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Sample records for perfusion pressure influence

  1. Influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Zi Ren

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the influence of ocular perfusion pressure fluctuation on glaucoma. METHODS:Forty patients with primary open angle glaucoma from January 2013 to June 2015 in our hospital were used as observation group and 40 families were used as control group. Circadian fluctuation of intraocular pressure, blood pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in 24h were determined to obtain systolic ocular perfusion pressure(SOPP, diastolic ocular perfusion pressure(DOPPand mean ocular perfusion pressure(MOPP. Pearson linear correlation was used to analyze the correlation of circadian MOPP fluctuation with cup-disc ratio, mean defect(MDand the picture standard deviation(PSD. RESULTS:The fluctuation of MOPP, SOPP and DOPP of observation group were significantly higher than those of control group(Pr=-0.389, 95%CI:-0.612~-0.082; P=0.011, was positively correlated with PSD(r=0.512, 95%CI:0.139 ~0.782; P=0.008; no correlation was found between it and the vertical cup-disc ratio(r=0.115, 95%CI:0.056~0.369; P=0.355. CONCLUSION:Ocular perfusion pressure fluctuations in patients with primary open angle glaucoma may reflect the severity of the disease and may make the situation aggravating. Therefore through perfusion pressure monitor in 24h may help us understand the ocular blood flow and the development of primary open-angle glaucoma.

  2. Tissue perfusion as a key underlying concept of pressure ulcer development and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wywialowski, E F

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to refine and advance the theory that tissue perfusion is the key concept in the development and delayed healing of pressure ulcers. The person likely to have (be at risk for) pressure ulcers is at greater risk for inadequate tissue perfusion generally and specifically at pressure points. Accordingly, the tissue perfusion theory of pressure ulcer development states that the factors that contribute to inadequate tissue perfusion should be used to predict (identify risk factors for) pressure ulcer development and delayed healing. Factors influencing a person's adequacy of tissue perfusion need to be assessed to identify risk for pressure ulcers. In addition, adequate tissue perfusion needs to be maintained to provide for healing of such wounds. Current beliefs about the causes and prevention of pressure ulcers are described. Physiologic components of the tissue perfusion theory are discussed: cellular exchange of nutrients and wastes, autoregulation of blood flow at the cellular level, and regulatory mechanisms that affect tissue perfusion when it is significantly compromised. The North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) framework is used to classify or group examples of common pathophysiologic, treatment-related, situational, and maturational factors. Implications for research, practice, and education also are discussed.

  3. Sodium addition and/or oxygen saturation of iohexol during normal and reduced perfusion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence on contractile force (CF) and the propensity for ventricular fibrillation (VF) from infusing the non-ionic contrast medium iohexol during normal (75 cm H 2 O) and reduced perfusion pressure (35 cm H 2 O) were investigated in the isolated rabbit heart. Both during normal and reduced perfusion pressure iohexol (150 mg I/ml) with oxygen saturation caused a smaller reduction of CF than iohexol without oxygen. During reduced pressure iohexol with sodium addition (28 mM NaCl) caused less depression of CF than iohexol without sodium. The combination of sodium addition and oxygen saturation had the least influence on CF. Iohexol (350 mg I/ml) without sodium had a similar fibrillatory propensity during both normal and reduced pressure. Enriching iohexol with 28 mM NaCl decreased the risk of VF. The decrease was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. The risk of VF from oxygen saturation of iohexol (350 mg I/ml, without sodium) was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. It is concluded that a small addition of sodium and/or oxygen saturation of a non-ionic monomeric contrast medium have beneficial effects on the heart both during normal perfusion pressure and during ischemia. (orig.)

  4. Effects of Constant Flow vs. Constant Pressure Perfusion on Fluid Filtration in Severe Hypothermic Isolated Blood-Perfused Rat Lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsøy, Kathrine; Kondratiev, Timofey; Tveita, Torkjel; Bjertnaes, Lars J

    2016-01-01

    Victims of severe accidental hypothermia are prone to fluid extravasation but rarely develop lung edema. We hypothesize that combined hypothermia-induced increase in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and a concomitant fall in cardiac output protect the lungs against edema development. Our aim was to explore in hypothermic-isolated blood-perfused rat lungs whether perfusion at constant pressure influences fluid filtration differently from perfusion at constant flow. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs were hanging freely in a weight transducer for measuring weight changes (ΔW). Fluid filtration coefficient (Kfc), was determined by transiently elevating left atrial pressure (Pla) by 5.8 mmHg two times each during normothermia (37°C) and during hypothermia (15°C). The lung preparations were randomized to two groups. One group was perfused with constant flow (Constant flow group) and the other group with constant pulmonary artery pressure (Constant PPA group). Microvascular pressure (Pmv) was determined before and during elevation of Pla (ΔPmv) by means of the double occlusion technique. Kfc was calculated with the formula Kfc = ΔW/ΔPmv/min. All Kfc values were normalized to predicted lung weight (P LW ), which was based on body weight (BW) according to the formula: P LW  = 0.0053 BW - 0.48 and presented as Kfc PLW in mg/min/mmHg/g. At cessation, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid/perfusate protein concentration (B/P) ratio was determined photometrically. Data were analyzed with parametric or non-parametric tests as appropriate. p  Kfc PLW and B/P ratio increased significantly by more than 10-fold during hypothermia concerted by visible signs of edema in the trachea. Hemoglobin and hematocrit increased within the Constant flow group and between the groups at cessation of the experiments. In hypothermic rat lungs perfused at constant flow, fluid filtration coefficient per gram P LW and B/P ratio increased more than 10-fold concerted by increased

  5. Postural influence on intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressure in ambulatory neurosurgical patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lonnie Grove; Petersen, Johan Casper Grove; Andresen, Morten

    2016-01-01

    .4±4.2 mmHg when standing up (Phydrostatic pressure gradient with reference just below the heart, likely reflecting the venous hydrostatic...... indifference point. When upright, the decrease in ICP was attenuated, corresponding to formation of a separate hydrostatic gradient with reference to the base of the skull, likely reflecting the site of venous collapse. ICP therefore seems to be governed by pressure in the draining veins and collapse of neck......We evaluated postural effects on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP: mean arterial pressure (MAP) - ICP) in neurosurgical patients undergoing 24-hour ICP monitoring as part of their diagnostic workup. We identified 9 patients (5 women, age 44±20 yrs.; mean±SD) who were...

  6. Effects of perfusion pressure and insulin on (3H) cytochalasin B (CB) binding to control and diabetic rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleta, M.; Chan, T.

    1987-01-01

    Using ( 3 H) CB, they attempted to quantitate the changes in the amount of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular membranes (HSP) prepared from rat hearts perfused with insulin, under low and high pressure. Membranes isolated from non-perfused hearts showed a PM/HSP ratio of (0.593). Hearts perfused with low pressure showed a lower ratio of (0.474). Perfusion with insulin increased the ratio to (1.8), almost a 3-4 fold increase from low perfusion pressure. These data correlate with insulin effects in glucose transport and CB binding in the fat cells. High pressure perfusion increased the PM/HSP ratio by 1-2 fold. ( 3 H) 2-DG transport indicates a comparable increase in glucose uptake with high pressure, but with insulin only a 1.5 fold increase was observed. Initial data obtained from streptozotocin (STZ) injected diabetic rats indicate low CB binding in the PM fraction. Only insulin, but not high perfusion pressure increased PM/HSP ratio in the STZ-diabetic hearts. Their data imply that while both caused apparent translocation of glucose transporters, influences on cardiac glucose metabolism by work load are different. Furthermore, STZ induced diabetes affected only the high perfusion pressure-induced and not the insulin-stimulated change in CB binding

  7. Spatial interaction between tissue pressure and skeletal muscle perfusion during contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Donkelaar, C C; Huyghe, J M; Vankan, W J; Drost, M R

    2001-05-01

    The vascular waterfall theory attributes decreased muscle perfusion during contraction to increased intramuscular pressure (P(IM)) and concomitant increase in venous resistance. Although P(IM) is distributed during contractions, this theory does not account for heterogeneity. This study hypothesises that pressure heterogeneity could affect the interaction between P(IM) rise and perfusion. Regional tissue perfusion during submaximum (100kPa) tetanic contraction is studied, using a finite element model of perfused contracting skeletal muscle. Capillary flow in muscles with one proximal artery and vein (SIM(1)) and with an additional distal artery and vein (SIM(2)) is compared. Blood flow and pressures at rest and P(IM) during contraction ( approximately 25kPa maximally) are similar between simulations, but capillary flow and venous pressure differ. In SIM(2), venous pressure and capillary flow correspond to P(IM) distribution, whereas capillary flow in SIM(1) is less than 10% of flow in SIM(2), in the muscle half without draining vein. This difference is caused by a high central P(IM), followed by central venous pressure rise, in agreement with the waterfall theory. The high central pressure (SIM(1)), obstructs outflow from the distal veins. Distal venous pressure rises until central blood pressure is reached, although local P(IM) is low. Adding a distal vein (SIM(2)) restores the perfusion. It is concluded that regional effects contribute to the interaction between P(IM) and perfusion during contraction. Unlike stated by the vascular waterfall theory, venous pressure may locally exceed P(IM). Although this can be explained by the principles of this theory, the theory does not include this phenomenon as such.

  8. Carotid artery disease and low cerebral perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Utzon, N P; Aabech, J

    1990-01-01

    Direct internal carotid artery blood pressure measurements in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy identified 49 patients, among 239 consecutive cases (21%), who had a reduction in perfusion pressure of 20% or more. The clinical history, objective findings and angiographic data were compared...

  9. Hypothermic Machine Perfusion of Kidney Grafts: Which Pressure is Preferred?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorschodt, B. M.; Schreinemachers, M. C. J. M.; Behbahani, M.; Florquin, S.; Weis, J.; Staat, M.; Tolba, R. H.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the effect of the perfusion pressure (PP) during machine perfusion (MP) on the preservation quality of kidney grafts, we compared mean PPs of 25 and 30 mmHg using a porcine autotransplantation model. After assessment of the microcirculation, animals underwent left nephrectomy. Thereafter,

  10. Low pulmonary artery flush perfusion pressure combined with high positive end-expiratory pressure reduces oedema formation in isolated porcine lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumann, Stefan; Schließmann, Stephan J; Wagner, Giskard; Goebel, Ulrich; Priebe, Hans-Joachim; Guttmann, Josef; Kirschbaum, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Flush perfusion of the pulmonary artery with organ protection solution is a standard procedure before lung explantation. However, rapid flush perfusion may cause pulmonary oedema which is deleterious in the lung transplantation setting. In this study we tested the hypotheses that high pulmonary perfusion pressure contributes to the development of pulmonary oedema and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) counteracts oedema formation. We expected oedema formation to increase weight and decrease compliance of the lungs on the basis of a decrease in alveolar volume as fluid replaces alveolar air spaces. The pulmonary artery of 28 isolated porcine lungs was perfused with a low-potassium dextrane solution at low (mean 27 mmHg) or high (mean 40 mmHg) pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) during mechanical ventilation at low (4 cmH 2 O) or high (8 cmH 2 O) PEEP, respectively. Following perfusion and storage, relative increases in lung weight were smaller (p < 0.05) during perfusion at low PAP (62 ± 32% and 42 ± 26%, respectively) compared to perfusion at high PAP (133 ± 54% and 87 ± 30%, respectively). Compared to all other PAP–PEEP combinations, increases in lung weight were smallest (44 ± 9% and 27 ± 12%, respectively), nonlinear intratidal lung compliance was largest (46% and 17% respectively, both p < 0.05) and lung histology showed least infiltration of mononuclear cells in the alveolar septa, and least alveolar destruction during the combination of low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. The findings suggest that oedema formation during pulmonary artery flush perfusion in isolated and ventilated lungs can be reduced by choosing low perfusion pressure and high PEEP. PAP–PEEP titration to minimize pulmonary oedema should be based on lung mechanics and PAP monitoring

  11. Initial intramuscular perfusion pressure predicts early skeletal muscle function following isolated tibial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas Norbert P

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The severity of associated soft tissue trauma in complex injuries of the extremities guides fracture treatment and decisively determines patient's prognosis. Trauma-induced microvascular dysfunction and increased tissue pressure is known to trigger secondary soft tissue damage and seems to adversely affect skeletal muscle function. Methods 20 patients with isolated tibial fractures were included. Blood pressure and compartment pressure (anterior and deep posterior compartment were measured continuously up to 24 hours. Corresponding perfusion pressure was calculated. After 4 and 12 weeks isokinetic muscle peak torque and mean power of the ankle joint in dorsal and plantar flexion were measured using a Biodex dynamometer. Results A significant inverse correlation between the anterior perfusion pressure at 24 hours and deficit in dorsiflexion at 4 weeks was found for both, the peak torque (R = -0.83; p Conclusion The functional relationship between the decrease in intramuscular perfusion pressures and muscle performance in the early rehabilitation period indicate a causative and prognostic role of early posttraumatic microcirculatory derangements and skeletal muscle function. Therapeutic concepts aimed at effective muscle recovery, early rehabilitation, and decreased secondary tissue damage, should consider the maintenance of an adequate intramuscular perfusion pressure.

  12. Improvements in the technique of vascular perfusion-fixation employing a fluorocarbon-containing perfusate and a peristaltic pump controlled by pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, J; Qvortrup, Klaus; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    A new improved technique for whole-body perfusion-fixation of rats and other small animals is described. The driving force is a peristaltic pump which is feedback regulated by a pressure transducer that monitors the blood-perfusion pressure in the left ventricle of the heart. The primary perfusate...... to cannulate the heart; the outer and inner barrels of the cannula are connected to the peristaltic pump and to the pressure transducer, respectively. The tissue oxygen tension in the rat is monitored by a subcutaneous oxygen electrode. Measurements showed that tissue hypoxia/anoxia did not develop before......-fixative is composed of a blood substitute--13.3% oxygenated fluorocarbon FC-75--in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with a 2% glutaraldehyde. The secondary perfusate-fixative is composed of 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with 20 mM CaCl2. A double-barrelled, self-holding cannula is used...

  13. Directly measuring spinal cord blood flow and spinal cord perfusion pressure via the collateral network: correlations with changes in systemic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kise, Yuya; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Inafuku, Hitoshi; Nagano, Takaaki; Hirayasu, Tsuneo; Yamashiro, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    During thoracoabdominal surgery in which segmental arteries are sacrificed over a large area, blood supply routes from collateral networks have received attention as a means of avoiding spinal cord injury. The aim of this study was to investigate spinal cord blood supply through a collateral network by directly measuring spinal cord blood flow and spinal cord perfusion pressure experimentally. In beagle dogs (n = 8), the thoracoabdominal aorta and segmental arteries L1-L7 were exposed, and a temporary bypass was created for distal perfusion. Next, a laser blood flow meter was placed on the spinal dura mater in the L5 region to measure the spinal cord blood flow. The following were measured simultaneously when the direct blood supply from segmental arteries L2-L7 to the spinal cord was stopped: mean systemic blood pressure, spinal cord perfusion pressure (blood pressure within the aortic clamp site), and spinal cord blood flow supplied via the collateral network. These variables were then investigated for evidence of correlations. Positive correlations were observed between mean systemic blood pressure and spinal cord blood flow during interruption of segmental artery flow both with (r = 0.844, P flow with and without distal perfusion (r = 0.803, P network from outside the interrupted segmental arteries, and high systemic blood pressure (∼1.33-fold higher) was needed to obtain the preclamping spinal cord blood flow, whereas 1.68-fold higher systemic blood pressure was needed when distal perfusion was halted. Spinal cord blood flow is positively correlated with mean systemic blood pressure and spinal cord perfusion pressure under spinal cord ischemia caused by clamping a wide range of segmental arteries. In open and endovascular thoracic and thoracoabdominal surgery, elevating mean systemic blood pressure is a simple and effective means of increasing spinal cord blood flow, and measuring spinal cord perfusion pressure seems to be useful for monitoring

  14. Role of pressure in angiotensin II-induced renal injury: chronic servo-control of renal perfusion pressure in rats.

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    Mori, Takefumi; Cowley, Allen W

    2004-04-01

    Renal perfusion pressure was servo-controlled chronically in rats to quantify the relative contribution of elevated arterial pressure versus angiotensin II (Ang II) on the induction of renal injury in Ang II-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a 4% salt diet were administered Ang II for 14 days (25 ng/kg per minute IV; saline only for sham rats), and the renal perfusion pressure to the left kidney was continuously servo-controlled to maintain a normal pressure in that kidney throughout the period of hypertension. An aortic occluder was implanted around the aorta between the two renal arteries and carotid and femoral arterial pressure were measured continuously throughout the experiment to determine uncontrolled and controlled renal perfusion pressure, respectively. Renal perfusion pressure of uncontrolled, controlled, and sham kidneys over the period of Ang II or saline infusion averaged 152.6+/-7.0, 117.4+/-3.5, and 110.7+/-2.2 mm Hg, respectively. The high-pressure uncontrolled kidneys exhibited tubular necrosis and interstitial fibrosis, especially prominent in the outer medullary region. Regional glomerular sclerosis and interlobular artery injury were also pronounced. Controlled kidneys were significantly protected from interlobular artery injury, juxtamedullary glomeruli injury, tubular necrosis, and interstitial fibrosis as determined by comparing the level of injury. Glomerular injury was not prevented in the outer cortex. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and active NF-kappaB proteins determined by immunohistochemistry were colocalized in the uncontrolled kidney in regions of interstitial fibrosis. We conclude that the preferential juxtamedullary injury found in Ang II hypertension is largely induced by pressure and is probably mediated through the TGF-beta and NF-kappaB pathway.

  15. Estimation of bone perfusion as a function of intramedullary pressure in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, M.S.; Lehner, C.E.; Pearson, D.W.; Kanikula, T.M.; Adler, G.G.; Venci, R.; Lanphier, E.H.; De Luca, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    It has been reported previously that following decompression (i.e. diving ascents) the intramedullary pressure (IMP) in bone can rise dramatically and possibly by the mechanism which can induce dysbaric osteonecrosis or the ''silent bends''. If the blood supply for the bone transverses the marrow compartment, than an increase in IMP could cause a temporary decrease in perfusion or hemostasis and hence ischemia leading to bone necrosis. To test this hypothesis, the authors measured the perfusion of bone in sheep as a function of IMP. The bone perfusion was estimated by measuring the perfusion-limited clearance of Ar-41 (Eγ=1293 keV, T/sub 1/2/=1.83 h) from the bone mineral matrix of sheep's tibia. The argon gas was formed in vivo by the fast neutron activation of Ca-44 to Ar-41 following the Ca-44(n,α) reaction. Clearance of Ar-41 was measured by time gated gamma-ray spectroscopy. These results indicate that an elevation of intramedullary pressure can decrease perfusion in bone and may cause bone necrosis

  16. Comparing effects of perfusion and hydrostatic pressure on gene profiles of human chondrocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ge; Mayer-Wagner, Susanne; Schröder, Christian; Woiczinski, Matthias; Blum, Helmut; Lavagi, Ilaria; Krebs, Stefan; Redeker, Julia I; Hölzer, Andreas; Jansson, Volkmar; Betz, Oliver; Müller, Peter E

    2015-09-20

    Hydrostatic pressure and perfusion have been shown to regulate the chondrogenic potential of articular chondrocytes. In order to compare the effects of hydrostatic pressure plus perfusion (HPP) and perfusion (P) we investigated the complete gene expression profiles of human chondrocytes under HPP and P. A simplified bioreactor was constructed to apply loading (0.1 MPa for 2 h) and perfusion (2 ml) through the same piping by pressurizing the medium directly. High-density monolayer cultures of human chondrocytes were exposed to HPP or P for 4 days. Controls (C) were maintained in static cultures. Gene expression was evaluated by sequencing (RNAseq) and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Both treatments changed gene expression levels of human chondrocytes significantly. Specifically, HPP and P increased COL2A1 expression and decreased COL1A1 and MMP-13 expression. Despite of these similarities, RNAseq revealed a list of cartilage genes including ACAN, ITGA10 and TNC, which were differentially expressed by HPP and P. Of these candidates, adhesion related molecules were found to be upregulated in HPP. Both HPP and P treatment had beneficial effects on chondrocyte differentiation and decreased catabolic enzyme expression. The study provides new insight into how hydrostatic pressure and perfusion enhance cartilage differentiation and inhibit catabolic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Perfusion-induced changes in cardiac contractility depend on capillary perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, M A; Heslinga, J W; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    1998-02-01

    The perfusion-induced increase in cardiac contractility (Gregg phenomenon) is especially found in heart preparations that lack adequate coronary autoregulation and thus protection of changes in capillary pressure. We determined in the isolated perfused papillary muscle of the rat whether cardiac muscle contractility is related to capillary perfusion. Oxygen availability of this muscle is independent of internal perfusion, and perfusion may be varied or even stopped without loss of function. Muscles contracted isometrically at 27 degrees C (n = 7). During the control state stepwise increases in perfusion pressure resulted in all muscles in a significant increase in active tension. Muscle diameter always increased with increased perfusion pressure, but muscle segment length was unaffected. Capillary perfusion was then obstructed by plastic microspheres (15 microns). Flow, at a perfusion pressure of 66.6 +/- 26.2 cmH2O, reduced from 17.6 +/- 5.4 microliters/min in the control state to 3.2 +/- 1.3 microliters/min after microspheres. Active tension developed by the muscle in the unperfused condition before microspheres and after microspheres did not differ significantly (-12.8 +/- 29.4% change). After microspheres similar perfusion pressure steps as in control never resulted in an increase in active tension. Even at the two highest perfusion pressures (89.1 +/- 28.4 and 106.5 +/- 31.7 cmH2O) that were applied a significant decrease in active tension was found. We conclude that the Gregg phenomenon is related to capillary perfusion.

  18. Note: A micro-perfusion system for use during real-time physiological studies under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltas, Jeff; Long, Zac; Huff, Alison; Maloney, Ryan; Ryan, Jordan; Urayama, Paul

    2014-10-01

    We construct a micro-perfusion system using piston screw pump generators for use during real-time, high-pressure physiological studies. Perfusion is achieved using two generators, with one generator being compressed while the other is retracted, thus maintaining pressurization while producing fluid flow. We demonstrate control over perfusion rates in the 10-μl/s range and the ability to change between fluid reservoirs at up to 50 MPa. We validate the screw-pump approach by monitoring the cyanide-induced response of UV-excited autofluorescence from Saccharomyces cerevisiae under pressurization.

  19. A relative study of hepatic perfusion and portal vein pressure in rats with liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiaping; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Huang Yonghui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate spiral CT perfusion in assessing portal vein pressure in rats with different stages of liver cirrhosis. Methods Seventeen rats with early stage of liver cirrhosis, 18 with intermediate stage, 12 with advanced stage, and 13 healthy rats as a control group were selected and recieved hepatic perfusion on a single-row spiral CT scanner. The parameters of hepatic perfusion were calculated using the deconvolution method. The portal vein pressure was measured by multi-physiographer. Results: (1) In study group, the PVP (portal venous perfusion) and THBP (total hepatic blood perfusion) were negatively correlated with FPP, while positively correlated with the HPI (hepatic perfusion index) and MTT (mean transit time). The FPP had a close relation with PVP. The equation, Y 20.671-3.195X, could be conducted with linear regression analysis. (2) According to the linear regression equation mentioned above, the FPP in 47 rats were 16.090±2.150 cmH 2 0, which was highly correlated with the observed valuel6.108±3.662 cmH 2 O (r=0.823 P<0.01). Conclusion: CT perfusion is a new non-invasive and efficient modality for assessment of the portal pressure in liver cirrhosis in various stages. (authors)

  20. Continuous determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in traumatic brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, M.J.H.; Czosnyka, Marek; Budohoski, Karol P.; Steiner, Luzius A.; Lavinio, Andrea; Kolias, Angelos G.; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Brady, Ken M.; Menon, David K.; Pickard, John D.; Smielewski, Peter

    Objectives: We have sought to develop an automated methodology for the continuous updating of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure (CPPopt) for patients after severe traumatic head injury, using continuous monitoring of cerebrovascular pressure reactivity. We then validated the CPPopt algorithm by

  1. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure

  2. Coronary oscillatory flow amplitude is more affected by perfusion pressure than ventricular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krams, R; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    1990-06-01

    In this study on the isolated, maximally vasodilated, blood-perfused cat heart we investigated the relation between left ventricular developed pressure (delta Piv) and coronary oscillatory flow amplitude (diastolic minus systolic flow, delta F) at different levels of constant perfusion pressure (Pp). We hypothesized that the effect of cardiac contraction on the phasic flow results from the changing elastic properties of cardiac muscle. The coronary vessel compartment can, as can the left ventricular lumen compartment, be described by a time-varying elastance. This concept predicts that the effect of left ventricular pressure on delta F is small, whereas the effect of Pp is considerable. Both the waterfall model and the intramyocardial pump model predict the inverse. The relation between delta Piv and delta F at a Pp of 10 kPa is delta F = (4.71 +/- 3.08).delta Piv + 337 +/- 75 (slope in ml.min-1.100 g-1.kPa-1 and intercept in ml.min-1.100 g-1; n = 7); the relation between (constant levels of) Pp and delta F at a constant delta Piv of 10 kPa is delta F = 51.Pp + 211 (slope in ml.min-1.100 g-1.kPa-1 and intercept in ml.min-1.100 g-1; n = 6). The differences in slope are best predicted by the time-varying elastance concept.

  3. Wound healing in below-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Sager, P; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    In 60 below-knee amputations the healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 131I- or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Of the eight cases with an SPP below 20 mm...

  4. Abnormalities of Microcirculation and Intracranial and Cerebral Perfusion Pressures in Severe Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the states of microcirculation, cerebral perfusion intracranial pressures in patients with isolated severe brain injury (SBI and to determine their possible relationships. Subjects and methods. 148 studies were performed in 16 victims with SBI. According to the outcome of brain traumatic disease, the patients were divided into two groups: 1 those who had a good outcome (n=8 and 2 those who had a fatal outcome (n=8. Microcirculation was examined by skin laser Doppler flowmetry using a LAKK-01 capillary blood flow laser analyzer (LAZMA Research-and-Production Association, Russian Federation. All the victims underwent surgical interventions to remove epi-, subdural, and intracerebral hematomas. A Codman subdural/intraparenchymatous intracranial pressure (ICD sensor (Johnson & Johnson, United Kingdom was intraoperatively inserted in the victims. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP was calculated using the generally accepted formula: CPP = MBP (mean blood pressure — ICD. ICD, CPP, and microcirculation were studied on postoperative days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Their values were recorded simultaneously. Ninety and 58 studies were conducted in the group of patients with good and fatal outcomes, respectively. Results. No correlation between the changes in MBP, ICD, and microcirculatory parameters suggested that the value of ICD was determined by the nature of brain damage and it was the leading and determining indicator in the diagnosis and treatment of secondary cerebral lesions. The amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations directly correlated with ICD, which indicated that they might be used to evaluate cerebral perfusion and impaired cerebral circulation indirectly in victims with severe brain injury. Conclusion. The laser Doppler flowmetric technique makes it possible not only to qualitatively, but also quantitatively determine changes in the tissue blood flow system in severe brain injury. With this technique, both the local and central

  5. Spatial interaction between tissue pressure and skeletal muscle perfusion during contraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkelaar, van C.C.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Vankan, W.J.; Drost, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The vascular waterfall theory attributes decreased muscle perfusion during contraction to increased intramuscular pressure (P_IM ) and concomitant increase in venous resistance. Although P_IM is distributed during contractions, this theory does not account for heterogeneity.This study hypothesises

  6. A noninvasive estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure using critical closing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsos, Georgios V; Kolias, Angelos G; Smielewski, Peter; Brady, Ken M; Varsos, Vassilis G; Hutchinson, Peter J; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Marek

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral blood flow is associated with cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), which is clinically monitored through arterial blood pressure (ABP) and invasive measurements of intracranial pressure (ICP). Based on critical closing pressure (CrCP), the authors introduce a novel method for a noninvasive estimator of CPP (eCPP). Data from 280 head-injured patients with ABP, ICP, and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography measurements were retrospectively examined. CrCP was calculated with a noninvasive version of the cerebrovascular impedance method. The eCPP was refined with a predictive regression model of CrCP-based estimation of ICP from known ICP using data from 232 patients, and validated with data from the remaining 48 patients. Cohort analysis showed eCPP to be correlated with measured CPP (R = 0.851, p area under the curve of 0.913 (95% CI 0.883-0.944). When each recording session of a patient was assessed individually, eCPP could predict CPP with a 95% CI of the SD for estimating CPP between multiple recording sessions of 1.89-5.01 mm Hg. Overall, CrCP-based eCPP was strongly correlated with invasive CPP, with sensitivity and specificity for detection of low CPP that show promise for clinical use.

  7. Correlation between cerebral hemodynamic and perfusion pressure changes in non-human primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesch, A.; Smith, M. A.; Wollstein, G.; Sigal, I. A.; Nelson, S.; Kainerstorfer, J. M.

    2017-02-01

    The mechanism that maintains a stable blood flow in the brain despite changes in cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and therefore guaranties a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients to the neurons, is known as cerebral auto-regulation (CA). In a certain range of CPP, blood flow is mediated by a vasomotor adjustment in vascular resistance through dilation of blood vessels. CA is known to be impaired in diseases like traumatic brain injury, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hydrocephalus and others. If CA is impaired, blood flow and pressure changes are coupled and thee oxygen supply might be unstable. Lassen's blood flow auto-regulation curve describes this mechanism, where a plateau of stable blood flow in a specific range of CPP corresponds to intact auto-regulation. Knowing the limits of this plateau and maintaining CPP within these limits can improve patient outcome. Since CPP is influenced by both intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure, long term changes in either can lead to auto-regulation impairment. Non-invasive methods for monitoring blood flow auto-regulation are therefore needed. We propose too use Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) too fill this need. NIRS is an optical technique, which measures microvascular changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentration. We performed experiments on non-human primates during exsanguination to demonstrate that thee limits of blood flow auto-regulation can be accessed with NIRS.

  8. Evaluation of portal hypertension: a comparison of the use of liver perfusion CT with wedge hepatic venous pressure and hepatic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dong Jin; Kim, Young Joong; Park, Yong Sung; Lee, Tae Hee; Kim, Chong Soo; Kang, Heung Keun

    2008-01-01

    We compared the hepatic perfusion indices obtained using hepatic perfusion CT with the wedge hepatic venous pressure (WHVP) and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) to determine the efficacy of the use of liver perfusion CT for the evaluation of portal hypertension. Thirty-five patients with liver cirrhosis underwent hepatic vein catheterization to measure WHVP and HVPG and underwent a liver perfusion CT examination. Arterial perfusion, portal perfusion, total perfusion and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were calculated by the methods described by Miles and Blomlely. The overall correlation coefficients (r) between the perfusion indices and WHVP and HVPG were calculated. An additional correlation coefficient of 23 alcoholic cirrhosis patients was calculated. Using Blomley's equation, HPI had a positive correlation with WHVP (r = .471; ρ < .05) and HVPG (r = .482; ρ < .05). For the alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients, HPI had a higher positive correlation with WHVP (r = .500; ρ < .05) and HVPG (r = .539; ρ < .05) than for the non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients. There was no statistical difference between the use of Miles' equation and Blomley's equation for the evaluation of portal hypertension. This preliminary study showed that HPI positively correlated with WHVP and HVPG, especially in alcoholic cirrhosis patients. Liver perfusion CT may be useful in the evaluation of portal hypertension

  9. Tensile strength decreases and perfusion pressure of 3-holed polyamide epidural catheters increases in long-term epidural infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pascal; Meyer, Urs; Schüpfer, Guido; Rukwied, Roman; Konrad, Christoph; Gerber, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an established method for pain management. The failure rate is 8% to 12% due to technical difficulties (catheter dislocation and/or disconnection; partial or total catheter occlusion) and management. The mechanical properties of the catheters, like tensile strength and flow rate, may also be affected by the analgesic solution and/or the tissue environment. We investigated the tensile strength and perfusion pressure of new (n=20), perioperatively (n=30), and postoperatively (n=73) used epidural catheters (20-gauge, polyamide, closed tip, 3 side holes; Perifix [B. Braun]). To prevent dislocation, epidural catheters were taped (n=5) or fixed by suture (n=68) to the skin. After removal, mechanical properties were assessed by a tensile-testing machine (INSTRON 4500), and perfusion pressure was measured at flow rates of 10, 20, and 40 mL/h. All catheters demonstrated a 2-step force transmission. Initially, a minimal increase of length could be observed at 15 N followed by an elongation of several cm at additional forces (7 N). Breakage occurred in the control group at 23.5±1.5 N compared with 22.4±1.6 N in perioperative and 22.4±1.7 N in postoperative catheters (Ptensile strength, whereas perfusion pressure at clinically used flow rates (10 mL/h) increased significantly from 19±1.3 to 44±72 mm Hg during long-term (≥7 days) epidural analgesia (Ptensile strength or perfusion pressure. Epidural catheter use significantly increases the perfusion pressure and decreases the tensile strength. Copyright © 2011 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine

  10. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadani, Fabio N; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Miranda, Rafaela Morais; Cunha, Patricia Lt; M Kanadani, Tereza Cristina; Dorairaj, Syril

    2015-01-01

    Glaucomatous neuropathy can be a consequence of insufficient blood supply, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), or other risk factors that diminish the ocular blood flow. To determine the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal and systemic hypertensive patients. One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study and underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including slit lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, stereoscopic fundus examination, and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) measurements. The OPP was calculated as being the medium systemic arterial pressure (MAP) less the IOP. Only right eye values were considered for calculations using Student's t-test. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 years (36-78), and 68.5% were women. There was a statistically significant difference in the OPP of the normal and systemic hypertensive patients (p cite this article: Kanadani FN, Figueiredo CR, Miranda RM, Cunha PLT, Kanadani TCM, Dorairaj S. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):16-19.

  11. Evaluation of portal hypertension: a comparison of the use of liver perfusion CT with wedge hepatic venous pressure and hepatic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dong Jin; Kim, Young Joong; Park, Yong Sung; Lee, Tae Hee [University of Konyang College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chong Soo; Kang, Heung Keun [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    We compared the hepatic perfusion indices obtained using hepatic perfusion CT with the wedge hepatic venous pressure (WHVP) and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) to determine the efficacy of the use of liver perfusion CT for the evaluation of portal hypertension. Thirty-five patients with liver cirrhosis underwent hepatic vein catheterization to measure WHVP and HVPG and underwent a liver perfusion CT examination. Arterial perfusion, portal perfusion, total perfusion and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) were calculated by the methods described by Miles and Blomlely. The overall correlation coefficients (r) between the perfusion indices and WHVP and HVPG were calculated. An additional correlation coefficient of 23 alcoholic cirrhosis patients was calculated. Using Blomley's equation, HPI had a positive correlation with WHVP (r = .471; {rho} < .05) and HVPG (r = .482; {rho} < .05). For the alcoholic liver cirrhosis patients, HPI had a higher positive correlation with WHVP (r = .500; {rho} < .05) and HVPG (r = .539; {rho} < .05) than for the non-alcoholic cirrhosis patients. There was no statistical difference between the use of Miles' equation and Blomley's equation for the evaluation of portal hypertension. This preliminary study showed that HPI positively correlated with WHVP and HVPG, especially in alcoholic cirrhosis patients. Liver perfusion CT may be useful in the evaluation of portal hypertension.

  12. Perfusion of veins at arterial pressure increases the expression of KLF5 and cell cycle genes in smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirak, Emre; Zakkar, Mustafa; Evans, Paul C.; Kemp, Paul R.

    2010-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation remains a major cause of veno-arterial graft failure. We hypothesised that exposure of venous SMCs to arterial pressure would increase KLF5 expression and that of cell cycle genes. Porcine jugular veins were perfused at arterial or venous pressure in the absence of growth factors. The KLF5, c-myc, cyclin-D and cyclin-E expression were elevated within 24 h of perfusion at arterial pressure but not at venous pressure. Arterial pressure also reduced the decline in SM-myosin heavy chain expression. These data suggest a role for KLF5 in initiating venous SMCs proliferation in response to arterial pressure.

  13. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Changjin; Li Chao; Lv Haibo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3–127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2–53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7–124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2–62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14–47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice. (author)

  14. Comparing CT perfusion with oxygen partial pressure in a rabbit VX2 soft-tissue tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chang-Jin; Li, Chao; Lv, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Cong; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Guang-Hui; Luo, Yun-Xiu; Li, Yan; Xiao, Mingyong; Yin, Jun; Lang, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oxygen partial pressure of the rabbit model of the VX2 tumor using a 64-slice perfusion CT and to compare the results with that obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. Perfusion CT was performed for 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest, the blood volume (BV), the time to peak (TTP) and the peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were measured. The results were compared with the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2) of that region of interest obtained using the oxygen microelectrode method. The perfusion values of the brain tumor region of interest in 45 successfully constructed rabbit models of a VX2 brain tumor ranged from 1.3-127.0 (average, 21.1 ± 26.7 ml/min/ml); BV ranged from 1.2-53.5 ml/100g (average, 22.2 ± 13.7 ml/100g); PEI ranged from 8.7-124.6 HU (average, 43.5 ± 28.7 HU); and TTP ranged from 8.2-62.3 s (average, 38.8 ± 14.8 s). The PO2 in the corresponding region ranged from 0.14-47 mmHg (average, 16 ± 14.8 mmHg). The perfusion CT positively correlated with the tumor PO2, which can be used for evaluating the tumor hypoxia in clinical practice.

  15. Influence of repetitive finger puncturing on skin perfusion and capillary blood analysis in patients with diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, J. C.; Hemmes, G. J.; Bruin, T.; Ubbink, D. T.; Michels, R. P.; Jacobs, M. J.; Sanders, G. T.

    1999-01-01

    Frequent puncturing of fingers to check blood glucose in patients with type 1 diabetes might alter skin perfusion and, hence, influence the representativeness of the blood sample. We investigated the influence of repetitive puncturing on skin microcirculatory perfusion using laser Doppler fluxmetry

  16. Ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations in relation to the skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P

    1980-01-01

    Healing of the stumps in 59 above-knee amputations was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 131I-(-) or 125I-(-) antipyrine mixed with histamine. Out of the 11 cases with an SPP below 30 mm...... ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations as has previously been shown to be the case in below-knee amputations....

  17. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R.V.; Truijen, J.; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    In the upright position, cerebral blood flow is reduced, maybe because arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pa(CO(2))) decreases. We evaluated the time-dependent influence of a reduction in Pa(CO(2)), as indicated by the end-tidal Pco(2) tension (Pet(CO(2))), on cerebral perfusion during head......-up tilt. Mean arterial pressure, cardiac output, middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCA V(mean)), and dynamic cerebral autoregulation at supine rest and 70 degrees head-up tilt were determined during free breathing and with Pet(CO(2)) clamped to the supine level. The postural changes in central...... hemodynamic variables were equivalent, and the cerebrovascular autoregulatory capacity was not significantly affected by tilt or by clamping Pet(CO(2)). In the first minute of tilt, the decline in MCA V(mean) (10 +/- 4 vs. 3 +/- 4 cm/s; mean +/- SE; P

  18. The influence of norepinephrine and phenylephrine on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation during propofol-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil-dexmedetomidine anaesthesia in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Rasmussen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    of dexmedetomidine. Cerebral perfusion measured by laser speckle contrast imaging was related to cerebral oxygenation as measured by an intracerebral Licox probe (partial pressure of oxygen) and transcranial near infrared spectroscopy technology (NIRS) (cerebral oxygen saturation). Results During propofol......–remifentanil anaesthesia, increases in blood pressure by norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not change cerebral perfusion significantly, but cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (Licox) increased following vasopressors in both groups and increases following norepinephrine were significant (NBP: P = 0.04, LBP: P = 0......–remifentanil–dexmedetomidine anaesthesia was not followed by significant changes in cerebral perfusion. Licox measures increased significantly following both vasopressors in both groups, whereas the decreases in NIRS measures were only significant in the NBP group. Conclusions Cerebral partial pressure of oxygen measured by Licox...

  19. The use of hemoglobin saturation ratio as a means of measuring tissue perfusion in the development of heel pressure sores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliano, Kristen A; Stavrides, Steve; Davenport, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The heel is a common site of pressure ulcers. The amount of pressure and time needed to develop these wounds is dependent on various factors including pressure surface, the patient's anatomy, and co-morbidities. We studied the use of the hemoglobin saturation ratio as a means of assessing heel perfusion in various pressure settings. The mixed perfusion ratio in the heels of 5 volunteers was assessed on 3 pressure surfaces and at the time of off-load. The surfaces studied included: stretcher pad, plastic backboard without padding, and pressure reduction gel. Each surface was measured for 5 minutes with a real-time reading. On the stretcher, the average StO2% decrease for each pressure surface was 26.2 ± 10 (range 18-43). The average StO2% decrease on the backboard was 22.8 ± 12.3 (range 8-37), and 24.0 ± 4.8 (range 19-30) on the gel pad. The StO2% drop plateaued with the stretcher and gel pad, but with the backboard there was a continued slow drop at 5 minutes. This study demonstrates that hemoglobin oxygenation ratio may be effective in assessing a tissue's direct perfusion in the setting of tissue pressure and may also be beneficial to better assess the effects of pressure-reduction surfaces. Further studies will be needed to determine time to skin breakdown as it pertains to pressure and tissue oxygenation.

  20. Influence of risk area size and location on native collateral resistance and ischemic zone perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumm, D.C.; Cooper, S.M.; Thompson, S.B.; Marcus, M.L.; Harrison, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    To examine the effect of risk area size on collateral resistance and ichemic region perfusion, the authors produced different sized risk areas by occluding either the left anterior descending (LAD) or the circumflex (Cx) coronary artery at different sites. The most proximal occlusion of the LAD and Cx produced risk areas of 43 ± 5 and 36 ± 2% of left ventricular (LV) mass, respectively, whereas distal LAD and Cx occlusions produced risk areas of 13 ± 2 and 17 ± 2% of LV weight, respectively. Although total collateral flow was highest to the largest risk areas, collateral flow per 100 g of ischemic myocardium was 80% higher to the small LAD risk area compared with the large LAD risk area and 43% higher to the small Cx risk area compared with the large Cx risk area. Collateral resistance, calculated from the transcollateral pressure and perfusion per 100 g of myocardium was significantly lower in the small risk areas than in the large ones. They examined the effect of risk area location on collateral perfusion and resistance. These experiments show that collateral resistance is influenced both by ischemic region size and location. Small risk areas receive more collateral flow per mass of tissue than large risk areas, and apical risk areas receive greater quantities of collateral flow than those located at the base. These data may explain why small risk areas often do not develop infarction after coronary occlusion

  1. Wound healing in above-knee amputations in relation to skin perfusion pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Dovey, H; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    In 59 above-knee amputations healing of the stumps was correlated with the local skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured preoperatively as the external pressure required to stop isotope washout using 1318-- or 125I--antipyrine mixed with histamine. Out of the 11 cases with an SPP below 30 mm...... on the stumps was on average only slightly and insignificantly higher than the preoperative values, explaining why the preoperative values related so closely to the postoperative clinical course. We conclude that the SPP can be used to predict ischaemic wound complications in above-knee amputations as has...... previously been shown to be the case in below-knee amputations....

  2. Influence of intermittent pressure, fluid flow, and mixing on the regenerative properties of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, S E; Heath, C A

    1999-11-05

    Equine articular chondrocytes, embedded within a polyglycolic acid nonwoven mesh, were cultured with various combinations of intermittent pressure, fluid flow, and mixing to examine the effects of different physical stimuli on neochondrogenesis from young cells. The cell/polymer constructs were cultured first in 125 ml spinner flasks for 1, 2, or 4 weeks and then in a perfusion system with intermittent pressure for a total of up to 6 weeks. Additional constructs were either cultured for all 6 weeks in the spinner flasks or for 1 week in spinners followed by 5 weeks in the perfusion system without intermittent pressure. Tissue constructs cultivated for 2 or 4 weeks in spinner flasks followed by perfusion with intermittent pressure had significantly higher concentrations of both sulfated glycosaminoglycan and collagen than constructs cultured entirely in spinners or almost entirely in the pressure/perfusion system. Initial cultivation in the spinner flasks, with turbulent mixing, enhanced both cell attachment and early development of the extracellular matrix. Subsequent culture with perfusion and intermittent pressure appeared to accelerate matrix formation. While the correlation was much stronger in the pressurized constructs, the compressive modulus was directly proportional to the concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in all physically stressed constructs. Constructs that were not stressed beyond the 1-week seeding period lost mechanical integrity upon harvest, suggesting that physical stimulation, particularly with intermittent pressure, of immature tissue constructs during their development may contribute to their ultimate biomechanical functionality. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, J.B. (Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (USA)); Evans, D.H. (Mt. Desert Island Biological Laboratory, Salsbury Cove, ME, USA)

    1981-06-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of /sup 22/Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro /sup 36/Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion.

  4. Skin perfusion pressure as an indicator of tissue perfusion in valvular heart surgery: Preliminary results from a prospective, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Song

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic management aims to provide adequate tissue perfusion, which is often altered during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. We evaluated whether skin perfusion pressure (SPP can be used for monitoring of adequacy of tissue perfusion in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. Seventy-two patients undergoing valve replacement were enrolled. SPP and serum lactate level were assessed after anaesthesia induction (baseline, during CPB, after CPB-off, end of surgery, arrival at intensive care unit, and postoperative 6 h. Lactate was further measured until postoperative 48 h. Association of SPP with lactate and 30-day morbidity comprising myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, stroke, prolonged intubation, sternal infection, reoperation, and mortality was assessed. Among the lactate levels, postoperative 6 h peak value was most closely linked to composite of 30-day morbidity. The SPP value during CPB and its % change from the baseline value were significantly associated with the postoperative 6 h peak lactate (r = -0.26, P = 0.030 and r = 0.47, P = 0.001, respectively. Optimal cut-off of % decrease in SPP during CPB from baseline value for the postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia was 48% (area under curve, 0.808; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.652-0.963; P = 0.001. Decrease in SPP >48% during CPB from baseline value was associated with a 12.8-fold increased risk of composite endpoint of 30-day morbidity (95% CI, 1.48-111.42; P = 0.021 on multivariate logistic regression. Large decrease in SPP during CPB predicts postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia and 30-day morbidity, which implicates a promising role of SPP monitoring in the achievement of optimal perfusion during CPB.

  5. Skin perfusion pressure as an indicator of tissue perfusion in valvular heart surgery: Preliminary results from a prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young; Soh, Sarah; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Park, Kyoung-Un; Kwak, Young-Lan

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic management aims to provide adequate tissue perfusion, which is often altered during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We evaluated whether skin perfusion pressure (SPP) can be used for monitoring of adequacy of tissue perfusion in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. Seventy-two patients undergoing valve replacement were enrolled. SPP and serum lactate level were assessed after anaesthesia induction (baseline), during CPB, after CPB-off, end of surgery, arrival at intensive care unit, and postoperative 6 h. Lactate was further measured until postoperative 48 h. Association of SPP with lactate and 30-day morbidity comprising myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, stroke, prolonged intubation, sternal infection, reoperation, and mortality was assessed. Among the lactate levels, postoperative 6 h peak value was most closely linked to composite of 30-day morbidity. The SPP value during CPB and its % change from the baseline value were significantly associated with the postoperative 6 h peak lactate (r = -0.26, P = 0.030 and r = 0.47, P = 0.001, respectively). Optimal cut-off of % decrease in SPP during CPB from baseline value for the postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia was 48% (area under curve, 0.808; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.652-0.963; P = 0.001). Decrease in SPP >48% during CPB from baseline value was associated with a 12.8-fold increased risk of composite endpoint of 30-day morbidity (95% CI, 1.48-111.42; P = 0.021) on multivariate logistic regression. Large decrease in SPP during CPB predicts postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia and 30-day morbidity, which implicates a promising role of SPP monitoring in the achievement of optimal perfusion during CPB.

  6. Evaluation of an isotope washout technique to measure skin vascular resistance and skin perfusion pressure: influence of age, site and arterial surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, H.J.; Faris, I.B.

    1986-01-01

    1. A simplified isotope (sup(99m)Tc) washout technique has been devised to calculate the skin perfusion pressure (SPP) and skin vascular resistance (SVR). This test is simple, requires inexpensive equipment and is well tolerated by patients. 2. SPP and SVR were calculated in 20 patients 30 years of age and in 15 patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD). With increasing age the SPP and SVP were increased. The SPP was similar to the mean arterial pressure in normal individuals but was decreased in patients with PVD. The SPP is a useful indicator of the severity of the PVD. 3. The SPP and SVR were higher in the calf than in the foot. This is probably related to the decrease in pressure in the distal arterial tree. 4. SPP was increased by 110% and skin blood flow by 190% by arterial reconstructive surgery. This test may be of use in assessing the effectiveness of arterial surgery. (author)

  7. [An automatic system controlled by microcontroller for carotid sinus perfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X L; Wang, M Y; Fan, Z Z; He, R R

    2001-08-01

    To establish a new method for controlling automatically the carotid perfusion pressure. A cheap practical automatic perfusion unit based on AT89C2051 micro controller was designed. The unit, LDB-M perfusion pump and the carotid sinus of an animal constituted an automatic perfusion system. This system was able to provide ramp and stepwise updown perfusion pattern and has been used in the research of baroreflex. It can insure the precision and reproducibility of perfusion pressure curve, and improve the technical level in corresponding medical field.

  8. The effect of perfusion and irrigation flow rate variations on NaCl efflux from the isolated, perfused head of the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, J.B.; Evans, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    In vivo branchial blood pressure and unidirectional efflux values for NaCl were determined in the marine teleost, Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus. Utilizing an isolated, perfused head preparation, perfused at in vivo pressure levels, NaCl efflux was measured and compared to in vivo values. The effect of variations in perfusion or irrigation rates on the ion efflux across the gills of the isolated head was also studied. The efflux of 22 Na from the isolated, perfused head was found to be similar to in vivo values and dependent on perfusion flow and pressure. In vitro 36 Cl efflux was lower than the efflux from intact animals and was determined to be flow/pressure independent. Irrigation rate changes at all rates tested did not affect the unidirectional efflux of either ion. (Auth.)

  9. Study of a new method for the evaluation of portal vein pressure by hepatic perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Muhua; Ling Yunbiao; Pan Zhiheng; Zhang Feng; Chen Weizhen

    2002-01-01

    To study a new method for predication of portal vein pressure (PVP) by hepatic perfusion imaging. 25 hepato-cirrhotic cases and 13 normal controls were performed the hepatic perfusion imaging. According to two compartmental model the values of portal vein indexes (PVI) was calculated using curve slope, area and hepatic heart perfusion ratio methods etc. The relationship of PVI with different method to PVP was also observed. All PVI by three methods in hepatocirrhosis were higher than those in normal controls (P<0.01), and also positively correlated with the PVP, their correlated coefficients was 0.79, 0.60, 0.68 respectively. Among them the slope method was most markedly significant than normal control and closely correlated with PVP. PVI can sensitively reflect the changes of portal vein blood flow. And it was an atraumatic, simple method for the evaluation of PVP

  10. Influence of antihypertensive therapy on cerebral perfusion in patients with metabolic syndrome: relationship with cognitive function and 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Nataliya Y; Chernov, Vladimir I; Efimova, Irina Y; Lishmanov, Yuri B

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive function, and parameters of 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients with metabolic syndrome before and after combination antihypertensive therapy. The study involved 54 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) investigated by brain single-photon emission computed tomography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of combination antihypertensive therapy. Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly poorer regional cerebral blood flow compared with control group: by 7% (P = 0.003) in right anterior parietal cortex, by 6% (P = 0.028) in left anterior parietal cortex, by 8% (P = 0.007) in right superior frontal lobe, and by 10% (P = 0.00002) and 7% (P = 0.006) in right and left temporal brain regions, correspondingly. The results of neuropsychological testing showed 11% decrease in mentation (P = 0.002), and 19% (P = 0.011) and 20% (P = 0.009) decrease in immediate verbal and visual memory in patients with MetS as compared with control group. Relationships between the indices of ABPM, cerebral perfusion, and cognitive function were found. Data showed an improvement of regional cerebral blood flow, ABPM parameters, and indicators of cognitive functions after 6 months of antihypertensive therapy in patients with MetS. The study showed the presence of diffuse disturbances in cerebral perfusion is associated with cognitive disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Combination antihypertensive treatment exerts beneficial effects on the 24-h blood pressure profile, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves cognitive function in patients with MetS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion pump : Functional evaluation of a new machine perfusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A.; Maathuis, M. H. J.; Hart, N. A. 't; Bellekom, A. A.; Hofker, H. S.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Verkerke, G. J.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; Verdonck, P.; Ploeg, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.

    2006-01-01

    To improve preservation of donor livers, we have developed a portable hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system as an alternative for static cold storage. A prototype of the system was built and evaluated on functionality. Evaluation criteria included 24 h of adequate pressure controlled perfusion,

  12. Preserved regulation of renal perfusion pressure by small and intermediate conductance K-Ca channels in hypertensive mice with or without renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waeckel, L.; Bertin, F.; Clavreul, N.

    2015-01-01

    -transgenic female mice expressing human angiotensinogen and renin (AR) genes received either control or a high-salt diet associated to a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor treatment (BLSL and ARSL). Changes in renal perfusion pressure (RPP) were measured in isolated perfused kidneys. BLSL and AR were moderately...

  13. Spatio-temporal analysis of blood perfusion by imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaunseder, Sebastian; Trumpp, Alexander; Ernst, Hannes; Förster, Michael; Malberg, Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) has attracted much attention over the last years. The vast majority of works focuses on methods to reliably extract the heart rate from videos. Only a few works addressed iPPGs ability to exploit spatio-temporal perfusion pattern to derive further diagnostic statements. This work directs at the spatio-temporal analysis of blood perfusion from videos. We present a novel algorithm that bases on the two-dimensional representation of the blood pulsation (perfusion map). The basic idea behind the proposed algorithm consists of a pairwise estimation of time delays between photoplethysmographic signals of spatially separated regions. The probabilistic approach yields a parameter denoted as perfusion speed. We compare the perfusion speed versus two parameters, which assess the strength of blood pulsation (perfusion strength and signal to noise ratio). Preliminary results using video data with different physiological stimuli (cold pressure test, cold face test) show that all measures are influenced by those stimuli (some of them with statistical certainty). The perfusion speed turned out to be more sensitive than the other measures in some cases. However, our results also show that the intraindividual stability and interindividual comparability of all used measures remain critical points. This work proves the general feasibility of employing the perfusion speed as novel iPPG quantity. Future studies will address open points like the handling of ballistocardiographic effects and will try to deepen the understanding of the predominant physiological mechanisms and their relation to the algorithmic performance.

  14. Post Traumatic Cerebral Oedema in Severe Head Injury is Related to Intracranial Pressure and Cerebral Perfusion Pressure but not to Cerebral Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Nujaimin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This was a prospective cohort study, carried out in the Neuro Intensive Care Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian Kelantan. The study was approved by the local ethics committee and was conducted between November 2005 and September 2007 with a total of 30 patients included in the study. In our study, univariate analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between mean intracranial pressure (ICP as well as cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP with both states of basal cistern and the degree of diffuse injury and oedema based on the Marshall classification system. The ICP was higher while CPP and compliance were lower whenever the basal cisterns were effaced in cases of cerebral oedema with Marshall III and IV. In comparison, the study revealed lower ICP, higher mean CPP and better mean cerebral compliance if the basal cisterns were opened or the post operative CT brain scan showed Marshall I and II. These findings suggested the surgical evacuation of clots to reduce the mass volume and restoration of brain anatomy may reduce vascular engorgement and cerebral oedema, therefore preventing intracranial hypertension, and improving cerebral perfusion pressure and cerebral compliance. Nevertheless the study did not find any significant relationship between midline shifts and mean ICP, CPP or cerebral compliance even though lower ICP, higher CPP and compliance were frequently observed when the midline shift was less than 0.5 cm. As the majority of our patients had multiple and diffuse brain injuries, the absence of midline shift did not necessarily mean lower ICP as the pathology was bilateral and even when after excluding the multiple lesions, the result remained insignificant. We assumed that the CT brain scan obtained after evacuation of the mass lesion to assess the state basal cistern and classify the diffuse oedema may prognosticate the intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure

  15. The influence of probe fiber distance on laser Doppler perfusion monitoring measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales, F; Graaff, R; Smit, AJ; Gush, R; Rakhorst, G

    2003-01-01

    Laser Doppler perfusion monitoring (LDPM) is a noninvasive technique for monitoring skin microcirculation. The aim of this article was to investigate the influence of fiber separation on clinical LDPM measurements. A dual-channel LDPM system was used in combination with a probe that consists of two

  16. Hematocrit and Serum Hemoglobin Do Not Influence Values in Computed Tomography Perfusion of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwacki, Grzegorz Marek; Benz, Matthias Richard; Tyndall, Anthony Joseph; Ulmer, Stephan

    There is a correlation between both serum hemoglobin (HGB) and hematocrit (HCT) and attenuation values of vessels in noncontrast-enhanced computed tomography (NECT), which could influence calculated perfusion maps in CT perfusion. We retrospectively included 45 patients, who presented with acute new neurological symptoms and underwent NECT and CT perfusion (128-row multi detector scanner, coverage: 6.9 cm craniocaudally; 80 kV; 200 mAs; temporal resolution: 2 seconds using 40 mL Ultravist 370 at a flow rate of 5 mL/s) on admission and a follow-up MRI within 1 week of admission. Hematocrit, HGB, and attenuation values did not differ between patients with stroke and controls. A statistically significant correlation was found between HCT and HGB and attenuation values in the internal carotid artery or middle cerebral artery on NECT (P Hematocrit and HGB do not influence calculated perfusion maps. There is no need for HCT/HGB-adjusted cerebral blood volume thresholds in stroke patients.

  17. Regional cerebral perfusion in cardiovascular reflex syncope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeyry, J.P.; Kuikka, J.T.; Laensimies, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the regional cerebral perfusion in subjects with presyncope or syncope, and the impact that autonomic nervous dysfunction has on it. Seven subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor reflex syncope were studied. A baseline test was performed with the patients standing in the 70 upright position, while the passive head-up tilt table test with and without isoprenaline infusion was employed for provocation. Regional cerebral perfusion was assessed by means of single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m labelled V-oxo-1,2-N,N 1 -ethylenedylbis-l-cysteine diethylester (baseline, and during blood pressure decline in the provocation test) and the autonomic nervous function by means of spectral analysis of heart rate variability (baseline, and before blood pressure decline in the provocation test). Every subject showed an abrupt decline in blood pressure in the provocation test (five with presyncope and two with syncope). The systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (P<0.001) between the baseline and the provocation study time points (radiopharmaceutical injection and lowest systolic blood pressure). Mean cerebral perfusion as average count densities decreased upon provocation as compared with baseline (190±63 vs 307±90 counts/voxel, respectively, P=0.013). Hypoperfusion was most pronounced in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that cerebral perfusion decreases markedly during presyncope or syncope with systemic blood pressure decline in subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor syncope. Furthermore, the autonomic nervous function remains unchanged before the systemic blood pressure decline. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Physiological and psychological individual differences influence resting brain function measured by ASL perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, M; Coen, S J; Farmer, A D; Aziz, Q; Williams, S C R; Alsop, D C; Fukudo, S; O'Gorman, R L

    2014-09-01

    Effects of physiological and/or psychological inter-individual differences on the resting brain state have not been fully established. The present study investigated the effects of individual differences in basal autonomic tone and positive and negative personality dimensions on resting brain activity. Whole-brain resting cerebral perfusion images were acquired from 32 healthy subjects (16 males) using arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI. Neuroticism and extraversion were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised. Resting autonomic activity was assessed using a validated measure of baseline cardiac vagal tone (CVT) in each individual. Potential associations between the perfusion data and individual CVT (27 subjects) and personality score (28 subjects) were tested at the level of voxel clusters by fitting a multiple regression model at each intracerebral voxel. Greater baseline perfusion in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cerebellum was associated with lower CVT. At a corrected significance threshold of p individual autonomic tone and psychological variability influence resting brain activity in brain regions, previously shown to be associated with autonomic arousal (dorsal ACC) and personality traits (amygdala, caudate, etc.) during active task processing. The resting brain state may therefore need to be taken into account when interpreting the neurobiology of individual differences in structural and functional brain activity.

  19. Counteracting negative venous line pressures to avoid arterial air bubbles: an experimental study comparing two different types of miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Anas; Mederos-Dahms, Hendrikje; Liebing, Kai; Zittermann, Armin; Schubert, Harald; Murray, Edward; Renner, Andre; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-05-29

    Because of its low rate of clinical complications, miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems (MEPS) are frequently used in heart centers worldwide. However, many recent studies refer to the higher probability of gaseous microemboli formation by MEPS, caused by subzero pressure values. This is the main reason why various de-airing devices were developed for today's perfusion systems. In the present study, we investigated the potential benefits of a simple one-way-valve connected to a volume replacement reservoir (OVR) for volume and pressure compensation. In an experimental study on 26 pigs, we compared MEPS (n = 13) with MEPS plus OVR (n = 13). Except OVR, perfusion equipment was identical in both groups. Primary endpoints were pressure values in the venous line and the right atrium as well as the number and volume of air bubbles. Secondary endpoints were biochemical parameters of systemic inflammatory response, ischemia, hemodilution and hemolysis. One animal was lost in the MEPS + OVR group. In the MEPS + OVR group no pressure values below -150 mmHg in the venous line and no values under -100 mmHg in right atrium were noticed. On the contrary, nearly 20% of venous pressure values in the MEPS group were below -150 and approximately 10% of right atrial pressure values were below -100 mmHg. Compared with the MEPS group, the bubble counter device showed lower numbers of arterial air bubbles in the MEPS + OVR group (mean ± SD: 13444 ± 5709 vs. 1 ± 2, respectively; p pressures and to reduce the number and volume of arterial air bubbles. This approach may lead to a lower rate of neurological complications.

  20. Increased perfusion pressure enhances the expression of endothelin (ETB) and angiotensin II (AT1, AT2) receptors in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstedt, Isak; Xu, Cang-Bao; Zhang, Yaping

    2009-01-01

    and luminally perfused in a perfusion chamber. After either exposure to no ("organ culture" (0 mmHg)), normal (85/75 mmHg) or high pressure (160/150 mmHg) at constant flow for 1-17 h, the vessel segments were snap frozen and real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to quantify the ET- and AT-receptor m...

  1. Relationship between systemic hypertension, perfusion pressure and glaucoma: A comparative study in an adult Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit K Deb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study the relationship between blood pressure (BP, intraocular pressure (IOP, mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG in patients with hypertension and compare it to a control group of normotensives. Design: Cross-sectional observational study. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 subjects with primary hypertension and 100 age-matched controls without hypertension were enrolled for the study. IOP measurement using Noncontact Tonometer and dilated fundus evaluation using + 90 D lens were done for all cases. Single recording of BP was taken. Gonioscopy, Humphrey′s central visual fields, optical coherence tomography and pachymetry were done for all subjects with IOP > 21 mm Hg or C: D ratio ≥ 0.5 or asymmetry of > 0.2. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multivariate multinomial regression models were used to determine the association between covariates and risk of glaucoma or glaucoma suspect. Results: There was no difference in the glaucoma status between subjects with and without hypertension. Subjects on antihypertensive medications were 1΍ times more likely to have suspicious glaucoma (odds ratio [OR] =1.56] and nearly twice as likely to have POAG (OR = 1.85. In addition, we found a 31% and 12% reduction in risk of having POAG (95% confidence interval [CI] =13-45%, P = 0.001 and glaucoma suspect (95% CI = 2-21%, P = 0.03 respectively with every 1 mm Hg increment in MOPP. Conclusion: Subjects on antihypertensive medications are more likely to have either glaucoma or glaucoma suspect, and higher ocular perfusion pressure offers relative protection from glaucomatous damage.

  2. Pulmonary O2 transfer during pulsatile and non-pulsatile perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, A; Nicolaysen, G

    1980-07-01

    The importance of the perfusion pattern for the oxygen transfer has been examined in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with plasma at constant volume inflow. The lungs were ventilated with constant tidal volume and constant end-expiratory pressure. Following a standardized rise in FIO2 the rate of rise in pulmonary venous PO2 (delta PO2/delta t) was measured during alternately pulsatile and non-pulsatile perfusion in normal lungs and in lungs made edematous by elevation of left atrial pressure. In normal lungs there was no difference in delta PO2/delta t when the two modes of perfusion were compared. In edematous lungs delta PO/delta t was statistically higher during pulsatile perfusion, indicating a beneficial effect of flow- and pressure pulsations, e.g. a better distribution of V/Q ratios throughout the lungs. In a separate series of expts. the advancement of a high O2 front through the airways was measured, and the two perfusion patterns compared. Since no difference was found, we suggest that the phenomenon of "cardiogenic gas mixing" in the airways in vivo is a result of a direct action of the heart on the lungs rather than arterial pulsations.

  3. A Review of Liver Perfusion Method in Toxicology Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M karami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The isolated perfused rat liver is an accepted method in toxicology studies. The isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL is a useful experimental system for evaluating hepatic function without the influence of other organ systems, undefined plasma constituents, and neural-hormonal effects. Methods: The untreated male rats (180-220gr body weight were anesthetised with ether and then surgery with proper method. The abdomen was opened through a midline and one transversal incision and the bile duct was cannulated. Heparin sodium solution (0.5 ml; 500 U/ml in 0.9% NaCl was injected via the abdominal vena cava to prevent blood clotting. The liver inferior venacava was cannulated with PE-10 tubing and secured. The portal vein was immediately cannulated with an 23gr catheter which was secured and then liver was perfused in situ by Krebs- Henseleit buffer (pH 7.4; saturated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2; 37°C at a flow rate of 20 ml/min for 3hr. Temperature, perfusion pressure, flow rate and perfusion fluid pH were closely monitored during the perfusion. Results: Transferase enzymes (ALT, AST alterations can be widely used as a measure of biochemical alterations in order to assess liver damage due to use of drugs such as isoniazid (INH and animal and plant toxins. Accumulated material in gallbladder are valuable samples to assess the level of Glutathione (GSH. Sections of perfused liver tissue can also be effectively analyzed for pathological aspects such as necrosis, fibrosis, cellularity. Conclusion: The isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL is a useful and Sutible experimental system for evaluating hepatic function. In this system, the effects of adjacent organs, on the liver is minimized

  4. Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct (PPCI) trial - the importance of mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass to prevent cerebral complications after cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anne G.; Holmgaard, Frederik; Rasmussen, Lars Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Debilitating brain injury occurs in 1.6–5 % of patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported stroke-like lesions in up to 51 % of patients after cardiac surgery. The majority of the lesions seem...... to be caused by emboli, but inadequate blood flow caused by other mechanisms may increase ischaemia in the penumbra or cause watershed infarcts. During cardiopulmonary bypass, blood pressure can be below the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation. Although much debated, the constant blood flow provided...... by the cardiopulmonary bypass system is still considered by many as appropriate to avoid cerebral ischaemia despite the low blood pressure. Methods/design: The Perfusion Pressure Cerebral Infarct trial is a single-centre superiority trial with a blinded outcome assessment. The trial is randomising 210 patients...

  5. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase; Thomassen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure and can be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot

  6. Complete inhibition of creatine kinase in isolated perfused rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossel, E.T.; Hoefeler, H.

    1987-01-01

    Transient exposure of an isolated isovolumic perfused rat heart to low concentrations (0.5 mM) of perfusate-born iodoacetamide resulted in complete inhibition of creatine kinase and partial inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the heart. At low levels of developed pressure, hearts maintained mechanical function, ATP, and creatine phosphate levels at control values. However, iodoacetamide-inhibited hearts were unable to maintain control values of end diastolic pressure or peak systolic pressure as work load increased. Global ischemia resulted in loss of all ATP without loss of creatine phosphate, indicating lack of active creatine kinase. These results indicate that isovolumic perfused rat hearts are able to maintain normal function and normal levels of high-energy phosphates without active creatine kinase at low levels of developed pressure. 31 P-NMR of the heart was carried out

  7. In-vivo quantitative evaluation of perfusion zones and perfusion gradient in the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Cyr, Michel; Lakhiani, Chrisovalantis; Cheng, Angela; Mangum, Michael; Liang, Jinyang; Teotia, Sumeet; Livingston, Edward H.; Zuzak, Karel J.

    2013-03-01

    The selection of well-vascularized tissue during DIEP flap harvest remains controversial. While several studies have elucidated cross-midline perfusion, further characterization of perfusion to the ipsilateral hemiabdomen is necessary for minimizing rates of fat necrosis or partial fat necrosis in bilateral DIEP flaps. Eighteen patients (29 flaps) underwent DIEP flap harvest using a prospectively designed protocol. Perforators were marked and imaged with a novel system for quantitatively measuring tissue oxygenation, the Digital Light Hyperspectral Imager. Images were then analyzed to determine if perforator selection influenced ipsilateral flap perfusion. Flaps based on a single lateral row perforator (SLRP) were found to have a higher level of hemoglobin oxygenation in Zone I (mean %HbO2 = 76.1) compared to single medial row perforator (SMRP) flaps (%HbO2 = 71.6). Perfusion of Zone III relative to Zone I was similar between SLRP and SMRP flaps (97.4% vs. 97.9%, respectively). These differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Perfusion to the lateral edge of the flap was slightly greater for SLRP flaps compared SMRP flaps (92.1% vs. 89.5%, respectively). SMRP flaps had superior perfusion travelling inferiorly compared to SLRP flaps (88.8% vs. 83.9%, respectively). Overall, it was observed that flaps were better perfused in the lateral direction than inferiorly. Significant differences in perfusion gradients directed inferiorly or laterally were observed, and perforator selection influenced perfusion in the most distal or inferior aspects of the flap. This suggests broader clinical implications for flap design that merit further investigation.

  8. Variation in heart rate influences the assessment of transient ischemic dilation in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, William D; Levin, Daniel P; Demeter, Sandor J

    2007-01-01

    Transient arrhythmias can affect transient ischemic dilation (TID) ratios. This study was initiated to evaluate the frequency and effect of normal heart rate change on TID measures in routine clinical practice. Consecutive patients undergoing stress/rest sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were studied (N = 407). Heart rate at the time of stress and rest imaging were recorded. TID ratios were analyzed in relation to absolute change in heart rate (stress minus rest) for subjects with normal perfusion and systolic function (Group 1, N = 169) and those with abnormalities in perfusion and/or function (Group 2, N = 238). In Group 1, mean TID ratio was inversely correlated with the change in heart rate (r = -0.47, P < 0.0001). For every increase of 10 BPM in heart rate change, the TID ratio decreased by approximately 0.06 (95% confidence interval 0.04–0.07). In Group 2, multiple linear regression demonstrated that the change in heart rate (beta = -0.25, P < 0.0001) and the summed difference score (beta = 0.36, P < 0.0001) were independent predictors of the TID ratio. Normal variation in heart rate between the stress and rest components of myocardial perfusion scans is common and can influence TID ratios in patients with normal and abnormal cardiac scans

  9. Quantitative Renal Cortical Perfusion in Human Subjects with Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Iron-Oxide Nanoparticles: Influence of T1 Shortening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morell, A.; Ahlstrom, H.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Abildgaard, A.; Bock, M.; Bjoernerud, A. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    Background: Using conventional contrast agents, the technique of quantitative perfusion by observing the transport of a bolus with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited to the brain due to extravascular leakage. Purpose: To perform quantitative perfusion measurements in humans with an intravascular contrast agent, and to estimate the influence of the T1 relaxivity of the contrast agent on the first-pass response. Material and Methods: Renal cortical perfusion was measured quantitatively in six patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis using a rapid gradient double-echo sequence in combination with an intravenous bolus injection of NC100150 Injection, an intravascular contrast agent based on iron-oxide nanoparticles. The influence of T1 relaxivity was measured by comparing perfusion results based on single- and double-echo data. Results: The mean values of cortical blood flow, cortical blood volume, and mean transit time in the normal kidneys were measured to 339+-60 ml/min/100 g, 41+-8 ml/100 g, and 7.3+-1.0 s, respectively, based on double-echo data. The corresponding results based on single-echo data, which are not compensated for the T1 relaxivity, were 254+-47 ml/min/100 g, 27+-3 ml/100 g, and 6+-1.2 s, respectively. Conclusion: The use of a double-echo sequence enabled elimination of confounding T1 effects and consequent systematic underestimation of the perfusion.

  10. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waardell, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  11. Regional myocardial perfusion of cardioplegic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugene, J.; Lyons, K.P.; Ott, R.A.; Gelezunas, V.L.; Chang, C.W.; Kowall, M.G.; Haiduc, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    We compared the regional myocardial perfusion of blood cardioplegic solution (BCP) and crystalloid cardioplegic solution (CCP) in 14 mongrel dogs. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established at 28 degrees C, and a hydraulic occluder was placed around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. In group 1 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were ligated; in group 2 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were left in situ. After the aorta was clamped, BCP and CCP were alternately perfused at 200 ml/min. The occluder was inflated to produce moderate, severe, and critical LAD stenosis, and regional perfusion was measured by xenon-133 washout with the Silicon Avalanche Radiation Detector. BCP infusion produced a consistently higher aortic pressure, but CCP flow was better than BCP flow under all conditions, particularly without coronary collaterals. Regional myocardial perfusion of CCP is superior to BCP

  12. Reactivity of the isolated perfused rat tail vascular bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. França

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Isolated segments of the perfused rat tail artery display a high basal tone when compared to other isolated arteries such as the mesenteric and are suitable for the assay of vasopressor agents. However, the perfusion of this artery in the entire tail has not yet been used for functional studies. The main purpose of the present study was to identify some aspects of the vascular reactivity of the rat tail vascular bed and validate this method to measure vascular reactivity. The tail severed from the body was perfused with Krebs solution containing different Ca2+ concentrations at different flow rates. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (65 mg/kg and heparinized (500 U. The tail artery was dissected near the tail insertion, cannulated and perfused with Krebs solution plus 30 µM EDTA at 36oC and 2.5 ml/min and the procedures were started after equilibration of the perfusion pressure. In the first group a dose-response curve to phenylephrine (PE (0.5, 1, 2 and 5 µg, bolus injection was obtained at different flow rates (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ml/min. The mean perfusion pressure increased with flow as well as PE vasopressor responses. In a second group the flow was changed (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 3.5 ml/min at different Ca2+ concentrations (0.62, 1.25, 2.5 and 3.75 mM in the Krebs solution. Increasing Ca2+ concentrations did not alter the flow-pressure relationship. In the third group a similar protocol was performed but the rat tail vascular bed was perfused with Krebs solution containing PE (0.1 µg/ml. There was an enhancement of the effect of PE with increasing external Ca2+ and flow. PE vasopressor responses increased after endothelial damage with air and CHAPS, suggesting an endothelial modulation of the tone of the rat tail vascular bed. These experiments validate the perfusion of the rat tail vascular bed as a method to investigate vascular reactivity

  13. [How can we determine the best cerebral perfusion pressure in pediatric traumatic brain injury?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillaume, C; Mrozek, S; Fourcade, O; Geeraerts, T

    2013-12-01

    The management of cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is the one of the main preoccupation for the care of paediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). The physiology of cerebral autoregulation, CO2 vasoreactivity, cerebral metabolism changes with age as well as the brain compliance. Low CPP leads to high morbidity and mortality in pediatric TBI. The recent guidelines for the management of CPP for the paediatric TBI indicate a CPP threshold 40-50 mmHg (infants for the lower and adolescent for the upper). But we must consider the importance of age-related differences in the arterial pressure and CPP. The best CPP is the one that allows to avoid cerebral ischaemia and oedema. In this way, the adaptation of optimal CPP must be individual. To assess this objective, interesting tools are available. Transcranial Doppler can be used to determine the best level of CPP. Other indicators can predict the impairment of autoregulation like pressure reactivity index (PRx) taking into consideration the respective changes in ICP and CPP. Measurement of brain tissue oxygen partial pressure is an other tool that can be used to determine the optimal CPP. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Bernoulli's Principle Applied to Brain Fluids: Intracranial Pressure Does Not Drive Cerebral Perfusion or CSF Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eric; Ros, Maxime; Moyse, Emmanuel; Lorthois, Sylvie; Swider, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In line with the first law of thermodynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that the total energy in a fluid is the same at all points. We applied Bernoulli's principle to understand the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and intracranial fluids. We analyzed simple fluid physics along a tube to describe the interplay between pressure and velocity. Bernoulli's equation demonstrates that a fluid does not flow along a gradient of pressure or velocity; a fluid flows along a gradient of energy from a high-energy region to a low-energy region. A fluid can even flow against a pressure gradient or a velocity gradient. Pressure and velocity represent part of the total energy. Cerebral blood perfusion is not driven by pressure but by energy: the blood flows from high-energy to lower-energy regions. Hydrocephalus is related to increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resistance (i.e., energy transfer) at various points. Identification of the energy transfer within the CSF circuit is important in understanding and treating CSF-related disorders. Bernoulli's principle is not an abstract concept far from clinical practice. We should be aware that pressure is easy to measure, but it does not induce resumption of fluid flow. Even at the bedside, energy is the key to understanding ICP and fluid dynamics.

  15. Evaluating blood perfusion of the corpus luteum in beef cows during fescue toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, G F; Muth-Spurlock, A M; Voelz, B E; Lemley, C O; Larson, J E

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if fescue toxicosis altered blood perfusion in the corpus luteum (CL) and peripheral concentrations of progesterone in cattle. The estrous cycles of 36 nonpregnant Angus or Charolais cows were synchronized in 2 replicates using the CO-Synch+CIDR protocol. Seven days after initiation of the protocol, cows were assigned (d 0) to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: 2.5 kg of 1) Kentucky-31 endophyte-infected (KY31; = 14) or 2) MaxQ novel endophyte (MaxQ; = 12) tall fescue seed. On d 7, ovaries were examined using ultrasonography, and only cows that had 1 CL present remained on the study ( = 26). Images of blood perfusion of CL, blood samples, rectal temperatures, and blood pressure of tails were collected on d 10, 13, 15, and 18. Images of CL blood perfusion were analyzed using ImageJ software for pixel density, and scored visually (0 to 9 with 0 = no perfusion, 9 = complete perfusion) by 2 independent technicians. The MIXED procedure of SAS was used with day as a repeated measure. Least squares means and SEM are reported. Cows receiving KY31 had greater rectal temperatures ( 0.003; 38.76 ± 0.08°C) than those receiving MaxQ (38.44 ± 0.08°C), providing evidence that the cows treated with KY31 were influenced by fescue toxicosis. Pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure were decreased ( cows receiving KY31 (55.26 ± 2.81 and 80.06 ± 2.72 mmHg, respectively) than MaxQ (66.58 ± 3.03 and 91.38 ± 2.93 mmHg, respectively). Concentrations of progesterone were similar ( = 0.54) between cows receiving KY31 (6.04 ± 0.53 ng/mL) or MaxQ (6.36 ± 0.63 ng/mL). Pixel densities ( = 0.14) and visual perfusion scores were similar ( = 0.11) between cows receiving KY31 (1477.20 ± 655.62 pixels and 2.23 ± 0.34, respectively) or MaxQ (2934.70 ± 718.20 pixels and 3.00 ± 0.36, respectively). Mean CL volume was similar ( 0.95) between treatments. In conclusion, blood perfusion of CL or peripheral concentrations of progesterone were not altered at the

  16. Heat-washout measurements compared to distal blood pressure and perfusion in orthopaedic patients with foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, M; Azad, B B S; Broholm, R

    2015-01-01

    Distal blood pressure and local skin perfusion pressure were compared to measurement of blood flow rate (BFR) measured by the heat-washout method in orthopaedic patients with and without diabetes, all with a foot ulcer in one foot, compared to healthy controls. The correlation was good between heat......-washout and distal blood pressure in patients with diabetes with and without an ulcer (P = 0·024 and 0·059, respectively). The correlation was weak in patients without diabetes with and without an ulcer, most probably due to power problems (P = 0·118 and 0·116, respectively). The correlation in the healthy controls...... the surrounding tissue, and therefore, measurements are easier made in these subjects. BFR in the first toe increased significantly in all patients when the foot was moved from heart level to 50 cm below heart level (P = between 0·03 and 0·05) as previously seen in patients with claudication...

  17. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...... blood pressure cuff with continuous decrease from suprasystolic arm pressure. The validity of skin perfusion pressure with the new device was compared to that of isotope washout below the knee in normal subjects and in patients with an ischemic forefoot with acceptable agreement. The method had a high...... reproducibility within and between days in normal subjects. Compared to systolic arterial pressure measured using a strain gauge with a cuff on the ankle in normal subjects and patients with intermittent claudication the new device showed blood pressure in the skin closer to the diastolic pressure. The new...

  18. A Short Period of Ventilation without Perfusion Seems to Reduce Atelectasis without Harming the Lungs during Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lindstedt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the lung function of donors after circulatory deaths (DCDs, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP has been shown to be a valuable method. We present modified EVLP where lung atelectasis is removed, while the lung perfusion is temporarily shut down. Twelve pigs were randomized into two groups: modified EVLP and conventional EVLP. When the lungs had reached 37°C in the EVLP circuit, lung perfusion was temporarily shut down in the modified EVLP group, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes. In the conventional EVLP group, PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes with unchanged lung perfusion. In the modified EVLP group, the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 was 18.5 ± 7.0 kPa before and 64.5 ± 6.0 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.001. In the conventional EVLP group, the PaO2 was 16.8 ± 3.1 kPa and 46.8 ± 2.7 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.01; P<0.01. In the modified EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was unchanged, while in the conventional EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was significantly increased. Modified EVLP with normoventilation of the lungs without ongoing lung perfusion for 10 minutes may eliminate atelectasis almost completely without harming the lungs.

  19. Blood pressure and the contractility of a human leg muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luu, Billy L; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2013-11-01

    These studies investigate the relationships between perfusion pressure, force output and pressor responses for the contracting human tibialis anterior muscle. Eight healthy adults were studied. Changing the height of tibialis anterior relative to the heart was used to control local perfusion pressure. Electrically stimulated tetanic force output was highly sensitive to physiological variations in perfusion pressure showing a proportionate change in force output of 6.5% per 10 mmHg. This perfusion-dependent change in contractility begins within seconds and is reversible with a 53 s time constant, demonstrating a steady-state equilibrium between contractility and perfusion pressure. These stimulated contractions did not produce significant cardiovascular responses, indicating that the muscle pressor response does not play a major role in cardiovascular regulation at these workloads. Voluntary contractions at forces that would require constant motor drive if perfusion pressure had remained constant generated a central pressor response when perfusion pressure was lowered. This is consistent with a larger cortical drive being required to compensate for the lost contractility with lower perfusion pressure. The relationship between contractility and perfusion for this large postural muscle was not different from that of a small hand muscle (adductor pollicis) and it responded similarly to passive peripheral and active central changes in arterial pressure, but extended over a wider operating range of pressures. If we consider that, in a goal-oriented motor task, muscle contractility determines central motor output and the central pressor response, these results indicate that muscle would fatigue twice as fast without a pressor response. From its extent, timing and reversibility we propose a testable hypothesis that this change in contractility arises through contraction- and perfusion-dependent changes in interstitial K(+) concentration.

  20. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging without contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosian, Petros; Graf, Hansjoerg; Schick, Fritz; Boss, Andreas; Schraml, Christina; Schwenzer, Nina F.; Claussen, Claus D.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of magnetic resonance imaging techniques providing perfusion-related contrast weighting without administration of contrast media are reported and analysed systematically. Especially common approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion imaging allowing quantitative assessment of specific perfusion rates are described in detail. The potential of ASL for perfusion imaging was tested in several types of tissue. After a systematic comparison of technical aspects of continuous and pulsed ASL techniques the standard kinetic model and tissue properties of influence to quantitative measurements of perfusion are reported. For the applications demonstrated in this paper a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation approach followed by true fast imaging with steady precession (true FISP) data recording was developed and implemented on whole-body scanners operating at 0.2, 1.5 and 3 T for quantitative perfusion measurement in various types of tissue. ASL imaging provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of tissue perfusion rates in vivo. Images recorded from kidney, lung, brain, salivary gland and thyroid gland provide a spatial resolution of a few millimetres and sufficient signal to noise ratio in perfusion maps after 2-5 min of examination time. Newly developed ASL techniques provide especially high image quality and quantitative perfusion maps in tissues with relatively high perfusion rates (as also present in many tumours). Averaging of acquisitions and image subtraction procedures are mandatory, leading to the necessity of synchronization of data recording to breathing in abdominal and thoracic organs. (orig.)

  1. Hydrogen ion changes and contractile behavior in the perfused rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cingolani, H.E.; Maas, A.H.J.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of acid-base alterations was analyzed using isolated rat hearts perfused at constant coronary perfusion pressure, and stimulated to contract at constant rate. The amount of shortening in the major axis and its derivative were measured to assess myocardial contractility. Both the

  2. Skin Perfusion Pressure Is a Prognostic Factor in Hemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Hatakeyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is common in hemodialysis patients and predicts a poor prognosis. We conducted a prospective cohort study to identify risk factors for PAD including skin perfusion pressure (SPP in hemodialysis patients. The cohort included 373 hemodialysis patients among 548 patients who received hemodialysis at Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute, Hirosaki, Japan from August 2008 to December 2010. The endpoints were lower limb survival (peripheral angioplasty or amputation events and overall survival of 2 years. Our results showed that <70 mmHg SPP was a poor prognosis for the lower limb survival and overall survival. We also identified age, history of cardiovascular disease, presence of diabetes mellitus, smoking history, and SPP < 70 mmHg as independent risk factors for lower limb survival and overall survival. Then, we constructed risk criteria using the significantly independent risk factors. We can clearly stratify lower limb survival and overall survival of the hemodialysis patients into 3 groups. Although the observation period is short, we conclude that SPP value has the potential to be a risk factor that predicts both lower limb survival and the prognosis of hemodialysis patients.

  3. Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Targets Individualized to Pressure-Reactivity Index in Moderate to Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Edward; McFadyen, Charles; Newcombe, Virginia; Synnot, Anneliese J; Czosnyka, Marek; Menon, David

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently triggers a disruption of cerebral autoregulation. The cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) at which autoregulation is optimal ("CPPopt") varies between individuals, and can be calculated based on fluctuations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. This review assesses the effect of individualizing CPP targets to pressure reactivity index (a measure of autoregulation) in patients with TBI. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE®, Embase, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched in March 2015 for studies assessing the effect of targeting CPPopt in TBI. We included all studies that assessed the impact of targeting CPPopt on outcomes including mortality, neurological outcome, and physiological changes. Risk of bias was assessed using the RTI Item Bank and evidence quality was considered using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Eight cohort studies (based on six distinct data sets) assessing the association between CPPopt and mortality, Glasgow Outcome Scale and physiological measures in TBI were included. The quality of evidence was deemed very low based on the GRADE criteria. Although the data suggest an association between variation from CPPopt and poor clinical outcome at 6 months, the quality of evidence prevents firm conclusions, particularly regarding causality, from being drawn. Available data suggest that targeting CPPopt might represent a technique to improve outcomes following TBI, but currently there is insufficient high-quality data to support a recommendation for use in clinical practice. Further prospective, randomized controlled studies should be undertaken to clarify its role in the acute management of TBI.

  4. Microdialysis to optimize cord perfusion and drug delivery in spinal cord injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Phang, I; Zoumprouli, A; Papadopoulos, MC; Saadoun, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: There is lack of monitoring from the injury site to guide management of patients with acute traumatic spinal cord injury. Here we describe a bedside microdialysis monitoring technique for optimizing spinal cord perfusion and drug delivery at the injury site. METHODS: 14 patients were recruited within 72 hours of severe spinal cord injury. We inserted intradurally at the injury site a pressure probe, to monitor continuously spinal cord perfusion pressure, and a microdialysis cathete...

  5. Influence of perfusion and ventilation scans on therapeutic decision making and outcome in cases of possible embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercandetti, A.J.; Kipper, M.S.; Moser, K.M.

    1985-01-01

    The authors examined the influence of perfusion (Q) and ventilation (V) scans on therapeutic decision making and outcome among 229 patients referred for lung scans because embolism was suggested and found that specific V/Q scan patterns strongly influenced postscan decisions regarding initiation, maintenance or cessation of heparin therapy. These therapeutic decisions bore a relationship to outcome (recurrences and death) and disclosed decision-making deficits that need remedy by future investigational and educational efforts. 25 references, 5 tables

  6. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Uehara, T.; Shimonagata, T.; Nishimura, T.; Osaka Univ., Suita

    1993-01-01

    15 cases of primary pulmonary hypertension were classified into two groups by patterns of perfusion lung scintigraphy. Perfusion scintigrams showed multiple, small, ill-defined defects (mottled + ve) pattern in eight cases, and the remaining seven cases had a normal (mottled - ve) pattern. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with a mottled pattern (54 ± 10 mmHg) was higher than in those with a normal pattern (42 ± 9 mmHg, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in right ventricular ejection fraction, partial pressures of oxygen in the arterial blood or alveolo-arterial oxygen difference. All the patients with a mottled pattern died within 2 years following the lung scintigraphy. There was a significant difference in the survival curves between the two groups. (author)

  7. Acute retinal ischemia caused by controlled low ocular perfusion pressure in a porcine model. Electrophysiological and histological characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Maria Voss; Warfvinge, Karin; Scherfig, Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish, and characterize a porcine model of acute, controlled retinal ischemia. The controlled retinal ischemia was produced by clamping the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in the left eye to 5 mm Hg for 2 h. The OPP was defined as mean arterial blood pressure...... of the amplitudes obtained in the experimental, left eye, and the control, right eye. Quantitative histology was performed to measure the survival of ganglion cells, amacrine cells and horizontal cells 2-6 weeks after the ischemic insult. An OPP of 5 mm Hg for 2h induced significant reductions in the amplitudes...... the ischemic insult. This model seems to be suitable for investigations of therapeutic initiatives in diseases involving acute retinal ischemia....

  8. Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKCδ expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

  9. Liver perfusion scintigraphy prior to and after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willkomm, P.; Schomburg, A.; Reichmann, K.; Bangard, M.; Overbeck, B.; Biersack, H.J.; Brensing, K.A.; Sauerbruch, T.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation was performed to compare the hemodynamic results of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, a new interventional treatment for portal hypertension, with those observed after the established surgical shunt interventions. Methods: We examined 22 patients with portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis before and after elective TIPS by liver perfusion scintigraphy. The relative portal perfusion was determined before and after the shunt procedure. Additionally, we measured the portal pressure gradient (PPG: Portal-central venous pressure, mmHg). Results: Prior to TIPS, the relative portal perfusion was significantly reduced to 22±9.1%. After the intervention we calculated values of 23.1±10.7% in the TIPS-group (p=0.67; not significant). In spite of unchanged portal perfusion, the portal pressure was significantly (p [de

  10. Effects of the ankle-brachial blood pressure index and skin perfusion pressure on mortality in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Yumi; Otsubo, Shigeru; Kimata, Naoki; Takano, Mari; Abe, Takayuki; Okajima, Tomoki; Miwa, Naoko; Tsuchiya, Ken; Nitta, Kosaku; Akiba, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Clinically, the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) and skin perfusion pressure (SPP) are used to screen for subclinical peripheral artery disease. However, the association between the SPP and mortality in hemodialysis patients has not been previously reported. We investigated these factors and compared the ABI and SPP in patients receiving hemodialysis. A total of 102 patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled in this study. The ABI was determined using an ABI-form (Colin, Japan). The SPP was measured using a SensiLase(TM) PAD3000 (Kaneka, Osaka, Japan). The mean follow-up period was 3.2 ± 1.4 years. A multivariate Cox analysis identified a low ABI (p=0.019) and a low SPP (p=0.047) as being independent predictors of mortality. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis of the ABI revealed a cutoff point of 1.1 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.79, with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 62%. A ROC analysis of the SPP revealed a cutoff point of 54.0 mmHg and an AUC of 0.71, with a sensitivity of 55% and a specificity of 84%. Both low ABI and SPP values were found to be independent risk factors for mortality among hemodialysis patients. The cutoff point for ABI as a predictor of mortality was 1.1, while that for SPP was 54.0 mmHg.

  11. Assessment of foot perfusion in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Hinchliffe, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of foot perfusion is a vital step in the management of patients with diabetic foot ulceration, in order to understand the risk of amputation and likelihood of wound healing. Underlying peripheral artery disease is a common finding in patients with foot ulceration and is associated with poor outcomes. Assessment of foot perfusion should therefore focus on identifying the presence of peripheral artery disease and to subsequently estimate the effect this may have on wound healing. Assessment of perfusion can be difficult because of the often complex, diffuse and distal nature of peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes, as well as poor collateralisation and heavy vascular calcification. Conventional methods of assessing tissue perfusion in the peripheral circulation may be unreliable in patients with diabetes, and it may therefore be difficult to determine the extent to which poor perfusion contributes to foot ulceration. Anatomical data obtained on cross-sectional imaging is important but must be combined with measurements of tissue perfusion (such as transcutaneous oxygen tension) in order to understand the global and regional perfusion deficit present in a patient with diabetic foot ulceration. Ankle-brachial pressure index is routinely used to screen for peripheral artery disease, but its use in patients with diabetes is limited in the presence of neuropathy and medial arterial calcification. Toe pressure index may be more useful because of the relative sparing of pedal arteries from medial calcification but may not always be possible in patients with ulceration. Fluorescence angiography is a non-invasive technique that can provide rapid quantitative information about regional tissue perfusion; capillaroscopy, iontophoresis and hyperspectral imaging may also be useful in assessing physiological perfusion but are not widely available. There may be a future role for specialized perfusion imaging of these patients, including magnetic resonance

  12. Influence of angiographic collateral circulation on myocardial perfusion in patients with chronic total occlusion of a single coronary artery and no prior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Fatma; Kar, Saibal; Hayes, Sean W; Sciammarella, Maria; Abidov, Aiden; Makkar, Raj; Friedman, John D; Eigler, Neal; Berman, Daniel S

    2004-06-01

    The functional role of various angiographic grades for coronary collaterals remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of the Rentrop angiographic grading of coronary collaterals on myocardial perfusion in patients with single-vessel chronic total occlusion (CTO) and no prior myocardial infarction (MI). The study included 56 patients with single-vessel CTO and no prior MI who underwent rest-stress myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within 6 mo. All patients had angiographic evidence of coronary collaterals. Patients were divided according to the Rentrop classification: Group I had grade 1 or 2 (n = 25) and group II had grade 3 collaterals (n = 31). Group I had a higher frequency of resting regional wall motion abnormalities on left ventriculography (52.6% vs. 19.2% [P = 0.019]). The mean perfusion scores of the overall population showed severe and extensive stress perfusion defects (summed stress score of 14.1 +/- 7.1 and summed difference score of 12.9 +/- 6.9) but minimal resting perfusion defects (summed rest score of 1.0 +/- 2.7). No perfusion scores differed between the 2 groups. The perfusion findings suggested that chronic stunning rather than hibernation is the principal cause of regional wall motion abnormalities in these patients. In the setting of single-vessel CTO and no prior MI, coronary collaterals appear to protect against resting perfusion defects. Excellent angiographic collaterals may prevent resting regional wall motion abnormalities but do not appear to protect against stress-induced perfusion defects.

  13. Effects of Topical Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% on Circadian IOP, Blood Pressure and Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Randomized, Double Masked, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Oddone

    Full Text Available To compare the 24-hour (24h effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and cardiovascular parameters of timolol 0.5% and bimatoprost 0.01% in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertensive subjects.In this prospective, randomized, double masked, crossover, clinical trial, after washout from previous medications enrolled subjects underwent 24h IOP, blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR measurements and were randomized to either topical bimatoprost 0.01% at night plus placebo in the morning or to timolol 0.5% bid. After 8 weeks of treatment a second 24h assessment of IOP, BP and HR was performed and then subjects switched to the opposite treatment for additional 8 weeks when a third 24h assessment was performed. The primary endpoint was the comparison of the mean 24h IOP after each treatment. Secondary endpoints included the comparisons of IOP at each timepoint of the 24h curve and the comparison of BP, HR, ocular perfusion pressure and tolerability.Mean untreated 24h IOP was 20.3 mmHg (95%CI 19.0 to 21.6. Mean 24h IOP was significantly lower after 8 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% than after 8 weeks of treatment with timolol 0.5% bid (15.7 vs 16.8 mmHg, p = 0.0003. Mean IOP during the day hours was significantly reduced from baseline by both drugs while mean IOP during the night hours was reduced by -2.3 mmHg (p = 0.0002 by bimatoprost 0.01% plus placebo and by -1.1 mmHg by timolol 0.5% bid (p = 0.06. Timolol 0.5% significantly reduced the mean 24h systolic BP from baseline, the diastolic BP during the day hours, the HR during the night hours, and the mean 24h systolic ocular perfusion pressure.Both Bimatoprost 0.01% and Timolol 0.5% are effective in reducing the mean 24h IOP from an untreated baseline but Bimatoprost 0.01% is more effective than timolol 0.5% throughout the 24h. Timolol 0.5% effect on IOP is reduced during the night hours and is associated with reduced BP, HR and ocular perfusion pressure.EU Clinical Trial Register and Eudra

  14. Time Course of Changes in Extravascular Lung Water Index, Intracranial and Cerebral Perfusion Pressures in Acute Cerebral Circulatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the time course of changes in extravascular lung water index (ELWI and intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures (ICP and CPP and to determine their possible relationships in acute cerebral circulatory disorders (ACCD. Subject and methods. ELWI, pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI, ICP, CPP, and central hemodynamics were studied by transpulmonary thermodilution and current X-ray studies were conducted in 18 patients on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of ACCD. Results. Examinations revealed a supratentorial dislocation of the brain in 6 persons; its subtento-rial dislocation was found in 1 case; supra- and subtentorial dislocations were seen in 6. In patients, ELWI and PVPI increased from days 1 and 5, respectively. The high baseline ICP increased over time. CPP remained unchanged. Preserved left ventricular contractility, enhanced myocardial one, a significant direct correlation between ELWI and PVPI, as well as their increase confirmed that the noncardiogenic genesis was responsible for increased ELWI. A direct significant correlation was found between ICP and ELWI, ICP and PVPI. Against this background, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 14 patients with pneumonia evolving in its presence in 7 patients. Conclusion. In ACCD, ELWI increases in the first 24 hours of the acute period. One of its causes is, along with others, primary and/or secondary damage to the brainstem structures with elevated ICP and progressive brain dislocation. The determination of ICP, unlike CPP, is crucial in the diagnosis and treatment of primary/secondary brain injuries and in prognosis. Key words: acute cerebral circulatory disorder, extravascular lung fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  15. Dynamic perfusion CT: Optimizing the temporal resolution for the calculation of perfusion CT parameters in stroke patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemena, Andreas [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: andreas.kaemena@charite.de; Streitparth, Florian; Grieser, Christian; Lehmkuhl, Lukas [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany); Jamil, Basil [Department of Radiotherapy, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Schumannstr. 20/21, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Wojtal, Katarzyna; Ricke, Jens; Pech, Maciej [Department of Radiology, Charite-Medical University Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Purpose: To assess the influence of different temporal sampling rates on the accuracy of the results from cerebral perfusion CTs in patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Material and methods: Thirty consecutive patients with acute stroke symptoms received a dynamic perfusion CT (LightSpeed 16, GE). Forty millilitres of iomeprol (Imeron 400) were administered at an injection rate of 4 ml/s. After a scan delay of 7 s, two adjacent 10 mm slices at 80 kV and 190 mA were acquired in a cine mode technique with a cine duration of 49 s. Parametric maps for the blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and mean transit time (MTT) were calculated for temporal sampling intervals of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 and 4 s using GE's Perfusion 3 software package. In addition to the quantitative ROI data analysis, a visual perfusion map analysis was performed. Results: The perfusion analysis proved to be technically feasible with all patients. The calculated perfusion values revealed significant differences with regard to the BF, BV and MTT, depending on the employed temporal resolution. The perfusion contrast between ischemic lesions and healthy brain tissue decreased continuously at the lower temporal resolutions. The visual analysis revealed that ischemic lesions were best depicted with sampling intervals of 0.5 and 1 s. Conclusion: We recommend a temporal scan resolution of two images per second for the best detection and depiction of ischemic areas.

  16. A National Trial on Differences in Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Values by Measurement Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly M; Bader, Mary Kay; Livesay, Sarah; Yeager, Susan; Moran, Cristina; Barnes, Arianna; Harrison, Kimberly R; Olson, DaiWai M

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is a key parameter in management of brain injury with suspected impaired cerebral autoregulation. CPP is calculated by subtracting intracranial pressure (ICP) from mean arterial pressure (MAP). Despite consensus on importance of CPP monitoring, substantial variations exist on anatomical reference points used to measure arterial MAP when calculating CPP. This study aimed to identify differences in CPP values based on measurement location when using phlebostatic axis (PA) or tragus (Tg) as anatomical reference points. The secondary study aim was to determine impact of differences on patient outcomes at discharge. This was a prospective, repeated measures, multi-site national trial. Adult ICU patients with neurological injury necessitating ICP and CPP monitoring were consecutively enrolled from seven sites. Daily MAP/ICP/CPP values were gathered with the arterial transducer at the PA, followed by the Tg as anatomical reference points. A total of 136 subjects were enrolled, resulting in 324 paired observations. There were significant differences for CPP when comparing values obtained at PA and Tg reference points (p Differences remained significant in repeated measures model when controlling for clinical factors (mean CPP-PA = 80.77, mean CPP-Tg = 70.61, p identified as adequate with PA values, yet inadequate with CPP values measured at the Tg. Findings identify numerical differences for CPP based on anatomical reference location and highlight importance of a standard reference point for both clinical practice and future trials to limit practice variations and heterogeneity of findings.

  17. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talakic, Emina; Schoellnast, Helmut; Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut; Stauber, Rudolf; Quehenberger, Franz

    2017-01-01

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p < 0.05) between SAF and HVPG, and -0.68 (p < 0.01) between HVPG and SCL. Using a cut-off value of 125 ml/min/100 ml for SCL, sensitivity for detection of a HVPG of ≥12 mmHg was 94%, and specificity 100%. There was no significant correlation between hepatic perfusion parameters and HVPG. CT perfusion in patients with cirrhosis showed a strong correlation between SCL and HVPG and may be used for detection of severe portal hypertension. (orig.)

  18. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talakic, Emina; Schoellnast, Helmut [Medical University of Graz, Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut [Medical University of Graz, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation Surgery, Graz (Austria); Stauber, Rudolf [Medical University of Graz, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastoenterology and Hepatology, Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, Franz [Medical University of Graz, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Graz (Austria)

    2017-10-15

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p < 0.05) between SAF and HVPG, and -0.68 (p < 0.01) between HVPG and SCL. Using a cut-off value of 125 ml/min/100 ml for SCL, sensitivity for detection of a HVPG of ≥12 mmHg was 94%, and specificity 100%. There was no significant correlation between hepatic perfusion parameters and HVPG. CT perfusion in patients with cirrhosis showed a strong correlation between SCL and HVPG and may be used for detection of severe portal hypertension. (orig.)

  19. A quantitative analysis of microcirculation in sore-prone pressure areas on conventional and pressure relief hospital mattresses using laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Held, Manuel; Bender, Dominik; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Constantinescu, Mihai Adrian; Jaminet, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Pressure ulcers are associated with severe impairment for the patients and high economic load. With this study we wanted to gain more insight to the skin perfusion dynamics due to external loading. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different types of pressure relief mattresses. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Perfusion dynamics of the sacral and the heel area were assessed using the O2C-device, which combines a laser light, to determine blood flow, and white light to determine the relative amount of hemoglobin. Three mattresses were evaluated compared to a hard surface: a standard hospital foam mattress bed, a visco-elastic foam mattress, and an air-fluidized bed. In the heel area, only the air-fluidized bed was able to maintain the blood circulation (mean blood flow of 13.6 ± 6 versus 3.9 ± 3 AU and mean relative amount of hemoglobin of 44.0 ± 14 versus 32.7 ± 12 AU.) In the sacral area, all used mattresses revealed an improvement of blood circulation compared to the hard surface. The results of this study form a more precise pattern of perfusion changes due to external loading on various pressure relief mattresses. This knowledge may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and may be an influencing factor in pressure relief mattress selection. Copyright © 2014 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CT perfusion imaging in the management of posterior reversible encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.O.; McKinney, A.; Teksam, M.; Liu, H.; Truwit, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl with a renal transplant presented with hypertension and seizures. CT and MRI demonstrated typical bilateral parietal, occipital and posterior frontal cortical and subcortical edema, thought to represent posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. The cause was presumed to be hypertension. Antihypertensive therapy was started, lowering of the blood pressure in the range of 110-120 mmHg systolic. However, stable xenon (Xe) CT perfusion imaging revealed ischemia within the left parietal occipital region. The antihypertensive was adjusted which increased both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 31 mm Hg. The patient was re-imaged with Xe CT and was found to have resolution of the ischemic changes within the left parietal occipital region. In this report, we present a case in which stable Xe CT was used to monitor the degree of cerebral perfusion and guide titration of antihypertensive therapy. Such brain perfusion monitoring may have helped to prevent infarction of our patient. (orig.)

  1. Influence of revascularization on myocardial perfusion, metabolism and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, Joachim; Krois, Markus; Eichhorn, Bernd; Fehske, Wolfgang; Likungu, James; Kirchhoff, P.G.; Luederitz, Berndt; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were investigated with sequential SPECT-scintigraphy after administration of 200 MBq of 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) at peak submaximal exercise. Twenty patients underwent coronary angioplasty (PTCA) from which 14 had control coronary arteriography (CA) and left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV). Nineteen patients underwent bypass graft surgery (ACB) and stress sonography. Semi-quantification of uptake (Up, related to perfusion) and turnover (Tr, linked to metabolism) was obtained by segmental comparison of oblique slices. About 90% of the reperfused myocardial segments in the PTCA-group and 76% in the ACB-group showed an improvement of uptake after therapy (RUp). Out of these, 50% and 66% exhibited increased turnover (RTr) after PTCA or ACB, respectively. The remaining segments had persistingly pathologic RTr indicating a dissociation of improvement of perfusion and metabolism after therapy. Pathologic RTr was highly correlated with regional wall motion abnormalities (RWMA) after therapy in both groups. In the ACB-group improvement in RTr was correlated with improved RWM at rest and stress in 86% and 92%, respectively, whereas no improvement in RTr was correlated with impared function in 100% and 52%, respectively. IPPA-studies show potential to provide information about changes of perfusion and metabolism after reperfusion and IPPA-turnover is a good predictor of the pattern of contractile function. (author)

  2. Influence of amplitude-related perfusion parameters in the parotid glands by non-fat-saturated dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Su-Chin [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, Republic of China and Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Cheng-Chieh [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Chang, Hing-Chiu [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chung, Hsiao-Wen [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Electronics and Bioinformatics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Hui-Chu [Ph.D. Program of Technology Management, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yi-Jui [Department of Automatic Control Engineering, Feng-Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hsian-He; Juan, Chun-Jung, E-mail: peterjuancj@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei 114, Taiwan and Department of Radiology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: To verify whether quantification of parotid perfusion is affected by fat signals on non-fat-saturated (NFS) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and whether the influence of fat is reduced with fat saturation (FS). Methods: This study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective study analyzed DCE-MRI data previously acquired on different patients using NFS (n = 18) or FS (n = 18) scans. Second, a phantom study simulated the signal enhancements in the presence of gadolinium contrast agent at six concentrations and three fat contents. Finally, a prospective study recruited nine healthy volunteers to investigate the influence of fat suppression on perfusion quantification on the same subjects. Parotid perfusion parameters were derived from NFS and FS DCE-MRI data using both pharmacokinetic model analysis and semiquantitative parametric analysis. T tests and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis with correction for multiple comparisons. Results: NFS scans showed lower amplitude-related parameters, including parameter A, peak enhancement (PE), and slope than FS scans in the patients (all with P < 0.0167). The relative signal enhancement in the phantoms was proportional to the dose of contrast agent and was lower in NFS scans than in FS scans. The volunteer study showed lower parameter A (6.75 ± 2.38 a.u.), PE (42.12% ± 14.87%), and slope (1.43% ± 0.54% s{sup −1}) in NFS scans as compared to 17.63 ± 8.56 a.u., 104.22% ± 25.15%, and 9.68% ± 1.67% s{sup −1}, respectively, in FS scans (all with P < 0.005). These amplitude-related parameters were negatively associated with the fat content in NFS scans only (all with P < 0.05). Conclusions: On NFS DCE-MRI, quantification of parotid perfusion is adversely affected by the presence of fat signals for all amplitude-related parameters. The influence could be reduced on FS scans.

  3. Influence of amplitude-related perfusion parameters in the parotid glands by non-fat-saturated dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Su-Chin; Cheng, Cheng-Chieh; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Chiu, Hui-Chu; Liu, Yi-Jui; Hsu, Hsian-He; Juan, Chun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To verify whether quantification of parotid perfusion is affected by fat signals on non-fat-saturated (NFS) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and whether the influence of fat is reduced with fat saturation (FS). Methods: This study consisted of three parts. First, a retrospective study analyzed DCE-MRI data previously acquired on different patients using NFS (n = 18) or FS (n = 18) scans. Second, a phantom study simulated the signal enhancements in the presence of gadolinium contrast agent at six concentrations and three fat contents. Finally, a prospective study recruited nine healthy volunteers to investigate the influence of fat suppression on perfusion quantification on the same subjects. Parotid perfusion parameters were derived from NFS and FS DCE-MRI data using both pharmacokinetic model analysis and semiquantitative parametric analysis. T tests and linear regression analysis were used for statistical analysis with correction for multiple comparisons. Results: NFS scans showed lower amplitude-related parameters, including parameter A, peak enhancement (PE), and slope than FS scans in the patients (all with P < 0.0167). The relative signal enhancement in the phantoms was proportional to the dose of contrast agent and was lower in NFS scans than in FS scans. The volunteer study showed lower parameter A (6.75 ± 2.38 a.u.), PE (42.12% ± 14.87%), and slope (1.43% ± 0.54% s"−"1) in NFS scans as compared to 17.63 ± 8.56 a.u., 104.22% ± 25.15%, and 9.68% ± 1.67% s"−"1, respectively, in FS scans (all with P < 0.005). These amplitude-related parameters were negatively associated with the fat content in NFS scans only (all with P < 0.05). Conclusions: On NFS DCE-MRI, quantification of parotid perfusion is adversely affected by the presence of fat signals for all amplitude-related parameters. The influence could be reduced on FS scans.

  4. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates associated with off-pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and caspase-3 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious in maintaining myocardial perfusion and alleviating

  5. Hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy: Evaluation with perfusion CT and perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.L.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Lutz, R.J.; Chang, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is planar hepatic artery perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS). Planar HAPS was performed with 2 mCi of [99mTc] macroaggregated albumin infused at 1 ml/min and compared with single photon emission CT (SPECT) HAPS and with a new study, CT performed during the slow injection of contrast material through the HAI catheter (HAI-CT). Thirteen patients underwent 16 HAI-CT studies, 14 planar HAPS studies, and 9 SPECT HAPS studies. In 13 of 14 studies (93%) HAI-CT and planar HAPS were in complete agreement as to the perfusion pattern of intrahepatic metastases and normal liver. In nine studies where all modalities were performed, the findings identified by HAI-CT and planar HAPS agreed in all cases, whereas the results of two SPECT scans disagreed with the other studies. With respect to perfusion of individual metastases, 14 of 14 HAI-CT studies, 12 of 13 planar HAPS studies, and 9 of 9 SPECT HAPS studies correctly demonstrated the perfusion status of individual lesions as indicated by the pattern of changes in tumor size determined on CT obtained before and after the perfusion studies. Hepatic artery infusion CT was superior for delineation of individual metastases, particularly small lesions, and for the evaluation of nonperfused portions of the liver. Planar HAPS detected extrahepatic perfusion in four patients, and this was not detected by HAI-CT. We conclude that HAI-CT and scintigraphy are complementary techniques. Hepatic artery infusion CT has advantages for the evaluation of intrahepatic perfusion, and planar HAPS is superior to HAI-CT for the detection of extrahepatic perfusion

  6. Contrast-enhanced 3T MR perfusion of musculoskeletal tumours. T1 value heterogeneity assessment and evaluation of the influence of T1 estimation methods on quantitative parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Leplat, Christophe; Verbizier, Jacques de; Blum, Alain [Hopital Central, CHRU-Nancy, Service d' Imagerie Guilloz, Nancy (France); Chen, Bailiang; Beaumont, Marine [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire IADI, UMR S 947, Nancy (France); Badr, Sammy; Cotten, Anne [CHRU Lille Centre de Consultations et d' Imagerie de l' Appareil Locomoteur, Department of Radiology and Musculoskeletal Imaging, Lille (France)

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate intra-tumour and striated muscle T1 value heterogeneity and the influence of different methods of T1 estimation on the variability of quantitative perfusion parameters. Eighty-two patients with a histologically confirmed musculoskeletal tumour were prospectively included in this study and, with ethics committee approval, underwent contrast-enhanced MR perfusion and T1 mapping. T1 value variations in viable tumour areas and in normal-appearing striated muscle were assessed. In 20 cases, normal muscle perfusion parameters were calculated using three different methods: signal based and gadolinium concentration based on fixed and variable T1 values. Tumour and normal muscle T1 values were significantly different (p = 0.0008). T1 value heterogeneity was higher in tumours than in normal muscle (variation of 19.8% versus 13%). The T1 estimation method had a considerable influence on the variability of perfusion parameters. Fixed T1 values yielded higher coefficients of variation than variable T1 values (mean 109.6 ± 41.8% and 58.3 ± 14.1% respectively). Area under the curve was the least variable parameter (36%). T1 values in musculoskeletal tumours are significantly different and more heterogeneous than normal muscle. Patient-specific T1 estimation is needed for direct inter-patient comparison of perfusion parameters. (orig.)

  7. Acute volume expansion attenuates hyperthermia-induced reductions in cerebral perfusion during simulated hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Seifert, Thomas; Wilson, Thad E

    2013-01-01

    Hyperthermia reduces the capacity to withstand a simulated hemorrhagic challenge, but volume loading preserves this capacity. This study tested the hypotheses that acute volume expansion during hyperthermia increases cerebral perfusion and attenuates reductions in cerebral perfusion during...... infusion while hyperthermic. Primary dependent variables were mean middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAvmean), serving as an index of cerebral perfusion; mean arterial pressure (MAP); and cardiac output (thermodilution). During baseline, hyperthermia reduced MCAvmean (P = 0.001) by 12 ± 9% relative...

  8. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  9. Atmospheric pressure does not influence acute diverticular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Velayos Jiménez, Benito; Pons Renedo, Fernando; Feranández Salazar, Luis; Muñoz, María Fe; Olmo, Lourdes del; Almaraz Gómez, Ana; Beltrán de Heredia, Juan; Hernández González, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica The article offers information on a study which examines the influence of atmospheric pressure on the development of acute diverticular disease. The value of atmospheric pressure and its daily trends in 2012 was collected to prove whether atmospheric pressure influence this disease by raising intra-diverticular pressure in days with higher atmospheric pressure. The study involved patients with acute diverticulitis who underwent computed tomography.

  10. Contrast-enhanced 3T MR Perfusion of Musculoskeletal Tumours: T1 Value Heterogeneity Assessment and Evaluation of the Influence of T1 Estimation Methods on Quantitative Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim Teixeira, Pedro Augusto; Leplat, Christophe; Chen, Bailiang; De Verbizier, Jacques; Beaumont, Marine; Badr, Sammy; Cotten, Anne; Blum, Alain

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate intra-tumour and striated muscle T1 value heterogeneity and the influence of different methods of T1 estimation on the variability of quantitative perfusion parameters. Eighty-two patients with a histologically confirmed musculoskeletal tumour were prospectively included in this study and, with ethics committee approval, underwent contrast-enhanced MR perfusion and T1 mapping. T1 value variations in viable tumour areas and in normal-appearing striated muscle were assessed. In 20 cases, normal muscle perfusion parameters were calculated using three different methods: signal based and gadolinium concentration based on fixed and variable T1 values. Tumour and normal muscle T1 values were significantly different (p = 0.0008). T1 value heterogeneity was higher in tumours than in normal muscle (variation of 19.8% versus 13%). The T1 estimation method had a considerable influence on the variability of perfusion parameters. Fixed T1 values yielded higher coefficients of variation than variable T1 values (mean 109.6 ± 41.8% and 58.3 ± 14.1% respectively). Area under the curve was the least variable parameter (36%). T1 values in musculoskeletal tumours are significantly different and more heterogeneous than normal muscle. Patient-specific T1 estimation is needed for direct inter-patient comparison of perfusion parameters. • T1 value variation in musculoskeletal tumours is considerable. • T1 values in muscle and tumours are significantly different. • Patient-specific T1 estimation is needed for comparison of inter-patient perfusion parameters. • Technical variation is higher in permeability than semiquantitative perfusion parameters.

  11. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  12. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, A.N.; Valle, V.M.; Montoya, M.J.; Eskenazi, E.S.; Montiel, M.L.; Cueto, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  13. Intraoperative intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure for predicting surgical outcome in severe traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsin Tsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative intracranial pressure (ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP were evaluated for use as prognostic indicators after surgery for severe traumatic brain injury (TBI, and threshold ICP and CPP values were determined to provide guidelines for patient management. This retrospective study reviewed data for 66 patients (20 females and 46 males aged 13–83 years (average age, 48 years who had received decompressive craniectomy and hematoma evacuation for severe TBI. The analysis of clinical characteristics included Glascow Coma Scale score, trauma mechanism, trauma severity, cerebral hemorrhage type, hematoma thickness observed on computed tomography scan, Glasgow Outcome Scale score, and mortality. Patients whose treatment included ICP monitoring had significantly better prognosis (p < 0.001 and significantly lower mortality (p = 0.016 compared to those who did not receive ICP monitoring. At all three major steps of the procedure, i.e., creation of the burr hole, evacuation of the hematoma, and closing of the wound, intraoperative ICP and CPP values significantly differed. The ICP and CPP values were also significantly associated with surgical outcome in the severe TBI patients. Between hematoma evacuation and wound closure, ICP and CPP values differed by 6.8 ± 4.5 and 6.5 ± 4.6 mmHg, respectively (mean difference, 6 mmHg. Intraoperative thresholds were 14 mmHg for ICP and 56mmH for CPP. Monitoring ICP and CPP during surgery improves management of severe TBI patients and provides an early prognostic indicator. During surgery for severe TBI, early detection of increased ICP is also crucial for enabling sufficiently early treatment to improve surgical outcome. However, further study is needed to determine the optimal intraoperative ICP and CPP thresholds before their use as subjective guidelines for managing severe TBI patients.

  14. Early effects of combretastatin-A4 disodium phosphate on tumor perfusion and interstitial fluid pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, C.D.; Horsman, Michael Robert; Kristjansen, P.E.G.

    2007-01-01

    /kg CA4DP by intraperitoneal injection. Tumor perfusion was recorded by laser Doppler flowmetry at separate time points, and IFP was recorded continuously by the wick-in-needle method. In this study, we found that CA4DP treatment resulted in a rapid reduction in tumor perfusion, followed by a decrease...

  15. CT perfusion imaging of the liver and the spleen in patients with cirrhosis: Is there a correlation between perfusion and portal venous hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talakić, Emina; Schaffellner, Silvia; Kniepeiss, Daniela; Mueller, Helmut; Stauber, Rudolf; Quehenberger, Franz; Schoellnast, Helmut

    2017-10-01

    To correlate hepatic and splenic CT perfusion parameters with hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurements in patients with cirrhosis. Twenty-one patients with cirrhosis (males, 17; females, 4; mean ± SD age, 57 ± 7 years) underwent hepatic and splenic perfusion CT on a 320-detector row volume scanner as well as invasive measurement of HVPG. Different CT perfusion algorithms (maximum slope analysis and Patlak plot) were used to measure hepatic arterial flow (HAF), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic perfusion index (HPI), splenic arterial flow (SAF), splenic blood volume (SBV) and splenic clearance (SCL). Hepatic and splenic perfusion parameters were correlated with HVPG, and sensitivity and specificity for detection of severe portal hypertension (≥12 mmHg) were calculated. The Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.53 (p portal hypertension. • SAF and SCL are statistically significantly correlated with HVPG • SCL showed stronger correlation with HVPG than SAF • 125 ml/min/100 ml SCL-cut-off yielded 94 % sensitivity, 100 % specificity for severe PH • HAF, PVF and HPI showed no statistically significant correlation with HVPG.

  16. Establishment of a hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; He, Fu-Liang; Liu, Fu-Quan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2015-08-28

    To determine the feasibility and safety of establishing a porcine hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol. Twenty-one healthy Guizhou miniature pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups and three control groups. The pigs in the three experimental groups were subjected to hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of 80% alcohol, respectively, while those in the three control groups underwent hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of saline, respectively. Hepatic arteriography and direct portal phlebography were performed on all animals before and after perfusion, and the portal venous pressure and diameter were measured before perfusion, immediately after perfusion, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after perfusion. The following procedures were performed at different time points: routine blood sampling, blood biochemistry, blood coagulation and blood ammonia tests before surgery, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after surgery; hepatic biopsy before surgery, within 6 h after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wk after surgery; abdominal enhanced computed tomography examination before surgery and at 6 wk after surgery; autopsy and multi-point sampling of various liver lobes for histological examination at 6 wk after surgery. In experimental group 1, different degrees of hepatic fibrosis were observed, and one pig developed hepatic cirrhosis. In experimental group 2, there were cases of hepatic cirrhosis, different degrees of increased portal venous pressure, and intrahepatic portal venous bypass, but neither extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation nor death occurred. In experimental group 3, two animals died and three animals developed hepatic cirrhosis, and different degrees of increased portal venous pressure and intrahepatic portal venous bypass were also observed, but there was no extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation. It is feasible to establish an animal model of hepatic cirrhosis and

  17. Clinical indicators to monitor patients with risk for ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam de Abreu Almeida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Select and validate the clinical indicators to monitor patients on risk for ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion, according to the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC. Methodology. Validation study carried out between November 2012 and August 2013, in a Brazilian hospital. Seventeen judges nurses evaluated the clinical indicators of Nursing Outcomes, according to NOC for patients on risk for ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion. In the first stage, were selected the nursing results for the assessment of the studied diagnosis and, in the second nurses assessment the importance of the indicators of the validated results in the previous step through a five points Likert scale (1 = not important to 5 = extremely important. Were used the content validity index (CVI that corresponds to the calculation of weighted averages of them marks awarded for each indicator, as it considered the following weights: 1=0.00, 2=0.25, 3=0.50; 4=0.75; 5=1.00. For categorization, the CVI considered as critical = ≥0.80; supplementary =≥0.50 to 0.79 and were disposed results <0.50. Results. Of the 9 nursing results, only the cerebral tissue perfusion obtained a 100% consensus. The CVI of the 18 indicators of this result showed that five were validated as critical (impaired neurological reflexes, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, reduced level of consciousness and mean arterial pressure, 12 were validated as supplementary (Agitation, Impaired cognition, Intracranial pressure, Syncope, Vomiting, Findings of cerebral angiography, Headache, Restlessness, Fever, Unexplained anxiety, listlessness and Hiccughs and one was disposed (carotid bruit. Conclusions. The validation of information about the conditions of risk may allow early intervention to minimize the consequences of ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion.

  18. Quantitative lung perfusion evaluation using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørstad, Åsmund; Corteville, Dominique M R; Fischer, Andre; Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-08-01

    To quantitatively evaluate lung perfusion using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI. The Fourier decomposition (FD) method is a noninvasive method for assessing ventilation- and perfusion-related information in the lungs, where the perfusion maps in particular have shown promise for clinical use. However, the perfusion maps are nonquantitative and dimensionless, making follow-ups and direct comparisons between patients difficult. We present an approach to obtain physically meaningful and quantifiable perfusion maps using the FD method. The standard FD perfusion images are quantified by comparing the partially blood-filled pixels in the lung parenchyma with the fully blood-filled pixels in the aorta. The percentage of blood in a pixel is then combined with the temporal information, yielding quantitative blood flow values. The values of 10 healthy volunteers are compared with SEEPAGE measurements which have shown high consistency with dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI. All pulmonary blood flow (PBF) values are within the expected range. The two methods are in good agreement (mean difference = 0.2 mL/min/100 mL, mean absolute difference = 11 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-FD = 150 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-SEEPAGE = 151 mL/min/100 mL). The Bland-Altman plot shows a good spread of values, indicating no systematic bias between the methods. Quantitative lung perfusion can be obtained using the Fourier Decomposition method combined with a small amount of postprocessing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  20. Resting Brain Perfusion and Selected Vascular Risk Factors in Healthy Elderly Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Jensen, Lars T; Krabbe, Katja

    2014-01-01

    with circulating homocysteine, but not with asymmetric dimethylarginine, dyslipidemia or the carotid intima-media thickness. The relative regional brain perfusion was associated with circulating homocysteine, with a relative parietal hypoperfusion and a frontal hyperperfusion. No effect on regional brain perfusion...... was observed for any of the other risk factors. A multiple regression model including homocysteine, caffeine, hematocrit and end-tidal PCO2, explained nearly half of the observed variability. CONCLUSION: Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors influenced global cerebral perfusion variation between subjects....... Further, the results suggest that the inverse relation between homocysteine and brain perfusion is owing to other mechanisms, than reflected by asymmetric dimethylarginine, and that homocysteine may be a marker of cerebral perfusion in aging brains....

  1. Correlation of the perfusion scintigram with pulmonary functions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Kou; Ashitaka, Tsuyoshi; Uchibori, Shigeyasu [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Takano, Masaaki

    1992-11-01

    The authors carried out ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and pulmonary function tests in 21 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It was used [sup 99m]Tc-macroaggregate for perfusion scintigram and [sup 133]Xe gas for ventilation scintigram. It was added the radioactivities of rebreathing phase and made lung volume image using a computer. Regions of interest (ROIs) were derived from radioactivities in each image. ROIs on lung volume image included each whole lung and those on perfusion image included the areas which had relatively high radioactivity. The authors counted the area of ROIs on lung volume (L) and perfusion (P) images. Then it was used the ratio of perfusion to lung volume (P/L) as a parameter of pulmonary perfusion. P/L had the significant correlations with the vital capacity, the actual FFV[sub 1.0], arterial oxygen partial pressure, diffusing capacity, RV/TLC and peak flow rate. These results suggested that P/L was a useful parameter of pulmonary perfusion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (author).

  2. Elimination of extracranial blood flow during dynamic cerebral perfusion studies using diffusible and non-diffusible radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahonen, A.; Koivula, A.; Kallanranta, T.; Kuikka, J.

    1981-01-01

    The extracranial blood flow seriously complicates the interpretation of dynamic cerebral studies. To eliminate this, we used a blood pressure cuff placed around the head in 50 patients with no evidence of cerebrovascular disease. The pressure in the headband was increased to 30 mmHg above the patient's systolic pressure, and the first 60 sec static scintigram was taken exactly 3 min after the injection of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate. A second 60 sec static scintigram was taken without pressure in the headband at 6 min after injection. After correction for diffusion of tracer into extravascular compartments we could still show 13% reduction in counting rates over the hemispheric regions and 30% over the convexity regions during application of the pressure headband. With the Xenon method, the application of the headband appears to have insignificant influence on the results of cerebral perfusion. We thus recommend that a headband should be used for dynamic sup(99m)Tc-isotope cerebral circulation studies. (author)

  3. Closed-loop control of renal perfusion pressure in physiological experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Delgado, D U; Bonilla, I; Rodríguez-Martínez, M; Sánchez-Briones, M E; Ruiz-Hernández, E

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents the design, experimental modeling, and control of a pump-driven renal perfusion pressure (RPP)-regulatory system to implement precise and relatively fast RPP regulation in rats. The mechatronic system is a simple, low-cost, and reliable device to automate the RPP regulation process based on flow-mediated occlusion. Hence, the regulated signal is the RPP measured in the left femoral artery of the rat, and the manipulated variable is the voltage applied to a dc motor that controls the occlusion of the aorta. The control system is implemented in a PC through the LabView software, and a data acquisition board NI USB-6210. A simple first-order linear system is proposed to approximate the dynamics in the experiment. The parameters of the model are chosen to minimize the error between the predicted and experimental output averaged from eight input/output datasets at different RPP operating conditions. A closed-loop servocontrol system based on a pole-placement PD controller plus dead-zone compensation was proposed for this purpose. First, the feedback structure was validated in simulation by considering parameter uncertainty, and constant and time-varying references. Several experimental tests were also conducted to validate in real time the closed-loop performance for stepwise and fast switching references, and the results show the effectiveness of the proposed automatic system to regulate the RPP in the rat, in a precise, accurate (mean error less than 2 mmHg) and relatively fast mode (10-15 s of response time).

  4. Noninvasive study of extremity perfusion by 43K scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, A.T.; Mishkin, F.S.; Maxwell, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    In nine patients with lower extremity symptoms of arterial insufficiency, potassium chloride 43 K was injected intravenously during rest, reactive hyperemia, or exercise. Decreased radioactivity in muscle tissue was observed to correspond with symptoms, physical findings, Doppler ultrasound pressures, and angiographic findings in all six who had the procedure. Studies following surgical endarterectomies in two, a bypass procedure in one, and exploration without attempted reconstruction in one showed good correlation with postoperative symptoms, physical findings, and pressure measurements using Doppler ultrasound in three of four patients. The fourth patient showed no change on the postoperative study despite clinical improvement. These findings suggest that intravenously administered radioactive potassium provides a noninvasive means for demonstrating the perfused muscle mass of the extremities with delineation of ischemic areas. The risk of arterial puncture is eliminated, and the ability to visualize perfusion patterns during exercise is unique to this method. (U.S.)

  5. Non-invasive monitoring of muscle blood perfusion by photoplethysmography: evaluation of a new application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, M; Zhang, Q; Styf, J; Gerdle, B; Lindberg, L-G

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate a specially developed photoplethysmographic (PPG) technique, using green and near-infrared light sources, for simultaneous non-invasive monitoring of skin and muscle perfusion. Evaluation was based on assessments of changes in blood perfusion to various provocations, such as post-exercise hyperaemia and hyperaemia following the application of liniment. The deep penetrating feature of PPG was investigated by measurement of optical radiation inside the muscle. Simultaneous measurements using ultrasound Doppler and the new PPG application were performed to elucidate differences between the two methods. Specific problems related to the influence of skin temperature on blood flow were highlightened, as well. Following static and dynamic contractions an immediate increase in muscle perfusion was shown, without increase in skin perfusion. Liniment application to the skin induced a rapid increase in skin perfusion, but not in muscle. Both similarities and differences in blood flow measured by Ultrasound Doppler and PPG were demonstrated. The radiant power measured inside the muscle, by use of an optical fibre, showed that the near-infrared light penetrates down to the vascular depth inside the muscle. The results of this study indicate the potentiality of the method for non-invasive measurement of local muscle perfusion, although some considerations still have to be accounted for, such as influence of temperature on blood perfusion.

  6. The influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju Haiyue; Gao Sijia; Xu Ke; Wang Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the influence of the maximal value and peak enhancement value of arterial and venous enhancement curve on CT perfusion parameters and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Methods: Seventeen patients underwent brain CT perfusion scanning. All row data were analyzed with perfusion software for 6 times, and get different arterial and venous enhancement curves for each patient. The maximal values and peak enhancement values of each arterial and venous enhancement curves, as well as mean perfusion parameters including cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT), permeability surface area product (PS), and their standard deviations (SD) in homolateral white and gray matter were measured and recorded. SNR was calculated by dividing the mean perfusion parameter value by its SD. Pearson correlation analysis and two-tailed paired Student t test were used for statistics. Results: The maximal values and peak enhancement values of arterial and venous curves were correlated with mean SNR CBF , SNR CBV and SNR MTT in both white matter and gray matters (r value range: 0.332-0.922, P PS in white matter(r=0.256, P PS (in both white matter and gray matters) and arterial peak enhancement values, the maximal values and venous peak enhancement values, or between SNR PS (in gray matter) and the maximal values of venous curve(r value range: -0.058-0.210, P>0.05). (2) Mean CBF, CBV and PS values in the group with low venous peak enhancement values were significantly different from the group with high venous peak enhancement values in both white and gray matters (t value range: 3.830-5.337, P 0.05). Conclusions: The mean perfusion parameters and SNR are influenced by the maximal values and peak enhancement values of the arterial and venous curves. Peak enhancement of arterial and venous curves should be adjusted to higher level to make parameter values more reliable and increase the SNR. (authors)

  7. Permissive hypotension in the extremely low birthweight infant with signs of good perfusion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, E M

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Many practitioners routinely treat infants whose mean arterial blood pressure in mm Hg is less than their gestational age in weeks (GA). OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of utilising a combined approach of clinical signs, metabolic acidosis and absolute blood pressure (BP) values when deciding to treat hypotension in the extremely low birthweight (ELBW) infant. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of all live born ELBW infants admitted to our neonatal intensive care unit over a 4-year period. Patients were grouped as either normotensive (BP never less than GA), hypotensive and not treated (BPperfusion; we termed this permissive hypotension) and hypotensive treated (BPperfusion). RESULTS: 118 patients were admitted during this period. Blood pressure data were available on 108 patients. 53% of patients were hypotensive (mean BP in mm Hg less than GA in weeks). Treated patients had lower birth weight and GA, and significantly lower blood pressure at 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Normotensive patients and patients designated as having permissive hypotension had similar outcomes. Mean blood pressure in the permissive group increased from 26 mm Hg at 6 h to 31 mm Hg at 24 h. In a logistic regression model, treated hypotension is independently associated with mortality, odds ratio 8.0 (95% CI 2.3 to 28, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Blood pressure spontaneously improves in ELBW infants during the first 24 h. Infants hypotensive on GA criteria but with clinical evidence of good perfusion had as good an outcome as normotensive patients. Treated low blood pressure was associated with adverse outcome.

  8. Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging Demonstrates Reduced Periventricular Cerebral Blood Flow in Dogs with Ventriculomegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Schmidt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The nature of ventriculomegaly in dogs is still a matter of debate. Signs of increased intraventricular pressure and atrophy of the cerebral white matter have been found in dogs with ventriculomegaly, which would imply increased intraventricular pressure and, therefore, a pathological condition, i.e., to some extent. Reduced periventricular blood flow was found in people with high elevated intraventricular pressure. The aim of this study was to compare periventricular brain perfusion in dogs with and without ventriculomegaly using perfusion weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging to clarify as to whether ventriculomegaly might be associated with an increase in intraventricular pressure. Perfusion was measured in 32 Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS with ventriculomegaly, 10 CKCSs were examined as a control group. Cerebral blood flow (CBF was measured using free-hand regions of interest (ROI in five brain regions: periventricular white matter, caudate nucleus, parietal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. CBF was significantly lower in the periventricular white matter of the dogs with ventriculomegaly (p = 0.0029 but not in the other ROIs. Reduction of periventricular CBF might imply increase of intraventricular pressure in ventriculomegaly.

  9. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, [3H]testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with [3H]testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis

  10. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  11. Fast Doppler as a novel bedside measure of cerebral perfusion in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, Eric S; Mehic, Edin; Mourad, Pierre D; Juul, Sandra E

    2016-02-01

    Altered cerebral perfusion from impaired autoregulation may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with premature birth. We hypothesized that fast Doppler imaging could provide a reproducible bedside estimation of cerebral perfusion and autoregulation in preterm infants. This is a prospective pilot study using fast Doppler ultrasound to assess blood flow velocity in the basal ganglia of 19 subjects born at 26-32 wk gestation. Intraclass correlation provided a measure of test-retest reliability, and linear regression of cerebral blood flow velocity and heart rate or blood pressure allowed for estimations of autoregulatory ability. The intraclass correlation when imaging in the first 48 h of life was 0.634. We found significant and independent correlations between the systolic blood flow velocity and both systolic blood pressure and heart rate (P = 0.015 and 0.012 respectively) only in the 26-28 wk gestational age infants in the first 48 h of life. Our results suggest that fast Doppler provides reliable bedside measurements of cerebral blood flow velocity at the tissue level in premature infants, acting as a proxy for cerebral tissue perfusion. Additionally, autoregulation appears to be impaired in the extremely preterm infants, even within a normal range of blood pressures.

  12. Design modification and optimisation of the perfusion system of a tri-axial bioreactor for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Husnah; Williams, David J; Liu, Yang

    2015-07-01

    A systematic design of experiments (DOE) approach was used to optimize the perfusion process of a tri-axial bioreactor designed for translational tissue engineering exploiting mechanical stimuli and mechanotransduction. Four controllable design parameters affecting the perfusion process were identified in a cause-effect diagram as potential improvement opportunities. A screening process was used to separate out the factors that have the largest impact from the insignificant ones. DOE was employed to find the settings of the platen design, return tubing configuration and the elevation difference that minimise the load on the pump and variation in the perfusion process and improve the controllability of the perfusion pressures within the prescribed limits. DOE was very effective for gaining increased knowledge of the perfusion process and optimizing the process for improved functionality. It is hypothesized that the optimized perfusion system will result in improved biological performance and consistency.

  13. Large-Animal Biventricular Working Heart Perfusion System with Low Priming Volume-Comparison between in vivo and ex vivo Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja Axinja Jelena; Jauch, Judith; Guethoff, Sonja; Buchholz, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Bauer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Existing large-animal, ex vivo, cardiac perfusion models are restricted in their ability to establish an ischemia/reperfusion condition as seen in cardiac surgery or transplantation. Other working heart systems only challenge one ventricle or require a substantially larger priming volume. We describe a novel biventricular cardiac perfusion system with reduced priming volume. Juvenile pig hearts were cardiopleged, explanted, and reperfused ex vivo after 150 minutes of cold ischemia. Autologous whole blood was used as perfusate (minimal priming volume 350 mL). After 15 minutes of Langendorff perfusion (LM), the system was switched into a biventricular working mode (WM) and studied for 3 hours. During reperfusion, complete unloading of both ventricles and constant-pressure coronary perfusion was achieved. During working mode perfusion, the preload and afterload pressure of both ventricles was controlled within the targeted physiologic range. Functional parameters such as left ventricular work index were reduced in ex vivo working mode (in vivo: 787 ± 186 vs. 1 h WM 498 ± 66 mm Hg·mL/g·min; p  hours while functional and blood parameters are easily accessible. Moreover, because of the minimal priming volume, the novel ex vivo cardiac perfusion circuit allows for autologous perfusion, using the limited amount of blood available from the organ donating animal. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiwei; Bao Weimin; Li Xiaoping; Liu Donglin; Zhou Hui

    2016-01-01

    Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. (paper)

  15. Postural effects on intraocular pressure and ocular perfusion pressure in patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jee Myung; Park, Sang Woo; Ji, Yong Sok; Kim, Jaeryung; Yoo, Chungkwon; Heo, Hwan

    2017-04-20

    To investigate postural effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). IOP and blood pressure (BP) were measured in 20 patients with unilateral NAION 10 min after changing to each of the following positions sequentially: sitting, supine, right lateral decubitus position (LDP), supine, left LDP, and supine. IOP was measured using a rebound tonometer and OPP was calculated using formulas based on mean BP. The dependent LDP (DLDP) was defined as the position when the eye of interest (affected or unaffected eye) was placed on the dependent side in the LDP. IOPs were significantly higher (P = 0.020) and OPPs were significantly lower (P = 0.041) in the affected eye compare with the unaffected eye, with the affected eye in DLDP. Compared with the mean IOP of the unaffected eyes, the mean IOP of the affected eyes increased significantly (+2.9 ± 4.4 versus +0.7 ± 3.1 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.003) and the mean OPP decreased significantly (-6.7 ± 9.4 versus -4.9 ± 8.0 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.022) after changing positions from supine to DLDP. In addition, changing position from supine to DLDP showed significantly larger absolute changes in IOP (4.13 ± 3.19 mmHg versus 2.51 ± 1.92 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.004) and OPP (9.86 ± 5.69 mmHg versus 7.50 ± 5.49 mmHg, respectively; P = 0.009) in the affected eye compared with the unaffected eye. In the affected eye, there was a significant positive correlation between absolute change in IOP and OPP when changing position from supine to DLDP (Rho = 0.512, P = 0.021). A postural change from supine to DLDP caused significant fluctuations in IOP and OPP of the affected eye, and may significantly increase IOP and decrease OPP. Posture-induced IOP changes may be a predisposing factor for NAION development.

  16. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Daniel T.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Young, Philip; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Siwik, Ernest S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  17. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Yoji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Kumita, Shin-ichirou; Hayashida, Kohei; Uehara, Toshiisa; Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Ohno, Akira

    1991-01-01

    Fifteen cases with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) were classified into two groups by using the perfusion lung scan pattern. Eight cases had multiple, small, ill-defined defects (mottled pattern), and remaining seven cases had no mottled pattern. These two groups were compared with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mean PAP), right ventricular ejection fraction (RVEF), blood gas at room air (PaO 2 ), and alveolar-arterial O 2 difference (A-aDo 2 ). The cases with mottled pattern showed a significant increase in mean PAP. There were no significant differences in RVEF, PaO 2 , and A-aDo 2 , between the groups. The survival rate of the patients with mottled pattern was significantly lower than that without mottled pattern (p<0.05). We concluded that perfusion lung scan is very useful for evaluation of the prognosis in primary pulmonary hypertension. (author)

  18. A decision support system for stress only myocardial perfusion scintigraphy may save unnecessary rest studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tägil, K; Jakobsson, D; Lomsky, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a computer-based decision support system (DSS) on performance and inter-observer variability of interpretations regarding ischaemia and infarction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS).......The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a computer-based decision support system (DSS) on performance and inter-observer variability of interpretations regarding ischaemia and infarction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS)....

  19. TU-G-204-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Measurement and Its Comparison to Fractional Flow Reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Groves, E; Sadeghi, B; Javan, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate a first pass analysis (FPA) technique for CT perfusion measurement in a swine animal and its validation using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard. Methods: Swine were placed under anesthesia and relevant physiologic parameters were continuously recorded. Intra-coronary adenosine was administered to induce maximum hyperemia. A pressure wire was advanced distal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for FFR measurements and a balloon dilation catheter was inserted over the pressure wire into the proximal LAD to create varying levels of stenosis. Images were acquired with a 320-row wide volume CT scanner. Three main coronary perfusion beds were delineated in the myocardium using arteries extracted from CT angiography images using a minimum energy hypothesis. The integrated density in the perfusion bed was used to calculate perfusion using the FPA technique. The perfusion in the LAD bed over a range of stenosis severity was measured. The measured fractional perfusion was compared to FFR and linear regression was performed. Results: The measured fractional perfusion using the FPA technique (P-FPA) and FFR were related as P-FPA = 1.06FFR – 0.06 (r{sup 2} = 0.86). The perfusion measurements were calculated with only three to five total CT volume scans, which drastically reduces the radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques requiring 15–20 volume scans. Conclusion: The measured perfusion using the first pass analysis technique showed good correlation with FFR measurements as a reference standard. The technique for perfusion measurement can potentially make a substantial reduction in radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques.

  20. TU-G-204-01: BEST IN PHYSICS (IMAGING): Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Measurement and Its Comparison to Fractional Flow Reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziemer, B; Hubbard, L; Groves, E; Sadeghi, B; Javan, H; Lipinski, J; Molloi, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a first pass analysis (FPA) technique for CT perfusion measurement in a swine animal and its validation using fractional flow reserve (FFR) as a reference standard. Methods: Swine were placed under anesthesia and relevant physiologic parameters were continuously recorded. Intra-coronary adenosine was administered to induce maximum hyperemia. A pressure wire was advanced distal to the first diagonal branch of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery for FFR measurements and a balloon dilation catheter was inserted over the pressure wire into the proximal LAD to create varying levels of stenosis. Images were acquired with a 320-row wide volume CT scanner. Three main coronary perfusion beds were delineated in the myocardium using arteries extracted from CT angiography images using a minimum energy hypothesis. The integrated density in the perfusion bed was used to calculate perfusion using the FPA technique. The perfusion in the LAD bed over a range of stenosis severity was measured. The measured fractional perfusion was compared to FFR and linear regression was performed. Results: The measured fractional perfusion using the FPA technique (P-FPA) and FFR were related as P-FPA = 1.06FFR – 0.06 (r 2 = 0.86). The perfusion measurements were calculated with only three to five total CT volume scans, which drastically reduces the radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques requiring 15–20 volume scans. Conclusion: The measured perfusion using the first pass analysis technique showed good correlation with FFR measurements as a reference standard. The technique for perfusion measurement can potentially make a substantial reduction in radiation dose as compared with the existing techniques

  1. Effects of perfusion detect on the measurement of left ventricular mass, ventricular volume and post-stress left ventricular ejection fraction in gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Sun Keun; Lee, Sang Woo; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2002-01-01

    The presence of perfusion defect may influence the left ventricular mass (LVM) measurement by quantitative gated myocardial perfusion SPECT (QGS), and ischemic myocardium, usually showing perfusion defect may produce post-stress LV dysfunction. This study was aimed to evaluated the effects of extent and reversibility of perfusion defect on the automatic measurement of LVM by QGS and to investigate the effect of reversibility of perfusion defect on post-stress LV dysfunction. Forty-six patients (male/female=34:12, mean age=64 years) with perfusion defect on myocardial perfusion SPECT underwent rest and post-stress QGS. Forty patients (87%) showed reversible defect. End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF), and LV myocardial volume were obtained from QGS by autoquant program, and LVM was calculated by multiplying the LV myocardial volume by the specific gravity of myocardium. LVMs measured at rest and post-stress QGS showed good correlation, and higher correlation was founded in the subjects with fixed perfusion defect and with small defect (smaller than 20%). There were no significant differences in EDVs, ESVs and EFs between obtained by rest and post-stress QGS in patients with fixed myocardial defect. Whereas, EF obtained by post-stress QGS was lower than that by rest QGS in patients with reversible defect and 10 (25%) of them showed decreases in EF more than 5% in post-stress QGS, as compared to that of rest QGS. Excellent correlations of EDVs, ESVs, EFs between rest and post-stress QGS were noted. Patients with fixed defect had higher correlation between defect can affect LVM measurement by QGS and patients with reversible defect shows post-stress LV dysfunction more frequently than patients with fixed perfusion defect

  2. Detection of human influence on sea-level pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Nathan P; Zwiers, Francis W; Weaver, Andrew J; Stott, Peter A

    2003-03-20

    Greenhouse gases and tropospheric sulphate aerosols--the main human influences on climate--have been shown to have had a detectable effect on surface air temperature, the temperature of the free troposphere and stratosphere and ocean temperature. Nevertheless, the question remains as to whether human influence is detectable in any variable other than temperature. Here we detect an influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols in observations of winter sea-level pressure (December to February), using combined simulations from four climate models. We find increases in sea-level pressure over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean, southern Europe and North Africa, and decreases in the polar regions and the North Pacific Ocean, in response to human influence. Our analysis also indicates that the climate models substantially underestimate the magnitude of the sea-level pressure response. This discrepancy suggests that the upward trend in the North Atlantic Oscillation index (corresponding to strengthened westerlies in the North Atlantic region), as simulated in a number of global warming scenarios, may be too small, leading to an underestimation of the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on European climate.

  3. Application of a stir-tank bioreactor for perfusion culture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... The bioreactor we used could be an efficient cell culture system and demonstrates industrial potential. ... overcoming the harmful effects of browning have no conclusive .... solvent under reduced pressure, the ethanol extract liquids was re- ... was detected in the exhaust medium with a perfusion rate of more ...

  4. Normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated porcine liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme K; Chambers, Brenton; Fink, Michael A; Wang, Bao Zhong; Houston, Shane; Eastwood, Glenn; Calzavacca, Paolo; Glassford, Neil; Skene, Alison; Jones, Daryl A; Jones, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a major life-saving procedure, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) has increased the pool of potential liver donors. However, DCD livers are at increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to protect, evaluate and, in future, transplant DCD livers. We conducted proof-of-concept experiments using a DCD model in the pig to assess the short-term (4 hours) feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP. Using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion, and physiological perfusion pressures, we achieved NELP and evidence of function (bile production, paracetamol removal, maintenance of normal ammonia and lactate levels) for 4 hours in pig livers subjected to 15 and 30 minutes of cardiac arrest before explantation. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of human DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.

  5. Cerebral perfusion pressure, microdialysis biochemistry and clinical outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraforou Theoniki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is a major cause of death and disability. It has been postulated that brain metabolic status, intracranial pressure (ICP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP are related to patients' outcome. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between CPP, ICP and microdialysis parameters and clinical outcome in TBIs. Results Thirty four individuals with severe brain injury hospitalized in an intensive care unit participated in this study. Microdialysis data were collected, along with ICP and CPP values. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS was used to evaluate patient outcome at 6 months after injury. Fifteen patients with a CPP greater than 75 mmHg, L/P ratio lower than 37 and Glycerol concentration lower than 72 mmol/l had an excellent outcome (GOS 4 or 5, as opposed to the remaining 19 patients. No patient with a favorable outcome had a CPP lower than 75 mmHg or Glycerol concentration and L/P ratio greater than 72 mmol/l and 37 respectively. Data regarding L/P ratio and Glycerol concentration were statistically significant at p = 0.05 when patients with favorable and unfavorable outcome were compared. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex and Glasgow Coma Scale on admission, a CPP greater than 75 mmHg was marginally statistically significantly related to outcome at 6 months after injury. Conclusions Patients with favorable outcome had certain common features in terms of microdialysis parameters and CPP values. An individualized approach regarding CPP levels and cut -off points for Glycerol concentration and L/P ratio are proposed.

  6. The diagnostic usefulness of densitometric examinations and radioisotopic indexes of bone metabolism and muscle perfusion in gout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tryniszewski, W.; Gadzicki, M.; Gorska-Chrzastek, M.; Maziarz, Z.; Rysz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Gout affects joints and other organs and often impairs the body asymptomatically. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent gout correlates with the changes in bone system and muscle perfusion. The influence of gout on bone mineralization, bone metabolism and muscle perfusion were assessed. The correlation between these and the diagnostic usefulness of the methods applied are discussed. The study included 44 patients (ages 38 - 67) including 7 women (ages 59 - 67). Seventeen of the examined men were 35 -45 years of age. Of the 44 total patients, 5 were normal weight (11 %), 29 (66 %) were overweight and 10 (23 %) were obese. The disease duration was 5 - 10 years. Material/Methods: The patients were examined for gout by specialists. Biochemical and hormonal blood tests were performed on parameters that influence bone mineralization and rotation, and muscle perfusion. BMD, T-score and Z-score of femoral bone neck were obtained, and muscle perfusion was assessed. With own methods and programs the bone metabolism and muscle perfusion indicators were assigned. Results: In patients with gout, a decrease in BMD, together with the slowing of metabolic processes, was observed. When BMD increased, a decreased perfusion was observed. A strong positive correlation was observed between BMD and IBM (indicator of bone metabolism), and between BMI and the perfusion indicator. Improved perfusion caused the BMD and IBM to increase. IBM and BMD define the size of the disturbances and are important clinical parameters. Conclusions: The bone metabolism disorder, osteopenia and osteoporosis may be caused by the destructive influence of gout on the bone system. In patients with gout, bone mineralization and IBM disturbances occur much earlier than in those without gout. The increase of IBM reflects the pace of the metabolic processes in the bone system. These methods complete the diagnostics of bone systems in patients with gout. (authors)

  7. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae

    2005-01-01

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 ± 8.5%, range:3 ∼ 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 ± 42.7%, range:-217 ∼ -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome

  8. Abnormal perfusion on myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Do Young; Cha, Kwang Soo; Han, Seung Ho; Park, Tae Ho; Kim, Moo Hyun; Kim, Young Dae [Donga University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Abnormal myocardial perfusion may be caused by ventricular preexcitation, but its location, extent, severity and correlation with accessory pathway (AP) are not established. We evaluated perfusion patterns on myocardial perfusion SPECT and location of AP in patients with WPW (Wolff-Parkison-White) syndrome. Adenosine Tc-99m MIBI or Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed in 11 patients with WPW syndrome. Perfusion defects (PD) were compared to AP location based on ECT with Fitzpatrick's algorithm of electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation. Patients had atypical chest discomfort or no symptom. Risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was below 0.1 in 11 patients using the nomogram to estimate the probability of CAD. Coronary angiography was performed in 4 patients(mid-LAD 50% in one, normal in others). In 4 patients, AP localization was done by electrophysiologic study and radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Small to large extent (11.0 {+-} 8.5%, range:3 {approx} 35%) and mild to moderate severity (-71 {+-} 42.7%, range:-217 {approx} -39%) of reversible (n=9) or fixed (n=1) perfusion defects were noted. One patients with right free wall (right lateral) AP showed normal. PD locations were variable following the location of AP. One patient with left lateral wall AP was followed 6 weeks after RFCA and showed significantly decreased PD on SPECT with successful ablation. Myocardial perfusion defect showed variable extent, severity and location in patients with WPW syndrome. Abnormal perfusion defect showed in most of all patients, but if did not seem to be correlated specifically with location of accessory pathway and coronary artery disease. Therefore myocardial perfusion SPECT should be interpreted carefully in patients with WPW syndrome.

  9. Characterizing potential heart agents with an isolated perfused heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Camin, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used an isolated perfused heart system for characterizing potential myocardial perfusion radiopharamaceuticals. Rabbit or guinea pig (GP) hearts are removed and perfused through the aorta with a blood-free buffer. Heart rate and ventricular pressure are monitored as indices of viability. Tc-99m-MAA is 96-100% retained in these hearts, and Tc-99m human serum albumin shows less than 5% extraction. Tl-201 is 30-40% extracted. It is known that in-vivo, Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2//sup +/ is taken up by rabbit heart but not by GP or human heart. Analogous results are obtained with the isolated perfused heart model, where the complex is extracted well by the isolated rabbit heart (24%) but not by the GP heart (<5%). Values are unchanged if human, rabbit or GP blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex. Tc-99m)dmpe)/sub 3//sup +/ is also taken up by rabbit but not by GP hearts in-vivo. However, isolated perfused hearts of both species extract this complex well (45-52%). Heart uptake is diminished to <7% if the complex is pre-equilibrated with human blood. GP blood produces a moderate inhibition (in GP hearts only) and rabbit blood has no effect. This suggests that a human or GP blood factor may have a significant effect on heart uptake of this complex. Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ is taken up well by both rabbit and GP hearts in-vivo, and is extracted 100% by both isolated perfused hearts. Heart retention remains high (73-75%) in the presence of human blood

  10. Skin Blood Perfusion and Oxygenation Colour Affect Perceived Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Ian D.; Coetzee, Vinet; Law Smith, Miriam; Perrett, David I.

    2009-01-01

    Skin blood perfusion and oxygenation depends upon cardiovascular, hormonal and circulatory health in humans and provides socio-sexual signals of underlying physiology, dominance and reproductive status in some primates. We allowed participants to manipulate colour calibrated facial photographs along empirically-measured oxygenated and deoxygenated blood colour axes both separately and simultaneously, to optimise healthy appearance. Participants increased skin blood colour, particularly oxygenated, above basal levels to optimise healthy appearance. We show, therefore, that skin blood perfusion and oxygenation influence perceived health in a way that may be important to mate choice. PMID:19337378

  11. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Sundskard, Martin M; Jonassen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Absence of pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with reduced postoperative oxygenation. Effects of active pulmonary artery perfusion were explored in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: 90...... perfusion with normothermic oxygenated blood during cardiopulmonary bypass appears to improve postoperative oxygenation in patients with COPD undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution does not seem to improve postoperative oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER...

  12. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  13. Influence of nifedipine on left ventricular perfusion and function in patients with unstable angina: Evaluation with radionuclide techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, E.E. van der; Kerkkamp, H.J.; Simoons, M.L.; Rijk, P.P. van; Reiber, J.H.C.; Bom, N.; Lubsen, J.C.; Lie, K.I.

    1986-04-01

    In 1981, a large, double-blind, randomized trial was started in The Netherlands to evaluate the therapeutic effects of nifedipine and/or metoprolol in patients with unstable angina. This study has been called the Holland Interuniversity Nifedipine/metoprolol Trial (HINT) and required several hundred patients to establish potential therapeutic effects. From December 1982 to January 1984 the effects of nifedipine on left ventricular (LV) performance in a subgroup of 52 HINT patients were studied using radionuclide techniques. All patients (23 on nifedipine, 29 controls) underwent thallium-201 scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography just before and 48 h after the start of experimental medication. The radionuclide angiographic studies were also performed at 1 and 4 h after treatment. Nifedipine did not influence the incidence of disapperance of perfusion defects on the 48-h thallium images. No significant differences in overall LV ejections fraction (EF) were seen at any time between nifedipine-treated patients and controls. However, paired observations in 37 patients showed improvement of LVEF after 48 h in 8 patients on nifedipine and in only 1 control patient. Scintigraphic measurements on admission were not related to clinical outcome after 48 h. Concomitant administration of metoprolol did not influence LVEF in either group. It is concluded that nifedipine improves LVEF after 48 h in a subset of patients with unstable angina without affecting myocardial perfusion. This finding indicates that nifedipine has a predominant effect on afterload reduction in patients with unstable angina. Also, early scintigraphic measurements had no significant predictive value for subsequent cardiac events.

  14. Compression therapy in mixed ulcers increases venous output and arterial perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosti, Giovanni; Iabichella, Maria Letizia; Partsch, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to define bandage pressures that are safe and effective in treating leg ulcers of mixed arterial-venous etiology. In 25 patients with mixed-etiology leg ulcers who received inelastic bandages applied with pressures from 20 to 30, 31 to 40, and 41 to 50 mm Hg, the following measurements were performed before and after bandage application to ensure patient safety throughout the investigation: laser Doppler fluxmetry (LDF) close to the ulcer under the bandage and at the great toe, transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPo(2)) on the dorsum of the foot, and toe pressure. Ejection fraction (EF) of the venous pump was performed to assess efficacy on venous hemodynamics. LDF values under the bandages increased by 33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 17-48; P pressure ranges applied. At toe level, a significant decrease in flux of -20% (95% CI, -48 to 9; P bandage pressure >41 mm Hg. Toe pressure values and TcPo(2) showed a moderate increase, excluding a restriction to arterial perfusion induced by the bandages. Inelastic bandages were highly efficient in improving venous pumping function, increasing the reduced ejection fraction by 72% (95% CI, 50%-95%; P pressure of 21 to 30 mm Hg and by 103% (95% CI, 70%-128%; P ulceration, an ankle-brachial pressure index >0.5 and an absolute ankle pressure of >60 mm Hg, inelastic compression of up to 40 mm Hg does not impede arterial perfusion but may lead to a normalization of the highly reduced venous pumping function. Such bandages are therefore recommended in combination with walking exercises as the basic conservative management for patients with mixed leg ulcers. Copyright © 2012 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial perfusion abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, G; Sciammarella, M G; Rossetti, E E; Xuereb, R G; Xuereb, M; Bonetti, F; Carandente, O M; Margonato, A; Chierchia, S L

    1992-07-01

    The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, exercise duration, exercise time and rate-pressure product at the beginning of ischaemia were lower in group 1. Furthermore, a greater proportion of asymptomatic patients had only one ischaemic segment on 99mTc-MIBI perfusion scintigraphy. We conclude that: (1) in patients with effort angina and coronary disease, the incidence of electrocardiographic silent ischaemic events induced by exercise is similar to that observed in studies based on continuous ECG monitoring. (2) Exertional angina is more frequently associated with greater ischaemic areas and with more severe degrees of impairment of residual coronary flow reserve. (3) The presence of an old myocardial infarction does not appear to influence the incidence of ischaemic cardiac pain.

  16. A decision support system improves the interpretation of myocardial perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagil, K.; Bondouy, M.; Chaborel, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of a computer-based decision support system (DSS) on performance and inter-observer variability of interpretations regarding ischaemia and infarction in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS). METHODS: Seven physicians independently...... with the advice of the DSS showed less inter-observer variability than those made without advice. CONCLUSION: This study shows that a DSS can improve performance and reduces the inter-observer variability of interpretations in myocardial perfusion imaging. Both experienced and, especially, inexperienced...

  17. Pressure Myography to Study the Function and Structure of isolated small arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjørring, Olav; Carlsson, Rune; Simonsen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Small arteries play an important role in regulation of peripheral resistance and organ perfusion. Here we describe a series of the methods allowing measurements in pressurized segments of small arteries from the systemic and coronary circulation of mice as well as other species. The pressure...... myography techniques described include measurements of wall structure, wall stress, strain, and of myogenic tone. The pressurized perfused small arteries also allow evaluation of responses to increases in pressure, flow, and drugs, where the main readout is changes in vascular diameter....

  18. Comparison of Optic Nerve Head Blood Flow Autoregulation among Quadrants Induced by Decreased Ocular Perfusion Pressure during Vitrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuya Hashimoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The present study aimed to examine changes in optic nerve head (ONH blood flow autoregulation in 4 quadrants (superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal with decreased ocular perfusion pressure (OPP during vitrectomy in order to determine whether there is a significant difference of autoregulatory capacity in response to OPP decrease at each ONH quadrant. Methods. This study included 24 eyes with an epiretinal membrane or macular hole that underwent vitrectomy at Toho University Sakura Medical Center. Following vitrectomy, the tissue mean blur rate (MBR, which reflects ONH blood flow, was measured. Mean tissue MBRs in the four quadrants were generated automatically in the software analysis report. Measurements were conducted before and 5 and 10 min after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation of approximately 15 mmHg in the subjects without systemic disorders. Results. The baseline tissue MBR of the temporal quadrant was significantly lower than that of the other 3 quadrants (all P<0.05. However, the time courses of tissue MBR in response to OPP decrease were not significantly different among the four quadrants during vitrectomy (P=0.23. Conclusions. There is no significant difference in the autoregulatory capacity of the four ONH quadrants in patients without systemic disorders during vitrectomy.

  19. Effect of propofol and remifentanil on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Miles, James Edward

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the existing literature with regard to the influence of propofol and remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in healthy pigs. Anaesthesia has influence on cerebral haemodynamics and it is important not onl...

  20. Extended normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated human liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme; Fink, Michael; Wang, Bao Zhong; Eastwood, Glenn M; Peck, Leah; Young, Helen; Houston, Shane; Skene, Alison; Opdam, Helen; Jones, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) livers are at markedly increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to transplant DCD livers and may allow their use for artificial extracorporeal liver support of patients with fulminant liver failure. We conducted two proof-of-concept experiments using human livers after DCD to assess the feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP over an extended period. We applied extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion and physiological perfusion pressures to two livers obtained after DCD. We achieved NELP and evidence of liver function (bile production, paracetamol removal and maintenance of normal lactate levels) in both livers; one for 24 hours and the other for 43 hours. Histological examination showed areas of patchy ischaemia but preserved biliary ducts and canaliculi. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of extended DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.

  1. Perfusion dyssynchrony analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiribiri, A.; Villa, A.D.M.; Sammut, E.; Breeuwer, M.; Nagel, E.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We sought to describe perfusion dyssynchrony analysis specifically to exploit the high temporal resolution of stress perfusion CMR. This novel approach detects differences in the temporal distribution of the wash-in of contrast agent across the left ventricular wall. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  2. Brain perfusion: computed tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Within recent years, the broad introduction of fast multi-detector computed tomography (CT) systems and the availability of commercial software for perfusion analysis have made cerebral perfusion imaging with CT a practical technique for the clinical environment. The technique is widely available at low cost, accurate and easy to perform. Perfusion CT is particularly applicable to those clinical circumstances where patients already undergo CT for other reasons, including stroke, head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and radiotherapy planning. Future technical developments in multi-slice CT systems may diminish the current limitations of limited spatial coverage and radiation burden. CT perfusion imaging on combined PET-CT systems offers new opportunities to improve the evaluation of patients with cerebral ischaemia or tumours by demonstrating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Yet CT is often not perceived as a technique for imaging cerebral perfusion. This article reviews the use of CT for imaging cerebral perfusion, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages and draws comparisons between perfusion CT and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  3. Investigation of the mechanisms mediating MDMA "Ecstasy"-induced increases in cerebro-cortical perfusion determined by btASL MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouine, J; Kelly, M E; Jennings-Murphy, C; Duffy, P; Gorman, I; Gormley, S; Kerskens, C M; Harkin, Andrew

    2015-05-01

    Acute administration of the recreational drug of abuse 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; Ecstasy) has previously been shown to increase cerebro-cortical perfusion as determined by bolus-tracking arterial spin labelling (btASL) MRI. The purpose of the current study was to assess the mechanisms mediating these changes following systemic administration of MDMA to rats. Pharmacological manipulation of serotonergic, dopaminergic and nitrergic transmission was carried out to determine the mechanism of action of MDMA-induced increases in cortical perfusion using btASL MRI. Fenfluramine (10 mg/kg), like MDMA (20 mg/kg), increased cortical perfusion. Increased cortical perfusion was not obtained with the 5-HT2 receptor agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI) (1 mg/kg). Depletion of central 5-HT following systemic administration of the tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor para-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA) produced effects similar to those observed with MDMA. Pre-treatment with the 5-HT receptor antagonist metergoline (4 mg/kg) or with the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram (30 mg/kg), however, failed to produce any effect alone or influence the response to MDMA. Pre-treatment with the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (1 mg/kg) failed to influence the changes in cortical perfusion obtained with MDMA. Treatment with the neuronal nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) (25 mg/kg) provoked no change in cerebral perfusion alone yet attenuated the MDMA-related increase in cortical perfusion. Cortical 5-HT depletion is associated with increases in perfusion although this mechanism alone does not account for MDMA-related changes. A role for NO, a key regulator of cerebrovascular perfusion, is implicated in MDMA-induced increases in cortical perfusion.

  4. A capillary-based perfusion phantom for simulation of brain perfusion for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciak, A.; Kronfeld, A.; Mueller-Forell, W.; Wille, C.; Kempski, O.; Stoeter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The measurement of the CBF is a non-standardized procedure and there are no reliable gold standards. This abstract shows a capillary-based perfusion-phantom for CE-DSC-MRI. It has equivalent flow properties to those within the tissue capillary system of the human brain and allows the validation of the Siemens Perfusion (MR) software. Materials and Methods: The perfusion phantom consists of a dialyzer for the simulation of the capillary system, a feeding tube for simulation of the AIF and a pulsatile pump for simulation of the heart. Using this perfusion phantom, the exact determination of the gold standard CBF due to the well-known geometry of the phantom is easy. It was validated based on different perfusion measurements. These measurements were investigated with standard software (Siemens Perfusion MR). The software determined the CBF within the capillary system. Based on this CBF, a comparison to the gold standard was made with several different flow speeds. After AIF selection, a total of 726 CBF data points were automatically extracted by the software. Results: This results in a comparison of the gold standard CBF to these 726 CBF values. Therefore, a reproducible and reliable deviation estimation between gold standard CBF and measured CBF using the software was computed. It can be shown that the deviation between gold standard and software-based evaluation ranges between 1 and 31 %. Conclusion: There is no significance for any correlation between flow speed and amount of deviation. The mean measured CBF is 11.4 % higher than the gold standard CBF (p-value < 0.001). Using this kind of perfusion-phantom, the validation of different software systems allows reliable conclusions about their quality. (orig.)

  5. Perfusion CT in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Bernd; Roether, Joachim; Fiehler, Jens; Thomalla, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Modern multislice CT scanners enable multimodal protocols including non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion. A 64-slice CT scanner provides 4-cm coverage. To cover the whole brain, a 128 - 256-slice scanner is needed. The use of perfusion CT requires an optimized scan protocol in order to reduce exposure to radiation. As compared to non-enhanced CT and CT angiography, the use of CT perfusion increases detection rates of cerebral ischemia, especially small cortical ischemic lesions, while the detection of lacunar and infratentorial stroke lesions remains limited. Perfusion CT enables estimation of collateral flow in acute occlusion of large intra- or extracranial arteries. Currently, no established reliable thresholds are available for determining infarct core and penumbral tissue by CT perfusion. Moreover, perfusion parameters depend on the processing algorithms and the software used for calculation. However, a number of studies point towards a reduction of cerebral blood volume (CBV) below 2 ml/100 g as a critical threshold that identifies infarct core. Large CBV lesions are associated with poor outcome even in the context of recanalization. The extent of early ischemic signs on non-enhanced CT remains the main parameter from CT imaging to guide acute reperfusion treatment. Nevertheless, perfusion CT increases diagnostic and therapeutic certainty in the acute setting. Similar to stroke MRI, perfusion CT enables the identification of tissue at risk of infarction by the mismatch between infarct core and the larger area of critical hypoperfusion. Further insights into the validity of perfusion parameters are expected from ongoing trials of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke.

  6. MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION ASSESSMENT IN FORECASTING EFFECT OF CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mironkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To define influence of the left ventricle (LV perfusion defects on the clinical status dynamics after coronary angioplasty in patients with the expressed myocardium dysfunction of ischemic etiology. Materials and methods. Examined 86 patients (81 men and 5 women aged from 46 to 73 years before and in 2–3 days after percutaneous coronary intervention with diagnosis: CAD, CHF with NYHA class III–IV, echocardiography parameters of LV: ejection fraction less than 40%, end-diastolic volume is more than 200 ml. Perfusion defects of myocardium estimated with use of ECG-gated single photon emission computed tomography. Predictors were defined: perfusion defects on LV apex (in score, perfusion defects in the area of LAD, LCx and RCA (%, the LV global perfusion defects (in score and %. Results. In 42% of cases 6-minute walk test increased to 3 times; The NYHA class decreased by 2 classes (group 1. In 28 cases 6-minute walk test increased to 2 times and the NYHA class decreased on 1 class. In 22 patients 6-minute walk test increased less than 50% of reference values and there was no dynamics NYHA class (50 patients of the group 2. Initial extent of LV global perfusion defects in group 1 – 41,2 ± 4,0%, in group 2 – 58,3 ± 2,4% (р = 0,0004. Similar values are received for perfusion indicators in the area of LAD and the LV apex. Prevalence of myocardial perfusion defects at rest reflects prevalence of a cardiosclerosis in a cardiac muscle. Conclusion. Degree of LV myocardial perfusion defects in patients with the expressed heart failure of ischemic etiology is the key indicator influencing clinical efficiency of coronary angioplasty. Critical size for definition of the favorable forecast of revascularization are 60% and more perfusion defects testifying that in a cardiac muscle the focal cardiosclerosis prevails over the functioning myocardium. 

  7. A comparative analysis of the postural and diurnal ocular perfusion pressure of young healthy individuals of different ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin J. Munsamy

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP regulates the flow of blood to the optic nerve and is determined by the interaction between intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure (BP. Low OPP increases the incidence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. The aim is to compare the diurnal (i.e. morning vs. afternoon and postural (i.e. seated vs. supine OPP in healthy individuals from different ethnicities aged between 18 and 30 years. Methodology: Averaged IOP and BP measurements were obtained with an ICare rebound tonometer and an automated sphygmomanometer, respectively. Measurements were taken in the morning and afternoon, in the supine and seated positions in healthy young adults: Africans (n = 10, white people (n = 10, mixed-race people (n = 10 and Indians (n = 10. Results: The whole sample (N = 40 displayed a statistically significant reduction in postural and diurnal OPP both in the supine position and in the morning, respectively. A comparative analysis revealed that Africans displayed statistically significant reduction in OPP when compared to other ethnicities. Discussion: A change in posture to the supine position has a greater impact on the reduction of OPP when compared to diurnal changes. Africans displayed clinically significant reduction in OPP which may increase the incidence of POAG in this ethnicity at an early age. Conclusion: Our findings question whether OPP should be considered as a biomarker in the dark-skinned individuals. An evaluation of BP and IOP in the supine position is recommended for all patients to obtain more conclusive readings.

  8. Volume perfusion CT imaging of cerebral vasospasm: diagnostic performance of different perfusion maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Ahmed E. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Afat, Saif; Nikoubashman, Omid; Mueller, Marguerite; Wiesmann, Martin; Brockmann, Carolin [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Schubert, Gerrit Alexander [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany); Bier, Georg [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, University Hospital Tuebingen, Department for Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Brockmann, Marc A. [RWTH Aachen University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); University Hospital Mainz, Department of Neuroradiology, Mainz (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of different volume perfusion CT (VPCT) maps regarding the detection of cerebral vasospasm compared to angiographic findings. Forty-one datasets of 26 patients (57.5 ± 10.8 years, 18 F) with subarachnoid hemorrhage and suspected cerebral vasospasm, who underwent VPCT and angiography within 6 h, were included. Two neuroradiologists independently evaluated the presence and severity of vasospasm on perfusion maps on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting <50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting >50 % of vascular territory). A third neuroradiologist independently assessed angiography for the presence and severity of vasospasm on a 3-point Likert scale (0 - no vasospasm, 1 - vasospasm affecting < 50 %, 2 - vasospasm affecting > 50 % of vessel diameter). Perfusion maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT), and time to drain (TTD) were evaluated regarding diagnostic accuracy for cerebral vasospasm with angiography as reference standard. Correlation analysis of vasospasm severity on perfusion maps and angiographic images was performed. Furthermore, inter-reader agreement was assessed regarding findings on perfusion maps. Diagnostic accuracy for TTD and MTT was significantly higher than for all other perfusion maps (TTD, AUC = 0.832; MTT, AUC = 0.791; p < 0.001). TTD revealed higher sensitivity than MTT (p = 0.007). The severity of vasospasm on TTD maps showed significantly higher correlation levels with angiography than all other perfusion maps (p ≤ 0.048). Inter-reader agreement was (almost) perfect for all perfusion maps (kappa ≥ 0.927). The results of this study indicate that TTD maps have the highest sensitivity for the detection of cerebral vasospasm and highest correlation with angiography regarding the severity of vasospasm. (orig.)

  9. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension of congenital heart diseases in children by lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jinghao; Zhang Shantong; Zeng Jiye; Jia Hongli; Ji Zhiying; Chen Siyi

    1993-01-01

    The authors report that changes in the distribution of pulmonary perfusion caused by gravitation effect, namely, changes in the total count ratios of the right against the left lung between right and left lateral decubitus positions (rt/lt) could estimate pulmonary hypertension using lung perfusion scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin. The results showed: rt/lt was inversely related to mean pulmonary arterial pressure. It is concluded that the method is simple, safe, reproducible, unaffected by cardiac structural abnormality and valuable as a noninvasive approach for the estimation of pulmonary hypertension

  10. Influence of Wind Pressure on the Carbonation of Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujian Zou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbonation is one of the major deteriorations that accelerate steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Many mathematical/numerical models of the carbonation process, primarily diffusion-reaction models, have been established to predict the carbonation depth. However, the mass transfer of carbon dioxide in porous concrete includes molecular diffusion and convection mass transfer. In particular, the convection mass transfer induced by pressure difference is called penetration mass transfer. This paper presents the influence of penetration mass transfer on the carbonation. A penetration-reaction carbonation model was constructed and validated by accelerated test results under high pressure. Then the characteristics of wind pressure on the carbonation were investigated through finite element analysis considering steady and fluctuating wind flows. The results indicate that the wind pressure on the surface of concrete buildings results in deeper carbonation depth than that just considering the diffusion of carbon dioxide. In addition, the influence of wind pressure on carbonation tends to increase significantly with carbonation depth.

  11. Influence of Wind Pressure on the Carbonation of Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dujian; Liu, Tiejun; Du, Chengcheng; Teng, Jun

    2015-07-24

    Carbonation is one of the major deteriorations that accelerate steel corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. Many mathematical/numerical models of the carbonation process, primarily diffusion-reaction models, have been established to predict the carbonation depth. However, the mass transfer of carbon dioxide in porous concrete includes molecular diffusion and convection mass transfer. In particular, the convection mass transfer induced by pressure difference is called penetration mass transfer. This paper presents the influence of penetration mass transfer on the carbonation. A penetration-reaction carbonation model was constructed and validated by accelerated test results under high pressure. Then the characteristics of wind pressure on the carbonation were investigated through finite element analysis considering steady and fluctuating wind flows. The results indicate that the wind pressure on the surface of concrete buildings results in deeper carbonation depth than that just considering the diffusion of carbon dioxide. In addition, the influence of wind pressure on carbonation tends to increase significantly with carbonation depth.

  12. Effects of topical hypotensive drugs on circadian IOP, blood pressure, and calculated diastolic ocular perfusion pressure in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Luciano; Gandolfo, Federico; Turano, Raffaele; Rovida, Federico; Pizzolante, Teodoro; Musig, Andrea; Gandolfo, Enrico

    2006-07-01

    To compare the short-term effects of timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2%, dorzolamide 2%, and latanoprost 0.005% on intraocular pressure (IOP), blood pressure (BP), and diastolic ocular perfusion pressure (DOPP), calculated as the difference between the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and IOP. According to a 4 x 4 Latin squares design for repeated measures, 27 untreated patients and patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) were treated with timolol 0.5% at 8 AM and 8 PM; brimonidine 0.2% at 8 AM and 8 PM; dorzolamide 2% at 8 AM, 2 PM, and 8 PM; and latanoprost 0.005% at 8 PM. The duration of each treatment course was 6-weeks, with a 4-week washout between each treatment. IOP and BP were measured at baseline and at the end of each treatment period. IOP was measured every 2 hours throughout a 24-hour period. Sitting IOP was measured from 8 AM to 10 PM by Goldmann applanation tonometry. Supine IOP was assessed from 12 to 6 AM by means of a handheld electronic tonometer (TonoPen XL; Mentor, Norwell, MA). BP monitoring was performed by means of an automated portable device (TM-2430; A & D Co., Saitama, Japan). All the drugs tested decreased the IOP significantly at all time points in comparison with baseline pressure. The mean 24-hour IOP after latanoprost administration (16.62+/-0.98 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that after timolol, brimonidine, or dorzolamide (P=0.0001). During the 24-hour period, brimonidine induced a significant decrease in systolic BP (SBP) and DBP at all time points when compared with baseline measurements and with those after administration of the other drugs (P<0.0001). Timolol caused a significant decrease in DBP and SBP at all the 24-hour time points when compared with the baseline and with the dorzolamide- and latanoprost-induced changes (P<0.0001). The mean 24-hour DOPPs were 50.7+/-5.9 mm Hg at baseline, 53+/-5.5 mm Hg with timolol, 46.2+/-5.4 mm Hg with brimonidine, 55.9+/-4.6 mm Hg with dorzolamide, and 56

  13. Evaluation of Pulmonary Perfusion Scan in Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J T; Kim, C K; Park, C Y; Choi, B S [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-09-15

    Pulmonary perfusion scan with radioactive {sup 113m}In-iron hydroxide particle was performed in the 25 cases of heart disease which had been diagnosed by cardiac catheterization prior to surgery from July, 1972 to July, 1973 at the Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei Medical College. It consists of 7 mitral stenosis, 2 mitral insufficiency, 1 aortic insufficiency, 3 atrial septal defect, 5 ventricular septal defect, 2 patent ductus arteriosus, 1 transposition of great vessel and 4 Tetralogy of Fallot. Findings of pulmonary perfusion scan in relation to hemodynamic data of cardiac catheterization were examined. 1) Out of 10 cases of acquired valvular heart disease, In 6 cases of stenosis and 1 case of aortic insufficiency, radioactivity was increased at both upper lung. This finding is noted when pulmonary wedge or venous pressure was elevated above 22 mmHg and arterial systolic pressure above 33 mmHg. 2) Out of 15 cases of congenital heart disease. In almost all cases of artial septal defect and ventricular septal defect except 2 cases, radioactivity was even at both entire lung. In 2 cases of patent ductras arteriosus, radioactivity was decreased especially at the left lung. It is observed that in acyanotic congenital heart disease, radioactivity of lung is not related with pulmonary arterial pressure. In 3 cases of Tetralogy of Fallot, radioactivity was even at both entire lung and in 2 of them, extrapulmonary radioactivity of liver or kidney which depends on size of defect and volume of right to left shunt reversible, was noted.

  14. Evaluation of Pulmonary Perfusion Scan in Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. T.; Kim, C. K.; Park, C. Y.; Choi, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    Pulmonary perfusion scan with radioactive 113m In-iron hydroxide particle was performed in the 25 cases of heart disease which had been diagnosed by cardiac catheterization prior to surgery from July, 1972 to July, 1973 at the Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei Medical College. It consists of 7 mitral stenosis, 2 mitral insufficiency, 1 aortic insufficiency, 3 atrial septal defect, 5 ventricular septal defect, 2 patent ductus arteriosus, 1 transposition of great vessel and 4 Tetralogy of Fallot. Findings of pulmonary perfusion scan in relation to hemodynamic data of cardiac catheterization were examined. 1) Out of 10 cases of acquired valvular heart disease, In 6 cases of stenosis and 1 case of aortic insufficiency, radioactivity was increased at both upper lung. This finding is noted when pulmonary wedge or venous pressure was elevated above 22 mmHg and arterial systolic pressure above 33 mmHg. 2) Out of 15 cases of congenital heart disease. In almost all cases of artial septal defect and ventricular septal defect except 2 cases, radioactivity was even at both entire lung. In 2 cases of patent ductras arteriosus, radioactivity was decreased especially at the left lung. It is observed that in acyanotic congenital heart disease, radioactivity of lung is not related with pulmonary arterial pressure. In 3 cases of Tetralogy of Fallot, radioactivity was even at both entire lung and in 2 of them, extrapulmonary radioactivity of liver or kidney which depends on size of defect and volume of right to left shunt reversible, was noted.

  15. Standardized perfusion value of the esophageal carcinoma and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion parameter values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric-Stefanovic, A., E-mail: avstefan@eunet.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Saranovic, Dj., E-mail: crvzve4@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Sobic-Saranovic, D., E-mail: dsobic2@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Masulovic, D., E-mail: draganmasulovic@yahoo.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Artiko, V., E-mail: veraart@beotel.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Standardized perfusion value (SPV) is a universal indicator of tissue perfusion, normalized to the whole-body perfusion, which was proposed to simplify, unify and allow the interchangeability among the perfusion measurements and comparison between the tumor perfusion and metabolism. The aims of our study were to assess the standardized perfusion value (SPV) of the esophageal carcinoma, and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion measurements: blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) of the same tumor volume samples, which were obtained by deconvolution-based CT perfusion analysis. Methods: Forty CT perfusion studies of the esophageal cancer were analyzed, using the commercial deconvolution-based CT perfusion software (Perfusion 3.0, GE Healthcare). The SPV of the esophageal tumor and neighboring skeletal muscle were correlated with the corresponding mean tumor and muscle quantitative CT perfusion parameter values, using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r{sub S}). Results: Median SPV of the esophageal carcinoma (7.1; range: 2.8–13.4) significantly differed from the SPV of the skeletal muscle (median: 1.0; range: 0.4–2.4), (Z = −5.511, p < 0.001). The cut-off value of the SPV of 2.5 enabled discrimination of esophageal cancer from the skeletal muscle with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. SPV of the esophageal carcinoma significantly correlated with corresponding tumor BF (r{sub S} = 0.484, p = 0.002), BV (r{sub S} = 0.637, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.432, p = 0.005), and SPV of the skeletal muscle significantly correlated with corresponding muscle BF (r{sub S} = 0.573, p < 0.001), BV (r{sub S} = 0.849, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.761, p < 0.001). Conclusions: We presented a database of the SPV for the esophageal cancer and proved that SPV of the esophageal neoplasm significantly differs from the SPV of the skeletal muscle, which represented a sample of healthy

  16. Endoluminal isoproterenol reduces renal pelvic pressure during semirigid ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jørn S; Jung, Helene U; Gramsbergen, Jan B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects on the pressure-flow relation of renal pelvic pressure during semirigid ureterorenoscopy and endoluminal perfusion of isoproterenol (ISO) 0.1 microg/mL, with emphasis on local effects and cardiovascular side-effects, as topically administered ISO effectively...... and dose-dependently causes relaxation of the upper urinary tract in pigs with no concomitant cardiovascular side-effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS In anaesthetized female pigs (60 kg), 16 macroscopically normal upper urinary tract systems were subjected to ureterorenoscopy. Via a subcostal incision a 6-F...... catheter was placed in the renal pelvis for pressure measurements, and a semirigid ureteroscope (7.8 F) was inserted retrogradely in the renal pelvis, through which the pelvis was perfused. The blood pressure and heart rate were recorded. The increase in renal pelvic pressure was examined with increasing...

  17. Nuclear magnetic resonance of perfused tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpen, M.D.; Allison, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of perfusion on the NMR signal observed in NMR imaging is studied in a phantom and in two isolated perfused canine lungs. It is observed that perfusion in tissue has little effect on longitudinal relaxation times. Transverse relaxation rates are observed to correlate linearly with rates of perfusion, in accordance with a model presented. (author)

  18. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging identifies early perfusion abnormalities in diabetes and hypertension : Insights from a multicenter registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Tesche, Christian; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Pugliese, Francesca; Bamberg, Fabian; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: To identify patients with early signs of myocardial perfusion reduction, a reference base for perfusion measures is needed. Objective: To analyze perfusion parameters derived from dynamic computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

  19. Assessment of right liver graft perfusion effectiveness between one and two-catheter infusion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Bo-Hyun; Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Hun; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Park, Gil-Chun; Kang, Sung-Hwa; Yoon, Young-In; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2014-05-01

    Conventional graft perfusion method using one small-caliber catheter takes a relatively long time for right liver graft perfusion, thus some modification is needed. In this study, we intended to assess the effectiveness of right liver graft perfusion methods through comparison of different infusion catheters. The study consisted of two parts including one bench experiment to obtain data of hydraulic infusion and one clinical trial of 40 cases on graft perfusion with one- versus two-catheter infusion methods. These two graft infusion methods were compared in terms of the perfusion time and washing-out efficiency. At bench experiment, the infusion flow rate and infusion pressure were 3.3 ml/sec and 1.9 cmH20 in one blood transfusion catheter group, and 11.7 ml/sec and 3.1 cmH20 in single transurethral resection of prostate irrigation catheter group, and 6.6 ml/sec and 2.0 cmH20 in two blood transfusion catheters group, respectively. In clinical trial with 40 right liver grafts, two-catheter group had a shorter graft portal perfusion time for the first 2 L of histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution than the conventional one-catheter group (375±25 seconds vs. 662±34 seconds; p=0.001) and a lower rate of incomplete blood washing-out after the initial 2 L portal perfusion (40% vs. 85%; p=0.03). The two-catheter infusion method appears to be more effective than the conventional one-catheter infusion method for right liver graft perfusion at the back table. Large size of right liver grafts seems to be its good indication.

  20. Regional perfusion and oxygenation of tumors upon methylxanthine derivative administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, Debra K.; Thews, Oliver; Vaupel, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The use of methylxanthine derivatives has been postulated as a means of increasing tumor perfusion and thus ameliorating tumor hypoxia. The aim of this study was to quantify and compare the effects of three methylxanthine derivatives: pentoxifylline (PX), torbafylline (TB), and HWA 138 (HW) on tumor perfusion and oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats with DS-sarcomas implanted subcutaneously onto the hind foot dorsum were used in this study. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was measured throughout experiments. Regional red blood cell (RBC) flux was monitored using a multichannel laser Doppler device and tumor oxygenation on a more global level was assessed polarographically using an O 2 -sensitive catheter electrode. The methylxanthine derivatives were administered as a single dose intraperitoneally (for PX 50 mg/kg; for TB and HW 75 mg/kg). Results: Following drug administration, initial decreases in MABP down to 75% of baseline values were observed for all three substances. PX, HW, and TB caused initial transient reductions in mean RBC flux followed by gradual increases to values of 137 ± 27 %, 139 ± 14 %, and 122 ± 14 % respectively at t = 60 min. Following a small initial decrease upon drug administration, O 2 partial pressure (pO 2 ) rose to 160 ± 31 %, 153 ± 34 %, and 121 ± 11 % for PX, HW, and TB, respectively at t = 60 min. At the end of the observation period (t = 90 min), increases in RBC flux and pO 2 were still evident. When individual tumors were considered, a variety of patterns (including opposing effects) for changes in RBC flux were seen, not necessarily reflected in the mean values. Thus, while the methylxanthine derivatives caused an increased average tumor perfusion, there is evidence suggesting that a redistribution of tumor blood flow occurs which may amplify preexisting heterogeneity. Conclusions: Substantial improvements in tumor oxygenation and perfusion were observed after administration of

  1. Simulation of motor unit recruitment and microvascular unit perfusion: spatial considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglevand, A J; Segal, S S

    1997-10-01

    Muscle fiber activity is the principal stimulus for increasing capillary perfusion during exercise. The control elements of perfusion, i.e., microvascular units (MVUs), supply clusters of muscle fibers, whereas the control elements of contraction, i.e., motor units, are composed of fibers widely scattered throughout muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine how the discordant spatial domains of MVUs and motor units could influence the proportion of open capillaries (designated as perfusion) throughout a muscle cross section. A computer model simulated the locations of perfused MVUs in response to the activation of up to 100 motor units in a muscle with 40,000 fibers and a cross-sectional area of 100 mm2. The simulation increased contraction intensity by progressive recruitment of motor units. For each step of motor unit recruitment, the percentage of active fibers and the number of perfused MVUs were determined for several conditions: 1) motor unit fibers widely dispersed and motor unit territories randomly located (which approximates healthy human muscle), 2) regionalized motor unit territories, 3) reversed recruitment order of motor units, 4) densely clustered motor unit fibers, and 5) increased size but decreased number of motor units. The simulations indicated that the widespread dispersion of motor unit fibers facilitates complete capillary (MVU) perfusion of muscle at low levels of activity. The efficacy by which muscle fiber activity induced perfusion was reduced 7- to 14-fold under conditions that decreased the dispersion of active fibers, increased the size of motor units, or reversed the sequence of motor unit recruitment. Such conditions are similar to those that arise in neuromuscular disorders, with aging, or during electrical stimulation of muscle, respectively.

  2. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  3. A historical perspective on the development of modern concepts of tissue perfusion: prehistory to the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashby, Nathan; Squiers, Joshua

    2014-09-01

    The historical development of the concept of perfusion is traced, with particular focus on the development of the modern clinical concepts of perfusion through the fields of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. This article reviews many of the significant contributors to the changing ideas of perfusion up through the twentieth century that have influenced the modern physiologic circulatory and metabolic models. The developments outlined have provided the modern model of perfusion, linking the cardiopulmonary circulation, tissue oxygen utilization and carbon dioxide production, food intake, tissue waste production and elimination, and ultimately the production and utilization of ATP in the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of preservation solution on acid-base regulation during machine perfusion of kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J; Brockbank, Kelvin G M

    2006-01-01

    To meet the current clinical organ demand, efficient preservation methods and solutions are needed to increase the number of viable kidneys for transplantation. In the present study, the influence of perfusion solution buffering strength on renal pH dynamics and regulation mechanisms during kidney ex vivo preservation was determined. Porcine kidneys were hypothermically machine perfused for 72 h with either Unisol-UHK or Belzer-Machine Perfusion solution, Belzer-MP solution. Renal perfusate samples were periodically collected and biochemically analyzed. The UHK solution, a Hepes-based solution (35 mM), provided a more efficient control of renal pH that, in turn, resulted in minor changes in the perfusate pH relative to baseline, in response to tissue CO2 and HCO3- production. In the perfusate of Belzer-MP kidney group a wider range of pH values were recorded and a pronounced pH reduction was seen in response to significant rises in pCO2 and HCO3- concentrations. The Belzer-MP solution, containing phosphate (25 mM) as its main buffer, and only 10 mM Hepes, had a greater buffering requirement to attenuate larger pH changes.

  5. Finite-element simulation of blood perfusion in muscle tissue during compression and sustained contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vankan, W J; Huyghe, J M; Slaaf, D W; van Donkelaar, C C; Drost, M R; Janssen, J D; Huson, A

    1997-09-01

    Mechanical interaction between tissue stress and blood perfusion in skeletal muscles plays an important role in blood flow impediment during sustained contraction. The exact mechanism of this interaction is not clear, and experimental investigation of this mechanism is difficult. We developed a finite-element model of the mechanical behavior of blood-perfused muscle tissue, which accounts for mechanical blood-tissue interaction in maximally vasodilated vasculature. Verification of the model was performed by comparing finite-element results of blood pressure and flow with experimental measurements in a muscle that is subject to well-controlled mechanical loading conditions. In addition, we performed simulations of blood perfusion during tetanic, isometric contraction and maximal vasodilation in a simplified, two-dimensional finite-element model of a rat calf muscle. A vascular waterfall in the venous compartment was identified as the main cause for blood flow impediment both in the experiment and in the finite-element simulations. The validated finite-element model offers possibilities for detailed analysis of blood perfusion in three-dimensional muscle models under complicated loading conditions.

  6. Influences of granulocyte growth factor in uterine perfusion on pregnancy outcome of patients with failure of embryo implantation for unknown reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Chao Jun

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of granulocyte growth factor in uterine perfusion on the pregnancy outcome of patients with failure of embryo implantation for unknown reason. Then, 68 patients with failure of embryo implantation for unknown reason were enrolled in our hospital from November 2013 to February 2015, which were divided into observation group and control group by random (34 patients in each group). Patients in observation group received basic treatment for granulocyte growth factor in uterine perfusion on the next day, while patients in control group received basic treatment with placebo. Then, endometrial preparation, adverse reaction and pregnancy outcome of patients were compared between the two groups. Comparing the endometrial preparation and average endometrial thickness of patients in control group (9.87±2.12) with those in observation group [(9.87±2.12), there is no significant difference (Pfactor, patients with failure of embryo implantation can effectively improve clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate without severe complication. Therefore, treatment of granlocyte growth factor can improve the pregnancy outcome of patients.

  7. Autonomic Function Impairment and Brain Perfusion Deficit in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Che Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionAutonomic disorders have been recognized as important Parkinson’s disease (PD components. Some vulnerable structures are related to the central autonomic network and have also been linked to autonomic function alterations. The aims of the study are to evaluate the severity of the autonomic dysfunction and the cortical hypoperfusion using arterial spin labeling (ASL MRI. And then, possible relationships of significant between-group differences in perfusion pattern to clinical variables and autonomic functions were examined to determine the pharmaceutical effects of dopaminergic treatment on cerebral blood flow (CBF in patients with PD.MethodsBrain ASL MRI was carried out in 20 patients with PD (6 men and 14 women, mean age: 63.3 ± 6.4 years and 22 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers to assess whole-brain CBF and the effects of dopaminergic therapy on perfusion. All subjects underwent a standardized evaluation of cardiovagal and adrenergic function including a deep breathing, Valsalva maneuver, and 5-min head-up tilt test. Perfusion MRI data were acquired on a 3.0 T scanner with a pulsed continuous ASL technique. The CBF, autonomic parameters, and clinical data were analyzed after adjusting for age and sex.ResultsPatients exhibited a decline in autonomic function (rapid heart rate in response to deep breathing, low baroreflex sensitivity, high systolic and diastolic pressure, and altered tilting test response, widespread low CBF, and robust response to dopaminergic therapy. Lower perfusion in the middle frontal gyrus was associated with increased clinical disease severity (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale I score, P < 0.001. Lower perfusion in autonomic control areas, such as the frontal lobe and insula, were significantly associated with autonomic impairment (P < 0.001.ConclusionsOur study indicates that PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that changes the perfusion of central nervous system

  8. Rapid intravenous infusion of 20 mL/kg saline alters the distribution of perfusion in healthy supine humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A C; Sá, R C; Barash, I A; Holverda, S; Buxton, R B; Hopkins, S R; Prisk, G K

    2012-03-15

    Rapid intravenous saline infusion, a model meant to replicate the initial changes leading to pulmonary interstitial edema, increases pulmonary arterial pressure in humans. We hypothesized that this would alter lung perfusion distribution. Six healthy subjects (29 ± 6 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to quantify perfusion using arterial spin labeling. Regional proton density was measured using a fast-gradient echo sequence, allowing blood delivered to the slice to be normalized for density and quantified in mL/min/g. Contributions from flow in large conduit vessels were minimized using a flow cutoff value (blood delivered > 35% maximum in mL/min/cm(3)) in order to obtain an estimate of blood delivered to the capillary bed (perfusion). Images were acquired supine at baseline, after infusion of 20 mL/kg saline, and after a short upright recovery period for a single sagittal slice in the right lung during breath-holds at functional residual capacity. Thoracic fluid content measured by impedance cardiography was elevated post-infusion by up to 13% (pchanges in conduit vessels, there were no significant changes in perfusion in dependent lung following infusion (7.8 ± 1.9 mL/min/g baseline, 7.9 ± 2.0 post, 8.5 ± 2.1 recovery, p=0.36). There were no significant changes in lung density. These data suggest that saline infusion increased perfusion to nondependent lung, consistent with an increase in intravascular pressures. Dependent lung may have been "protected" from increases in perfusion following infusion due to gravitational compression of the pulmonary vasculature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intra-Arterial MR Perfusion Imaging of Meningiomas: Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intravenous MR Perfusion Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Lum

    Full Text Available To evaluate the ability of IA MR perfusion to characterize meningioma blood supply.Studies were performed in a suite comprised of an x-ray angiography unit and 1.5T MR scanner that permitted intraprocedural patient movement between the imaging modalities. Patients underwent intra-arterial (IA and intravenous (IV T2* dynamic susceptibility MR perfusion immediately prior to meningioma embolization. Regional tumor arterial supply was characterized by digital subtraction angiography and classified as external carotid artery (ECA dural, internal carotid artery (ICA dural, or pial. MR perfusion data regions of interest (ROIs were analyzed in regions with different vascular supply to extract peak height, full-width at half-maximum (FWHM, relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF, relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV, and mean transit time (MTT. Linear mixed modeling was used to identify perfusion curve parameter differences for each ROI for IA and IV MR imaging techniques. IA vs. IV perfusion parameters were also directly compared for each ROI using linear mixed modeling.18 ROIs were analyzed in 12 patients. Arterial supply was identified as ECA dural (n = 11, ICA dural (n = 4, or pial (n = 3. FWHM, rCBV, and rCBF showed statistically significant differences between ROIs for IA MR perfusion. Peak Height and FWHM showed statistically significant differences between ROIs for IV MR perfusion. RCBV and MTT were significantly lower for IA perfusion in the Dural ECA compared to IV perfusion. Relative CBF in IA MR was found to be significantly higher in the Dural ICA region and MTT significantly lower compared to IV perfusion.

  10. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  11. The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the influence of peer pressure on adolescent social behavior. A sample size of 100 participants was randomly selected from five secondary schools in Amuwo-Odofin Local Education District of Lagos State. A twenty item Peer Pressure on Adolescents Behaviour Questionnaire (PPABQ) was ...

  12. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutcu, Semra; Serter, Selim; Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray; Nese, Nalan; Pekindil, Goekhan; Coskun, Teoman

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  13. Hepatic perfusion changes in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis: Evaluation by perfusion CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutcu, Semra [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Serter, Selim, E-mail: serterselim@gmail.co [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Kaya, Yavuz; Kara, Eray [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Nese, Nalan [Department of Pathology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Pekindil, Goekhan [Department of Radiology, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey); Coskun, Teoman [Department of Surgery, Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine, Manisa (Turkey)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: It is known that acute pancreatitis may cause secondary changes in several organs. Liver is one of these involved organs. In different experimental studies hepatic damages were shown histopathologically in acute pancreatitis but there are a few studies about perfusion disorders that accompany these histopathologic changes. Perfusion CT (pCT) provides the ability to detect regional and global alterations in organ blood flow. The purpose of the study was to describe hepatic perfusion changes in experimental acute pancreatitis model with pCT. Materials and methods: Forty Sprague-Dawley rats of both genders with average weights of 250 g were used. Rats were randomized into two groups. Twenty rats were in control group and 20 in acute pancreatitis group. pCT was performed. Perfusion maps were formed by processing the obtained images with perfusion CT software. Blood flow (BF) and blood volume (BV) values were obtained from these maps. All pancreatic and liver tissues were taken off with laparotomy and histopathologic investigation was performed. Student's t test was used for statistical analyses. Results: In pCT we found statistically significant increase in blood volume in both lobes of liver and in blood flow in right lobe of the liver (p < 0.01). Although blood flow in left lobe of the liver increased, it did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: The quantitative analysis of liver parenchyma with pCT showed that acute pancreatitis causes a significant perfusion changes in the hepatic tissue. Systemic mediators seem to be effective as well as local inflammatory changes in perfusion changes.

  14. 1 The Influence of Peer Pressure on Adolescents' Social Behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-20

    Feb 20, 2015 ... item Peer Pressure on Adolescents Behaviour Questionnaire ... influence of peer pressure on social behaviour, self-concept, gender and parental ... However, these young teenagers find social expectations confusing and the ...

  15. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  16. Hepatic arterial perfusion increases in the early stage of severe acute pancreatitis patients: Evaluation by perfusion computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyasu, Sho; Isoda, Hiroyoshi; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yuji; Chiba, Tsutomu; Togashi, Kaori

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Although hepatic perfusion abnormalities have been reported in patients with acute pancreatitis, hepatic perfusion with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) has not been quantitatively evaluated in humans. Therefore, we investigated hepatic perfusion in patients with SAP using perfusion CT. Materials and methods: Hepatic perfusion CT was performed in 67 patients with SAP within 3 days after symptom onset. The patients were diagnosed as having SAP according to the Atlanta criteria. Fifteen cases were established as a control group. Perfusion CT was obtained for 54 s beginning with a bolus injection of 40 ml of contrast agent (600–630 mgI/kg) at a flow rate of 4 ml/s. Perfusion data were analyzed by the dual-input maximum slope method to obtain hepatic arterial perfusion (HAP) and hepatic portal perfusion (HPP). Finally, we compared HAP and HPP in SAP patients with those in the control group, respectively. Results: Average HAP was significantly higher in SAP patients than in the control group (75.1 ± 38.0 vs. 38.2 ± 9.0 ml/min/100 ml; p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in average HPP between SAP patients and the control group (206.7 ± 54.9 vs. 204.4 ± 38.5 ml/min/100 ml; p = 0.92). Conclusion: Using quantitative analysis on perfusion CT, we first demonstrated an increase of HAP in the right hepatic lobe in SAP patients.

  17. Measuring the collateral network pressure to minimize paraplegia risk in thoracoabdominal aneurysm resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etz, Christian D; Zoli, Stefano; Bischoff, Moritz S; Bodian, Carol; Di Luozzo, Gabriele; Griepp, Randall B

    2010-12-01

    To minimize paraplegia during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair, the concept of the collateral network was developed. That is, spinal cord perfusion is provided by an interconnecting complex of vessels in the intraspinal, paraspinous, and epidural space and in the paravertebral muscles, including intercostal and lumbar segmental as well as subclavian and hypogastric arteries. Collateral network pressure was measured with a catheter in the distal end of a ligated segmental artery in pigs and human beings. In the pig, collateral network pressure was 75% of the simultaneous mean aortic pressure. With complete segmental arterial ligation, it fell to 27% of baseline, recovering to 40% at 24 hours and 90% at 120 hours. Spinal cord injury occurred in approximately 50% of animals. When all segmental arteries were taken in 2 stages a week apart, collateral network pressure fell only to 50% to 70% of baseline, and spinal cord injury was rare. In human beings, baseline collateral network pressure also was 75% of mean aortic pressure, fell in proportion to the number of segmental arteries ligated, and began recovery within 24 hours. Collateral network pressure was lower with nonpulsatile distal bypass than with pulsatile perfusion. After subtraction of a measure of spinal cord outflow pressure (cerebrospinal fluid pressure or central venous pressure), collateral network pressure provides a clinically useful estimate of spinal cord perfusion pressure. Copyright © 2010. Published by Mosby, Inc.

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Louise V; Verwoert, Germaine C; O’Reilly, Paul F; Shi, Gang; Johnson, Toby; Johnson, Andrew D; Bochud, Murielle; Rice, Kenneth M; Henneman, Peter; Smith, Albert V; Ehret, Georg B; Amin, Najaf; Larson, Martin G; Mooser, Vincent; Hadley, David; Dörr, Marcus; Bis, Joshua C; Aspelund, Thor; Esko, Tõnu; Janssens, A Cecile JW; Zhao, Jing Hua; Heath, Simon; Laan, Maris; Fu, Jingyuan; Pistis, Giorgio; Luan, Jian’an; Arora, Pankaj; Lucas, Gavin; Pirastu, Nicola; Pichler, Irene; Jackson, Anne U; Webster, Rebecca J; Zhang, Feng; Peden, John F; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Campbell, Harry; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Hotteng, Jouke-Jan; Vitart, Veronique; Chasman, Daniel I; Trompet, Stella; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Chambers, John C; Guo, Xiuqing; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kühnel, Brigitte; Lopez, Lorna M; Polašek, Ozren; Boban, Mladen; Nelson, Christopher P; Morrison, Alanna C; Pihur, Vasyl; Ganesh, Santhi K; Hofman, Albert; Kundu, Suman; Mattace-Raso, Francesco US; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric JG; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wang, Thomas J; Bergmann, Sven; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Zitting, Paavo; McArdle, Wendy L; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Glazer, Nicole L; Taylor, Kent D; Harris, Tamara B; Alavere, Helene; Haller, Toomas; Keis, Aime; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Aulchenko, Yurii; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Eyheramendy, Susana; Org, Elin; Sõber, Siim; Lu, Xiaowen; Nolte, Ilja M; Penninx, Brenda W; Corre, Tanguy; Masciullo, Corrado; Sala, Cinzia; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F; Melander, Olle; O’Donnell, Christopher J; Salomaa, Veikko; d’Adamo, Adamo Pio; Fabretto, Antonella; Faletra, Flavio; Ulivi, Sheila; Del Greco, M Fabiola; Facheris, Maurizio; Collins, Francis S; Bergman, Richard N; Beilby, John P; Hung, Joseph; Musk, A William; Mangino, Massimo; Shin, So-Youn; Soranzo, Nicole; Watkins, Hugh; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Gider, Pierre; Loitfelder, Marisa; Zeginigg, Marion; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer S; Navarro, Pau; Wild, Sarah H; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; de Geus, Eco JC; Willemsen, Gonneke; Parker, Alex N; Rose, Lynda M; Buckley, Brendan; Stott, David; Orru, Marco; Uda, Manuela; van der Klauw, Melanie M; Zhang, Weihua; Li, Xinzhong; Scott, James; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Burke, Gregory L; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Döring, Angela; Meitinger, Thomas; Davies, Gail; Starr, John M; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Lindeman, Jan H; ’t Hoen, Peter AC; König, Inke R; Felix, Janine F; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C; Ongen, Halit; Breteler, Monique; Debette, Stéphanie; DeStefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Mitchell, Gary F; Smith, Nicholas L; Holm, Hilma; Stefansson, Kari; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Samani, Nilesh J; Preuss, Michael; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J; Wichmann, H-Erich; Raitakari, Olli T; Palmas, Walter; Kooner, Jaspal S; Stolk, Ronald P; Jukema, J Wouter; Wright, Alan F; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B; Wilson, James F; Ferrucci, Luigi; Schmidt, Reinhold; Farrall, Martin; Spector, Tim D; Palmer, Lyle J; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pfeufer, Arne; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth JF; Toniolo, Daniela; Snieder, Harold; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Wareham, Nicholas J; Oostra, Ben A; Metspalu, Andres; Launer, Lenore; Rettig, Rainer; Strachan, David P; Beckmann, Jacques S; Witteman, Jacqueline CM; Erdmann, Jeanette; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Ridker, Paul M; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B; Psaty, Bruce M; Caulfield, Mark J; Rao, Dabeeru C

    2012-01-01

    Numerous genetic loci influence systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans 1-3. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N=74,064) and follow-up studies (N=48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P= 2.7×10-8 to P=2.3×10-13) four novel PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2/PDGFRAI, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV, 11q24.3 near ADAMTS-8), two novel MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4, 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) which has recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the novel PP signals, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite to that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings indicate novel genetic mechanisms underlying blood pressure variation, including pathways that may differentially influence SBP and DBP. PMID:21909110

  19. Diagnostic and clinical benefit of combined coronary calcium and perfusion assessment in patients undergoing PET/CT myocardial perfusion stress imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Kevin A; Lee, John; Markiewicz, Richard; Longmore, Ryan; McGhie, A Iain; O'Keefe, James H; Hsu, Bai-Ling; Kennedy, Kevin; Thompson, Randall C; Bateman, Timothy M

    2010-04-01

    A limitation of stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is the inability to detect non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). One advantage of MPI with a hybrid CT device is the ability to obtain same-setting measurement of the coronary artery calcium score (CACS). Utilizing our single-center nuclear database, we identified 760 consecutive patients with: (1) no CAD history; (2) a normal clinically indicated Rb-82 PET/CT stress perfusion study; and (3) a same-setting CAC scan. 487 of 760 patients (64.1%) had subclinical CAD based on an abnormal CACS. Of those with CAC, the CACS was > or =100, > or =400, and > or =1000 in 47.0%, 22.4%, and 8.4% of patients, respectively. Less than half of the patients with CAC were receiving aspirin or statin medications prior to PET/CT imaging. Patients with CAC were more likely to be initiated or optimized on proven medical therapy for CAD immediately following PET/CT MPI compared to those without CAC. Subclinical CAD is common in patients without known CAD and normal myocardial perfusion assessed by hybrid PET/CT imaging. Identification of CAC influences subsequent physician prescribing patterns such that those with CAC are more likely to be treated with proven medical therapy for the treatment of CAD.

  20. Plasma-mediated vascular dysfunction in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure model of preeclampsia: a microvascular characterization.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Sarah K

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia is associated with widespread maternal vascular dysfunction, which is thought to be mediated by circulating factor(s). The aim of the study was to characterize vascular function in the reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of preeclampsia and to investigate the role of plasma factors in mediating any observed changes in vascular reactivity. Mean arterial blood pressure and vascular function were measured in RUPP and control rats. Mesenteric vessels from both virgin and pregnant rats were exposed for 1 hour or overnight to plasma from both RUPP and control rats and their vascular function assessed. RUPP rats were characterized by severe hypertension, restricted fetal growth, and reduced placental weight (P<0.001). Vasorelaxation was impaired in resistance vessels from RUPP compared with control rats (acetylcholine: R(max) 70+\\/-3 versus 92+\\/-1 [NP] and 93+\\/-3% [sham], P<0.01; bradykinin: 40+\\/-2 versus 62+\\/-2 [NP] and 59+\\/-4% [sham], P<0.001). Incubation of vessels from pregnant (but not virgin) animals with RUPP plasma overnight resulted in an attenuation of vasorelaxant responses (acetylcholine: 63+\\/-7 versus 86+\\/-2%, P<0.05; bradykinin: 35+\\/-5 versus 55+\\/-6%, P<0.001). The residual relaxant response in RUPP plasma-treated vessels was not further attenuated after treatment with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (acetylcholine: 57+\\/-7 versus 63+\\/-7%, ns; bradykinin: 37+\\/-5 versus 35+\\/-5%, ns). The RUPP rat model is characterized by an impaired response to vasodilators which may be attributable to one or more circulating factors. This plasma-mediated endothelial dysfunction appears to be a pregnancy-dependent effect. Furthermore, nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation appears to be absent in RUPP plasma-treated vessels.

  1. Improved visualization of delayed perfusion in lung MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risse, Frank; Eichinger, Monika; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Semmler, Wolfhard; Puderbach, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The investigation of pulmonary perfusion by three-dimensional (3D) dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) was proposed recently. Subtraction images are generated for clinical evaluation, but temporal information is lost and perfusion defects might therefore be masked in this process. The aim of this study is to demonstrate a simple analysis strategy and classification for 3D-DCE-MRI perfusion datasets in the lung without omitting the temporal information. Materials and methods: Pulmonary perfusion measurements were performed in patients with different lung diseases using a 1.5 T MR-scanner with a time-resolved 3D-GRE pulse sequence. 25 3D-volumes were acquired after iv-injection of 0.1 mmol/kg KG Gadolinium-DTPA. Three parameters were determined for each pixel: (1) peak enhancement S n,max normalized to the arterial input function to detect regions of reduced perfusion; (2) time between arterial peak enhancement in the large pulmonary artery and tissue peak enhancement τ to visualize regions with delayed bolus onset; and (3) ratio R = S n,max /τ was calculated to visualize impaired perfusion, irrespectively of whether related to reduced or delayed perfusion. Results: A manual selection of peak perfusion images is not required. Five different types of perfusion can be found: (1) normal perfusion; (2) delayed non-reduced perfusion; (3) reduced non-delayed perfusion; (4) reduced and delayed perfusion; and (5) no perfusion. Types II and IV could not be seen in subtraction images since the temporal information is necessary for this purpose. Conclusions: The analysis strategy in this study allows for a simple and observer-independent visualization and classification of impaired perfusion in dynamic contrast-enhanced pulmonary perfusion MRI by using the temporal information of the datasets.

  2. Variability of physiological brain perfusion in healthy subjects - A systematic review of modifiers. Considerations for multi-center ASL studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Patricia; Mutsaerts, Henk-Jan; Václavů, Lena

    2018-01-01

    was carried out for factors influencing quantitative measurements of perfusion in the human brain unrelated to medication use. A total of 58 perfusion modifiers were categorized into four groups. Several factors (e.g., caffeine, aging, and blood gases) were found to induce a considerable effect on brain...

  3. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Automatic assessment of cardiac perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsson, Henrik B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on Active Appearance Models (AAM) is applied for automatic registration of myocardial perfusion MRI. A semi-quantitative perfusion assessment of the registered image sequences is presented. This includes the formation of perfusion maps for three parameters; maximum up...

  5. The influence of pressure ratio on the regenerator performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Zhu, S.

    2017-12-01

    For a multi-stage pulse tube refrigerator with displacer, improving the regenerator efficiency is important. A displacer can get higher operating pressure ratio compared with inertance tube. The pressure ratio and porosity influence on the regenerator performance with is discussed, and CFD simulation is done on a two-stage pulse tube refrigerator with displacer to show that mass flow rate and pressure wave relation in the regenerator can be realized by a step-displacer.

  6. Can preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy predict changes in left ventricular perfusion and function after coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Johansen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVESWe wanted to evaluate whether preoperative myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) could predict changes in cardiac symptoms and postoperative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).METHODSNinety-two patients with stable angina...... in 26%. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), which was normal before operation in 45%, improved in 40% of all patients. The increase in LVEF was not related to the preoperative pattern of perfusion defects. Of 30 patients with normalized perfusion after CABG, 29 (97%) had reversible defects...... that reversible or partly reversible perfusion defects at a preoperative MPS have a high chance of normalized myocardial perfusion assessed by MPS 6 months after operation. Normal perfusion is obtained almost exclusively in territories with reversible ischaemia. Symptoms improved in nearly all patients and LVEF...

  7. Coronary perfusion pressure and compression quality in maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in supine and left-lateral tilt positions: A prospective, crossover study using mannequins and swine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohi, Satoshi; Ichizuka, Kiyotake; Matsuoka, Ryu; Seo, Kohei; Nagatsuka, Masaaki; Sekizawa, Akihiko

    2017-09-01

    The risk of maternal and fetal mortality is high if cardiopulmonary arrest occurs during pregnancy. To assess the best position for maternal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), a prospective randomized crossover study was undertaken, involving basic life support mannequin-based simulation (BLS-MS) and a swine model of pulseless electrical activity (an unstable cardiac state) incorporating a fetal mannequin (PEA-FM). The BLS-MS (performed by certified rescuers) served to evaluate the quality of chest compressions in 30° left lateral tilt (LLT) and supine positions. Based on a 5-point scale, each rescuer subjectively graded their experience. The PEA-FM model was used to compare coronary perfusion pressure readings during CPR in supine, supine with left uterine displacement, 30° LLT, and 30° right lateral tilt positions. Compression rate and correctness of hand position, compression depth, and recoil were measures of compression quality (BLS-MS). Compared with LLT position, supine position enabled correct hand position (rate: 0.99 vs 0.88; p<0.05) and compression depth (rate: 0.76 vs 0.36; p<0.001) significantly more often. Moreover, BLS-MS rescuers found chest compressions significantly easier to perform with the mannequin in supine (vs LLT) position (difficulty score: 1.75 vs 3.95; p<0.001). In the PEA-FM study arm, supine position with left uterine displacement and right lateral tilt positions had the highest and lowest recorded coronary perfusion pressure readings, respectively. Supine position with left uterine displacement is optimal for maternal CPR. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Right ventricle performances with echocardiography and 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Fei, Lei; Huang, Guang-Qing; Shang, Xiao-Ke; Liu, Mei; Pei, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Yong-Xue

    2018-05-01

    Right heart catheterization is commonly used to measure right ventricle hemodynamic parameters and is the gold standard for pulmonary arterial hypertension diagnosis; however, it is not suitable for patients' long-term follow-up. Non-invasive echocardiography and nuclear medicine have been applied to measure right ventricle anatomy and function, but the guidelines for the usefulness of clinical parameters remain to be established. The goal of this study is to identify reliable clinical parameters of right ventricle function in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients and analyze the relationship of these clinical parameters with the disease severity of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study, 23 normal subjects and 23 pulmonary arterial hypertension patients were recruited from January 2015 to March 2016. Pulmonary arterial hypertension patients were classified into moderate and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension groups according to their mean pulmonary arterial pressure levels. All the subjects were subjected to physical examination, chest X-ray, 12-lead electrocardiogram, right heart catheterization, two-dimensional echocardiography, and technetium 99m ( 99m Tc) myocardial perfusion imaging. Compared to normal subjects, the right heart catheterization indexes including right ventricle systolic pressure, right ventricle end diastolic pressure, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, pulmonary artery diastolic pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricle end systolic pressure increased in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients and were correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure levels. Echocardiography parameters, including tricuspid regurgitation peak velocity, tricuspid regurgitation pressure gradient, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion and fractional area, right ventricle-myocardial performance index, were significantly associated with the mean pulmonary arterial pressure levels in pulmonary arterial hypertension patients

  9. Autonomic control of body temperature and blood pressure: influences of female sex hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Hart, Emma C J; Barnes, Jill N; Joyner, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Female reproductive hormones exert important non-reproductive influences on autonomic regulation of body temperature and blood pressure. Estradiol and progesterone influence thermoregulation both centrally and peripherally, where estradiol tends to promote heat dissipation, and progesterone tends to promote heat conservation and higher body temperatures. Changes in thermoregulation over the course of the menstrual cycle and with hot flashes at menopause are mediated by hormonal influences on neural control of skin blood flow and sweating. The influence of estradiol is to promote vasodilation, which, in the skin, results in greater heat dissipation. In the context of blood pressure regulation, both central and peripheral hormonal influences are important as well. Peripherally, the vasodilator influence of estradiol contributes to the lower blood pressures and smaller risk of hypertension seen in young women compared to young men. This is in part due to a mechanism by which estradiol augments beta-adrenergic receptor mediated vasodilation, offsetting alpha-adrenergic vasoconstriction, and resulting in a weak relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and total peripheral resistance, and between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. After menopause, with the loss of reproductive hormones, sympathetic nerve activity, peripheral resistance and blood pressure become more strongly related, and sympathetic nerve activity (which increases with age) becomes a more important contributor to the prevailing level of blood pressure. Continuing to increase our understanding of sex hormone influences on body temperature and blood pressure regulation will provide important insight for optimization of individualized health care for future generations of women.

  10. Ex-vivo machine perfusion for kidney preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Matyas; Selzner, Markus

    2018-06-01

    Machine perfusion is a novel strategy to decrease preservation injury, improve graft assessment, and increase organ acceptance for transplantation. This review summarizes the current advances in ex-vivo machine-based kidney preservation technologies over the last year. Ex-vivo perfusion technologies, such as hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion and controlled oxygenated rewarming, have gained high interest in the field of organ preservation. Keeping kidney grafts functionally and metabolically active during the preservation period offers a unique chance for viability assessment, reconditioning, and organ repair. Normothermic ex-vivo kidney perfusion has been recently translated into clinical practice. Preclinical results suggest that prolonged warm perfusion appears superior than a brief end-ischemic reconditioning in terms of renal function and injury. An established standardized protocol for continuous warm perfusion is still not available for human grafts. Ex-vivo machine perfusion represents a superior organ preservation method over static cold storage. There is still an urgent need for the optimization of the perfusion fluid and machine technology and to identify the optimal indication in kidney transplantation. Recent research is focusing on graft assessment and therapeutic strategies.

  11. Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erguen, E.L.; Caner, B.; Atalar, E.; Karanfil, A.; Tokgoezoglu, L.

    1998-01-01

    Dobutamine as a predominant beta-1 agonist increases heart rate and myocardial contractility and at sufficient high doses, it also increases systolic blood pressure. This study was undertaken to describe instances of paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT study and the relationship between scintigraphic findings and hypotension occurred during dobutamine infusion. Methods: In 201 consecutive patients unable to perform adequate exercise, dobutamine Tl-201 myocardial SPECT was performed. Dobutamine was infused starting from 10 μg/kg/min increasing to 40 μ/kg/min. Paradoxical hypotension was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg compared with baseline study. Paradoxical hypotension was observed in 40 patients (Group A) out of 201 (19.9%) while no significant change in systolic blood pressure was detected in the remaining 161 patients (Group B). Mean maximum fall in systolic blood pressure was 39±18 mmHg (range: 20-90). In 33 of 40 patients (83%) with paradoxical hypotension, scintigraphy was normal compared to 131 (81%) of the remaining 161 patients. In patients of Group A, angiography, echocardiography and tilt table tests were performed in 13, 11 and 6 patients respectively. Nine of 13 angiographic evaluations (69%), 10 of 11 echocardiographic evaluations (91%), all of the tilt table tests were normal. Additionally, all of the patients of Group A were clinically followed up at least 6 months after the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. None of the patients had a cardiac event except one patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial scintigraphy is not an uncommon finding and up to 19.9% patients may develop such hypotension. To maximize test safety, precautions should be taken during dobutamine myocardial stress test, since remarkable decrease in systolic blood pressure may occur. Unlike hypotension occurring with exercise

  12. Active Oxygen Metabolites and Thromboxane in Phorbol Myristate Acetate Toxicity to the Isolated, Perfused Rat Lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Laurie Jean

    When administered intravenously or intratracheally to rats, rabbits and sheep, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) produces changes in lung morphology and function are similar to those seen in humans with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Therefore, it is thought that information about the mechanism of ARDS development can be gained from experiments using PMA-treated animals. Currently, the mechanisms by which PMA causes pneumotoxicity are unknown. Results from other studies in rabbits and in isolated, perfused rabbit lungs suggest that PMA-induced lung injury is mediated by active oxygen species from neutrophils (PMN), whereas studies in sheep and rats suggest that PMN are not required for the toxic response. The role of PMN, active oxygen metabolites and thromboxane (TxA_2) in PMA-induced injury to isolated, perfused rat lungs (IPLs) was examined in this thesis. To determine whether PMN were required for PMA to produce toxicity to the IPL, lungs were perfused for 30 min with buffer containing various concentrations of PMA (in the presence or absence of PMN). When concentrations >=q57 ng/ml were added to medium devoid of added PMN, perfusion pressure and lung weight increased. When a concentration of PMA (14-28 ng/ml) that did not by itself cause lungs to accumulate fluid was added to the perfusion medium containing PMN (1 x 10 ^8), perfusion pressure increased, and lungs accumulated fluid. These results indicate that high concentrations of PMA produce lung injury which is independent of PMN, whereas injury induced by lower concentrations is PMN-dependent. To examine whether active oxygen species were involved in mediating lung injury induced by PMA and PMN, lungs were coperfused with the oxygen radical scavengers SOD and/or catalase. Coperfusion with either or both of these enzymes totally protected lungs against injury caused by PMN and PMA. These results suggest that active oxygen species (the hydroxyl radical in particular), mediate lung injury in

  13. Hydrostatic Pressure Influences HIF-2 Alpha Expression in Chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Inoue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α.

  14. Hydrostatic pressure influences HIF-2 alpha expression in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hiroaki; Arai, Yuji; Kishida, Tsunao; Terauchi, Ryu; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Tsuchida, Shinji; Matsuki, Tomohiro; Ueshima, Keiichirou; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-01-05

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-2α is considered to play a major role in the progression of osteoarthritis. Recently, it was reported that pressure amplitude influences HIF-2α expression in murine endothelial cells. We examined whether hydrostatic pressure is involved in expression of HIF-2α in articular chondrocytes. Chondrocytes were cultured and stimulated by inflammation or hydrostatic pressure of 0, 5, 10, or 50 MPa. After stimulation, heat shock protein (HSP) 70, HIF-2α, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, MMP-3, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression were evaluated. The levels of all gene expression were increased by inflammatory stress. When chondrocytes were exposed to a hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa, HIF-2α, MMP-13, and MMP-3 gene expression increased significantly although those of HSP70 and NF-κB were not significantly different from the control group. In contrast, HIF-2α gene expression did not increase under a hydrostatic pressure of 50 MPa although HSP70 and NF-κB expression increased significantly compared to control. We considered that hydrostatic pressure of 5 MPa could regulate HIF-2α independent of NF-κB, because the level of HIF-2α gene expression increased significantly without upregulation of NF-κB expression at 5 MPa. Hydrostatic pressure may influence cartilage degeneration, inducing MMP-13 and MMP-3 expression through HIF-2α.

  15. KATP channels are not essential for pressure-dependent control of renin secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Gambaryan, S; Scholz, H

    1998-01-01

    (IPRK). Cromakalim (0.1-10 muM) stimulated basal renin secretion up to threefold and caused vasorelaxation in the IPRK. Both effects of cromakalim were attenuated by glibenclamide. Cromakalim stimulated renin secretion from isolated juxtaglomerular (JG) cells and from microdissected afferent arterioles......This study aimed to investigate the functional role of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in the control of renin secretion by renal perfusion pressure. We studied the effect of openers and blockers of KATP-channels on basal- and low-pressure-induced renin secretion from isolated perfused rat kidneys......, all of which suggests that KATP channel openers stimulate renin secretion at the level of JG cells. A decrease in the perfusion pressure from 13.3 to 9.33 kPa (100 mmHg to 70 mmHg) increased renin secretion twofold, and cromakalim further increased renin secretion. At 5.33 kPa (40 mmHg) renin...

  16. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  17. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....

  18. Brain Perfusion Changes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mititelu, R.; Mazilu, C.; Ghita, S.; Rimbu, A.; Marinescu, G.; Codorean, I.; Bajenaru, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the latest advances in medical treatment and neuro critical care, patients suffering spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) still have a very poor prognosis, with a greater mortality and larger neurological deficits at the survivors than for ischemic stroke. Many authors have shown that there are many mechanisms involved in the pathology of SICH: edema, ischemia, inflammation, apoptosis. All of these factors are affecting brain tissue surrounding hematoma and are responsible of the progressive neurological deterioration; most of these damages are not revealed by anatomical imaging techniques. The aim of our study was to asses the role of brain perfusion SPECT in demonstrating perfusion changes in SICH patients. Method: 17 SICH pts were studied. All pts underwent same day CT and brain SPECT with 99mTcHMPAO, 24h-5d from onset of stroke. Results: 14/17 pts showed a larger perfusion defect than expected after CT. In 2 pts hematoma diameter was comparable on CT and SPECT; 1pt had quasinormal aspect of SPECT study. In pts with larger defects, SPECT revealed a large cold spot with similar size compared with CT, and a surrounding hypo perfused area. 6/17 pts revealed cortical hyper perfusion adjacent to hypo perfused area and corresponding to a normal-appearing brain tissue on CT. In 3 pts we found crossed cerebellar diaskisis.In 2 pts we found cortical hypo perfused area in the contralateral cortex, with normal appearing brain tissue on CT. Conclusions: Brain perfusion SPECT revealed different types of perfusion changes in the brain tissue surrounding hematoma. These areas contain viable brain tissue that may be a target for future ne uroprotective strategies. Further studies are definitely required to demonstrate prognostic significance of these changes, but we can conclude that brain perfusion SPECT can play an important role in SICH, by early demonstrating functional changes responsible of clinical deterioration, thus allowing prompt

  19. Pressure Scalings and Influence Region Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2018-0015 PRESSURE SCALINGS AND INFLUENCE REGION RESEARCH James H. Miller High Speed Systems Division...inside pages STINFO COPY AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY AEROSPACE SYSTEMS DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH... RESEARCH 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62201F 6. AUTHOR(S) James H. Miller 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  20. Skin Perfusion Pressure Measurement to Assess Improvement in Peripheral Circulation after Arterial Reconstruction for Critical Limb Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshiko; Onozuka, Atsuko; Obitsu, Yukio; Komai, Hiroyoshi; Koizumi, Nobusato; Saiki, Naozumi; Shigematsu, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To assess the utility of skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measurement in evaluating the outcome of vascular constructions for critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods: We retrospectively studied 19 lower limbs in 18 patients who underwent arterial reconstruction for CLI from whom SPP measurements had been obtained pre- and postoperatively between 2008 and 2010. Six limbs whose ulcers had healed postoperatively were classified into group H, 7 limbs whose ulcers had not healed into group U, and 6 limbs without ulcers into group N. SPP values were compared among these groups. Results: The preoperative SPP values in all groups were <30 mmHg, without significant differences among the groups. The SPP values in groups H and N significantly improved after operation, and those in group U were significantly lower than those in the other groups. Conclusions: SPP measurement before and after arterial reconstruction is useful to assess improvement in tissue circulation and to predict the likelihood of wound healing. An SPP value ≥30 mmHg was considered necessary for wound healing, supporting the findings of the few reports in the literature on the usefulness of SPP for assessing vascular reconstruction effects on ulcer wound healing. PMID:23555459

  1. Developing a Benchmarking Process in Perfusion: A Report of the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A.; Newland, Richard F.; Fenton, Carmel; McDonald, Michael; Willcox, Timothy W.; Merry, Alan F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Improving and understanding clinical practice is an appropriate goal for the perfusion community. The Perfusion Downunder Collaboration has established a multi-center perfusion focused database aimed at achieving these goals through the development of quantitative quality indicators for clinical improvement through benchmarking. Data were collected using the Perfusion Downunder Collaboration database from procedures performed in eight Australian and New Zealand cardiac centers between March 2007 and February 2011. At the Perfusion Downunder Meeting in 2010, it was agreed by consensus, to report quality indicators (QI) for glucose level, arterial outlet temperature, and pCO2 management during cardiopulmonary bypass. The values chosen for each QI were: blood glucose ≥4 mmol/L and ≤10 mmol/L; arterial outlet temperature ≤37°C; and arterial blood gas pCO2 ≥ 35 and ≤45 mmHg. The QI data were used to derive benchmarks using the Achievable Benchmark of Care (ABC™) methodology to identify the incidence of QIs at the best performing centers. Five thousand four hundred and sixty-five procedures were evaluated to derive QI and benchmark data. The incidence of the blood glucose QI ranged from 37–96% of procedures, with a benchmark value of 90%. The arterial outlet temperature QI occurred in 16–98% of procedures with the benchmark of 94%; while the arterial pCO2 QI occurred in 21–91%, with the benchmark value of 80%. We have derived QIs and benchmark calculations for the management of several key aspects of cardiopulmonary bypass to provide a platform for improving the quality of perfusion practice. PMID:22730861

  2. Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome in diabetic feet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jie [Cardiovascular Imaging Lab, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J. [Washington University School of Medicine, The Program in Physical Therapy, St. Louis, MO (United States); Muccigross, David; Hildebolt, Charles F. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fan, Zhaoyang [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Gao, Fabao [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Department of Radiology, Chengdu (China); Curci, John [Washington University School of Medicine, The Department of Surgery, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in the diabetic foot based on the concept of angiosomes of the foot. Five healthy volunteers and five participants with diabetes (HbA1c = 7.2 ± 1.8 %) without a history of peripheral artery disease were examined. The non-contrast perfusion measurements were performed during a toe flexion challenge. Absolute perfusion maps were created and two regions (medial and lateral) on the maps were segmented based on angiosomes. Regional difference in the perfusion of foot muscle was readily visualized in the MRI perfusion angiosomes during the challenge. In the participants with diabetes, the perfusion during toe flexion challenge was significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). The average perfusion for the medial plantar region of the right foot was lower in subjects with diabetes (38 ± 9 ml/min/100 g) than in healthy subjects (93 ± 33 ml/min/100 g). Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome maps demonstrate the feasibility of determining regional perfusion in foot muscles during toe challenge and may facilitate evaluation of muscle perfusion in diabetic feet. (orig.)

  3. Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome in diabetic feet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Jie; Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J.; Muccigross, David; Hildebolt, Charles F.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Gao, Fabao; Curci, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to evaluate skeletal muscle perfusion in the diabetic foot based on the concept of angiosomes of the foot. Five healthy volunteers and five participants with diabetes (HbA1c = 7.2 ± 1.8 %) without a history of peripheral artery disease were examined. The non-contrast perfusion measurements were performed during a toe flexion challenge. Absolute perfusion maps were created and two regions (medial and lateral) on the maps were segmented based on angiosomes. Regional difference in the perfusion of foot muscle was readily visualized in the MRI perfusion angiosomes during the challenge. In the participants with diabetes, the perfusion during toe flexion challenge was significantly lower than in healthy volunteers (P < 0.01). The average perfusion for the medial plantar region of the right foot was lower in subjects with diabetes (38 ± 9 ml/min/100 g) than in healthy subjects (93 ± 33 ml/min/100 g). Non-contrast MRI perfusion angiosome maps demonstrate the feasibility of determining regional perfusion in foot muscles during toe challenge and may facilitate evaluation of muscle perfusion in diabetic feet. (orig.)

  4. Laws of physics help explain capillary non-perfusion in diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, E; Chan, Y K; Bek, T; Hardarson, S H; Wong, D; Wilson, D I

    2018-02-01

    The purpose is to use laws of physics to elucidate the mechanisms behind capillary non-perfusion in diabetic retinopathy. In diabetic retinopathy, loss of pericytes weakens capillary walls and the vessel dilates. A dilated capillary has reduced resistance to flow, therefore increased flow in that vessel and decreased in adjoining capillaries. A preferential shunt vessel is thus formed from the dilated capillary and the adjacent capillaries become non-perfused. We apply the laws of Laplace and Hagen-Poiseuille to better understand the phenomena that lead to capillary non-perfusion. These laws of physics can give a foundation for physical or mathematical models to further elucidate this field of study. The law of Laplace predicts that a weaker vessel wall will dilate, assuming constant transmural pressure. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation for flow and the Ostwald-de Waele relationship for viscosity predict that a dilated vessel will receive a higher portion of the fluid flow than the adjoining capillaries. Viscosity will decrease in the dilated vessel, furthering the imbalance and resulting in a patch of non-perfused capillaries next to the dilated 'preferential' shunt vessel. Physical principles support or inspire novel hypotheses to explain poorly understood phenomena in ophthalmology. This thesis of pericyte death and capillary remodelling, which was first proposed by Cogan and Kuwabara, already agrees with histological and angiographical observations in diabetic retinopathy. We have shown that it is also supported by classical laws of physics.

  5. Correlation of semiquantitative analysis of the distribution of pulmonary perfusion with pulmonary function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Kou; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Ikue; Takahashi, Hideki; Takano, Masaaki.

    1997-01-01

    We carried out ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and pulmonary function tests in 56 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and 19 healthy volunteers. We used 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin for the perfusion scintigraphy and 133 Xe gas for the ventilation scintigraphy. The lung volume image was created by computerized summation of the radioactivity in the rebreathing phase. Regions of interest (ROIs) were set automatically on lung volume image, which included each whole lung, and on perfusion image, including areas with relatively high radioactivity, with cut-off levels of 50%, 70%, and 90%. The number of pixels in each ROI was used as an index of lung volume (L) or perfusion (P). Perfusion per unit of lung volume (P/L) was also used as an index of perfusion. P70 and P70/L showed the better correlations than the other parameters, including significant correlations with vital capacity, FEV 1.0 , peak flow rate, RV/TLC, diffusing capacity and arterial oxygen partial pressure. The significant difference in P70 and P70/L between patients with hypoxemia and those without hypoxemia suggested that P70 and P70/L are useful indicators of the severity of COPD. We conclude that semiquantified values of pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy are significantly correlated with pulmonary function and the severity of COPD. (author)

  6. Myocardial Ischaemia, Coronary Atherosclerosis and Pulmonary Pressure Elevation in Antiphospholipid Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padjas, Agnieszka; Płazak, Wojciech; Celińska-Lowenhoff, Magdalena; Mazurek, Adam; Perricone, Carlo; Podolec, Piotr; Musiał, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Thrombotic events in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) involve venous and arterial circulation with the possible involvement of coronary or pulmonary microcirculation. To evaluate the influence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) and on myocardial ischaemia assessed by single-photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT), coronary atherosclerosis assessed by multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) and pulmonary pressure assessed by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in patients with primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS). TTE, SPECT (Tc 99m sestamibi) and MDCT-based coronary calcium scoring were performed in 26 consecutive PAPS patients (20 females, 6 males, aged 20-61, mean 39.7) without any signs of other autoimmunological disease and without clinical symptoms of heart disease. Out of 26 patients, TEE showed normal left and right ventricle function in 25 (96.2%) and elevated (≥ 30 mm Hg) right ventricle systolic pressure in 7 (26.9%) patients. SPECT revealed myocardial perfusion defects in 15 (57.7%) patients: exercise-induced in 6 (23.1%) and persistent in 11 (42.3%). MDCT revealed coronary calcifications in 4 (15.4%) patients. The number of plaques ranged from 1 to 11 (median 2), volume 3-201.7 mm³ (median 7), calcium scores 1.3-202.6 (median 5.7). In the group with perfusion defects or coronary calcifications (n = 15), all the patients showed elevated aCL IgG. In most of the relatively young APS patients, without any symptoms of ischemic heart disease, SPECT showed myocardial perfusion defects, and coronary calcifications in 1/6 of them. Right ventricle systolic pressure was elevated in 1/4 of APS patients. These pathologies, well known as cardiovascular risk markers, were associated with elevated levels of the IgG class of both anti-cardiolipin and antiB2 GPI antibodies. Thus, in a high percentage of APS patients, clinically silent myocardial ischaemia, pulmonary pressure elevation and coronary atherosclerosis are present and related to the

  7. Dual-energy perfusion-CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauß, M.; Stiller, W.; Pahn, G.; Fritz, F.; Kieser, M.; Werner, J.; Kauczor, H.U.; Grenacher, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT)-perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas for assessing the differences in perfusion, permeability and blood volume of healthy pancreatic tissue and histopathologically confirmed solid pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and methods: 24 patients with histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma were examined prospectively with a 64-slice dual source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 dual-energy (DE) acquisitions every 1.5 s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). 80 kV p , 140 kV p , and weighted average (linearly blended M0.3) 120 kV p -equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool (Body-PCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) for estimating perfusion, permeability, and blood volume values. Color-coded parameter maps were generated. Results: In all 24 patients dual-energy CT-perfusion was. All carcinomas could be identified in the color-coded perfusion maps. Calculated perfusion, permeability and blood volume values were significantly lower in pancreatic carcinomas compared to healthy pancreatic tissue. Weighted average 120 kV p -equivalent perfusion-, permeability- and blood volume-values determined from DE image data were 0.27 ± 0.04 min −1 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04 min −1 (p −1 vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 *0.5 min −1 (p = 0.06) and 0.49 ± 0.07 min −1 vs. 1.28 ± 0.11 min −1 (p p the standard deviations of the kV p 120 kV p -equivalent values were manifestly smaller. Conclusion: Dual-energy CT-perfusion of the pancreas is feasible. The use of DECT improves the accuracy of CT-perfusion of the pancreas by fully exploiting the advantages of enhanced iodine contrast at 80 kV p in combination with the noise reduction at 140 kV p . Therefore using dual-energy perfusion data could improve the delineation of pancreatic carcinomas

  8. Influence of dietary casein or lactalbumin on incorporation of 14C leucine into protein of ethanol-perfused livers of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, K.A.C.; Treloar, B.P.; Hove, E.L.; Sedcole, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Rats were fed diets containing casein or lactalbumin as the sole source of protein (c. 200 g protein/kg diet) for about 4 weeks. At 190-210 g live weight the rats were anaesthetised, and the livers were perfused with ethanol (0-3.7 mL/100 mL perfusate, i.e., 0-625 m ) and 30 minutes later with 14 C leucine (5 micro g Ci) for 60 minutes. The specific radioactivity (dpm/mg protein) of liver and perfusate protein was determined. The log specific radioactivity data of each dietary group were described by a 2-phase linear model: a constant or plateau level up to an ethanol concentration of c. 2 mL ethanol/100 mL perfusate (340 m ), and a linear decrease in log specific radioactivity above that level. For the liver protein the constant log specific radioactivity of the casein dietary group was significantly higher than that for the lactalbumin dietary group. The decreases in log specific radioactivity for both liver and perfusate in the casein dietary group were significantly greater than those in the lactalbumin dietary group. The dietary dependent difference in incorporation with varying ethanol concentrations may result from a combination of control over liver protein synthesis and protein secretion. Predisposing rats to 2 high-quality protein diets results in differences in liver protein metabolism which are maintained against a wide range of ethanol perfusate concentrations. (auths)

  9. Quantitative assessment of the brain perfusion using the short-lived isotope 195m-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities of quantitatively assessing the brain perfusion on the basis of a modified transit time theory, using the favourable properties of the ultrashort-lived isotope 195m-Au, are shown. The intravascular deposition of the isotope 195m-Au enables quantitative brain perfusion studies based on both the dorsal and lateral projection. The 195m-Au isotope has a half-life of 30 sec and is able to be eluated from the 195m-Hg 195m-Au generator (Byk-Mallinckrodt). The quantification of brain perfusion (in terms of ml/min/100 g) is based on a recently published theory for non-diffusing radio-indicators, using a first-pass technique. This method of quantification corresponds to a modification of the transit time theory from Maier and Zierler (1) and accounts for the influences of dispersion and recirculation of an intravenously injected non-diffused tracer bolus (2, 3). The energy spectrum of the eluate from the generator shows two lines of high intensity at 262 keV and 68 keV. The low-energy peak is suited for the lateral view, i.e. brain perfusion studies of one hemisphere, without a significant 'look-through-effect'. The high-energy peak is successfully used for dorsal projections of brain perfusion studies. An examination takes less time than one minute and can be repeated after three minutes. Dynamic brain perfusion studies enable parametric images of the quantitative regional brain perfusion distribution, or the reciprocal mean transit times, to be obtained by calculation. Infarcted areas are able to be visualized with high sensitivity. Quantitative perfusion patterns during activation of the visual centre are detectable. The advantages of this method are discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Influence of vascular enhancement, age and gender on pulmonary perfused blood volume quantified by dual-energy-CTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinel, Felix G.; Graef, Anita; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the influence of technical and demographic parameters on quantification of pulmonary perfused blood volume (PBV) in dual energy computed tomography pulmonary angiography (DE-CTPA). Materials and methods: Pulmonary PBV was quantified in 142 patients who underwent DE-CTPA for suspected pulmonary embolism but in whom no thoracic pathologies were detected. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to calculate the influence of age, gender, enhancement of pulmonary trunk and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (as a measure of timing) on PBV values. The resulting regression coefficients were used to calculate age-specific ranges of normal for PBV values adjusted for vascular enhancement and timing. Results: Enhancement of the pulmonary trunk (β = −0.29, p = 0.001) and enhancement difference between pulmonary trunk and left atrium (β = −0.24, p = 0.003) were found to significantly influence PBV values. Age (β = −0.33, p < 0.001) but not gender (β = 0.14, p = 0.05) had a significant negative influence on pulmonary PBV values. There was a 20% relative decrease of pulmonary PBV from patients aged <30 to patients over 80 years of age. Conclusions: DE-CTPA derived PBV values need to be corrected for age, vascular enhancement and timing but not for gender. The age-specific ranges of normal derived from this study can be used as a reference in future studies of PBV in pulmonary pathologies

  11. Chelidonium majus and its effects on uterine contractility in a perfusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzel, Julian; Geisler, Klaudija; Strahl, Olga; Grundtner, Philipp; Beckmann, Matthias W; Dittrich, Ralf

    2013-07-01

    The herbal agent celandine is thought to have mainly spasmolytic effects, but in the uterus it is regarded as promoting contractions, which can offer promising and innovative options for optimizing artificial reproduction. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of celandine on the uterine muscle, using a perfusion model of swine uteri. Sixteen swine uteri were perfused with Krebs-Ringer solution. Celandine (Chelidonium, Paverysat; Johannes Bürger Ysatfabrik Ltd., Bad Harzburg, Germany) was administered at increasing dosages. Intrauterine pressure (IUP) was recorded using an intrauterine double-chip microcatheter (Urobar 8 DS-F, Raumedic, Rehau AG & Co., Rehau, Germany). Differences in pressure (ΔP) and area under the curve (ΔAUC) after drug administration in the uterine body and uterine horn in the various dilution series were noted. A paired Student's t-test was used to evaluate differences between groups, with significance set at P<0.05. A significant initial increase in uterine activity was visible at each dosage. Inhibition of uterine activity was seen over longer periods of 5 and 10 min, particularly for a medium-dose range of 1-2mg/ml. At a dosage of 2mg/ml in particular, celandine almost always led to significant values. Following intra-arterial administration in a swine uterus perfusion model, celandine initially causes a significant increase in contractility, which is followed over time by a relaxation phase. This suggests interesting hypotheses on whether Chelidonium majus might be used to promote targeted sperm transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (YongMei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I.E. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  13. Molecular hydrogen ameliorates several characteristics of preeclampsia in the Reduced Uterine Perfusion Pressure (RUPP) rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushida, Takafumi; Kotani, Tomomi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Imai, Kenji; Nakano, Tomoko; Hirako, Shima; Ito, Yumiko; Li, Hua; Mano, Yukio; Wang, Jingwen; Miki, Rika; Yamamoto, Eiko; Iwase, Akira; Bando, Yasuko K; Hirayama, Masaaki; Ohno, Kinji; Toyokuni, Shinya; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Recently, molecular hydrogen (H 2 ) has been shown to have therapeutic potential in various oxidative stress-related diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of H 2 on preeclampsia. We used the reduced utero-placental perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model, which has been widely used as a model of preeclampsia. H 2 water (HW) was administered orally ad libitum in RUPP rats from gestational day (GD) 12-19, starting 2 days before RUPP procedure. On GD19, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured, and samples were collected. Maternal administration of HW significantly decreased MAP, and increased fetal and placental weight in RUPP rats. The increased levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and diacron reactive oxygen metabolites as a biomarker of reactive oxygen species in maternal blood were decreased by HW administration. However, vascular endothelial growth factor level in maternal blood was increased by HW administration. Proteinuria, and histological findings in kidney were improved by HW administration. In addition, the effects of H 2 on placental villi were examined by using a trophoblast cell line (BeWo) and villous explants from the placental tissue of women with or without preeclampsia. H 2 significantly attenuated hydrogen peroxide-induced sFlt-1 expression, but could not reduce the expression induced by hypoxia in BeWo cells. H 2 significantly attenuated sFlt-1 expression in villous explants from women with preeclampsia, but not affected them from normotensive pregnancy. The prophylactic administration of H 2 attenuated placental ischemia-induced hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and oxidative stress. These results support the theory that H 2 has a potential benefit in the prevention of preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Perfusion vector - a new method to quantify myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images: a simulation study with validation in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minarik, David; Senneby, Martin; Wollmer, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background The interpretation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) largely relies on visual assessment by the physician of the localization and extent of a perfusion defect. The aim of this study was to introduce the concept of the perfusion vector as a new objective quantitative method...

  15. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...

  16. Preliminary studies of pulmonary perfusion scanning in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Wang Yanqun

    1986-01-01

    A comparative analysis of pulmonary perfusion scanning through cardiac catheterization of 57 patients including 32 patients with congenital heart disease, 8 patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and 7 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension is reported. The lung scintigram obtained with In-113m or Tc-99m-MAA represents the distribution of pulmonary blood. It has been found that the lung scintigram was abnormal in patients of congenital heart disease with pulmonary hypertension (i. e. pulmonary artery pressure between 41-80 mmHg) and the extent of radoiactive regional defects is proportional to the level of pulmonary hypertension. The results of the analysis indicated that pulmonary perfusion scanning being a noninvasive technique would be a useful method in evaluating the level of pulmonary hypertension in patients with left to right shunt before and after surgical operation

  17. Rhythmical Phenomena in Dermal Perfusion - Proved Assesment Strategies and new Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Huelsbusch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of rhythm fluctuation of arterial blood pressure were discovered already in the first continuous recordings in the 18th century. However the formation of such rhythms hasn’t been explained until now. This work presents two concepts which could aid in bringing new insights into the understanding of these rhythms. One development is a multisensor system capable to acquire multiple PPG channels, ECG and additionally breathing signals to correlate local and central driven oscillations. The second new development is Photoplethysmography Imaging which allows contactless measurements of cutaneous perfusion with spatial resolution. Together with the necessary mathematical analysis tools like the Wavelet Transform a sound basis for assessment and evaluation of rhythm fluctuations in human hemodynamics is provided. Using the presented framework new, previously unreported phenomena of distributed blood volume movements in dermal perfusion could be observed.

  18. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby; Tang, Hua; Knowles, Joshua; Hlatky, Mark; Fortmann, Stephen; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Quertermous, Thomas; Go, Alan; Iribarren, Carlos; Absher, Devin; Risch, Neil; Myers, Richard; Sidney, Steven; Ziegler, Andreas; Schillert, Arne; Bickel, Christoph; Sinning, Christoph; Rupprecht, Hans J.; Lackner, Karl; Wild, Philipp; Schnabel, Renate; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Münzel, Thomas; Perret, Claire; Cambien, Francois; Tiret, Laurence; Nicaud, Viviane; Proust, Carole; Uitterlinden, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia; Whitteman, Jaqueline; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demissie-Banjaw, Serkalem; Ramachandran, Vasan; Smith, Albert; Folsom, Aaron; Morrison, Alanna; Chen, Ida Yii-Der; Bis, Joshua; Volcik, Kelly; Rice, Kenneth; Taylor, Kent D.; Marciante, Kristin; Smith, Nicholas; Glazer, Nicole; Heckbert, Susan; Harris, Tamara; Lumley, Thomas; Kong, Augustine; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Holm, Hilma; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Stefansson, Kari; Andersen, Karl; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Preuss, Michael; Schreiber, Stefan; König, Inke R.; Lieb, Wolfgang; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert; Fischer, Marcus; Grosshennig, Anika; Medack, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Bruse, Petra; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Peters, Annette; Loley, Christina; Willenborg, Christina; Nahrstedt, Janja; Freyer, Jennifer; Gulde, Stephanie; Doering, Angela; Meisinger, Christina; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Meinitzer, Andreas; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Halperin, Eran; Dobnig, Harald; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kleber, Marcus; Laaksonen, Reijo; Pilz, Stefan; Grammer, Tanja B.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Renner, Wilfried; März, Winfried; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Winkler, Karl; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Siscovick, David S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Barbalic, Maja; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Wells, George A.; Chen, Li; Jarinova, Olga; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Dandona, Sonny; Pichard, Augusto D.; Rader, Daniel J.; Devaney, Joe; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Qu, Liming; Satler, Lowell; Burnett, Mary Susan; Li, Mingyao; Reilly, Muredach P.; Wilensky, Robert; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen; Matthai, William; Knouff, Christopher W.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Walker, Max C.; Hall, Alistair S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Nelson, Chris; Thompson, John R.; Ball, Stephen G.; Felix, Janine F.; Demissie, Serkalem; Loehr, Laura R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Benjamin, Emelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Haritunians, Talin; Couper, David; Murabito, Joanne; Wang, Ying A.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Gottdiener, John S.; Chang, Patricia P.; Willerson, James T.; Köttgen, A.; Pattaro, C.; Böger, C. A.; Fuchsberger, C.; Olden, M.; Glazer, N. L.; Parsa, A.; Gao, X.; Yang, Q.; Smith, A. V.; O'Connell, J. R.; Li, M.; Schmidt, H.; Tanaka, T.; Isaacs, A.; Ketkar, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Johnson, A. D.; Dehghan, A.; Teumer, A.; Paré, G.; Atkinson, E. J.; Zeller, T.; Lohman, K.; Cornelis, M. C.; Probst-Hensch, N. M.; Kronenberg, F.; Tönjes, A.; Hayward, C.; Aspelund, T.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Launer, L. J.; Harris, T. B.; Rampersaud, E.; Mitchell, B. D.; Arking, D. E.; Boerwinkle, E.; Struchalin, M.; Cavalieri, M.; Singleton, A.; Giallauria, F.; Metter, J.; de Boer, J.; Haritunians, T.; Lumley, T.; Siscovick, D.; Psaty, B. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Oostra, B. A.; Feitosa, M.; Province, M.; de Andrade, M.; Turner, S. T.; Schillert, A.; Ziegler, A.; Wild, P. S.; Schnabel, R. B.; Wilde, S.; Munzel, T. F.; Leak, T. S.; Illig, T.; Klopp, N.; Meisinger, C.; Wichmann, H. E.; Koenig, W.; Zgaga, L.; Zemunik, T.; Kolcic, I.; Minelli, C.; Hu, F. B.; Johansson, A.; Igl, W.; Zaboli, G.; Wild, S. H.; Wright, A. F.; Campbell, H.; Ellinghaus, D.; Schreiber, S.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Felix, J. F.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Hofman, A.; Imboden, M.; Nitsch, D.; Brandstätter, A.; Kollerits, B.; Kedenko, L.; Mägi, R.; Stumvoll, M.; Kovacs, P.; Boban, M.; Campbell, S.; Endlich, K.; Völzke, H.; Kroemer, H. K.; Nauck, M.; Völker, U.; Polasek, O.; Vitart, V.; Badola, S.; Parker, A. N.; Ridker, P. M.; Kardia, S. L.; Blankenberg, S.; Liu, Y.; Curhan, G. C.; Franke, A.; Rochat, T.; Paulweber, B.; Prokopenko, I.; Wang, W.; Gudnason, V.; Shuldiner, A. R.; Coresh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Shlipak, M. G.; van Duijn, C. M.; Borecki, I.; Krämer, B. K.; Rudan, I.; Gyllensten, U.; Wilson, J. F.; Witteman, J. C.; Pramstaller, P. P.; Rettig, R.; Hastie, N.; Chasman, D. I.; Kao, W. H.; Heid, I. M.; Fox, C. S.; Vasan, R. S.; Lieb, W.; Felix, S. B.; Watzinger, N.; Larson, M. G.; Smith, N. L.; Grosshennig, A.; Kathiresan, S.; König, I. R.; Homuth, G.; Aragam, J.; Bis, J. C.; Erdmann, J.; Dörr, M.; Zweiker, R.; Lind, L.; Rodeheffer, R. J.; Greiser, K. H.; Levy, D.; Deckers, J. W.; Stritzke, J.; Lackner, K. J.; Ingelsson, E.; Kullo, I.; Haerting, J.; O'Donnell, C. J.; Heckbert, S. R.; Stricker, B. H.; Reffelmann, T.; Redfield, M. M.; Werdan, K.; Mitchell, G. F.; Rice, K.; Arnett, D. K.; Gottdiener, J. S.; Meitinger, T.; Blettner, M.; Friedrich, N.; Wang, T. J.; Benjamin, E. J.; Rotter, J. I.; Schunkert, H.; Chambers, J. C.; Zhang, W.; Lord, G. M.; van der Harst, P.; Lawlor, D. A.; Sehmi, J. S.; Gale, D. P.; Wass, M. N.; Ahmadi, K. R.; Bakker, S. J.; Beckmann, J.; Bilo, H. J.; Bochud, M.; Brown, M. J.; Caulfield, M. J.; Connell, J. M.; Cook, H. T.; Cotlarciuc, I.; Davey Smith, G.; de Silva, R.; Deng, G.; Devuyst, O.; Dikkeschei, L. D.; Dimkovic, N.; Dockrell, M.; Dominiczak, A.; Ebrahim, S.; Eggermann, T.; Farrall, M.; Floege, J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Han, X.; Hedblad, B.; Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Hepkema, B. G.; Hernandez-Fuentes, M.; Hypponen, E.; Johnson, T.; de Jong, P. E.; Kleefstra, N.; Lagou, V.; Lapsley, M.; Li, Y.; Loos, R. J.; Luan, J.; Luttropp, K.; Maréchal, C.; Melander, O.; Munroe, P. B.; Nordfors, L.; Peltonen, L.; Penninx, B. W.; Perucha, E.; Pouta, A.; Roderick, P. J.; Ruokonen, A.; Samani, N. J.; Sanna, S.; Schalling, M.; Schlessinger, D.; Schlieper, G.; Seelen, M. A.; Sjögren, M.; Smit, J. H.; Snieder, H.; Soranzo, N.; Spector, T. D.; Stenvinkel, P.; Sternberg, M. J.; Swaminathan, R.; Ubink-Veltmaat, L. J.; Uda, M.; Vollenweider, P.; Wallace, C.; Waterworth, D.; Zerres, K.; Waeber, G.; Wareham, N. J.; Maxwell, P. H.; McCarthy, M. I.; Jarvelin, M. R.; Mooser, V.; Abecasis, G. R.; Lightstone, L.; Scott, J.; Navis, G.; Elliott, P.; Kooner, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  19. Influence of smoking and obesity on alveolar-arterial gas pressure differences and dead space ventilation at rest and peak exercise in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Sven; Ittermann, Till; Koch, Beate; Schäper, Christoph; Felix, Stephan B; Völzke, Henry; Könemann, Raik; Ewert, Ralf; Hansen, James E

    2013-06-01

    Besides exercise intolerance, the assessment of ventilatory and perfusion adequacy allows additional insights in the disease pathophysiology in many cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases. Valid measurements of dead space/tidal volume ratios (VD/VT), arterial (a') - end-tidal (et) carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) pressure differences (p(a'-et)CO2) and (p(et-a')O2), and alveolar (A)-a' O2 pressure differences (p(A-a')O2) require using blood samples in addition to gas exchange analyses on a breath-by-breath-basis. Smoking and nutritional status are also important factors in defining disorders. Using a large healthy population we considered the impact of these factors to develop useful prediction equations. Incremental cycle exercise protocols were applied to apparently healthy volunteer adults who did not have structural heart disease or echocardiographic or lung function pathologies. Age, height, weight, and smoking were analysed for their influence on the target parameters in each gender. Reference values were determined by regression analyses. The final study sample consisted of 476 volunteers (190 female), aged 25-85 years. Smoking significantly influences p(A-a')O2 and p(a'-et)CO2 at rest and peak exercise, and VD/VT during exercise. Obesity influences upper limits of VD/VT, p(a'-et)CO2 and p(et-a')O2 at rest as well as p(A-a')O2 and p(et-a')O2 at exercise. Reference equations for never-smokers as well as for apparently healthy smokers considering influencing factors are given. Gender, age, height, weight, and smoking significantly influence gas exchange. Considering all of these factors this study provides a comprehensive set of reference equations derived from a large number of participants of a population-based study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Overexpressed connective tissue growth factor in cardiomyocytes attenuates left ventricular remodeling induced by angiotensin II perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Yan, Hua; Guang, Gong-Chang; Deng, Zheng-Rong

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the improving effects of specifically overexpressed connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in cardiomyocytes on mice with hypertension induced by angiotensin II (AngII) perfusion, 24 transgenic mice with cardiac-restricted overexpression of CTGF (Tg-CTGF) were divided into two equal groups that were perfused with acetic acid and AngII, respectively, for 7 days. Another 24 cage-control wild-type C57BL/6 mice (NLC) were divided and treated identically. Blood pressure was detected by caudal artery cannulation. Cardiac structural and functional changes were observed by echocardiography. Cardiac fibrosis was detected by Masson staining. After AngII perfusion, blood pressures of NLC and Tg-CTGF mice, especially those of the formers, significantly increased. Compared with NLC + AngII group, Tg-CTGF + AngII group had significantly lower left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-diastole and left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end-systole as well as significantly higher left ventricular end-systolic diameter and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (P tissues (P < 0.05). Tg-CTGF can protect AngII-induced cardiac remodeling of mice with hypertension by mitigating inflammatory response. CTGF may be a therapy target for hypertension-induced myocardial fibrosis, but the detailed mechanism still needs in-depth studies.

  1. Multiple-indicator dilution technique for characterization of normal and retrograde flow in once-through rat liver perfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St-Pierre, M.V.; Schwab, A.J.; Goresky, C.A.; Lee, W.F.; Pang, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of normal and retrograde rat liver perfusion has been widely used to probe zonal differences in drug-metabolizing activities. The validity of this approach mandates the same tissue spaces being accessed by substrates during both normal and retrograde perfusions. Using the multiple-indicator dilution technique, we presently examine the extent to which retrograde perfusion alters the spaces accessible to noneliminated references. A bolus dose of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, 125I-albumin, 14C-sucrose and 3H2O was injected into the portal (normal) or hepatic (retrograde) vein of rat livers perfused at 10 ml per min per liver. The outflow perfusate was serially collected over 220 sec to characterize the transit times and the distribution spaces of the labels. During retrograde perfusion, red blood cells, albumin and sucrose profiles peaked later and lower than during normal perfusion, whereas the water curves were similar. The transit times of red blood cells, albumin and sucrose were longer (p less than 0.005), whereas those for water did not change. Consequently, retrograde flow resulted in significantly larger sinusoidal blood volumes (45%), albumin Disse space (42%) and sucrose Disse space (25%) than during normal flow, whereas the distribution spaces for total and intracellular water remained unaltered. The distension of the vascular tree was confirmed by electron microscopy, by which occasional isolated foci of widened intercellular recesses and spaces of Disse were observed. Cellular ultrastructure was otherwise unchanged, and there was no difference found between normal and retrograde perfusion for bile flow rates, AST release, perfusion pressure, oxygen consumption and metabolic removal of ethanol, a substrate with flow-limited distribution, which equilibrates rapidly with cell water (hepatic extraction ratios were virtually identical: normal vs. retrograde, 0.50 vs. 0.48 at 6 to 7.4 mM input concentration)

  2. Vicarious audiovisual learning in perfusion education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Thomas E; Holt, David W

    2010-12-01

    Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video.These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW stand-alone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today's perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important role in how we teach perfusion in the future, as simulation technology becomes more prevalent.

  3. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa))

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis.

  4. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis

  5. Effects of smoking on lung uptake of 201Tl during exercise myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of smoking on lung uptake of 201 Tl during myocardial perfusion imaging. Methods: Ninety-two healthy subjects, with normal 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging findings but no evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary disease, were divided into three groups, smoker, nonsmoker and quitted smoker groups. Exercise/delay 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging was performed on all subjects included. Lung/heart ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise tomography. Results: Both the lung/heart ratios during exercise in smoker (0.40 ± 0.07, F=10.635, P 201 Tl lung/heart ratios in smokers are higher than in nonsmokers and this must be kept in mind when 201 Tl lung/heart ratios are used clinically, even in quitted smokers

  6. Research on the influence of institutional pressures on green innovation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zewen, Chen; xin, Li; Hongjun, Cao

    2017-11-01

    Based on the new Institutional theory and the sample of 116 enterprises, this paper explores the influencing factors of green innovation strategy from the perspective of forced pressure, normative pressure and imitation pressure. The results show that the mandatory regulation, the incentive regulation, the supply chain pressure, and the competitive pressure all have a significant and positive impact on the green innovation strategy. Therefore, the government should take steps to stimulate enterprises to choose the green innovation strategy.

  7. Observed Influence of Nitroglycerine on Myocardial Perfusion Scintigraphy in Patients with Multiple Vessel Coronary Artery Disease and Well-Developed Collaterals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, Nigora; Nazirova, Lyudmila; Akhmedov, Khasan; Akhmedova, Dilyafruz; Djalalov, Farrukh; Seydaliev, Amet; Iskandarov, Farkhod; Kok, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this scientific work was to evaluate the extent and severity of perfusion abnormalities on myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) at rest and with sublingual nitroglycerine, in relation to the presence and anatomical location of collaterals demonstrated by selective coronary angiography (SCA). Twenty-eight patients with unstable angina underwent selective coronary angiography. Eighteen of them were diagnosed with myocardial infarction (MI) 2–15 days prior to examination. Presence or absence of collaterals was noted, with anatomical depiction of donor and recipient arteries as well as evaluation of degree of collateral flow. As an inclusion criterion, collateral flow had to be grade 2 (partial epicardial filling of the occluded artery) or 3 (complete epicardial filling of the occluded artery) in accordance with the Rentrop collateral flow classification. Flow was noted as follows: Complete antegrade (CA), complete retrograde (CR), partial antegrade (PA), and partial retrograde (PR). Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using Tc-99m Sestamibi at rest and after sublingual administration of nitroglycerine was performed according to a 2-day protocol. Perfusion abnormalities, which were quantified using the 20-segments model and visual 5-point system (0, normal perfusion; 4, absent perfusion), were analyzed according to donor's and recipient's territories, as well as territories with limited or without collateral flow (PA/PR, grade 0–1 flow). A total of 84 arteries were analyzed, with stenosis in 79 of them. Arteries were divided into three groups: Donors (group I), recipients (group II), and arteries with limited or without collaterals (group III). In group I, there were 28 donor arteries, with mean severity of stenosis 71.3 ± 0.65%. In group II, there were 36 recipient arteries and mean severity of stenosis was 94.8 ± 0.26%. In group III, there were 20 arteries, and all of them had either no or poorly developed collaterals (mean severity

  8. Comparison between perfusion and balloon techniques for performing anorectal manometry in children with intestinal constipation Comparação das técnicas de balão e de perfusão para a realização de manometria anorretal em crianças portadoras de constipação intestinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Magela Nogueira Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Two anorectal manometry techniques have commonly been utilized: the perfusion technique and the balloon technique. PURPOSE: To compare both techniques in children with intestinal constipation who had not undergone surgical treatment for its correction. METHODS: Thirty-nine children aged between four and fourteen years underwent anorectal manometry using both techniques at random. Resting pressure, pressure response to voluntary contraction, coughing and perianal stimulation, maximum pressure on the anal canal pressure curve, and presence of rectosphincteric reflex were registered and submitted to statistics. Vectorgraphy of the sphincter muscle complex was obtained by perfusion technique. RESULTS: The statistical comparison between the techniques revealed statistically significant differences in resting pressure (p=0.041, pressure response to voluntary contraction (p=0.026 and maximum pressure within the pressure curve (p=0.010. The rectosphincteric reflex was demonstrated in 21 patients by both techniques. CONCLUSIONS: The perfusion technique presented greater sensitivity in the following parameters: resting pressure, pressure response to voluntary contraction and maximum pressure within the pressure curve. The methods studied are equivalent regarding the measurement of pressure responses to coughing and perianal stimulation and the investigation of rectosphincteric reflex.INTRODUÇÃO: A manometria anorretal tem sido aceita como uma técnica objetiva de estudar a função do complexo muscular esfincteriano. Duas técnicas para o mesmo exame têm sido utilizadas: por perfusão e por balão. OBJETIVO: Comparar as técnicas entre as crianças portadoras de constipação intestinal que não foram submetidas a tratamento cirúrgico como forma de tratamento. MÉTODOS: Trinta e nove crianças com idades entre quarto e quatorze anos foram submetidas à Manometria anorretal utilizando-se ambas as técnicas de forma randomizada. Analizou

  9. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  10. Normothermic perfusion: a new paradigm for organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Jens; Reddy, Srikanth; Coussios, Constantin; Pigott, David; Guirriero, Dino; Hughes, David; Morovat, Alireza; Roy, Debabrata; Winter, Lucy; Friend, Peter J

    2009-07-01

    Transplantation of organs retrieved after cardiac arrest could increase the donor organ supply. However, the combination of warm ischemia and cold preservation is highly detrimental to the reperfused organ. Our objective was to maintain physiological temperature and organ function during preservation and thereby alleviate this injury and allow successful transplantation. We have developed a liver perfusion device that maintains physiological temperature with provision of oxygen and nutrition. Reperfusion experiments suggested that this allows recovery of ischemic damage. In a pig liver transplant model, we compared the outcome following either conventional cold preservation or warm preservation. Preservation periods of 5 and 20 hours and durations of warm ischemia of 40 and 60 minutes were tested. After 20 hours preservation without warm ischemia, post-transplant survival was improved (27%-86%, P = 0.026), with corresponding differences in transaminase levels and histological analysis. With the addition of 40 minutes warm ischemia, the differences were even more marked (cold vs. warm groups 0% vs. 83%, P = 0.001). However, with 60 minutes warm ischemia and 20 hours preservation, there were no survivors. Analysis of hemodynamic and liver function data during perfusion showed several factors to be predictive of posttransplant survival, including bile production, base excess, portal vein flow, and hepatocellular enzymes. Organ preservation by warm perfusion, maintaining physiological pressure and flow parameters, has enabled prolonged preservation and successful transplantation of both normal livers and those with substantial ischemic damage. This technique has the potential to address the shortage of organs for transplantation.

  11. Influence of hydrostatic pressure on intracoronary indices of stenosis severity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härle, Tobias; Luz, Mareike; Meyer, Sven; Vahldiek, Felix; van der Harst, Pim; van Dijk, Randy; Ties, Daan; Escaned, Javier; Davies, Justin; Elsässer, Albrecht

    2018-03-01

    An influence of hydrostatic pressure on intracoronary indices of stenosis severity in vitro was recently reported. We sought to analyze the influence of hydrostatic pressure, caused by the height difference between the distal and proximal pressure sensor after guidewire positioning in the interrogated vessel, on intracoronary pressure measurements in vivo. In 30 coronary stenoses, intracoronary pressure measurements were performed in supine, left, and right lateral patient position. Height differences between the distal and proximal pressure sensor were measured by blinded observers. Measurement results of the position with the highest ("high") and lowest height difference ("low") were compared. In group "high", all measured indices were higher: mean difference of fractional flow reserve (FFR) 0.045 (SD 0.033, 95% CI 0.033-0.057, p hydrostatic pressure to the distal coronary pressures of the control group abolished the differences: corrected ∆FFR - 0.006 (SD 0.027, 95% CI - 0.015 to 0.004, p = 0.26), corrected ∆Pd/Pa - 0.008 (SD 0.03, 95% CI - 0.019 to 0.003, p = 0.18). Adjustment for hydrostatic pressure of FFR values in a standard supine position increased all values in anterior vessels and decreased all values in posterior vessels. The mean changes of FFR due to adjustment were: LAD - 0.048 (SD 0.016), CX 0.02 (SD 0.009), RCA 0.02 (SD 0.021). Dichotomous severity classification changed in 12.9% of stenoses. The study demonstrates a relevant influence of hydrostatic pressure on intracoronary indices of stenosis severity in vivo, caused by the height differences between distal and proximal pressure sensor.

  12. Lung perfusion in hemorrhagic shock of rats. The effects of resuscitation with whole blood, saline or hes 6%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhanoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Kararmaz, A.; Turhanoglu, A.D. [Dicle Univ., Diyarbakir (Turkey). Medical School

    2001-12-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of various resuscitation regimens on lung perfusion following resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Fourty male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were used. The rats were divided randomly into four groups (n=10 for each) and were sedated with intramuscular ketamine (100 mg/kg). We measured blood pressure, rectal temperature and lung perfusion using radioscintigraphy with a technetium colloid indicator. The systolic blood pressure was decreased 75% by removing blood via v. jugularis in the first three groups and group 4 was accepted as the control group, and blood volume was not diminished. Then the first three groups were resuscitated with autologous blood containing 125 units heparine/ml in group 1, saline in group 2, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 6% in group 3. After the correction of hypovolemia, all animals were injected 100 Bg (0.1 cc) technetium 99m macroaggregated albumin ({sup 99m}Tc MAA) via penil vein. After injection of {sup 99m}Tc MAA, 3 minutes fixed images were detected by a {gamma} camera in posterior position at 15 minutes and 5 hours. {sup 99m}Tc MMA ''wash out'' rate in lung was determined quantitatively at 5 hours. Compared to a control group, lung perfusion was decreased significantly in groups resuscitated with saline, and HES 6% while perfusion was restored with autologous blood. We conclude that heparinized autologous blood saved lung capillary circulation in hemorrhagic shock in rats. (author)

  13. Lung perfusion in hemorrhagic shock of rats. The effects of resuscitation with whole blood, saline or hes 6%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhanoglu, S.; Kaya, S.; Kararmaz, A.; Turhanoglu, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the effects of various resuscitation regimens on lung perfusion following resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. Fourty male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were used. The rats were divided randomly into four groups (n=10 for each) and were sedated with intramuscular ketamine (100 mg/kg). We measured blood pressure, rectal temperature and lung perfusion using radioscintigraphy with a technetium colloid indicator. The systolic blood pressure was decreased 75% by removing blood via v. jugularis in the first three groups and group 4 was accepted as the control group, and blood volume was not diminished. Then the first three groups were resuscitated with autologous blood containing 125 units heparine/ml in group 1, saline in group 2, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 6% in group 3. After the correction of hypovolemia, all animals were injected 100 Bg (0.1 cc) technetium 99m macroaggregated albumin ( 99m Tc MAA) via penil vein. After injection of 99m Tc MAA, 3 minutes fixed images were detected by a γ camera in posterior position at 15 minutes and 5 hours. 99m Tc MMA ''wash out'' rate in lung was determined quantitatively at 5 hours. Compared to a control group, lung perfusion was decreased significantly in groups resuscitated with saline, and HES 6% while perfusion was restored with autologous blood. We conclude that heparinized autologous blood saved lung capillary circulation in hemorrhagic shock in rats. (author)

  14. Are there any determinants of interictal brain SPECT perfusion change in unilateral hippocampal sclerosis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepmongkol, S.; Locharernkul, C.; Lerdlum, S.

    2005-01-01

    In localizing ictal onset during pre-surgical evaluation, interictal brain SPECT has been used to determine baseline brain abnormalities in order to compare with ictal SPECT. However, in some patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), no baseline perfusion abnormality is seen. In this subgroup of patients, performing interictal SPECT may be considered unnecessary. This study is aimed at determining the factors that may influence the interictal SPECT perfusion change in unilateral HS. Forty-one unilateral HS patients (21 males, 20 females; age 30.3±8.0 years) who had interictal brain perfusion SPECT (more than 24 hours after the seizure) were enrolled. Multiple factors i.e. age, sex, age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, presence of aura, clinical lateralization, interictal EEG lateralization, and ictal EEG lateralization were used as independent variables to predict hypoperfusion of the temporal lobe ipsilateral to hippocampal sclerosis detected on MRI. Ipsilateral temporal hypoperfusion were observed in 18/41 (43.9%) patients. None of these factors showed significant correlation to the perfusion changes. It was also concluded that age, sex, age of epilepsy onset, duration of epilepsy, presence of aura, clinical lateralization, interictal EEG lateralization, and ictal EEG lateralization cannot be used to predict interictal SPECT perfusion changes at the hippocampal sclerosis region. (author)

  15. Association between temporal mean arterial pressure and brachial noninvasive blood pressure during shoulder surgery in the beach chair position during general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplet, Jacob J; Lonetta, Christopher M; Everding, Nathan G; Moor, Molly A; Levy, Jonathan C

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of cerebral perfusion pressure during elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position is regularly performed by noninvasive brachial blood pressure (NIBP) measurements. The relationship between brachial mean arterial pressure and estimated temporal mean arterial pressure (eTMAP) is not well established and may vary with patient positioning. Establishing a ratio between eTMAP and NIBP at varying positions may provide a more accurate estimation of cerebral perfusion using noninvasive measurements. This prospective study included 57 patients undergoing elective shoulder surgery in the beach chair position. All patients received an interscalene block and general anesthesia. After the induction of general anesthesia, values for eTMAP and NIBP were recorded at 0°, 30°, and 70° of incline. A statistically significant, strong, and direct correlation between NIBP and eTMAP was found at 0° (r = 0.909, P ≤ .001), 30° (r = 0.874, P Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of Brain Perfusion in Patients of Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Jae Woo; Kang, Young Kang

    2008-01-01

    It was well known that cerebral blood perfusion is normal or diffusely decreased in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Actually we interpreted brain perfusion SPECT images of PD patients in the clinical situation, we observed various cerebral perfusion patterns in patients with PD. So we performed brain perfusion SPECT to know the brain perfusion patterns of PD patients and the difference of perfusion patterns according to the sex and the age. Also we classified PD patients into small groups based on the brain perfusion pattern. Two hundred nineteen patients (M: 70, F: 149, mean age: 62.9±6.9 y/o) who were diagnosed as PD without dementia clinically and 55 patients (M: 15, F: 40, mean age: 61.4±9.2 y/o) as normal controls who had no past illness history were performed 99m Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and neuropsychological test. At first, we compared all patients with PD and normal controls. Brain perfusion in left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, left transverse temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left superior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right caudate tail were lower in patients with PD than normal controls. Secondly, we compared male and female patients with PD and normal controls, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT showed more decreased cerebral perfusion in left hemisphere than right side in both male and female patients compared to normal controls. And there was larger hypoperfusion area in female patients compared with male. Thirdly, we classified patients with PD and normal controls into 4 groups according to the age and compared brain perfusion respectively. In patient below fifties, brain perfusion in both occipitoparietal and left temporal lobe were lower in PD group. As the patients with PD grew older, hypoperfusion area were shown in both frontal, temporal and limbic lobes. Fourthly, We were able to divide patients into small groups based on cerebral perfusion pattern. There was normal cerebral blood

  17. The Influence of Bioreactor Geometry and the Mechanical Environment on Engineered Tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Osborne, J. M.; O’ Dea, R. D.; Whiteley, J. P.; Byrne, H. M.; Waters, S. L.

    2010-01-01

    A three phase model for the growth of a tissue construct within a perfusion bioreactor is examined. The cell population (and attendant extracellular matrix), culture medium, and porous scaffold are treated as distinct phases. The bioreactor system is represented by a two-dimensional channel containing a cell-seeded rigid porous scaffold (tissue construct), which is perfused with a culture medium. Through the prescription of appropriate functional forms for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition rates, the model is used to compare the influence of cell density-, pressure-, and culture medium shear stress-regulated growth on the composition of the engineered tissue. The governing equations are derived in O'Dea et al. "A Three Phase Model for Tissue Construct Growth in a Perfusion Bioreactor," Math. Med. Biol., in which the long-wavelength limit was exploited to aid analysis; here, finite element methods are used to construct two-dimensional solutions to the governing equations and to investigate thoroughly their behavior. Comparison of the total tissue yield and averaged pressures, velocities, and shear stress demonstrates that quantitative agreement between the two-dimensional and long-wavelength approximation solutions is obtained for channel aspect ratios of order 10 -2 and that much of the qualitative behavior of the model is captured in the long-wavelength limit, even for relatively large channel aspect ratios. However, we demonstrate that in order to capture accurately the effect of mechanotransduction mechanisms on tissue construct growth, spatial effects in at least two dimensions must be included due to the inherent spatial variation of mechanical stimuli relevant to perfusion bioreactors, most notably, fluid shear stress, a feature not captured in the long-wavelength limit. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  18. The Influence of Bioreactor Geometry and the Mechanical Environment on Engineered Tissues

    KAUST Repository

    Osborne, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    A three phase model for the growth of a tissue construct within a perfusion bioreactor is examined. The cell population (and attendant extracellular matrix), culture medium, and porous scaffold are treated as distinct phases. The bioreactor system is represented by a two-dimensional channel containing a cell-seeded rigid porous scaffold (tissue construct), which is perfused with a culture medium. Through the prescription of appropriate functional forms for cell proliferation and extracellular matrix deposition rates, the model is used to compare the influence of cell density-, pressure-, and culture medium shear stress-regulated growth on the composition of the engineered tissue. The governing equations are derived in O\\'Dea et al. "A Three Phase Model for Tissue Construct Growth in a Perfusion Bioreactor," Math. Med. Biol., in which the long-wavelength limit was exploited to aid analysis; here, finite element methods are used to construct two-dimensional solutions to the governing equations and to investigate thoroughly their behavior. Comparison of the total tissue yield and averaged pressures, velocities, and shear stress demonstrates that quantitative agreement between the two-dimensional and long-wavelength approximation solutions is obtained for channel aspect ratios of order 10 -2 and that much of the qualitative behavior of the model is captured in the long-wavelength limit, even for relatively large channel aspect ratios. However, we demonstrate that in order to capture accurately the effect of mechanotransduction mechanisms on tissue construct growth, spatial effects in at least two dimensions must be included due to the inherent spatial variation of mechanical stimuli relevant to perfusion bioreactors, most notably, fluid shear stress, a feature not captured in the long-wavelength limit. Copyright © 2010 by ASME.

  19. Differences in perfusion parameters between upper and lower lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savvopoulou, Vasiliki; Vlahos, Lampros; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela; Maris, Thomas G.

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the influence of age, sex and spinal level on perfusion parameters of normal lumbar bone marrow with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI). Sixty-seven subjects referred for evaluation of low back pain or sciatica underwent DCE MRI of the lumbar spine. After subtraction of dynamic images, a region of interest (ROI) was placed on each lumbar vertebral body of all subjects, and time intensity curves were generated. Consequently, perfusion parameters were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to search for perfusion differences among lumbar vertebrae and in relation to age and sex. Upper (L1, L2) and lower (L3, L4, L5) vertebrae showed significant differences in perfusion parameters (p<0.05). Vertebrae of subjects younger than 50 years showed significantly higher perfusion compared to vertebrae of older ones (p<0.05). Vertebrae of females demonstrated significantly increased perfusion compared to those of males of corresponding age (p<0.05). All perfusion parameters, except for washout (WOUT), showed a mild linear correlation with age. Time to maximum slope (TMSP) and time to peak (TTPK) showed the same correlation with sex (0.22< r<0.32, p<0.05). Our results indicate increased perfusion of the upper compared to the lower lumbar spine, of younger compared to older subjects and of females compared to males. (orig.)

  20. Differences in perfusion parameters between upper and lower lumbar vertebral segments with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savvopoulou, Vasiliki; Vlahos, Lampros; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela [University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Athens (Greece); Maris, Thomas G. [University of Crete, Deparment of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, Heraklion (Greece)

    2008-09-15

    To investigate the influence of age, sex and spinal level on perfusion parameters of normal lumbar bone marrow with dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE MRI). Sixty-seven subjects referred for evaluation of low back pain or sciatica underwent DCE MRI of the lumbar spine. After subtraction of dynamic images, a region of interest (ROI) was placed on each lumbar vertebral body of all subjects, and time intensity curves were generated. Consequently, perfusion parameters were calculated. Statistical analysis was performed to search for perfusion differences among lumbar vertebrae and in relation to age and sex. Upper (L1, L2) and lower (L3, L4, L5) vertebrae showed significant differences in perfusion parameters (p<0.05). Vertebrae of subjects younger than 50 years showed significantly higher perfusion compared to vertebrae of older ones (p<0.05). Vertebrae of females demonstrated significantly increased perfusion compared to those of males of corresponding age (p<0.05). All perfusion parameters, except for washout (WOUT), showed a mild linear correlation with age. Time to maximum slope (TMSP) and time to peak (TTPK) showed the same correlation with sex (0.22perfusion of the upper compared to the lower lumbar spine, of younger compared to older subjects and of females compared to males. (orig.)

  1. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  2. Lung perfusion analysis with dual energy CT in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism—Influence of window settings on the diagnosis of underlying pathologies of perfusion defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Ralf W.; Kerl, J. Matthias; Weber, Eva; Weisser, Philipp; Korkusuz, Huedayi; Lehnert, Thomas; Jacobi, Volkmar; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: On lung perfusion analysis with dual energy CT (DECT) in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) commonly three patterns of perfusion defects (PD) are observed: wedge-shaped, circumscribed but not wedge-shaped, and patchy. We investigated the influence of different window settings on the identification of the underlying pathologies for these types of PD. Materials and methods: 3724 segments in 196 consecutive patients who underwent pulmonary DECT angiography for clinically suspected acute PE were analyzed. Iodine distribution in the lung parenchyma was calculated from the dual energy data and displayed as color map in axial, sagittal and coronal view. Afterwards, lung and angiography window were applied separately and assessed for pulmonary embolism and pathologies of the lung parenchyma. Results: 1420 segments in 141 patients showed PD, of which 276 were wedge-shaped, 287 circumscribed and 857 patchy. Circumscribed PD were associated in 99% with interstitial or alveolar fluid collections and in 1% with located bullae. Patchy PD were associated in 65% with emphysematous or fibrotic changes, in 38% with diffuse infiltrations or interstitial fluid collections and in 0.2% with PE. The underlying pathologies for wedge-shaped PD were in 78% PE, in 3% tumors compressing pulmonary arteries, in another 3% located bullae and in further 3% infiltrations. 13% (n = 15) of the segments in this group did not show vascular or parenchymal pathologies, but in 80% (n = 10) of these cases patients had PE in another segment. Totally n = 6 of wedge-shaped PD in 5 patients remained with unclear direct cause. Conclusion: Whereas patchy and circumscribed PD are almost exclusively associated with pathologies of the lung parenchyma, wedge-shaped PD are mostly associated with PE. For a small number of wedge-shaped PD the underlying cause cannot be detected with DECT. Very small peripherally situated micro-emboli may be discussed as a reason. However, prospective trials are

  3. Presurgical evaluation of cerebral perfusion reserve in patients for cardiovascular surgery using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPECT with diamox enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumura, Kaname; Nakashima, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Kuniyoshi; Kitano, Tokio; Murashima, Shuichi; Takeda, Kan; Yuasa, Hiroshi; Yada, Isao; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-03-01

    Cerebrovascular stroke is one of the major complications in cardiovascular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of preoperative {sup 99m}Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT and acetazolamide (diamox) enhancement to predict neurological complications in cardiovascular surgery. Eighteen patients with coronary disease, valvular disease or aortic aneurysm were studied before the operations. Regional cerebral blood flow and perfusion reserve were evaluated using ECD SPECT before and after the intravenous administration of diamox (1 g). Three cases with moderate to severe baseline abnormalities and poor perfusion reserve had cerebral infarction postoperatively. Twelve cases with good to fair perfusion reserve had no neurological complication. Three cases having poor perfusion reserve had the operations with more intensive brain protection, in which higher perfusion pressure to the brain was maintained during cardiopulmonary bypass, and no neurological complication was observed. In conclusion, patients who have moderately or markedly abnormal baseline flow with poor perfusion reserve may have some risk of neurological complications in cardiovascular surgery. ECD SPECT with diamox enhancement may give information useful for selection of operation procedures. (author).

  4. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S.; Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    1996-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p 0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  5. Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowski, B.; Haenggi, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Beck, A.; Aurich, V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The development of a computerized method which allows a direct quantitative comparison of perfusion parameters. The display should allow a clear direct comparison of brain perfusion parameters in different vascular territories and over the course of time. The analysis is intended to be the basis for further evaluation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The method should permit early diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm. Materials and Methods: The Angiotux 2D-ECCET software was developed with a close cooperation between computer scientists and clinicians. Starting from parameter images of brain perfusion, the cortex was marked, segmented and assigned to definite vascular territories. The underlying values were averages for each segment and were displayed in a graph. If a follow-up was available, the mean values of the perfusion parameters were displayed in relation to time. The method was developed under consideration of CT perfusion values but is applicable for other methods of perfusion imaging. Results: Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images allows an immediate comparison of these parameters and follow-up of mean values in a clear and concise manner. Values are related to definite vascular territories. The tabular output facilitates further statistic evaluations. The computerized analysis is precisely reproducible, i. e., repetitions result in exactly the same output. (orig.)

  6. Development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Ji Xunming

    2007-01-01

    The neuroprotection of induced hypothermia has been investigated intensively and confirmed in animal models and it has been used clinically in many fields since the finding of sub-hypothermia can also reduce cerebral injury. However the use of hypothermia in clinics is limited by the simultaneously induced systemic complications. Recently the sub-hypothermia induced by hypothermic regional arterial perfusion is proved to be the most effective method to reach the goal, including hypothermic normal saline with no influences on whole body temperature, cardiac rhythm and blood coagulation. According to the well development, fruitful achievement in the present status of this field, the authors are surely to have the inspiration for the further investigation and development of regional cerebral sub-hypothermia with perfusion of hypothermic liquids. (authors)

  7. Influence of temperature and pressure on the lethality of ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raso, J.; Pagan, R.; Condon, S.; Sala, F.J.

    1998-01-01

    A specially designed resistometer was constructed, and the lethal effect on Yersinia enterocolitica of ultrasonic waves (UW) at different static pressures (manosonication [MS]) and of combined heat-UW under pressure treatments (manothermosonication [MTS]) was investigated. During MS treatments at 30 degrees C and 200 kPa, the increase in the amplitude of UW of 20 kHz from 21 to 150 micrometers exponentially decreased decimal reduction time values (D(MS)) from 4 to 0.37 min. When pressure was increased from 0 to 600 kPa at a constant amplitude (150 micrometers) and temperature (30 degrees C), D(MS) values decreased from 1.52 to 0.20 min. The magnitude of this decrease in D(MS) declined progressively as pressure was increased. The influence of pressure on D(MS) values was greater with increased amplitude of UW. Pressure alone of as much as 600 kPa did not influence the heat resistance of Y. enterocolitica (D60 = 0.094; zeta = 5.65). At temperatures of as much as 58 degrees C, the lethality of UW under pressure was greater than that of heat treatment alone at the same temperature. At higher temperatures, this difference disappeared. Heat and UW under pressure seemed to act independently. The lethality of MTS treatments appeared to result from the added effects of UW under pressure and the lethal effect of heat. The individual contributions of heat and of UW under pressure to the total lethal effect of MTS depended on temperature. The inactivating effect of UW was not due to titanium particles eroded from the sonication horn. The addition to the MS media of cysteamine did not increase the resistance of Y. enterocolitica to MS treatment. MS treatment caused cell disruption

  8. Effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure, brain swelling, and mean arterial pressure in patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Alana M; Gooderham, Peter A; Griesdale, Donald E; Argue, Ruth; Toyota, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Although recruitment maneuvers have been advocated as part of a lung protective ventilation strategy, their effects on cerebral physiology during elective neurosurgery are unknown. Our objectives were to determine the effects of an alveolar recruitment maneuver on subdural pressure (SDP), brain relaxation score (BRS), and cerebral perfusion pressure among patients undergoing supratentorial tumour resection. In this prospective crossover study, patients scheduled for resection of a supratentorial brain tumour were randomized to undergo either a recruitment maneuver (30 cm of water for 30 sec) or a "sham" maneuver (5 cm of water for 30 sec), followed by the alternative intervention after a 90-sec equilibration period. Subdural pressure was measured through a dural perforation following opening of the cranium. Subdural pressure and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were recorded continuously. The blinded neurosurgeon provided a BRS at baseline and at the end of each intervention. During each treatment, the changes in SDP, BRS, and MAP were compared. Twenty-one patients underwent the study procedure. The increase in SDP was higher during the recruitment maneuver than during the sham maneuver (difference, 3.9 mmHg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 5.6; P < 0.001). Mean arterial pressure decreased further in the recruitment maneuver than in the sham maneuver (difference, -9.0 mmHg; 95% CI, -12.5 to -5.6; P < 0.001). Cerebral perfusion pressure decreased 14 mmHg (95% CI, 4 to 24) during the recruitment maneuver. The BRS did not change with either maneuver. Our results suggest that recruitment maneuvers increase subdural pressure and reduce cerebral perfusion pressure, although the clinical importance of these findings is thus far unknown. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02093117.

  9. Comparison with myocardial perfusion MRI and myocardial perfusion SPECT in the diagnostic performance of coronary artery disease. A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Kunihiro; Kubota, Makoto; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    We compared the diagnostic abilities of stress myocardial perfusion MRI (myocardial perfusion MRI) and myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), using a meta-analysis method. We investigated the diagnostic abilities of MRI and SPECT in similar subject groups in reports written in English or Japanese. The reports to be used for analysis were selected according to a ''screening standard,'' which was established in advance. After consolidating the data from the selected reports, we compared the integrated odds ratio, the point estimation values of sensibility/specificity, and the summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. For the analysis, six reports were selected (subjects: 153, coronary-artery target sites: 447). Meta-analysis revealed that the diagnostic ability of myocardial perfusion MRI was superior to that of myocardial perfusion SPECT regarding each of the parameters. This is considered to be supportive evidence of the usefulness of myocardial perfusion MRI. (author)

  10. The Influence of Time Pressure and Case Complexity on Physicians׳ Diagnostic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalal A. ALQahtani

    2016-12-01

    Conclusions: Time pressure did not impact the diagnostic performance, whereas the complexity of the clinical case negatively influenced the diagnostic accuracy. Further studies with the enhanced experimental manipulation of time pressure are needed to reveal the effect of time pressure, if any, on a physician׳s diagnostic performance.

  11. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non

  12. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W.; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch‐Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P.; Secher, Niels H.

    2015-01-01

    New Findings What is the central question of this study? Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non‐exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non‐exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature‐ and metabolism‐sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature‐sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood‐flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non‐exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (T B), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V˙O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher T B and limb V˙O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to T B (r 2 = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in T B and limb V˙O2, whereas ABF, arm T B and V˙O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V˙O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral T B and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery T B and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, T B and aerobic metabolism

  13. Process Factors Influence on Cavity Pressure Behavior in Microinjection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griffiths, C. A.; Dimov, S. S.; Scholz, S.

    2011-01-01

    about the filling behavior of different polymer melts. In this paper, a pressure sensor mounted inside a tool cavity was employed to analyse maximum cavity pressure, pressure increase rate during filling and pressure work. The influence of four mu IM parameters, melt temperature, mould temperature......Process monitoring of microinjection moulding (mu IM) is of crucial importance when analysing the effect of different parameter settings on the process and then in assessing its quality. Quality factors related to cavity pressure can provide valuable information about the process dynamics and also......, injection speed, and packing pressure on these three pressure-related process parameters was investigated. A design of experiment study was conducted by moulding a test part, a microfluidic component, in three different polymer materials, PP, ABS, and PC. The results show a similar process behavior for all...

  14. Tc-99m DTPA perfusion scintigraphy and color coded duplex sonography in the evaluation of minimal renal allograft perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bair, H.J.; Platsch, G.; Wolf, F.; Guenter, E.; Becker, D.; Rupprecht, H.; Neumayer, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The clinical impact of perfusion scintigraphy versus color coded Duplex sonography was evaluated, with respect to their potential in assessing minimal allograft perfusion in vitally threatened kidney transplants, i.e. oligoanuric allografts suspected to have either severe rejection or thrombosis of the renal vein or artery. Methods: From July 1990 to August 1994 the grafts of 15 out of a total of 315 patients were vitally threatened. Technetium-99m DTPA scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography were performed in all patients. For scintigraphic evaluation of transplant perfusion analog scans up to 60 min postinjection, and time-activity curves over the first 60 sec after injection of 370-440 MBq Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate acid (DTPA) were used and classified by a perfusion score, the time between renal and iliac artery peaks (TDiff) and the washout of the renogram curve. Additionally, evaluation of excretion function and assessment of vascular or urinary leaks were performed. By color coded Duplex sonography the perfusion in all sections of the graft as well as the vascular anastomoses were examined and the maximal blood flow velocity (Vmax) and the resistive index (RI) in the renal artery were determined by means of the pulsed Doppler device. Pathologic-anatomical diagnosis was achieved by either biopsy or post-explant histology in all grafts. Results: Scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography could reliably differentiate minimal (8/15) and not perfused (7/15) renal allografts. The results were confirmed either by angiography in digital subtraction technique (DSA) or the clinical follow up. Conclusion: In summary, perfusion scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography are comparable modalities to assess kidney graft perfusion. In clinical practice scintigraphy and colorcoded Doppler sonography can replace digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of minimal allograft perfusion. (orig.) [de

  15. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  16. Regional cortical hyper perfusion on perfusion CT during postical motor deficit: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Postictal neurologic deficit is a well-known complication mimicking the manifestation of a stroke. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Todd's paralysis correlating with reversible postictal parenchymal changes on perfusion CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In this case, perfusion CT and MR imaging were helpful in the differential diagnosis of stroke-mimicking conditions.

  17. Ventilation and perfusion display in a single image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.J.P. de; Botelho, M.F.R.; Pereira, A.M.S.; Rafael, J.A.S.; Pinto, A.J.; Marques, M.A.T.; Pereira, M.C.; Baganha, M.F.; Godinho, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new method of ventilation and perfusion display onto a single image is presented. From the data on regions of interest of the lungs, three-dimensional histograms are created, containing as parameters X and Y for the position of the pixels, Z for the perfusion and colour for local ventilation. The perfusion value is supplied by sets of curves having Z proportional to the local perfusion count rate. Ventilation modulates colour. Four perspective views of the histogram are simultaneously displayed to allow visualization of the entire organ. Information about the normal ranges for both ventilation and perfusion is also provided in the histograms. (orig.)

  18. Effect of Hemodialysis on Eye Coats, Axial Length, and Ocular Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate changes in eye coats, axial length, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP in hemodialysis (HD patients with chronic renal failure (CRF. Methods. We included HD patients who were diagnosed with CRF in our hospital from January to December 2015. Fifty-two patients met the inclusion criteria; all right eyes were used for observation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded to calculate OPP. Approximately 30 minutes before and after HD, we recorded multiple parameters, including lens thickness (LT, axial length of vitreous (VAL, axial length of eye (EAL, ciliary body thickness (CBT, choroidal thickness (CT, and retinal thickness (RT. Results. After HD, OPP significantly decreased (P<0.01, F=7.023 and CBT became significantly thinner (P<0.01, t=3.461. CT was significantly thinner and differed among measurement locations (P<0.01, t=6.240; P<0.01, t=6.169; P<0.01, t=3.405, respectively, fovea, nasal, and temporal side 1500 μm beside the fovea. Further, RT thickened and differed among measurement locations (P<0.05, t=−2.265; P<0.05, t=−2.624; P<0.05, t=−2.220, respectively, fovea, nasal, and temporal side 1500 μm beside fovea, whereas LT, VAL, and EAL significantly increased after HD (P<0.05, t=−2.076; P<0.01, t=−3.817; P<0.01, t=−4.010. Conclusions. HD impacts the thickness of the eye coats and VAL, particularly affecting CBT, CT, and RT. OPP transiently decreases during HD, which may contribute to an ischemic state.

  19. Augmentation of limb perfusion and reversal of tissue ischemia produced by ultrasound-mediated microbubble cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcik, J Todd; Mott, Brian H; Xie, Aris; Zhao, Yan; Kim, Sajeevani; Lindner, Nathan J; Ammi, Azzdine; Linden, Joel M; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Ultrasound can increase tissue blood flow, in part, through the intravascular shear produced by oscillatory pressure fluctuations. We hypothesized that ultrasound-mediated increases in perfusion can be augmented by microbubble contrast agents that undergo ultrasound-mediated cavitation and sought to characterize the biological mediators. Contrast ultrasound perfusion imaging of hindlimb skeletal muscle and femoral artery diameter measurement were performed in nonischemic mice after unilateral 10-minute exposure to intermittent ultrasound alone (mechanical index, 0.6 or 1.3) or ultrasound with lipid microbubbles (2×10(8) IV). Studies were also performed after inhibiting shear- or pressure-dependent vasodilator pathways, and in mice with hindlimb ischemia. Ultrasound alone produced a 2-fold increase (Pultrasound power. Ultrasound-mediated augmentation in flow was greater with microbubbles (3- and 10-fold higher than control for mechanical index 0.6 and 1.3, respectively; Pultrasound and microbubbles by 70% (Pultrasound and ultrasound with microbubbles. In mice with unilateral hindlimb ischemia (40%-50% reduction in flow), ultrasound (mechanical index, 1.3) with microbubbles increased perfusion by 2-fold to a degree that was greater than the control nonischemic limb. Increases in muscle blood flow during high-power ultrasound are markedly amplified by the intravascular presence of microbubbles and can reverse tissue ischemia. These effects are most likely mediated by cavitation-related increases in shear and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Developing a Customized Perfusion Bioreactor Prototype with Controlled Positional Variability in Oxygen Partial Pressure for Bone and Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Poh Soo; Eckert, Hagen; Hess, Ricarda; Gelinsky, Michael; Rancourt, Derrick; Krawetz, Roman; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Scharnweber, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Skeletal development is a multistep process that involves the complex interplay of multiple cell types at different stages of development. Besides biochemical and physical cues, oxygen tension also plays a pivotal role in influencing cell fate during skeletal development. At physiological conditions, bone cells generally reside in a relatively oxygenated environment whereas chondrocytes reside in a hypoxic environment. However, it is technically challenging to achieve such defined, yet diverse oxygen distribution on traditional in vitro cultivation platforms. Instead, engineered osteochondral constructs are commonly cultivated in a homogeneous, stable environment. In this study, we describe a customized perfusion bioreactor having stable positional variability in oxygen tension at defined regions. Further, engineered collagen constructs were coaxed into adopting the shape and dimensions of defined cultivation platforms that were precasted in 1.5% agarose bedding. After cultivating murine embryonic stem cells that were embedded in collagen constructs for 50 days, mineralized constructs of specific dimensions and a stable structural integrity were achieved. The end-products, specifically constructs cultivated without chondroitin sulfate A (CSA), showed a significant increase in mechanical stiffness compared with their initial gel-like constructs. More importantly, the localization of osteochondral cell types was specific and corresponded to the oxygen tension gradient generated in the bioreactor. In addition, CSA in complementary with low oxygen tension was also found to be a potent inducer of chondrogenesis in this system. In summary, we have demonstrated a customized perfusion bioreactor prototype that is capable of generating a more dynamic, yet specific cultivation environment that could support propagation of multiple osteochondral lineages within a single engineered construct in vitro. Our system opens up new possibilities for in vitro research on human

  1. Lung perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary stenosis in patients after repair of Fallot tetralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabiniewicz, R.; Chojnicki, M.; Alszewicz-Baranowska, J.; Erecinski, J.; Romanowicz, G.; Lass, P.; Bandurski, T.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) ranges from 20 to 40%. This can be either primary or secondary to the surgical intervention. The influence of resulting lung perfusion alterations on the life quality of patients is difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of the diagnostic procedures in this group of patients, with particular focus on lung perfusion scintigraphy. This study comprised 104 patients who underwent repair of TOF at ages from 5 months to 25 years. The patients have been followed up for from 4.2 to 25 years. On the basis of chest X-ray peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis was suspected in 11 patients, in 12 on the basis of echocardiography examination. Lung perfusion scintigraphy has been performed on 87 patients. The disturbances in lung perfusion (mostly in the left lung) were show by means of lung perfusion scintigraphy in 43 (49%) of patients. In 27 of them heart catheterisation has been performed. Angiography revealed stenosis of the lung artery branch in 15/43 (34.9%) patients with abnormal perfusion lung scan and in 4/44 (9%) in patients with normal perfusion lung scan. Intervention procedures were carried out on 10 patients. Lung perfusion scintigraphy may prove a valuable, non-invasive screening tool in the assessment of patients after TOF repair, although both false-negative and false positive results may happen. Therefore, it should play an auxiliary role together with other diagnostic modalities. (author)

  2. A Retrospective study of Pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Retrospective study of Pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in a ... reduced tissue perfusion, neurologic deficits, faecal or urinary incontinence. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for the development of pressure ulcer in ...

  3. CT perfusion of the liver during selective hepatic arteriography. Pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komemushi, Atsushi; Tanigawa, Noboru; Kojima, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Shuji; Sawada, Satoshi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify pure arterial blood perfusion of liver tumor and parenchyma by using CT perfusion during selective hepatic arteriography. A total of 44 patients underwent liver CT perfusion study by injection of contrast medium via the hepatic artery. CT-perfusion parameters including arterial blood flow, arterial blood volume, and arterial mean transit time in the liver parenchyma and liver tumor were calculated using the deconvolution method. The CT-perfusion parameters and vascularity of the tumor were compared. A complete analysis could be performed in 36 of the 44 patients. For liver tumor and liver parenchyma, respectively, arterial blood flow was 184.6±132.7 and 41.0±27.0 ml/min/100 g, arterial blood volume was 19.4±14.6 and 4.8±4.2 ml/100 g, and arterial mean transit time was 8.9±4.2 and 10.2±5.3 sec. Arterial blood flow and arterial blood volume correlated significantly with the vascularity of the tumor; however no correlation was detected between arterial mean transit time and the vascularity of the tumor. This technique could be used to quantify pure hepatic arterial blood perfusion. (author)

  4. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  5. Quantitative perfusion imaging in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, F.G.; Gaa, T.; Zimmer, F.; Ong, M.M.; Riffel, P.; Hausmann, D.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Weis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recognized for its superior tissue contrast while being non-invasive and free of ionizing radiation. Due to the development of new scanner hardware and fast imaging techniques during the last decades, access to tissue and organ functions became possible. One of these functional imaging techniques is perfusion imaging with which tissue perfusion and capillary permeability can be determined from dynamic imaging data. Perfusion imaging by MRI can be performed by two approaches, arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. While the first method uses magnetically labelled water protons in arterial blood as an endogenous tracer, the latter involves the injection of a contrast agent, usually gadolinium (Gd), as a tracer for calculating hemodynamic parameters. Studies have demonstrated the potential of perfusion MRI for diagnostics and also for therapy monitoring. The utilization and application of perfusion MRI are still restricted to specialized centers, such as university hospitals. A broad application of the technique has not yet been implemented. The MRI perfusion technique is a valuable tool that might come broadly available after implementation of standards on European and international levels. Such efforts are being promoted by the respective professional bodies. (orig.) [de

  6. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging of uterine leiomyoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takase, Hiroyasu; Munechika, Hirotsugu [Showa Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    2001-06-01

    Serial images of uterine leiomyoma in gradient-echo, echo-planar, magnetic resonance imaging were taken to draw a {delta}R2{sup *} curve after intravenous bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. The {delta}R2{sup *} integral was calculated from a {delta}R2{sup *} curve to have relative perfusion of uterine leiomyoma. We then, evaluated the amount of perfusion correlated with MR findings, size and number of leiomyoma or the clinical symptoms and established that perfusion was correlated positively with the findings of T2 weighted images and clinical symptoms but not with other MR findings or size and number of leiomyoma. In conclusion, we presumed that the clinical symptoms could be reduced by decreasing of an amount of perfusion of uterine leiomyoma in some means. However, it remained uncertain why severe clinical symptoms were associated with a high amount of perfusion in uterine leiomyomas. (author)

  7. Cerebral cross-perfusion and the Circle of Willis: does physiology trump anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musicki K

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Korana Musicki,1 Katherine Victoria Hurst,1,2 Zoltán Molnár,3 Elizabeth Hardy,4 Ashok Handa,1,2 1Department of Vascular Surgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, 2Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, 3Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, 4Vascular Studies Unit, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK Introduction: Cerebral cross-perfusion is essential for ipsilateral brain viability during unilateral insult. Aortic arch and great vessel procedures depend on its function for safe practice, unless adjuncts like shunts are used. This paper assesses the contribution of cerebrovascular anatomy against physiology in determining requisite hemispheric perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA.Materials and methods: A review of shunting requirements for CEAs under locoregional anesthesia (LA at the John Radcliffe Hospital during 1999–2013 was performed. A PubMed search for “Circle of Willis” was screened for all original articles defining cerebrovascular anatomy by postmortem or angiography.Results: Over 14 years, 1137 CEAs were performed under cervical plexus block; during this period, the departmental standard of practice evolved from exclusively general anesthesia to predominantly LA. CEAs performed under LA during the early phase (1999–2003 had a shunt rate of 15.1%, compared to 20% as predicted by stump pressures alone. However, shunting decreased as higher perioperative systolic pressures were routinely practiced; shunt rates were 8.0% during the intermediate (2004–2007 and 6.4% during the later (2008–2013 phase. By comparison, 25 articles characterizing 6414 brains report an intact circle of Willis in 33–35% of people, with a complete hemi-circle anteriorly (77% seen more commonly than posteriorly (42%, and 11–16% deficient in both hemi-circles with no cross-flow.Conclusion: Cerebral cross-perfusion is fundamental for safe CEA. Anatomy of the circle of Willis alone does not itself determine adequacy

  8. Influence of revascularization on myocardial perfusion, metabolism and function evaluated with I-123-IPPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kropp, J.; Krois, M.; Eichhorn, B.; Feske, W.; Likungu, J.; Kirchhoff, P.J.; Luederitz, B.; Biersack, H.J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) were investigated with sequential SPECT-scintigraphy after administration of 200 MBq of 15-(p-[I-123]iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) at peak submaximal exercise. Twenty patients underwent coronary angioplasty (PTCA) from which 14 had control coronary arteriography (CA) and left ventricular cineventriculography (LVCV). Nineteen pts underwent bypass graft surgery (ACB) and stress sonagraphy. Semi-quantification of uptake (Up related to perfusion) and turnover (Tr) was obtained by segmental comparison of oblique slices. About 90% of the reperfused myocardial segments in the PTCA-group and 76% in the ACB-group showed an improvement of uptake after therapy (RUp). Of these, 50% and 66% exhibited increased turnover (RTr) after PTCA or ACB. Pathologic RTr was highly correlated with regional wall motion abnormalities after therapy in both groups. In the ACB-group presence of improvement of RTr was correlated with improved RWM at rest and stress. IPPA-studies show potential to provide information about changes of perfusion and metabolism after reperfusion and IPPA-turnover is a good predictor of the pattern of contractile function

  9. Development and use of a new perfusion technique to study glucose metabolism of the aortic wall in normal and alloxan-diabetic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.J.M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated (1) possible alterations in glucose uptake and utilization in the perfused, normal, and diabetic vascular wall of rabbits and (2) the effects thereon of insulin and exogenous glucose concentration. Part I involved development and characterization of an in vitro perfusion technique that closely reproduced predetermined in vivo conditions of aortic blood flow, arterial blood pressure, heart rate and pulse pressure. The responsiveness of the preparation to vasoactive agents was assessed with concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) from 10 -9 to 10 -4 M. In Part II, the effects of NE-induced tension development on glucose metabolism were determined by perfusion with oxygenated physiological salt solution (PSS) containing 7 mM glucose and tracer amounts of uniformly labeled 14 C-glucose. Aortas from 8 week-diabetic rabbits were perfused under similar conditions employing a NE infusion in the presence or absence of insulin (150 uU/ml) and variable levels of glucose. Effects of NE-induced tension development include an apparent increase (39%) in glucose uptake and a twofold increase in 14 CO 2 and lactate production. Aortas from diabetic rabbits perfused with PSS containing 7 mM glucose demonstrated marked decreases in glucose uptake (74%), 14 CO 2 (68%), lactate (30%), total tissue glycogen (75%) and labeled tissue phospholipids (70%). Insulin or elevation of exogenous glucose to 25 mM (diabetic levels) normalized glucose uptake, but had differential effects on the pattern of substrate utilization. The marked alterations of glucose metabolism in the diabetic state may contribute to the functional changes observed in diabetic blood vessels

  10. Consideration of Normal Variation of Perfusion Measurements in the Quantitative Analysis of Myocardial Perfusion SPECT: Usefulness in Assessment of Viable Myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paeng, Jin Chul; Lim, Il Han; Kim, Ki Bong; Lee, Dong Soo

    2008-01-01

    Although automatic quantification software of myocardial perfusion SPECT provides highly objective and reproducible quantitative measurements, there is still some limitation in the direct use of quantitative measurements. In this study we derived parameters using normal variation of perfusion measurements, and tried to test the usefulness of these parameters. In order to calculate normal variation of perfusion measurements on myocardial perfusion SPECT, 55 patients (M:F=28:27) of low-likelihood for coronary artery disease were enrolled and 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress SPECT studies were performed. Using 20-segment model, mean (m) and standard deviation (SD) of perfusion were calculated in each segment. As a myocardial viability assessment group, another 48 patients with known coronary artery disease, who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) were enrolled. 201 Tl rest / 99m Tc-MIBI stress / 201 Tl 24-hr delayed SPECT was performed before CABG and SPECT was followed up 3 months after CABG. From the preoperative 24-hr delayed SPECT, Q delay (perfusion measurement), Δ delay (Q delay .m) and Z delay ((Q delay .m)/SD) were defined and diagnostic performances of them for myocardial viability were evaluated using area under curve (AUC) on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Segmental perfusion measurements showed considerable normal variations among segments. In men, the lowest segmental perfusion measurement was 51.8±6.5 and the highest segmental perfusion was 87.0±5.9, and they are 58.7±8.1 and 87.3±6.0, respectively in women. In the viability assessment, Q delay showed AUC of 0.633, while those for Δ delay and Z delay were 0.735 and 0.716, respectively. The AUCs of Δ delay and Z delay were significantly higher than that of Q delay (p=0.001 and 0.018, respectively). The diagnostic performance of Δ delay , which showed highest AUC, was 85% of sensitivity and 53% of specificity at the optimal cutoff of -24.7. On automatic

  11. Increased sinusoidal volume and solute extraction during retrograde liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, N.M.; Manning, J.A.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Retrograde isolated liver perfusion has been used to probe acinar functional heterogeneity, but the hemodynamic effects of backward flow have not been characterized. In this study, extraction of a long-chain fatty acid derivative, 12-N-methyl-7-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-amino stearate (12-NBDS), was greater during retrograde than during anterograde perfusion of isolated rat liver. To determine whether hemodynamic differences between anterograde and retrograde perfused livers could account for this finding, the hepatic extracellular space was measured for both directions of flow by means of [ 14 C]sucrose washout during perfusion as well as by direct measurement of [ 14 C]sucrose entrapped during perfusion. A three- to fourfold enlargement of the total hepatic extracellular space was found during retrograde perfusion by both approaches. Examination of perfusion-fixed livers by light microscopy and morphometry revealed that marked distension of the sinusoids occurred during retrograde perfusion and that this accounts for the observed increase in the [ 14 C]sucrose space. These findings support the hypothesis that maximum resistance to perfusate flow in the isolated perfused rat liver is located at the presinusoidal level. In addition, increased transit time of perfusate through the liver and greater sinusoidal surface area resulting from sinusoidal distension may account for the higher extraction of 12-NBDS and possibly other compounds by retrograde perfused liver

  12. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  13. Perfluorocarbon-perfused 23 gauge three-dimensional vitrectomy for complicated diabetic tractional retinal detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez-Montoya, Raul; Guerrero-Naranjo, Jose Luis; Garcia-Aguirre, Gerardo; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio; Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorocarbon liquid (PCL)-perfused vitrectomy has been shown in previous studies to be feasible, safe, and to have advantages in managing complicated cases of tractional retinal detachment. The present study had the objectives of describing the anatomical results and measuring surgical time and PCL consumption when combining PCL-perfused techniques with modern vitrectomy equipment. Methods A prospective, interventional consecutive case series was investigated. We enrolled patients with diabetic tractional retinal detachment, complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy and poor vision. A 23 gauge PCL-perfused vitrectomy was done with three-dimensional settings. During the procedure, we assessed the degree of surgical bleeding, visualization quality, and difficulty of membrane dissections. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and anatomical success were assessed at one and 3 months of follow-up. Results Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. There were no statistical significant changes in intraocular pressure and visual acuity throughout the follow-up period. Surgery was performed in a hemorrhage-free environment in almost all cases, with good visualization and low technical difficulty. The mean complete surgical time was 94.92 ± 25.03 minutes. The mean effective vitrectomy time was 22.50 ± 19.04 minutes and the mean PCL consumption was 25.08 ± 9.76 mL, with a speed of 1.11 mL/minute. Anatomical success was 67% at 3 months. Conclusion Although the technique proved to have some advantages in managing complicated cases of diabetic tractional retinal detachment, there was a high consumption of PCL. A redesign of the entire system is needed in order to decrease the amount of PCL needed for the technique. PMID:22267907

  14. The role of perfusion computed tomography in the prediction of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Hung Chang

    Full Text Available Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS following carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no reliable parameters to predict HPS. The aim of this study was to clarify whether perfusion computed tomography (CT is a feasible and reliable tool in predicting HPS after CAS.We performed a retrospective case-control study of 54 patients (11 HPS patients and 43 non-HPS with unilateral severe stenosis of the carotid artery who underwent CAS. We compared the prevalence of vascular risk factors and perfusion CT parameters including regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF, and time to peak (TTP within seven days prior to CAS. Demographic information, risk factors for atherosclerosis, and perfusion CT parameters were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. The rCBV index was calculated as [(ipsilateral rCBV - contralateral rCBV/contralateral rCBV], and indices of rCBF and TTP were similarly calculated. We found that eleven patients had HPS, including five with intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs of whom three died. After a comparison with non-HPS control subjects, independent predictors of HPS included the severity of ipsilateral carotid artery stenosis, 3-hour mean systolic blood pressure (3 h SBP after CAS, pre-stenting rCBV index >0.15 and TTP index >0.22.The combination of severe ipsilateral carotid stenosis, 3 h SBP after CAS, rCBV index and TTP index provides a potential screening tool for predicting HPS in patients with unilateral carotid stenosis receiving CAS. In addition, adequate management of post-stenting blood pressure is the most important treatable factor in preventing HPS in these high risk patients.

  15. Value of T1-201 myocardial perfusion scan for predicting prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Tomoda, Haruo [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugihara, Masami

    1983-05-01

    The extent of Tl-201 perfusion defects was determined in three views by the average ratio of perfusion defects to that of the left ventricle. As the percent Tl-201 defect index increased, the peak value of creatine phosphokinase, the grade of Peel index, incidence of congestion on the initial chest X-ray, and pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure all gradually increased. In 48 patients followed for 23 months on the average after discharge, the incidence of congestive heart failure and ventricular premature beat also increased. The prognosis was particulary poor in patients who had the percent Tl-201 defect index greater than 40%.

  16. Influence of intracellular acidosis on contractile function in the working rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, F.M.H.; Malloy, C.R.; Radda, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    The decrease in myocardial contractility during ischemia, hypoxia, and extracellular acidosis has been attributed to intracellular acidosis. Previous studies of the relationship between pH and contractile state have utilized respiratory or metabolic acidosis to alter intracellular pH. The authors developed a model in the working perfused rat heart to study the effects of intracellular acidosis with normal external pH and optimal O 2 delivery. Intracellular pH and high-energy phosphates were monitored by 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hearts were perfused to a steady state with a medium containing 10 mM NH 4 Cl. Acidosis induced a substantial decrease in aortic flow and stroke volume which was associated with little change in peak systolic pressure. It was concluded that (1) for the same intracellular acidosis the influence on tension development was more pronounced with a combined extra- and intracellular acidosis than with an isolated intracellular acidosis, and (2) stroke volume at constant preload was impaired by intracellular acidosis even though changes in developed pressure were minimal. These observations suggest that isolated intracellular acidosis has adverse effects on diastolic compliance and/or relaxation

  17. Altered carnitine transport in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.; Reibel, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously observed reduced carnitine levels in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for reduced myocardial carnitine content, carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats 3 weeks following surgery and perfused at 60 mm Hg aortic pressure with buffer containing various concentrations of L- 14 C-carnitine. Carnitine uptake by control and hypertrophied hearts was linear throughout 30 minutes of perfusion with 40 μM carnitine. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by 25% in hypertrophied hearts at each time point examined. The reduction in uptake by hypertrophied hearts was also evident when hearts were perfused with 100 or 200 μM carnitine. When 0.05 mM mersalyl acid was included in the buffer to inhibit the carrier-mediated component of transport, no difference in carnitine uptake was observed indicating that the transport of carnitine by diffusion was unaltered in the hypertrophied myocardium. Carrier-mediated carnitine uptake (total uptake - uptake by diffusion) was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in hypertrophied hearts at all concentrations examined. Thus, the reduction in carnitine content in the pressure-overload hypertrophied rat heart appears to be due to a reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake by the heart

  18. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  19. Evaluating optimal superficial limb perfusion at different angles using non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanin, Geraldine; Jaggard, Matthew; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Nanchahal, Jagdeep; Jain, Abhilash

    2013-06-01

    It is common practice to elevate the limbs postoperatively to reduce oedema and hence optimise perfusion and facilitate rehabilitation. However, elevation may be counterproductive as it reduces the mean perfusion pressure. There are no clear data on the optimal position of the limbs even in normal subjects. The optimal position of limbs was investigated in 25 healthy subjects using a non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry system "O2C", which indirectly measures skin and superficial tissue perfusion through blood flow, oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin concentration. We found a reduction in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 17% (p=0.0001) on arm elevation (180° shoulder flexion) as compared to heart level and an increase in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 25% (p=0.02) on forearm elevation of 45°. Lower limb skin and superficial tissue blood flow decreased by 15% (p=0.004) on elevation to 47 cm and by 70% on dependency (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. However, on elevation of the lower limb there was also a 28% reduction in superficial venous pooling (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. In the normal limb, the position for optimal superficial perfusion of the upper limb is with the arm placed at heart level and forearm at 45°. In the lower limb the optimal position for superficial perfusion would be at heart level. However, some degree of elevation may be useful if there is an element of venous congestion. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of Poly-Vinyl-Chloride tubing on the isolated perfused rat´s heart.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1950-01-01

    There are types of poly-vinyl-chloride tubing sold and used for medical and biological purposes which deteriorate heart action in a few minutes. A simple method for testing P.V.C. tubing can be found in the isolated rat's he art perfused according to Langendorff.

  1. Insulin degradation products from perfused rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, W.C.; Hamel, F.G.; Liepnieks, J.; Peavy, D.; Frank, B.; Rabkin, R.

    1989-01-01

    The kidney is a major site for insulin metabolism, but the enzymes involved and the products generated have not been established. To examine the products, we have perfused rat kidneys with insulin specifically iodinated on either the A14 or the B26 tyrosine. Labeled material from both the perfusate and kidney extract was examined by Sephadex G50 and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In perfusate from a filtering kidney, 22% of the insulin-sized material was not intact insulin on HPLC. With the nonfiltering kidney, 10.6% was not intact insulin. Labeled material from HPLC was sulfitolyzed and reinjected on HPLC. By use of 125 I-iodo(A14)-insulin, almost all the degradation products contained an intact A-chain. By use of 125 I-iodo(B26)-insulin, several different B-chain-cleaved products were obtained. The material extracted from the perfused kidney was different from perfusate products but similar to intracellular products from hepatocytes, suggesting that cellular metabolism by kidney and liver are similar. The major intracellular product had characteristics consistent with a cleavage between the B16 and B17 amino acids. This product and several of the perfusate products are also produced by insulin protease suggesting that this enzyme is involved in the degradation of insulin by kidney

  2. Influence of the prevalence of coronary artery disease in patients with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging. Cooperative study in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, V.R.; Arja, V.J.; Sandrin, A.L.; Sala, J.P.; Joekes, S.; Bier, G.; Precoma, D.; Yamada, A.

    2002-01-01

    An important feature of myocardial perfusion imaging is the ability to predict prognosis and identify high- and low-risk patients for coronary events. According to Bayes' theorem, the significance of test's results, relates not only the sensitivity and specificity of a test but also the prevalence of disease in the population under study. Aim: evaluate the relationship between pretest likelihood (PTL) and coronary events (CE) in patients with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging during a long period of time. Material and Methods: The population included 709 patients (411 men and 298 women, mean age 58 years old) who underwent stress/rest myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging at nuclear cardiology laboratories in Argentina and Brazil, with scintigraphic images interpreted as normal. Analyzed variables: clinical, EKG and stress test. Perfusion agents: Tc-99m-tetrofosmin: 36.5%, Tc99m-sestamibi 5.8% and Tl-201 57.7%. Mean follow up: 919 days. CE: soft (unstable angina and need for revascularization) and hard (AMI and cardiac death). Results: Stress test: exercise stress test 72.2%, dipyridamole 25%, adenosine 1.7%, dobutamine 1.1%. PTL [ 9' (M/F): 59/11% (p 78%] 31 vs. 50%. Conclusions: 1) There was a relationship between PTL, events rate and time to event. 2) We found a low hard events rate (0.85%). 3) The results in this group of patients with normal myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging may suggest a guarantee period of low risk of coronary events between 2-3 years. 4) In spite of there is a low event rate in total population with normal myocardial perfusion imaging, patients with highest prevalence of coronary artery disease have more statistical probabilities of coronary events and therefore they have to be watched closely

  3. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass for open heart surgery in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Grønlykke, Lars; Risom, Emilie C

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Available evidence has been inconclusive on whether pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with decreased or increased mortality, pulmonary events, and serious adverse events (SAEs) after open heart surgery. To our knowledge, no previous systematic...... handsearched retrieved study reports and scanned citations of included studies and relevant reviews to ensure that no relevant trials were missed. We searched for ongoing trials and unpublished trials in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and at clinicaltrials......). We used GRADE principles to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included in this review four RCTs (210 participants) reporting relevant outcomes. Investigators randomly assigned participants to pulmonary artery perfusion with blood versus no perfusion during CPB. Only one trial included...

  4. Influence of dental occlusion on postural control and plantar pressure distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnweber, Benjamin; Adjami, Frederic; Schuster, Gabriele; Kopp, Stefan; Natrup, Jörg; Erbe, Christina; Ohlendorf, Daniela

    2017-11-01

    The number of studies investigating correlations between the temporomandibular system and body posture, postural control or plantar pressure distribution is continuously increasing. If a connection can be found, it is often of minor influence or for only a single parameter. However, small subject groups are critical. This study was conducted to define correlations between dental parameters, postural control and plantar pressure distribution in healthy males. In this study, 87 male subjects with an average age of 25.23 ± 3.5 years (ranging from 18 to 35 years) were examined. Dental casts of the subjects were analyzed. Postural control and plantar pressure distribution were recorded by a force platform. Possible orthodontic and orthopedic factors of influence were determined by either an anamnesis or a questionnaire. All tests performed were randomized and repeated three times each for intercuspal position (ICP) and blocked occlusion (BO). For a statistical analysis of the results, non-parametric tests (Wilcoxon-Matched-Pairs-Test, Kruskall-Wallis-Test) were used. A revision of the results via Bonferroni-Holm correction was considered. ICP increases body sway in the frontal (p ≤ 0.01) and sagittal planes (p ≤ 0.03) compared to BO, whereas all other 29 correlations were independent of the occlusion position. For both of the ICP or BO cases, Angle-class, midline-displacement, crossbite, or orthodontic therapy were found to have no influence on postural control or plantar pressure distribution (p > 0.05). However, the contact time of the left foot decreased (p ≤ 0.001) while detecting the plantar pressure distribution in each position. Persistent dental parameters have no effect on postural sway. In addition, postural control and plantar pressure distribution have been found to be independent postural criteria.

  5. [Influence of the albumin fraction in the plasma oncotic pressure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Portillo, M; Trujillo Rodríguez, F; Aznar Reig, A

    1979-12-15

    This work analyzes the influence which albumin fraction exerts upon plasma oncotic pressure. With this objective three different groups were studied, each one of which was composed of subjects with identical total proteinemia and variable albuminemia. The first group: nine subjects with 6.2 g/100 ml proteinemia and albumin values between 3.2 and 3.8 g/100 ml; the second group: seven healthy subjects with 6.4 g/100 ml proteinemia and the level of albumina between 3 and 4 g/100 ml; the third group: subjects with proteinemia at 6.6 g/100 ml and extreme values of albumin between 3.1 and 4.3 g/100 ml. Plasma oncotic pressure was determined by means of an electronic osmometer, according to the described technique. With a proteinemia constant at 6.2 g/100 ml, a 0.6 percent fluctuation of the albumin concentration induced a variation in the plasma oncotic pressure of up to 20.4 per cent. In cases of proteinemia remaining constant at 6.4 g/100 ml, the oscillation of albumin levels between 3 and 4 g/100 ml represented a change in the plasmatic oncotic pressure of 32.58 per cent. In the third group, the influence of the albuminemia was lesser (23.1 per cent variability in the plasma oncotic pressure, with an oscillation of 1.2 g/100 ml in albuminemia). The existence of variable values of plasma oncotic pressure corresponding to cases with identical proteinemia and albuminemia, lead us to consider the powerful influence exerted upon the plasma oncotic pressure by other factors which affect the mass-structure and the electrical charges of proteins.

  6. Value of chest X-ray combined with perfusion scan versus ventilation/perfusion scan in acute pulmonary embolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, M. R.; Turkstra, F.; van Marwijk Kooy, M.; Oostdijk, A. H.; van Beek, E. J.; Büller, H. R.

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of ventilation scanning, as adjunct to perfusion lung scintigraphy, in acute pulmonary embolism is to allow for the classification of segmental perfusion defects as mismatched, which is generally accepted as proof for the presence of pulmonary embolism. We examined whether this

  7. Endotoxemia reduces cerebral perfusion but enhances dynamic cerebrovascular autoregulation at reduced arterial carbon dioxide tension*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Kim, Yu-Sok; van Lieshout, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The administration of endotoxin to healthy humans reduces cerebral blood flow but its influence on dynamic cerebral autoregulation remains unknown. We considered that a reduction in arterial carbon dioxide tension would attenuate cerebral perfusion and improve dynamic cerebral autoreg...

  8. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - possibilities of diagnosing CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonevska, A.

    1998-01-01

    A reviewing the diagnostic methods used in the intricate process of evaluating CAD patients in a attempt to establish the role played by radionuclide methods in the diagnostic strategy is done. The perfusion cardiotropic radiopharmaceuticals used and the various methods of evaluating myocardial are discussed. Although 210 Tl-chloride is the most widely used myocardial perfusion agent, recently 99m Tc-MIBI is proposed as an alternative because of its advantages. Myocardial perfusion assessment is done by various techniques depending on the specific aim, each of them having its proper advantages and shortcomings. The inference is reached that regardless of the routine practical implementation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and comprehensive studies along this line in course, there are problems still not well enough clarified awaiting solution

  9. The influence of gouge defects on failure pressure of steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alang, N A; Razak, N A; Zulfadli, M R

    2013-01-01

    Failure pressure of API X42 steel pipes with gouge defects was estimated through a nonlinear finite element (FE) analysis. The effect of gouge length on failure pressure of different pipe diameters was investigated. Stress modified critical strain (SMCS) model was applied as in predicting the failure of the pipe. The model uses strain based criteria to predict the failure. For validation of the model, the FE results were compared to experimental data in literature showing overall good agreement. The results show that the gouge length has significant influence on failure pressure. A smaller pipe diameter gives highest value of failure pressure

  10. Goal-directed-perfusion in neonatal aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnjevar, Robert Anton; Purbojo, Ariawan; Muench, Frank; Juengert, Joerg; Rueffer, André

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of mortality and morbidity in congenital cardiac surgery has always been and remains a major target for the complete team involved. As operative techniques are more and more standardized and refined, surgical risk and associated complication rates have constantly been reduced to an acceptable level but are both still present. Aortic arch surgery in neonates seems to be of particular interest, because perfusion techniques differ widely among institutions and an ideal form of a so called "total body perfusion (TBP)" is somewhat difficult to achieve. Thus concepts of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), regional cerebral perfusion (RCP/with cardioplegic cardiac arrest or on the perfused beating heart) and TBP exist in parallel and all carry an individual risk for organ damage related to perfusion management, chosen core temperature and time on bypass. Patient safety relies more and more on adequate end organ perfusion on cardiopulmonary bypass, especially sensitive organs like the brain, heart, kidney, liver and the gut, whereby on adequate tissue protection, temperature management and oxygen delivery should be visualized and monitored.

  11. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging during adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation in patients with ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Yasuchika; Chiba, Junya; Abe, Shinya

    1992-01-01

    Thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging during adenosine infusion was performed in consecutive 55 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Adenosine was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min for 6 minutes and a dose of 111 MBq of 201 Tl was administered in a separate vein at the end of third minutes of infusion. Myocardial SPECT imaging was begun 5 minutes and 3 hours after the end of adenosine infusion. For evaluating the presence of perfusion defects, 2 short axis images at the basal and spical levels and a vertical long axis image at the mid left ventricle were used. The regions with decreased 201 Tl uptake were assessed semi-quantitatively. Adenosine infusion caused a slight reduction in systolic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. The rate pressure products increased slightly (9314±2377 vs. 10360±2148, p 201 Tl myocardial imaging during adenosine infusion was considered to be safe and useful for evaluating the patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  12. Impairment of myocardial perfusion in children with sickle cell disease; Alteration de la perfusion myocardique chez l'enfant drepanocytaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunoury, C. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Acar, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Hopital des Enfants, Service de Cardiologie Pediatrique, 31 - Toulouse (France); Montalembert, M. de [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, Service de Pediatrie Generale, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-10-01

    While brain, bone and spleen strokes are well documented in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), impairment of myocardial perfusion is an unknown complication. Non invasive techniques such as exercise testing and echocardiography have a low sensitivity to detect myocardial ischemia in patients with SCD. We have prospectively assessed myocardial perfusion with Tl-201 SPECT in 23 patients with SCD (10 female, 13 male, mean age 12 {+-} 5 years). Myocardial SPECT was performed after stress and 3 hours later after reinjection on a single head gamma camera equipped with a LEAP collimator (64 x 64 matrix size format, 30 projections over 180 deg C, 30 seconds per step). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed by equilibrium radionuclide angiography at rest on the same day. Myocardial perfusion was impaired in 14/23 patients: 9 reversible defects and 5 fixed defects. The left ventricular cavity was dilated in 14/23 patients. The mean LVEF was 63 {+-} 9%. There was no relationship between myocardial perfusion and left ventricular dilation or function. The frequent impairment of myocardial perfusion in children with SCD could lead to suggest a treatment with hydroxyurea, an improvement of perfusion can be noted with hydroxyurea. (author)

  13. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied

  14. Safety of adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging by a one-route infusion protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Yuko; Kishino, Koh

    2006-01-01

    When adenosine stress testing is performed, a vein is generally accessed in each arm. To determine whether the one-route infusion protocol, that is, infusion via one upper arm vein, is safe, myocardial perfusion imaging was performed during adenosine stress testing in patients with angina pectoris. Sixty-six consecutive patients (43 men, 68±11 years of age) with suspected coronary artery disease were enrolled in this study. For the stress test, adenosine was injected at 120 μg/kg/min for 6 minutes. Systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate did not show any significant changes after injection of the adenosine and radioisotope (RI) tracer. Adverse events during infusion of the adenosine were seen in 42 (64%) patients and included chest discomfort/oppression in 17 (26%) and dyspnea/throat discomfort in 15 (23%). On the other hand, adverse events just after infusion of the RI tracer occurred in 5 (8%) patients and included chest oppression in 2 (3%) and dyspnea in 1 (2%). Almost all adverse events disappeared quickly without treatment. Therefore, we concluded that adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging using a one-route infusion protocol is safe and useful to do for patients unable to secure veins in both arms. (author)

  15. Effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Kenya; Nanjo, Takafumi; Ii, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Shohei; Hirata, Masaaki; Sugawara, Yoshifumi; Kudo, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kousuke; Mochizuki, Teruhito

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using multi-detector row CT (MDCT). Following the standard CT perfusion study protocol, continuous (cine) scans (1 s/rotation x 60 s) consisting of four 5 mm thick contiguous slices were performed using an MDCT scanner with a tube voltage of 80 kVp and a tube current of 200 mA. We generated the simulated images with tube currents of 50 mA, 100 mA and 150 mA by adding the corresponding noise to the raw scan data of the original image acquired above using a noise simulation tool. From the original and simulated images, we generated the functional images of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) in seven patients with cerebrovascular disease, and compared the correlation coefficients (CCs) between the perfusion parameter values obtained from the original and simulated images. The coefficients of variation (CVs) in the white matter were also compared. The CC values deteriorated with decreasing tube current. There was a significant difference between 50 mA and 100 mA for all perfusion parameters. The CV values increased with decreasing tube current. There were significant differences between 50 mA and 100 mA and between 100 mA and 150 mA for CBF. For CBV and MTT, there was also a significant difference between 150 mA and 200 mA. This study will be useful for understanding the effect of x-ray tube current on the accuracy of cerebral perfusion parameters obtained by CT perfusion studies using MDCT, and for selecting the tube current

  16. Increased blood pressure can reduce fatigue of thenar muscles paralyzed after spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, JE; Ribot-Ciscar, E; Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increases in blood pressure, and presumably muscle perfusion pressure, improve the endurance of thenar muscles paralyzed chronically by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Resting mean arterial pressure (MAP) was low in all eight subjects (64 +/- 2 mmHg).

  17. Gray matter perfusion correlates with disease severity in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Randall R; Schuff, Norbert; Miller, Robert G; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-03-09

    The goal of this study is to determine if regional brain perfusion, as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, is correlated with clinical measures of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease severity. The presence of such a relationship would indicate a possible role for ASL perfusion as a marker of disease severity and upper motor neuron involvement in ALS. Disease severity was assessed in 16 subjects with ALS (age 54 +/- 11) using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and the pulmonary function measure, forced vital capacity (FVC). Upper motor neuron involvement was assessed by testing rapid tapping of the fingers and feet. Magnetic resonance perfusion images were coregistered with structural T1-weighted MRI, corrected for partial volume effects using the structural images and normalized to a study-specific atlas. Correlations between perfusion and ALS disease severity were analyzed, using statistical parametric mapping, and including age as a factor. Analyses were adjusted for multiple clusters. ALS severity, as measured by the ALSFRS and FVC, was correlated with gray matter perfusion. This correlation was predominantly observed in the hemisphere contralateral to the more affected limbs. ALSFRS scores correlated with perfusion in the contralateral frontal and parietal lobe (p frontal lobe (p frontal lobe (p Upper motor neuron involvement, as measured by rapid finger tapping, correlated bilaterally with perfusion in the middle cingulate gyrus (p < 0.001). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) severity is correlated with brain perfusion as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. This correlation appears to be independent of brain atrophy. ASL perfusion may be a useful tool for monitoring disease progression and assessing treatment effects in ALS.

  18. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  19. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias E-mail: matthias.koenig@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2003-03-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be

  20. Perfusion MRI in CNS disease: current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Le-Huu, M.; Stieltjes, B.; Tengg, H. von; Weber, M.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Today there are several indications for cerebral perfusion MRI. The major indications routinely used in increasing numbers of imaging centers include cerebrovascular disease, tumor imaging and recently psychiatric disorders. Perfusion MRI is based on the injection of a gadolinium chelate and the rapid acquisition of images as the bolus of contrast agent passes through the blood vessels in the brain. The contrast agent causes a signal change; this signal change over time can be analysed to measure cerebral hemodynamics. The quality of brain perfusion studies is very dependent on the contrast agent used: a robust and strong signal decrease with a compact bolus is needed. MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA) is the first of a new class of paramagnetic MR contrast agents with a weak affinity for serum proteins. Due to the interaction of Gd-BOPTA with serum albumin, MultiHance presents with significantly higher T1- and T2-relaxivities enabling a sharper bolus profile. This article reviews the indications of perfusion MRI and the performance of MultiHance in MR perfusion of different diseases. Previous studies using perfusion MRI for a variety of purposes required the use of double dose of contrast agent to achieve a sufficiently large signal drop to enable the acquisition of a clear input function and the calculation of perfusion rCBV and rCBF maps of adequate quality. Recent studies with Multi-Hance suggest that only a single dose of this agent is needed to cause a signal drop of about 30% which is sufficient to allow the calculation of high quality rCBV and rCBF maps. (orig.)

  1. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...... of the involved RF pulses are taken into account. A small flow-independent off-set may be present in the data. The off-set is explained by the model. Based on the correspondence between the phantom and the in vivo models, it is shown that the lowest flow values that could be measured in the phantom correspond...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom....

  2. A model system for perfusion quantification using FAIR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I.K.; Sidaros, Karam; Gesmar, H

    2000-01-01

    Flow-sensitive experiments (FAIR) have been performed on a tube-flow phantom in order to validate quantitative perfusion measurements on humans. A straight-forward correspondence between perfusion and bulk-flow is found. It is shown that the flow phantom model only holds when the slice profiles...... of the involved RF pulses are taken into account. A small flow-independent off-set may be present in the data. The off-set is explained by the model. Based on the correspondence between the phantom and the in vivo models, it is shown that the lowest flow values that could be measured in the phantom correspond...... to perfusion values lower than the cortical perfusion in the brain. Thus, the experimental accuracy and the computational methods for quantitative perfusion measurements in vivo can be validated by a tube-flow phantom...

  3. The feasibility and reliability of capillary blood pressure measurements in the fingernail fold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaff, Jurgen C.; Ubbink, Dirk Th; Lagarde, Sjoerd M.; Jacobs, Michael J. H. M.

    2002-01-01

    Capillary blood pressure is an essential parameter in the study of the (patho-)physiology of microvascular perfusion. Currently, capillary pressure measurements in humans are performed using a servo-nulling micropressure system containing an oil-water interface, which suffers some drawbacks. In

  4. Noninvasive assessment of changes in myocardial perfusion and ventricular performance following exercise training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubau, J.; Witztum, K.; Froelicher, V.; Jensen, D.; Atwood, E.; McKirnan, M.D.; Reynolds, J.; Ashburn, W.

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen coronary patients (CAD) underwent 201 Tl treadmill and radionuclide (RNV) ejection fraction supine bicycle testing before and after 5.6 +/- 1.6 (mean +/- SD) months of an exercise program. Thallium data were assessed both using analog images and a computerized circumferential profile technique. Patients exercised on the treadmill to a higher workload after the exercise program, but achieved a similar pressure-rate product. When interpreting the analog thallium images, only 50% agreement was obtained for the assessment of changes in myocardial perfusion (pre/post-training). The computer technique, however, had low inter-intraobserver variability (6%) and better agreement (90.5%). Using the circumferential profile method, five patients improved (a total of 11 regions) and one patient worsened (with two regions). Before the exercise program, the ejection fraction (EF) response to supine bike exercise was normal (an increase greater than 11%) in four, flat in seven, and severely abnormal (a decrease of more than 4%) in six patients. After the exercise program, even though achieving similar or higher pressure-rate products, six patients improved their EF response, nine did not change, and two worsened. Of the five patients who improved their thallium images, one improved his EF response, two remained normal, and two did not change. One patient worsened both his thallium study and the EF response after the exercise program. Changes in thallium exercise images and the EF response to supine exercise occurred in our patients after an exercise program, but were not always concordant. Indeed, of five patients with exercise-induced ischemic ST changes before and after training, the EF response improved in three whereas myocardial perfusion was unchanged. Reasons for this lack of agreement are discussed, and have been considered in the planning of a randomized trial of the effects of an exercise program on myocardial perfusion and function

  5. Meta-Analysis of Stress Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Coronary Disease; Echocardiography; Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial; Hemodynamics; Humans; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Myocardial Perfusion Imaging; Perfusion; Predictive Value of Tests; Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography; Positron Emission Tomography; Multidetector Computed Tomography; Echocardiography, Stress; Coronary Angiography

  6. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Damiano; Eid, Marwen; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Jin, Kwang Nam; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Tesche, Christian; Mangold, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  7. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Latina (Italy); Eid, Marwen [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  8. Lung perfusion scintigraphy by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takanobu

    1990-01-01

    The initial study reports the characteristic performance using lung segmental phantom filled in Tc-99m pertechnetate. To evaluate the segmental defect in lung perfusion scintigraphy, we applied Bull's-eye analysis in addition to planar image set. Bull's-eye analysis especially facilitated the interpretation in both middle and lower lobes. Subsequently, to evolute the clinical application of Bull's-eye analysis, pulmonary scintigraphy was performed on 10 normal subjects and 60 patients with several pulmonary diseases. Of interest, Bull's-eye analysis, however, encouraged the interpretation in both lower lobes. To calculate the extention and severity of perfusion defect, the present study describes Bull's-eye analysis. Quantitative scoring showed higher in patients with lung cancer than those with pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study focus that Bull's-eye analysis can be useful for evaluating perfusion in patients with a couple of pulmonary diseases. (author)

  9. Reciprocal Influence of Slow Waves Extracted in Intracranial Pressure, Arterial Pressure and Cerebral Blood Velocity Signals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervenansky, F

    2001-01-01

    ...), and arterial blood pressure (ABP). To clarify the links, we compared two frequency methods based on coherence function to estimate the influence of ICP, ABP, and CBV on couples, respectively CBV-ABP, ICP-CBV and ICP-ABP, of slow waves...

  10. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T.; Mendoza, B.

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  11. Influence of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric pressure in hypertensive adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcárate, T; Mendoza, B

    2017-09-01

    We performed a study of the systolic and diastolic arterial blood pressure behavior under natural variables such as the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. We worked with a group of eight adult hypertensive volunteers, four men and four women, with ages between 18 and 27 years in Mexico City during a geomagnetic storm in 2014. The data was divided by gender, age, and day/night cycle. We studied the time series using three methods: correlations, bivariate analysis, and superposed epoch (within a window of 2 days around the day of occurrence of a geomagnetic storm) analysis, between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the natural variables. The correlation analysis indicated a correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the atmospheric pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component, being the largest during the night. Furthermore, the correlation and bivariate analyses showed that the largest correlations are between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the horizontal geomagnetic field component. Finally, the superposed epoch analysis showed that the largest number of significant changes in the blood pressure under the influence of geomagnetic field occurred in the systolic blood pressure for men.

  12. Reversible ventilation and perfusion abnormalities in unilateral obstructed lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, H.E.; Jones, R.L.; King, E.G.; Sproule, B.J.; Fortune, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    An intraluminal carcinoid tumor obstructing the left mainstem bronchus produced hypoxemia through alteration in ventilation/perfusion matching. Studies of regional lung function using 133-xenon (/sup 133/Xe) and a multiprobe computerized instrumentation system documented a reduction of perfusion to 22 percent and ventilation to 6 percent of the total. There was negligible washout of intravenously injected /sup 133/Xe from the left lung consistent with air trapping. Four days after left mainstem bronchial sleeve resection, perfusion, ventilation and washout of injected xenon had significantly improved and by four months postresection, all measurements were virtually normal, although complete restoration of perfusion in relation to ventilation was delayed. Regional lung function studied with a multiprobe system in this patient provided a clinical model for the study of ventilation and perfusion inter-relationships in large airway obstruction and demonstrated that a prolonged time may be required for return of perfusion to normal

  13. Pulmonary abnormalities in mitral valve disease. Comparison between pulmonary wedge pressure, regional pulmonary blood flow and chest films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, L H; Andersen, Jr, P E [Odense Univ. (Denmark)

    1978-01-01

    Chest films, right sided heart catheterization, and measurement of the regional lung perfusion, using /sup 133/Xe, were carried out 31 times on patients with mitral valve disease. A relationship was found between the radiologic evaluation in 3 grades, and the values of pulmonary wedge pressure and the apical and basal perfusion. Changes in flow distribution as reflected in altered appearance of the vessels and the presence of interstitial edema were found to be the most sensitive factors in the evaluation of pulmonary wedge pressure. Chest radiography was thus found suitable for the evaluation of pulmonary wedge pressure in mitral valve disease.

  14. Characteristics of Brain Perfusion in Patients of Parkinson's Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kim, Jae Woo; Kang, Young Kang [Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-02-15

    It was well known that cerebral blood perfusion is normal or diffusely decreased in the majority of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Actually we interpreted brain perfusion SPECT images of PD patients in the clinical situation, we observed various cerebral perfusion patterns in patients with PD. So we performed brain perfusion SPECT to know the brain perfusion patterns of PD patients and the difference of perfusion patterns according to the sex and the age. Also we classified PD patients into small groups based on the brain perfusion pattern. Two hundred nineteen patients (M: 70, F: 149, mean age: 62.9{+-}6.9 y/o) who were diagnosed as PD without dementia clinically and 55 patients (M: 15, F: 40, mean age: 61.4{+-}9.2 y/o) as normal controls who had no past illness history were performed {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT and neuropsychological test. At first, we compared all patients with PD and normal controls. Brain perfusion in left inferior frontal gyrus, left insula, left transverse temporal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, left superior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right caudate tail were lower in patients with PD than normal controls. Secondly, we compared male and female patients with PD and normal controls, respectively. Brain perfusion SPECT showed more decreased cerebral perfusion in left hemisphere than right side in both male and female patients compared to normal controls. And there was larger hypoperfusion area in female patients compared with male. Thirdly, we classified patients with PD and normal controls into 4 groups according to the age and compared brain perfusion respectively. In patient below fifties, brain perfusion in both occipitoparietal and left temporal lobe were lower in PD group. As the patients with PD grew older, hypoperfusion area were shown in both frontal, temporal and limbic lobes. Fourthly, We were able to divide patients into small groups based on cerebral perfusion pattern. There was normal

  15. CT Perfusion Characteristics Identify Metastatic Sites in Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue perfusion plays a critical role in oncology because growth and migration of cancerous cells require proliferation of new blood vessels through the process of tumor angiogenesis. Computed tomography (CT perfusion is an emerging functional imaging modality that measures tissue perfusion through dynamic CT scanning following intravenous administration of contrast medium. This noninvasive technique provides a quantitative basis for assessing tumor angiogenesis. CT perfusion has been utilized on a variety of organs including lung, prostate, liver, and brain, with promising results in cancer diagnosis, disease prognostication, prediction, and treatment monitoring. In this paper, we focus on assessing the extent to which CT perfusion characteristics can be used to discriminate liver metastases from neuroendocrine tumors from normal liver tissues. The neuroendocrine liver metastases were analyzed by distributed parameter modeling to yield tissue blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, permeability (PS, and hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, for tumor and normal liver. The result reveals the potential of CT perfusion as a tool for constructing biomarkers from features of the hepatic vasculature for guiding cancer detection, prognostication, and treatment selection.

  16. Selective Heart, Brain and Body Perfusion in Open Aortic Arch Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Sven; Kari, Fabian; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-09-01

    Open aortic arch replacement is a complex and challenging procedure, especially in post dissection aneurysms and in redo procedures after previous surgery of the ascending aorta or aortic root. We report our experience with the simultaneous selective perfusion of heart, brain, and remaining body to ensure optimal perfusion and to minimize perfusion-related risks during these procedures. We used a specially configured heart-lung machine with a centrifugal pump as arterial pump and an additional roller pump for the selective cerebral perfusion. Initial arterial cannulation is achieved via femoral artery or right axillary artery. After lower body circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for the distal arch anastomosis, we started selective lower body perfusion simultaneously to the selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and heart perfusion. Eighteen patients were successfully treated with this perfusion strategy from October 2012 to November 2015. No complications related to the heart-lung machine and the cannulation occurred during the procedures. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 239 ± 33 minutes, the simultaneous selective perfusion of brain, heart, and remaining body lasted 55 ± 23 minutes. One patient suffered temporary neurological deficit that resolved completely during intensive care unit stay. No patient experienced a permanent neurological deficit or end-organ dysfunction. These high-risk procedures require a concept with a special setup of the heart-lung machine. Our perfusion strategy for aortic arch replacement ensures a selective perfusion of heart, brain, and lower body during this complex procedure and we observed excellent outcomes in this small series. This perfusion strategy is also applicable for redo procedures.

  17. Accuracy and feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced 3D MR imaging in the assessment of lung perfusion: comparison with Tc-99 MAA perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Akkoclu, A.; Degirmenci, B.; Cooper, R.A.; Sengun, B.; Gulcu, A.; Osma, E.; Ucan, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to correlate findings of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion scintigraphy in cases where there was a suspicion of abnormal pulmonary vasculature, and to evaluate the usefulness of MRI in the detection of perfusion deficits of the lung. METHODS: In all, 17 patients with suspected abnormality of the pulmonary vasculature underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. T1-weighted 3D fast-field echo pulse sequences were obtained (TR/TE 3.3/1.58 ms; flip angle 30 deg ; slice thickness 12 to 15 mm). The dynamic study was acquired in the coronal plane following administration of 0.1 mmol/kg gadopentetate dimeglumine. A total of 8 to 10 sections repeated 20 to 25 times at intervals of 1 s were performed. Perfusion lung scintigraphy was carried out a maximum of 48 h before the MR examination in all cases. Two radiologists, who were blinded to the clinical data and results of other imaging methods, reviewed all coronal sections. MR perfusion images were independently assessed in terms of segmental or lobar perfusion defects in the 85 lobes of the 17 individuals, and the findings were compared with the results of scintigraphy. RESULTS: Of the 17 patients, 8 were found to have pulmonary emboli, 2 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with emphysema, 2 bullous emphysema, 2 Takayasu arteritis and 1 had a hypoplastic pulmonary artery. Pulmonary perfusion was completely normal in 2 cases. In 35 lobes, perfusion defects were detected using both methods, in 4 with MR alone and in 9 only with scintigraphy. There was good agreement between MRI and scintigraphy findings (kappa=0.695). CONCLUSION: Pulmonary perfusion MRI is a new alternative to scintigraphy in the evaluation of pulmonary perfusion for various lung disorders. In addition, this technique allows measurement and quantification of pulmonary perfusion abnormalities

  18. Effects of dexamethasone and cox inhibitors on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion in the lipopolysaccharide treated rats with hyperammonemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Johan; Pedersen, Hans; Bjerring, Peter N

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Systemic inflammation may affect the brain by aggravating the stage of encephalopathy and increasing intracranial pressure (ICP) especially if liver insufficiency with hyperammonemia is present. The aim of this study was to determine if the influence of concomitant hyperammonemia...

  19. Predictive value of skin perfusion pressure after endovascular therapy for wound healing in critical limb ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Makoto; Nakamura, Masato; Nagashima, Yoshinori; Sugi, Kaoru

    2014-10-01

    To determine the predictive value of skin perfusion pressure (SPP) for wound healing after endovascular therapy (EVT). Between May 2004 and March 2011, 113 consecutive patients (84 men; mean age 71.5±12.5 years) with CLI (123 limbs) underwent successful balloon angioplasty ± stenting (flow from >1 vessel to the foot without bypass) and were physically able to undergo SPP measurement before and within 48 hours after EVT. The status of wound healing was recorded over a mean follow-up of 17.4±12.4 months. The wound healing rate was 78.9% (97 limbs of 89 patients). SPP values after EVT were significantly higher in these patients than in the 24 patients (26 limbs) without wound healing (44.2±15.6 mmHg vs. 27.5±10.4 mmHg, pwound healing had an area under the curve of 0.81 (95% CI 0.723 to 0.899, pwound healing was 30 mmHg, with a sensitivity of 81.4% and a specificity of 69.2%. Binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated SPP after EVT to be an independent predictor of wound healing (pwound healing with SPP values >30 mmHg, 40 mmHg, and 50 mmHg were 69.8%, 86.3%, and 94.5%, respectively. SPP after EVT is an independent predictor of wound healing in patients with CLI. In our study, an SPP value of 30 mmHg was shown to be the best cutoff for prediction of wound healing after EVT.

  20. Nuclear cardiology: Myocardial perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seldin, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion studies continue to be a major focus of research, with new investigations of the relationship of exercise-redistribution thallium imaging to diagnosis, prognosis, and case management. The redistribution phenomenon, which seemed to be fairly well understood a few years ago, is now recognized to be much more complex than originally thought, and various strategies have been proposed to clarify the meaning of persistent defects. Pharmacologic intervention with dipyridamole and adenosine has become available as an alternative to exercise, and comparisons with exercise imaging and catheterization results have been described. Thallium itself is no longer the sole single-photon perfusion radiopharmaceutical; two new technetium agents are now widely available. In addition to perfusion studies, advances in the study of ventricular function have been made, including reports of studies performed in conjunction with technetium perfusion studies, new insights into cardiac physiology, and the prognostic and case-management information that function studies provide. Finally, work has continued with monoclonal antibodies for the identification of areas of myocyte necrosis. 41 references

  1. Measurement of ventilation- and perfusion-mediated cooling during laser ablation in ex vivo human lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vietze, Andrea, E-mail: anvie@gmx.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Sauerbruchstrasse, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Koch, Franziska, E-mail: franzi_koch@hotmail.com [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Sauerbruchstrasse, 17487 Greifswald (Germany); Laskowski, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.laskowski@klinikum-luedenscheid.de [Department of Vascular and Thoracic Surgery, Klinikum Luedenscheid, Paulmannshoeher Strasse 14, 58515 Luedenscheid (Germany); Linder, Albert, E-mail: albert.linder@klinikum-bremen-ost.de [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Klinikum Bremen-Ost, Zuericher Strasse 40, 28325 Bremen (Germany); Hosten, Norbert, E-mail: hosten@uni-greifswald.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitaet Greifswald, Sauerbruchstrasse, 17487 Greifswald (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Perfusion-mediated tissue cooling has often been described in the literature for thermal ablation therapies of liver tumors. The objective of this study was to investigate the cooling effects of both perfusion and ventilation during laser ablation of lung malignancies. Materials and methods: An ex vivo lung model was used to maintain near physiological conditions for the specimens. Fourteen human lung lobes containing only primary lung tumors (non-small cell lung cancer) were used. Laser ablation was carried out using a Nd:YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm and laser fibers with 30 mm diffusing tips. Continuous invasive temperature measurement in 10 mm distance from the laser fiber was performed. Laser power was increased at 2 W increments starting at 10 W up to a maximum power of 12-20 W until a temperature plateau around 60 deg. C was reached at one sensor. Ventilation and perfusion were discontinued for 6 min each to assess their effects on temperature development. Results: The experiments lead to 25 usable temperature profiles. A significant temperature increase was observed for both discontinued ventilation and perfusion. In 6 min without perfusion, the temperature rose about 5.5 deg. C (mean value, P < 0.05); without ventilation it increased about 7.0 deg. C (mean value, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Ventilation- and perfusion-mediated tissue cooling are significant influencing factors on temperature development during thermal ablation. They should be taken into account during the planning and preparation of minimally invasive lung tumor treatment in order to achieve complete ablation.

  2. MRI of pulmonary perfusion; MRT der Lungenperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Risse, F.; Semmler, W. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Kauczor, H.-U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Lung perfusion is a crucial prerequisite for effective gas exchange. Quantification of pulmonary perfusion is important for diagnostic considerations and treatment planning in various diseases of the lungs. Besides disorders of pulmonary vessels such as acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, these also include diseases of the respiratory tract and lung tissue as well as pulmonary tumors. This contribution presents the possibilities and technical requirements of MRI for diagnostic work-up of pulmonary perfusion. (orig.) [German] Die Perfusion der Lunge ist eine entscheidende Voraussetzung fuer einen effektiven Gasaustausch. Die Bestimmung der Lungenperfusion ist bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen der Lunge fuer Diagnostik und Therapieplanung bedeutsam. Hierzu zaehlen neben Erkrankungen der Lungengefaesse wie akute Lungenembolie und pulmonale Hypertension ebenso Erkrankungen der Atemwege, des Lungengeruests und Lungentumoren. In diesem Beitrag werden die Moeglichkeiten und technischen Voraussetzungen der MRT zur Diagnostik der Lungenperfusion dargestellt. (orig.)

  3. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for perfusion quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, during bolus passage of a paramagnetic contrast agent, is used world-wide to obtain parameters that reflect the pathological state of tissue. Abnormal perfusion occurs in diseases such as stoke and tumour. Consequently, perfusion quantication could have signi cant...... clinical value both in diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies. One approach for perfusion quanti cation involves using the contrast mechanism that a ects the transverse relaxation rates of the magnetization, R2 or R 2 , since this provides the most pronounced effect. However, the linearity between...

  4. Perfusion imaging with single-photon emission computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, B.L.; Hill, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    SPECT with perfusion tracers is useful in a number of circumstances: (1) In acute cerebral infarction while the CT scan may be normal for several days after onset of symptoms, the uptake of SPECT perfusion tracers will be altered immediately after the onset of the stroke. Even when the CT scan has become abnormal, the physiologic abnormality may exceed the anatomic abnormality. One may, therefore be able to measure the extent of the reversibly ischemic tissue early enough to justify more agressive therapeutic interventions. (2) For endarterectomy and other surgical and medical therapies serial measurements of regional cerebral perfusion with SPECT may provide a readily available tool to assess their efficacy. (3) SPECT perfusion imaging may become the method of choice for the diagnosis and evaluation of Alzheimer's disease. (4) In patients with epilepsy, the extent and location of the abnormally perfused focus may be important to medical and surgical management. Follow-up examination may be useful in documenting the effectiveness of therapy

  5. Pathologic evaluation of normal and perfused term placental tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maroun, Lisa Leth; Mathiesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This study reports for the 1st time the incidence and interobserver variation of morphologic findings in a series of 34 term placentas from pregnancies with normal outcome used for perfusion studies. Histologic evaluation of placental tissue is challenging, especially when it comes to defining...... "normal tissue" versus "pathologic lesions." A scoring system for registration of abnormal morphologic findings was developed. Light microscopic examination was performed independently by 2 pathologists, and interobserver variation was analyzed. Findings in normal and perfused tissue were compared...... and selected findings were tested against success parameters from the perfusions. Finally, the criteria for frequent lesions with fair to poor interobserver variation in the nonperfused tissue were revised and reanalyzed. In the perfused tissue, the perfusion artefact "trophoblastic vacuolization," which...

  6. Development of an Extracorporeal Perfusion Device for Small Animal Free Flaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas M Fichter

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal perfusion (ECP might prolong the vital storage capabilities of composite free flaps, potentially opening a wide range of clinical applications. Aim of the study was the development a validated low-cost extracorporeal perfusion model for further research in small animal free flaps.After establishing optimal perfusion settings, a specially designed extracorporeal perfusion system was evaluated during 8-hour perfusion of rat epigastric flaps followed by microvascular free flap transfer. Controls comprised sham-operation, ischemia and in vivo perfusion. Flaps and perfusate (diluted blood were closely monitored by blood gas analysis, combined laser Doppler flowmetry and remission spectroscopy and Indocyanine-Green angiography. Evaluations were complemented by assessment of necrotic area and light microscopy at day 7.ECP was established and maintained for 8 hours with constant potassium and pH levels. Subsequent flap transfer was successful. Notably, the rate of necrosis of extracorporeally perfused flaps (27% was even lower than after in vivo perfusion (49%, although not statistically significant (P = 0,083. After sham-operation, only 6% of the total flap area became necrotic, while 8-hour ischemia led to total flap loss (98%. Angiographic and histological findings confirmed these observations.Vital storage capabilities of microvascular flaps can be prolonged by temporary ECP. Our study provides important insights on the pathophysiological processes during extracorporeal tissue perfusion and provides a validated small animal perfusion model for further studies.

  7. Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging for the Diagnosis of Hepatic Alveolar Echinococcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sade, Recep; Kantarci, Mecit; Genc, Berhan; Ogul, Hayri; Gundogdu, Betul; Yilmaz, Omer

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a rare life-threatening parasitic infection. Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging has the potential to provide both quantitative and qualitative information about the tissue perfusion characteristics. The purpose of this study was the examination of the characteristic features and feasibility of CTP in AE liver lesions. Material and Methods: CTP scanning was performed in 25 patients who had a total of 35 lesions identified as AE of the liver. Blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), portal venous perfusion (PVP), arterial liver perfusion (ALP), and hepatic perfusion indexes (HPI) were computed for background liver parenchyma and each AE lesion. Results: Significant differences were detected between perfusion values of the AE lesions and background liver tissue. The BV, BF, ALP, and PVP values for all components of the AE liver lesions were significantly lower than the normal liver parenchyma (p<0.01). Conclusions: We suggest that perfusion imaging can be used in AE of the liver. Thus, the quantitative knowledge of perfusion parameters are obtained via CT perfusion imaging. PMID:29531482

  8. Patient satisfaction with coronary CT angiography, myocardial CT perfusion, myocardial perfusion MRI, SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging and conventional coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, S.; Rief, M.; Zimmermann, E.; Richter, F.; Roehle, R. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Dewey, M. [Freie Universitaet Berlin, Department of Radiology, Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Berlin (Germany); Schoenenberger, E. [Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Department of Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    To evaluate patient acceptance of noninvasive imaging tests for detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), including single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI), stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), coronary CT angiography (CTA) in combination with CT myocardial stress perfusion (CTP), and conventional coronary angiography (CCA). Intraindividual comparison of perception of 48 patients from the CORE320 multicentre multinational study who underwent rest and stress SPECT-MPI with a technetium-based tracer, combined CTA and CTP (both with contrast agent, CTP with adenosine), MRI, and CCA. The analysis was performed by using a validated questionnaire. Patients had significantly more concern prior to CCA than before CTA/CTP (p < 0.001). CTA/CTP was also rated as more comfortable than SPECT-MPI (p = 0.001). Overall satisfaction with CT was superior to that of MRI (p = 0.007). More patients preferred CT (46 %; p < 0.001) as a future diagnostic test. Regarding combined CTA/CTP, CTP was characterised by higher pain levels and an increased frequency of angina pectoris during the examination (p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a higher degree of pain during SPECT-MPI with adenosine stress compared to physical exercise (p = 0.016). All noninvasive cardiac imaging tests are well accepted by patients, with CT being the preferred examination. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2 in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334% and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264% and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature.

  10. Nifedipine and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahan, A.; Devaux, J.Y.; Amor, B.

    1986-01-01

    Heart disease in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis may be due in part to myocardial ischemia caused by a disturbance of the coronary microcirculation. To determine whether abnormalities of myocardial perfusion in this disorder are potentially reversible, we evaluated the effect of the coronary vasodilator nifedipine on myocardial perfusion assessed by thallium-201 scanning in 20 patients. Thallium-201 single-photon-emission computerized tomography was performed under control conditions and 90 minutes after 20 mg of oral nifedipine. The mean (+/- SD) number of left ventricular segments with perfusion defects decreased from 5.3 +/- 2.0 to 3.3 +/- 2.2 after nifedipine (P = 0.0003). Perfusion abnormalities were quantified by a perfusion score (0 to 2.0) assigned to each left ventricular segment and by a global perfusion score (0 to 18) for the entire left ventricle. The mean perfusion score in segments with resting defects increased from 0.97 +/- 0.24 to 1.26 +/- 0.44 after nifedipine (P less than 0.00001). The mean global perfusion score increased from 11.2 +/- 1.7 to 12.8 +/- 2.4 after nifedipine (P = 0.003). The global perfusion score increased by at least 2.0 in 10 patients and decreased by at least 2.0 in only 1. These observations reveal short-term improvement in thallium-201 myocardial perfusion with nifedipine in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. The results are consistent with a potentially reversible abnormality of coronary vasomotion in this disorder, but the long-term therapeutic effects of nifedipine remain to be determined

  11. Ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valind, S.O.

    1989-01-01

    The thesis is based on five different papers. The labelling of specific tracer compounds with positron emitting radionuclides enables a range of structural, physiological and biochemical parameters in the lung to be measured non-invasively, using positron emission tomography. This concept affords a unique opportunity for in vivo studies of different expressions of pulmonary pathophysiology at the regional level. The present thesis describes the application of positron emission tomography to the measurements of ventilation and ventilation/perfusion ratios using inert gas tracers, neon-19 and nitrogen-13 respectively. The validity of the methods applied was investigated with respect to the transport of inert gas tracers in the human lung. Both ventilation and the ventilation/perfusion ratio may be obtained with errors less than 10 % in the normal lung. In disease, however, errors may increase in those instances where the regional ventilation is very low or the intra-regional gas flow distribution is markedly nonuniform. A 2-3 fold increase in ventilation was demonstrated in normal nonsmoking subjects going from ventral to dorsal regions in the supine posture. These large regional differences could be well explained by the intrinsic elastic properties of lung tissue, considering the gravitational gradient in transpulmonary pressure. In asymptomatic smokers substantial regional ventilatroy abnormalities were found whilst the regional gas volume was similar in smokers and nonsmokers. The uncoupling between ventilation and gas volume probably reflects inflammatory changes in the airways. The regional differences in dV/dt/dQ/dt were relatively small and blood flow was largely matched to ventilation in the supine posture. However, small regions of lung with very low ventilation, unmatched by blood flow commonly exists in the most dependent parts of the lung in both smokers and nonsmokers. (29 illustrations, 7 tables, 113 references)

  12. Renal perfusion image using harmonic ultrasound with microbble contrast agent: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Choi, Jae Ho; Han, Dong Chul; Lee, Hi Bahl; Choi, Deuk Lin; Eun, Hyo Won; Lee, Hun Jae

    2003-01-01

    To compare, in terms of their feasibility and normal range, 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging and renal perfusion imaging using harmonic ultrasound (US) with a microbubble contrast agent for the evaluation of renal perfusion after renal transplantation. During a six-month period, thirty patients who had received a renal transplant underwent both 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging and renal perfusion imaging using harmonic US with a microbubble contrast agent. Sonographic renal perfusion images were obtained before and after a bolus injection of the microbubble contrast agent Levovist TM (SH U 5084; Schering AG, Berlin, Germany) every 3 seconds for 3 minutes. Sonographic renal perfusion images were converted into a renal perfusion curve by a computer program and T peak of the curve thus obtained was compared with that of the 99m Tc-DTPA curve. Average T peak of the 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion curve was 16.2 seconds in the normal group and 39.6 seconds in the delayed perfusion group, while average T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 23.7 seconds and 46.2 seconds, respectively. T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve showed a good correlation with that of the 99m Tc-DTPA curve (correlation coefficient=0.8209; p=0.0001). The cut-off value of T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 35 seconds (sensitivity=90%, specificity=95%). In patients who have received a renal transplant, the findings of renal perfusion imaging using harmonic US with a microbubble contrast agent show close correlation with those of 99m Tc-DTPA renal perfusion imaging. The optimal cut-off value of T peak of the sonographic renal perfusion curve was 35 seconds

  13. Myocardial perfusion in type 2 diabetes with left ventricular hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Birger; Meyer, Christian; Nielsen, Flemming S

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether acute angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition would improve myocardial perfusion and perfusion reserve in a subpopulation of normotensive patients with diabetes and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), both independent risk factors of coronary...... disease. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated the response of regional myocardial perfusion to acute ACE inhibition with i.v. infusion of perindoprilat (vs saline infusion as control, minimum interval 3 days) in 12 diabetic patients with LVH. Myocardial perfusion was quantified...... with controls, maximal perfusion was reduced in patients (1.8+/-0.6 vs 2.5+/-1.0 ml min(-1) g(-1); P2.7+/-1.0 vs 3.6+/-1.3; P=0.059). During perindoprilat infusion, myocardial perfusion reserve in patients increased to 3.9+/-0.9 ( P

  14. PX-18 Protects Human Saphenous Vein Endothelial Cells under Arterial Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupreishvili, Koba; Stooker, Wim; Emmens, Reindert W; Vonk, Alexander B A; Sipkens, Jessica A; van Dijk, Annemieke; Eijsman, Leon; Quax, Paul H; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Krijnen, Paul A J; Niessen, Hans W M

    2017-07-01

    Arterial blood pressure-induced shear stress causes endothelial cell apoptosis and inflammation in vein grafts after coronary artery bypass grafting. As the inflammatory protein type IIA secretory phospholipase A 2 (sPLA 2 -IIA) has been shown to progress atherosclerosis, we hypothesized a role for sPLA 2 -IIA herein. The effects of PX-18, an inhibitor of both sPLA 2 -IIA and apoptosis, on residual endothelium and the presence of sPLA 2 -IIA were studied in human saphenous vein segments (n = 6) perfused at arterial blood pressure with autologous blood for 6 hrs. The presence of PX-18 in the perfusion blood induced a significant 20% reduction in endothelial cell loss compared to veins perfused without PX18, coinciding with significantly reduced sPLA 2 -IIA levels in the media of the vein graft wall. In addition, PX-18 significantly attenuated caspase-3 activation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to shear stress via mechanical stretch independent of sPLA 2 -IIA. In conclusion, PX-18 protects saphenous vein endothelial cells from arterial blood pressure-induced death, possibly also independent of sPLA 2 -IIA inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of Gravity on Blood Volume and Flow Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D.; Olszowka, A.; Bednarczyk, E.; Shykoff, B.; Farhi, L.

    1999-01-01

    In our previous experiments during NASA Shuttle flights SLS 1 and 2 (9-15 days) and EUROMIR flights (30-90 days) we observed that pulmonary blood flow (cardiac output) was elevated initially, and surprisingly remained elevated for the duration of the flights. Stroke volume increased initially and then decreased, but was still above 1 Gz values. As venous return was constant, the changes in SV were secondary to modulation of heart rate. Mean blood pressure was at or slightly below 1 Gz levels in space, indicating a decrease in total peripheral resistance. It has been suggested that plasma volume is reduced in space, however cardiac output/venous return do not return to 1 Gz levels over the duration of flight. In spite of the increased cardiac output, central venous pressure was not elevated in space. These data suggest that there is a change in the basic relationship between cardiac output and central venous pressure, a persistent "hyperperfusion" and a re-distribution of blood flow and volume during space flight. Increased pulmonary blood flow has been reported to increase diffusing capacity in space, presumably due to the improved homogeneity of ventilation and perfusion. Other studies have suggested that ventilation may be independent of gravity, and perfusion may not be gravity- dependent. No data for the distribution of pulmonary blood volume were available for flight or simulated microgravity. Recent studies have suggested that the pulmonary vascular tree is influenced by sympathetic tone in a manner similar to that of the systemic system. This implies that the pulmonary circulation is dilated during microgravity and that the distribution of blood flow and volume may be influenced more by vascular control than by gravity. The cerebral circulation is influenced by sympathetic tone similarly to that of the systemic and pulmonary circulations; however its effects are modulated by cerebral autoregulation. Thus it is difficult to predict if cerebral perfusion is

  16. A Unifying model of perfusion and motion applied to reconstruction of sparsely sampled free-breathing myocardial perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    The clinical potential of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is currently limited by respiratory induced motion of the heart. This paper presents a unifying model of perfusion and motion in which respiratory motion becomes an integral part of myocardial perfusion...... quantification. Hence, the need for tedious manual motion correction prior to perfusion quantification is avoided. In addition, we demonstrate that the proposed framework facilitates the process of reconstructing DCEMRI from sparsely sampled data in the presence of respiratory motion. The paper focuses primarily...... on the underlying theory of the proposed framework, but shows in vivo results of respiratory motion correction and simulation results of reconstructing sparsely sampled data....

  17. Microfluidic perfusion culture of human induced pluripotent stem cells under fully defined culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimitsu, Ryosuke; Hattori, Koji; Sugiura, Shinji; Kondo, Yuki; Yamada, Rotaro; Tachikawa, Saoko; Satoh, Taku; Kurisaki, Akira; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi; Asashima, Makoto; Kanamori, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are a promising cell source for drug screening. For this application, self-renewal or differentiation of the cells is required, and undefined factors in the culture conditions are not desirable. Microfluidic perfusion culture allows the production of small volume cultures with precisely controlled microenvironments, and is applicable to high-throughput cellular environment screening. Here, we developed a microfluidic perfusion culture system for hiPSCs that uses a microchamber array chip under defined extracellular matrix (ECM) and culture medium conditions. By screening various ECMs we determined that fibronectin and laminin are appropriate for microfluidic devices made out of the most popular material, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We found that the growth rate of hiPSCs under pressure-driven perfusion culture conditions was higher than under static culture conditions in the microchamber array. We applied our new system to self-renewal and differentiation cultures of hiPSCs, and immunocytochemical analysis showed that the state of the hiPSCs was successfully controlled. The effects of three antitumor drugs on hiPSCs were comparable between microchamber array and 96-well plates. We believe that our system will be a platform technology for future large-scale screening of fully defined conditions for differentiation cultures on integrated microfluidic devices. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced acute lung injury in an isolated perfused rabbit-lung model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumoto, Masato; Nishida, Osamu; Nakamura, Fujio; Katsuya, Hirotada

    2005-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species have been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI). Some animal studies suggest that free radical scavengers inhibit the onset of oxidant-induced ALI. Propofol (2,6-diisopropylphenol) is chemically similar to phenol-based free radical scavengers such as the endogenous antioxidant vitamin E. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have suggested that propofol has antioxidant potential. We hypothesized that propofol may attenuate ALI by acting as a free-radical scavenger. We investigated the effects of propofol on oxidant-induced ALI induced by purine and xanthine oxidase (XO), in isolated perfused rabbit lung, in two series of experiments. In series 1, we examined the relationship between the severity of ALI and the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In series 2, we evaluated the effects of propofol on attenuating ALI and the dose dependence of these effects. The lungs were perfused for 90 min, and we evaluated the effects on the severity of ALI by monitoring the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa), and the pulmonary capillary hydrostatic pressure (Ppc). In series 1, treatment with catalase (an H2O2 scavenger) prior to the addition of purine and XO resulted in complete prevention of ALI, suggesting that H2O2 may be involved closely in the pathogenesis of ALI. In series 2, pretreatment with propofol at concentrations in excess of 0.5 mM significantly inhibited the increases in the Kfc values, and that in excess of 0.75 mM significantly inhibited the increase in the Ppa values. Propofol attenuates oxidant-induced ALI in an isolated perfused rabbit lung model, probably due to its antioxidant action.

  19. Adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT and adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT for the assessment of acute chest pain: Initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weininger, Markus [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Ramachandra, Ashok [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Fink, Christian [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany); Rowe, Garrett W.; Costello, Philip [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Henzler, Thomas [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Heidelberg University (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Recent innovations in CT enable the evolution from mere morphologic imaging to dynamic and functional testing. We describe our initial experience performing myocardial stress perfusion CT in a clinical population with acute chest pain. Methods and materials: Myocardial stress perfusion CT was performed on twenty consecutive patients (15 men, 5 women; mean age 65 ± 8 years) who presented with acute chest pain and were clinically referred for stress/rest SPECT and cardiac MRI. Prior to CT each patient was randomly assigned either to Group A or to Group B in a consecutive order (10 patients per group). Group A underwent adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT using a novel “shuttle” mode on a 2nd generation dual-source CT. Group B underwent adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT using the same CT scanner in dual-energy mode. Two experienced observers visually analyzed all CT perfusion studies. CT findings were compared with MRI and SPECT. Results: In Group A 149/170 myocardial segments (88%) could be evaluated. Real-time perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 86% (84%) sensitivity, 98% (92%) specificity, 94% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (92%) negative predictive value in comparison with perfusion MRI for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. In Group B all myocardial segments were available for analysis. Compared with MRI, dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 93% (94%) sensitivity, 99% (98%) specificity, 92% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (94%) negative predictive value for detecting hypoperfused myocardial segments. Conclusion: Our results suggest the clinical feasibility of myocardial perfusion CT imaging in patients with acute chest pain. Compared to MRI and SPECT both, dynamic real-time perfusion CT and first-pass dual-energy perfusion CT showed good agreement for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects.

  20. Adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT and adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT for the assessment of acute chest pain: Initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, Markus; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Ramachandra, Ashok; Fink, Christian; Rowe, Garrett W.; Costello, Philip; Henzler, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Recent innovations in CT enable the evolution from mere morphologic imaging to dynamic and functional testing. We describe our initial experience performing myocardial stress perfusion CT in a clinical population with acute chest pain. Methods and materials: Myocardial stress perfusion CT was performed on twenty consecutive patients (15 men, 5 women; mean age 65 ± 8 years) who presented with acute chest pain and were clinically referred for stress/rest SPECT and cardiac MRI. Prior to CT each patient was randomly assigned either to Group A or to Group B in a consecutive order (10 patients per group). Group A underwent adenosine-stress dynamic real-time myocardial perfusion CT using a novel “shuttle” mode on a 2nd generation dual-source CT. Group B underwent adenosine-stress first-pass dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT using the same CT scanner in dual-energy mode. Two experienced observers visually analyzed all CT perfusion studies. CT findings were compared with MRI and SPECT. Results: In Group A 149/170 myocardial segments (88%) could be evaluated. Real-time perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 86% (84%) sensitivity, 98% (92%) specificity, 94% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (92%) negative predictive value in comparison with perfusion MRI for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. In Group B all myocardial segments were available for analysis. Compared with MRI, dual-energy myocardial perfusion CT (versus SPECT) had 93% (94%) sensitivity, 99% (98%) specificity, 92% (88%) positive predictive value, and 96% (94%) negative predictive value for detecting hypoperfused myocardial segments. Conclusion: Our results suggest the clinical feasibility of myocardial perfusion CT imaging in patients with acute chest pain. Compared to MRI and SPECT both, dynamic real-time perfusion CT and first-pass dual-energy perfusion CT showed good agreement for the detection of myocardial perfusion defects.

  1. Influence of arc current and pressure on non-chemical equilibrium air arc behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, WU; Yufei, CUI; Jiawei, DUAN; Hao, SUN; Chunlin, WANG; Chunping, NIU

    2018-01-01

    The influence of arc current and pressure on the non-chemical equilibrium (non-CE) air arc behavior of a nozzle structure was investigated based on the self-consistent non-chemical equilibrium model. The arc behavior during both the arc burning and arc decay phases were discussed at different currents and different pressures. We also devised the concept of a non-equilibrium parameter for a better understanding of non-CE effects. During the arc burning phase, the increasing current leads to a decrease of the non-equilibrium parameter of the particles in the arc core, while the increasing pressure leads to an increase of the non-equilibrium parameter of the particles in the arc core. During the arc decay phase, the non-CE effect will decrease by increasing the arc burning current and the nozzle pressure. Three factors together—convection, diffusion and chemical reactions—influence non-CE behavior.

  2. Hemodynamic study on liver cirrhosis: clinical application of CT perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Li; Yang Jianyong; Xie Hongbo; Yang Xufeng; Yan Chaogui; Li Ziping; Zeng Fang

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate hepatic perfusion parameters with helical CT, and to study the relationship between hepatic perfusion parameters and the severity of liver cirrhosis. Methods: Dynamic single-section computed tomography (CT) of the liver was performed in 40 participants, including 27 patients with liver cirrhosis and 13 patients without liver disease (control subjects). CT scans were obtained at a single level to include the liver, spleen, aorta, and portal vein. On each CT scan, the attenuation of these organs was measured in regions of interest to provide time-density curves. The arterial, portal venous, and total perfusion of the liver and the hepatic perfusion index were assessed. Results: In the control group, hepatic arterial perfusion, portal venous perfusion, and total hepatic perfusion were (0.2823 ± 0.0969) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , (1.1788 ± 0.4004) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , and (1.4563 ± 0.4439) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively. Hepatic perfusion index was (19.73 ±5.81)%. These hepatic perfusion parameters correlated significantly with the severity of liver cirrhosis. Hepatic arterial perfusion decreased in Child A and B cirrhotic patients [ (0.1685 ± 0.1068) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 and (0.1921 ± 0.0986) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively]. Comparing to Child A and B cirrhotic patients, hepatic arterial perfusion in Child C cirrhotic patients [(0.3072 · 0.1145) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 ] raised significantly. Portal venous perfusion decreased significantly in Child B and C cirrhotic patients [(0.6331±0.2070) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 and (0.5702 ± 0.3562) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively]. Total hepatic blood flow reduced markedly in Child B and C cirrhotic patients [(0.8252 ± 0.2952) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 and (0.8774 ± 0.4118) ml·min -1 ·ml -1 , respectively]. Hepatic perfusion index increased in Child C cirrhotic patients (37.48 ± 16.65)%. Conclusion: Dynamic single-section CT showed potential in quantifying hepatic perfusion parameters, and hepatic perfusion

  3. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A C; Calegaro, J U.M. [Fundacao Hospitalar do Distrito Federal, Distrito Federal (Brazil). Unidade de Medicina Nuclear

    1982-07-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized.

  4. Study of lung perfusion in colagenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo de Carvalho, A.C.; Calegaro, J.U.M.

    1982-01-01

    The lung involvement in the various types of colagenosis has been widely described in the literature. However, the study of lung perfusion utilizing radionuclides has been only mentioned in a few papers. With the intention of ascertaining the importance of the lung perfusion scanning in colagenosis, ten cases were studied, seven of which were females and three males, with the following pathologies: 4 rheumatoid arthritis, 4 systemic lupus eritematosous, 1 scleroderma and 1 scleroderma plus dermatomyositis. The ages of the patients varied from 20 to 73 years, and the duration of the disease from 1 month to 39 years. The lung scanning showed perfusion defects in 100% of the cases, not related with the type of colagenosis, duration of the disease, sex or age. On the other hand, the X rays study showed alterations in only 2 patients (20% of the cases). The ventilatory and respiratory functions were tested on 7 patients showing alteration (mixed pattern with predominance of the restrictive factor) in only one (14.3%), while the other patients were normal (85.7%). The importance of the lung perfusion scanning study in all patients with collagen vascular diseases is emphasized. (author) [es

  5. An in vitro quantification of pressures exerted by earlobe pulse oximeter probes following reports of device-related pressure ulcers in ICU patients .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Teresa T

    2012-11-01

    The earlobe often is used to monitor perfusion when pulse oximeter signal quality is impaired in the fingers and toes. Prompted by intermittent occurrences of roughly circular earlobe pressure ulcers among patients in intensive care units, a convenience sample of seven calibrated pulse oximeter probes was used to quantify earlobe pressure exerted by these devices in vitro. All were tested twice with an electronic load cell, a strain gauge with a transducer that transforms the measured force into a readable numerical signal. The probe was clipped to the load cell just as it is clipped to the earlobe in the clinical setting. The probes exerted an average of 0.24 lb (SD 0.6) of force over an area of 0.3 square inches, equal to an average of 20.7 mm Hg (SD 0.6) pressure on tissue. This value exceeds some empirically derived values of capillary perfusion pressure. The occurrence of device-related pressure ulcers, as well pressure ulcers on the ears, has been documented, but little is known about device-related earlobe pressure ulcers or the actual pressure exerted by these devices. Additional in vitro studies are needed to quantify the pressures exerted by these and other probes, and future prevalence and incidence studies should include more detailed pressure ulcer location and device use documentation. Until more is known about the possible role of these devices in the development of pressure ulcers, clinicians should be cognizant of their potential for causing pressure ulcers, particularly in patients whose conditions can compromise skin integrity.

  6. MR-based assessment of pulmonary ventilation-perfusion in animal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jian; Wan Mingxi; Guo Youmin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To show the feasibility and value in the diagnosis of airway obstruction and pulmonary embolism with MR oxygen-enhanced ventilation combined with pulmonary perfusion imaging. Methods: Eight canines were implemented for peripheral pulmonary embolism by intravenous injection of gelfoam granules at pulmonary segmental arterial level, and five of them were formed airway obstruction models by inserting self-made balloon catheter at second-bronchia. The oxygen-enhanced MR ventilation imaging was introduced by subtracting the images of pre- and post- inhaled pure oxygen. The MR pulmonary perfusion imaging was achieved by the first-pass contrast agent method. Moreover, the manifestation of MR ventilation and perfusion imaging was observed and contradistinguished with that of general pathologic anatomy, ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy, and pulmonary angiography. Results: The manifestations of airway obstruction regions in MR ventilation and perfusion imaging were matched, but those of pulmonary embolism regions were dismatched. The defect range of airway obstruction in MR ventilation image was smaller than that in ventilation scintigraphy. The abnormal perfusion regions of pulmonary embolism were divided into defect regions and reduce regions based on the time courses of signal intensity changes. The sensitivity and specificity of diagnosis on pulmonary embolism by MR ventilation combined with perfusion technique were 75.0% and 98.1%. The diagnostic results were in good coherence with ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy and pulmonary angiography (K=0.743, 0.899). Conclusion: The MR oxygen-enhanced ventilation combined with pulmonary perfusion imaging can be used to diagnose the airway and vascular abnormity in lung. This technique resembles the ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy. It can provide quantitative functional information and better spatial and temporal resolution, and possesses the value of clinical application

  7. Patient-specific coronary blood supply territories for quantitative perfusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkaroff, Constantine; Biglands, John D.; Greenwood, John P.; Plein, Sven; Boyle, Roger D.; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Magee, Derek R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Myocardial perfusion imaging, coupled with quantitative perfusion analysis, provides an important diagnostic tool for the identification of ischaemic heart disease caused by coronary stenoses. The accurate mapping between coronary anatomy and under-perfused areas of the myocardium is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, in the absence of the actual coronary anatomy during the reporting of perfusion images, areas of ischaemia are allocated to a coronary territory based on a population-derived 17-segment (American Heart Association) AHA model of coronary blood supply. This work presents a solution for the fusion of 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion images and 3D MR angiography data with the aim to improve the detection of ischaemic heart disease. The key contribution of this work is a novel method for the mediated spatiotemporal registration of perfusion and angiography data and a novel method for the calculation of patient-specific coronary supply territories. The registration method uses 4D cardiac MR cine series spanning the complete cardiac cycle in order to overcome the under-constrained nature of non-rigid slice-to-volume perfusion-to-angiography registration. This is achieved by separating out the deformable registration problem and solving it through phase-to-phase registration of the cine series. The use of patient-specific blood supply territories in quantitative perfusion analysis (instead of the population-based model of coronary blood supply) has the potential of increasing the accuracy of perfusion analysis. Quantitative perfusion analysis diagnostic accuracy evaluation with patient-specific territories against the AHA model demonstrates the value of the mediated spatiotemporal registration in the context of ischaemic heart disease diagnosis. PMID:29392098

  8. Scintigraphic assessment of normal values of lower limb perfusion under stress and rest, with possible clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkowski, B.; Zajac, A.; Maziarz, Z.; Zaborowski, G.; Ryglewska-Brzozowska, M.; Malara, A.; Tryniszewski, W.

    2005-01-01

    The lack of a range of normal values of perfusion in the lower limbs during stress and at rest narrows the use of this type of diagnostic tool to the estimation of the current state of relative perfusion without indications of the presence or level of perfusion disturbances. Numerous reports on early changes in endothelium reactivity (depending on disease and degree of vessel pathology) encouraged us to assess lower limb perfusion in healthy people. Our goal was to 1) work out a program and method which would enable lower limb perfusion assessment under stress and at rest in patients without signs of lower limb circulation deprivation and 2) establish the normal range of indexes of lower limb perfusion under stress and at rest which would enable their use in the diagnostics of lower limb muscle circulation. 33 male patients aged between 25 to 45 years (mean: 35.30 ± 6.04) without signs of circulatory problems were entered into the study. To exclude circulatory disturbances, Doppler USG, blood pressure, and laboratory tests were performed on every patient at rest 5 min. after the injection of 11.1 MBq/kg 99 mTc MIBI. Whole body as well as thigh and calf scintigrams were made with an ELSCINT SP6HR gamma-camera. The symmetry of the thigh and calf perfusion (WSU, WSP) and the indexes of the thigh (WPLU, WPPU) and calf (WPLP, WSPP) perfusion of both lower limbs were estimated. At rest: WSP: 96.47% ±1.02, WSP: 96.47% ± 1.02, WPLP: 9.77 ± 0.32, WPPP: 9.78 ± 0.31, WPLU: 8.45 ± 0.22, WPPU: 8.48 ± 0.22. Under stress: WSP: 96.69% ± 1.32, WSU: 96.41% ± 1.20, WPLP: 8.78 ± 0.26, WPPP: 8.81 ± 0.25, WPLU: 7.77 ± 0.25, WPPU: 7.82 ± 0.26. Anamnesis, additional studies, and laboratory tests in the group examined did not show any circulatory disturbances. The estimated values in patients without circulatory disturbances are similar and within a narrow range, which allows us to calculate the norms of lower limb perfusion at rest and under stress. The determined normal

  9. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Ventilation and Perfusion in the Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisk, Gordon Kim (Inventor); Hopkins, Susan Roberta (Inventor); Buxton, Richard Bruce (Inventor); Pereira De Sa, Rui Carlos (Inventor); Theilmann, Rebecca Jean (Inventor); Cronin, Matthew Vincent (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Methods, devices, and systems are disclosed for implementing a fully quantitative non-injectable contrast proton MRI technique to measure spatial ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) matching and spatial distribution of ventilation and perfusion. In one aspect, a method using MRI to characterize ventilation and perfusion in a lung includes acquiring an MR image of the lung having MR data in a voxel and obtaining a breathing frequency parameter, determining a water density value, a specific ventilation value, and a perfusion value in at least one voxel of the MR image based on the MR data and using the water density value to determine an air content value, and determining a ventilation-perfusion ratio value that is the product of the specific ventilation value, the air content value, the inverse of the perfusion value, and the breathing frequency.

  10. Whole-brain dynamic CT angiography and perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrison, W.W. [CHW Nevada Imaging Company, Nevada Imaging Centers, Spring Valley, Las Vegas, NV (United States); College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Department of Medical Education, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV (United States); Snyder, K.V.; Hopkins, L.N. [Department of Neurosurgery, Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Buffalo, NY (United States); Roach, C.J. [School of Life Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ringdahl, E.N. [Department of Psychology, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nazir, R. [Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan); Hanson, E.H., E-mail: eric.hanson@amigenics.co [College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University Nevada, Henderson, NV (United States); Department of Health Physics and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Advanced Medical Imaging and Genetics (Amigenics), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2011-06-15

    The availability of whole brain computed tomography (CT) perfusion has expanded the opportunities for analysing the haemodynamic parameters associated with varied neurological conditions. Examples demonstrating the clinical utility of whole-brain CT perfusion imaging in selected acute and chronic ischaemic arterial neurovascular conditions are presented. Whole-brain CT perfusion enables the detection and focused haemodynamic analyses of acute and chronic arterial conditions in the central nervous system without the limitation of partial anatomical coverage of the brain.

  11. Towards robust deconvolution of low-dose perfusion CT: Sparse perfusion deconvolution using online dictionary learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ruogu; Chen, Tsuhan; Sanelli, Pina C.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) is an important functional imaging modality in the evaluation of cerebrovascular diseases, particularly in acute stroke and vasospasm. However, the post-processed parametric maps of blood flow tend to be noisy, especially in low-dose CTP, due to the noisy contrast enhancement profile and the oscillatory nature of the results generated by the current computational methods. In this paper, we propose a robust sparse perfusion deconvolution method (SPD) to estimate cerebral blood flow in CTP performed at low radiation dose. We first build a dictionary from high-dose perfusion maps using online dictionary learning and then perform deconvolution-based hemodynamic parameters estimation on the low-dose CTP data. Our method is validated on clinical data of patients with normal and pathological CBF maps. The results show that we achieve superior performance than existing methods, and potentially improve the differentiation between normal and ischemic tissue in the brain. PMID:23542422

  12. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul

    2010-01-01

    mlh(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success rate...

  13. Dual energy CT for the assessment of lung perfusion-Correlation to scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thieme, Sven F.; Becker, Christoph R.; Hacker, Marcus; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Johnson, Thorsten R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of dual energy CT in the assessment of pulmonary perfusion with reference to pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy. Thirteen patients received both dual energy CT (DECT) angiography (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Median time between scans was 3 days (range, 0-90). DECT perfusion maps were generated based on the spectral properties of iodine. Two blinded observes assessed DECT angiograms, perfusion maps and scintigrams for presence and location of perfusion defects. The results were compared by patient and by segment, and diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion imaging was calculated regarding scintigraphy as standard of reference. Diagnostic accuracy per patient showed 75% sensitivity, 80% specificity and a negative predictive value of 66%. Sensitivity per segment amounted to 83% with 99% specificity, with 93% negative predictive value. Peripheral parts of the lungs were not completely covered by the 80 kVp detector in 85% of patients. CTA identified corresponding emboli in 66% of patients with concordant perfusion defects in DECT and scintigraphy. Dual energy CT perfusion imaging is able to display pulmonary perfusion defects with good agreement to scintigraphic findings. DECT can provide a pulmonary CT angiogram, high-resolution morphology of the lung parenchyma and perfusion information in one single exam

  14. Dual energy CT for the assessment of lung perfusion-Correlation to scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thieme, Sven F.; Becker, Christoph R. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Nikolaou, Konstantin; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany); Johnson, Thorsten R.C. [Department of Clinical Radiology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich (Germany)], E-mail: thorsten.johnson@med.uni-muenchen.de

    2008-12-15

    Purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of dual energy CT in the assessment of pulmonary perfusion with reference to pulmonary perfusion scintigraphy. Thirteen patients received both dual energy CT (DECT) angiography (Somatom Definition, Siemens) and ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy. Median time between scans was 3 days (range, 0-90). DECT perfusion maps were generated based on the spectral properties of iodine. Two blinded observes assessed DECT angiograms, perfusion maps and scintigrams for presence and location of perfusion defects. The results were compared by patient and by segment, and diagnostic accuracy of DECT perfusion imaging was calculated regarding scintigraphy as standard of reference. Diagnostic accuracy per patient showed 75% sensitivity, 80% specificity and a negative predictive value of 66%. Sensitivity per segment amounted to 83% with 99% specificity, with 93% negative predictive value. Peripheral parts of the lungs were not completely covered by the 80 kVp detector in 85% of patients. CTA identified corresponding emboli in 66% of patients with concordant perfusion defects in DECT and scintigraphy. Dual energy CT perfusion imaging is able to display pulmonary perfusion defects with good agreement to scintigraphic findings. DECT can provide a pulmonary CT angiogram, high-resolution morphology of the lung parenchyma and perfusion information in one single exam.

  15. Filter aids influence on pressure drop across a filtration system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajar, S.; Rashid, M.; Nurnadia, A.; Ammar, M. R.; Hasfalina, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Filter aids is commonly used to reduce pressure drop across air filtration system as it helps to increase the efficiency of filtration of accumulated filter cake. Filtration velocity is one of the main parameters that affect the performance of filter aids material. In this study, a formulated filter aids consisting of PreKot™ and activated carbon mixture (designated as PrekotAC) was tested on PTFE filter media under various filtration velocities of 5, 6, and 8 m/min at a constant material loading of 0.2 mg/mm2. Results showed that pressure drop is highly influenced by filtration velocity where higher filtration velocity leads to a higher pressure drop across the filter cake. It was found that PrekotAC performed better in terms of reducing the pressure drop across the filter cake even at the highest filtration velocity. The diversity in different particle size distribution of non-uniform particle size in the formulated PrekotAC mixture presents a higher permeability causes a lower pressure drop across the accumulated filter cake. The finding suggests that PrekotAC is a promising filter aids material that helps reducing the pressure drop across fabric filtration system.

  16. Cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundley, Kshama; Chowdhury, D.; Lele, V.R.; Lele, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Twelve human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients were studied by SPECT cerebral perfusion imaging 1 hour post injection of 15 mCi of 99m Tc-ECD under ideal conditions with a triple head gamma camera (Prism 3000 X P LEUHR), fanbeam collimators followed by Folstein Mini Mental Status Examination (FMMSE) and AIDS dementia complex (ADC) staging on the same day. All 12 patients were male, in the age range of 23-45 y (mean 31 y). The infected status was diagnosed by ELISA (10 patients) or Western blot (5 patients). The interval between diagnosis and imaging ranged from 1 month - 35 months (mean 15.3 months). Two patients were alcoholic and 2 were smokers. None of them had CNS disorder clinically. ADC staging and FMMSE could be performed in 4 patients. Two patients were normal (stage 0) and 2 were subclinical (stage 0.5) on ADC staging. FMMSE revealed normal or near normal status (mean score 35; maximum score 36). Cerebral perfusion images were interpreted simultaneously by 3 observers blind towards history and examination using semi-quantitative and quantitative methods by consensus. It revealed multiple areas of hypoperfusion, viz. temporal (11 patients (91 %), parietal 10 patients (83%), frontal 9 patients (75%, pre and post central gyrus 7 patients (58%), occipital 6 patients (50%) cingulate gyrus and cerebellum 5 patients (41%) and thalamic in 2 patients (16%). Hyper perfusion in caudate nuclei was noted in 10 patients (83%). The study reveals presence of multiple perfusion abnormalities on cerebral perfusion imaging in HIV positive patients who have normal/near normal mental status suggesting precedence of perfusion abnormality over clinically apparent mental deficit

  17. Automatic Detection of Myocardial Boundaries in MR Cardio Perfusion Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spreeuwers, Luuk; Breeuwer, Marcel

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases often result in reduced blood perfusion of the myocardium (MC). Recent advances in MR allow fast recordingof contrast enhanced myocardial perfusion scans. For perfusion analysis the myocardial boundaries must be traced. Currently this is done manually. In this paper a method

  18. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...

  19. Myocardial perfusion after prolonged submaximal exercise in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flotats, A.; Mena, E.; Camacho, V.; Tembl, A.; Hernandez, M.A.; Estorch, M.; Carrio, I.; Serra-Grima, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has established benefits. We assessed myocardial perfusion after submaximal but prolonged exercise in patients with CAD, who were enrolled in supervised exercise rehabilitation programs. Material and Methods: Nine patients with CAD enrolled in supervised exercise rehabilitation programs (7 men, 2 women; mean age 54±9 years), 7 with prior AMI and 2 with re-vascularized (CABG) multiple vessel disease, were encouraged to walk/run actively around the perimeter of our Hospital during the annual social sporting event organised in our Institution. Patients were studied by means of perfusion Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT imaging after prolonged exercise and at rest (gated SPECT), for two consecutive years. All patients remained symptom free during this interval period. Quantitative analysis was performed dividing polar map images in 13 segments. Tracer activity 9% in the resting image. The analysis was focused on those segments showing perfusion defects. Results: No symptoms other than fatigue were registered during prolonged exercise (range 1-2 hr). There were no significant differences in distance covered (7,462±3,031 m vs. 8,456±2,998 m), heart rate (92±11 bpm vs. 85±13 bpm) and rate-pressure product at the end of exercise (10,804±2,467 vs. 10,403±2,955) or gated SPECT calculated LVEF (44%±19 vs. 46%±20) between the two consecutive annual sporting events. Tracer activity in segments with perfusion defects did not significantly differ between both events. Overall agreement between both examinations regarding patient classification as having scar/ischemia was 77% (kappa=0.49). There was one patient who showed partial reversibility in three segments, consistent with mild anteroapical ischemia, only in the first examination. On the other hand, another patient showed reversibility in one segment (medium septum), only in the second examination, when he covered a distance 1.3 times superior. Conclusions

  20. Myocardial stress perfusion magnetic resonance: initial experience in a pediatric and young adult population using regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Cory V.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Moffett, Brady

    2017-01-01

    Dipyridamole and adenosine are traditional pharmacological stressors for myocardial perfusion. Regadenoson, a selective adenosine A2A agonist, has a lower side effect profile with lower incidence of bronchospasm and bradycardia. There is a growing need for myocardial perfusion assessment within pediatrics. There is no report on the utility of regadenoson as a stress agent in children. To observe the safety and feasibility of regadenoson as a pharmacologic stressor for perfusion cardiac MR in a pilot cohort of pediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg who have congenital heart disease and pediatric acquired heart disease. We reviewed our initial experience with regadenoson stress cardiac MR in 31 pediatric patients 15.8 ± 1.7 years (range 12-22 years) with congenital heart disease and acquired heart disease. Mean patient weight was 60 ± 15 kg (range of 40-93 kg). All patients underwent cardiac MR because of concern for ischemia. The cohort included a heterogeneous group of patients at a pediatric institution with potential risk for ischemia. Subjects' heart rate and blood pressure were monitored and pharmacologic stress was induced by injection of 400 mcg of regadenoson. We evaluated their hemodynamic response and adverse effects using changes in vital signs and onset of symptoms. A pediatric cardiologist and radiologist qualitatively assessed myocardial perfusion and viability images. One child was unable to complete the stress perfusion portion of the examination, but did complete the remaining portion of the CMR. Resting heart rate was 72 ± 14 beats per minute (bpm) and rose to peak of 124 ± 17 bpm (95 ± 50% increase, P < 0.005) with regadenoson. Image quality was considered good or diagnostic in all cases. Three patients had irreversible perfusion defects. Four patients had reversible perfusion defects. Nine of the patients underwent cardiac catheterization with angiography and the findings showed excellent agreement. Regadenoson might be a safe and

  1. Myocardial stress perfusion magnetic resonance: initial experience in a pediatric and young adult population using regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Cory V. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Moffett, Brady [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pharmacology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Dipyridamole and adenosine are traditional pharmacological stressors for myocardial perfusion. Regadenoson, a selective adenosine A2A agonist, has a lower side effect profile with lower incidence of bronchospasm and bradycardia. There is a growing need for myocardial perfusion assessment within pediatrics. There is no report on the utility of regadenoson as a stress agent in children. To observe the safety and feasibility of regadenoson as a pharmacologic stressor for perfusion cardiac MR in a pilot cohort of pediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg who have congenital heart disease and pediatric acquired heart disease. We reviewed our initial experience with regadenoson stress cardiac MR in 31 pediatric patients 15.8 ± 1.7 years (range 12-22 years) with congenital heart disease and acquired heart disease. Mean patient weight was 60 ± 15 kg (range of 40-93 kg). All patients underwent cardiac MR because of concern for ischemia. The cohort included a heterogeneous group of patients at a pediatric institution with potential risk for ischemia. Subjects' heart rate and blood pressure were monitored and pharmacologic stress was induced by injection of 400 mcg of regadenoson. We evaluated their hemodynamic response and adverse effects using changes in vital signs and onset of symptoms. A pediatric cardiologist and radiologist qualitatively assessed myocardial perfusion and viability images. One child was unable to complete the stress perfusion portion of the examination, but did complete the remaining portion of the CMR. Resting heart rate was 72 ± 14 beats per minute (bpm) and rose to peak of 124 ± 17 bpm (95 ± 50% increase, P < 0.005) with regadenoson. Image quality was considered good or diagnostic in all cases. Three patients had irreversible perfusion defects. Four patients had reversible perfusion defects. Nine of the patients underwent cardiac catheterization with angiography and the findings showed excellent agreement. Regadenoson might be a safe and

  2. [Myokard-Perfusions-SPECT. Myocardial perfusion SPECT - Update S1 guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Oliver; Bengel, Frank; Burchert, Wolfgang; Dörr, Rolf; Hacker, Marcus; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Schäfers, Michael A; Schmidt, Matthias; Schwaiger, Markus; Vom Dahl, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Rainer

    2017-08-14

    The S1 guideline for myocardial perfusion SPECT has been published by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) and is valid until 2/2022. This paper is a short summary with comments on all chapters and subchapters wich were modified and amended.

  3. Handedness and gender influence blood pressure in young healthy men and women: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rueda I

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The type and level of sex steroids influence blood pressure (BP. It has been suggested that functional brain asymmetries may be influenced by sex hormones. In addition, there are inter-arm differences in BP not yet related with handedness. In this study, we hypothesize a possible association between sex hormones, handedness, and inter-arm differences in blood pressure.

  4. PET imaging of cerebral perfusion and oxygen metabolism in stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, O.; Yasaka, M.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Newton, M.R.; Thomas, D.L.; Chan, C.G.; Egan, G.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; O``Keefe, G.; Donnan, G.A.; McKay, W.J. [Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC (Australia). Centre for PET and Depts of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology

    1998-03-01

    Full text: Stroke remains a devastating clinical event with few therapeutic options. In patients with acute stroke, we studied the cerebral perfusion and metabolic patterns with {sup 15}O-CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O and {sup 15}O-O{sub 2} positron emission tomography and correlated these findings to the clinical background. Forty three patients underwent 45 studies 0-23 days post-stroke (mean 7 days). Fifteen patients showed luxury perfusion (Group A), 10 had matched low perfusion and metabolism (B) and 3 showed mixed pattern including an area of misery perfusion (C). Seventeen showed no relevant abnormality (D) and there were no examples of isolated misery perfusion. Twelve of the 15 in Group A had either haemorrhagic transformation on CT, re-opening on angiography, or a cardioembolic mechanism. In contrast only 5/10 in Group B, 0/3 in Group C and 2/17 in Group D had these features. Although 7/10 in group B had moderate or large size infarcts on CT the incidence of haemorrhagic transformation was low (2/10) and significant carotid stenoses were more common in those studied (5/8) compared with the other groups. Misery perfusion was not seen beyond five days. Thus, luxury perfusion seems to be related to a cardio-embolic mechanism or reperfusion. Matched low perfusion and metabolism was associated with a low rate of haemorrhagic transformation despite a high incidence of moderate to large size infarcts. Misery perfusion is an early phenomenon in the evolution of ischaemic stroke.

  5. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  6. Perfusion CT in childhood stroke—Initial observations and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebedin, D., E-mail: doris.zebedin@medunigraz.at [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital LKH Graz (Austria); Sorantin, E.; Riccabona, M. [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, University Hospital LKH Graz (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    Introduction: To report the preliminary results of contrast-enhanced perfusion multi-detector CT for diagnoses of perfusion disturbances in children with clinical suspicion of stroke. Patients and methods: Within the last two years emergency perfusion CT was performed in ten children (age: 8–17 years, male:female = 3:7) for assessment of suspected childhood stroke. These intracranial perfusion CT, intracranial CT-digital subtraction angiography (CT-DSA) and extracranial CT-angiography (CTA) studies were retrospectively reviewed and compared with MRI, follow-up CT, catheter angiography and final clinical diagnosis. The total dose length product (DLP) for the entire examination was recorded. The image quality of perfusion CT-maps, CT-DSA and CTA were evaluated with a subjective three-point scale ranging from very good to non-diagnostic image quality rating perfusion disturbance, intracranial peripheral vessel depiction, and motion- or streak artifacts. Results: In nine of ten children perfusion CT showed no false positive or false negative results. In one of ten children suffering from migraine focal hypo-perfusion was read as perfusion impairment potentially indicating early stroke, but MRI and MRA follow-up were negative. Overall, perfusion-CT with CT-DSA was rated very good in 80% of cases for the detection of perfusion disturbances and vessel anatomy. Conclusions: In comparison to standard CT, contrast-enhanced perfusion CT improves CTs’ diagnostic capability in the emergency examination of children with a strong suspicion of ischemic cerebral infarction.

  7. Arterio-venous anastomoses in isolated, perfused rat lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conhaim, Robert L; Segal, Gilad S; Watson, Kal E

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that large-diameter (>25 μm) arterio-venous shunt pathways exist in the lungs of rats, dogs, and humans. We investigated the nature of these pathways by infusing specific-diameter fluorescent latex particles (4, 7, 15, 30, or 50 μm) into isolated, ventilated rat lungs perfused at constant pressure. All lungs received the same mass of latex (5 mg), which resulted in infused particle numbers that ranged from 1.7 × 10 7 4 μm particles to 7.5 × 10 4 50 μm particles. Particles were infused over 2 min. We used a flow cytometer to count particle appearances in venous effluent samples collected every 0.5 min for 12 min from the start of particle infusion. Cumulative percentages of infused particles that appeared in the samples averaged 3.17 ± 2.46% for 4 μm diameter particles, but ranged from 0.01% to 0.17% for larger particles. Appearances of 4 μm particles followed a rapid upslope beginning at 30 sec followed by a more gradual downslope that lasted for up to 12 min. All other particle diameters also began to appear at 30 sec, but followed highly irregular time courses. Infusion of 7 and 15 μm particles caused transient but significant perfusate flow reductions, while infusion of all other diameters caused insignificant reductions in flow. We conclude that small numbers of bypass vessels exist that can accommodate particle diameters of 7-to-50 μm. We further conclude that our 4 μm particle data are consistent with a well-developed network of serial and parallel perfusion pathways at the acinar level. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. Rest-Stress Limb Perfusion Imaging in Humans with Contrast Ultrasound Using Intermediate-Power Imaging and Microbubbles Resistant to Inertial Cavitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Brian P; Hodovan, James; Belcik, J Todd; Moccetti, Federico; Xie, Aris; Ammi, Azzdine Y; Lindner, Jonathan R

    2017-05-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) limb perfusion imaging is a promising approach for evaluating peripheral artery disease (PAD). However, low signal enhancement in skeletal muscle has necessitated high-power intermittent imaging algorithms, which are not clinically feasible. We hypothesized that CEU using a combination of intermediate power and a contrast agent resistant to inertial cavitation would allow real-time limb stress perfusion imaging. In normal volunteers, CEU of the calf skeletal muscle was performed on separate days with Sonazoid, Optison, or Definity. Progressive reduction in the ultrasound pulsing interval was used to assess the balance between signal enhancement and agent destruction at escalating mechanical indices (MI, 0.1-0.4). Real-time perfusion imaging at MI 0.1-0.4 using postdestructive replenishment kinetics was performed at rest and during 25 W plantar flexion contractile exercise. For Optison, limb perfusion imaging was unreliable at rest due to very low signal enhancement generated at all MIs and was possible during exercise-induced hyperemia only at MI 0.1 due to agent destruction at higher MIs. For Definity, signal intensity progressively increased with MI but was offset by microbubble destruction, which resulted in modest signal enhancement during CEU perfusion imaging and distortion of replenishment curves at MI ≥ 0.2. For Sonazoid, there strong signal enhancement at MI ≥ 0.2, with little destruction detected only at MI 0.4. Accordingly, high signal intensity and nondistorted perfusion imaging was possible at MI 0.2-0.3 and detected an 8.0- ± 5.7-fold flow reserve. Rest-stress limb perfusion imaging in humans with real-time CEU, which requires only seconds to perform, is possible using microbubbles with viscoelastic properties that produce strong nonlinear signal generation without destruction at intermediate acoustic pressures. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Echocardiography. All rights reserved.

  9. Diffusion and perfusion imaging of bone marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biffar, Andreas; Dietrich, Olaf; Sourbron, Steven; Duerr, Hans-Roland; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Baur-Melnyk, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI), the observed MRI signal intensity is attenuated by the self-diffusion of water molecules. DWI provides information about the microscopic structure and organization of a biological tissue, since the extent and orientation of molecular motion is influenced by these tissue properties. The most common method to measure perfusion in the body using MRI is T1-weighted dynamic contrast enhancement (DCE-MRI). The analysis of DCE-MRI data allows determining the perfusion and permeability of a biological tissue. DWI as well as DCE-MRI are established techniques in MRI of the brain, while significantly fewer studies have been published in body imaging. In recent years, both techniques have been applied successfully in healthy bone marrow as well as for the characterization of bone marrow alterations or lesions; e.g., DWI has been used in particular for the differentiation of benign and malignant vertebral compression fractures. In this review article, firstly a short introduction to diffusion-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is given. Non-quantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DWI and semiquantitative and quantitative approaches for the analysis of DCE-MRI are introduced. Afterwards a detailed overview of the results of both techniques in healthy bone marrow and their applications for the diagnosis of various bone-marrow pathologies, like osteoporosis, bone tumors, and vertebral compression fractures are described.

  10. Myocardial perfusion imaging with dual energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Spandorfer, Adam; Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI offers the possibility to directly detect the presence of myocardial perfusion defects. • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI allows differentiating between reversible and fixed myocardial perfusion defects. • The combination of coronary CT angiography and dual-energy sCTMPI can improve the ability of CT to detect hemodynamically relevant coronary artery disease. - Abstract: Dual-energy CT (DECT) enables simultaneous use of two different tube voltages, thus different x-ray absorption characteristics are acquired in the same anatomic location with two different X-ray spectra. The various DECT techniques allow material decomposition and mapping of the iodine distribution within the myocardium. Static dual-energy myocardial perfusion imaging (sCTMPI) using pharmacological stress agents demonstrate myocardial ischemia by single snapshot images of myocardial iodine distribution. sCTMPI gives incremental values to coronary artery stenosis detected on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by showing consequent reversible or fixed myocardial perfusion defects. The comprehensive acquisition of CCTA and sCTMPI offers extensive morphological and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have revealed that dual-energy sCTMPI shows promising diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared to single-photon emission computed tomography, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiac MRI. The aim of this review is to present currently available DECT techniques for static myocardial perfusion imaging and recent clinical applications and ongoing investigations.

  11. [Influence of compaction pressure and pre-sintering temperature on the machinability of zirconia ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huil; Li, Jing; Zhang, Fuqiang; Sun, Jing; Gao, Lian

    2011-10-01

    In order to make certain the compaction pressure as well as pre-sintering temperature on the machinability of the zirconia ceramic. 3 mol nano-size 3 mol yttria partially stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) powder were compacted at different isostatic pressure and sintered at different temperature. The cylindrical surface was traversed using a hard metal tool. Surface and edge quality were checked visually using light stereo microscopy. Pre-sintering temperature had the obviously influence on the machinability of 3Y-TZP. The cutting surface was smooth, and the integrality of edge was better when the pre-sintering temperature was chosen between 800 degrees C to 900 degrees C. Compaction pressure showed only a weak influence on machinability of 3Y-TZP blanks, but the higher compaction pressure result in the poor surface quality. The best machinability of pre-sintered zirconia body was found for 800-900 degrees C pre-sintering temperature, and 200-300 MPa compaction pressure.

  12. Captopril improves tumor nanomedicine delivery by increasing tumor blood perfusion and enlarging endothelial gaps in tumor blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Ting; Tuo, Yanyan; Jin, Kai; Luo, Zimiao; Shi, Wei; Mei, Heng; Hu, Yu; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2017-12-01

    Poor tumor perfusion and unfavorable vessel permeability compromise nanomedicine drug delivery to tumors. Captopril dilates blood vessels, reducing blood pressure clinically and bradykinin, as the downstream signaling moiety of captopril, is capable of dilating blood vessels and effectively increasing vessel permeability. The hypothesis behind this study was that captopril can dilate tumor blood vessels, improving tumor perfusion and simultaneously enlarge the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels, therefore enhancing nanomedicine drug delivery for tumor therapy. Using the U87 tumor xenograft with abundant blood vessels as the tumor model, tumor perfusion experiments were carried out using laser Doppler imaging and lectin-labeling experiments. A single treatment of captopril at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of functional vessels in tumor tissues and improved tumor blood perfusion. Scanning electron microscopy of tumor vessels also indicated that the endothelial gaps of tumor vessels were enlarged after captopril treatment. Immunofluorescence-staining of tumor slices demonstrated that captopril significantly increased bradykinin expression, possibly explaining tumor perfusion improvements and endothelial gap enlargement. Additionally, imaging in vivo, imaging ex vivo and nanoparticle distribution in tumor slices indicated that after a single treatment with captopril, the accumulation of 115-nm nanoparticles in tumors had increased 2.81-fold with a more homogeneous distribution pattern in comparison to non-captopril treated controls. Finally, pharmacodynamics experiments demonstrated that captopril combined with paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles resulted in the greatest tumor shrinkage and the most extensive necrosis in tumor tissues among all treatment groups. Taken together, the data from the present study suggest a novel strategy for improving tumor perfusion and enlarging blood vessel permeability simultaneously in order to improve

  13. Ventilation-perfusion distribution in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth C; Johnson, Bruce D; Olson, Thomas P; Wilson, Theodore A

    2012-09-01

    Functional values of LogSD of the ventilation distribution (σ(V)) have been reported previously, but functional values of LogSD of the perfusion distribution (σ(q)) and the coefficient of correlation between ventilation and perfusion (ρ) have not been measured in humans. Here, we report values for σ(V), σ(q), and ρ obtained from wash-in data for three gases, helium and two soluble gases, acetylene and dimethyl ether. Normal subjects inspired gas containing the test gases, and the concentrations of the gases at end-expiration during the first 10 breaths were measured with the subjects at rest and at increasing levels of exercise. The regional distribution of ventilation and perfusion was described by a bivariate log-normal distribution with parameters σ(V), σ(q), and ρ, and these parameters were evaluated by matching the values of expired gas concentrations calculated for this distribution to the measured values. Values of cardiac output and LogSD ventilation/perfusion (Va/Q) were obtained. At rest, σ(q) is high (1.08 ± 0.12). With the onset of ventilation, σ(q) decreases to 0.85 ± 0.09 but remains higher than σ(V) (0.43 ± 0.09) at all exercise levels. Rho increases to 0.87 ± 0.07, and the value of LogSD Va/Q for light and moderate exercise is primarily the result of the difference between the magnitudes of σ(q) and σ(V). With known values for the parameters, the bivariate distribution describes the comprehensive distribution of ventilation and perfusion that underlies the distribution of the Va/Q ratio.

  14. Water-perfused manometry vs three-dimensional high-resolution manometry: a comparative study on a large patient population with anorectal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitton, V; Ben Hadj Amor, W; Baumstarck, K; Grimaud, J-C; Bouvier, M

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to compare for the first time measurements obtained with water-perfused catheter anorectal manometry and three-dimensional (3D) high-resolution manometry in patients with anorectal disorders. Consecutive patients referred to our centre for anorectal manometry (ARM) were recruited to undergo the two procedures successively. Conventional manometry was carried out using a water-perfused catheter (WPAM) and high-resolution manometry was achieved with a 3D probe (3DHRAM). For each procedure, parameters recorded included the following: anal canal length, resting pressure, squeeze pressure and rectal sensitivity. Two hundred and one patients were included in this study. The mean values for resting and squeeze pressures were correlated and found to be significantly higher when measured with 3DHRAM than with WPAM. However, the length of the anal canal was not significantly different when measured by the two techniques without correlation between the two mean values obtained. The presence of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex was systematically assessed by both WPAM and 3DHRAM and anismus was also systematically diagnosed by both WPAM and 3DHRAM. The pressure values obtained with 3DHRAM are correlated with those measured with conventional manometry but are systematically higher. 3DHRAM has the advantage of providing a pressure recording over the entire length and circumference of the anal canal, allowing a more useful physiological assessment of anorectal function. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  15. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of intracellular ions in perfused from heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, D.; Fossel, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular sodium, potassium, and lithium were observed in a perfused frog heart by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A perfusate buffer containing the shift reagent, dysprosium tripolyphosphate, was used in combination with mathematical filtering or presaturation of the extracellular resonance to separate the intra- and extracellular sodium NMR signals. Addition of 10 μM ouabain to the perfusate, perfusion with a zero potassium, low-calcium buffer, and replacement of 66% of the perfusate sodium with lithium resulted in changes in the intracellular sodium levels. An increase of 45% in the intracellular sodium was observed when changing the pacing rate from 0 to 60 beats/min (with proportional changes for intermediate pacing rates). The ratio of intracellular potassium to sodium concentration was determined to be 2.3 by NMR, indicating that a substantial amount of the intracellular potassium is undetectable with these NMR method. In addition, intracellular lithium was observed during perfusion with a lithium-containing perfusate

  16. Evaluation of Microvascular Perfusion and Resuscitation after Severe Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yann-Leei L; Simmons, Jon D; Gillespie, Mark N; Alvarez, Diego F; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, Mohammad A; Schneider, Andrew M; Richards, William O

    2015-12-01

    Achieving adequate perfusion is a key goal of treatment in severe trauma; however, tissue perfusion has classically been measured by indirect means. Direct visualization of capillary flow has been applied in sepsis, but application of this technology to the trauma population has been limited. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the efficacy of standard indirect measures of perfusion to direct imaging of the sublingual microcirculatory flow during trauma resuscitation. Patients with injury severity scores >15 were serially examined using a handheld sidestream dark-field video microscope. In addition, measurements were also made from healthy volunteers. The De Backer score, a morphometric capillary density score, and total vessel density (TVD) as cumulative vessel area within the image, were calculated using Automated Vascular Analysis (AVA3.0) software. These indices were compared against clinical and laboratory parameters of organ function and systemic metabolic status as well as mortality. Twenty severely injured patients had lower TVD (X = 14.6 ± 0.22 vs 17.66 ± 0.51) and De Backer scores (X = 9.62 ± 0.16 vs 11.55 ± 0.37) compared with healthy controls. These scores best correlated with serum lactate (TVD R(2) = 0.525, De Backer R(2) = 0.576, P trauma patients, and seems to provide real-time assessment of microcirculatory perfusion. This study suggests that in severe trauma, many indirect measurements of perfusion do not correlate with microvascular perfusion. However, visualized perfusion deficiencies do reflect a shift toward anaerobic metabolism.

  17. Effects of fluids on microvascular perfusion in patients with severe sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ospina-Tascon, Gustavo; Neves, Ana Paula; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Donadello, Katia; Büchele, Gustavo; Simion, Davide; Chierego, Maria-Luisa; Silva, Tatiana Oliveira; Fonseca, Adriana; Vincent, Jean-Louis; De Backer, Daniel

    2010-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of fluid administration on microcirculatory alterations in sepsis. With a Sidestream Dark Field device, we evaluated the effects of fluids on the sublingual microcirculation in 60 patients with severe sepsis. These patients were investigated either within 24 h (early, n = 37) or more than 48 h (late, n = 23) after a diagnosis of severe sepsis. Hemodynamic and microcirculatory measurements were obtained before and 30 min after administration of 1,000 ml Ringer's lactate (n = 29) or 400 ml 4% albumin (n = 31) solutions. Fluid administration increased perfused small vessel density from 3.5 (2.9-4.3) to 4.4 (3.7-4.9) n/mm (p density from 5.3 (4.4-5.9) to 5.6 (4.8-6.3) n/mm (p fluids were not related to changes in cardiac index (R(2) = 0.05, p = ns) or mean arterial pressure (R(2) = 0.04, p = ns). In this non-randomized trial, fluid administration improved microvascular perfusion in the early but not late phase of sepsis. This effect is independent of global hemodynamic effects and of the type of solution.

  18. Mucosal function of the perfused ileum in patients with and without diarrhoea and dumping after vagotomy and pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, B H; Frederiksen, H J; Malchow-Møller, A

    1983-01-01

    /l, in the intestinal lumen. In patients without symptoms or with dumping, water and sodium chloride were absorbed during the control perfusion. Addition of CDC reduced the absorption or evoked secretion. In patients with diarrhoea the control perfusion disclosed a large spontaneous ileal secretion...... that was not influenced by CDC. The secretion was mainly due to a reduced mucosa-to-serosa flux of sodium and chloride and, to a lesser extent, to an increased serosa-to-mucosa flux. The diarrhoea patients showed an increased xylose absorption rate, suggesting an increased interepithelial leakiness. No change in PD...... factors contributing to the sequelae. Net movements of water, electrolytes, and sugars, unidirectional fluxes of sodium and chloride, and the transmural electrical potential difference (PD) were measured simultaneously with and without the influence of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), 1.0 mmol...

  19. Mucosal function of the perfused ileum in patients with and without diarrhoea and dumping after vagotomy and pyloroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, B H; Frederiksen, H J; Malchow-Møller, A

    1983-01-01

    factors contributing to the sequelae. Net movements of water, electrolytes, and sugars, unidirectional fluxes of sodium and chloride, and the transmural electrical potential difference (PD) were measured simultaneously with and without the influence of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDC), 1.0 mmol....../l, in the intestinal lumen. In patients without symptoms or with dumping, water and sodium chloride were absorbed during the control perfusion. Addition of CDC reduced the absorption or evoked secretion. In patients with diarrhoea the control perfusion disclosed a large spontaneous ileal secretion...... that was not influenced by CDC. The secretion was mainly due to a reduced mucosa-to-serosa flux of sodium and chloride and, to a lesser extent, to an increased serosa-to-mucosa flux. The diarrhoea patients showed an increased xylose absorption rate, suggesting an increased interepithelial leakiness. No change in PD...

  20. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging in persistent hemiplegic migraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Carra-Dalliere, Clarisse; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafe, Alain; Thouvenot, Eric [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Service de Neuroradiologie, Montpellier (France); Roubertie, Agathe [Hopital Gui de Chauliac, Service de Neuropediatrie, Montpellier (France)

    2012-03-15

    Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks. Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences. From each perfusion MRI acquisition two regions of interest were delineated on each hemisphere and, the index of flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and time to peak were recorded and asymmetry indices from each perfusion parameter were calculated. Perfusion alterations were detected during the attacks. In one case, we observed, after 3 h of left hemiparesia, hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. In the other case, who presented a familial hemiplegic migraine attack, on the third day of a persistent aura consisting of right hemiplegia and aphasia, PWI revealed hyperperfusion of the left hemisphere. Asymmetry indices for temporal parameters (mean transit time and time to peak) were the most sensitive. These findings resolved spontaneously after the attacks without any permanent sequel or signs of cerebral ischemia on follow-up MRI. PWI should be indicated for patients with migraine attacks accompanied by auras to assess the sequential changes in cerebral perfusion and to better understand its pathogenesis. (orig.)

  1. Perfusion-weighted MR imaging in persistent hemiplegic migraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourand, Isabelle; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas; Carra-Dalliere, Clarisse; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonafe, Alain; Thouvenot, Eric; Roubertie, Agathe

    2012-01-01

    Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks. Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences. From each perfusion MRI acquisition two regions of interest were delineated on each hemisphere and, the index of flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and time to peak were recorded and asymmetry indices from each perfusion parameter were calculated. Perfusion alterations were detected during the attacks. In one case, we observed, after 3 h of left hemiparesia, hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. In the other case, who presented a familial hemiplegic migraine attack, on the third day of a persistent aura consisting of right hemiplegia and aphasia, PWI revealed hyperperfusion of the left hemisphere. Asymmetry indices for temporal parameters (mean transit time and time to peak) were the most sensitive. These findings resolved spontaneously after the attacks without any permanent sequel or signs of cerebral ischemia on follow-up MRI. PWI should be indicated for patients with migraine attacks accompanied by auras to assess the sequential changes in cerebral perfusion and to better understand its pathogenesis. (orig.)

  2. Skin microvascular and metabolic response to pressure relief maneuvers in people with spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramella-Roman, Jessica C.; Le, Du V. N.; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Nguyen, Thu A.; Lichy, Alison; Groah, Suzanne

    2013-02-01

    Clinician's recommendations on wheelchair pressure reliefs in the context of the high prevalence of pressure ulcers that occur in people with spinal cord injury is not supported by strong experimental evidence. Some data indicates that altered tissue perfusion and oxygenation occurring under pressure loads, such as during sitting, induce various pathophysiologic changes that may lead to pressure ulcers. Pressure causes a cascade of responses, including initial tissue hypoxia, which leads to ischemia, vascular leakage, tissue acidification, compensatory angiogenesis, thrombosis, and hyperemia, all of which may lead to tissue damage. We have developed an advanced skin sensor that allows measurement of oxygenation in addition to perfusion, and can be safely used during sitting. The sensor consists of a set of fiber optics probes, spectroscopic and Laser Doppler techniques that are used to obtain parameters of interest. The overriding goal of this project is to develop the evidence base for clinical recommendations on pressure reliefs. In this paper we will illustrate the experimental apparatus as well as some preliminary results of a small clinical trial conducted at the National Rehabilitation Hospital.

  3. Magnetic resonance cardiac perfusion imaging-a clinical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunold, Peter; Schlosser, Thomas; Barkhausen, Joerg

    2006-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) with its clinical appearance of stable or unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in developed countries. In view of increasing costs and the rising number of CAD patients, there has been a major interest in reliable non-invasive imaging techniques to identify CAD in an early (i.e. asymptomatic) stage. Since myocardial perfusion deficits appear very early in the ''ischemic cascade'', a major breakthrough would be the non-invasive quantification of myocardial perfusion before functional impairment might be detected. Therefore, there is growing interest in other, target-organ-specific parameters, such as relative and absolute myocardial perfusion imaging. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been proven to offer attractive concepts in this respect. However, some important difficulties have not been resolved so far, which still causes uncertainty and prevents the broad application of MR perfusion imaging in a clinical setting. This review explores recent technical developments in MR hardware, software and contrast agents, as well as their impact on the current and future clinical status of MR imaging of first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging. (orig.)

  4. Magnetic resonance cardiac perfusion imaging-a clinical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunold, Peter; Schlosser, Thomas; Barkhausen, Joerg [University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) with its clinical appearance of stable or unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in developed countries. In view of increasing costs and the rising number of CAD patients, there has been a major interest in reliable non-invasive imaging techniques to identify CAD in an early (i.e. asymptomatic) stage. Since myocardial perfusion deficits appear very early in the ''ischemic cascade'', a major breakthrough would be the non-invasive quantification of myocardial perfusion before functional impairment might be detected. Therefore, there is growing interest in other, target-organ-specific parameters, such as relative and absolute myocardial perfusion imaging. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been proven to offer attractive concepts in this respect. However, some important difficulties have not been resolved so far, which still causes uncertainty and prevents the broad application of MR perfusion imaging in a clinical setting. This review explores recent technical developments in MR hardware, software and contrast agents, as well as their impact on the current and future clinical status of MR imaging of first-pass myocardial perfusion imaging. (orig.)

  5. Ex vivo lung perfusion with adenosine A2A receptor agonist allows prolonged cold preservation of lungs donated after cardiac death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Cynthia E; Pope, Nicolas H; Charles, Eric J; Huerter, Mary E; Sharma, Ashish K; Salmon, Morgan D; Carter, Benjamin T; Stoler, Mark H; Lau, Christine L; Laubach, Victor E; Kron, Irving L

    2016-02-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion has been successful in the assessment of marginal donor lungs, including donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor lungs. Ex vivo lung perfusion also represents a unique platform for targeted drug delivery. We sought to determine whether ischemia-reperfusion injury would be decreased after transplantation of DCD donor lungs subjected to prolonged cold preservation and treated with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion. Porcine DCD donor lungs were preserved at 4°C for 12 hours and underwent ex vivo lung perfusion for 4 hours. Left lungs were then transplanted and reperfused for 4 hours. Three groups (n = 4/group) were randomized according to treatment with the adenosine A2A receptor agonist ATL-1223 or the dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle: Infusion of dimethyl sulfoxide during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (DMSO), infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and dimethyl sulfoxide during reperfusion (ATL-E), and infusion of ATL-1223 during ex vivo lung perfusion and reperfusion (ATL-E/R). Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios (arterial oxygen partial pressure/fraction of inspired oxygen) were determined from samples obtained from the left superior and inferior pulmonary veins. Final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E/R group (430.1 ± 26.4 mm Hg) were similar to final Pao2/Fio2 ratios in the ATL-E group (413.6 ± 18.8 mm Hg), but both treated groups had significantly higher final Pao2/Fio2 ratios compared with the dimethyl sulfoxide group (84.8 ± 17.7 mm Hg). Low oxygenation gradients during ex vivo lung perfusion did not preclude superior oxygenation capacity during reperfusion. After prolonged cold preservation, treatment of DCD donor lungs with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist during ex vivo lung perfusion enabled Pao2/Fio2 ratios greater than 400 mm Hg after transplantation in a preclinical porcine model. Pulmonary function during ex vivo lung perfusion was not predictive of outcomes after transplantation. Copyright

  6. Acid perfusion test in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, B.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    An acid perfusion test, isotope scanning, endoscopy, and esophageal biopsy were performed in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. A positive acid perfusion test within 30 min (APT) and within 5 min (TAPT) was found in 70.2% and 37.6% of the patients, respectively. A positive APT was found significantly more often in patients with than without endoscopic esophagitis, whereas a positive TAPT was found significantly more often in patients with severe symptoms than in patients with moderate symptoms, and in a significantly higher proportion of patients with than without GER by scintigraphy. Neither the APT nor the TAPT showed any dependency on the presence of histologic esophagitis. Most (97%) patients with a negative acid perfusion test, in addition to typical symptoms, also presented with scintigraphic, endoscopic, or histologic evidence of GER disease. Although it shows that the acid perfusion test, particularly when early positive, may serve as a weak predictor of the severity of GER disease, the present study gives little support to the test's clinical usefulness.

  7. Characterization of micro-invasive trabecular bypass stents by ex vivo perfusion and computational flow modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter KS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kendall S Hunter,1 Todd Fjield,2 Hal Heitzmann,2 Robin Shandas,1 Malik Y Kahook3 1Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO, USA; 2Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA; 3University of Colorado Hospital Eye Center, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: Micro-invasive glaucoma surgery with the Glaukos iStent® or iStent inject® (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA, USA is intended to create a bypass through the trabecular meshwork to Schlemm's canal to improve aqueous outflow through the natural physiologic pathway. While the iStent devices have been evaluated in ex vivo anterior segment models, they have not previously been evaluated in whole eye perfusion models nor characterized by computational fluid dynamics. Intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with the iStent was evaluated in an ex vivo whole human eye perfusion model. Numerical modeling, including computational fluid dynamics, was used to evaluate the flow through the stents over physiologically relevant boundary conditions. In the ex vivo model, a single iStent reduced IOP by 6.0 mmHg from baseline, and addition of a second iStent further lowered IOP by 2.9 mmHg, for a total IOP reduction of 8.9 mmHg. Computational modeling showed that simulated flow through the iStent or iStent inject is smooth and laminar at physiological flow rates. Each stent was computed to have a negligible flow resistance consistent with an expected significant decrease in IOP. The present perfusion results agree with prior clinical and laboratory studies to show that both iStent and iStent inject therapies are potentially titratable, providing clinicians with the opportunity to achieve lower target IOPs by implanting additional stents. Keywords: glaucoma, iStent, trabecular bypass, intraocular pressure, ab-interno, CFD

  8. Simultaneous determination of left ventricular perfusion and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremillet, E.; Champailler, A.; Esquerre, J.P.; Ouhayoun, E.; Coca, F.; Furber, A.; Le Jeune, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a very useful tool for the diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. The evaluation of left ventricular function during stress testing in also very useful to determine the prognosis of coronary artery disease. This chapter highlights three different imaging methods to assess left ventricular function and myocardial perfusion/ The first one consists of sequential dual isotope myocardial SPECT with ECG-gating. The second concerns magnetic resonance imaging and the third explores first pass exercise ventriculography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy simultaneously evaluated by means of 99m Tc-sestamibi. (authors)

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of whole-brain CT perfusion in the detection of acute infratentorial infarctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollwein, Christine; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital of Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Plate, Annika; Straube, Andreas; Baumgarten, Louisa von [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital of Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Hendrik [South Nuremberg Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Nuremberg (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Although the diagnostic performance of whole-brain computed tomographic perfusion (WB-CTP) in the detection of supratentorial infarctions is well established, its value in the detection of infratentorial strokes remains less well defined. We examined its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of infratentorial infarctions and compared it to nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT), aiming to identify factors influencing its detection rate. Out of a cohort of 1380 patients who underwent WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we retrospectively included all patients with MRI-confirmed infratentorial strokes and compared it to control patients without infratentorial strokes. Two blinded readers evaluated NECT and four different CTP maps independently for the presence and location of infratentorial ischemic perfusion deficits. The study was designed as a retrospective case-control study and included 280 patients (cases/controls = 1/3). WB-CTP revealed a greater diagnostic sensitivity than NECT (41.4 vs. 17.1 %, P = 0.003). The specificity, however, was comparable (93.3 vs. 95.0 %). Mean transit time (MTT) and time to drain (TTD) were the most sensitive (41.4 and 40.0 %) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) the most specific (99.5 %) perfusion maps. Infarctions detected using WB-CTP were significantly larger than those not detected (15.0 vs. 2.2 ml; P = 0.0007); infarct location, however, did not influence the detection rate. The detection of infratentorial infarctions can be improved by assessing WB-CTP as part of the multimodal stroke workup. However, it remains a diagnostic challenge, especially small volume infarctions in the brainstem are likely to be missed. (orig.)

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of whole-brain CT perfusion in the detection of acute infratentorial infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollwein, Christine; Sommer, Wieland H.; Thierfelder, Kolja M.; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Plate, Annika; Straube, Andreas; Baumgarten, Louisa von; Janssen, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Although the diagnostic performance of whole-brain computed tomographic perfusion (WB-CTP) in the detection of supratentorial infarctions is well established, its value in the detection of infratentorial strokes remains less well defined. We examined its diagnostic accuracy in the detection of infratentorial infarctions and compared it to nonenhanced computed tomography (NECT), aiming to identify factors influencing its detection rate. Out of a cohort of 1380 patients who underwent WB-CTP due to suspected stroke, we retrospectively included all patients with MRI-confirmed infratentorial strokes and compared it to control patients without infratentorial strokes. Two blinded readers evaluated NECT and four different CTP maps independently for the presence and location of infratentorial ischemic perfusion deficits. The study was designed as a retrospective case-control study and included 280 patients (cases/controls = 1/3). WB-CTP revealed a greater diagnostic sensitivity than NECT (41.4 vs. 17.1 %, P = 0.003). The specificity, however, was comparable (93.3 vs. 95.0 %). Mean transit time (MTT) and time to drain (TTD) were the most sensitive (41.4 and 40.0 %) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) the most specific (99.5 %) perfusion maps. Infarctions detected using WB-CTP were significantly larger than those not detected (15.0 vs. 2.2 ml; P = 0.0007); infarct location, however, did not influence the detection rate. The detection of infratentorial infarctions can be improved by assessing WB-CTP as part of the multimodal stroke workup. However, it remains a diagnostic challenge, especially small volume infarctions in the brainstem are likely to be missed. (orig.)

  11. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Kenichi; Watahiki, Ryuichirou; Tamura, Hidetoshi; Ogura, Motoi; Shibuya, Masayuki [Kameda General Hospital, Kamogawa, Chiba (Japan)

    2002-11-01

    This report is a retrospective study of fluid extravasation as a complication of temporomandibular joint pumping and perfusion. Contrast-enhanced 3D-CT of the upper joint compartment was performed for presurgical diagnosis before temporomandibular joint arthroscopic surgery in our hospital from 1996 to 2000. From these cases, 43 joints and 38 patients were selected because they had not improved under conservative treatment during the previous six months. Fluid extravasation of the articular capsule was recognized in 9 joints (20.9%) in 9 patients, 3 males and 6 females. Two of the nine patients had undergone arthroscopic observation before surgery. This test had revealed only thin articular capsule, not a perforation, in any of these cases. The data indicate only extremely tiny perforations or infiltration leakage due to the fluid pressure in the upper joint compartment during pumping or perfusion. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons should be aware of this complication. (author)

  12. Perfusion directed 3D mineral formation within cell-laden hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Stephen William; Shridhar, Shivkumar Vishnempet; Zhang, Kairui; Albrecht, Lucas; Filip, Alex; Horton, Jason; Soman, Pranav

    2018-06-08

    Despite the promise of stem cell engineering and the new advances in bioprinting technologies, one of the major challenges in the manufacturing of large scale bone tissue scaffolds is the inability to perfuse nutrients throughout thick constructs. Here, we report a scalable method to create thick, perfusable bone constructs using a combination of cell-laden hydrogels and a 3D printed sacrificial polymer. Osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells were encapsulated within a gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel and 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) pipes were used to create perfusable channels. A custom-built bioreactor was used to perfuse osteogenic media directly through the channels in order to induce mineral deposition which was subsequently quantified via microCT. Histological staining was used to verify mineral deposition around the perfused channels, while COMSOL modeling was used to simulate oxygen diffusion between adjacent channels. This information was used to design a scaled-up construct containing a 3D array of perfusable channels within cell-laden GelMA. Progressive matrix mineralization was observed by cells surrounding perfused channels as opposed to random mineral deposition in static constructs. MicroCT confirmed that there was a direct relationship between channel mineralization within perfused constructs and time within the bioreactor. Furthermore, the scalable method presented in this work serves as a model on how large-scale bone tissue replacement constructs could be made using commonly available 3D printers, sacrificial materials, and hydrogels. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Holding Pressure and Its Influence on Quality in PIM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Petera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The PIM (powder injection molding process consists of several steps in which faults can occur. The quality of the part that is produced usually cannot be seen until the end of the process. It is therefore necessary to find a way to discover the fault earlier in the process. The cause of defects is very often “phase separation” (inhomogeneity in powder distribution, which can also be influenced by the holding pressure. This paper evaluates the powder distribution with a new method based on density measurement. Measurements were made using various holding pressure values.

  14. Tc-99m DTPA perfusion scintigraphy and color coded duplex sonography in the evaluation of minimal renal allograft perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bair, H.J.; Platsch, G.; Wolf, F. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Guenter, E.; Becker, D. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine 1; Rupprecht, H.; Neumayer, H.H. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Internal Medicine 4

    1997-08-01

    Aim: The clinical impact of perfusion scintigraphy versus color coded Duplex sonography was evaluated, with respect to their potential in assessing minimal allograft perfusion in vitally threatened kidney transplants, i.e. oligoanuric allografts suspected to have either severe rejection or thrombosis of the renal vein or artery. Methods: From July 1990 to August 1994 the grafts of 15 out of a total of 315 patients were vitally threatened. Technetium-99m DTPA scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography were performed in all patients. For scintigraphic evaluation of transplant perfusion analog scans up to 60 min postinjection, and time-activity curves over the first 60 sec after injection of 370-440 MBq Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetate acid (DTPA) were used and classified by a perfusion score, the time between renal and iliac artery peaks (TDiff) and the washout of the renogram curve. Additionally, evaluation of excretion function and assessment of vascular or urinary leaks were performed. By color coded Duplex sonography the perfusion in all sections of the graft as well as the vascular anastomoses were examined and the maximal blood flow velocity (Vmax) and the resistive index (RI) in the renal artery were determined by means of the pulsed Doppler device. Pathologic-anatomical diagnosis was achieved by either biopsy or post-explant histology in all grafts. Results: Scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography could reliably differentiate minimal (8/15) and not perfused (7/15) renal allografts. The results were confirmed either by angiography in digital subtraction technique (DSA) or the clinical follow up. Conclusion: In summary, perfusion scintigraphy and color coded Duplex sonography are comparable modalities to assess kidney graft perfusion. In clinical practice scintigraphy and colorcoded Doppler sonography can replace digital subtraction angiography in the evaluation of minimal allograft perfusion. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Studie war es, das

  15. Detectable perfusion changes in MAG3 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuter, B.; Bernar, A.; Roach, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use of 120 MBq 99m Tc-MAG 3 instead of 600 MBq 99m Tc-DTPA in renal imaging has degraded the images obtained during the perfusion phase. An increase of the minimum detectable change (MDC) in blood flow (BF) would also be expected. In transplant patients, renal BF is an important factor in patient management and the MDC should be small to allow early detection of reduced perfusion. We determined the mean and coefficient of variation (CoV: standard deviation/mean) of three renal perfusion indices as a function of counts in the time-activity curves (TACs). Transplant patients were given a dose of about 300 MBq of 99m Tc-MAG3 and images acquired at 8 fps for 60s. TACs made up from 8, 4, 2 or I images per second allowed calculation of renal perfusion indices as if doses of 300, 150, 75 and 38 MBq had been administered. Perfusion indices based on area under the TACs up to the arterial peak (API), the maximum slopes of the TACs (SPI) and the maximum slope of renal TAC and height of arterial TAC (BPI) were calculated by our routine renal software package. As the administered dose decreased, the CoV rose for all indices, least for BPI and most for API. BPI CoV increased from ∼10% at 300 MBq to 20% at 75 MBq, but API CoV rose from 6% to 46%. Mean BPI was stable over the dose range, but mean API showed a systematic increase of about 50% over the 300 MBq result. We conclude that at 120 MBq the MDC (expressed as 2*CoV) in BF is 30-60%, whereas at 600 MBq it may be as low as 10%, allowing earlier confident detection of a change in BF. The BPI was the preferred perfusion index as its mean value changed little and it had the least CoV at lower activities. The data also imply that relative kidney perfusion in the one individual will be much less accurate with 120 MBq of MAG 3

  16. Enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging in diagnosing pulmonary embolism: preliminary investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaoyong; Du Jing; Zhang Zhaoqi; Guo Xi; Yan Zixu; Jiang Hong; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of magnetic resonance pulmonary perfusion imaging (MRPP) in diagnosing pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with enhanced magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography (MRPA) and pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Methods: Fourteen patients were definitely diagnosed as PE, whose ages were from 19 to 71 years old and mean 45.5 ± 19.8 years old. All patients under went MRPA and MRPP and 3 patients were examined again after thrombolytic treatment. Five patients underwent pulmonary radionuclide perfusion imaging. Setting ROI in top, middle, bottom of lung area and abnormal area respectively, we detected signal intensity and time-signal curve to obtain the transformation rate of signal (TROS) during perfusion peak value. Results: In 14 pulmonary embolism patients, MRPA found 62 branches of pulmonary artery obstruction. Fifty-five abnormal pulmonary perfusion zones were found by MRPP, and the above results were very alike. The coincidence was 88.71%. In 14 cases, MRPP could show 25 subsegments lesion below segments. In 5 patients who had both results Of MRPP and ECT at the same time. MRPP shows 33 perfusion defect zones and 37 segments were found by ECT, the sensitivity was 89.19%. After thrombolytic treatment, both the status of the affected pulmonary artery improved markedly and perfusion defect zones reduced obviously in 3 cases by MRPP and MRPA. TROS in normal perfusion zones perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones had significant difference (t=22.882, P<0.01). Conclusion: Contrast enhanced MR pulmonary perfusion can show both perfusion defect zones and low perfusion zones in pulmonary embolism. Time-signal curve can show the period of maximum no perfusion zones in pulmonary artery embolism zones. And the amplitude of fluctuation is small with miminum TROS. MRPP has significant values especially in showing pulmonary artery embolism in segments and subsegments. Using both MRPP and

  17. Role of myocardial perfusion SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, I.; Chun, K.; Won, K.; Lee, H.; Park, J.; Shin, D.; Kim, Y.; Shim, B.; Lee, J.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: It is important that early diagnosis and treatment of coronary artery disease in diabetic patients, but there are few reports on the prevalence of stress-induced myocardial perfusion abnormalities and the rates of cardiac event in patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the scan findings on gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in asymptomatic diabetic patients. Methods: We performed pharmacological stress test and gated perfusion SPECT in 69 diabetic patients without cardiovascular symptom (mean age: 65 year, male 31 and female 38). Patients underwent two-day imaging protocol and stress study was performed injection of Tc-99m MIBI during adenosine infusion. We followed up these patients by reviewing medical records. Results: Fifty-two of 69 patients (74.5%) showed normal scan findings and 17 patients (24.6%) showed reversible or fixed perfusion defects. Three of 52 patients with normal scan findings showed decreased LV ejection fraction and decreased wall motion. Twenty-three patients with normal scan findings were possible to follow up for more than 1yr (mean time: 18.3±3.3 mo.) and they all had no cardiac event. Three patients with reversible perfusion defects were performed coronary angioplasty. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion SPECT is a noninvasive method and maybe useful in early diagnosis and predicting prognosis in diabetic patients

  18. The advantage of high relaxivity contrast agents in brain perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotton, F.; Hermier, M.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate MRI characterization of brain lesions is critical for planning therapeutic strategy, assessing prognosis and monitoring response to therapy. Conventional MRI with gadolinium-based contrast agents is useful for the evaluation of brain lesions, but this approach primarily depicts areas of disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) rather than tissue perfusion. Advanced MR imaging techniques such as dynamic contrast agent-enhanced perfusion MRI provide physiological information that complements the anatomic data available from conventional MRI. We evaluated brain perfusion imaging with gadobenate dimeglumine (Gd-BOPTA, MultiHance; Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy). The contrast-enhanced perfusion technique was performed on a Philips Intera 1.5-T MR system. The technique used to obtain perfusion images was dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI, which is highly sensitive to T2* changes. Combined with PRESTO perfusion imaging, SENSE is applied to double the temporal resolution, thereby improving the signal intensity curve fit and, accordingly, the accuracy of the derived parametric images. MultiHance is the first gadolinium MR contrast agent with significantly higher T1 and T2 relaxivities than conventional MR contrast agents. The higher T1 relaxivity, and therefore better contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging, leads to significantly improved detection of BBB breakdown and hence improved brain tumor conspicuity and delineation. The higher T2 relaxivity allows high-quality T2*-weighted perfusion MRI and the derivation of good quality relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps. We determined the value of MultiHance for enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion imaging of histologically proven (by surgery or stereotaxic biopsy) intraaxial brain tumors (n=80), multiple sclerosis lesions (n=10), abscesses (n=4), neurolupus (n=15) and stroke (n=16). All the procedures carried out were safe and no adverse events occurred. The acquired perfusion images were of good quality in

  19. Myocardial perfusion as an indicator of graft patency after coronary artery bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolibash, A.J.; Call, T.D.; Bush, C.A.; Tetalman, M.R.; Lewis, R.P.

    1980-01-01

    Stress and resting myocardial perfusion were assessed in 38 patients who received 96 grafts. Stress perfusion was evaluated with thallium-201 and resting myocardial blood flow distribution with radiolabeled particles. When both stress and rest perfusion were normal, graft patency was 82% (51 of 62 grafts). Graft patency was also high (81%, 13 of 16) in areas where stress perfusion abnormalities resolved or become less apparent at rest. However, when stress perfusion defects remained unchanged at rest, the graf was likely to be occuluded (73%, 11 of 15). Maintenance of normal rest perfusion or improvement of rest perfusion postoperatively was also associated with a high graft patency rate (80%, 35 of 44), whereas the development of new rest perfusion defects postoperatively implied graft occlusion

  20. Pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging—A review of methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, Christopher S.; Swift, Andrew J.; Hughes, Paul J.C. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, KobeUniversity Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Schiebler, Mark [UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Wild, Jim M., E-mail: j.m.wild@sheffield.ac.uk [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • This article represents an overview of the methodology and clinical applications of pulmonary MRA and perfusion imaging. • Both contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced metholodology for MRA and perfusion are covered. • The current clinical uses and future directions of MRA and MR perfusion are discussed. - Abstract: The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology. In many centres pulmonary MR angiography and dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion MRI are now well established in the routine workflow of patients particularly with pulmonary hypertension and thromboembolic disease. However, these imaging modalities offer exciting new directions for future research and clinical use in other respiratory diseases where consideration of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange can provide insight in to pathophysiology.

  1. Brain Perfusion SPECT Imaging in Sturge - Weber Syndrome : Comparison with MR Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Choi, Yun Young; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Yang, Seoung Oh; Ko, Tae Sung; Yoo, Shi Joon; Lee, Hee Kyung

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was evaluate the characteristic perfusion changes in patients with Sturge-Weber syndrome by comparison of the findings of brain MR images and perfusion SPECT images. 99m Tc-HMPAO or 99m Tc-ECD interictal brain SPECTs were performed on 5 pediatric patients with Struge-Weber syndrome within 2 weeks after MR imaging. Brain SPECTs of three patients without calcification showed diminished perfusion in the affected area on MR image. A 3 month-old patient without brain atrophy or calcification demonstrated paradoxical hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere, and follow-up perfusion SPECT revealed decreased perfusion in the same area. The other patient with advanced calcified lesion and atrophy on MR image showed diffusely decreased perfusion in the affected hemisphere, but a focal area of increased perfusion was also noted in the ipsilateral temporal lobe on SPECT. In conclusion, brain perfusion of the affected area of Sturge-Weber syndrome patients was usually diminished, but early or advanced patients may show paradoxical diffuse or focal hyperperfusion in the affected hemisphere. Further studies are needed for better understanding of these perfusion changes and pathophysiology of Struge-Weber syndrome.

  2. Pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging—A review of methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Christopher S.; Swift, Andrew J.; Hughes, Paul J.C.; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Schiebler, Mark; Wild, Jim M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This article represents an overview of the methodology and clinical applications of pulmonary MRA and perfusion imaging. • Both contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced metholodology for MRA and perfusion are covered. • The current clinical uses and future directions of MRA and MR perfusion are discussed. - Abstract: The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology. In many centres pulmonary MR angiography and dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion MRI are now well established in the routine workflow of patients particularly with pulmonary hypertension and thromboembolic disease. However, these imaging modalities offer exciting new directions for future research and clinical use in other respiratory diseases where consideration of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange can provide insight in to pathophysiology.

  3. Elevated central venous pressure is associated with impairment of microcirculatory blood flow in sepsis: a hypothesis generating post hoc analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, Namkje A. R.; Ince, C.; Boerma, E. C.

    2013-01-01

    Microcirculatory driving pressure is defined as the difference between post-arteriolar and venular pressure. In previous research, an absence of correlation between mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and microcirculatory perfusion has been observed. However, the microcirculation may be considered as

  4. SEA0400 fails to alter the magnitude of intracellular Ca2+ transients and contractions in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentandrássy, Norbert; Birinyi, Péter; Szigeti, Gyula; Farkas, Attila; Magyar, János; Tóth, András; Csernoch, László; Varró, András; Nánási, Péter P

    2008-07-01

    SEA0400 is a recently developed inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) shown to suppress both forward and reverse mode operation of NCX. Present experiments were designed to study the effect of partial blockade of NCX on Ca handling and contractility in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts loaded with the fluorescent Ca-sensitive dye fura-2. Left ventricular pressure and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were synchronously recorded before and after cumulative superfusion with 0.3 and 1 muM SEA0400. SEA0400 caused no significant change in the systolic and diastolic values of left ventricular pressure and [Ca2+]i. Accordingly, pulse pressure and amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient also remained unchanged in the presence of SEA0400. SEA0400 had no influence either on the time required to reach peak values of pressure and [Ca2+)]i or on half relaxation time. On the other hand, both 0.3 and 1 microM SEA0400 significantly increased the decay time constant of [Ca2+]i transients, obtained by fitting its descending limb between 30% and 90% of relaxation, from 127 +/- 7 to 165 +/- 7 and 177 +/- 14 ms, respectively (P hearts, rat hearts responded to SEA0400 treatment with increased [Ca2+]i transients and contractility. These interspecies differences observed in the effect of SEA0400 can be explained by the known differences in calcium handling between the two species.

  5. Whole body perfusion for hybrid aortic arch repair: evolution of selective regional perfusion with a modified extracorporeal circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Philip; Walsh, Graham; Walsh, Stephanie; O'Neil, Michael; Gelinas, Jill; Chu, Michael W A

    2017-04-01

    Patients undergoing hybrid aortic arch reconstruction require careful protection of vital organs. We believe that whole body perfusion with tailored dual circuitry may help to achieve optimal patient outcomes. Our circuit has evolved from a secondary circuit utilizing a cardioplegia delivery device for lower body perfusion to a dual-oxygenator circuit. This allows individually controlled regional perfusion with ease of switching from secondary to primary circuit for total body flow. The re-design allows for separate flow and temperature regulation with two oxygenators in parallel. All patients underwent a single-stage operation for simultaneous treatment of arch and descending aortic pathology via a sternotomy, using a hybrid frozen elephant trunk technique. We report six consecutive patients undergoing hybrid arch and frozen elephant trunk reconstruction using a dual-oxygenator circuit. Five patients underwent elective surgery and one was emergent. One patient had an acute dissection while three underwent concomitant procedures, including a Ross procedure and two valve-sparing root reconstructions. Three cases were redo sternotomies. The mean pump time was 358 ± 131 min, the aortic cross clamp time 243 ± 135 min, the cardioplegia volume of 33,208 ml ± 16,173, cerebral ischemia 0 min, lower body ischemia 76 ± 34 min and the average lower body perfusion time was 142 min. Two patients did not require any donor blood products. The median intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay (LOS) were two days and 10 days, respectively. The average peak serum lactate on CPB was 7.47 mmol/L and, at admission to the ICU, it was 3.37 mmol/L. Renal and respiratory failure developed in the salvage acute type A dissection patient. No other complications occurred in this series. Whole body perfusion as delivered through individually controlled dual-oxygenator circuitry allows maximum flexibility for hybrid aortic arch reconstruction. A modified circuit perfusion

  6. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-12-01

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  7. Basic consideration of diffusion/perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Hirohiko; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Kawamura, Yasutaka; Nakatsugawa, Shigekazu; Ishii, Yasushi; Sakuma, Hajime; Tsukamoto, Tetsuji.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), microscopic motion of biological system such as molecular diffusion of water and microcirculation of blood in the capillary network (perfusion) has been proposed to cause signal attenuation as an intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM). Quantitative imaging of the IVIM phenomenon was attempted to generate from a set of spin-echo (SE) sequences with or without sensitization by motion probing gradient (MPG). The IVIM imaging is characterized by a parameter, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), which is an integration of both the diffusion and the perfusion factor on voxel-by-voxel basis. Hard ware was adjusted to avoid image artifact mainly produced by eddy current. Feasibility of the method was tested using bottle phantom filled with water at different temperature and acetone, and the calculated ADC values of these media corresponded well with accepted values of diffusion. The method was then applied to biological system to investigate mutual participation of diffusion/perfusion on the ADC value. The result of tumor model born on nude mouse suggested considerable participation of perfusion factor which immediately disappeared after sacrificing the animal. Meanwhile, lower value of sacrificed tissue without microcirculation was suggested to have some restriction of diffusion factor by biological tissue. To substantiate the restriction effect on the diffusion, a series of observation have made on a fiber phantom, stalk of celory with botanical fibers and human brain with nerve fibers, in applying unidirectional MPG along the course of these banch of fiber system. The directional restriction effect of diffusion along the course of fiber (diffusion anisotrophy) was clearly visualized as directional change of ADC value. The present method for tissue characterization by diffusion/perfusion on microscopic level will provide a new insight for evaluation of functional derangement in human brain and other organs. (author)

  8. Evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease during exercise: the relation between extent of disease and perfusion deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; DePace, N.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and size of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion in 79 patients with angiographically documented CAD. None of the patients had Q-wave myocardial infarction. Fifty patients had one-vessel disease, ten had two-vessel disease, and 19 patients had three-vessel or left main disease. From a scintigraphic functional standpoint, patients were classified into two groups: 28 patients (35%) had large perfusion defects and 51 patients (65%) had small defects. The size of the thallium-201 perfusion defect during exercise was assessed as the perimeter of the defect in each projection expressed as a percentage abnormality of the total left ventricular perimeter in that projection. The average abnormality from the three projections was used in the final analysis. Eleven patients with large defects (39%) had one-vessel disease and 12 patients with small defects (24%) had multivessel disease. Stepwise multivariate discriminate analysis identified the number of diseased vessels (F . 13.9), the change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise (F . 10.8), the exercise heart rate (F . 9.1), and exercise electrocardiographic response (F . 7.8) as significant associates of the size of the perfusion defect (predictive accuracy . 70%). We conclude that the size of hypoperfused myocardium during exercise is variable in patients with CAD. Discriminate analysis identified the extent of CAD, exercise heart rate, change in systolic pressure from rest to exercise, and exercise electrocardiographic response as significant associates of the size of the defect

  9. Possibilities of differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions by computed tomography perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmina Sefić Pašić

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim To evaluate possibilities of computed tomography (CT perfusion in differentiation of solitary focal liver lesions based on their characteristic vascularization through perfusion parameters analysis. Methods Prospective study was conducted on 50 patients in the period 2009-2012. Patients were divided in two groups: benign and malignant lesions. The following CT perfusion parameters were analyzed: blood flow (BF, blood volume (BV, mean transit time (MTT, capillary permeability surface area product (PS, hepatic arterial fraction (HAF, and impulse residual function (IRF. During the study another perfusion parameter was analyzed: hepatic perfusion index (HPI. All patients were examined on Multidetector 64-slice CT machine (GE with application of perfusion protocol for liver with i.v. administration of contrast agent. Results In both groups an increase of vascularization and arterial blood flow was noticed, but there was no significant statistical difference between any of 6 analyzed parameters. Hepatic perfusion index values were increased in all lesions in comparison with normal liver parenchyma. Conclusion Computed tomography perfusion in our study did not allow differentiation of benign and malignant liver lesions based on analysis of functional perfusion parameters. Hepatic perfusion index should be investigated in further studies as a parameter for detection of possible presence of micro-metastases in visually homogeneous liver in cases with no lesions found during standard CT protocol

  10. Influence of dietary fat on metabolism of (14-14C)erucic acid in the perfused rat liver. Distribution of metabolites in lipid classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmer, G.; Ronneberg, R.

    1986-01-01

    Two groups of rats were fed diets containing 20% by weight of either partially hydrogenated marine oil supplemented with sunflower seed oil (PHMO) or palm oil (PO) for 8 wk. Using a liver perfusion system, the effect of dietary long chain monoenoic fatty acids on the uptake and metabolism of [14- 14 C]erucic acid was studied. The perfusion times were 15 and 60 min, respectively. The two groups showed equal ability for erucic acid uptake in the liver but differed in the channeling of the fatty acids into various metabolic pathways. A higher metabolic turnover of 22:1 in the PHMO livers relative to the PO livers was demonstrated by an increased recovery of total [ 14 C]labeling in the triglyceride (TG) and phospholipid (PL) fractions, already evident after 15 min of perfusion. The chain-shortening capacity was highest in the PHMO group, reflected by a higher [ 14 C]18:1 incorporation in both TG and PL, and increasing from 15 to 60 min of perfusion. The amount of [ 14 C]18:1 found in PL and TG after 60 min of perfusion of livers from rats fed PO corresponded to that shown for the PHMO group after 15 min. The PL demonstrated a discrimination against 22:1 compared to TG, and, when available, 18:1 was highly preferred for PL-synthesis. The total fatty acid distribution in the TG, as determined by gas liquid chromatography (GLC), reflected the composition of the dietary fats. In the total liver PL, 22:1 and 20:1 were present in negligible amounts, although the PHMO diet contained 12-13% of both 22:1 and 20:1. In the free fatty acid fraction (FFA), the major part of the radioactivity (approximately 80%) was [14- 14 C]erucic acid, and only small amounts of [ 14 C]18:1 (less than 2%) were present, even after 60 min of perfusion. The shortened-chain 18:1 was readily removed from the FFA pool and preferentially used for lipid esterification

  11. Influence of time and pressure of forming a pattern on mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pacyniak

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the technology of forming patterns on a research station equipped with an autoclave A-600 of Polish company GROM is presented. This study was conducted to determine the influence of pressure and time of forming a pattern on the bending strength. Analysis of the results confirmed that bending strength increases with increasing the pressure. The time of forming a pattern has a similar effect.

  12. Perfusion scintigraphy of the hand with sup(99m)Tc labelled microspheres - an alternative to angiography in the diagnosis of peripheral perfusion disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnahl, H M; Hedde, J P [Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Strahleninstitut

    1979-12-01

    sup(99m)Tc labelled microspheres were injected in the A. brachialis in addition to angiography of the hand in 15 patients. The hereby obtained results show good correlation between angiography and scintigraphy. The completely normal perfusion scintigram of the hand allows to dispense with angiography. The pathological scan, however, requires angiography. Perfusion scintigraphy of the hand seems to be most useful in the follow-up of therapeutic effects in perfusion disturbances.

  13. Visualization of myocardial perfusion derived from coronary anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, M.A.; Bescos, J.O.; Breeuwer, M.; Vilanova, A.; Gerritsen, F.A.; Gröller, M.E.; Nagel, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Visually assessing the effect of the coronary artery anatomy on the perfusion of the heart muscle in patients with coronary artery disease remains a challenging task. We explore the feasibility of visualizing this effect on perfusion using a numerical approach. We perform a computational simulation

  14. CT perfusion mapping of hemodynamic disturbances associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainardi, Enrico; Borrelli, Massimo; Saletti, Andrea; Ceruti, Stefano; Tamarozzi, Riccardo; Schivalocchi, Roberta; Cavallo, Michele; Azzini, Cristiano; Chieregato, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    We sought to quantify perfusion changes associated to acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) by means of computed tomography perfusion (CTP) imaging. We studied 89 patients with supratentorial SICH at admission CT by using CTP scanning obtained within 24 h after symptom onset. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and mean transit time (rMTT) levels were measured in four different regions of interest manually outlined on CT scan: (1) hemorrhagic core; (2) perihematomal low-density area; (3) 1 cm rim of normal-appearing brain tissue surrounding the perilesional area; and (4) a mirrored area, including the clot and the perihematomal region, located in the non-lesioned contralateral hemisphere. rCBF, rCBV, and rMTT mean levels showed a centrifugal distribution with a gradual increase from the core to the periphery (p 20 ml) hematomas (p<0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Multi-parametric CTP mapping of acute SICH indicates that perfusion values show a progressive improvement from the core to the periphery. In the first 24 h, perihemorrhagic region was hypoperfused with CTP values which were not suggestive of ischemic penumbra destined to survive but more likely indicative of edema formation. These findings also argue for a potential influence of early amounts of bleeding on perihematomal hemodynamic abnormalities. (orig.)

  15. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van; Zaknun, John J.; Maes, Alex; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon; Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina; Bal, C.S.; Dondi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  16. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  17. Phase correction of MR perfusion/diffusion images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenevert, T.L.; Pipe, J.G.; Brunberg, J.A.; Yeung, H.N.

    1989-01-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and perfusion MR sequences are exceptionally sensitive to minute motion and, therefore, are prone to bulk motions that hamper ADC/perfusion quantification. The a