution with (n = 52) and without (n = 15) washed bovine red cells. Albumin concentration varied from 1 to 10 g/dl. With increasing albumin concentration in

  8. Skeletal myofiber VEGF regulates contraction-induced perfusion and exercise capacity but not muscle capillarity in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Amy E; Goldberg, Daniel; Delavar, Hamid; Trisko, Breanna M; Tang, Kechun; Hogan, Michael C; Wagner, Peter D; Breen, Ellen C

    2016-07-01

    A single bout of exhaustive exercise signals expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the exercising muscle. Previous studies have reported that mice with life-long deletion of skeletal myofiber VEGF have fewer capillaries and a severe reduction in endurance exercise. However, in adult mice, VEGF gene deletion conditionally targeted to skeletal myofibers limits exercise capacity without evidence of capillary regression. To explain this, we hypothesized that adult skeletal myofiber VEGF acutely regulates skeletal muscle perfusion during muscle contraction. A tamoxifen-inducible skeletal myofiber-specific VEGF gene deletion mouse (skmVEGF-/-) was used to reduce skeletal muscle VEGF protein by 90% in adult mice. Three weeks after inducing deletion of the skeletal myofiber VEGF gene, skmVEGF-/- mice exhibited diminished maximum running speed (-10%, P Contraction-induced perfusion measured by optical imaging during a period of electrically stimulated muscle contraction was 85% lower in skmVEGF-/- than control mice. No evidence of capillary rarefication was detected in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) up to 8 wk after tamoxifen-induced VEGF ablation, and contractility and fatigue resistance of the soleus measured ex vivo were also unchanged. The force-frequency of the EDL showed a small right shift, but fatigue resistance did not differ between EDL from control and skmVEGF-/- mice. These data suggest myofiber VEGF is required for regulating perfusion during periods of contraction and may in this manner affect endurance capacity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Perfusion Electronic Record Documentation Using Epic Systems Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jeffrey B; Justison, George A

    2015-12-01

    The authors comment on Steffens and Gunser's article describing the University of Wisconsin adoption of the Epic anesthesia record to include perfusion information from the cardiopulmonary bypass patient experience. We highlight the current-day lessons and the valuable quality and safety principles the Wisconsin-Epic model anesthesia-perfusion record provides.

  10. Transport of benzo[alpha]pyrene in the dually perfused human placenta perfusion model: effect of albumin in the perfusion medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Rytting, Erik; Mose, Tina

    2009-01-01

    compared to other species; since it is available without major ethical obstacles, we have used the human placenta perfusion model to study transport from mother to foetus. Placentas were donated after births at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen from pregnant mothers who signed an informed consent. Ba...

  11. Assessment of perfusion pattern and extent of perfusion defect on dual-energy CT angiography: Correlation between the causes of pulmonary hypertension and vascular parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Young [Dept. of Radiology, Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Choong Wook; Lee, Sang Min [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Hye Jeon [Dept. of Radiology, Hallym University College of Medicine, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To assess perfusion patterns on a dual-energy pulmonary CT angiography (DECTA) of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) with variable causes and to assess whether the extent of perfusion defect can be used in the severity assessment of PHT. Between March 2007 and February 2011, DECTA scans of 62 consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 58.5 ± 17.3 [standard deviation] years; range, 19-87 years) with PHT were retrospectively included with following inclusion criteria; 1) absence of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, 2) maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR Vmax) above 3 m/s on echocardiography performed within one week of the DECTA study. Perfusion patterns of iodine map were divided into normal (NL), diffuse heterogeneously decreased (DH), multifocal geographic and multiple peripheral wedging patterns. The extent of perfusion defects (PD), the diameter of main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ratio of ascending aorta diameter/MPA (aortopulmonary ratio, APR) were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between TR Vmax on echocardiography and CT imaging parameters. Common perfusion patterns of primary PHT were DH (n = 15) and NL (n = 12). The perfusion patterns of secondary PHT were variable. On the correlation analysis, in primary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD, MPA and APR (r = 0.52, r = 0.40, r = -0.50, respectively, all p < 0.05). In secondary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD and MPA (r = 0.38, r = 0.53, respectively, all p < 0.05). Different perfusion patterns are observed on DECTA of PHT according to the causes. PD and MPA are significantly correlated with the TR Vmax.

  12. Assessment of perfusion pattern and extent of perfusion defect on dual-energy CT angiography: Correlation between the causes of pulmonary hypertension and vascular parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Young; Seo, Joon Beom; Oh, Sang Young; Lee, Choong Wook; Lee, Sang Min; Hwang, Hye Jeon; Lee, Young Kyung

    2014-01-01

    To assess perfusion patterns on a dual-energy pulmonary CT angiography (DECTA) of pulmonary hypertension (PHT) with variable causes and to assess whether the extent of perfusion defect can be used in the severity assessment of PHT. Between March 2007 and February 2011, DECTA scans of 62 consecutive patients (24 men, 38 women; mean age, 58.5 ± 17.3 [standard deviation] years; range, 19-87 years) with PHT were retrospectively included with following inclusion criteria; 1) absence of acute pulmonary thromboembolism, 2) maximal velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet (TR Vmax) above 3 m/s on echocardiography performed within one week of the DECTA study. Perfusion patterns of iodine map were divided into normal (NL), diffuse heterogeneously decreased (DH), multifocal geographic and multiple peripheral wedging patterns. The extent of perfusion defects (PD), the diameter of main pulmonary artery (MPA) and the ratio of ascending aorta diameter/MPA (aortopulmonary ratio, APR) were measured. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between TR Vmax on echocardiography and CT imaging parameters. Common perfusion patterns of primary PHT were DH (n = 15) and NL (n = 12). The perfusion patterns of secondary PHT were variable. On the correlation analysis, in primary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD, MPA and APR (r = 0.52, r = 0.40, r = -0.50, respectively, all p < 0.05). In secondary PHT, TR Vmax significantly correlated with PD and MPA (r = 0.38, r = 0.53, respectively, all p < 0.05). Different perfusion patterns are observed on DECTA of PHT according to the causes. PD and MPA are significantly correlated with the TR Vmax.

  13. A Short Period of Ventilation without Perfusion Seems to Reduce Atelectasis without Harming the Lungs during Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lindstedt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the lung function of donors after circulatory deaths (DCDs, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP has been shown to be a valuable method. We present modified EVLP where lung atelectasis is removed, while the lung perfusion is temporarily shut down. Twelve pigs were randomized into two groups: modified EVLP and conventional EVLP. When the lungs had reached 37°C in the EVLP circuit, lung perfusion was temporarily shut down in the modified EVLP group, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes. In the conventional EVLP group, PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes with unchanged lung perfusion. In the modified EVLP group, the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 was 18.5 ± 7.0 kPa before and 64.5 ± 6.0 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.001. In the conventional EVLP group, the PaO2 was 16.8 ± 3.1 kPa and 46.8 ± 2.7 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.01; P<0.01. In the modified EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was unchanged, while in the conventional EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was significantly increased. Modified EVLP with normoventilation of the lungs without ongoing lung perfusion for 10 minutes may eliminate atelectasis almost completely without harming the lungs.

  14. Paradoxical perfusion metrics of high-grade gliomas with an oligodendroglioma component: quantitative analysis of dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunwoo, Leonard; Park, Sun-Won [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul Metropolitan Government - Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung Hong [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, Center for Nanoparticle Research, Institute for Basic Science, and School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Roh-Eul; Kang, Koung Mi; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Ji-hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Chul-Kee [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Won, Jae-Kyung; Park, Sung-Hye [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Il Han [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate perfusion characteristics of glioblastoma with an oligodendroglioma component (GBMO) compared with conventional glioblastoma (GBM) using dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and microvessel density (MVD). The study was approved by the institutional review board. Newly diagnosed high-grade glioma patients were enrolled (n = 72; 20 GBMs, 14 GBMOs, 19 anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), 13 anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs), and six anaplastic oligoastrocytomas (AOAs)). All participants underwent preoperative MR imaging including DSC perfusion MR imaging. Normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) values were analyzed using a histogram approach. Histogram parameters were subsequently compared across each tumor subtype and grade. MVD was quantified by immunohistochemistry staining and correlated with perfusion parameters. Progression-free survival (PFS) was assessed according to the tumor subtype. GBMO displayed significantly reduced nCBV values compared with GBM, whereas grade III tumors with oligodendroglial components (AO and AOA) exhibited significantly increased nCBV values compared with AA (p < 0.001). MVD analyses revealed the same pattern as nCBV results. In addition, a positive correlation between MVD and nCBV values was noted (r = 0.633, p < 0.001). Patients with oligodendroglial tumors exhibited significantly increased PFS compared with patients with pure astrocytomas in each grade. In contrast to grade III tumors, the presence of oligodendroglial components in grade IV tumors resulted in paradoxically reduced perfusion metrics and MVD. In addition, patients with GBMO exhibited a better clinical outcome compared with patients with GBM. (orig.)

  15. Prognostic Value of Normal Perfusion but Impaired Left Ventricular Function in the Diabetic Heart on Quantitative Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwanjeong; Choi, Sehun; Han, Yeonhee [Research Institute of Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospitial, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Hoyoung; Chung, Junekey [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study aimed at identifying the predictive parameters on quantitative gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (QG-SPECT) in diabetic patients with normal perfusion but impaired function. Methods Among the 533 consecutive diabetic patients, 379 patients with normal perfusion on rest Tl-201/dipyridamole-stress Tc-{sup 99m} sestamibi Gated SPECT were enrolled. Patients were grouped into those with normal post-stress left ventricular function (Group I) and those with impaired function (EF <50 or impaired regional wall motion, Group II). We investigated cardiac events and cause of death by chart review and telephone interview. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model analysis were performed. Between the Group I and II, cardiac events as well as chest pain symptoms, smoking, diabetic complications were significantly different (P<0.05). On survival analysis, event free survival rate in Group II was significantly lower than in Group I (P=0.016). In univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis on overall cardiac event, Group (II over I), diabetic nephropathy, summed motion score (SMS), summed systolic thickening score (STS), numbers of abnormal segmental wall motion and systolic thickening predicted more cardiac events (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that STS was the only independent predictor cardiac event. The functional parameter, especially summed systolic thickening score on QG-SPECT had prognostic values, despite normal perfusion, in predicting cardiac events in diabetic patients, and QG-SPECT provides clinically useful risk stratification in diabetic patients with normal perfusion.

  16. Computed tomography angiography and perfusion to assess coronary artery stenosis causing perfusion defects by single photon emission computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochitte, Carlos E; George, Richard T; Chen, Marcus Y

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate the diagnostic power of integrating the results of computed tomography angiography (CTA) and CT myocardial perfusion (CTP) to identify coronary artery disease (CAD) defined as a flow limiting coronary artery stenosis causing a perfusion defect by single photon emission computed...... emission computed tomography (SPECT/MPI). Sixteen centres enroled 381 patients who underwent combined CTA-CTP and SPECT/MPI prior to conventional coronary angiography. All four image modalities were analysed in blinded independent core laboratories. The prevalence of obstructive CAD defined by combined ICA...... tomography (SPECT). METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a multicentre study to evaluate the accuracy of integrated CTA-CTP for the identification of patients with flow-limiting CAD defined by ≥50% stenosis by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with a corresponding perfusion deficit on stress single photon...

  17. [Intratympanic corticosteroid perfusion in the therapy of Meniere's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanković-Babić, Snezana; Kosanović, Rade; Ivanković, Zoran; Babac, Snezana; Tatović, Milica

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades the intratympanic perfusion of corticosteroids has been used as a minimally invasive surgical therapy of Meniere's disease. According to experimental studies the antiinflammatory, immunoprotective, antioxidant and neuroprotective role of the locally perfused corticosteroids was noticed in the inner ear structures. The recovery of action potentials in the cells of the Corti organ was confirmed as well as a decreased expression of aquaporine-1, a glycoprotein responsible for labyrinth hydrops and N and K ions derangement. The study showed results of intratympanic perfusion therapy with dexamethasone in patients with retractable Meniere's disease who are resistant to conservative treatment. Single doses of 4 mg/ml dexamethasone were given intratympanically in 19 patients with retractable Meniere's disease. Six single successive doses of dexamethasone were administered in the posteroinferior quadrant of the tympanic membrane. Follow-up of the patients was conducted by using a clinical questionnaire a month after completed perfusion series as well as on every third month up to one year. One month after completed first course of perfusions, in 78% of patients, vertigo problems completely ceased or were markedly reduced. The recovery of hearing function was recorded in 68% and marked tinnitus reduction in 84% of patients. After a year of follow-up, in 63% of patients the reduction of vertigo persisted, while hearing function was satisfactory in 52%. Tinitus reduction was present in 73% of patients. Intratympanic perfusion of dexamethasone in patients with Meniere's disease is a minimally invasive therapeutic method that contributes to the reduction of the intensity of vertigo recurrent attacks, decrease of the intensity of tinnitus and improvement of the average hearing threshold. Patients with chronic diseases and Meniere's disease who are contraindicted for systemic administration of cortocosteroids (hypertension, diabetes, glaucoma, peptic

  18. Mucosal blood flow measurements using laser Doppler perfusion monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dag Arne Lihaug Hoff; Hans Gregersen; Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk

    2009-01-01

    Perfusion of individual tissues is a basic physiological process that is necessary to sustain oxygenation and nutrition at a cellular level. Ischemia, or the insufficiency of perfusion, is a common mechanism for tissue death or degeneration, and at a lower threshold, a mechanism for the generation of sensory signalling including pain. It is of considerable interest to study perfusion of peripheral abdominal tissues in a variety of circumstances. Microvascular disease of the abdominal organs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of disorders, including peptic ulcer disease, inflammatory bowel disease and chest pain. The basic principle of laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) is to analyze changes in the spectrum of light reflected from tissues as a response to a beam of monochromatic laser light emitted. It reflects the total local microcirculatory blood perfusion, including perfusion in capillaries, arterioles, venules and shunts. During the last 20-25 years, numerous studies have been performed in different parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using LDPM. In recent years we have developed a multi-modal catheter device which includes a laser Doppler probe, with the intent primarily to investigate patients suffering from functional chest pain of presumed oesophageal origin. Preliminary studies show the feasibility of incorporating LDPM into such catheters for performing physiological studies in the GI tract. LDPM has emerged as a research and clinical tool in preference to other methods; but, it is important to be aware of its limitations and account for them when reporting results.

  19. Systemic perfusion: a method of enhancing relative tumor uptake of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahl, R.L.; Piko, C.R.; Beers, B.A.; Geatti, O.; Johnson, J.; Sherman, P. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (USA). Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluated the feasibility of systemic vascular perfusion with saline (mimicking plasmapheresis) as a method to enhance tumor-specific monoclonal antibody (MoAb) tumor/background ratios. Perfusion in rats dropped whole-body 5G6.4 levels significantly at both perfusion times. The drop in whole-body radioactivity with perfusion was significantly greater for the animals perfused at 4 h post i.v. 5G6.4 antibody injection (48.3 +- 5.1%) than for those perfused at 24h post i.v. antibody injection (32.9 +- 2.9%). In the nude mice with ovarian cancer xenografts, gamma camera images of tumors were visually and quantitatively by computer image analysis enhanced by perfusion, with a 2.33-fold greater decline in whole body uptake than in the tumor. These studies show that much background antibody radioactivity can be removed using whole-body perfusion with saline, that the decline in whole body activity is larger with 4 than 24h perfusion and that tumor imaging can be enhanced by this approach. This and similar approaches that increase relative tumor antibody uptake such as plasmapheresis may be useful in imaging and therapy with radiolabeled antibodies.

  20. Assessment of foot perfusion in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Hinchliffe, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of foot perfusion is a vital step in the management of patients with diabetic foot ulceration, in order to understand the risk of amputation and likelihood of wound healing. Underlying peripheral artery disease is a common finding in patients with foot ulceration and is associated with poor outcomes. Assessment of foot perfusion should therefore focus on identifying the presence of peripheral artery disease and to subsequently estimate the effect this may have on wound healing. Assessment of perfusion can be difficult because of the often complex, diffuse and distal nature of peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes, as well as poor collateralisation and heavy vascular calcification. Conventional methods of assessing tissue perfusion in the peripheral circulation may be unreliable in patients with diabetes, and it may therefore be difficult to determine the extent to which poor perfusion contributes to foot ulceration. Anatomical data obtained on cross-sectional imaging is important but must be combined with measurements of tissue perfusion (such as transcutaneous oxygen tension) in order to understand the global and regional perfusion deficit present in a patient with diabetic foot ulceration. Ankle-brachial pressure index is routinely used to screen for peripheral artery disease, but its use in patients with diabetes is limited in the presence of neuropathy and medial arterial calcification. Toe pressure index may be more useful because of the relative sparing of pedal arteries from medial calcification but may not always be possible in patients with ulceration. Fluorescence angiography is a non-invasive technique that can provide rapid quantitative information about regional tissue perfusion; capillaroscopy, iontophoresis and hyperspectral imaging may also be useful in assessing physiological perfusion but are not widely available. There may be a future role for specialized perfusion imaging of these patients, including magnetic resonance

  1. Extracellular Vesicles from Human Liver Stem Cells Reduce Injury in an Ex Vivo Normothermic Hypoxic Rat Liver Perfusion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Federica; De Stefano, Nicola; Navarro-Tableros, Victor; David, Ezio; Rizza, Giorgia; Catalano, Giorgia; Gilbo, Nicholas; Maione, Francesca; Gonella, Federica; Roggio, Dorotea; Martini, Silvia; Patrono, Damiano; Salizzoni, Mauro; Camussi, Giovanni; Romagnoli, Renato

    2018-05-01

    The gold standard for organ preservation before transplantation is static cold storage, which is unable to fully protect suboptimal livers from ischemia/reperfusion injury. An emerging alternative is normothermic machine perfusion (NMP), which permits organ reconditioning. Here, we aimed to explore the feasibility of a pharmacological intervention on isolated rat livers by using a combination of NMP and human liver stem cells-derived extracellular vesicles (HLSC-EV). We established an ex vivo murine model of NMP capable to maintain liver function despite an ongoing hypoxic injury induced by hemodilution. Livers were perfused for 4 hours without (control group, n = 10) or with HLSC-EV (treated group, n = 9). Bile production was quantified; perfusate samples were collected hourly to measure metabolic (pH, pO2, pCO2) and cytolysis parameters (AST, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase). At the end of perfusion, we assessed HLSC-EV engraftment by immunofluorescence, tissue injury by histology, apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, tissue hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 RNA expression by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During hypoxic NMP, livers were able to maintain homeostasis and produce bile. In the treated group, AST (P = 0.018) and lactate dehydrogenase (P = 0.032) levels were significantly lower than those of the control group at 3 hours of perfusion, and AST levels persisted lower at 4 hours (P = 0.003). By the end of NMP, HLSC-EV had been uptaken by hepatocytes, and EV treatment significantly reduced histological damage (P = 0.030), apoptosis (P = 0.049), and RNA overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (P < 0.0001) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (P = 0.014). HLSC-EV treatment, even in a short-duration model, was feasible and effectively reduced liver injury during hypoxic NMP.

  2. Intrahemispheric Perfusion in Chronic Stroke-Induced Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia K. Thompson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke-induced alterations in cerebral blood flow (perfusion may contribute to functional language impairments and recovery in chronic aphasia. Using MRI, we examined perfusion in the right and left hemispheres of 35 aphasic and 16 healthy control participants. Across 76 regions (38 per hemisphere, no significant between-subjects differences were found in the left, whereas blood flow in the right was increased in the aphasic compared to the control participants. Region-of-interest (ROI analyses showed a varied pattern of hypo- and hyperperfused regions across hemispheres in the aphasic participants; however, there were no significant correlations between perfusion values and language abilities in these regions. These patterns may reflect autoregulatory changes in blood flow following stroke and/or increases in general cognitive effort, rather than maladaptive language processing. We also examined blood flow in perilesional tissue, finding the greatest hypoperfusion close to the lesion (within 0–6 mm, with greater hypoperfusion in this region compared to more distal regions. In addition, hypoperfusion in this region was significantly correlated with language impairment. These findings underscore the need to consider cerebral perfusion as a factor contributing to language deficits in chronic aphasia as well as recovery of language function.

  3. Optimization of the isolation and cultivation of Cyprinus carpio primary hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhong, Fan; Chenghua, He; Guofang, Liu

    2008-01-01

    The aquatic environment is affected by numerous chemical contaminants. There is an increasing need to identify these chemicals and to evaluate their potential toxicity towards aquatic life. In this research we optimized techniques for primary cell culture of Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes as one adjunct model for ecotoxicological evaluation of the potential hazards of xenobiotics in the aquatic environment. In this study, Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes were isolated by mechanical separation, two-step collagenase perfusion, and pancreatin digestion. The hepatocytes or parenchymal cells could be separated from cell debris and from non-parenchymal cells by low-speed centrifugation (Percoll gradient centrifugation). The harvested hepatocytes were suspended in DMEM, M199 (cultured in 5% CO2), or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO2) medium then cultured at 17, 27, or 37 °C. Cell yield was counted by use of a hemocytometer, and the viability of the cells was assessed by use of the Trypan blue exclusion test. Results from these studies showed that the best method of isolation was pancreatin digestion (the cell yield was 2.7 × 108 per g (liver weight) and the viability was 98.4%) and the best medium was M199 (cultured in 5% CO2) or L-15 (cultured without 5% CO2). The optimum culture temperature was 27 °C. The primary hepatocytes culture of Cyprimus carpio grew well and satisfied requirements for most toxicological experiments in this condition. PMID:19002769

  4. Regional assessment of treatment in lung cancer using lung perfusion and ventilation images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horikoshi, Masaki; Teshima, Takeo; Yanagimachi, Tomohiro; Ogata, Yuuko; Nukiwa, Toshihiro

    2000-01-01

    In 30 patients with lung cancer undergoing non-surgical treatment, we performed perfusion lung imaging using 99m Tc-MAA and inhalation lung studies using Technegas before and after treatment and evaluated regional perfusion and ventilation status in the lung regions where bronchogenic carcinoma was located. Regional ventilation status was preserved rather than perfusion counterpart (V>P) in 18 patients (18/30=60.0%) before treatment, while the former was better than the latter in 27 patients (27/30=90.0%) after treatment, indicating that regional ventilation status improved more significantly than regional perfusion counterpart after treatment (P=0.005). We also classified the therapeutic effect for regional perfusion and ventilation status as improved, unchanged, or worsened, respectively; improvement in regional perfusion status was observed in 17 patients (56.7%) and that in regional ventilation status in 24 patients (80.0%). There was a statistically significant correlation between improved regional perfusion and ventilation status (P=0.0018) when therapeutic effect was recognized. The patients who showed improvement in regional perfusion status after treatment always showed improved regional ventilation status, but 7 patients showed either unchanged or worsened regional perfusion status after treatment, although regional ventilation status was improved. In conclusion the pulmonary vascular beds seem more vulnerable to bronchogenic carcinoma and improvement in regional perfusion status was revealed to be more difficult than that in regional ventilation status after treatment. (author)

  5. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talakić, Emina; Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut; Stauber, Rudolf; Quehenberger, Franz; Schoellnast, Helmut

    2017-10-01

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p portal hypertension. • SAF and SCL are statistically significantly correlated with HVPG • SCL showed stronger correlation with HVPG than SAF • 125 ml/min/100 ml SCL-cut-off yielded 94 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity for severe PH • HAF, PVF and HPI showed no statistically significant correlation with HVPG.

  6. Evaluation of renal transplant perfusion by functional imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoletti, R.

    1990-01-01

    Radionuclide angiography (RNA) is used as a noninvasive method for the evaluation of renal transplant perfusion. The computer processing method generally used, based on regions of interest, is unsatisfactory because it does not permit the regional differentiation of perfusion defects. Furthermore, the subjective delineation of the regions of interest introduces considerable inter-observer variation of results. We developed a processing method which is less operator-dependent and permits the evaluation of local defects; it is based on the concept of functional imaging. The method was evaluated in 62 patient examinations, which were subdivided into four groups: Normal transplant perfusion (23 examinations), acute tubular necrose (ATN) (16), cellular rejection (13), and vascular rejection (10). Quantitative results derived from profile curves were combined with visual estimation of the functional images and yielded a synoptic graph which allowed differentiation into three groups: Normal transplant perfusion (sensitivity 0.78, specificity 0.97), ATN or cellular rejection (sens. 0.83, spec. 0.82), and vascular rejection (sens. 0.90, spec. 0.92). (orig.)

  7. The acid perfusion test in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    An acid perfusion test, isotope scanning, endoscopy, and esophageal biopsy were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. A positive acid perfusion test within 30 min (APT) and within 5 min (TAPT) was found in 70.2% and 37.6% of the patients, respectively. A positive APT was found significantly more often in patients with than without endoscopic esophagitis, whereas a positive TAPT was found significantly more often in patients with severe symptoms than in patients with moderate symptoms, and in a significantly higher proportion of patients with than without GER by scintigraphy. Neither the APT nor the TAPT showed any dependency on the presence of histologic esophagitis. Most (97%) patients with a negative acid perfusion test, in addition to typical symptoms, also presented with scintigraphic, endoscopic, or histologic evidence of GER disease. Although it shows that the acid perfusion test, particularly when early positive, may serve as a weak predictor of the severity of GER disease, the present study gives little support to the test's clinical usefulness

  8. Rapid Speed Modulation of a Rotary Total Artificial Heart Impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinheyer, Matthias; Timms, Daniel L; Tansley, Geoffrey D; Nestler, Frank; Greatrex, Nicholas A; Frazier, O Howard; Cohn, William E

    2016-09-01

    Unlike the earlier reciprocating volume displacement-type pumps, rotary blood pumps (RBPs) typically operate at a constant rotational speed and produce continuous outflow. When RBP technology is used in constructing a total artificial heart (TAH), the pressure waveform that the TAH produces is flat, without the rise and fall associated with a normal arterial pulse. Several studies have suggested that pulseless circulation may impair microcirculatory perfusion and the autoregulatory response and may contribute to adverse events such as gastrointestinal bleeding, arteriovenous malformations, and pump thrombosis. It may therefore be beneficial to attempt to reproduce pulsatile output, similar to that generated by the native heart, by rapidly modulating the speed of an RBP impeller. The choice of an appropriate speed profile and control strategy to generate physiologic waveforms while minimizing power consumption and blood trauma becomes a challenge. In this study, pump operation modes with six different speed profiles using the BiVACOR TAH were evaluated in vitro. These modes were compared with respect to: hemodynamic pulsatility, which was quantified as surplus hemodynamic energy (SHE); maximum rate of change of pressure (dP/dt); pulse power index; and motor power consumption as a function of pulse pressure. The results showed that the evaluated variables underwent different trends in response to changes in the speed profile shape. The findings indicated a possible trade-off between SHE levels and flow rate pulsatility related to the relative systolic duration in the speed profile. Furthermore, none of the evaluated measures was sufficient to fully characterize hemodynamic pulsatility. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The natural history of misery perfusion in positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Shinji; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Matsushima, Toshio; Fukui, Masashi; Sadoshima, Shouzou; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1992-03-01

    This report reviews the natural courses of misery perfusion in 5 patients with atherosclerotic cerebrovascular occlusion diseases. Cases 1 showed partial improvement and Case 2 showed deterioration of misery perfusion on positron emission tomography (PET). These 2 patients did not show any clinical changes during the follow-up periods. Case 3 showed remarkable improvement of misery perfusion during the 2-year follow-ups, but his neurological condition worsened. The EC-IC bypass improved both in PET and clinical symptoms. Case 4 had a stroke at the region of misery perfusion in PET. Case 5 had a lacunar infarction 2 years after the EC-IC bypass on the opposite side. PET taken one month before the stroke did not show any signs of hypoperfusion in the area of the lacunar infarction. Misery perfusion seems not to be a static but a dynamic condition that can develop into cerebral infarction by some hemodynamic stresses. Cerebral cortical or lobar infarction may occur in the region of severe misery perfusion. EC-IC bypass may prevent impending infarction of the cerebral cortex by improving the regional cerebral blood flow. However, EC-CI bypass will not prevent the lacunar infarction of the basal ganglia or internal capsule. (author).

  10. Magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion imaging-First experience at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klumpp, B. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: bernhard.klumpp@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Hoevelborn, T. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Cardiology, Otfried-Mueller-Str. 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: tobias.hoevelborn@gmx.de; Fenchel, M. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: michael.fenchel@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Stauder, N.I. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: norbert.stauder@stgag.ch; Kramer, U. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: ulrich.kramer@med.uni-tuebingen.de; May, A. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Cardiology, Otfried-Mueller-Str. 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: andreas.may@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Gawaz, M.P. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Cardiology, Otfried-Mueller-Str. 10, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: meinrad.gawaz@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Claussen, C.D. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: claus.claussen@med.uni-tuebingen.de; Miller, S. [Eberhard-Karls-University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hoppe-Seyler-Str. 3, 72076 Tuebingen (Germany)], E-mail: stephan.miller@med.uni-tuebingen.de

    2009-01-15

    Objective: MR myocardial perfusion imaging (MRMPI) is an established technique for the evaluation of the hemodynamical relevance of coronary artery disease. Perfusion imaging at 3.0 T provides certain advantages compared to 1.5 T. Aim of this study was to evaluate myocardial MR perfusion imaging at 3.0 T. Materials and methods: Twelve patients with stable Angina pectoris and known or suspected coronary artery disease were examined at 3.0 T. Myocardial perfusion was assessed using a saturation recovery gradient echo 2D sequence (TR 1.9 ms, TE 1.0 ms, FA 12 deg.) with 0.05 mmol Gd-DTPA per kg body weight at stress during injection of 140 {mu}g adenosine/kg body weight/min and at rest in short axis orientation. Perfusion analysis was based on a least square fit of the signal/time curve (peak signal intensity, slope). Perfusion series were assessed by two independent observers. Reference for the presence of relevant coronary artery stenoses was invasive coronary angiography. Two experienced observers evaluated the coronary angiograms in biplane projections for the presence and grade of stenoses. Results were compared with the MR perfusion analysis. Results: All MR examinations could be safely performed and yielded high image quality. In eight patients stress-induced hypoperfusion was detected (stenosis >70% in coronary angiography). In four patients myocardial hypoperfusion was ruled out (stenosis <70%). The myocardial perfusion reserve index was significantly reduced in hypoperfused myocardium with 1.9 {+-} 1.6 compared to 2.5 {+-} 1.6 in regularly perfused myocardium (p < 0.05). In coronary angiography, eight patients were found to suffer from coronary artery disease, whereas in four patients coronary artery disease was ruled out. Conclusion: Our initial results show that MRMPI at 3.0 T provides reliably high-image quality and diagnostic accuracy.

  11. The incidence and functional consequences of RT-associated cardiac perfusion defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, Lawrence B.; Yu Xiaoli; Prosnitz, Robert G.; Zhou Sumin; Hardenbergh, Patricia H.; Blazing, Michael; Hollis, Donna; Lind, Pehr; Tisch, Andrea; Wong, Terence Z.; Borges-Neto, Salvador

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy (RT) for left-sided breast cancer has been associated with cardiac dysfunction. We herein assess the temporal nature and volume dependence of RT-induced left ventricular perfusion defects and whether these perfusion defects are related to changes in cardiac wall motion or alterations in ejection fraction. Methods: From 1998 to 2001, 114 patients were enrolled onto an IRB-approved prospective clinical study to assess changes in regional and global cardiac function after RT for left-sided breast cancer. Patients were imaged 30 to 60 minutes after injection of technetium 99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin. Post-RT perfusion scans were compared with the pre-RT studies to assess for RT-induced perfusion defects as well as functional changes in wall motion and ejection fraction. Two-tailed Fisher's exact test and the Cochran-Armitage test for linear trends were used for statistical analysis. Results: The incidence of new perfusion defects 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after RT was 27%, 29%, 38%, and 42%, respectively. New defects occurred in approximately 10% to 20% and 50% to 60% of patients with less than 5%, and greater than 5%, of their left ventricle included within the RT fields, respectively (p = 0.33 to 0.00008). The rates of wall motion abnormalities in patients with and without perfusion defects were 12% to 40% versus 0% to 9%, respectively; p values were 0.007 to 0.16, depending on the post-RT interval. Conclusions: Radiation therapy causes volume-dependent perfusion defects in approximately 40% of patients within 2 years of RT. These perfusion defects are associated with corresponding wall-motion abnormalities. Additional study is necessary to better define the long-term functional consequences of RT-induced perfusion defects

  12. Measurement of myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T.; Jensen, L.T.; Larsson, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved rapidly. Recent developments have made non-invasive quantitative myocardial perfusion measurements possible. MRI is particularly attractive due to its high spatial resolution and because it does not involve ionising radiation. This paper reviews...... myocardial perfusion imaging with MR contrast agents: methods, validation and experiences from clinical studies. Unresolved issues still restrict the use of these techniques to research although clinical applications are within reach Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/8...

  13. Free-breathing cardiac MR stress perfusion with real-time slice tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basha, Tamer A; Roujol, Sébastien; Kissinger, Kraig V; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Manning, Warren J; Nezafat, Reza

    2014-09-01

    To develop a free-breathing cardiac MR perfusion sequence with slice tracking for use after physical exercise. We propose to use a leading navigator, placed immediately before each 2D slice acquisition, for tracking the respiratory motion and updating the slice location in real-time. The proposed sequence was used to acquire CMR perfusion datasets in 12 healthy adult subjects and 8 patients. Images were compared with the conventional perfusion (i.e., without slice tracking) results from the same subjects. The location and geometry of the myocardium were quantitatively analyzed, and the perfusion signal curves were calculated from both sequences to show the efficacy of the proposed sequence. The proposed sequence was significantly better compared with the conventional perfusion sequence in terms of qualitative image scores. Changes in the myocardial location and geometry decreased by 50% in the slice tracking sequence. Furthermore, the proposed sequence had signal curves that are smoother and less noisy. The proposed sequence significantly reduces the effect of the respiratory motion on the image acquisition in both rest and stress perfusion scans. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chris M; Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L(-1) urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L(-1) with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L(-1) mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L(-1)) to those of urea (175 mmol L(-1)), urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  15. A perfusion study of the handling of urea and urea analogues by the gills of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris M. Wood

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The branchial mechanism of urea retention in elasmobranchs was investigated using an in vitro isolated-perfused head preparation, as well as in vivo samples, in the spiny dogfish shark. Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L−1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L−1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L−1 mannitol. However, when the urea analogues thiourea or acetamide were present in the perfusate at concentrations equimolar (175 mmol L−1 to those of urea (175 mmol L−1, urea efflux rates were increased 4-fold and 6.5-fold respectively, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentrations were depressed by about 55%. Analogue efflux rates were similar to urea efflux rates. Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane.

  16. Prediction of Liver Function by Using Magnetic Resonance-based Portal Venous Perfusion Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yue, E-mail: yuecao@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Wang Hesheng [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Johnson, Timothy D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hussain, Hero [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M.; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate whether liver function can be assessed globally and spatially by using volumetric dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging MRI (DCE-MRI) to potentially aid in adaptive treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients with intrahepatic cancer undergoing focal radiation therapy (RT) were enrolled in institution review board-approved prospective studies to obtain DCE-MRI (to measure regional perfusion) and indocyanine green (ICG) clearance rates (to measure overall liver function) prior to, during, and at 1 and 2 months after treatment. The volumetric distribution of portal venous perfusion in the whole liver was estimated for each scan. We assessed the correlation between mean portal venous perfusion in the nontumor volume of the liver and overall liver function measured by ICG before, during, and after RT. The dose response for regional portal venous perfusion to RT was determined using a linear mixed effects model. Results: There was a significant correlation between the ICG clearance rate and mean portal venous perfusion in the functioning liver parenchyma, suggesting that portal venous perfusion could be used as a surrogate for function. Reduction in regional venous perfusion 1 month after RT was predicted by the locally accumulated biologically corrected dose at the end of RT (P<.0007). Regional portal venous perfusion measured during RT was a significant predictor for regional venous perfusion assessed 1 month after RT (P<.00001). Global hypovenous perfusion pre-RT was observed in 4 patients (3 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis), 3 of whom had recovered from hypoperfusion, except in the highest dose regions, post-RT. In addition, 3 patients who had normal perfusion pre-RT had marked hypervenous perfusion or reperfusion in low-dose regions post-RT. Conclusions: This study suggests that MR-based volumetric hepatic perfusion imaging may be a biomarker for spatial distribution of liver function, which

  17. Local cortical hypoperfusion imaged with CT perfusion during postictal Todd's paresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, Marlon S.; Binder, Devin K.; Smith, Wade S.; Wintermark, Max; Dillon, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Postictal (''Todd's'') paralysis, or ''epileptic hemiplegia,'' is a well-known complication of focal or generalized epileptic seizures. However, it is unclear whether the pathophysiology of Todd's paralysis is related to alterations in cerebral perfusion. We report CT perfusion findings in a patient presenting with postictal aphasia and right hemiparesis. A 62-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse, closed head injury and posttraumatic epilepsy, presented with acute onset aphasia and right hemiparesis. A non-contrast head CT scan demonstrated no acute hemorrhage. Left hemispheric ischemia was suspected, and the patient was considered for acute thrombolytic therapy. MRI revealed a subtle increase in signal intensity involving the left medial temporal, hippocampal and parahippocampal regions on both T2-weighted FLAIR and diffusion-weighted sequences. CT angiography and CT perfusion study were performed. The CT perfusion study and CT angiography demonstrated a dramatic reduction in cerebral blood flow and blood volume involving the entire left hemisphere, but with relative symmetry of mean transit time, ruling out a large vessel occlusion. Clinical resolution of the aphasia and hemiparesis occurred within a few hours, and correlated with normalization of perfusion to the left hemisphere (detected by MR perfusion). This unique case is the first in which clinical evidence of Todd's paralysis has been correlated with reversible postictal hemispheric changes on CT and MR perfusion studies. This is important because CT perfusion study is being used more and more in the diagnosis of acute stroke, and one needs to be careful to not misinterpret the data. (orig.)

  18. Clinical evaluation of non-invasive perfusion-weighted MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasu, Miyuki

    2000-01-01

    A spin labeling method to measure cerebral blood flow without a contrast medium was developed and applied clinically to obtain a non-invasive perfusion-weighted image. The purpose of this study is to compare the non-invasive perfusion-weighted image using FAIR with the well-established PWI using a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. Of 41 lesions which revealed decreased perfusion, 13 were shown to be low signal intensity areas on FAIR. Therefore, detection rate of FAIR for hypoperfusion was 32%. Of 8 lesions which revealed increased perfusion, 7 demonstrated high intensity on FAIR. Therefore, detection rate of FAIR for hyperperfusion was 88%. Seven lesions were found to have a mean pixel value of zero on PWI. Of these lesions, 5 lesions could be detected as high signal intensity area on FAIR. The rCBV- and rCBF index ratios of hypoperfused lesions detected on FAIR were significantly lower than those of lesions which were not detected on FAIR (p=0.007, p=0.01). As concerns the lesions detected of FAIR, there were positive correlation between rCBV- or rCBF index ratio and FAIR signal ratio (rCBV ratio: ρ=0.873, p=0.0002, rCBF index ratio: ρ=0.858, p=0.0003). FAIR is valuable clinical tool to detect perfusion abnormality semi-quantitatively without contrast medium, although it showed relatively low detection rate for hypoperfused lesions. (author)

  19. Brain perfusion spect imaging with sup 99m Tc-HM-PAO in Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzhong, Song; Xiangtong, Lin [Shanghai Medical Univ. (China). Huashan Hospital

    1991-02-01

    Forty patients with Parkinson's disease were studied using {sup 99m}Tc-HM-PAO brain perfusion SPECT. 62.5% (25 cases) showed abnormal blood perfusion. Among them 55% showed local decreased blood perfusion of cerebral cortex, 22% showed asymmetric decreased blood perfusion in basal gaglia, 10% showed decreased uptake of tracer in cerebellum. The pathophysiologic basis of the abnormality of brain blood perfusion were briefly discussed.

  20. Effect of selenium and vitamin E deficiencies on the fate of arachidonic acid in rat isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotila, P.; Puustinen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The fate of exogenous 14 C-arachidonic acid ( 14 C-AA) was investigated in the isolated lungs of rats fed selenium and vitamin E deficient diet or diets supplemented with selenium and/or vitamin E. When 80 nmol of 14 C-AA was infused into the pulmonary circulation most of the infused 14 C-AA was found in different phospholipid and neutral lipid fractions of the perfused lungs. Only less than ten percent of the infused radioactivity was recovered in the perfusion effluent. The amount of arachidonate metabolites in the perfusion effluent was negligible, and most of the radioactivity in the perfusion effluent consisted of unmetabolized arachidonate. Selenium deficiency had no significant effect on the distribution of 14 C-AA in different lung lipid fractions. However, in the lungs of vitamin E deficient rats the amount of radioactivity was slightly increased in the neutral lipid fraction, which was due to the increased amount of 14 C-AA in the diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of radioactivity was increased especially in the 1,3-diacylglycerols. The amount of 14 C-AA in the triacylglycerols and in different phospholipids was not significantly changed. The present study might indicate that selenium deficiency has no significant effect on the fate of exogenous arachidonic acid in isolated rat lungs, and that vitamin E deficiency would slightly increase the amount of arachidonic acid in the diacylglycerols

  1. CT hepatic perfusion measurement: Comparison of three analytic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Kanata, Naoki; Koyama, Hisanobu; Takenaka, Daisuke; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the efficacy of three analytic methods, maximum slope (MS), dual-input single-compartment model (CM) and deconvolution (DC), for CT measurements of hepatic perfusion and assess the effects of extra-hepatic systemic factors. Materials and methods: Eighty-eight patients who were suspected of having metastatic liver tumors underwent hepatic CT perfusion. The scans were performed at the hepatic hilum 7–77 s after administration of contrast material. Hepatic arterial and portal perfusions (HAP and HPP, ml/min/100 ml) and arterial perfusion fraction (APF, %) were calculated with the three methods, followed by correlation assessment. Partial correlation analysis was used to assess the effects on hepatic perfusion values by various factors such as age, sex, risk of cardiovascular diseases, arrival time of contrast material at abdominal aorta, transit time from abdominal aorta to hepatic parenchyma, and liver dysfunction. Results: Mean HAP of MS was significantly higher than DC. HPP of CM was significantly higher than MS and CM, and HPP of MS was significantly higher than DC. There was no significant difference in APF. HAP and APF showed significant and moderate correlations among the methods. HPP showed significant and moderate correlations between CM and DC, and poor correlation between MS and CM or DC. All methods showed weak correlations between HAP or APF and age or sex. Finally, MS showed weak correlations between HAP or HPP and arrival time or cardiovascular risks. Conclusions: Hepatic perfusion values arrived at with the three methods are not interchangeable. CM and DC are less susceptible to extra-hepatic systemic factors

  2. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stop eating (fast), be on a special diet, or take any medicines before the test. A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan. You wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have ...

  3. Basal hyperaemia is the primary abnormality of perfusion in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Bang, Lia Evi

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by acute completely reversible regional left ventricle (LV) akinesia and decreased tracer uptake in the akinetic region on semi-quantitative perfusion imaging. The latter may be due to normoperfusion of the akinetic mid/apical area and basal...... hyperperfusion. Our aim was to examine abnormalities of perfusion in TTC, and we hypothesized that basal hyperperfusion is the primary perfusion abnormality in the acute state. METHOD AND RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with TTC due to (i) acute onset of symptoms, (ii) typical apical ballooning......-on follow-up. Patients initially had severe heart failure, mid/apical oedema but no infarction, and a rise in cardiac biomarkers. On initial perfusion PET imaging, eight patients appeared to have normal, whereas 17 patients had impaired LV perfusion. In the latter, flow in the basal region was increased...

  4. Clinical applications of brain perfusion imaging with 99mTc-HM-PAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiangtong

    1989-01-01

    200 patients with central nervous system diseases were studied with 99m Tc-HM-PAO and SPECT, including Parkinson's disease (PD) 47, Vascular headache 69, CVD 34, Epilepsy 26, Head truma 10, Brain tumor 5 and other 9 cases. Part of them have been compared with the results of MRI, X-CT and EEG. The positivity of SPECT in PD is 61.7% with decrease perfusion in local area of cerebram and basal ganglia and only 4 cases had lower perfusion in cerebellum; in headache is 46.4%, showing variable perfusion patterns; in CVD is 79.4% with decrease perfusion, luxury perfusion and the phenomenon of 'diaschsis'. In epilepsy, the abnormal foci mostly localize in temporal lobe and have close relation to the results of EEG. In brain tumor it also denotes decreased uptake of tracer. The clinicl singnificance of brain perfusion imaging with 99m Tc-HM-PAO was discussed

  5. Diagnostic performance of dual-energy CT stress myocardial perfusion imaging: direct comparison with cardiovascular MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Sung Min; Song, Meong Gun; Chee, Hyun Kun; Hwang, Hweung Kon; Feuchtner, Gudrun Maria; Min, James K

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic performance of stress perfusion dual-energy CT (DECT) and its incremental value when used with coronary CT angiography (CTA) for identifying hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. One hundred patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease without chronic myocardial infarction detected with coronary CTA underwent stress perfusion DECT, stress cardiovascular perfusion MRI, and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Stress perfusion DECT and cardiovascular stress perfusion MR images were used for detecting perfusion defects. Coronary CTA and ICA were evaluated in the detection of ≥50% coronary stenosis. The diagnostic performance of coronary CTA for detecting hemo-dynamically significant stenosis was assessed before and after stress perfusion DECT on a per-vessel basis with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI as the reference standard. The performance of stress perfusion DECT compared with cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI on a per-vessel basis in the detection of perfusion defects was sensitivity, 89%; specificity, 74%; positive predictive value, 73%; negative predictive value, 90%. Per segment, these values were sensitivity, 76%; specificity, 80%; positive predictive value, 63%; and negative predictive value, 88%. Compared with ICA and cardiovascular stress perfusion MRI per vessel territory the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of coronary CTA were 95%, 61%, 61%, and 95%. The values for stress perfusion DECT were 92%, 72%, 68%, and 94%. The values for coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT were 88%, 79%, 73%, and 91%. The ROC AUC increased from 0.78 to 0.84 (p=0.02) with the use of coronary CTA and stress perfusion DECT compared with coronary CTA alone. Stress perfusion DECT plays a complementary role in enhancing the accuracy of coronary CTA for identifying hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis.

  6. Preparative isolation and purification of four flavonoids from the petals of Nelumbo nucifera by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingfeng, Guo; Daijie, Wang; Wenjuan, Duan; Jinhua, Du; Xiao, Wang

    2010-01-01

    Flavonoids, the primary constituents of the petals of Nelumbo nucifera, are known to have antioxidant properties and antibacterial bioactivities. However, efficient methods for the preparative isolation and purification of flavonoids from this plant are not currently available. To develop an efficient method for the preparative isolation and purification of flavonoids from the petals of N. nucifera by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). Following an initial clean-up step on a polyamide column, HSCCC was utilised to separate and purify flavonoids. Purities and identities of the isolated compounds were established by HPLC-PAD, ESI-MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR. The separation was performed using a two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (4 : 1 : 5 : 0.1, by volume), in which the upper phase was used as the stationary phase and the lower phase was used as the mobile phase at a flow-rate of 1.0 mL/min in the head-to-tail elution mode. Ultimately, 5.0 mg syringetin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside, 6.5 mg quercetin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside, 12.8 mg isorhamnetin-3-O-beta-d-glucoside and 32.5 mg kaempferol-3-O-beta-d-glucoside were obtained from 125 mg crude sample. The combination of HSCCC with a polyamide column is an efficient method for the preparative separation and purification of flavonoids from the petals of N. nucifera. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Imaging of ventilation/perfusion ratio by gated regional spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, J.J.; Jones, J.P.; Price, R.R.; Patton, J.A.; Erickson, J.J.; Rollo, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    Gated 133 Xe images of patients rebreathing into a closed system can provide images of the distribution of lung volumes, ventilation and specific ventilation. These have been shown to be accurate, precise, and do not require unusually sophisticated equipment or skills. A mathematical transformation is used to correct the images for lung movement, which does not alter the total number of counts in the image. Perfusion images are gated to remove motion blurring but not transformed. Ventilation/perfusion images showing the distribution of V/Q ratio are then generated from the individual ventilation and perfusion images. (author)

  8. Resting Brain Perfusion and Selected Vascular Risk Factors in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    with circulating homocysteine, but not with asymmetric dimethylarginine, dyslipidemia or the carotid intima-media thickness. The relative regional brain perfusion was associated with circulating homocysteine, with a relative parietal hypoperfusion and a frontal hyperperfusion. No effect on regional brain perfusion...... was observed for any of the other risk factors. A multiple regression model including homocysteine, caffeine, hematocrit and end-tidal PCO2, explained nearly half of the observed variability. CONCLUSION: Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors influenced global cerebral perfusion variation between subjects....... Further, the results suggest that the inverse relation between homocysteine and brain perfusion is owing to other mechanisms, than reflected by asymmetric dimethylarginine, and that homocysteine may be a marker of cerebral perfusion in aging brains....

  9. Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kinji; Ogai, Toshihiro; Katori, Ryo

    1986-01-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; 1) at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 2) 100 msec before the R wave, and 3) 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery. In all patients with anterior myocardial infarction, low perfusion was observed at the infarcted portion compared to the non-infarcted myocardium. In patients with inferior myocardial infarction, this low perfusion area was not observed because right coronary angiography was not subjected to DSA in this study. (J.P.N.)

  10. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  11. Haemoadsorption reduces the inflammatory response and improves blood flow during ex vivo renal perfusion in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Moore, Tom; Kleverlaan, Theresa; Adams, Tom; Nicholson, Michael L

    2017-10-25

    Ex-vivo normothermic perfusion strategies are a promising new instrument in organ transplantation. The perfusion conditions are designed to be protective however the artificial environment can induce a local inflammatory response. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of incorporating a Cytosorb adsorber into an isolated kidney perfusion system. Porcine kidneys were subjected to 22 h of cold ischaemia then reperfused for 6 h on an ex vivo reperfusion circuit. Pairs of kidneys were randomised to either control (n = 5) or reperfusion with a Cytosorb adsorber (n = 5) integrated into the circuit. Tissue, blood and urine samples were taken for the measurement of inflammation and renal function. Baseline levels of cytokines (IL-6, TNFα, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-1α) were similar between groups. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 in the perfusate significantly increased during reperfusion in the control group but not in the Cytosorb group (P = 0.023, 0.049). Levels of the other cytokines were numerically lower in the Cytosorb group; however, this did not reach statistical significance. The mean renal blood flow (RBF) was significantly higher in the Cytosorb group (162 ± 53 vs. 120 ± 35 mL/min/100 g; P = 0.022). Perfusate levels of prostaglandin E2 were significantly lower in the Cytosorb group (642 ± 762 vs. 3258 ± 980 pg/mL; P = 0.0001). Levels of prostacyclin were significantly lower in the Cytosorb group at 1, 3 and 6 h of reperfusion (P = 0.008, 0.003, 0.0002). Levels of thromboxane were also significantly lower in the Cytosorb group throughout reperfusion (P = 0.005). Haemoadsorption had no effect on creatinine clearance (P = 0.109). Haemoadsorption can reduce the inflammatory response and improve renal blood flow during perfusion. Nonetheless, in this model haemoadsorption had no influence on renal function and this may relate to the broad-spectrum action of the Cytosorb adsorber that also removes potentially important anti

  12. Characterization of an Isolated Kidney's Vasculature for Use in Bio-Thermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Allison H.; Parker, Dennis L.; Moellmer, Jeff; Roemer, Robert B.; Clifford, Sarah

    2007-05-01

    Accurate bio-thermal modeling requires site-specific modeling of discrete vascular anatomy. Presented herewith are several steps that have been developed to describe the vessel network of isolated canine and bovine kidneys. These perfused, isolated kidneys provide an environment to repeatedly test and improve acquisition methods to visualize the vascular anatomy, as well as providing a method to experimentally validate discrete vasculature thermal models. The organs are preserved using a previously developed methodology that keeps the vasculature intact, allowing for the organ to be perfused. It also allows for the repeated fixation and re-hydration of the same organ, permitting the comparison of various methods and models. The organ extraction, alcohol preservation, and perfusion of the organ are described. The vessel locations were obtained through a high-resolution time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) technique. Sequential improvements of both the experimental setup used for this acquisition, as well as MR sequence development are presented. The improvements in MR acquisition and experimental setup improved the number of vessels seen in both the raw data and segmented images by 50%. An automatic vessel centerline extraction algorithm describes both vessel location and genealogy. Centerline descriptions also allows for vessel diameter and flow rate determination, providing valuable input parameters for the discrete vascular thermal model. Characterized vessels networks of both canine and bovine kidneys are presented. While these tools have been developed in an ex vivo environment, all steps can be applied to in vivo applications.

  13. Reproducible insulin secretion from isolated rat pancreas preparations using an organ bath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Asuka; Ouchi, Motoshi; Terada, Misao; Kon, Hiroe; Kishimoto, Satoko; Satoh, Keitaro; Otani, Naoyuki; Hayashi, Keitaro; Fujita, Tomoe; Inoue, Ken-Ichi; Anzai, Naohiko

    2018-02-09

    Diabetes mellitus is a lifestyle-related disease that is characterized by inappropriate or diminished insulin secretion. Ex vivo pharmacological studies of hypoglycemic agents are often conducted using perfused pancreatic preparations. Pancreas preparations for organ bath experiments do not require cannulation and are therefore less complex than isolated perfused pancreas preparations. However, previous research has generated almost no data on insulin secretion from pancreas preparations using organ bath preparations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of isolated rat pancreas preparations using the organ bath technique in the quantitative analysis of insulin secretion from β-cells. We found that insulin secretion significantly declined during incubation in the organ bath, whereas it was maintained in the presence of 1 µM GLP-1. Conversely, amylase secretion exhibited a modest increase during incubation and was not altered in the presence of GLP-1. These results demonstrate that the pancreatic organ bath preparation is a sensitive and reproducible method for the ex vivo assessment of the pharmacological properties of hypoglycemic agents.

  14. Recent developments in gamma camera technology for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengel, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    Economic pressure, competition from alternative modalities and an increasing awareness of patient radiation exposure have triggered a rapid development of novel technology for cardiac single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in recent years. The trend clearly goes towards systems with higher sensitivity and resolution, and towards faster acquisition protocols. Those goals are achieved by various measures: On the one hand, several manufacturers have integrated novel semiconductor detector materials together with innovative collimators into dedicated cardiac scanners. On the other hand, new collimators and reconstruction algorithms have lead to increased speed and accuracy of conventional gamma cameras. Imaging times now can be reduced to as much as 10% of that of previous standard protocols, and/or injected activity can be reduced. This is achieved without loss of diagnostic accuracy. These novel developments are still in early phases of clinical implementation. Their potential for a profound change of the clinical practice of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, however, becomes increasingly obvious. (orig.)

  15. Management of Liver Cancer Argon-helium Knife Therapy with Functional Computer Tomography Perfusion Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Shu, Shengjie; Li, Jinping; Jiang, Huijie

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to observe the change in blood perfusion of liver cancer following argon-helium knife treatment with functional computer tomography perfusion imaging. Twenty-seven patients with primary liver cancer treated with argon-helium knife and were included in this study. Plain computer tomography (CT) and computer tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging were conducted in all patients before and after treatment. Perfusion parameters including blood flows, blood volume, hepatic artery perfusion fraction, hepatic artery perfusion, and hepatic portal venous perfusion were used for evaluating therapeutic effect. All parameters in liver cancer were significantly decreased after argon-helium knife treatment (p knife therapy. Therefore, CTP imaging would play an important role for liver cancer management followed argon-helium knife therapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. The effect of prolonged of warm ischaemic injury on renal function in an experimental ex vivo normothermic perfusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosgood, Sarah A; Shah, K; Patel, M; Nicholson, M L

    2015-06-30

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplants inevitably sustain a degree of warm ischaemic injury, which is manifested clinically as delayed graft function. The aim of this study was to define the effects of prolonged periods of warm ischaemic injury on renal function in a normothermic haemoperfused kidney model. Porcine kidneys were subjected to 15, 60, 90 (n = 6 per group) and 120 min (n = 4) of in situ warm ischaemia (WI) and then retrieved, flushed with cold preservation fluid and stored in ice for 2 h. Kidneys then underwent 3 h of normothermic reperfusion with a whole blood-based perfusate using an ex vivo circuit developed from clinical grade cardiopulmonary bypass technology. Creatinine clearance, urine output and fractional excretion of sodium deteriorated sequentially with increasing warm time. Renal function was severely compromised after 90 or 120 min of WI but haemodynamic, metabolic and histological parameters demonstrated the viability of kidneys subjected to prolonged warm ischaemia. Isolated kidney perfusion using a warm, oxygenated, red cell-based perfusate allows an accurate ex vivo assessment of the potential for recovery from warm ischaemic injury. Prolonged renal warm ischaemic injury caused a severe decrement in renal function but was not associated with tissue necrosis.

  17. DiI Perfusion as a Method for Vascular Visualization in Ambystoma mexicanum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Anna J; Barakat, May; Bryant, Donald M; Brodovskaya, Anastasia; Whited, Jessica L

    2017-06-16

    Perfusion techniques have been used for centuries to visualize the circulation of tissues. Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is a species of salamander that has emerged as an essential model for regeneration studies. Little is known about how revascularization occurs in the context of regeneration in these animals. Here we report a simple method for visualization of the vasculature in axolotl via perfusion of 1,1'-Dioctadecy-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). DiI is a lipophilic carbocyanine dye that inserts into the plasma membrane of endothelial cells instantaneously. Perfusion is done using a peristaltic pump such that DiI enters the circulation through the aorta. During perfusion, dye flows through the axolotl's blood vessels and incorporates into the lipid bilayer of vascular endothelial cells upon contact. The perfusion procedure takes approximately one hour for an eight-inch axolotl. Immediately after perfusion with DiI, the axolotl can be visualized with a confocal fluorescent microscope. The DiI emits light in the red-orange range when excited with a green fluorescent filter. This DiI perfusion procedure can be used to visualize the vascular structure of axolotls or to demonstrate patterns of revascularization in regenerating tissues.

  18. Ischemia-reperfusion injury in the isolated rat lung. Role of flow and endogenous leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, A F; Haynes, J; Taylor, A

    1993-02-01

    Microvascular lung injury caused by ischemia-reperfusion (IR) may occur via leukocyte-dependent and leukocyte-independent pathways. Leukocyte-endothelial adhesion may be a rate-limiting step in IR lung injury. Leukocyte adhesion to microvascular endothelium occurs when the attractant forces between leukocyte and endothelium are greater than the kinetic energy of the leukocyte and the vascular wall shear rate. We hypothesized (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs are not free of endogenous leukocytes, (2) that endogenous leukocytes contribute to IR-induced microvascular injury as measured by the capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and (3) that a reduction of perfusate flow rate would potentiate leukocyte-dependent IR injury. Sixty lungs were divided into four groups: (1) low-flow controls, (2) high-flow controls, (3) low-flow IR, and (4) high-flow IR. Microvascular injury was linearly related to baseline perfusate leukocyte concentrations at both low (r = 0.78) and high (r = 0.82) flow rates. Kfc in the high-flow IR group (0.58 +/- 0.03 ml/min/cm H2O/100 g) was less (p Kfc in the low-flow IR group (0.82 +/- 0.07), and in both groups Kfc values were significantly greater than low-flow (0.34 +/- 0.03) and high-flow (0.31 +/- 0.01) control Kfc values after 75 min. Retention of leukocytes in the lung, evaluated by a tissue myeloperoxidase assay, was greatest in the low-flow IR group. We conclude (1) that isolated, buffer-perfused rat lungs contain significant quantities of leukocytes and that these leukocytes contribute to IR lung injury, and (2) that IR-induced microvascular injury is potentiated by low flow.

  19. Job analysis and student assessment tool: perfusion education clinical preceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jeffrey B

    2007-09-01

    The perfusion education system centers on the cardiac surgery operating room and the perfusionist teacher who serves as a preceptor for the perfusion student. One method to improve the quality of perfusion education is to create a valid method for perfusion students to give feedback to clinical teachers. The preceptor job analysis consisted of a literature review and interviews with preceptors to list their critical tasks, critical incidents, and cognitive and behavioral competencies. Behaviorally anchored rating traits associated with the preceptors' tasks were identified. Students voted to validate the instrument items. The perfusion instructor rating instrument with a 0-4, "very weak" to "very strong" Likert rating scale was used. The five preceptor traits for student evaluation of clinical instruction (SECI) are as follows: The clinical instructor (1) encourages self-learning, (2) encourages clinical reasoning, (3) meets student's learning needs, (4) gives continuous feedback, and (5) represents a good role model. Scores from 430 student-preceptor relationships for 28 students rotating at 24 affiliate institutions with 134 clinical instructors were evaluated. The mean overall good preceptor average (GPA) was 3.45 +/- 0.76 and was skewed to the left, ranging from 0.0 to 4.0 (median = 3.8). Only 21 of the SECI relationships earned a GPA SECI are methods to provide valid information to improve the quality of a perfusion education program.

  20. A new recycling technique for human placental cotyledon perfusion: application to studies of the fetomaternal transfer of glucose, inulin, and antipyrine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandes, J.M.; Tavoloni, N.; Potter, B.J.; Sarkozi, L.; Shepard, M.D.; Berk, P.D.

    1983-01-01

    A previously described technique has been modified to permit the continuously recirculating perfusion of the separate maternal and fetal circulations of an isolated cotyledon of human placenta. Viability of the perfused cotyledons was established by measurements of oxygen consumption (average, 0.18 ml/gm/hr), glucose utilization (average, 1.0 mg/gm/hr), and lactate production (less than 0.01 mumol/gm/hr), and integrity of the placental barrier by the failure of India ink, 125I-albumin, or 35S-sulfobromophthalein to cross from fetal to maternal circulation. Clearance of 3H-inulin from the fetal circuit, 0.0059 +/- 0.0005 (SE) ml/min/gm, corresponded to 2.5% of its clearance by the adult human kidney. Clearance of 14C-antipyrine was 0.013 +/- 0.003 ml/min/gm. After introduction into the fetal circuit, the observed appearance of both inulin and antipyrine in the maternal circuit closely paralleled curves predicted by a simple mathematical model. The use of a continuously recirculating perfusion system is technically feasible, and has advantages over the single-pass technique for studying transplacental transfer of metabolites with a low efficiency of extraction

  1. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  2. Scintigraphic and MR perfusion imaging in preoperative evaluation for lung volume reduction surgery. Pilot study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Mueller, N.L.; Kavanagh, P.V

    2000-01-01

    To compare MR perfusion imaging with perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary emphysema being considered for lung volume reduction surgery. Six patients with pulmonary emphysema and two normal individuals were evaluated by MR perfusion imaging, perfusion scintigraphy, and selective bilateral pulmonary angiography. MR images were obtained with an enhanced fast gradient recalled echo with three-dimensional Fourier transformation technique (efgre 3D) (6.3/1.3; flip angle, 30 deg C; field of view, 45-48 cm; matrix, 256 x 160). The presence or absence of perfusion defects in each segment was evaluated by two independent observers. Using angiography as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MR perfusion imaging in detecting focal perfusion abnormalities were 90%, 87%, and 89%, respectively, while those of perfusion scintigraphy were 71%, 76%, and 71%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of MR perfusion imaging was significantly higher than that of scintigraphy (p<0.001, McNemar test). There was good agreement between two observers for MR perfusion imaging (kappa statistic, 0.66) and only moderate agreement for perfusion scintigraphy (kappa statistic, 0.51). MR perfusion imaging is superior to perfusion scintigraphy in the evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal perfusion in patients with pulmonary emphysema. (author)

  3. 'Motion frozen' quantification and display of myocardial perfusion gated SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slomka, P.J.; Hurwitz, G.A.; Baddredine, M.; Baranowski, J.; Aladl, U.E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Gated SPECT imaging incorporates both functional and perfusion information of the left ventricle (LV). However perfusion data is confounded by the effect of ventricular motion. Most existing quantification paradigms simply add all gated frames and then proceed to extract the perfusion information from static images, discarding the effects of cardiac motion. In an attempt to improve the reliability and accuracy of cardiac SPECT quantification we propose to eliminate the LV motion prior to the perfusion quantification via automated image warping algorithm. Methods: A pilot series of 14 male and 11 female gated stress SPECT images acquired with 8 time bins have been co-registered to the coordinates of the 3D normal templates. Subsequently the LV endo and epi-cardial 3D points (300-500) were identified on end-systolic (ES) and end-diastolic (ED) frames, defining the ES-ED motion vectors. The nonlinear image warping algorithm (thin-plate-spline) was then applied to warp end-systolic frame was onto the end-diastolic frames using the corresponding ES-ED motion vectors. The remaining 6 intermediate frames were also transformed to the ED coordinates using fractions of the motion vectors. Such warped images were then summed to provide the LV perfusion image in the ED phase but with counts from the full cycle. Results: The identification of the ED/ES corresponding points was successful in all cases. The corrected displacement between ED and ES images was up to 25 mm. The summed images had the appearance of the ED frames but have been much less noisy since all the counts have been used. The spatial resolution of such images appeared higher than that of summed gated images, especially in the female scans. These 'motion frozen' images could be displayed and quantified as regular non-gated tomograms including polar map paradigm. Conclusions: This image processing technique may improve the effective image resolution of summed gated myocardial perfusion images used for

  4. Validation of transport measurements in skeletal muscle with N-13 amino acids using a rabbit isolated hindlimb model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlon, K.C.; Bading, J.R.; DiResta, G.R.; Corbally, M.T.; Gelbard, A.S.; Brennan, M.F.

    1989-01-01

    The authors are studying the transport of C-11 and N-13 labeled amino acids in tumor-bearing rabbits to determine the role of amino acid transport in the pathogenesis of muscle wasting in cancer. To validate a new, in vivo, method for measuring transport in skeletal muscle with these compounds, an isolated hindlimb model was developed in rabbits. The limb was perfused with a non-recirculating, normothermic, constant pressure system and a cell-free perfusate. Hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were measured during the first 75 min. of perfusion and found to remain normal and stable. Flow varied directly with perfusion pressure over the normal range of resting flows in the intact rabbit hindlimb. Time-activity curves (TAC's) were recorded from the medial thigh following bolus co-injection of L-[amide N-13] glutamine or N-13 L-glutamate with Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) into the femoral artery. Regional plasma flow was determined from the Tc-99m data

  5. Counting the mismatches - lung ventilation/perfusion subtraction index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.C.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Farlow, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: There is potential for interobserver variability in interpretation of ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scans. Objective quantification of V/Q mismatch could be useful. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine the validity of image subtraction in a group of 27 patients (11 men, 8 women; mean age 59.4 years [range 21-81 years])investigated by V/Q scans for suspected pulmonary emboli. A standard 6 view V/Q scan was obtained with two cobalt markers used on the anterior and posterior surfaces for image alignment. Ventilation images were normalised to the perfusion using an area of normal ventilation and perfusion. With the use of automated, and if required, manual alignment, perfusion images were subtracted from ventilation, with a median filter applied. A summed index of mismatch for each lung scan was calculated from the difference. This index was then retrospectively compared to the result reported by one of four experienced physicians. Two patients with chronic obstructive airways disease were excluded from analysis. We conclude that high probability V/Q scans can be differentiated from low probability studies using this index; further prospective investigation in a larger cohort is warranted

  6. Dynamic (4D) CT perfusion offers simultaneous functional and anatomical insights into pulmonary embolism resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirsadraee, Saeed, E-mail: saeed.mirsadraee@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Reid, John H.; Connell, Martin [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); MacNee, William; Hirani, Nikhil [The Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom); Murchison, John T. [Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 51 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4SA (United Kingdom); Beek, Edwin J. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh EH16 4TJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: Resolution and long-term functional effects of pulmonary emboli are unpredictable. This study was carried out to assess persisting vascular bed perfusion abnormalities and resolution of arterial thrombus in patients with recent pulmonary embolism (PE). Methods and materials: 26 Patients were prospectively evaluated by dynamic (4D) contrast enhanced CT perfusion dynamic pulmonary CT perfusion. Intermittent volume imaging was performed every 1.5–1.7 s during breath-hold and perfusion values were calculated by maximum-slope technique. Thrombus load (modified Miller score; MMS) and ventricular diameter were determined. Perfusion maps were visually scored and correlated with residual endoluminal filling defects. Results: The mean initial thrombus load was 13.1 ± 4.6 MMS (3–16), and 1.2 ± 2.1 MMS (0–8) at follow up. From the 24 CTPs with diagnostic quality perfusion studies, normal perfusion was observed in 7 (29%), and mildly-severely abnormal in 17 (71%). In 15 patients with no residual thrombus on follow up CTPA, normal perfusion was observed in 6, and abnormal perfusion in 9. Perfusion was abnormal in all patients with residual thrombus on follow up CTPA. Pulmonary perfusion changes were classified as reduced (n = 4), delayed (systemic circulation pattern; n = 5), and absent (no-flow; n = 5). The right ventricle was dilated in 12/25 (48%) at presentation, and normal in all 26 follow up scans. Weak correlation was found between initial ventricular dilatation and perfusion abnormality at follow up (r = 0.15). Conclusions: Most patients had substantial perfusion abnormality at 3–6 months post PE. Abnormal perfusion patterns were frequently observed in patients and in regions with no corresponding evidence of residual thrombus on CTPA. Some defects exhibit delayed, presumed systemic, enhancement (which we have termed ‘stunned’ lung). CT perfusion provides combined anatomical and functional information about PE resolution.

  7. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scintigraphy in patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Seiji; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi.

    1988-01-01

    Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion scan using Xe-133 gas and Tc-99m MAA were performed in 18 patients with bronchial asthma to evaluate the regional pulmonary function. The scintigraphic findings were compared with the results of the auscultation and the conventional pulmonary functioning examination (%FVC, %FEV 1.0 ). Ventilation image showed abnormality in 12 (70.6%) out of the asymptomatic 17 patients and perfusion image showed abnormality in 7 (41.2%) out of 17 patients. These 7 patients with abnormality on perfusion image all showed abnormality on ventilation image. The grade of abnormality in scintigraphic findings was compatible with the values of %FVC and %FEV 1.0 . In conclusion Xe-133 ventilation and Tc-99m MAA perfusion scan were useful procedures to estimate the pulmonary function of patients with bronchial asthma. (author)

  8. Role of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in pediatric cardiology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic and prognostic power of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with coronary artery disease has been demonstrated with planar imaging which was further improvised with addition of gated SPECT and newer Technetium labeled myocardial perfusion tracers like SestaMIBI, Tetrofosmin. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities at rest and after stress are considered to be the best predictors of cardiac event-free survival in adults with ischemic heart disease. This article highlights various myocardial perfusion imaging (MPIradiopharmaceuticals, exercise procedures, pharmacological stress protocols, indications for MPI and myocardial perfusion patterns in children with some of the common congenital and acquired heart diseases.

  9. Significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in young adult patients with SLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakavi, S.R.; Kakhki, V.R.D.; Sadeghi, R.; Jokar, M.H.; Khazaei, G.

    2009-01-01

    Detection of subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) is a potential challenge in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and it is suggested that myocardial perfusion single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) is more sensitive than exercise test in this setting. However, the significance of perfusion abnormalities in SLE patients is not well known. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic significance of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with SLE. Patients with proven diagnosis of SLE admitted to the hospital due to noncardiac problems with no history of CAD were studied. All patients underwent 99m Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion scan using dipyridamole as pharmacological stress. All patients were followed up by reviewing patients file in lupus clinic and any minor or major cardiac events were recorded. Eighteen female and two male patients with mean age of 28.2±12.05 years were included. Six patients had mild reversible perfusion defects with mean summed difference score of 2.5±1.0. Pattern of reverse redistribution (reverse fill-in) was noted in three patients. Eleven patients had normal myocardial perfusion. Hypokinesia was noted in three patients on gated images. One patient with abnormal perfusion died 21 days after imaging due to on-cardiac cause. Nineteen patients were followed for a mean time of 39.2±16.0 months. No major or minor cardiac events were noted during follow-up. Three patients (one with abnormal perfusion) had at least one readmission during follow-up period. Our study showed that myocardial perfusion abnormalities are fairly frequent in SLE patients but the defects are generally mild and do not advocate an adverse prognosis. (author)

  10. The preliminary study of CT cerebral perfusion imaging in transient ischemic attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jie; Li Kuncheng; Du Xiangying

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To probe the application of CT cerebral perfusion imaging on transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Methods: Conventional CT and CT cerebral perfusion imaging were performed on 5 normal adults and 20 patients with clinically diagnosed TIA. After regular CT examination, dynamic scans of 40 seconds were performed on selected slice (usually on the basal ganglia slice), while 40 ml non-ionic contrast material were bolus injected through antecubital vein with. These dynamic images were processed with the 'Perfusion CT' software package on a PC based workstation. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and time to peak (TP) enhancement were measured within specific regions of the brain on CT perfusion images. Quantitative analysis was performed for these images. Results: A gradient of perfusion between gray matter and white matter was showed on cT perfusion images in normal adults and TIA patients. CBF and TP for normal cortical and white matter were 378.2 ml·min -1 ·L -1 , 7.8 s and 112.5 ml·min -1 ·L -1 , 9.9 s, respectively. In 20 cases with TIA, persisting abnormal perfusion changes corresponding to clinical symptoms were found in 15 cases with prolonged TP. Other 5 cases showed normal results. TP of affected side (11.8 +- 4.4) s compared with that of the contralateral side (9.1 +- 3.1) s was significantly prolonged (t = 5.277, P -1 · -1 ] and contralateral side [(229.1 +- 41.4) ml·min -1 ·L -1 ]. Conclusion: Perfusion CT provides valuable hemodynamic information and shows the extent of perfusion disturbances for patients with TIA

  11. Myocardial perfusion abnormality and chest pain in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the role of myocardial ischemia in the development of chest pain in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), exercise stress (Ex) redistribution myocardial single photon emission CT's (SPECT's) with thallium-201 (Tl) were obtained in 27 patients with HCM. In all patients, coronary arteries were normal arteriographically. Patients were classified into NYHA Class I, II and III according to the frequency and severity of the chest pain during daily life. In these 3 groups, age, sex and intraventricular septal thickness measured by echocardiography were not different. Types of myocardial perfusion obtained by myocardial SPECT's were divided into 5: (1) normal perfusion, (2) no perfusion defect with abnormal myocardial Tl washout rate (WOR) during 3 hours (<30%) [Def(-)/WORabn], (3) reversible perfusion defect (RD), (4) fixed defect with abnormal WOR (FD/WORabn), and (5) fixed defect with normal WOR (FD/WORnl). In 14 patients of Class I, 9 patients (64%) showed normal perfusion but the rest showed perfusion abnormality (def(-)/WORabn in 3 and RD in 2). In Class II and III, all patients showed perfusion abnormalities of RD, FD/WORabn or FD/WORnl. As the functional class progressed from Class II to III, the ratio of fixed defect (both WORnl and WORabn) to RD increased, but it was not statistically significant. In 2 patients in whom Ex SPECT's were repeated because of the progression of the chest pain, the severity of the perfusion abnormality also progressed. Perfusion abnormalities were observed most frequently in anterior (35%), then inferior/posterior (20%) and septal wall (18%). The frequency of Ex induced ECG abnormalities (ST-depression or T wave changes) increased as the NYHA Class progressed (Class III vs I p<0.05). These findings suggested the following: chest pain in patients with HCM relates to the myocardial ischemia which may originate in the myocardial small arteries, and when the lesions progress myocardial necrosis may ensue. (author)

  12. Transplacental pharmacokinetics of diclofenac in perfused human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintaku, Kyohei; Hori, Satoko; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Nagata, Hideaki; Satoh, Shoji; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Nakano, Hitoo; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Taketani, Yuji; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2009-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the transplacental transfer properties of diclofenac and to determine the effect of L-lactic acid on the transplacental transfer of diclofenac. The maternal and fetal vessels of human placenta were perfused in a single-pass mode with a solution containing diclofenac and antipyrine. The transplacental pharmacokinetic model was fitted to the time profiles of the drug concentrations in the effluent and placenta to obtain transplacental pharmacokinetic parameters. In addition, chloride ion in the perfusate was partially replaced with L-lactic acid to see the change in the transplacental transfer properties of diclofenac. The TPT(ss) value (ratio of the rate of amount transferred across the placenta to that infused in the steady state) of diclofenac was 2.22%, which was approximately one-third that of antipyrine and was significantly reduced in the presence of L-lactic acid. The transplacental pharmacokinetic model could adequately explain the transplacental transfer of diclofenac with influx clearances from maternal and fetal perfusates to placental tissue of 0.276 and 0.0345 ml/min/g cotyledon and efflux rate constants from placental tissue to maternal and fetal perfusates of 0.406 and 0.0337 min(-1), respectively. By taking into account protein binding, the placental tissue/plasma concentration ratio in humans for diclofenac was estimated to be 0.108 ml/g of cotyledon and was smaller than that of antipyrine. In conclusion, human placental perfusion and transplacental pharmacokinetic modeling allowed us to determine the transplacental transfer properties of diclofenac quantitatively. Diclofenac may share transplacental transfer system(s) with L-lactic acid.

  13. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  14. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  15. Extracts from the Mongolian traditional medicinal plants Dianthus versicolorFisch. and Lilium pumilum Delile stimulate bile flow in an isolated perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Tsendayush, Damba; Thalhammer, Theresia; Zehl, Martin; Vo, Thanh Phuong Nha; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Natsagdorj, Damdinsuren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2010-10-05

    Dianthus versicolor (Caryophyllaceae) and Lilium pumilum (Liliaceae) are two medicinal plants used in traditional Mongolian medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study aqueous (AE) and methanolic (ME) extracts of Dianthus versicolor and Lilium p