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Sample records for perfused pig heart

  1. Chamber-specific effects of hypokalaemia on ventricular arrhythmogenicity in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2009-01-01

    of hypokalaemic perfusion (2.5 mm K(+) for 30 min) were assessed in isolated guinea-pig heart preparations using simultaneous recordings of volume-conducted electrocardiogram and monophasic action potentials from six ventricular epicardial sites. Effective refractory periods, ventricular fibrillation thresholds...... for re-entrant tachyarrhythmias. Taken together, these findings suggest that proarrhythmic effects of hypokalaemia are mostly attributed to increased LV arrhythmogenicity in the guinea-pig heart....

  2. Effects of thyroid state on respiration of perfused rat and guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, L.C.; Wallace, P.G.; Berry, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thyroid state on the respiration of the isolated heart were investigated using retrograde perfused rat and guinea pig hearts. In both species, hypothyroidism caused a marked depression in circulating thyroid hormone concentrations and in the respiration of the isolated, retrograde perfused heart. Hypothyroidism was caused by injecting animals with Na 131 I. The effects on myocardial respiration could be attributed to changes in the contraction frequency and in the oxygen consumption per beat, with little contribution from basal respiration. Treatment of animals with thyroxine elevated plasma thyroid hormones to a similar extent in rats and guinea pigs. In the latter, thyroxine treatment was associated with substantial increases in the contraction frequency and the oxygen consumption per beat of the isolated heart. In contrast, only small changes were apparent in the retrograde perfused rat heart, observations that were confirmed in rat hearts perfused at near physiological work loads. It was concluded that rat hearts isolated from normal animals function at near maximal thyroid state, in contrast to the guinea pig heart, which requires higher circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones to attain maximal responses

  3. Characterizing potential heart agents with an isolated perfused heart system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Camin, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have used an isolated perfused heart system for characterizing potential myocardial perfusion radiopharamaceuticals. Rabbit or guinea pig (GP) hearts are removed and perfused through the aorta with a blood-free buffer. Heart rate and ventricular pressure are monitored as indices of viability. Tc-99m-MAA is 96-100% retained in these hearts, and Tc-99m human serum albumin shows less than 5% extraction. Tl-201 is 30-40% extracted. It is known that in-vivo, Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/Cl/sub 2//sup +/ is taken up by rabbit heart but not by GP or human heart. Analogous results are obtained with the isolated perfused heart model, where the complex is extracted well by the isolated rabbit heart (24%) but not by the GP heart (<5%). Values are unchanged if human, rabbit or GP blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex. Tc-99m)dmpe)/sub 3//sup +/ is also taken up by rabbit but not by GP hearts in-vivo. However, isolated perfused hearts of both species extract this complex well (45-52%). Heart uptake is diminished to <7% if the complex is pre-equilibrated with human blood. GP blood produces a moderate inhibition (in GP hearts only) and rabbit blood has no effect. This suggests that a human or GP blood factor may have a significant effect on heart uptake of this complex. Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ is taken up well by both rabbit and GP hearts in-vivo, and is extracted 100% by both isolated perfused hearts. Heart retention remains high (73-75%) in the presence of human blood

  4. Effect of etorphine on the spontaneous and field stimulation-mediated release of norepinephrine and total tritium from perfused guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Isolated guinea pig hearts were prelabeled with 3 H-norepinephrine ( 3 H-NE) and perfused with modified Krebs-bicarbonate solution at 37 0 C. Spontaneous release of total 3 H and field stimulation-mediated (supramax. V., 1 Hz, 2 msec duration for a total of 60 pulses) overflow of NE and 3 H-NE were measured in the absence or presence of etorphine. Etorphine (0.1 - 100 μM) was added to the perfusion fluid 15 min. before the stimulation. To study the effect of etorphine on spontaneous release of total 3 H, etorphine was added cumulatively without stimulation. Etorphine (1.0 - 100 μM) caused a significant decrease in the stimulation-mediated overflow of NE and the inhibition was dose-related. The overflow of NE was 5.1 +/- 0.3 ng in the absence and 4.0 +/- 0.2 ng in the presence of etorphine (1.0 μM). Low concentrations of etorphine (0.1 - 1.0 μM) had no effect on the spontaneous release of total 3 H while 10 μM and 100 μM caused a 3 and 6-fold increase respectively. The results show that etorphine inhibited neuronal release of NE at a dose which had no effect on spontaneous release. It is suggested that opiate receptors might be involved in the prejunctional modulation of the release of NE in the guinea pig heart

  5. SEA0400 fails to alter the magnitude of intracellular Ca2+ transients and contractions in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentandrássy, Norbert; Birinyi, Péter; Szigeti, Gyula; Farkas, Attila; Magyar, János; Tóth, András; Csernoch, László; Varró, András; Nánási, Péter P

    2008-07-01

    SEA0400 is a recently developed inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) shown to suppress both forward and reverse mode operation of NCX. Present experiments were designed to study the effect of partial blockade of NCX on Ca handling and contractility in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts loaded with the fluorescent Ca-sensitive dye fura-2. Left ventricular pressure and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) were synchronously recorded before and after cumulative superfusion with 0.3 and 1 muM SEA0400. SEA0400 caused no significant change in the systolic and diastolic values of left ventricular pressure and [Ca2+]i. Accordingly, pulse pressure and amplitude of the [Ca2+]i transient also remained unchanged in the presence of SEA0400. SEA0400 had no influence either on the time required to reach peak values of pressure and [Ca2+)]i or on half relaxation time. On the other hand, both 0.3 and 1 microM SEA0400 significantly increased the decay time constant of [Ca2+]i transients, obtained by fitting its descending limb between 30% and 90% of relaxation, from 127 +/- 7 to 165 +/- 7 and 177 +/- 14 ms, respectively (P hearts, rat hearts responded to SEA0400 treatment with increased [Ca2+]i transients and contractility. These interspecies differences observed in the effect of SEA0400 can be explained by the known differences in calcium handling between the two species.

  6. Arrhythmogenic drugs can amplify spatial heterogeneities in the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart: An evidence from assessments of monophasic action potential durations and JT intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg E Osadchii

    Full Text Available Non-uniform shortening of the action potential duration (APD90 in different myocardial regions upon heart rate acceleration can set abnormal repolarization gradients and promote arrhythmia. This study examined whether spatial heterogeneities in APD90 restitution can be amplified by drugs with clinically proved proarrhythmic potential (dofetilide, quinidine, procainamide, and flecainide and, if so, whether these effects can translate to the appropriate changes of the ECG metrics of ventricular repolarization, such as JT intervals. In isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations, monophasic action potentials and volume-conducted ECG were recorded at progressively increased pacing rates. The APD90 measured at distinct ventricular sites, as well as the JTpeak and JTend values were plotted as a function of preceding diastolic interval, and the maximum slopes of the restitution curves were determined at baseline and upon drug administration. Dofetilide, quinidine, and procainamide reverse rate-dependently prolonged APD90 and steepened the restitution curve, with effects being greater at the endocardium than epicardium, and in the right ventricular (RV vs. the left ventricular (LV chamber. The restitution slope was increased to a greater extent for the JTend vs. the JTpeak interval. In contrast, flecainide reduced the APD90 restitution slope at LV epicardium without producing effect at LV endocardium and RV epicardium, and reduced the JTpeak restitution slope without changing the JTend restitution. Nevertheless, with all agents, these effects translated to the amplified epicardial-to-endocardial and the LV-to-RV non-uniformities in APD90 restitution, paralleled by the increased JTend vs. JTpeak difference in the restitution slope. In summary, these findings suggest that arrhythmic drug profiles are partly attributable to the accentuated regional heterogeneities in APD90 restitution, which can be indirectly determined through ECG assessments of the

  7. Arrhythmogenic drugs can amplify spatial heterogeneities in the electrical restitution in perfused guinea-pig heart: An evidence from assessments of monophasic action potential durations and JT intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2018-01-01

    Non-uniform shortening of the action potential duration (APD90) in different myocardial regions upon heart rate acceleration can set abnormal repolarization gradients and promote arrhythmia. This study examined whether spatial heterogeneities in APD90 restitution can be amplified by drugs with clinically proved proarrhythmic potential (dofetilide, quinidine, procainamide, and flecainide) and, if so, whether these effects can translate to the appropriate changes of the ECG metrics of ventricular repolarization, such as JT intervals. In isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations, monophasic action potentials and volume-conducted ECG were recorded at progressively increased pacing rates. The APD90 measured at distinct ventricular sites, as well as the JTpeak and JTend values were plotted as a function of preceding diastolic interval, and the maximum slopes of the restitution curves were determined at baseline and upon drug administration. Dofetilide, quinidine, and procainamide reverse rate-dependently prolonged APD90 and steepened the restitution curve, with effects being greater at the endocardium than epicardium, and in the right ventricular (RV) vs. the left ventricular (LV) chamber. The restitution slope was increased to a greater extent for the JTend vs. the JTpeak interval. In contrast, flecainide reduced the APD90 restitution slope at LV epicardium without producing effect at LV endocardium and RV epicardium, and reduced the JTpeak restitution slope without changing the JTend restitution. Nevertheless, with all agents, these effects translated to the amplified epicardial-to-endocardial and the LV-to-RV non-uniformities in APD90 restitution, paralleled by the increased JTend vs. JTpeak difference in the restitution slope. In summary, these findings suggest that arrhythmic drug profiles are partly attributable to the accentuated regional heterogeneities in APD90 restitution, which can be indirectly determined through ECG assessments of the JTend vs. JTpeak

  8. Compartmented pyruvate in perfused working heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenger, R.

    1985-01-01

    Pyruvate compartmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were studied in isolated perfused working guinea pig hearts. The mean intracellular pyruvate (Pyr) contents increased with perfusate Pyr (0-2 mM) but varied only slightly with glucose (0-10 mM) and additional insulin (0.04-5 U/l), respectively. With 5-10 mM glucose plus 5 U/l insulin, but not with Pyr or lactate (Lac) as substrates, a near equilibrium between the LDH and the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase seemed to exist. Evidence for an inhibitory effect of Pyr on the activity of the LDH system of the perfused hearts was not obtained. With [U- 14 C]glucose as sole substrate, the specific activity of coronary venous Lac was near half that of precursor glucose. 14 CO 2 production was thus in quantitative agreement with rates of pyruvate oxidation that were determined as glucose uptake minus (Pyr + Lac) release. In contrast, with 0.2 mM [1- 14 C]Pyr plus 5 mM glucose, the ratio of 14 CO 2 production to specific activity of Lac overestimated Pyr oxidation judged from myocardial substrate balances and O 2 uptake, respectively; here, at least three pools of [ 14 C]HCO-3 and [ 14 C]lac, respectively, were kinetically demonstrable during washout of trace amounts of 14 C-labeled Pyr. Evidently, the specific activity of Lac was equivalent to that of mitochondrial oxidized Pyr provided [ 14 C]glucose was the sole or major precursor of cellular pyruvate. However, exogenously applied [1- 14 C]Pyr of high specific activity seemed to induce intracellular formation of both a highly and lowly labeled Pyr; the latter Pyr compartment did not seem in ready equilibrium with the cell physiologically prevailing highly labeled Pyr pool

  9. Biosynthesis of plasmenylcholine in guinea pig heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wientzek, M.; Choy, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    In some mammalian hearts, up to 40% of the choline phosphoglyceride (CPG) exists as plasmenylcholine (1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Although the majority of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) in mammalian hearts is synthesized from choline via the CDP-choline pathway, the formation of plasmenylcholine from choline was not known. In this study, they investigated the biosynthesis of plasmenyl-choline in the isolated guinea pig heart by perfusion with [ 3 H]choline. Labelled choline containing metabolites and labelled plasmenylcholine were isolated and determined at different perfusion time points. Significant amounts of labelling were found only in choline, phosphocholine, CDP-choline, plasmenyl-choline and PC. In addition, a precursor-product relationship was observed between the labelling of CDP-choline and plasmenylcholine. Such a relationship was not observed between choline and plasmenylcholine. Hence, they postulate that the incorporation of choline into plasmenylcholine is via the CDP-choline pathway and not via base exchange. The ability to condense 1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycerol with CDP-choline was also demonstrated in vitro with guinea pig heart microsomes

  10. Electrophysiologic effects of the IK1 inhibitor PA-6 are modulated by extracellular potassium in isolated guinea pig hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeker, Gregory S; Skarsfeldt, Mark A; Jespersen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in Langendorff-perfused guinea pig hearts. PA-6 (200 nm) or vehicle was perfused into ex-vivo guinea pig hearts for 60 min. Hearts were optically mapped with di-4-ANEPPS to quantify CV and APD at 90% repolarization (APD90). Ventricular APD90was significantly prolonged in hearts treated with PA-6 (115 ± 2...... APD90to a lesser degree, but profoundly increased CV Thus, in intact guinea pig hearts, the electrophysiologic effects of the IK1inhibitor, PA-6, are [K+]o-dependent....

  11. {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin: relative retention and clearance kinetics in retrogradely perfused guinea pig hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Wolfgang M.; Moka, Detlef E-mail: detlef.moka@uni-koeln.de; Brockmann, Holger A.; Schomaecker, Klaus; Schicha, Harald

    2002-02-01

    Myocellular kinetics of {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin were investigated using retrogradely-perfused guinea-pig hearts. Relative retention decreased in the order {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI exhibited bi- (t1,t2), {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin triexponential (t1,t2,t3) time-activity-curves. Latest-phase elimination-half-life increased from {sup 201}Tl (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (t3) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin (t3), showing a significant increase in deteriorating myocardium for all tracers but {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. Delayed elimination in deteriorating myocardium explains at least partly the redistribution phenomenon of {sup 201}Tl, and suggests a similar phenomenon for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin.

  12. Lung perfusion scintigraphy in congenital heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Hiroshi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Oonishi, Takashi; Futami, Shigemi; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1990-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigrams were reviewed retrospectively in 28 patients with congenital heart disease, whose ages ranged from the first year to 16 years with an average age of 5 years and 6 months. Seventy four MBq (2 mCi), 111 MBq (2 mCi), and 185 MBq (5 mCi) of Tc-99m macroaggregated albumin were iv injected in the age groups of 0-3, 4-11, and more than 11 years, respectively. Five minutes later, images were obtained in six projections. Abnormal findings on lung perfusion scintigrams were observed in 13 patients (46%). Of these patients, 8 (29%) had a partially decreased blood flow and 5 (17%) had a decreased blood flow in the unilateral lung. No significant difference in the occurrence of abnormal findings was observed among the age groups, although they tended to occur in younger patients. Sex, underlying conditions, and hemodynamics were also independent of scintigraphically abnormal findings. Even when classifying the patients as having either cyanotic or non-cyanotic heart disease, no significant difference in hemodynamics was observed between the group of abnormal findings and the group of normal findings. Pulmonary arteriography available in all patients failed to reveal abnormal findings, with the exception of pulmonary artery stenosis in 2 patients that corresponded to a decreased blood flow in the unilateral lung. Pulmonary artery stenosis seemed to be responsible for abnormal pulmonary blood flow, although other causes remained uncertain. (N.K.)

  13. Reduced intrinsic heart rate is associated with reduced arrhythmic susceptibility in guinea-pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osadchii, Oleg E

    2014-12-01

    In the clinical setting, patients with slower resting heart rate are less prone to cardiovascular death compared with those with elevated heart rate. However, electrophysiological adaptations associated with reduced cardiac rhythm have not been thoroughly explored. In this study, relationships between intrinsic heart rate and arrhythmic susceptibility were examined by assessments of action potential duration (APD) rate adaptation and inducibility of repolarization alternans in sinoatrial node (SAN)-driven and atrioventricular (AV)-blocked guinea-pig hearts perfused with Langendorff apparatus. Electrocardiograms, epicardial monophasic action potentials, and effective refractory periods (ERP) were assessed in normokalemic and hypokalemic conditions. Slower basal heart rate in AV-blocked hearts was associated with prolonged ventricular repolarization during spontaneous beating, and with attenuated APD shortening at increased cardiac activation rates during dynamic pacing, when compared with SAN-driven hearts. During hypokalemic perfusion, the inducibility of repolarization alternans and tachyarrhythmia by rapid pacing was found to be lower in AV-blocked hearts. This difference was ascribed to prolonged ERP in the setting of reduced basal heart rate, which prevented ventricular capture at critically short pacing intervals required to induce arrhythmia. Reduced basal heart rate is associated with electrophysiological changes that prevent electrical instability upon an abrupt cardiac acceleration.

  14. Complete inhibition of creatine kinase in isolated perfused rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossel, E.T.; Hoefeler, H.

    1987-01-01

    Transient exposure of an isolated isovolumic perfused rat heart to low concentrations (0.5 mM) of perfusate-born iodoacetamide resulted in complete inhibition of creatine kinase and partial inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in the heart. At low levels of developed pressure, hearts maintained mechanical function, ATP, and creatine phosphate levels at control values. However, iodoacetamide-inhibited hearts were unable to maintain control values of end diastolic pressure or peak systolic pressure as work load increased. Global ischemia resulted in loss of all ATP without loss of creatine phosphate, indicating lack of active creatine kinase. These results indicate that isovolumic perfused rat hearts are able to maintain normal function and normal levels of high-energy phosphates without active creatine kinase at low levels of developed pressure. 31 P-NMR of the heart was carried out

  15. Pharmacological activation of rapid delayed rectifier potassium current suppresses bradycardia-induced triggered activity in the isolated guinea pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    arrhythmias. We present here data that support that NS3623 affects native I(Kr) and report the effects that activating this potassium current have in the intact guinea pig heart. In Langendorff-perfused hearts, the compound showed a concentration-dependent shortening of action potential duration, which...

  16. Direct myocardial perfusion imaging in valvular heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, R.C.; Durante, M.L.; Villacorta, E.V.; Torres, J.F.; Monzon, O.P.

    1981-02-01

    Twenty two patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease - 21 having a history of heart failure - were studied using direct coronary injection of /sup 99m/Tc labelled MAA particles during the course of hemodynamic and arteriographic studies. Myocardial perfusion deficit patterns have been shown to be consistent or indicative of either patchy, regional or gross ischemia. In patients with history of documented heart failure 90% (18 cases) had ischemic perfusion deficit in the involved ventricle. We conclude that diminished myocardial blood flow is an important mechanism contributing to the development of heart failure.

  17. Direct myocardial perfusion imaging in valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, R.C.; Durante, M.L.; Villacorta, E.V.; Torres, J.F.; Monzon, O.P.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty two patients with rheumatic valvular heart disease - 21 having a history of heart failure - were studied using direct coronary injection of sup(99m)Tc labelled MAA particles during the course of hemodynamic and arteriographic studies. Myocardial perfusion deficit patterns have been shown to be consistent or indicative of either patchy, regional or gross ischemia. In patients with history of documented heart failure 90% (18 cases) had ischemic perfusion deficit in the involved ventricle. We conclude that diminished myocardial blood flow is an important mechanism contributing to the development of heart failure. (orig.) [de

  18. Polydeoxyribonucleotides and nitric oxide release from guinea-pig hearts during ischaemia and reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, E.; Lupini, M.; Mugnai, L.; Raspanti, S.; Mannaioni, P. F.

    1995-01-01

    1. Two polydeoxyribonucleotides, produced by the controlled hydrolysis of DNA of mammalian lung (defibrotide and its lower molecular weight fraction, P.O. 085 DV), were studied for their ability to modify the release of nitrite and the coronary flow in perfusates collected from isolated, normally perfused hearts of guinea-pigs and from hearts subjected to regional ischaemia and reperfusion. 2. In guinea-pig normally perfused hearts, both defibrotide (DFT) and its fraction, P.O. 085 DV, increase the amount of nitrite appearing in perfusates in a concentration-dependent fashion. At the highest concentration studied (10(-6) M), P.O. 085 DV was more effective than DFT. A concomitant increase in the coronary flow was observed. 3. The increase in nitrite in perfusates and the increase in coronary flow induced by both DFT and P.O. 085 DV were significantly reduced by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 10(-4) M), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). 4. The endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine (ACh), enhances the formation of nitrite and the coronary flow. Both the increase in coronary flow and in the formation of nitrite were significantly reduced by L-NMMA (10(-4) M). 5. In guinea-pig hearts subjected to ischaemia and reperfusion, the effect of both compounds in increasing the amount of nitrite in perfusates was more evident and more pronounced with P.O. 085 DV. 6. Reperfusion-induced arrhythmias were significantly reduced by both compounds to the extent of complete protection afforded by compound P.O. 085 DV. 7. The cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic effects of DFT and P.O. 085 DV are discussed. PMID:7582482

  19. Adjustment and Characterization of an Original Model of Chronic Ischemic Heart Failure in Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Barandon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present and characterize an original experimental model to create a chronic ischemic heart failure in pig. Two ameroid constrictors were placed around the LAD and the circumflex artery. Two months after surgery, pigs presented a poor LV function associated with a severe mitral valve insufficiency. Echocardiography analysis showed substantial anomalies in radial and circumferential deformations, both on the anterior and lateral surface of the heart. These anomalies in function were coupled with anomalies of perfusion observed in echocardiography after injection of contrast medium. No demonstration of myocardial infarction was observed with histological analysis. Our findings suggest that we were able to create and to stabilize a chronic ischemic heart failure model in the pig. This model represents a useful tool for the development of new medical or surgical treatment in this field.

  20. Persufflation (gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of heart preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott, William E; Eckman, Peter M; Fonger, James D; John, Ranjit; Chronos, Nicolas; Tempelman, Linda A; Sutherland, David E R; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-04-22

    Persufflation (PSF; gaseous oxygen perfusion) is an organ preservation technique with a potential for use in donor heart preservation. Improved heart preservation with PSF may improve outcomes by maintaining cardiac tissue quality in the setting of longer cold ischemia times and possibly increasing the number of donor hearts available for allotransplant. Published data suggests that PSF is able to extend the cold storage times for porcine hearts up to 14 hours without compromising viability and function, and has been shown to resuscitate porcine hearts following donation after cardiac death. This review summarizes key published work on heart PSF, including prospective implications and future directions for PSF in heart transplantation. We emphasize the potential impact of extending preservation times and expanding donor selection criteria in heart allotransplant. Additionally, the key issues that need to be addressed before PSF were to become a widely utilized preservation strategy prior to clinical heart transplantation are summarized and discussed.

  1. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass for open heart surgery in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Grønlykke, Lars; Risom, Emilie C

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Available evidence has been inconclusive on whether pulmonary artery perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with decreased or increased mortality, pulmonary events, and serious adverse events (SAEs) after open heart surgery. To our knowledge, no previous systematic...... handsearched retrieved study reports and scanned citations of included studies and relevant reviews to ensure that no relevant trials were missed. We searched for ongoing trials and unpublished trials in the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and at clinicaltrials......). We used GRADE principles to assess the quality of evidence. MAIN RESULTS: We included in this review four RCTs (210 participants) reporting relevant outcomes. Investigators randomly assigned participants to pulmonary artery perfusion with blood versus no perfusion during CPB. Only one trial included...

  2. Flecainide attenuates rate adaptation of ventricular repolarization in guinea-pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osadchii, Oleg E.

    2016-01-01

    examined flecainide effect on adaptation of the QT interval and ventricular action potential duration (APD) to abrupt reductions of the cardiac cycle length. DESIGN: ECG and ventricular epicardial and endocardial monophasic APD were recorded in isolated, perfused guinea-pig heart preparations upon...... a sustained cardiac acceleration (rapid pacing for 30 s), and following a single perturbation of the cycle length evoked by extrasystolic stimulation. RESULTS: Sustained increase in heart rate was associated with progressive bi-exponential shortening of the QT interval and APD. Flecainide prolonged...

  3. Volume of myocardium perfused by coronary artery branches as estimated from 3D micro-CT images of rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Patricia E.; Naessens, Lauren C.; Seaman, Catherine A.; Reyes, Denise A.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Average myocardial perfusion is remarkably consistent throughout the heart wall under resting conditions and the velocity of blood flow is fairly reproducible from artery to artery. Based on these observations, and the fact that flow through an artery is the product of arterial cross-sectional area and blood flow velocity, we would expect the volume of myocardium perfused to be proportional to the cross-sectional area of the coronary artery perfusing that volume of myocardium. This relationship has been confirmed by others in pigs, dogs and humans. To test the body size-dependence of this relationship we used the hearts from rats, 3 through 25 weeks of age. The coronary arteries were infused with radiopaque microfil polymer and the hearts scanned in a micro- CT scanner. Using these 3D images we measured the volume of myocardium and the arterial cross-sectional area of the artery that perfused that volume of myocardium. The average constant of proportionality was found to be 0.15 +/- 0.08 cm3/mm2. Our data showed no statistically different estimates of the constant of proportionality in the rat hearts of different ages nor between the left and right coronary arteries. This constant is smaller than that observed in large animals and humans, but this difference is consistent with the body mass-dependence on metabolic rate.

  4. Intact nitric oxide production is obligatory for the sustained flow response during hypercapnic acidosis in guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Anke; Koch, Thea; Deussen, Andreas

    2005-04-01

    The mechanisms underlying hypercapnic coronary dilation remain unsettled. This study tests the hypothesis that flow dependent NO production is obligatory for the hypercapnic flow response. In isolated, constant pressure (CP) perfused guinea pig hearts a step change of arterial pCO(2) from 38.6 to 61.4 mm Hg induced a bi-phasic flow response with an early transient (maximum 60 s) and a consecutive persisting flow rise (121.6+/-6.6 (S.D.) % after 10 min). In contrast, when perfused with constant flow (CF), perfusion pressure only transiently (2 min) fell by 7.4+/-4.8 % following the step change of arterial pCO(2). In CP perfused hearts L-NAME (100 micromol/l) specifically abolished the delayed flow rise during hypercapnic acidosis (102.37+/-2.9% after 10 min), whereas the inhibitor had no effect on perfusion pressure response in CF perfused hearts. Under CP perfusion arterial hypercapnia resulted in a transient rise of coronary cGMP release (from 0.69+/-0.35 to 1.12+/-0.68 pmol/ml), which was abolished after L-NAME. Surprisingly, the K(+)ATP channel blocker glibenclamide did not have any significant effect on the hypercapnic flow response but largely blunted reactive hyperemia after a 20 s flow stop. The delayed steady state hypercapnic flow response in guinea pig heart requires intact NO production. The absence of a persisting decrease in coronary resistance under CF perfusion points to an important role of shear stress dependent NO production.

  5. Ordered synthesis and mobilization of glycogen in the perfused heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brainard, J.R.; Hutson, J.Y.; Hoekenga, D.E.; Lenhoff, R.

    1989-01-01

    The molecular order of synthesis and mobilization of glycogen in the perfused heart was studied by 13 C NMR. By varying the glucose isotopomer ([1- 13 C]glucose or [2- 13 C]glucose) supplied to the heart, glycogen synthesized at different times during the perfusion was labeled at different carbon sites. Subsequently, the in situ mobilization of glycogen during ischemia was observed by detection of labeled lactate derived from glycolysis of the glucosyl monomers. When [1- 13 C]glucose was given initially in the perfusion and [2- 13 C]glucose was given second, [2- 13 C]lactate was detected first during ischemia and [3- 13 C]lactate second. This result, and the equivalent result when the glucose labels were given in the reverse order, demonstrates that glycogen synthesis and mobilization are ordered in the heart, where glycogen is found morphologically only as β particles. Previous studies of glycogen synthesis and mobilization in liver and adipocytes have suggested that the organization of β particles into α particles was partially responsible for ordered synthesis and mobilization. The observations reported here for cardiac glycogen suggest that another mechanism is responsible. In addition to examine the ordered synthesis and mobilization of cardiac glycogen, the authors have selectively monitored the NMR properties of 13 C-labeled glycogen synthesized early in the perfusion during further glycogen synthesis from a second, differently labeled substrate. During synthesis from the second labeled glucose monomer, the glycogen resonance from the first label decreased in integrated intensity and increased in line width. These results suggest either that there is significant isotopic exchange of glucosyl monomers in glycogen during net synthesis or that glucosyl residues incorporated into glycogen undergo motional restrictions as further glycogen synthesis occurs

  6. Michaëlis--Menten kinetics of phenazone elimination in the perfused pig liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, B; Tonnesen, K; Rabol, A

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to define the elimination kinetics of phenazone (NFN) in the isolated perfused pig liver. In five experiments phenazone was administered as constant infusion to obtain steady-state periods over a wide range of concentrations. The elimination of phenazone follo...

  7. Effect of propofol and remifentanil on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Miles, James Edward

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review is to evaluate the existing literature with regard to the influence of propofol and remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in healthy pigs. Anaesthesia has influence on cerebral haemodynamics and it is important not onl...

  8. Metabolism of perfused pig intercostal muscles evaluated by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Lindegaard; Arendrup, Henrik; Secher, Niels H

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a perfused preparation for evaluation of metabolism in pig intercostal muscle in vitro. Preserved vessels and nerves to an intercostal segment including two adjacent ribs allowed for tissue perfusion and electrical stimulation with measurement of contraction force, oxygen......, as demonstrated in one preliminary experiment. The results demonstrate a stable and functional in vitro preparation of intact perfused intercostal muscles in the pig........ Tonic stimulation of the nerve caused anaerobic energy consumption as PCr and pH decreased, and both variables recovered after the contraction with half-time values of approximately 7 min. Force increased to 0.040 N g(-1) (range, 0.031-0.103 N g(-1)) and it gradually decreased by about 70% during...

  9. Fluorine-18 heart dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Campos, Tarcísio P.R., E-mail: janine.toledo@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências e Técnicas Nucleares

    2017-07-01

    This paper conducts a recalling in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) followed by a spatial dosimetric investigation of the Fluorine-18 distributed at the myocardium by self-absorption of the heart uptake. Methods and Results: Radiological data manipulation was prepared and a computational heart voxelized model was assembled. A set of images from the abdominal aorta and angiotomography of the thorax was set up providing anatomic and functional information for heart modeling in SISCODES code. A homogeneous distribution of fluorine-18 was assumed into the heart myocardial wall. MCNP – Monte Carlo Code was used to provide the photon transport into the heart model taken in consideration the interactions into the tissues. The spatial dose distribution and histogram dose versus volume are presented. An analytical alternative model was addressed to the data validation. The present developed tools can produce spatial dose distribution in MPI at heart. Specially, the dosimetry performed elucidates imparted dose in the myocardial muscle per unit of injected Fluorine-18 activity by self-absorption of the heart uptake, which can contribute to future deterministic effect investigations. (author)

  10. Fluorine-18 heart dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Campos, Tarcísio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper conducts a recalling in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) followed by a spatial dosimetric investigation of the Fluorine-18 distributed at the myocardium by self-absorption of the heart uptake. Methods and Results: Radiological data manipulation was prepared and a computational heart voxelized model was assembled. A set of images from the abdominal aorta and angiotomography of the thorax was set up providing anatomic and functional information for heart modeling in SISCODES code. A homogeneous distribution of fluorine-18 was assumed into the heart myocardial wall. MCNP – Monte Carlo Code was used to provide the photon transport into the heart model taken in consideration the interactions into the tissues. The spatial dose distribution and histogram dose versus volume are presented. An analytical alternative model was addressed to the data validation. The present developed tools can produce spatial dose distribution in MPI at heart. Specially, the dosimetry performed elucidates imparted dose in the myocardial muscle per unit of injected Fluorine-18 activity by self-absorption of the heart uptake, which can contribute to future deterministic effect investigations. (author)

  11. Myocardial perfusion imaging for the detection of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H.W.; Cook, D.J.; Bailey, I.; Rouleau, J.; Pitt, B.

    1976-01-01

    A method of myocardial perfusion imaging using 201 Tl is described. Thallium is able to substitute for potassium in biological systems including transport by the sodium--potassium ATP-ase system. The high extraction efficiency of the heart for 201 Tl offers a method whereby a tracer may be administered intravenously and is concentrated to a significant degree by the heart. However, only about 3 to 4 percent of the dose administered lodges in the myocardium. Experiments with dogs indicated that the regional distribution of Tl in the heart reflects the regional distribution of blood flow. The goal is to develop a procedure that can detect those patients with significant disease prior to the onset of a catastrophic event and studies are being undertaken to improve the sensitivity of the method for the detection of smaller lesions in the myocardium

  12. New in vitro model for proarrhythmia safety screening: IKs inhibition potentiates the QTc prolonging effect of IKr inhibitors in isolated guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kui, Péter; Orosz, Szabolcs; Takács, Hedvig; Sarusi, Annamária; Csík, Norbert; Rárosi, Ferenc; Csekő, Csongor; Varró, András; Papp, Julius Gy; Forster, Tamás; Farkas, Attila S; Farkas, András

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical in vivo QT measurement as a proarrhythmia essay is expensive and not reliable enough. The aim of the present study was to develop a sensitive, cost-effective, Langendorff perfused guinea pig heart model for proarrhythmia safety screening. Low concentrations of dofetilide and cisapride (inhibitors of the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current, IKr) were tested alone and co-perfused with HMR-1556 (inhibitor of the slow delayed rectifier potassium current, IKs) in Langendorff perfused guinea pig hearts. The electrocardiographic rate corrected QT (QTc) interval, the Tpeak-Tend interval and the beat-to-beat variability and instability (BVI) of the QT interval were determined in sinus rhythm. Dofetilide and HMR-1556 alone or co-perfused, prolonged the QTc interval by 20±2%, 10±1% and 55±10%, respectively. Similarly, cisapride and HMR-1556 alone or co-perfused, prolonged the QTc interval by 11±3%, 11±4% and 38±6%, respectively. Catecholamine-induced fast heart rate abolished the QTc prolonging effects of the IKr inhibitors, but augmented the QTc prolongation during IKs inhibition. None of the drug perfusions increased significantly the Tpeak-Tend interval and the sinus BVI of the QT interval. IKs inhibition increased the QTc prolonging effect of IKr inhibitors in a super-additive (synergistic) manner, and the QTc interval was superior to other proarrhythmia biomarkers measured in sinus rhythm in isolated guinea pig hearts. The effect of catecholamines on the QTc facilitated differentiation between IKr and IKs inhibitors. Thus, QTc measurement in Langendorff perfused guinea pig hearts with pharmacologically attenuated repolarization reserve and periodic catecholamine perfusion seems to be suitable for preclinical proarrhythmia screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of social stress on heart rate and heart rate variability in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Sgoifo, A.; Lambooij, E.; Korte, S.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which

  14. Effects of social stress on heart rate and heart rate variability in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, IC; Sgoifo, A; Lambooij, E; Korte, SM; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM

    The effects of social stress on heart rate, heart rate variability and the occurrence of cardiac arrhythmias were studied in 12 growing pigs. Social stress was induced during a good competition test with a pen mate, and subsequently during a resident-intruder test with an unacquainted pig in which

  15. Effect of milrinone therapy on splanchnic perfusion after heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowicz, Tomasz; Ligowski, Marcin; Camacho, Estillita; Walczak, Maciej; Straburzyńska-Migaj, Ewa; Tomczyk, Jadwiga; Jemielity, Marek

    2014-09-23

    Milrinone is a selective inhibitor of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase III isoenzyme in myocardium and vascular smooth muscle. Milrinone administration following heart transplantation is routine practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of milrinone therapy on splanchnic perfusion following heart transplantation. There were 12 patients (10 males and 2 females) with a mean age of 42 ± 12 who underwent heart transplantation. Milrinone parenteral following surgery was started after surgery and continued for the next 67 ± 4 h. Repeated Swann-Ganz measurements and control transthoracic echocardiography were performed. Blood samples were taken to estimate level of lactic acid (LA), liver transaminases, serum amylase, and GFR ratio. The mean time of milrinone administration was 67 ± 4 h. The serum LA increase following milrinone discontinuation was 1.7 ± 0.7 mmol/dm(3) vs. 3.8 ± 0.9 mmol/dm(3), (pmilrinone discontinuation was 79 ± 30 IU/L vs. 135 ± 55 IU/L, pmilrinone withdrawn. There was a progressive increase in serum amylase levels after milrinone was withdrawn (80.6 ± 29 IU/L vs. 134 ± 45 IU/L, pMilrinone withdrawal during the postoperative period was associated with deterioration of splanchnic perfusion, as shown by a transient increase in lactic acid and serum increase of aminotransferases (ALT/ASP) concentration and amylase activity. The study results show the extracardiac effects of milrinone therapy.

  16. Perfusion MR imaging of the heart with TrueFISP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, W.G.; Schmitt, M.; Kalden, P.; Mohrs, O.; Kreitner, K.F.; Thelen, M.; Horstick, G.; Gumbrich, T.; Petersen, S.; Voigtlaender, T.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Development and test of a saturation-recovery TrueFISP (SR-Trufi) pulse sequence for myocardial perfusion MR imaging (MRI) using improved gradient hardware. Material and methods: Measurements were performed on a 1.5 T scanner with prototype gradients (50 mT/m, minimum rise time 300 μs). T 1 -weighted first-pass MRI of Gd-DTPA (0.025 μmol/kg) kinetics in the myocardium was performed using an SR-Trufi pulse sequence (T R /T E /α=2.6 ms/1.4 ms/55 ) with a saturation preparation of TD-30 ms before the TrueFISP readout. Measurements were performed in volunteers (n=4) and in a pig model of chronic ischemia (n=1). Results: In phantoms, the signal intensity was linear with contrast concentration up to 0.9 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA. MR images obtained with SR-Trufi had a good image quality and high spatial resolution of 2.1 mmx2.1 mm. Differences of the contrast agent's kinetics between a subendocardial perfusion deficit and neighboring myocardium were well visible on both MR images and signal-time curves derived from the region-of-interest analysis. Conclusion: SR-Trufi appears to be an interesting new technique for the assessment of myocardial microcirculation using dedicated cardiovascular MR systems. (orig.) [de

  17. Evaluation of Pulmonary Perfusion Scan in Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J T; Kim, C K; Park, C Y; Choi, B S [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-09-15

    Pulmonary perfusion scan with radioactive {sup 113m}In-iron hydroxide particle was performed in the 25 cases of heart disease which had been diagnosed by cardiac catheterization prior to surgery from July, 1972 to July, 1973 at the Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei Medical College. It consists of 7 mitral stenosis, 2 mitral insufficiency, 1 aortic insufficiency, 3 atrial septal defect, 5 ventricular septal defect, 2 patent ductus arteriosus, 1 transposition of great vessel and 4 Tetralogy of Fallot. Findings of pulmonary perfusion scan in relation to hemodynamic data of cardiac catheterization were examined. 1) Out of 10 cases of acquired valvular heart disease, In 6 cases of stenosis and 1 case of aortic insufficiency, radioactivity was increased at both upper lung. This finding is noted when pulmonary wedge or venous pressure was elevated above 22 mmHg and arterial systolic pressure above 33 mmHg. 2) Out of 15 cases of congenital heart disease. In almost all cases of artial septal defect and ventricular septal defect except 2 cases, radioactivity was even at both entire lung. In 2 cases of patent ductras arteriosus, radioactivity was decreased especially at the left lung. It is observed that in acyanotic congenital heart disease, radioactivity of lung is not related with pulmonary arterial pressure. In 3 cases of Tetralogy of Fallot, radioactivity was even at both entire lung and in 2 of them, extrapulmonary radioactivity of liver or kidney which depends on size of defect and volume of right to left shunt reversible, was noted.

  18. Evaluation of Pulmonary Perfusion Scan in Heart Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. T.; Kim, C. K.; Park, C. Y.; Choi, B. S.

    1973-01-01

    Pulmonary perfusion scan with radioactive 113m In-iron hydroxide particle was performed in the 25 cases of heart disease which had been diagnosed by cardiac catheterization prior to surgery from July, 1972 to July, 1973 at the Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Yonsei Medical College. It consists of 7 mitral stenosis, 2 mitral insufficiency, 1 aortic insufficiency, 3 atrial septal defect, 5 ventricular septal defect, 2 patent ductus arteriosus, 1 transposition of great vessel and 4 Tetralogy of Fallot. Findings of pulmonary perfusion scan in relation to hemodynamic data of cardiac catheterization were examined. 1) Out of 10 cases of acquired valvular heart disease, In 6 cases of stenosis and 1 case of aortic insufficiency, radioactivity was increased at both upper lung. This finding is noted when pulmonary wedge or venous pressure was elevated above 22 mmHg and arterial systolic pressure above 33 mmHg. 2) Out of 15 cases of congenital heart disease. In almost all cases of artial septal defect and ventricular septal defect except 2 cases, radioactivity was even at both entire lung. In 2 cases of patent ductras arteriosus, radioactivity was decreased especially at the left lung. It is observed that in acyanotic congenital heart disease, radioactivity of lung is not related with pulmonary arterial pressure. In 3 cases of Tetralogy of Fallot, radioactivity was even at both entire lung and in 2 of them, extrapulmonary radioactivity of liver or kidney which depends on size of defect and volume of right to left shunt reversible, was noted.

  19. Large-Animal Biventricular Working Heart Perfusion System with Low Priming Volume-Comparison between in vivo and ex vivo Cardiac Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abicht, Jan-Michael; Mayr, Tanja Axinja Jelena; Jauch, Judith; Guethoff, Sonja; Buchholz, Stefan; Reichart, Bruno; Bauer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Existing large-animal, ex vivo, cardiac perfusion models are restricted in their ability to establish an ischemia/reperfusion condition as seen in cardiac surgery or transplantation. Other working heart systems only challenge one ventricle or require a substantially larger priming volume. We describe a novel biventricular cardiac perfusion system with reduced priming volume. Juvenile pig hearts were cardiopleged, explanted, and reperfused ex vivo after 150 minutes of cold ischemia. Autologous whole blood was used as perfusate (minimal priming volume 350 mL). After 15 minutes of Langendorff perfusion (LM), the system was switched into a biventricular working mode (WM) and studied for 3 hours. During reperfusion, complete unloading of both ventricles and constant-pressure coronary perfusion was achieved. During working mode perfusion, the preload and afterload pressure of both ventricles was controlled within the targeted physiologic range. Functional parameters such as left ventricular work index were reduced in ex vivo working mode (in vivo: 787 ± 186 vs. 1 h WM 498 ± 66 mm Hg·mL/g·min; p  hours while functional and blood parameters are easily accessible. Moreover, because of the minimal priming volume, the novel ex vivo cardiac perfusion circuit allows for autologous perfusion, using the limited amount of blood available from the organ donating animal. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Selective Heart, Brain and Body Perfusion in Open Aortic Arch Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Sven; Kari, Fabian; Rylski, Bartosz; Siepe, Matthias; Benk, Christoph; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2016-09-01

    Open aortic arch replacement is a complex and challenging procedure, especially in post dissection aneurysms and in redo procedures after previous surgery of the ascending aorta or aortic root. We report our experience with the simultaneous selective perfusion of heart, brain, and remaining body to ensure optimal perfusion and to minimize perfusion-related risks during these procedures. We used a specially configured heart-lung machine with a centrifugal pump as arterial pump and an additional roller pump for the selective cerebral perfusion. Initial arterial cannulation is achieved via femoral artery or right axillary artery. After lower body circulatory arrest and selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for the distal arch anastomosis, we started selective lower body perfusion simultaneously to the selective antegrade cerebral perfusion and heart perfusion. Eighteen patients were successfully treated with this perfusion strategy from October 2012 to November 2015. No complications related to the heart-lung machine and the cannulation occurred during the procedures. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 239 ± 33 minutes, the simultaneous selective perfusion of brain, heart, and remaining body lasted 55 ± 23 minutes. One patient suffered temporary neurological deficit that resolved completely during intensive care unit stay. No patient experienced a permanent neurological deficit or end-organ dysfunction. These high-risk procedures require a concept with a special setup of the heart-lung machine. Our perfusion strategy for aortic arch replacement ensures a selective perfusion of heart, brain, and lower body during this complex procedure and we observed excellent outcomes in this small series. This perfusion strategy is also applicable for redo procedures.

  1. Standardization of an isolated pig heart preparation with parabiotic circulation: methodological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrucci Júnior O.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we standardized an experimental model of parabiotic circulation of isolated pig heart. The isolated heart was perfused with arterial blood from a second animal as support and submitted to regional ischemia for 30 min, followed by total ischemia for 90 min and reperfusion for 90 min. Parameters for measurement of ventricular performance using different indices measured directly or indirectly from intraventricular pressure were defined as: maximum peak pressure, final diastolic pressure, pressure developed, first derivative of maximum pressure (dP/dt max, first derivative of minimum pressure (dP/dt min, systolic stress of the left ventricle (sigmas, and maximum elastance of the left ventricle. Isolated hearts subjected to regional and global ischemia presented significant worsening of all measured parameters. Less discriminative parameters were dP/dt max and dP/dt min. Elastance was the most sensitive parameter during the reperfusion period, demonstrating an early loss of ventricular function during reperfusion. The model proved to be stable and reproducible and permitted the study of several variables in the isolated heart, such as ischemia and reperfusion phenomena, the effects of different drugs, surgical interventions, etc. The model introduces an advantage over the classical models which use crystalloid solutions as perfusate, because parabiotic circulation mimics heart surgery with extracorporeal circulation.

  2. Polarographic measurement of ascorbate washout in isolated perfused rabbit hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arts, T.; Kuikka, J.T.; Reneman, R.S.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.

    1985-01-01

    To study the myocardial washout of ascorbate, the applicability of polarographic detection of ascorbate ions by a platinum electrode (sensitive area 0.03 mm2) was investigated, in both a calibration setup (sampling flow along the electrode: 100 microliter X s-1) and isolated, retrogradely perfused rabbit hearts. In the calibration setup at pH 7.4, the sensitivity of the electrode was 70 microA/mol. This sensitivity increased moderately with increasing pH (13%/unit pH) and increasing sampling flow rate (14% at an increase from 100 to 150 microliter X s-1). In the isolated hearts, ascorbate infused into the aorta was detected in a right ventricular drain by the electrode as well as by the use of 14 C-labeled ascorbate. Both recorded time courses were similar except for a scaling factor dependent on flow velocity. During continuous infusion the arteriovenous difference of ascorbate was 2 +/- 2% (SD), indicating a relatively low consumption of ascorbate by the isolated heart. The authors conclude that polarographic measurement of ascorbate in the coronary effluent of an isolated rabbit heart can be performed on-line and relatively easily

  3. Pig models for the human heart failure syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Human heart failure remains a challenging illness despite advances in the diagnosis and treatment of heart failure patients. There is a need for further improvement of our understanding of the failing myocardium and its molecular deterioration. Porcine models provide an important research tool...... in this respect as molecular changes can be examined in detail, which is simply not feasible in human patients. However, the human heart failure syndrome is based on symptoms and signs, where pig models mostly mimic the myocardial damage, but without decisive data on clinical presentation and, therefore, a heart...... to elucidate the human heart failure syndrome....

  4. Models of torsades de pointes: effects of FPL64176, DPI201106, dofetilide, and chromanol 293B in isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsien C; Incardona, Josephine

    2009-01-01

    For studying the torsades de pointes (TdP) liability of a compound, most high and medium throughput methods use surrogate markers such as HERG inhibition and QT prolongation. In this study, we have tested whether isolated hearts may be modified to allow TdP to be the direct readout. Isolated spontaneously beating rabbit and guinea pig hearts were perfused according to the Langendorff method in hypokalemic (2.1 mM) solution. The in vitro lead II ECG equivalent and the incidence of TdP were monitored for 1 h. In addition, heart rate, QTc, Tp-Te, short-term variability (STV), time to arrhythmia, and time to TdP were also analyzed. FPL64176, a calcium channel activator; and DPI201106, a sodium channel inactivation inhibitor, produced TdP in isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts in a concentration dependent manner; guinea pig hearts were 3- to 5-fold more sensitive than rabbit hearts. Both compounds also increased QTc and STV. In contrast, dofetilide, an IKr inhibitor, produced no (or a low incidence of) TdP in both species, in spite of prolongation of QTc intervals. Chromanol 293B, an IKs inhibitor, did not produce TdP in rabbit hearts but elicited TdP concentration dependently in guinea pig hearts even though the compound had no effect on QTc intervals. IKs inhibition appears to be more likely to produce TdP in isolated guinea pig hearts than IKr inhibition. Chromanol 293B did not produce TdP in rabbit hearts presumably due to a low level of IKs channels in the heart. TdP produced in this study was consistent with the notion that its production was a consequence of reduced repolarization reserve, thereby causing rhythmic abnormalities. This isolated, perfused, and spontaneously beating rabbit and guinea pig heart preparation in hypokalemic medium may be useful as a preclinical test model for studying proarrhythmic liability of compounds in new drug development.

  5. Renal MR angiography and perfusion in the pig using hyperpolarized water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigh Lipsø, Kasper; Hansen, Esben Søvsø Szocska; Tougaard, Rasmus Stilling; Laustsen, Christoffer; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan Henrik

    2017-09-01

    To study hyperpolarized water as an angiography and perfusion tracer in a large animal model. Protons dissolved in deuterium oxide (D 2 O) were hyperpolarized in a SPINlab dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (dDNP) polarizer and subsequently investigated in vivo in a pig model at 3 Tesla (T). Approximately 15 mL of hyperpolarized water was injected in the renal artery by hand over 4-5 s. A liquid state polarization of 5.3 ± 0.9% of 3.8 M protons in 15 mL of deuterium oxide was achieved with a T 1 of 24 ± 1 s. This allowed injection through an arterial catheter into the renal artery and subsequently high-contrast imaging of the entire kidney parenchyma over several seconds. The dynamic images allow quantification of tissue perfusion, with a mean cortical perfusion of 504 ± 123 mL/100 mL/min. Hyperpolarized water MR imaging was successfully demonstrated as a renal angiography and perfusion method. Quantitative perfusion maps of the kidney were obtained in agreement with literature and control experiments with gadolinium contrast. Magn Reson Med 78:1131-1135, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Isolated Liver Perfusion Using Percutaneous Methods:[ql An Experimental Study in the Pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnek, Jan; Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Persson, Bo; Stridbeck, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method for isolated perfusion of the liver using radiological methods. Methods: Twenty-one pigs, weighing about 20 kg, were divided into three groups. By transjugular and transfemoral approaches two occlusion balloons were placed in the inferior vena cava cranial and caudal, respectively, to the origin of the hepatic veins. One occlusion balloon was placed transfemorally in the common hepatic artery. Another occlusion balloon was inserted in the main branch of the portal vein via the transjugular-transhepatic approach in 11 pigs (groups 1 and 2), and in 10 pigs (group 3) by a percutaneous transhepatic route. After inflation of the balloons, patency of the isolated liver circulation was evaluated by recirculation of 99 Tc m -labelled human albumin during 30 min. Blood tests were obtained after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min to evaluate leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation. Results: Increasing leakage to the systemic circulation from the isolated liver circulation was observed in groups 1 and 2. In the third group the leakage was less than 10%. Conclusion: In an experimental animal model, isolated perfusion of the liver with minor leakage to the systemic circulation may be achieved using radiological methods

  7. Post ischemic reperfusion and anoxic perfusion in the isolated heart: alteration in distribution of radionuclides and in protein synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, S S; Oratz, M; Rothschild, M A [Veterans Administration Hospital, New York (USA)

    1980-12-01

    Reperfusion after ischemia and perfusion with total anoxia were studied in the isolated guinea pig heart model, Deprivation of oxygen in both situations resulted in a marked shift of circulation from the left to the right ventricle, with markedly increased spaces of distribution of sup(99m)Tc radionuclides and albumin in the latter. In view of the complexities of measuring protein synthesis during ischemia, continuous anoxic perfusion was used to evaluate this parameter in anoxic induced arrest. There was a profound fall in protein synthesis associated with this arrest, accompanied by a fall in ATP, creatine phosphate, glycogen, potassium, and a rise in lactate production. The fall in protein synthesis was more marked in the left ventricle. The changes in synthesis were almost completely prevented by initiating cardiac arrest with high K/sup +/ (16 meq/l) at the same time as anoxia; energy metabolism remained near normal, and recovery of contractility was nearly complete. The studies demonstrated the differences in vascular distribution between the ventricles after ischemia or with perfusion anoxia, the possible difference in availability of substrate to the two ventricles under these conditions, as well as the difference in protein synthetic response, and further support the protective effect of potassium induced arrest on the hypoxic heart.

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of intracellular ions in perfused from heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnstein, D.; Fossel, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    Intracellular sodium, potassium, and lithium were observed in a perfused frog heart by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A perfusate buffer containing the shift reagent, dysprosium tripolyphosphate, was used in combination with mathematical filtering or presaturation of the extracellular resonance to separate the intra- and extracellular sodium NMR signals. Addition of 10 μM ouabain to the perfusate, perfusion with a zero potassium, low-calcium buffer, and replacement of 66% of the perfusate sodium with lithium resulted in changes in the intracellular sodium levels. An increase of 45% in the intracellular sodium was observed when changing the pacing rate from 0 to 60 beats/min (with proportional changes for intermediate pacing rates). The ratio of intracellular potassium to sodium concentration was determined to be 2.3 by NMR, indicating that a substantial amount of the intracellular potassium is undetectable with these NMR method. In addition, intracellular lithium was observed during perfusion with a lithium-containing perfusate

  9. Hydrogen ion changes and contractile behavior in the perfused rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cingolani, H.E.; Maas, A.H.J.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of acid-base alterations was analyzed using isolated rat hearts perfused at constant coronary perfusion pressure, and stimulated to contract at constant rate. The amount of shortening in the major axis and its derivative were measured to assess myocardial contractility. Both the

  10. Clearance of α-aminoisobutyric acid during in-situ perfusion of the guinea pig placenta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelman, B.J.; Sikov, M.R.

    1983-05-01

    Extensive investigation of the transport of α-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB; a nonmetabolized amino acid) has shown that AIB is actively transported from mother to fetus across the hemochorial placenta of the guinea pig. As a step towards clarifying the relative rolls of active and passive movements of amino acids across the placenta, it would be useful to obtain concurrent measurements of transplacental movements of a substance which crosses the placenta rapidly by simple diffusion (water) and of a substance which is actively transported across the placenta (AIB). In our study, placentas from guinea pigs between 59 and 61 days of gestation were perfused in situ through cannulated umbilical vessels with the maternal circulation left intact. Tritiated water and 14 C-AIB were injected into a maternal jugular vein and maternal blood samples were obtained at 1 to 10 minute intervals; perfusate samples were collected sequentially after one pass through the placenta. Clearance of 14 C-AIB from mother to fetus (AIB/sub MF/) and AIB concentrations in placental tissue, maternal plasma, and perfusate were consistent in magnitude with data obtained by other invetigators who have clearly shown an active transport of AIB in the placenta. On the other hand, in this study AIB/sub MF/ ranged from approximately 50% to 96% of the clearance of 3 H-labeled water from mother to fetus (T/sub MF/) and that changes in AIB/sub MF/ correlated closely with changes in T/sub MF/ in all perfusions. Thus, it appears that AIB/sub MF/ closely paralleled T/sub MF/ and these data suggest that a relatively large component of AIB/sub MF/ is of passive origin in the in situ placenta

  11. Computed Tomography Perfusion, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and Histopathological Findings After Laparoscopic Renal Cryoablation: An In Vivo Pig Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tommy Kjærgaard; Østraat, Øyvind; Graumann, Ole

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates how computed tomography perfusion scans and magnetic resonance imaging correlates with the histopathological alterations in renal tissue after cryoablation. A total of 15 pigs were subjected to laparoscopic-assisted cryoablation on both kidneys. After intervention...... of follow-up, but on microscopic examination, the urothelium was found to be intact in all cases. In conclusion, cryoablation effectively destroyed renal parenchyma, leaving the urothelium intact. Both computed tomography perfusion and magnetic resonance imaging reflect the microscopic findings...

  12. Morphologic expression of the left coronary artery in pigs. An approach in relation to human heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Alejandro Gómez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In spite of its importance as an experimental model, the information on the left coronary artery in pigs is sparse. Objective: To determine the morphologic features of the left coronary artery in pigs. Methods: We evaluated 158 pig hearts. The left coronary artery was perfused with synthetic resin after their ostia had been catheterized. Diameters and courses of the vascular beds were measured with an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo(r. Results: The diameter of left coronary artery was 6.98 ± 1.56 mm and its length was 3.51±0.99 mm. It was found to end up by bifurcating itself into the anterior interventricular artery and the circumflex artery in 79% of the cases, and by trifurcating in 21% of the cases, with the presence of the diagonal artery. The anterior interventricular artery ended up at the apex in 79.7% of the cases, and the circumflex artery at the posterior aspect of the left ventricle in 64% of the case, this artery never reached the posterior interventricular sulcus. An anastomosis between the terminal branches of the anterior interventricular artery and the posterior interventricular artery was found in 7.6% of the specimens. The antero-superior branch of the anterior interventricular artery occurred in 89.9% of the hearts. A left marginal branch was observed in 87.9% of the cases with a diameter of 2.25±0.55 mm. Conclusion: Compared with humans, pigs have shorter left coronary artery trunks and branches; even the circumflex artery never reaches the posterior interventricular sulcus. Our findings are useful for the design of experimental hemodynamic and procedural models.

  13. Feasibility of high-resolution quantitative perfusion analysis in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammut, Eva; Zarinabad, Niloufar; Wesolowski, Roman; Morton, Geraint; Chen, Zhong; Sohal, Manav; Carr-White, Gerry; Razavi, Reza; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2015-02-12

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is playing an expanding role in the assessment of patients with heart failure (HF). The assessment of myocardial perfusion status in HF can be challenging due to left ventricular (LV) remodelling and wall thinning, coexistent scar and respiratory artefacts. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of quantitative CMR myocardial perfusion analysis in patients with HF. A group of 58 patients with heart failure (HF; left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF ≤ 50%) and 33 patients with normal LVEF (LVEF >50%), referred for suspected coronary artery disease, were studied. All subjects underwent quantitative first-pass stress perfusion imaging using adenosine according to standard acquisition protocols. The feasibility of quantitative perfusion analysis was then assessed using high-resolution, 3 T kt perfusion and voxel-wise Fermi deconvolution. 30/58 (52%) subjects in the HF group had underlying ischaemic aetiology. Perfusion abnormalities were seen amongst patients with ischaemic HF and patients with normal LV function. No regional perfusion defect was observed in the non-ischaemic HF group. Good agreement was found between visual and quantitative analysis across all groups. Absolute stress perfusion rate, myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) and endocardial-epicardial MPR ratio identified areas with abnormal perfusion in the ischaemic HF group (p = 0.02; p = 0.04; p = 0.02, respectively). In the Normal LV group, MPR and endocardial-epicardial MPR ratio were able to distinguish between normal and abnormal segments (p = 0.04; p = 0.02 respectively). No significant differences of absolute stress perfusion rate or MPR were observed comparing visually normal segments amongst groups. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of high-resolution voxel-wise perfusion assessment in patients with HF.

  14. Behaviour, heart rate, and heart rate variability in pigs exposed to novelty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Zupan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, we investigated behavioural responses and determined parameters of heart rate variability (HRV to elucidate a relative activation of autonomic nervous system (ANS during baseline (10 min and in response to potentially stressful situations (10 min in two pig breeds and sexes. Gilts (n = 21 and barrows (n = 9 of the Landrace × Yorkshire (LY; n = 15 and Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc (LYLD; n = 15 breeds were subjected to a novel object test (NOT and a novel arena test (NAT. Basal ANS state differed in pigs across breeds but not sexes. Landrace × Yorkshire pigs had a significantly lower basal heart rate (HR and low-frequency band (LF with a higher root mean square of successive interbeat intervals (RMSSD and high-frequency band (HF than LYLD pigs. In the NOT, despite having similar cardiac responses, gilts had a longer duration of contact with a novel object, higher lying and standing duration, and a lower duration of walking compared with barrows. In the NAT, we found similar behaviour across sexes but a different degree of ANS state, with barrows having a significantly higher increase in LF/HF (power of the low frequency component divided by the power of the high-frequency band compared with gilts. Landrace/Yorkshire × Landrace/Duroc pigs showed longer duration of contact with a novel object in the NOT accompanied by less lying and standing than LY pigs in both tests. No difference in ANS activation between breeds was found in the NOT. In the NAT, HR increased more from baseline to testing in LY pigs than in LYLD pigs. There is a complex and often contradictory nature of relationships between behaviour and cardiac responses to novelty in pigs of different breeds and sexes.

  15. Epicardial excitation pattern as observed in the isolated revived and perfused fetal human heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrer, D.; Büller, J.; Graaff, P.; Lo, G.I.; Meijler, F.L.

    1961-01-01

    The resuscitated fetal human heart can be used as an experimental tooI for the investigation of the excitatory process in the human heart. During perfusion the configuration of the epicardial electrocardiograms does not change appreciably. For accurate recording permitting a detailed analysis, the

  16. Variation in heart rate influences the assessment of transient ischemic dilation in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, William D; Levin, Daniel P; Demeter, Sandor J

    2007-01-01

    Transient arrhythmias can affect transient ischemic dilation (TID) ratios. This study was initiated to evaluate the frequency and effect of normal heart rate change on TID measures in routine clinical practice. Consecutive patients undergoing stress/rest sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy were studied (N = 407). Heart rate at the time of stress and rest imaging were recorded. TID ratios were analyzed in relation to absolute change in heart rate (stress minus rest) for subjects with normal perfusion and systolic function (Group 1, N = 169) and those with abnormalities in perfusion and/or function (Group 2, N = 238). In Group 1, mean TID ratio was inversely correlated with the change in heart rate (r = -0.47, P < 0.0001). For every increase of 10 BPM in heart rate change, the TID ratio decreased by approximately 0.06 (95% confidence interval 0.04–0.07). In Group 2, multiple linear regression demonstrated that the change in heart rate (beta = -0.25, P < 0.0001) and the summed difference score (beta = 0.36, P < 0.0001) were independent predictors of the TID ratio. Normal variation in heart rate between the stress and rest components of myocardial perfusion scans is common and can influence TID ratios in patients with normal and abnormal cardiac scans

  17. Transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 in pigs confers resistance against xenograft rejection during ex vivo perfusion of porcine kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Lemme, Erika; Hassel, Petra; Queisser, Anna-Lisa; Herrmann, Doris; Barg-Kues, Brigitte; Carnwath, Joseph W; Klose, Johannes; Tiede, Andreas; Friedrich, Lars; Baars, Wiebke; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    The major immunological hurdle to successful porcine-to-human xenotransplantation is the acute vascular rejection (AVR), characterized by endothelial cell (EC) activation and perturbation of coagulation. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and its derivatives have anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory effects and protect against reactive oxygen species, rendering HO-1 a promising molecule to control AVR. Here, we report the production and characterization of pigs transgenic for human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) and demonstrate significant protection in porcine kidneys against xenograft rejection in ex vivo perfusion with human blood and transgenic porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) in a TNF-α-mediated apoptosis assay. Transgenic and non-transgenic PAEC were tested in a TNF-α-mediated apoptosis assay. Expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin) was measured by real-time PCR. hHO-1 transgenic porcine kidneys were perfused with pooled and diluted human AB blood in an ex vivo perfusion circuit. MHC class-II up-regulation after induction with IFN-γ was compared between wild-type and hHO-1 transgenic PAEC. Cloned hHO-1 transgenic pigs expressed hHO-1 in heart, kidney, liver, and in cultured ECs and fibroblasts. hHO-1 transgenic PAEC were protected against TNF-α-mediated apoptosis. Real-time PCR revealed reduced expression of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. These effects could be abrogated by the incubation of transgenic PAECs with the specific HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphorine IX (Zn(II)PPIX, 20 μm). IFN-γ induced up-regulation of MHC class-II molecules was significantly reduced in PAECs from hHO-1 transgenic pigs. hHO-1 transgenic porcine kidneys could successfully be perfused with diluted human AB-pooled blood for a maximum of 240 min (with and without C1 inh), while in wild-type kidneys, blood flow ceased after ∼60 min. Elevated levels of d-Dimer and TAT were detected, but no significant consumption of fibrinogen and

  18. Chronic sympathetic activation promotes downregulation of ß-adrenoceptor-mediated effects in the guinea pig heart independently of structural remodeling and systolic dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Thiele, Stefanie; Osadchiy, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    pathway upon chronic infusion of isoproterenol, a ß-adrenoceptor agonist, at a dose producing no structural left ventricular (LV) remodeling and systolic dysfunction. Subcutaneous isoproterenol infusion (400 µg kg(-1) h(-1) over 16 days) to guinea pigs using osmotic minipumps produced no change in cardiac...... weights, LV internal dimensions, myocyte cross-sectional area, extent of interstitial fibrosis, and basal contractile function. Isolated, perfused heart preparations from isoproterenol-treated guinea pigs exhibited attenuated responsiveness to acute ß-adrenoceptor stimulation, as evidenced by reduced LV...

  19. Uptake, incorporation and metabolism of (3H)triolein in the isolated perfused rabbit heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M.T.; Palazzo, A.J.; Williams, J.L. Jr.; Malik, K.U.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of these experiments was to study the uptake and metabolism of exogenous triglyceride in the isolated perfused rabbit heart. When infused into the rabbit heart, [9,10-3H(N)]triolein was retained and incorporated into a lipid fraction that had the chromatographic mobility of authentic triolein. Incorporation of labeled triolein was not likely to be the result of a lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis/resynthesis cycle, since: (i) The distribution of radioactivity following administration of [3H]oleic acid was markedly different from the distribution of radioactivity following the administration of [3H]triolein; (ii) heparin was administered to the rabbits at the time of sacrifice; and (iii) the hearts were perfused with a protein-free buffer for 20 min prior to the labelling period. When isoproterenol was administered to hearts labelled with [3H]triolein, there was an increased output of total radioactivity, composed of labelled free fatty acids, diacylglycerol and monoacylglycerol. In these same hearts, there was an increased output of glycerol in response to isoproterenol. However, following the administration of bradykinin or angiotensin II, neither the radioactivity nor the glycerol content of the perfusate was changed. These data suggest that [3H]triolein is selectively incorporated into the triglyceride pool of the isolated perfused rabbit heart. Furthermore, this [3H]triolein is available to hormonally-activated lipolytic enzymes

  20. NMR study of damage on isolated perfused rat heart exposed to ischemia and hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xuechun; Yan Yongbin; Zhang Riqing; Fan Lili

    2001-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia is the most common and primary cause of myocardium damage. Numerous conventional techniques and methods have been developed for ischemia and reperfusion studies. However, because of damage to the heart sample, most of these techniques can not be used to continuously monitor the full dynamic course of the myocardial metabolic pathway. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil technique, which overcomes the limitations of conventional instrumentation, can be used to quantitatively study every stage of the perfused heart (especially after perfusion stoppage) continuously, dynamically, and without damage under normal or designed physiological conditions at the molecular level. In this paper, 31 P-NMR was used to study the effects of ischemia and hypoxia on isolated perfused hearts. The results show that complete hypoxia caused more severe functional damage to the myocardial cells than complete ischemia

  1. The myocardial perfusion imaging of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation treated acute myocardial infarction in pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Miao; Hou Xiancun; Li Yaomei; Zhou Peng; Qi Chunmei; Wu Weihuan; Li Li

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on acute myocardial infarction in pig with myocardial perfusion imaging. Methods: Acute myocardial infarction models were established by 21 minitype Chinese pigs and were divided into two groups. After 10 days, experimental group (n=11) was transplanted with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell at the infarct areas, and the control group (n=10) with incubation solution. Before and eight weeks after transplantation, both groups were examined by 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging and with semi-quantitative analysis. Besides, echocardiogram and immunohistochemistry were also performed. Results: There was significant difference of total myocardial perfusion abnormal segments (46 vs 26), infarct areas [(34±12)% vs (21±10)%] and myocardial ischemia score [(20.0±4.3) vs (12.1±3.6)] between two groups (P<0.05). Also, there were accordant results with echocardiogram and immunohistochemistry findings. Conclusions: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation may improve blood perfusion and viability of the ischemic areas: Myocardial perfusion imaging can accurately observe the survival of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplanted at the infarct areas. (authors)

  2. MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION ASSESSMENT IN FORECASTING EFFECT OF CORONARY ANGIOPLASTY IN PATIENTS WITH ISCHEMIC CHRONIC HEART FAILURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Mironkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To define influence of the left ventricle (LV perfusion defects on the clinical status dynamics after coronary angioplasty in patients with the expressed myocardium dysfunction of ischemic etiology. Materials and methods. Examined 86 patients (81 men and 5 women aged from 46 to 73 years before and in 2–3 days after percutaneous coronary intervention with diagnosis: CAD, CHF with NYHA class III–IV, echocardiography parameters of LV: ejection fraction less than 40%, end-diastolic volume is more than 200 ml. Perfusion defects of myocardium estimated with use of ECG-gated single photon emission computed tomography. Predictors were defined: perfusion defects on LV apex (in score, perfusion defects in the area of LAD, LCx and RCA (%, the LV global perfusion defects (in score and %. Results. In 42% of cases 6-minute walk test increased to 3 times; The NYHA class decreased by 2 classes (group 1. In 28 cases 6-minute walk test increased to 2 times and the NYHA class decreased on 1 class. In 22 patients 6-minute walk test increased less than 50% of reference values and there was no dynamics NYHA class (50 patients of the group 2. Initial extent of LV global perfusion defects in group 1 – 41,2 ± 4,0%, in group 2 – 58,3 ± 2,4% (р = 0,0004. Similar values are received for perfusion indicators in the area of LAD and the LV apex. Prevalence of myocardial perfusion defects at rest reflects prevalence of a cardiosclerosis in a cardiac muscle. Conclusion. Degree of LV myocardial perfusion defects in patients with the expressed heart failure of ischemic etiology is the key indicator influencing clinical efficiency of coronary angioplasty. Critical size for definition of the favorable forecast of revascularization are 60% and more perfusion defects testifying that in a cardiac muscle the focal cardiosclerosis prevails over the functioning myocardium. 

  3. Dynamic MR cardiac perfusion studies in patients with acquired heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finelli, D.A.; Adler, L.P.; Paschal, C.B.; Haacke, E.M.

    1990-01-01

    The combination of ultrafast scanning techniques with contrast administration has opened new venues for MR imaging relating to the physiology of organ perfusion. Regional cardiac perfusion determinations lend important additional information to the morphologic and functional data provided by conventional cardiac MR imaging. The authors of this paper studied 10 patients with acquired heart diseases, including ischemic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiac tumor, using conventional spin-echo imaging, cine gradient-echo imaging, and dynamic Gd-DTPA--enhanced perfusion imaging with an ultrafast, inversion-recovery, Turbo-fast low-angle shot sequence. This technique enables analysis of the first pass and early biodistribution phases following contrast administration, information that has been correlated with cardiac catheterization, single photo emission CT (SPECT), and administration emission tomographic (PET) data

  4. Magnitude, direction and location of the resultant dipole moment of the pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, B C; Nelson, C V; Angelakos, E T

    1976-04-01

    Vectorcardiograms were obtained from 50 young domestic pigs using the Nelson lead system. Compensation for body size and shape is achieved and the resultant dipole moment magnitude reflects heart size. A strong relationship was found between heart size and maximum magnitude. Dipole moment magnitude increased as four pigs increased from five to ten weeks of age. The dipole moment during QRS is considered in light of known pig heart excitation pattern. Dipole locations during QRS, calculated by computer solution of the Gabor-Nelson equations, were in agreement with heart location and excitation data.

  5. Skin perfusion pressure as an indicator of tissue perfusion in valvular heart surgery: Preliminary results from a prospective, observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Song

    Full Text Available Hemodynamic management aims to provide adequate tissue perfusion, which is often altered during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. We evaluated whether skin perfusion pressure (SPP can be used for monitoring of adequacy of tissue perfusion in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. Seventy-two patients undergoing valve replacement were enrolled. SPP and serum lactate level were assessed after anaesthesia induction (baseline, during CPB, after CPB-off, end of surgery, arrival at intensive care unit, and postoperative 6 h. Lactate was further measured until postoperative 48 h. Association of SPP with lactate and 30-day morbidity comprising myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, stroke, prolonged intubation, sternal infection, reoperation, and mortality was assessed. Among the lactate levels, postoperative 6 h peak value was most closely linked to composite of 30-day morbidity. The SPP value during CPB and its % change from the baseline value were significantly associated with the postoperative 6 h peak lactate (r = -0.26, P = 0.030 and r = 0.47, P = 0.001, respectively. Optimal cut-off of % decrease in SPP during CPB from baseline value for the postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia was 48% (area under curve, 0.808; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.652-0.963; P = 0.001. Decrease in SPP >48% during CPB from baseline value was associated with a 12.8-fold increased risk of composite endpoint of 30-day morbidity (95% CI, 1.48-111.42; P = 0.021 on multivariate logistic regression. Large decrease in SPP during CPB predicts postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia and 30-day morbidity, which implicates a promising role of SPP monitoring in the achievement of optimal perfusion during CPB.

  6. Skin perfusion pressure as an indicator of tissue perfusion in valvular heart surgery: Preliminary results from a prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young; Soh, Sarah; Shim, Jae-Kwang; Park, Kyoung-Un; Kwak, Young-Lan

    2017-01-01

    Hemodynamic management aims to provide adequate tissue perfusion, which is often altered during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We evaluated whether skin perfusion pressure (SPP) can be used for monitoring of adequacy of tissue perfusion in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. Seventy-two patients undergoing valve replacement were enrolled. SPP and serum lactate level were assessed after anaesthesia induction (baseline), during CPB, after CPB-off, end of surgery, arrival at intensive care unit, and postoperative 6 h. Lactate was further measured until postoperative 48 h. Association of SPP with lactate and 30-day morbidity comprising myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, stroke, prolonged intubation, sternal infection, reoperation, and mortality was assessed. Among the lactate levels, postoperative 6 h peak value was most closely linked to composite of 30-day morbidity. The SPP value during CPB and its % change from the baseline value were significantly associated with the postoperative 6 h peak lactate (r = -0.26, P = 0.030 and r = 0.47, P = 0.001, respectively). Optimal cut-off of % decrease in SPP during CPB from baseline value for the postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia was 48% (area under curve, 0.808; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.652-0.963; P = 0.001). Decrease in SPP >48% during CPB from baseline value was associated with a 12.8-fold increased risk of composite endpoint of 30-day morbidity (95% CI, 1.48-111.42; P = 0.021) on multivariate logistic regression. Large decrease in SPP during CPB predicts postoperative 6 h hyperlactatemia and 30-day morbidity, which implicates a promising role of SPP monitoring in the achievement of optimal perfusion during CPB.

  7. Seasonal superoxide overproduction and endothelial activation in guinea-pig heart; seasonal oxidative stress in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konior, Anna; Klemenska, Emilia; Brudek, Magdalena; Podolecka, Ewa; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Beręsewicz, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    Seasonality in endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress was noted in humans and rats, suggesting it is a common phenomenon of a potential clinical relevance. We aimed at studying (i) seasonal variations in cardiac superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in rodents and in 8-isoprostane urinary excretion in humans, (ii) the mechanism of cardiac O(2)(-) overproduction occurring in late spring/summer months in rodents, (iii) whether this seasonal O(2)(-)-overproduction is associated with a pro-inflammatory endothelial activation, and (iv) how the summer-associated changes compare to those caused by diabetes, a classical cardiovascular risk factor. Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig and rat hearts generated ~100% more O(2)(-), and human subjects excreted 65% more 8-isoprostane in the summer vs. other seasons. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and NO synthase inhibited the seasonal O(2)(-)-overproduction. In the summer vs. other seasons, cardiac NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity, and protein expression were increased, the endothelial NO synthase and superoxide dismutases were downregulated, and, in guinea-pig hearts, adhesion molecules upregulation and the endothelial glycocalyx destruction associated these changes. In guinea-pig hearts, the summer and a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mediated similar changes, yet, more severe endothelial activation associated the diabetes. These findings suggest that the seasonal oxidative stress is a common phenomenon, associated, at least in guinea-pigs, with the endothelial activation. Nonetheless, its biological meaning (regulatory vs. deleterious) remains unclear. Upregulated NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase are the sources of the seasonal O(2)(-)-overproduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Myocardial Creatine Levels Do Not Influence Response to Acute Oxidative Stress in Isolated Perfused Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksentijević, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKCδ expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153

  9. In situ Raman study of redox state changes of mitochondrial cytochromes in a perfused rat heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, Nadezda; Treiman, Marek; Faricelli, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    We developed a Raman spectroscopy-based approach for simultaneous study of redox changes in c-and b-type cytochromes and for a semiquantitative estimation of the amount of oxygenated myoglobin in a perfused rat heart. Excitation at 532 nm was used to obtain Raman scattering of the myocardial...... surface of the isolated heart at normal and hypoxic conditions. Raman spectra of the heart under normal pO2 demonstrate unique peaks attributable to reduced c-and b-type cytochromes and oxymyoglobin (oMb). The cytochrome peaks decreased in intensity upon FCCP treatment, as predicted from uncoupling...

  10. Myocardial perfusion imaging with thalium 201 during and after exercise in patients with coronary heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, P B; Villacorta, E V; Monzon, O P; Torres, Jr, J F; Guzman, S V

    1977-07-01

    A unique, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the regional myocardial perfusion of patients with coronary heart disease has been developed. This entails the use of radionuclide, like thallium (Tl-201), which concentrates in the normal myocardium, leaving areas of ischemia or scarring or ''cold'' perfusion defects. Myocardial perfusion imaging in conjunction with graded exercise testing significantly increases the positivity of the stress test alone among patients with classic angina from 80% to 95%. It gives invaluable information as to the site and extent of the lesion and its reversibility. Among the patients with ECG Q waves indicative of previous infarction, image defects were detected in 93.7%; reversible ischemia co-existing with the infarction was also demonstrated.

  11. Association between left ventricular perfusion defects and myocardial deformation indexes in heart transplantation recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Antonello; De Rimini, Maria Luisa; America, Raffaella; Cirillo, Chiara; Riegler, Lucia; Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alto, Michele; Salerno, Gemma; Maiello, Ciro; Muto, Pietro; Russo, Maria Giovanna; Calabrò, Raffaele; Bossone, Eduardo; Pacileo, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze possible correlations between strain echocardiography (STE) and PET myocardial perfusion in a population of heart transplantation (HTx) recipients showing preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction. By STE, LV global longitudinal strain (LV GLS) was lower in HTx. PET showed no transient or chronic ischemia in 83 of 115 HTx (73%). Fixed perfusion defects were observed in 17% of HTx and reversible ischemia in 10%. Significant coronary stenosis was observed only in 10 cases. GLS was independently associated with age at HTx and fixed perfusion defects (HR 0.41; P<.001). Such relationships underline STE ability to early identify HTx pts with subclinical myocardial dysfunction during long-term follow-up. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Effects of perfusion pressure and insulin on (3H) cytochalasin B (CB) binding to control and diabetic rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleta, M.; Chan, T.

    1987-01-01

    Using ( 3 H) CB, they attempted to quantitate the changes in the amount of glucose transporters in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular membranes (HSP) prepared from rat hearts perfused with insulin, under low and high pressure. Membranes isolated from non-perfused hearts showed a PM/HSP ratio of (0.593). Hearts perfused with low pressure showed a lower ratio of (0.474). Perfusion with insulin increased the ratio to (1.8), almost a 3-4 fold increase from low perfusion pressure. These data correlate with insulin effects in glucose transport and CB binding in the fat cells. High pressure perfusion increased the PM/HSP ratio by 1-2 fold. ( 3 H) 2-DG transport indicates a comparable increase in glucose uptake with high pressure, but with insulin only a 1.5 fold increase was observed. Initial data obtained from streptozotocin (STZ) injected diabetic rats indicate low CB binding in the PM fraction. Only insulin, but not high perfusion pressure increased PM/HSP ratio in the STZ-diabetic hearts. Their data imply that while both caused apparent translocation of glucose transporters, influences on cardiac glucose metabolism by work load are different. Furthermore, STZ induced diabetes affected only the high perfusion pressure-induced and not the insulin-stimulated change in CB binding

  13. Molecular cloning and expression of the calmodulin gene from guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Rui; Liu, Yan; Sun, Xuefei; Wang, Yan; Hu, Huiyuan; Guo, Feng; Zhao, Jinsheng; Hao, Liying

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding the calmodulin (CaM; GenBank accession no. FJ012165) gene from guinea pig hearts. The CaM gene was amplified from cDNA collected from guinea pig hearts and inserted into a pGEM®-T Easy vector. Subsequently, CaM nucleotide and protein sequence similarity analysis was conducted between guinea pigs and other species. In addition, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to investigate the CaM 3 expression patterns in different guinea pig tissues. Sequence analysis revealed that the CaM gene isolated from the guinea pig heart had ∼90% sequence identity with the CaM 3 genes in humans, mice and rats. Furthermore, the deduced peptide sequences of CaM 3 in the guinea pig showed 100% homology to the CaM proteins from other species. In addition, the RT-PCR results indicated that CaM 3 was widely and differentially expressed in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the current study provided valuable information with regard to the cloning and expression of CaM 3 in guinea pig hearts. These findings may be helpful for understanding the function of CaM3 and the possible role of CaM3 in cardiovascular diseases.

  14. The effect of restraining on the heart rate in guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiskova, H.

    1980-01-01

    The emotional effect of different applications of electrodes and the fixation for cariographic examination was investigated using guinea pigs. The effect of the stress is discussed in terms of heart rhythm and behavior.

  15. The evaluation of dobutamine 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qing; Qu Wanying; Gong Junhui; Zhou Ying

    1996-01-01

    The method and the clinical value of dobutamine stress test as a substitute for exercise test in 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated. 40 Patients were intravenously infused with dobutamine through IVAC syringe pumps by incremental doses, and 99m Tc-MIBI was injected at the peak dobutamine heart rate. The myocardial imaging was then performed. The rest myocardial imaging was done after 48 hours. 30 of the 31 patients with coronary heart disease showed reversible perfusion defects in dobutamine 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion images and 7 of the 9 patients without coronary heart disease showed normal images. The sensitivity of this test was 96.8% and the specificity 77.8%. None of the studies was discontinued due to dobutamine side effect. Dobutamine 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and sensitive method in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease

  16. Compartment analysis of 125I-labelled albumin washout from coronary vessels of isolated perfused hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Eap Ng; Seh-Hoon Song

    1978-01-01

    Albumin labelled with 125 I was used as a tracer to investigate the washout kinetics of plasma from the coronary circulation of isolated perfused feline hearts. Compartmentalization with experimental results showed at least two compartments. The model was compared with a three-compartment model found previously for red blood cells. The results indicate that there is a separation of plasma and RBC in the coronary microcirculation. (author)

  17. Analysis of the calcium compartments in guinea pig hearts under control conditions and under the influence of ouabain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, W; Krebs, R [Mainz Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pharmakologisches Inst.

    1974-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of myocardial Ca-metabolism was carried out on isolated, perfused guinea pig hearts by combined determinations of the total Ca-content and kinetics of /sup 45/Ca-efflux. The kinetics of /sup 45/Ca-uptake was estimated by extrapolating /sup 45/Ca-efflux curves of heart muscles isotopically loaded for up to 60 min to the end of the loading-period. From the specific activity it was possible to determine absolute Ca-content of the extrapolated compartments. The amount of activity in cannulas and coronary vessels was estimated by dextranblue. The results indicate the presence of three kinetically defined phases (K/sub 1/, K/sub 2/, K/sub 3/) of calcium movements in guinea pig heart muscle. Total Ca content has been found to be 1.67 ..mu..moles/g w.w. Under control conditions about 65% of total heart muscle Ca was exchangeable. Under the influence of ouabain (1.5 x 10/sup -7/ M) Ca of the heart muscle exchanged to about 100%. This was caused by an increase in Ca content of compartment K/sub 3/ to 0.46 ..mu..moles/g w.w. and a significant decrease in total Ca-content to 1.32 ..mu..moles/g w.w. The rate of /sup 45/Ca-exchange was not influenced by ouabain. The value of Ca-turnover for Ca-availability in contraction cycle and the mechanism of ouabain action are discussed.

  18. Uptake of perfusion imaging agents by transplanted hearts: an experimental study in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergsland, J.; Carr, E.A. Jr.; Carroll, M.; Feldman, M.J.; Kung, H.; Wright, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    There is a need for a reliable noninvasive marker of rejection in transplanted hearts. Endomyocardial biopsy is now the universally accepted diagnostic method of choice, but the invasiveness of the procedure and the limited size of the sample obtained makes this method far from ideal. As coronary blood flow may be expected to decrease during acute rejection, there has been interest in thallium-201 chloride (T1), a perfusion marker, as an imaging agent for diagnosing cardiac rejection. Hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium (Tc-TBI) is a representative of a new class of radiopharmaceuticals proposed as perfusion markers. We have compared the uptake of these imaging agents in a rat model of cardiac transplantation. Uptake of Tc-TBI as well as of T1 was significantly lower in rejecting than in nonrejecting hearts. This change was found in both left (LV) and right (RV) ventricles. Allografts in animals treated with cyclosporine (CyA) showed less severe rejection and higher uptakes of both imaging agents as compared to unmodified rejection. Our results suggest that perfusion imaging with these radionuclides is a potentially useful approach to the problem of detecting allograft rejection

  19. Study of Nicorandil stress perfusion MRI in diagnosing ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateishi, Toshiki; Iwai, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Soji; Hayashi, Ryuji

    2006-01-01

    The excellent spatial resolution of myocardial stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging is effective for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. When dipyridamole or adenosine triphosphate is used as a pharmacological stress in cardiac MRI, non-magnetic instruments are required for infusion of these drugs in a MRI room. We attempted to use nicorandil as a pharmacological stressor. Nicorandil exhibited KATP channel opening and nitrate effects, and could be infused without any special instruments. Based on the coronary artery stenosis assessed by coronary angiography, according to the criteria of the American Heart Association (AHA), the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of nicorandil perfusion MRI for the detection of coronary artery stenosis was 85%, 57% and 74.3%, respectively. No major side effects were observed, except for mild hypotension (mean 10 mmHg) after infusion of the drug. It was concluded that myocardial perfusion MRI examination using nicorandil could be performed non-invasively and safely for the evaluation of coronary vessel disease in patients. (author)

  20. 31P nuclear magnetic resonance surface coil study of ischemic preconditioned isolated perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Yongbin; Luo Xuechun; Zhang Riqing; Wang Xiaoyin; Zuo Lin; Liu Wei

    2000-01-01

    ischemic preconditioning (IPC) will protect the heart from the damage caused by a subsequent long ischemia period. 31 P spectra of isolated perfused rat heart measured by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) surface coil technique can be used to continually, dynamically and noninvasively obtain metabolism information. This paper explores the IPC mechanisms by NMR. This study shows that IPC has no effect on enhancing the ATP and PCr levels during reperfusion but makes significantly slows and smooths the changes of intracellular pH and ATP during ischemia periods. The ATP and PCr recovery rate of the IPC group after ischemia is significantly higher than that of the control group. In conclusion, the above results support that IPC can protect the rat heart by reducing damage during the ischemia period

  1. A new clinical tool for the quantification of myocardial CT perfusion imaging in patients with suspected Ischemic Heart Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Muñoz, A.; Dux-Santoy Hurtado, L.; Rodriguez Palomares, J.L.; Piella Fenoy, G.

    2016-07-01

    In the clinical practice, the evaluation of myocardial perfusion by using Computed Tomography (CT) Imaging is usually performed visually or semi-quantitatively. The scarcity of quantitative perfusion data not always allows a proper diagnose of patients which are suspected of suffering from some diseases, such as Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD). In this work, a clinical tool for the automatic quantification of myocardial perfusion in patients with suspected IHD is proposed. Myocardial perfusion is assessed based on a combined diagnosis protocol (CT/CTP protocol) which involves the acquisition of two contrastenhanced CT images, one obtained at rest and another acquired under pharmacological stress. The clinical tool allows the automatic quantification of perfusion in different myocardial segments defined according to the 16-AHA-segmentation model of the left ventricle, by providing the mean of Hounsfield Units in those regions. Based on this analysis, the clinicians can compare the values at baseline and at hyperemia, and they can better determine hypoperfusion defects in patients with IHD. The validation of the clinical tool was performed by comparing automatic and manual perfusion measurements of 10 patients with suspected IHD who were previously assessed with Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) for perfusion analysis. A strong linear correlation was found between the automatic and manual results. Afterwards, perfusion defects obtained from CT/CTP protocol were compared to perfusion defects from SPECT, to assess the applicability of this clinical tool for the diagnosis of IHD. (Author)

  2. Hydroxyl radicals' production and ECG parameters during ischemia and reperfusion in rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulova, Hana; Stracina, Tibor; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Novakova, Marie; Taborska, Eva

    2013-06-01

    Ischemic and reperfusion injury is a serious condition related to numerous biochemical and electrical abnormalities of the myocardium. It has been repeatedly studied in various animal models. In this study, the production of hydroxyl radicals and electrophysiological parameters were compared in three species. Rat, guinea pig and rabbit isolated hearts were perfused according to Langendorff under strictly identical conditions. The heart rate and arrhythmia were monitored during ischemia and reperfusion periods at defined time intervals; the production of hydroxyl radical was determined by HPLC as 2.5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2.5-DHBA) formed by salicylic acid hydroxylation. Relationship between arrhythmias and production of 2.5-DHBA was studied. The inter-species differences were observed in timing of arrhythmias onset and their severity, and in the production of 2.5-DHBA in both ischemia and reperfusion. The most considerable changes were observed in rats, where arrhythmias appeared early and with highest severity during ischemia on one side and the regular rhythm was restored early and completely during reperfusion. The corresponding changes in the production of 2.5-DHBA were observed. It can be concluded that rat isolated heart is the most suitable model for evaluation of ischemia/reperfusion injury under given experimental conditions.

  3. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension in lung and valvular heart diseases by perfusion lung scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). School of Allied Medical Sciences; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hirosi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keisi; Sekiguchi, Morie; Yano, Kesato

    1999-06-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension, we measured postural differences in pulmonary blood flow for the lateral decubitus positions on perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99 m macro-aggregated albumin, applying the method devised by Tanaka et al (Eur J Nucl Med 17: 320-326, 1990). Utilizing a scintillation camera coupled to a minicomputer system, changes in the distribution of pulmonary blood flow caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios for the right lung versus the left lung in the right and left lateral decubitus positions (R/L), were obtained for 44 patients with lung disease, 95 patients with valvular heart disease, and 23 normal subjects. Mean standard deviation in the R/L ratios was 3.09{+-}1.28 for the normal subjects, 1.97{+-}0.89 for the patients with lung disease, and 1.59{+-}0.59 for the patients with valvular heart disease. The R/L ratios correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardio-thoracic ratios in the lung disease and valvular heart disease groups, with pulmonary arteriolar resistance in the former, and with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in the latter. Defining pulmonary hypertension (>20 mmHg) as an R/L ratio of less than 1.81, which is the mean-1 standard deviation for normal subjects, the sensitivity and the specificity of the R/L ratio for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were 62.9% and 76.2%, respectively, for the lung disease patients, and 80.3% and 61.8%, respectively, for the valvular heart disease patients. This method seems to be useful for the pathophysiologic evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in cases of lung disease and valvular heart disease. (author)

  4. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension in lung and valvular heart diseases by perfusion lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Yazaki, Yoshikazu; Kitabayashi, Hirosi; Koizumi, Tomonori; Kubo, Keisi; Sekiguchi, Morie; Yano, Kesato

    1999-01-01

    To estimate pulmonary hypertension, we measured postural differences in pulmonary blood flow for the lateral decubitus positions on perfusion lung scintigrams with Tc-99 m macro-aggregated albumin, applying the method devised by Tanaka et al (Eur J Nucl Med 17: 320-326, 1990). Utilizing a scintillation camera coupled to a minicomputer system, changes in the distribution of pulmonary blood flow caused by gravitational effects, namely, changes in the total count ratios for the right lung versus the left lung in the right and left lateral decubitus positions (R/L), were obtained for 44 patients with lung disease, 95 patients with valvular heart disease, and 23 normal subjects. Mean standard deviation in the R/L ratios was 3.09±1.28 for the normal subjects, 1.97±0.89 for the patients with lung disease, and 1.59±0.59 for the patients with valvular heart disease. The R/L ratios correlated with mean pulmonary arterial pressure and cardio-thoracic ratios in the lung disease and valvular heart disease groups, with pulmonary arteriolar resistance in the former, and with pulmonary capillary wedge pressure in the latter. Defining pulmonary hypertension (>20 mmHg) as an R/L ratio of less than 1.81, which is the mean-1 standard deviation for normal subjects, the sensitivity and the specificity of the R/L ratio for the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were 62.9% and 76.2%, respectively, for the lung disease patients, and 80.3% and 61.8%, respectively, for the valvular heart disease patients. This method seems to be useful for the pathophysiologic evaluation of pulmonary perfusion in cases of lung disease and valvular heart disease. (author)

  5. Heart size and mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area related to birth weight in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. RUUSUNEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the aims in domestic pig breeding has been to increase the size of litters resulting in variation in birth weight of piglets. Pig breeding has also resulted in increased body muscle mass. Muscles with the same size can consist either of large number of thin muscle fibres or small number of thick muscle fibres. Larger body muscle content means that in living animal the heart must pump blood to larger muscle mass than earlier. Our interest in this study was to investigate the relationship between the pig’s birth weight and (i growth performance and carcass composition, (ii the size of organs, and (iii the mean muscle fibre cross-sectional area at slaughter. The study consisted of twenty pigs slaughtered at the age of 165±2 days. The day after the slaughter, the carcass composition was determined by dissecting the chilled carcass into lean, fat, bones, and skin and organs were weighed. The average cross sectional area of muscle fibres was determined from three fast-twitch muscles longissimus dorsi, semimembranosus, gluteus superficialis, and two slow-twitch muscles infraspinatus and masseter. The birth weight of pigs ranged from 0.9 to 2.2 kg. We found no clear relationships between the birth weight and the pig’s growth performance from birth to slaughter. When the birth weight increased the heart weight at slaughter increased as well (P < 0.01. The heart weight was higher in those pigs with high carcass weight (P < 0.05 and with the high weight of total muscle mass in the carcass (P < 0.001. The cross sectional area of muscle fibres in M. longissimus dorsi (P < 0.05, M. semimembranosus (P < 0.10, and M. gluteus superficialis (P < 0.05 was larger in those pigs with low birth weight compared to those found in pigs with high birth weight.;

  6. Dorsal Vagal Complex Modulates Neurogenic Airway Inflammation in a Guinea Pig Model With Esophageal Perfusion of HCl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic airway inflammation in chronic cough and bronchial asthma related to gastroesophageal reflux (GER is involved in the esophageal–bronchial reflex, but it is unclear whether this reflex is mediated by central neurons. This study aimed to investigate the regulatory effects of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC on airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of hydrochloric acid (HCl following the microinjection of nuclei in the DVC in guinea pigs. Airway inflammation was evaluated by measuring the extravasation of Evans blue dye (EBD and substance P (SP expression in the airway. Neuronal activity was indicated by Fos expression in the DVC. The neural pathways from the lower esophagus to the DVC and the DVC to the airway were identified using DiI tracing and pseudorabies virus Bartha (PRV-Bartha retrograde tracing, respectively. HCl perfusion significantly increased plasma extravasation, SP expression in the trachea, and the expression of SP and Fos in the medulla oblongata nuclei, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV. The microinjection of glutamic acid (Glu or exogenous SP to enhance neuronal activity in the DVC significantly potentiated plasma extravasation and SP release induced by intra-esophageal perfusion. The microinjection of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, lidocaine to inhibit neuronal activity or anti-SP serum in the DVC alleviated plasma extravasation and SP release. In conclusion, airway inflammation induced by the esophageal perfusion of HCl is regulated by DVC. This study provides new insight for the mechanism of airway neurogenic inflammation related to GER.

  7. Evaluation of multi-gated myocardial perfusion imaging in various heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshitake; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1980-01-01

    Multi-gated myocardial perfusion imaging were studied in a hundred cases of various heart diseases. In normal cases, ED ES images showed thinning and thickening of wall motion respectively to compare with static images. In the myocardial infarction cases, the dynamic changes of wall motion was decreased at infarcted areas in all cases. In congestive cardiomyopathy, the change of wall motion is smaller than normal cases in all cases, while in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, the change is not so hyperdynamic to compare with normal cases and by multi-gated images, asymmetric hypertrophy was clearly detected in HCM than static images. In conclusion, these methods were useful to detect the myocardial contraction stage in various heart diseases. (author)

  8. Evaluation of heart perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte; Fritz-Hansen, Thomas; Dirks, Christina G

    2004-01-01

    with acute transmural myocardial infarction were studied using a Turbo-fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI sequence to monitor the first pass of an extravascular contrast agent (CA), gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Quantitation of perfusion, expressed as Ki (mL/100 g/minute), in five......PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic ability of quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) heart perfusion in acute heart patients, a fast, multislice dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequence was applied to patients with acute myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients...

  9. Hepatic blood perfusion estimated by dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Sørensen, Michael; Keiding, Inger Susanne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates.......The aim of this study was to determine whether dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and the slope method can provide absolute measures of hepatic blood perfusion from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) at experimentally varied blood flow rates....

  10. Differential uptake of FDG and DG during post-ischaemic reperfusion in the isolated, perfused rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garlick, P.B.; Medina, R.A.; Southworth, R.; Marsden, P.K. [Department of Radiological Sciences, Guy' s, King' s and St. Thomas' School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1999-10-01

    Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 2-deoxyglucose (DG) are widely used as tracers of glucose uptake in the myocardium. Although there is agreement that the two analogues behave similarly to glucose under control conditions, there is growing evidence that some interventions (e.g. insulin stimulation or ischaemia/reperfusion) cause differential changes in their behaviour. The addition of a two-surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and a dual-perfusion cannula to our recently developed PET and NMR dual-acquisition (PANDA) system allows us to collect PET (FDG) images and phosphorus-31 NMR (2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate) spectra simultaneously from each independently perfused coronary bed of the heart. We have used this technique to study the effect of regional ischaemia/reperfusion on FDG and DG uptake in the isolated, perfused rat heart. During control perfusion, FDG uptake was almost identical in both coronary beds. When one coronary bed was made ischaemic, FDG uptake ceased on that side but continued on the control side. Reperfusion failed to restore FDG uptake. In contrast, NMR spectra showed that, during reperfusion, the uptake and phosphorylation of DG did not differ between the two coronary beds. The results thus demonstrate that regional myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion has different effects on the uptake of FDG and DG in the isolated, perfused rat heart. (orig.)

  11. Differential uptake of FDG and DG during post-ischaemic reperfusion in the isolated, perfused rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, P.B.; Medina, R.A.; Southworth, R.; Marsden, P.K.

    1999-01-01

    Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and 2-deoxyglucose (DG) are widely used as tracers of glucose uptake in the myocardium. Although there is agreement that the two analogues behave similarly to glucose under control conditions, there is growing evidence that some interventions (e.g. insulin stimulation or ischaemia/reperfusion) cause differential changes in their behaviour. The addition of a two-surface coil nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe and a dual-perfusion cannula to our recently developed PET and NMR dual-acquisition (PANDA) system allows us to collect PET (FDG) images and phosphorus-31 NMR (2-deoxyglucose-6-phosphate) spectra simultaneously from each independently perfused coronary bed of the heart. We have used this technique to study the effect of regional ischaemia/reperfusion on FDG and DG uptake in the isolated, perfused rat heart. During control perfusion, FDG uptake was almost identical in both coronary beds. When one coronary bed was made ischaemic, FDG uptake ceased on that side but continued on the control side. Reperfusion failed to restore FDG uptake. In contrast, NMR spectra showed that, during reperfusion, the uptake and phosphorylation of DG did not differ between the two coronary beds. The results thus demonstrate that regional myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion has different effects on the uptake of FDG and DG in the isolated, perfused rat heart. (orig.)

  12. Machine perfusion preservation of the pig liver using a new preservation solution, polysol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, M.; Doorschodt, B. M.; Dinant, S.; de Graaf, W.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The current gold standard for donor liver preservation is cold storage in a preservation solution (4 degrees C), such as Celsior or the University of Wisconsin solution (UW). Recent studies have suggested the benefits of machine perfusion (MP) over cold storage. To improve the results

  13. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of sarcoplasmic oxygenation in the red cell-perfused rat heart

    OpenAIRE

    Jelicks, L.A.; Wittenberg, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The proximal histidine N delta H proton of deoxymyoglobin experiences a large hyperfine shift resulting in its 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal appearing at approximately 76 ppm (at 35 degrees C), downfield of the diamagnetic spectral region. 1H NMR of this proton is used to monitor sarcoplasmic oxygen pressure in isolated perfused rat heart. This method monitors intracellular oxygenation in the whole heart and does not reflect oxygenation in a limited region. The deoxymyoglobin res...

  14. Adipose-Derived Cell Construct Stabilizes Heart Function and Increases Microvascular Perfusion in an Established Infarct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang T.; Touroo, Jeremy S.; Aird, Allison L.; Chang, Raymond C.; Ng, Chin K.; Hoying, James B.; Williams, Stuart K.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that myocardial infarction (MI) immediately treated with an epicardial construct containing stromal vascular fraction (SVF) from adipose tissue preserved microvascular function and left ventricle contractile mechanisms. In order to evaluate a more clinically relevant condition, we investigated the cardiac recovery potential of an SVF construct implanted onto an established infarct. SVF cells were isolated from rat adipose tissue, plated on Vicryl, and cultured for 14 days. Fischer-344 rats were separated into MI groups: (a) 6-week MI (MI), (b) 6-week MI treated with an SVF construct at 2 weeks (MI SVF), (c) 6-week MI with Vicryl construct at 2 weeks (MI Vicryl), and (d) MI 2wk (time point of intervention). Emax, an indicator of systolic performance and contractile function, was lower in the MI and MI Vicryl versus MI SVF. Positron emission tomography imaging (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) revealed a decreased percentage of relative infarct volume in the MI SVF versus MI and MI Vicryl. Total vessel count and percentage of perfusion assessed via immunohistochemistry were both increased in the infarct region of MI SVF versus MI and MI Vicryl. Overall cardiac function, percentage of relative infarct, and percentage of perfusion were similar between MI SVF and MI 2wk; however, total vessel count increased after SVF treatment. These data suggest that SVF treatment of an established infarct stabilizes the heart at the time point of intervention by preventing a worsening of cardiac performance and infarcted volume, and is associated with increased microvessel perfusion in the area of established infarct. PMID:24106337

  15. Technical Note: Evaluation of a 160-mm/256-row CT scanner for whole-heart quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Aaron, E-mail: aso@robarts.ca [Imaging Program, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Imai, Yasuhiro; Nett, Brian; Jackson, John; Nett, Liz; Hsieh, Jiang [CT Engineering, GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States); Wisenberg, Gerald; Teefy, Patrick; Yadegari, Andrew [Cardiology, University Hospital, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario N6A 5A5 (Canada); Islam, Ali [Radiology, St. Joseph’s Hospital London, Ontario N6A 4V2 (Canada); Lee, Ting-Yim [Imaging Program, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 4V2, Canada and Imaging Research Laboratories, Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario N6A 5K8 (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The authors investigated the performance of a recently introduced 160-mm/256-row CT system for low dose quantitative myocardial perfusion (MP) imaging of the whole heart. This platform is equipped with a gantry capable of rotating at 280 ms per full cycle, a second generation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) to correct for image noise arising from low tube voltage potential/tube current dynamic scanning, and image reconstruction algorithms to tackle beam-hardening, cone-beam, and partial-scan effects. Methods: Phantom studies were performed to investigate the effectiveness of image noise and artifact reduction with a GE Healthcare Revolution CT system for three acquisition protocols used in quantitative CT MP imaging: 100, 120, and 140 kVp/25 mAs. The heart chambers of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were filled with iodinated contrast solution at different concentrations (contrast levels) to simulate the circulation of contrast through the heart in quantitative CT MP imaging. To evaluate beam-hardening correction, the phantom was scanned at each contrast level to measure the changes in CT number (in Hounsfield unit or HU) in the water-filled region surrounding the heart chambers with respect to baseline. To evaluate cone-beam artifact correction, differences in mean water HU between the central and peripheral slices were compared. Partial-scan artifact correction was evaluated from the fluctuation of mean water HU in successive partial scans. To evaluate image noise reduction, a small hollow region adjacent to the heart chambers was filled with diluted contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio in the region before and after noise correction with ASiR-V was compared. The quality of MP maps acquired with the CT system was also evaluated in porcine CT MP studies. Myocardial infarct was induced in a farm pig from a transient occlusion of the distal left anterior descending (LAD) artery with a catheter-based interventional procedure. MP

  16. Technical Note: Evaluation of a 160-mm/256-row CT scanner for whole-heart quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Aaron; Imai, Yasuhiro; Nett, Brian; Jackson, John; Nett, Liz; Hsieh, Jiang; Wisenberg, Gerald; Teefy, Patrick; Yadegari, Andrew; Islam, Ali; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the performance of a recently introduced 160-mm/256-row CT system for low dose quantitative myocardial perfusion (MP) imaging of the whole heart. This platform is equipped with a gantry capable of rotating at 280 ms per full cycle, a second generation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) to correct for image noise arising from low tube voltage potential/tube current dynamic scanning, and image reconstruction algorithms to tackle beam-hardening, cone-beam, and partial-scan effects. Methods: Phantom studies were performed to investigate the effectiveness of image noise and artifact reduction with a GE Healthcare Revolution CT system for three acquisition protocols used in quantitative CT MP imaging: 100, 120, and 140 kVp/25 mAs. The heart chambers of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were filled with iodinated contrast solution at different concentrations (contrast levels) to simulate the circulation of contrast through the heart in quantitative CT MP imaging. To evaluate beam-hardening correction, the phantom was scanned at each contrast level to measure the changes in CT number (in Hounsfield unit or HU) in the water-filled region surrounding the heart chambers with respect to baseline. To evaluate cone-beam artifact correction, differences in mean water HU between the central and peripheral slices were compared. Partial-scan artifact correction was evaluated from the fluctuation of mean water HU in successive partial scans. To evaluate image noise reduction, a small hollow region adjacent to the heart chambers was filled with diluted contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio in the region before and after noise correction with ASiR-V was compared. The quality of MP maps acquired with the CT system was also evaluated in porcine CT MP studies. Myocardial infarct was induced in a farm pig from a transient occlusion of the distal left anterior descending (LAD) artery with a catheter-based interventional procedure. MP

  17. Technical Note: Evaluation of a 160-mm/256-row CT scanner for whole-heart quantitative myocardial perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Aaron; Imai, Yasuhiro; Nett, Brian; Jackson, John; Nett, Liz; Hsieh, Jiang; Wisenberg, Gerald; Teefy, Patrick; Yadegari, Andrew; Islam, Ali; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2016-08-01

    The authors investigated the performance of a recently introduced 160-mm/256-row CT system for low dose quantitative myocardial perfusion (MP) imaging of the whole heart. This platform is equipped with a gantry capable of rotating at 280 ms per full cycle, a second generation of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASiR-V) to correct for image noise arising from low tube voltage potential/tube current dynamic scanning, and image reconstruction algorithms to tackle beam-hardening, cone-beam, and partial-scan effects. Phantom studies were performed to investigate the effectiveness of image noise and artifact reduction with a GE Healthcare Revolution CT system for three acquisition protocols used in quantitative CT MP imaging: 100, 120, and 140 kVp/25 mAs. The heart chambers of an anthropomorphic chest phantom were filled with iodinated contrast solution at different concentrations (contrast levels) to simulate the circulation of contrast through the heart in quantitative CT MP imaging. To evaluate beam-hardening correction, the phantom was scanned at each contrast level to measure the changes in CT number (in Hounsfield unit or HU) in the water-filled region surrounding the heart chambers with respect to baseline. To evaluate cone-beam artifact correction, differences in mean water HU between the central and peripheral slices were compared. Partial-scan artifact correction was evaluated from the fluctuation of mean water HU in successive partial scans. To evaluate image noise reduction, a small hollow region adjacent to the heart chambers was filled with diluted contrast, and contrast-to-noise ratio in the region before and after noise correction with ASiR-V was compared. The quality of MP maps acquired with the CT system was also evaluated in porcine CT MP studies. Myocardial infarct was induced in a farm pig from a transient occlusion of the distal left anterior descending (LAD) artery with a catheter-based interventional procedure. MP maps were generated

  18. Prognostic Value of Normal Perfusion but Impaired Left Ventricular Function in the Diabetic Heart on Quantitative Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hwanjeong; Choi, Sehun; Han, Yeonhee [Research Institute of Chonbuk National Univ. Medical School and Hospitial, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Hoyoung; Chung, Junekey [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study aimed at identifying the predictive parameters on quantitative gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (QG-SPECT) in diabetic patients with normal perfusion but impaired function. Methods Among the 533 consecutive diabetic patients, 379 patients with normal perfusion on rest Tl-201/dipyridamole-stress Tc-{sup 99m} sestamibi Gated SPECT were enrolled. Patients were grouped into those with normal post-stress left ventricular function (Group I) and those with impaired function (EF <50 or impaired regional wall motion, Group II). We investigated cardiac events and cause of death by chart review and telephone interview. Survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model analysis were performed. Between the Group I and II, cardiac events as well as chest pain symptoms, smoking, diabetic complications were significantly different (P<0.05). On survival analysis, event free survival rate in Group II was significantly lower than in Group I (P=0.016). In univariate Cox proportional hazard analysis on overall cardiac event, Group (II over I), diabetic nephropathy, summed motion score (SMS), summed systolic thickening score (STS), numbers of abnormal segmental wall motion and systolic thickening predicted more cardiac events (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that STS was the only independent predictor cardiac event. The functional parameter, especially summed systolic thickening score on QG-SPECT had prognostic values, despite normal perfusion, in predicting cardiac events in diabetic patients, and QG-SPECT provides clinically useful risk stratification in diabetic patients with normal perfusion.

  19. The influence of Poly-Vinyl-Chloride tubing on the isolated perfused rat´s heart.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1950-01-01

    There are types of poly-vinyl-chloride tubing sold and used for medical and biological purposes which deteriorate heart action in a few minutes. A simple method for testing P.V.C. tubing can be found in the isolated rat's he art perfused according to Langendorff.

  20. Predictors of abnormal heart rate response to dipyridamole in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza Leao Lima, R.; Machado, L.; Azevedo, A.B.; De Lorenzo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of abnormal HR response to dipyridamole (DIP) in patients undergoing myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS). Patients with a reduced heart rate (HR) response to DIP have higher cardiac mortality, but the mechanism is unknown. We studied 432 patients who underwent dual-isotope gated MPS. DIP (0.56 mg/kg) was infused over 4 min, and Tc-99m tetrofosmin was injected 3 min after the end of the infusion. MPS was semiquantitatively interpreted. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and volumes were automatically calculated. The population was categorized into quartiles according to HR ratio, and characteristics in each quartile were compared. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of abnormal HR response, using the lowest quartile as the independent variable. Patients with abnormal HR response were more frequently without chest pain, with a history of chronic renal failure and taking digoxin. Baseline HR was higher and had fewer symptoms during stress. The stress and rest perfusion defects were greater, but reversibility was not; in addition, LVEF was lower. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the independent predictors of abnormal HR response were baseline HR and low LVEF. LV dysfunction is an independent predictor of abnormal HR response to DIP, and the association between low LVEF and low HR ratio may explain the link between abnormal HR ratio and increased mortality. (author)

  1. Variation in Perfusion Strategies for Neonatal and Infant Aortic Arch Repair: Contemporary Practice in the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, David B; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Hill, Kevin; Wallace, Amelia S; Bateson, Brian; Jacobs, Marshall L

    2016-09-01

    Regional cerebral perfusion (RCP) is used as an adjunct or alternative to deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) for neonates and infants undergoing aortic arch repair. Clinical studies have not demonstrated clear superiority of either strategy, and multicenter data regarding current use of these strategies are lacking. We sought to describe the variability in contemporary practice patterns for use of these techniques. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2010-2013) was queried to identify neonates and infants whose index operation involved aortic arch repair with cardiopulmonary bypass. Perfusion strategy was classified as isolated DHCA, RCP (with less than or equal to ten minutes of DHCA), or mixed (RCP with more than ten minutes of DHCA). Data were analyzed for the entire cohort and stratified by operation subgroups. Overall, 4,523 patients (105 centers) were identified; median age seven days (interquartile range: 5.0-13.0). The most prevalent perfusion strategy was RCP (43%). Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and mixed perfusion accounted for 32% and 16% of cases, respectively. In all, 59% of operations involved some period of RCP. Regional cerebral perfusion was the most prevalent perfusion strategy for each operation subgroup. Neither age nor weight was associated with perfusion strategy, but reoperations were less likely to use RCP (31% vs 45%, P RCP and DHCA in the RCP group was longer than the DHCA time in the DHCA group (45 vs 36 minutes, P neonates and infants. In contemporary practice, RCP is the most prevalent perfusion strategy for these procedures. Use of DHCA is also common. Further investigation is warranted to ascertain possible relative merits of the various perfusion techniques. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Leukocyte filtration and miniature perfusion during arrested heart CABG on a Jehovah's Witness patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Steven W; Duncan, Michael A; Chase, Virginia A; Cheung, Edson H; Hamman, B L

    2004-11-01

    Bloodless surgery and a reduction in the use of allogeneic blood products has long been the standard of care in medicine. Many individuals in our communities have demanded this form of surgical treatment for personal and religious reasons. On 6 December 2002, a 72-year-old male patient was admitted to our institution as a critical air flight transfer. The patient's height was 190.5 cm and weight was 59.3 kg (body surface area 1.83 m2). His preliminary diagnosis was chest pain with myocardial infarction as evidenced by elevated blood cardiac isoenzymes. His principle diagnosis was subendocardial infarction with paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia. Cardiac catheterization was performed and demonstrated severe triple vessel disease with an ejection fraction of 30%. He was evaluated and accepted as a candidate for coronary artery bypass grafting. Multidisciplinary consultation concluded that a safe and effective method of perioperative treatment would involve the use of arrested heart support with cold blood cardioplegia using a low prime miniature perfusion circuit as no blood products would be considered for use. Additionally, the combined modalities of perfusion interventions to minimize hemodilution consisted of intraoperative autologous blood collection totaling 500 mL and rapid autologous priming of the miniature perfusion circuit. The miniature perfusion system was a low prime Cardiovention (Santa Clara, CA) CORx device which includes a hollow-fiber oxygenator and integral centrifugal pump with a surface area of 1.2 m2. This system also incorporates an air sensing solenoid which triggers rapid air evacuation in a bolus range of 1 mL or greater. Kinetic venous drainage is another feature of this device as the centrifugal pump is integrated into the oxygenator. We believed that a miniature extracorporeal circuit would enhance the desired clinical outcome as opposed to the risk of: (1) off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) approach and the concern of emergent

  3. Comparative study of adenosine and exercise 201Tl myocardial perfusion tomographic imaging for detection of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiong

    1997-01-01

    To compare diagnostic accuracy of adenosine and exercise 201 Tl myocardial perfusion tomographic imaging for detection of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with a normal rest ECG and no history of myocardial infarction, 81 patients with CHD and 10 normal control subjects underwent adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging, exercise nuclide myocardial perfusion imaging was performed in 117 patients with CHD and 16 normal control subjects, two groups also had coronary arteriography. Both exercise and adenosine testing parameters were analysed. It is shown: 1) The sensitivity and specificity for detection of CHD were 79% vs 80% for adenosine group and 81% vs 81% for exercise myocardial perfusion imaging group respectively. There was no significant difference in comparison with two matched groups (χ 2 = 1.13, χ 2 = 0.18, χ 2 = 0.12, P>0.05). 2) Side effects induced by adenosine accounted for 89% of patients, all symptoms were mild and disappeared quickly after the termination of the study except in 2 cases withdrawal of infusion needed because of severe angina pectoris. Adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and sensitive method for detection of CHD. The diagnostic value of adenosine test is similar to that of exercise myocardial perfusion imaging and particularly useful in evaluating patients unable to perform exercise test or achieve adequate level of exercise

  4. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  5. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-01-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy. (orig.)

  6. Respiratory control in the glucose perfused heart. A /sup 31/P NMR and NADH fluorescence study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, L A; Koretsky, A P; Balaban, R S

    1987-09-14

    The phosphate metabolites, adenosine diphosphate (ADP), inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), are potentially important regulators of mitochondrial respiration in vivo. However, previous studies on the heart in vivo and in vitro have not consistently demonstrated an appropriate correlation between the concentration of these phosphate metabolites and moderate changes in work and respiration. Recently, mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels have been proposed as a potential regulator of cardiac respiration during alterations in work output. In order to understand better the mechanism of respiratory control under these conditions, we investigated the relationship between the phosphate metabolites, the NAD(P)H levels, and oxygen consumption (Q/sub O(sub 2)/) in the isovolumic perfused rat heart during alterations in work output with pacing. ATP, creatine phosphate (CrP), P/sub i/ and intracellular pH were measured using /sup 31/P NMR. Mitochondrial NAD(P)H levels were monitored using spectrofluorometric techniques. 33 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs.

  7. Use of atropine in patients with submaximal heart rate during exercise myocardial perfusion SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Andrea; Foerster, James; Sciammarella, Maria G; Suey, Cathy; Hayes, Sean W; Friedman, John D; Berman, Daniel S

    2003-01-01

    Failure to reach 85% of maximal predicted heart rate (MPHR) during exercise may render a myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (MPS) study nondiagnostic for ischemia detection. Although commonly used to increase heart rate (HR) during dobutamine stress, the administration of atropine for patients failing to achieve 85% of MPHR during exercise performed for MPS is still infrequent. Patients undergoing dual-isotope MPS were considered candidates for the study when, during exercise treadmill testing, they had less than 85% of MPHR and were unable to continue because of fatigue, without an ischemic response. Forty-seven patients (aged 65.3 +/- 12.5 years, 78.7% men) received atropine (0.6-1.2 mg). Maximal HR achieved before and after atropine was 118.0 +/- 14.8 beats/min (76.3% +/- 6.2% of MPHR) and 146.4 +/- 12.6 beats/min (94.4% +/- 8.1% of MPHR), respectively (P < .001). Of patients, 44 (93.6%) reached at least 85% of MPHR after atropine and had diagnostic MPS studies. After atropine, arrhythmias occurred in 14 patients (29.8%) and other minor side effects in 1 (2.1%). Atropine allows patients initially failing to achieve 85% of MPHR during exercise to increase HR and have a diagnostic MPS study, without major complications. It may provide an alternative to pharmacologic stress for patients with a blunted HR response to exercise.

  8. Dietary red palm oil supplementation reduces myocardial infarct size in an isolated perfused rat heart model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterhuyse Adriaan J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims Recent studies have shown that dietary red palm oil (RPO supplementation improves functional recovery following ischaemia/reperfusion in isolated hearts. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary RPO supplementation on myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. The effects of dietary RPO supplementation on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2 activation and PKB/Akt phosphorylation were also investigated. Materials and methods Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a standard rat chow diet (SRC, a SRC supplemented with RPO, or a SRC supplemented with sunflower oil (SFO, for a five week period, respectively. After the feeding period, hearts were excised and perfused on a Langendorff perfusion apparatus. Hearts were subjected to thirty minutes of normothermic global ischaemia and two hours of reperfusion. Infarct size was determined by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. Coronary effluent was collected for the first ten minutes of reperfusion in order to measure MMP2 activity by gelatin zymography. Results Dietary RPO-supplementation decreased myocardial infarct size significantly when compared to the SRC-group and the SFO-supplemented group (9.1 ± 1.0% versus 30.2 ± 3.9% and 27.1 ± 2.4% respectively. Both dietary RPO- and SFO-supplementation were able to decrease MMP2 activity when compared to the SRC fed group. PKB/Akt phosphorylation (Thr 308 was found to be significantly higher in the dietary RPO supplemented group when compared to the SFO supplemented group at 10 minutes into reperfusion. There was, however, no significant changes observed in ERK phosphorylation. Conclusions Dietary RPO-supplementation was found to be more effective than SFO-supplementation in reducing myocardial infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Both dietary RPO and SFO were able to reduce MMP2 activity, which suggests that MMP2 activity does not play a major role in

  9. 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI and MR angiography of pulmonary embolism in pigs after a single injection of a blood pool MR contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bock, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MR angiography (MRA) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pigs using a single injection of the blood pool contrast Gadomer. PE was induced in five domestic pigs by injection of autologous blood thrombi. Contrast-enhanced first-pass 3D perfusion MRI (TE/TR/FA: 1.0 ms/2.2 ms/40 ; voxel size: 1.3 x 2.5 x 4.0 mm 3 ; TA: 1.8 s per data set) and high-resolution 3D MRA (TE/TR/FA: 1.4 ms/3.4 ms/40 ; voxel size: 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.6 mm 3 ) was performed during and after a single injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of Gadomer. Image data were compared to pre-embolism Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and post-embolism thin-section multislice CT (n=2). SNR measurements were performed in the pulmonary arteries and lung. One animal died after induction of PE. In all other animals, perfusion MRI and MRA could be acquired after a single injection of Gadomer. At perfusion MRI, PE could be detected by typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects. While the visualization of central PE at MRA correlated well with the CT, peripheral PE were only visualized by CT. Gadomer achieved a higher peak SNR of the lungs compared to Gd-DTPA (21±8 vs. 13±3). Contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MRA of PE can be combined using a single injection of the blood pool contrast agent Gadomer. (orig.)

  10. Associations of heart and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene expression with intramuscular fat content in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, F.; Verburg, F.J.; Moerkerk, van H.T.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Pas, te M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Intramuscular fat content is a major determinant of meat quality in pigs. Previously, polymorphisms in the adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes, A-FABP and H-FABP, have been significantly associated with genetic variation of intramuscular fat content in a Duroc pig population.

  11. Associations of heart and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene expression with intramuscular fat content in pigs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, F.; Verburg, F.J.; Moerkerk, H.T.B. van; Engel, B.; Buist, W.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Pas, M.F. te

    2001-01-01

    Intramuscular fat content is a major determinant of meat quality in pigs. Previously, polymorphisms in the adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes, A-FABP and H-FABP, have been significantly associated with genetic variation of intramuscular fat content in a Duroc pig population.

  12. Changes in perfusion and fatty acid metabolism of rat heart with autoimmune myocarditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Eiichiro; Kusuoka, Hideo; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Shinji; Yutani, Kenji; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Biomedical Research Center; Hori, Masatsugu; Hirono, Satoru; Izumi, Tohru

    2000-10-01

    To elucidate the change in perfusion and aerobic metabolism in myocarditis, tissue counting and dual tracer ex vivo autoradiography with Tl-201 and free fatty acid analog, I-123- or I-125-labeled (p-iodophenyl)-methyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP), were performed in rats with myocarditis induced by immunization with cardiac myosin. Inflammatory damage was classified histologically. At the acute stage (2-4 weeks after the antigen-injection), total heart uptakes of Tl and BMIPP and the ratio (BMIPP/Tl) were significantly reduced in myocarditis rats (N=15) compared with the controls (N=12). Myocardial distribution of Tl and BMIPP was not homogeneous. Relative uptake of Tl and BMIPP (N=9, 128 regions) was gradually decreased with the extent of inflammation, and the regional BMIPP/Tl was smaller than the control. At the subacute stage (7 weeks after the antigen-injection), total Tl uptake in myocarditis rats (N=5) recovered to the control level (N=4), but that of BMIPP was still significantly lower than the control. BMIPP/Tl was still significantly lower in myocarditis. Myocardial distribution of Tl and BMIPP recovered to be more homogeneous. Relative uptake of Tl and BMIPP (N=6, 78 regions) still gradually but significantly decreased with the extent of inflammation. Regional BMIPP/Tl was still depressed in myocarditis. These results indicate that myocardial perfusion and aerobic metabolism were discrepant and heterogeneously suppressed with severe inflammation during the acute stages, but the difference decreases with time. Examination with Tl-201 and BMIPP may provide information about the severity of myocarditis. (author)

  13. Subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion reduces endothelial cell and bile duct injury after donation after cardiac death pig liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Jan M; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Boehnert, Markus U; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Louis, Kristine S; Adeyi, Oyedele A; Minkovich, Leonid; Yip, Paul M; Keshavjee, Shaf; Levy, Gary A; Grant, David R; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2014-11-01

    An ischemic-type biliary stricture (ITBS) is a common feature after liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death (DCD) grafts. We compared sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP; 33°C) with cold storage (CS) for the prevention of ITBS in DCD liver grafts in pig liver transplantation (n = 5 for each group). Liver grafts were stored for 10 hours at 4°C (CS) or preserved with combined 7-hour CS and 3-hour SNEVLP. Parameters of hepatocyte [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), international normalized ratio (INR), factor V, and caspase 3 immunohistochemistry], endothelial cell (EC; CD31 immunohistochemistry and hyaluronic acid), and biliary injury and function [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and bile lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were determined. Long-term survival (7 days) after transplantation was similar between the SNEVLP and CS groups (60% versus 40%, P = 0.13). No difference was observed between SNEVLP- and CS-treated animals with respect to the peak of serum INR, factor V, or AST levels within 24 hours. CD31 staining 8 hours after transplantation demonstrated intact EC lining in SNEVLP-treated livers (7.3 × 10(-4) ± 2.6 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2)) but not in CS-treated livers (3.7 × 10(-4) ± 1.3 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2) , P = 0.03). Posttransplant SNEVLP animals had decreased serum ALP and serum bilirubin levels in comparison with CS animals. In addition, LDH in bile fluid was lower in SNEVLP pigs versus CS pigs (14 ± 10 versus 60 ± 18 μmol/L, P = 0.02). Bile duct histology revealed severe bile duct necrosis in 3 of 5 animals in the CS group but none in the SNEVLP group (P = 0.03). Sequential SNEVLP preservation of DCD grafts reduces bile duct and EC injury after liver transplantation. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  14. Confluence of depression and acute psychological stress among patients with stable coronary heart disease: effects on myocardial perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burg, Matthew M; Meadows, Judith; Shimbo, Daichi; Davidson, Karina W; Schwartz, Joseph E; Soufer, Robert

    2014-10-30

    Depression is prevalent in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and increases risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) recurrence and mortality despite optimal medical care. The pathways underlying this risk remain elusive. Psychological stress (PS) can provoke impairment in myocardial perfusion and trigger ACS. A confluence of acute PS with depression might reveal coronary vascular mechanisms of risk. We tested whether depression increased risk for impaired myocardial perfusion during acute PS among patients with stable CHD. Patients (N=146) completed the Beck Depression Inventory-I (BDI-I), a measure of depression linked to recurrent ACS and post-ACS mortality, and underwent single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging at rest and during acute PS. The likelihood of new/worsening impairment in myocardial perfusion from baseline to PS as a function of depression severity was tested. On the BDI-I, 41 patients scored in the normal range, 48 in the high normal range, and 57 in the depressed range previously linked to CHD prognosis. A BDI-I score in the depressed range was associated with a significantly greater likelihood of new/worsening impairment in myocardial perfusion from baseline to PS (odds ratio =2.89, 95% CI: 1.26 to 6.63, P=0.012). This remained significant in models controlling ACS recurrence/mortality risk factors and medications. There was no effect for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medications. Depressed patients with CHD are particularly susceptible to impairment in myocardial perfusion during PS. The confluence of PS with depression may contribute to a better understanding of the depression-associated risk for ACS recurrence and mortality. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. The effect of adrenaline and high Ca2+ on the mechanical performance and oxygen consumption of the isolated perfused trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Dorte; Gesser, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In heart muscle from mammals, catecholamines frequently evoke an oxygen waste and reduce efficiency. It was examined if this also applies to fish in which heart muscle activity is often restricted by oxygen availability. In the isolated perfused heart from rainbow trout, adrenaline (0.5 micro...

  16. Cardiac actions of phencyclidine in isolated guinea pig and rat heart: possible involvement of slow channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temma, K.; Akera, T.; Ng, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine were studied in isolated preparations of guinea pig and rat heart. In electrically paced left atrial muscle preparations, phencyclidine increased the force of contraction; rat heart muscle preparations were more sensitive than guinea pig heart muscle preparations. The positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine was not significantly reduced by a combination of phentolamine and nadolol; however, the effect was competitively blocked by verapamil in the presence of phentolamine and nadolol. Inhibition of the outward K+ current by tetraethylammonium chloride also produced a positive inotropic effect; however, the effect of tetraethylammonium was reduced by phentolamine and nadolol, and was almost insensitive to verapamil. The inotropic effect of phencyclidine was associated with a marked prolongation of the action potential duration and a decrease in maximal upstroke velocity of the action potential, with no change in the resting membrane potential. The specific [ 3 H]phencyclidine binding observed with membrane preparations from guinea pig ventricular muscle was saturable with a single class of high-affinity binding site. This binding was inhibited by verapamil, diltiazem, or nitrendipine, but not by ryanodine or tetrodotoxin. These results suggest that the positive inotropic effect of phencyclidine results from enhanced Ca 2+ influx via slow channels, either by stimulation of the channels or secondary to inhibition of outward K + currents

  17. Electrophysiological changes of Papillary Muscles in Guinea Pigs with iron deficiency anemia and heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fan1

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of left ventricular papillary muscle action potentials in guinea pigs with iron deficiency anemia and heart failure. Methods: A total of 20 cases of iron deficiency anemia with heart failure were treated with experimental group and 10 normal guinea pigs as control group. Blood samples were collected to determine hemoglobin content, red blood cell number and whole blood iron index, and the changes of cardiac function and hemodynamics were detected by 6 240 biological signal collection system to determine whether the model was successful or not, Intracellular microelectrode technique was used to determine the action potentials of the papillary muscles in the model group and the control group. the potential amplitudes (APA, overshoot values (APA, maximum depolarization rate (Vmax, 20 % of repolarization, 50 % and 90 % of repolarization (APD20, APD50 and APD90 and the average velocity of repolarization were measured. Compare statistical difference between the model group and the control group. Results: 14 cases of model group survived completely, compared with control group, APD50 and APD90 prolonged, and the average velocity decreased. Conclusions: the action potential repolarization duration in the guinea pig papillary muscle of iron deficiency anemia with heart failure is prolonged, and the average repolarization velocity is slow.

  18. A novel combination technique of cold crystalloid perfusion but not cold storage facilitates transplantation of canine hearts donated after circulatory death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Franklin; Ou, Ruchong; Salamonsen, Robert; Marasco, Silvana; Zimmet, Adam; Byrne, Joshua; Cosic, Filip; Saxena, Pankaj; Esmore, Donald

    2016-11-01

    Donation after circulatory death (DCD) represents a potential new source of hearts to increase the donor pool. We showed previously that DCD hearts in Greyhound dogs could be resuscitated and preserved by continuous cold crystalloid perfusion but not by cold static storage and could demonstrate excellent contractile and metabolic function on an in vitro system. In the current study, we demonstrate that resuscitated DCD hearts are transplantable. Donor Greyhound dogs (n = 12) were divided into perfusion (n = 8) and cold static storage (n = 4) groups. General anesthesia was induced and ventilation ceased for 30 minutes to achieve circulatory death. Donor cardiectomy was performed, and for 4 hours the heart was preserved by controlled reperfusion, followed by continuous cold perfusion with an oxygenated crystalloid perfusate or by static cold storage, after which orthotopic heart transplantation was performed. Recovery was assessed over 4 hours by hemodynamic monitoring. During cold perfusion, hearts showed continuous oxygen consumption and low lactate levels, indicating aerobic metabolism. The 8 dogs in the perfusion group were weaned off bypass, and 4 hours after bypass produced cardiac output of 4.73 ± 0.51 liters/min, left ventricular power of 7.63 ± 1.32 J/s, right ventricular power of 1.40 ± 0.43 J/s, and left ventricular fractional area shortening of 39.1% ± 5.2%, all comparable to pre-transplant values. In the cold storage group, 3 of 4 animals could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass, and the fourth exhibited low-level function. Cold crystalloid perfusion, but not cold static storage, can resuscitate and preserve the DCD donor heart in a canine model of heart transplantation, thus rendering it transplantable. Controlled reperfusion and cold crystalloid perfusion have potential for clinical application in DCD transplantation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of zinc source and picolinic acid on 65Zn uptake in an in vitro continuous-flow perfusion system for pig and poultry intestinal segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.; Peo, E.R. Jr.; Lewis, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty weanling pigs and fourteen 9-wk-old broiler chickens were used in three continuous-flow in vitro perfusion experiments using noneverted intestinal sacs to 1) determine differences in 65 Zn absorption due to location within the intestinal tract, 2) evaluate 65 Zn uptake from ZnCl 2 and Zn-methionine (ZnMet) with or without added picolinic acid (PA) in pig intestinal sacs and 3) evaluate 65 Zn uptake from ZnCl 2 and ZnMet in chicken intestinal sacs. No differences in 65 Zn uptake due to gut segment position were observed in the pigs. A Zn source x PA interaction was observed for 65 Zn uptake into the pig gut tissue and for 65 Zn uptake to the serosal side of the gut sacs. Total 65 Zn absorption in the pig gut sacs from the two Zn sources was not different, but the addition of a 5 M ratio of PA to Zn depressed 65 Zn absorption. No differences were observed in total 65 Zn absorption or 65 Zn uptake in poultry gut sac tissue. There was, however, greater uptake of 65 Zn from ZnCl 2 to the serosal side of the sacs than from ZnMet. The data indicate that 65 Zn from ZnCl 2 and ZnMet is similar in total absorption and that the addition of PA depresses Zn uptake

  20. Scintigraphy of the heart using sup(99m)Tc diphosphonate in combination with selective coronary perfusion scintigraphy and coronaroangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Trenckmann, H.; Duck, H.J.; Katzschmann, R.; Neugebauerova, A.; Schneider, G.; Gottschild, D.

    1980-01-01

    In 45 patients with ischemic heart disease the results obtained by myocardial scintigraphy using technetium-99m diphosphonate (Tc-99m-DP) were compared with those obtained at selective coronary angiography and selective coronary perfusion scintigraphy. The cumulation of activity in the heart muscle was seen in twelve patients. This group is analyzed in the present paper in more detail. The ventriculographic examination of the left ventricle showed disturbed motility of the wall in six patients, of whom five had a positive myocardial scintigram. In view of this, myocardial scintigraphy using Tc-99m-DP may be considered a complementary, non-invasive method for proving significant disturbances of the motility of the heart wall. Positive myocardial scintigrams were also found in angna pectoris, in a patient after aorto-coronary bypass, in cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. In view of the fact that myocardial scintigraphy using Tc-99m-DP is capable of proving disturbances of cells of the heart muscle taking place at the moment, conclusions can be drawn as to the activity in the heart muscle. It further follows that myocardial scintigraphy may be significant in indicating the aorto-coronary bypass. We failed to prove an unequivocal correlation between myocardial scintigraphy, the number of sclerotically changed coronary vessels and the degree of their narrowing. An immediate relationship could not be proved between the extent of perfusion disturbance and the results of myocardial scintigraphy

  1. Comparison of different doses of epinephrine on myocardial perfusion and resuscitation success during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, K H; Ahnefeld, F W; Bowdler, I M

    1991-01-01

    Published results of dose-response effects of adrenergic drugs (epinephrine [E]) vary so much between studies because of differences in animal models and duration of ischemia before drug administration. In this investigation the effects of different doses of E on coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), left ventricular myocardial blood flow (MBF) and resuscitation success were compared during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) after a 4-minute period of ventricular fibrillation in 28 pigs. MBF was measured during normal sinus rhythm using tracer microspheres. After 4 minutes of ventricular fibrillation CPR was performed with the use of a pneumatic piston compressor. After 4 minutes of mechanical measures only, the animals were randomly allocated into four groups of seven, receiving 0.015, 0.030, 0.045, and 0.090 mg/kg E intravenously respectively. MBF measurements were started 45 seconds after E administration; hemodynamic measurements after 90 seconds. Four minutes after the first administration, the same E dose was given before defibrillation. The CPP of animals given 0.015, 0.030, 0.045 and 0.090 mg/kg E were as follows: 16.3 +/- 6.1, 25.6 +/- 5.8, 33.2 +/- 8.4 and 30.4 +/- 6.3 mm Hg. The left ventricular MBF values were: 14 +/- 9, 27 +/- 11, 43 +/- 6, 46 +/- 10 mL/min/100 g. The differences between the groups receiving 0.015 and 0.045 mg/kg and between the groups receiving 0.015 mg/kg and 0.090 mg/kg were statistically significant (P less than .05). Resuscitation success was 14.3%, 42.9%, 100% and 86.7% respectively. A significant difference in resuscitation success was found only between 0.015 mg/kg and 0.045 mg/kg E.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Absolute concentration determination of phosphorus metabolites in the Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart by phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gard, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of mobile high energy phosphorus metabolites and intracellular pH of Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart have been determined under control and reduced flow conditions. Absolute concentration determination was accomplished by Lorentzian lineshape analysis after development of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene as an external intensity standard. Hearts were demonstrated to be biochemically and physiologically competent during control perfusion periods and compromised during reduced flow conditions by independent hemodynamic and metabolic measurements coincident with the NMR experiment. Reduction in perfusate flow from 20 mL/min to 5.0 mL/min (25% flow) or 2.5 mL/min (12.5% flow) demonstrated a fall in phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate concentrations, a rise in cytosolic inorganic phosphate concentrations, and drops in pH. Subsequent recovery upon reflow was observed. The derived values for the free concentration of ADP were very close to the reported values of the Michaelis constant for respiratory stimulation, implicating a regulatory role for this molecule in cellular respiration. Strong evidence that the creating kinase reaction was in equilibrium in the 25% flow study was seen. The NMR observable correlated closely with myocardial performance and biochemical indices of metabolic function, and supported the use of phosphocreatine as an indicator of current metabolic integrity

  3. Dopamine receptors in the guinea-pig heart. A binding study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrini, M.; Benelli, A.; Baraldi, M.

    1984-01-01

    The binding of dopaminergic agonists and antagonists to guinea-pig myocardial membrane preparations was studied using 3 H-dopamine and 3 H-spiperone as radioligand. 3 H-Dopamine bound specifically to heart membranes while 3 H-spiperone did not. A Scatchard analysis of 3 H-dopamine binding showed a curvilinear plot indicating the presence of two dopamine receptor populations that we have termed high- (K/sub d/ = 1.2 nM, B/sub mx/ = 52.9 fmol/mg prot.) and low- (K/sub d/ = 11.8 nM, B/sub mx/ = 267.3 fmol/gm prot.) affinity binding sites, respectively. The charactization of the high-affinity component of 3 H-dopamine binding indicated that the binding is rapid, saturable, stereospecific, pH- and temperature-dependent, and displaced by dopaminergic agonists and antagonists known to act similarly in vivo. The finding that pretreatment with dibenamine (which has been described as an α-adrenoceptor irreversible blocker) did not affect the binding of dopamine to cardiac membrane preparations suggests that α-adrenoceptors and dopamine receptors have separate recognition sites in the heart. It is concluded that 3 H-dopamine binds to specific dopamine receptors in the heart of guinea-pigs

  4. Pulmonary vascular volume ratio measured by cardiac computed tomography in children and young adults with congenital heart disease: comparison with lung perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Park, Sang Hyub

    2017-11-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for evaluating differential lung perfusion ratio in congenital heart disease. To compare cardiac CT with lung perfusion scintigraphy for estimated pulmonary vascular volume ratio in patients with congenital heart disease. We included 52 children and young adults (median age 4 years, range 2 months to 28 years; 31 males) with congenital heart disease who underwent cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention and within 1 year. We calculated the right and left pulmonary vascular volumes using threshold-based CT volumetry. Then we compared right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT with right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy by using paired t-test and Bland-Altman analysis. The right pulmonary vascular volume percentages at cardiac CT (66.3 ± 14.0%) were significantly smaller than the right lung perfusion percentages at lung perfusion scintigraphy (69.1 ± 15.0%; P=0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of -2.8 ± 5.8% and 95% limits of agreement (-14.1%, 8.5%) between these two variables. Cardiac CT, in a single examination, can offer pulmonary vascular volume ratio in addition to pulmonary artery anatomy essential for evaluating peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients with congenital heart disease. However there is a wide range of agreement between cardiac CT and lung perfusion scintigraphy.

  5. Interleukin-1β regulates cell proliferation and activity of extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes in cultured primary pig heart cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitta, Karina; Brandt, Berenice; Wuensch, Annegret; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens; Albrecht, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Levels of IL-1β are increased in the pig myocardium after infarction. → Cultured pig heart cells possess IL-1 receptors. → IL-1β increases cell proliferation of pig heart cells in-vitro. → IL-1β increases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in pig heart cells in-vitro. → IL-1β may be important for tissue remodelling events after myocardial infarction. -- Abstract: After myocardial infarction, elevated levels of interleukins (ILs) are found within the myocardial tissue and IL-1β is considered to play a major role in tissue remodelling events throughout the body. In the study presented, we have established a cell culture model of primary pig heart cells to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of IL-1β on cell proliferation as well as expression and activity of enzymes typically involved in tissue remodelling. Primary pig heart cell cultures were derived from three different animals and stimulated with recombinant pig IL-1β. RNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was quantified by gelatine zymography and cell proliferation was measured using colorimetric MTS assays. Pig heart cells express receptors for IL-1 and application of IL-1β resulted in a dose-dependent increase of cell proliferation (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 24 h). Gene expression of caspase-3 was increased by IL-1β (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h), and pro-caspase-3 but not active caspase was detected in lysates of pig heart cells by Western blotting. MMP-2 gene expression as well as enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased by IL-1β (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h for gene expression, 48 and 72 h for enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively). Our in vitro data suggest that IL-1β plays a major role in the events of tissue remodelling in the heart. Combined with our recently published in vivo data (Meybohm et al., PLoS One

  6. Interleukin-1{beta} regulates cell proliferation and activity of extracellular matrix remodelling enzymes in cultured primary pig heart cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitta, Karina; Brandt, Berenice [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Wuensch, Annegret [Institute of Molecular Animal Breeding and Biotechnology, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Steinfath, Markus; Scholz, Jens [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany); Albrecht, Martin, E-mail: Albrecht@anaesthesie.uni-kiel.de [Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel (Germany)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Levels of IL-1{beta} are increased in the pig myocardium after infarction. {yields} Cultured pig heart cells possess IL-1 receptors. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases cell proliferation of pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} increases MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in pig heart cells in-vitro. {yields} IL-1{beta} may be important for tissue remodelling events after myocardial infarction. -- Abstract: After myocardial infarction, elevated levels of interleukins (ILs) are found within the myocardial tissue and IL-1{beta} is considered to play a major role in tissue remodelling events throughout the body. In the study presented, we have established a cell culture model of primary pig heart cells to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of IL-1{beta} on cell proliferation as well as expression and activity of enzymes typically involved in tissue remodelling. Primary pig heart cell cultures were derived from three different animals and stimulated with recombinant pig IL-1{beta}. RNA expression was detected by RT-PCR, protein levels were evaluated by Western blotting, activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) was quantified by gelatine zymography and cell proliferation was measured using colorimetric MTS assays. Pig heart cells express receptors for IL-1 and application of IL-1{beta} resulted in a dose-dependent increase of cell proliferation (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 24 h). Gene expression of caspase-3 was increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h), and pro-caspase-3 but not active caspase was detected in lysates of pig heart cells by Western blotting. MMP-2 gene expression as well as enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were increased by IL-1{beta} (P < 0.05 vs. control; 100 ng/ml; 3 h for gene expression, 48 and 72 h for enzymatic activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9, respectively). Our in vitro data suggest that IL-1{beta} plays a major role in the events of tissue remodelling in the heart. Combined

  7. Incision of the heart during meat inspection of fattening pigs - A risk-profile approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, J; Fries, R

    2009-01-01

    Meat inspection in the EU is based on Regulation (EC) 854/2004. Accordingly a risk based meat inspection should be implemented. In this paper, the incision of the heart in pig meat inspection is discussed with respect to efficacy. The incision especially can reveal the presence of endocarditis. Here, Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) and/or Streptococcussuis (S. suis) are of particular concern. Both agents are regarded to be zoonotic agents. There is some evidence for infection of humans via an alimentary pathway. Hence, the occurrence of E. rhusiopathiae and S. suis is a concern of public health (PH) as well as veterinary public health (VPH). However, other measures, including on-farm disease prevention and diagnosis, seem to be more important for food safety. It is concluded that the incision and inspection of the heart is not justifiable with respect to PH aspects.

  8. Electrophysiological effects of the aqueous extract of Averrhoa carambola L. leaves on the guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, C M L; Araújo, M S; Conde-Garcia, E A

    2006-07-01

    This work aims to describe some electrophysiological changes promoted by the aqueous extract (AEx) from Averrhoa carambola leaves in guinea pig heart. The experiments were carried out on isolated heart or on right atrium-ventricle preparations. In 6 hearts, the extract induced many kinds of atrioventricular blocks (1st, 2nd, and 3rd degrees); increased the QT interval from 229+/-23 to 264+/-19 ms; increased the QRS complex duration from 27+/-3.1 to 59+/-11 ms, and depressed the cardiac rate from 136+/-17 to 89+/-14b pm. Furthermore, it decreased the conduction velocity of atrial impulse (17+/-3%); reduced the intraventricular pressure (86+/-6%), and increased the conduction time between the right atrium and the His bundle (27+/-6.5%). The conduction time from the His bundle to the right ventricle was not altered. Atropine sulfate did not change either the electrocardiographic parameters or the intraventricular pressure effects promoted by the A. carambola AEx. Based on these results, the popular use of such extracts should be avoided because it can promote electrical and mechanical changes in the normal heart.

  9. Ex-vivo perfusion of donor hearts for human heart transplantation (PROCEED II): a prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardehali, Abbas; Esmailian, Fardad; Deng, Mario; Soltesz, Edward; Hsich, Eileen; Naka, Yoshifumi; Mancini, Donna; Camacho, Margarita; Zucker, Mark; Leprince, Pascal; Padera, Robert; Kobashigawa, Jon

    2015-06-27

    The Organ Care System is the only clinical platform for ex-vivo perfusion of human donor hearts. The system preserves the donor heart in a warm beating state during transport from the donor hospital to the recipient hospital. We aimed to assess the clinical outcomes of the Organ Care System compared with standard cold storage of human donor hearts for transplantation. We did this prospective, open-label, multicentre, randomised non-inferiority trial at ten heart-transplant centres in the USA and Europe. Eligible heart-transplant candidates (aged >18 years) were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive donor hearts preserved with either the Organ Care System or standard cold storage. Participants, investigators, and medical staff were not masked to group assignment. The primary endpoint was 30 day patient and graft survival, with a 10% non-inferiority margin. We did analyses in the intention-to-treat, as-treated, and per-protocol populations. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00855712. Between June 29, 2010, and Sept 16, 2013, we randomly assigned 130 patients to the Organ Care System group (n=67) or the standard cold storage group (n=63). 30 day patient and graft survival rates were 94% (n=63) in the Organ Care System group and 97% (n=61) in the standard cold storage group (difference 2·8%, one-sided 95% upper confidence bound 8·8; p=0·45). Eight (13%) patients in the Organ Care System group and nine (14%) patients in the standard cold storage group had cardiac-related serious adverse events. Heart transplantation using donor hearts adequately preserved with the Organ Care System or with standard cold storage yield similar short-term clinical outcomes. The metabolic assessment capability of the Organ Care System needs further study. TransMedics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of glycolysis in maintenance of the action potential duration and contractile activity in isolated perfused rat heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opie, L H; Tuschmidt, R; Bricknell, O; Girardier, L

    1980-01-01

    1. Changing substrates from glucose to pyruvate in paced isolated rat hearts, perfused by the Langendorff technique at 65 cm H2O with a Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer, produced effects which are opposite to those of ouabain treatment: negative inotropy, decreased work efficiency, hyperpolarization, increased maximum rate of rise and amplitude of the action potential, increased conduction velocity. 2. All the effects resulting from perfusion with pyruvate can be reversed by adding ouabain at a concentration of 100 microM. 3. The correlation between various tissue metabolises and change in contractile force (delta F), rate of tension development [maximum + (dF/dt)] and rate of relaxation [maximum -(dF/dt)] was studied by multiple linear regression. No significant correlation was found with either glycogen content and tissue lactate or with cAMP and cGMP. A weak negative correlation was found with ATP and phosphocreatine. The strongest correlation was found 76 to 807 nM/g in passing from glucose- to pyruvate-containing perfusion solution. 4. In vitro tests performed with a solution containing high energy phosphates and magnesium at concentrations equal to their calculated values in the cytosol (pH 7.0) showed that a significant negative correlation exists between citrate concentration (range: 1 and 1500 M) and free calcium concentration in the micromole range. 5. It is concluded that the effects of pyruvate (non glucose substrate) perfusion could be mediated by a decrease in cytosolic-free calcium resulting from an increase in intracellular citrate. The observation that all these effects can be reversed by ouabain is taken as a circumstantial evidence of a common mechanism.

  11. Thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging during adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation in patients with ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeishi, Yasuchika; Chiba, Junya; Abe, Shinya

    1992-01-01

    Thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) myocardial perfusion imaging during adenosine infusion was performed in consecutive 55 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. Adenosine was infused intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min for 6 minutes and a dose of 111 MBq of 201 Tl was administered in a separate vein at the end of third minutes of infusion. Myocardial SPECT imaging was begun 5 minutes and 3 hours after the end of adenosine infusion. For evaluating the presence of perfusion defects, 2 short axis images at the basal and spical levels and a vertical long axis image at the mid left ventricle were used. The regions with decreased 201 Tl uptake were assessed semi-quantitatively. Adenosine infusion caused a slight reduction in systolic blood pressure and an increase in heart rate. The rate pressure products increased slightly (9314±2377 vs. 10360±2148, p 201 Tl myocardial imaging during adenosine infusion was considered to be safe and useful for evaluating the patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  12. Estimation of pulmonary hypertension of congenital heart diseases in children by lung perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jinghao; Zhang Shantong; Zeng Jiye; Jia Hongli; Ji Zhiying; Chen Siyi

    1993-01-01

    The authors report that changes in the distribution of pulmonary perfusion caused by gravitation effect, namely, changes in the total count ratios of the right against the left lung between right and left lateral decubitus positions (rt/lt) could estimate pulmonary hypertension using lung perfusion scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin. The results showed: rt/lt was inversely related to mean pulmonary arterial pressure. It is concluded that the method is simple, safe, reproducible, unaffected by cardiac structural abnormality and valuable as a noninvasive approach for the estimation of pulmonary hypertension

  13. R56865 IS ANTIFIBRILLATORY IN REPERFUSED ISCHEMIC GUINEA-PIG HEARTS, EVEN WHEN GIVEN ONLY DURING REPERFUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHEUFLER, E; MOZES, A; GUTTMANN, [No Value; WILFFERT, B

    R56865 was previously characterized as an inhibitor of Na and Ca overload that has beneficial effects during ischemia and reperfusion. An isolated guinea-pig heart preparation was subjected to 60 minutes of ischemia and 60 minutes of reperfusion. R56865 was given before ischemia and with the onset

  14. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tragardh, Elin; Tan, Siok Swan; Bucerius, Jan; Gimelli, Alessia; Gaemperli, Oliver; Lindner, Oliver; Agostini, Denis; Uebleis, Christopher; Sciagra, Roberto; Slart, Riemer H.; Underwood, S. Richard; Hyafil, Fabien; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J.

    2017-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability. Several diagnostic tests, such as myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), are accurate for the detection of CAD, as well as having prognostic value for the prediction of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the diagnostic and

  15. Rest thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging in a patient with leukaemic infiltration of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Civelek, A.C.; Camargo, E.E.; Links, J.M.; Brinker, J.A.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Despite the high incidence of leukaemic infiltration of the heart, only 8 cases of atrioventricular block due to leukemia have been reported in the literature. Improvement in the heart block associated with disappearance of the leukaemic infiltrate has not been reported. A rest thallium-201 study was used in a 65-year-old man to demonstrate leukaemic infiltration of the heart which was associated with complete heart block. After chemotherapy, when the tumour burden was reduced and the leukaemia in remission, his heart block resolved, and a follow-up thallium scan was normal. (orig.)

  16. Critical hematocrit and oxygen partial pressure in the beating heart of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Mrowietz, C; Ploetze, K; Matschke, K; Jung, F

    2010-12-01

    In cardiac surgery the substitution of lost blood volume by plasma substitutes is a common therapeutical approach. None of the currently available blood substitutes has a sufficient oxygen transport capacity. This can limit the functional integrity of the myocardium known as highly oxygen consumptive. The study was aimed to get information about the minimal hematocrit, also known as critical hematocrit (cHct), which guarantees a stable and adequate oxygen partial pressure in the myocardium (pO2). In adult female pigs (n=7) the hematocrit was reduced by isovolemic blood dilution with an intravenous infusion of isotonic 4% gelatine polysuccinate solution, The substituted blood volume ranged between 3000ml and 7780ml (mean: 5254±1672ml). In all animals the pO2 of the myocardium of the beating heart and of the resting skeletal muscle increased until blood dilution resulted in a Hct decrease down to 15%. Further blood dilution resulted in a decrease of the pO2. Only after the Hct was <10% the pO2 was lower than before blood dilution and accompanied by a lethal ischemia of the myocardium. These data indicate a cHct of about 10% in the pig animal model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Some intrinsic neurons of the guinea-pig heart contain substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bałuk, P; Gabella, G

    1989-10-09

    Whole-mount preparations of the posterior wall of the atria of the guinea pig heart containing intrinsic ganglion cells and nerve plexuses were stained for substance P-like immunoreactivity by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Substance P-like nerve fibres are present as pericellular baskets around most, but not all, of the neuronal cell bodies, and are also found in the connecting nerve bundles, as perivascular nerve plexuses and in the myocardium and pericardium. The majority of ganglion cell bodies are negative for substance P, as reported previously, but we describe for the first time, a small subpopulation of intrinsic neuronal cell bodies which show immunoreactivity for substance P. Therefore, not all cardiac substance P nerves are extrinsic afferent fibres. At present, the physiological role of intrinsic substance P neurones is not clear.

  18. Cardiomyocyte architectural plasticity in fetal, neonatal, and adult pig hearts delineated with diffusion tensor MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Allen, John; Hu, Lingzhi; Caruthers, Shelton D; Wickline, Samuel A; Chen, Junjie

    2013-01-15

    Cardiomyocyte organization is a critical determinant of coordinated cardiac contractile function. Because of the acute opening of the pulmonary circulation, the relative workload of the left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) changes substantially immediately after birth. We hypothesized that three-dimensional cardiomyocyte architecture might be required to adapt rapidly to accommodate programmed perinatal changes of cardiac function. Isolated fixed hearts from pig fetuses or pigs at midgestation, preborn, postnatal day 1 (P1), postnatal day 5, postnatal day 14 (P14), and adulthood (n = 5 for each group) were acquired for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Cardiomyocyte architecture was visualized by three-dimensional fiber tracking and was quantitatively evaluated by the measured helix angle (α(h)). Upon the completion of MRI, hearts were sectioned and stained with hematoxylin/eosin (H&E) to evaluate cardiomyocyte alignment, with picrosirius red to evaluate collagen content, and with anti-Ki67 to evaluate postnatal cell proliferation. The helical architecture of cardiomyocyte was observed as early as the midgestational period. Postnatal changes of cardiomyocyte architecture were observed from P1 to P14, which primary occurred in the septum and RV free wall (RVFW). In the septum, the volume ratio of LV- vs. RV-associated cardiomyocytes rapidly changed from RV-LV balanced pattern at birth to LV dominant pattern by P14. In the RVFW, subendocardial α(h) decreased by ~30° from P1 to P14. These findings indicate that the helical architecture of cardiomyocyte is developed as early as the midgestation period. Substantial and rapid adaptive changes in cardiac microarchitecture suggested considerable developmental plasticity of cardiomyocyte form and function in the postnatal period in response to altered cardiac mechanical function.

  19. Comparison of adenosine stress and exercise stress 201Tl myocardial perfusion imaging for diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Guibing; Wu Hua; Jiang Ningyi; Liu Sheng; Lu Xianping; Liang Jiugen; Zhang Hong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic values of adenosine and exercise stress 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging for detecting coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: 41 patients with suspected CHD were randomly divided into two groups. In one group adenosine stress was submitted, the exercise stress myocardial SPECT was performed in another. Coronary angiography (CAG) was performed in each patient within 2 weeks before or after SPECT. The result of CAG was taken as 'gold standard of CHD. They compared the diagnostic value of two methods. Results: In adenosine group, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy are 92.86%, 57.14%, 81.25%, 80.00%, 80.95% respectively. In exercise stress group, are 100%, 60.0%, 71.43%, 100%, 80.00% respectively. Detection rates of coronary artery lesions were 66.67% and 72.22% in two groups respectively. Conclusion Adenosine stress testing and exercise stress testing 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging may provide similar value for detection of CHD. (authors)

  20. The effect of relaxing music on heart rate and heart rate variability during ECG GATED-myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Ozdemir, Semra; Temiz, Ahmet; Celik, Fatmanur

    2015-05-01

    The positive changes in human behavior caused by relaxing music demonstrate the psychological effect of music on human body. A meta-analytical study has shown that relaxing music affects blood pressure and heart rate in coronary heart patients and cancer patients. The aim of our study is to research whether there is a significant effect on heart rate and heart rate variability due to listening to relaxing music during ECG GATED MPS imaging under gamma camera. The music group (n = 50 patients) could choose from 15 different musical types including folk music (no lyric). The other 50 patients were placed in a "no music group" and did not get headphones or any music. There was a statistically significant reduction in the heart rate of patients in the music group compared to those in the control group. Relaxing music provides great benefits to both patient and clinician. There is close relationship between relaxing music and health procedure, can use every area of the health noninvasiv, safe, cheap and is a method don't have side effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Inducing Hepatitis C Virus Resistance After Pig Liver Transplantation-A Proof of Concept of Liver Graft Modification Using Warm Ex Vivo Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldaracena, N; Spetzler, V N; Echeverri, J; Kaths, J M; Cherepanov, V; Persson, R; Hodges, M R; Janssen, H L A; Selzner, N; Grant, D R; Feld, J J; Selzner, M

    2017-04-01

    Normothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (NEVLP) offers the potential to optimize graft function prior to liver transplantation (LT). Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is dependent on the presence of miRNA(microRNA)-122. Miravirsen, a locked-nucleic acid oligonucleotide, sequesters miR-122 and inhibits HCV replication. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of delivering miravirsen during NEVLP to inhibit miR-122 function in a pig LT model. Pig livers were treated with miravirsen during NEVLP or cold storage (CS). Miravirsen absorption, miR-122 sequestration, and miR-122 target gene derepression were determined before and after LT. The effect of miravirsen treatment on HCV infection of hepatoma cells was also assessed. NEVLP improved miravirsen uptake versus CS. Significant miR-122 sequestration and miR-122 target gene derepression were seen with NEVLP but not with CS. In vitro data confirmed miravirsen suppression of HCV replication after established infection and prevented HCV infection with pretreatment of cells, analogous to the pretreatment of grafts in the transplant setting. In conclusion, miravirsen delivery during NEVLP is a potential strategy to prevent HCV reinfection after LT. This is the first large-animal study to provide "proof of concept" for using NEVLP to modify and optimize liver grafts for transplantation. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Postoperative Cardiac Arrest after Heart Surgery: Does Extracorporeal Perfusion Support a Paradigm Change in Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Gologorsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Early institution of extracorporeal perfusion support (ECPS may improve survival after cardiac arrest. Two patients sustained unexpected cardiac arrest in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU following cardiac interventions. ECPS was initiated due to failure to restore hemodynamics after prolonged (over 60 minutes advanced cardiac life support (ACLS protocol-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Despite relatively late institution of ECPS, both patients survived with preserved neurological function. This communication focuses on the utility of ECPS in the ICU as a part of resuscitative efforts.

  3. Effects of Scirpusin B, a polyphenol in passion fruit seeds, on the coronary circulation of the isolated perfused rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Matsumoto, Nozomi Gotoh, Shoko Sano, Kenkichi Sugiyama, Tatsuhiko Ito, Yohei Abe, Yumi Katano, Akira Ishihata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Piceatannol, a polyphenol which is contained in passion fruits seed, is a derivative of resveratrol and is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and vasorelaxing activities. Passion fruits seed also contains a dimer of Piceatannol, Scirpusin B. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Scirpusin B on the coronary circulation of the isolated rat heart. Methods: Hearts were isolated from male Fischer 344 rats (5 – 6 months old, and perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit solution aerated with 95% O2 and 5% CO2 (37 °C at constant pressure (75 cmH2O by Langendorff’s method. Piceatannol or Scirpusin B (10, 30 and 100 μM was injected as a bolus into the aortic cannula and coronary flow (CF was continuously measured by the electromagnetic flow meter. In some experiments, rat hearts were pretreated with L-NAME (an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase or Diclofenac (an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase to reveal the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO and vasodilating prostanoids in the effect of Scirpusin B. Results: Scirpusin B increased CF up to 108.2 % of the initial value, while Piceatannol did not increase CF. In addition; Scirpusin B increased CF concentration-dependently. Pretreatment with L-NAME or Diclofenac significantly attenuated the Scirpusin B-induced coronary vasodilatation. Scirpusin B did not change the heart rate either left ventricular pressure. Conclusion: This study shows that Scirpusin B could increase CF via production of NO and vasodilating prostanoids.

  4. Damage of guinea pig heart and arteries by a trioleate-enriched diet and of cultured cardiomyocytes by oleic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Krieglstein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs like oleic acid have been shown to cause apoptosis of cultured endothelial cells by activating protein phosphatase type 2C alpha and beta (PP2C. The question arises whether damage of endothelial or other cells could be observed in intact animals fed with a trioleate-enriched diet.Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were fed with a trioleate-enriched diet for 5 months. Advanced atherosclerotic changes of the aorta and the coronary arteries could not be seen but the arteries appeared in a pre-atherosclerotic stage of vascular remodelling. However, the weight and size of the hearts were lower than in controls and the number of apoptotic myocytes increased in the hearts of trioleate-fed animals. To confirm the idea that oleic acid may have caused this apoptosis by activation of PP2C, cultured cardiomyocytes from guinea pigs and mice were treated with various lipids. It was demonstrable that oleic acid dose-dependently caused apoptosis of cardiomyocytes from both species, yet, similar to previous experiments with cultured neurons and endothelial cells, stearic acid, elaidic acid and oleic acid methylester did not. The apoptotic effect caused by oleic acid was diminished when PP2C alpha and beta were downregulated by siRNA showing that PP2C was causally involved in apoptosis caused by oleic acid.The glycerol trioleate diet given to guinea pigs for 5 months did not cause marked atherosclerosis but clearly damaged the hearts by activating PP2C alpha and beta. The diet used with 24% (wt/wt glycerol trioleate is not comparable to human diets. The detrimental role of MUFAs for guinea pig heart tissue in vivo is shown for the first time. Whether it is true for humans remains to be shown.

  5. Quantitative evaluation of myocardial perfusion and heart function using a non-invasive double isotope technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, W H; Doll, J; Georgi, P [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Tillmanns, H [Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Innere Medizin 3

    1976-11-01

    This paper describes a non-invasive double nuclide technique for the simultaneous measurement of minimal cardiac transit times (MTT) and regional 'myocardial appearance times' (MAT) using gamma camera and computer. MAT is defined as the time lag between the appearance of an indicator with myocardial affinity in the aortic root and its extraction in the myocardial cells. The extraction can be identified as an increase of the ratio between the count rates of the two nuclides e.g. /sup 201/Tl-chloride and sup(113m)In DTPA. The clinical evaluation of this method allows the following conclusions: 1) MAT, determined over several circumscript myocardial regions permits the qualitative diagnosis of a coronary artery disease with high confidence. 2) Indices of nutritive myocardial blood flow (INF), derived by MAT using several representative areas of myocardium, show a definite correlation to the degree of coronary artery disease. In addition to the localization of infarction and the determination of infarct size, the technique described promises a quantitative evaluation of the regional myocardial perfusion. Simultaneously measured MTT help to assess segmental cardiac performance.

  6. Significance of myoglobin as an oxygen store and oxygen transporter in the intermittently perfused human heart: a model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endeward, Volker; Gros, Gerolf; Jürgens, Klaus D

    2010-07-01

    The mechanisms by which the left ventricular wall escapes anoxia during the systolic phase of low blood perfusion are investigated, especially the role of myoglobin (Mb), which can (i) store oxygen and (ii) facilitate intracellular oxygen transport. The quantitative role of these two Mb functions is studied in the maximally working human heart. Because discrimination between Mb functions has not been achieved experimentally, we use a Krogh cylinder model here. At a heart rate of 200 beats/min and a 1:1 ratio of diastole/systole, the systole lasts for 150 ms. The basic model assumption is that, with mobile Mb, the oxygen stored in the end-diastolic left ventricle wall exactly meets the demand during the 150 ms of systolic cessation of blood flow. The coronary blood flow necessary to achieve this agrees with literature data. By considering Mb immobile or setting its concentration to zero, respectively, we find that, depending on Mb concentration, Mb-facilitated O(2) transport maintains O(2) supply to the left ventricle wall during 22-34 of the 150 ms, while Mb storage function accounts for a further 12-17 ms. When Mb is completely absent, anoxia begins to develop after 116-99 ms. While Mb plays no significant role during diastole, it supplies O(2) to the left ventricular wall for < or = 50 ms of the 150 ms systole, whereas capillary haemoglobin is responsible for approximately 80 ms. Slight increases in haemoglobin concentration, blood flow, or capillary density can compensate the absence of Mb, a finding which agrees well with the observations using Mb knockout mice.

  7. Comparison of adenosine and exercise stress 201Tl myocardial perfusion imaging for diagnosing coronary heart disease in women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangjin; Ma Shuren; Meng Tao; Bao Zhi; Cui Jianhe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the diagnostic value of adenosine and exercise stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for detecting coronary heart disease (CHD) in women. Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight patients with CHD were randomly divided into two groups: adenosine stress group (n=69)and exercise stress group (n=69). All patients underwent myocardial SPECT evaluation. Coronary angiography (CAG), referred as 'gold standard' , was performed in each patient within 1 week before or after MPI. The diagnostic value of the two stress MPI was compared with χ 2 test or Fisher's exact test. Results: In adenosine stress group, the sensitivity, negative predictive value and accuracy were 88.2% (45/51), 72.7% (16/22), 88.4% (61/69), respectively, which were not significantly different from those of the exercise stress group (91.7% (44/48), 66.7% (8/12), 81.2% (52/64); χ 2 =0.571, 0.714, 0.249, P>0.05). However, the false positive rate of adenosine stress (11.1%, 2/18) was significantly lower than that of exercise stress (50.0%, 8/16), P=0.023. Conclusions: Adenosine and exercise stress MPI have similar value for CHD diagnosis in women, however, adenosine stress MPI may have an advantage of low false positive rate. (authors)

  8. Mechanoelectric feedback does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in the rat and guinea pig heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Kelly

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanoelectric feedback (MEF is the process by which mechanical forces on the myocardium can alter its electrical properties. The effect can be large enough to induce ectopic beats or fibrillation. However, the role of MEF at physiological levels of mechanical stress is not clear. We have investigated alteration in action potential morphology in rat and guinea pig ventricle and in rat atrial tissue at levels of stretch near the plateau of the Frank-Starling curve. Stretch of >100 mm.Hg End Diastolic Left Ventricular Pressure (EDLVP or rapidly applied stretch (EDLVP increased by 25 mm.Hg within 100 ms often triggered ectopic beats in isolated rat and guinea-pig hearts. However, ventricular epicardial monophasic action potentials (MAPs recorded during stretch to EDLVP up to 30 mm. Hg showed no consistent changes in action potential duration (at APD20, APD50 or APD80 in either species. MAP recording detected APD prolongation with very small concentrations of 4-AP (10 μM, confirming the discrimination of the recording technique. In isolated rat atrial strips, no changes in intracellular action potential morphology or membrane potential were seen when stretched to levels producing an optimum increase in contractility. We conclude that alteration in action potential morphology with stretch does not contribute to the Frank-Starling relation in ventricle of rat or guinea-pig isolated heart, or in rat atrial tissue.

  9. Kidneys From α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Knockout/Human Heme Oxygenase-1/Human A20 Transgenic Pigs Are Protected From Rejection During Ex Vivo Perfusion With Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Hellen E; Petersen, Björn; Ramackers, Wolf; Petkov, Stoyan; Herrmann, Doris; Hauschild-Quintern, Janet; Lucas-Hahn, Andrea; Hassel, Petra; Ziegler, Maren; Baars, Wiebke; Bergmann, Sabine; Schwinzer, Reinhard; Winkler, Michael; Niemann, Heiner

    2015-07-01

    Multiple modifications of the porcine genome are required to prevent rejection after pig-to-primate xenotransplantation. Here, we produced pigs with a knockout of the α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1-KO) combined with transgenic expression of the human anti-apoptotic/anti-inflammatory molecules heme oxygenase-1 and A20, and investigated their xenoprotective properties. The GGTA1-KO/human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1)/human A20 (hA20) transgenic pigs were produced in a stepwise approach using zinc finger nuclease vectors targeting the GGTA1 gene and a Sleeping Beauty vector coding for hA20. Two piglets were analyzed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, flow cytometry, and sequencing. The biological function of the genetic modifications was tested in a (51)Chromium release assay and by ex vivo kidney perfusions with human blood. Disruption of the GGTA1 gene by deletion of few basepairs was demonstrated in GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs. The hHO-1 and hA20 mRNA expression was confirmed by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ex vivo perfusion of 2 transgenic kidneys was feasible for the maximum experimental time of 240 minutes without symptoms of rejection. Results indicate that GGTA1-KO/hHO-1/hA20 transgenic pigs are a promising model to alleviate rejection and ischemia-reperfusion damage in porcine xenografts and could serve as a background for further genetic modifications toward the production of a donor pig that is clinically relevant for xenotransplantation.

  10. Myocardial structural, contractile and electrophysiological changes in the guinea-pig heart failure model induced by chronic sympathetic activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Osadchiy, Oleg; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Widely used murine models of adrenergic-induced cardiomyopathy offer little insight into electrical derangements seen in human heart failure owing to profound differences in the characteristics of ventricular repolarization in mice and rats compared with humans. We therefore sought to determine...... whether sustained adrenergic activation may produce a clinically relevant heart failure phenotype in the guinea-pig, an animal species whose ventricular action potential shape and restitution properties resemble those determined in humans. Isoprenaline (ISO), a ß-adrenoceptor agonist, was infused...... at variable dosage and duration using either subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps or daily injections, in an attempt to establish the relevant treatment protocol. We found that 3 months of daily ISO injections (final dose of 1 mg kg(-1), i.p.) promote heart failure evidenced by cardiac hypertrophy...

  11. Pomegranate Extract Enhances Endothelium-Dependent Coronary Relaxation in Isolated Perfused Hearts from Spontaneously Hypertensive Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Nathalie T. B.; Rouver, Wender do N.; Freitas-Lima, Leandro C.; de Paula, Tiago D.-C.; Duarte, Andressa; Silva, Josiane F.; Lemos, Virgínia S.; Santos, Alexandre M. C.; Mauad, Helder; Santos, Roger L.; Moysés, Margareth R.

    2017-01-01

    Decline in estrogen levels promotes endothelial dysfunction and, consequently, the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women. The use of natural therapies such as pomegranate can change these results. Pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)] is widely used as a phytotherapeutic agent worldwide, including in Brazil. We hypothesized that treatment with pomegranate hydroalcoholic extract (PHE) would improve coronary vascular reactivity and cardiovascular parameters. At the beginning of treatment, spontaneously hypertensive female rats were divided into Sham and ovariectomized (OVX) groups, which received pomegranate extract (PHE) (250 mg/kg) or filtered water (V) for 30 days by gavage. Systolic blood pressure was measured by tail plethysmography. After euthanasia, the heart was removed and coronary vascular reactivity was assessed by Langendorff retrograde perfusion technique. A dose-response curve for bradykinin was performed, followed by L-NAME inhibition. The protein expression of p-eNOS Ser1177, p-eNOS Thr495, total eNOS, p-AKT Ser473, total AKT, SOD-2, and catalase was quantified by Western blotting. The detection of coronary superoxide was performed using the protocol of dihydroethidium (DHE) staining Plasma nitrite measurement was analyzed by Griess method. Systolic blood pressure increased in both Sham-V and OVX-V groups, whereas it was reduced after treatment in Sham-PHE and OVX-PHE groups. The baseline coronary perfusion pressure was reduced in the Sham-PHE group. The relaxation was significantly higher in the treated group, and L-NAME attenuated the relaxation in all groups. The treatment has not changed p-eNOS (Ser1177), total eNOS, p-AKT (Ser473) and total AKT in any groups. However, in Sham and OVX group the treatment reduced the p-eNOS (Thr495) and SOD-2. The ovariectomy promoted an increasing in the superoxide anion levels and the treatment was able to prevent this elevation and reducing oxidative stress. Moreover, the treatment

  12. Characterisation of the sarcolemmal calcium pump in guinea pig hearts and its influence through g-strophanthin. Charakterisierung der sarkolemmalen Calciumpumpe des Meerschweinchenherzens und ihre Beeinflussung durch g-Strophanthin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lell, R.

    1982-11-25

    In this work the sarcolemmal calcium transport of the guinea pig heart is studied with the help of the micropore filtration method on the sarcolemmal vesicles. The calcium ATPase could be better characterised by its ability to accumulate calcium in the sarcolemmal vesicles. The calcium pump is magnesium-dependent and positively activated by sodium and potassium. The pH-optimum of the activity lies around 6.8-7.0 depending on intracellular conditions. Up until a concentration of 30 micrograms protein per ml of reaction mixture the calcium accumulation increased proportionally. With higher concentrations it came to a relative decrease. The addition of digitoxin and g-strophanthin to the reaction mixture did not change the activity of the calcium pump. With a perfusion of the heart with a toxic concentration of 10/sup 06/ M g-strophanthin a glycoside intoxication on the beating heart was caused and a time-dependent inhibition of the calcium pump of sarcolemmal vesicles was detectable.

  13. Myocardial perfusion in patients with non-ischaemic systolic heart failure and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Christina; Hasbak, Philip; Kjaer, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    reserve (myocardial flow reserve (MFR) = stress flow/rest flow) as a measure of the myocardial vasomotor function; 28 patients with T2DM and 123 without T2DM were included. All patients received heart failure treatment according to guidelines. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess...... the association between T2DM and MFR. Age [68 (60-75) years vs. 68 (62-72) years; P = 0.84] and female sex (21% vs. 33%; P = 0.26) were similar between patients with and without T2DM. Patients with T2DM had higher body mass index, (29.9 vs. 26.5 kg/m2; P = 0.02), higher blood glucose (6.2 vs. 5.7 mmol/L; P = 0.......03), more often hypertension (50 vs. 27%; P = 0.02) and received more cholesterol lowering medication (61 vs. 35%; P = 0.02). Apart from this, the groups were similar. In a multivariable analysis, MFR was 16% lower in patients with T2DM compared with patients without [estimate - 16%; 95% confidence interval...

  14. Induction of chagasic-like arrhythmias in the isolated beating hearts of healthy rats perfused with Trypanosoma cruzi-conditioned medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rodriguez-Angulo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas' myocardiopathy, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is characterized by microvascular alterations, heart failure and arrhythmias. Ischemia and arrythmogenesis have been attributed to proteins shed by the parasite, although this has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of substances shed by T. cruzi on ischemia/reperfusion-induced arrhythmias. We performed a triple ischemia-reperfusion (I/R protocol whereby the isolated beating rat hearts were perfused with either Vero-control or Vero T. cruzi-infected conditioned medium during the different stages of ischemia and subsequently reperfused with Tyrode's solution. ECG and heart rate were recorded during the entire experiment. We observed that triple I/R-induced bradycardia was associated with the generation of auricular-ventricular blockade during ischemia and non-sustained nodal and ventricular tachycardia during reperfusion. Interestingly, perfusion with Vero-infected medium produced a delay in the reperfusion-induced recovery of heart rate, increased the frequency of tachycardic events and induced ventricular fibrillation. These results suggest that the presence of parasite-shed substances in conditioned media enhances the arrhythmogenic effects that occur during the I/R protocol.

  15. Effect of forced-air heaters on perfusion and temperature distribution during and after open-heart surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severens, Natascha M. W.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; van Leeuwen, Gerard M. J.; Frijns, Arjan J. H.; van Steenhoven, Anton A.; de Mol, Bas A. J. M.; van Wezel, Harry B.; Veldman, Dirk J.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: After cardiopulmonary bypass, patients often show redistribution hypothermia, also called afterdrop. Forced-air blankets help to reduce afterdrop. This study explores the effect of forced-air blankets on temperature distribution and peripheral perfusion. The blood perfusion data is used

  16. Effect of forced-air heaters on perfusion and and temperature distribution during and after open-heart surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severens, N.M.W.; Marken Lichtenbelt, van W.; Leeuwen, van G.M.J.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Steenhoven, van A.A.; Mol, de B.A.J.M.; Wezel, H.B.; Veldman, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: After cardiopulmonary bypass, patients often show redistribution hypothermia, also called afterdrop. Forced-air blankets help to reduce afterdrop. This study explores the effect of forced-air blankets on temperature distribution and peripheral perfusion. The blood perfusion data is used

  17. Obligatory Role of Intraluminal O2− in Acute Endothelin-1 and Angiotensin II Signaling to Mediate Endothelial Dysfunction and MAPK Activation in Guinea-Pig Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Wojtera

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that, due to a cross-talk between cytoplasmic O2−-sources and intraluminally expressed xanthine oxidase (XO, intraluminal O2− is instrumental in mediating intraluminal (endothelial dysfunction and cytosolic (p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs phosphorylation manifestations of vascular oxidative stress induced by endothelin-1 (ET-1 and angiotensin II (AT-II. Isolated guinea-pig hearts were subjected to 10-min agonist perfusion causing a burst of an intraluminal O2−. ET-1 antagonist, tezosentan, attenuated AT-II-mediated O2−, indicating its partial ET-1 mediation. ET-1 and Ang-T (AT-II + tezosentan triggered intraluminal O2−, endothelial dysfunction, MAPKs and p47phox phosphorylation, and NADPH oxidase (Nox and XO activation. These effects were: (i prevented by blocking PKC (chelerythrine, Nox (apocynin, mitochondrial ATP-dependent K+ channel (5-HD, complex II (TTFA, and XO (allopurinol; (ii mimicked by the activation of Nox (NADH; and mitochondria (diazoxide, 3-NPA and (iii the effects by NADH were prevented by 5-HD, TTFA and chelerythrine, and those by diazoxide and 3-NPA by apocynin and chelerythrine, suggesting that the agonists coactivate Nox and mitochondria, which further amplify their activity via PKC. The effects by ET-1, Ang-T, NADH, diazoxide, and 3-NPA were opposed by blocking intraluminal O2− (SOD and XO, and were mimicked by XO activation (hypoxanthine. Apocynin, TTFA, chelerythrine, and SOD opposed the effects by hypoxanthine. In conclusion, oxidative stress by agonists involves cellular inside-out and outside-in signaling in which Nox-mitochondria-PKC system and XO mutually maintain their activities via the intraluminal O2−.

  18. 99mTc-glucarate kinetics differentiate normal, stunned, hibernating, and nonviable myocardium in a perfused rat heart model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, David R.; Liu, Zhonglin; Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Robert D.; Beju, Delia; Khaw, Ban An

    2010-01-01

    99m Tc-glucarate is an infarct-avid imaging agent. However, patients may have mixtures of normal, irreversibly injured, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. The purposes were to determine 99m Tc-glucarate uptake and clearance kinetics in these four conditions, and its ability to determine the extent of injury. Twenty-two perfused rat hearts were studied: controls (n = 5), stunned (n = 5; 20-min no-flow followed by 5-min reflow), hibernating (n = 6; 120-min low flow at 4 ml/min), and ischemic-reperfused (n = 6; 120-min no-flow followed by reflow). 99m Tc-glucarate was then infused. Tracer activity was monitored using a NaI scintillation detector and a multichannel analyzer. Creatine kinase, electron microscopy, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride determined viability. 99m Tc-glucarate 10-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (2.50 ± 0.09) (cpm, SEM) than in control (1.74 ± 0.07), stunned (1.68 ± 0.11), and hibernating (1.59 ± 0.11) (p 99m Tc-glucarate 60-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (7.60 ± 0.63) than in control (1.98 ± 0.15), stunned (1.79 ± 0.08), and hibernating (2.33 ± 0.15) (p 99m Tc-glucarate activity continually and progressively increased in irreversibly injured myocardium. 99m Tc-glucarate uptake was strongly correlated with myocardial necrosis as determined by three independent assessments of viability. There were minimal and similar 99m Tc-glucarate uptakes in control, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. (orig.)

  19. Interchangeability of electrocardiography and blood pressure measurement for determining heart rate and heart rate variability in free-moving domestic pigs in various behavioral contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eKrause

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the interchangeability between heart rate (HR and heart rate variability (HRV measures derived from a series of interbeat intervals (IBIs recorded via electrocardiogram (ECG and intra-arterial blood pressure (BP in various behavioral contexts. Five minutes of simultaneously recorded IBIs from ECG and BP signals in 11 female domestic pigs during resting, feeding and active behavior were analyzed. Comparisons were made for measures of HR, SDNN (the standard deviation of IBIs and RMSSD (the root mean of the squared distances of subsequent IBIs derived from ECG and BP signals for each behavior category using statistical procedures with different explanatory power (linear regression, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, Bland and Altman plots and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Linear regression showed a strong relationship for HR during all behaviors and for HRV during resting. Excellent ICCs (lower 95% CI > 0.75 and narrow limits of agreement (LoA in all behavior categories were found for HR. ICCs for HRV reached the critical lower 95% CI value of 0.75 only during resting. Using Bland and Altman plots, HRV agreement was unacceptable for all of the behavior categories. ANOVA showed significant differences between the methods in terms of HRV. BP systematically overestimated HRV compared with ECG. Our findings reveal that HR data recorded via BP agree well those recorded using ECG independently of the activity of the subject, whereas ECG and BP cannot be used interchangeably in the context of HRV in free-moving domestic pigs.

  20. Global Transcriptomic Profiling of Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fatty Heart Induced by Long-Term High-Energy Diet in Bama Miniature Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Xia

    Full Text Available A long-term high-energy diet affects human health and leads to obesity and metabolic syndrome in addition to cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy. Ectopic fat accumulation in the heart has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for heart disorders, but the molecular mechanism of heart disease remains largely unknown. Bama miniature pigs were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD for 23 months. These pigs developed symptoms of metabolic syndrome and showed cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy with a greatly increased body weight (2.73-fold, P<0.01, insulin level (4.60-fold, P<0.01, heart weight (1.82-fold, P<0.05 and heart volume (1.60-fold, P<0.05 compared with the control pigs. To understand the molecular mechanisms of cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy, nine pig heart cRNA samples were hybridized to porcine GeneChips. Microarray analyses revealed that 1,022 genes were significantly differentially expressed (P<0.05, ≥1.5-fold change, including 591 up-regulated and 431 down-regulated genes in the HFHSD group relative to the control group. KEGG analysis indicated that the observed heart disorder involved the signal transduction-related MAPK, cytokine, and PPAR signaling pathways, energy metabolism-related fatty acid and oxidative phosphorylation signaling pathways, heart function signaling-related focal adhesion, axon guidance, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways, inflammation and apoptosis pathways, and others. Quantitative RT-PCR assays identified several important differentially expressed heart-related genes, including STAT3, ACSL4, ATF4, FADD, PPP3CA, CD74, SLA-8, VCL, ACTN2 and FGFR1, which may be targets of further research. This study shows that a long-term, high-energy diet induces obesity, cardiac steatosis, and hypertrophy and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and fatty heart to facilitate further research.

  1. Heart Rate Variability Analysis in an Experimental Model of Hemorrhagic Shock and Resuscitation in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Salomão

    Full Text Available The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV has been shown as a promising non-invasive technique for assessing the cardiac autonomic modulation in trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate HRV during hemorrhagic shock and fluid resuscitation, comparing to traditional hemodynamic and metabolic parameters.Twenty anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs were submitted to hemorrhagic shock (60% of estimated blood volume and evaluated for 60 minutes without fluid replacement. Surviving animals were treated with Ringer solution and evaluated for an additional period of 180 minutes. HRV metrics (time and frequency domain as well as hemodynamic and metabolic parameters were evaluated in survivors and non-survivors animals.Seven of the 20 animals died during hemorrhage and initial fluid resuscitation. All animals presented an increase in time-domain HRV measures during haemorrhage and fluid resuscitation restored baseline values. Although not significantly, normalized low-frequency and LF/HF ratio decreased during early stages of haemorrhage, recovering baseline values later during hemorrhagic shock, and increased after fluid resuscitation. Non-surviving animals presented significantly lower mean arterial pressure (43±7 vs 57±9 mmHg, P<0.05 and cardiac index (1.7±0.2 vs 2.6±0.5 L/min/m2, P<0.05, and higher levels of plasma lactate (7.2±2.4 vs 3.7±1.4 mmol/L, P<0.05, base excess (-6.8±3.3 vs -2.3±2.8 mmol/L, P<0.05 and potassium (5.3±0.6 vs 4.2±0.3 mmol/L, P<0.05 at 30 minutes after hemorrhagic shock compared with surviving animals.The HRV increased early during hemorrhage but none of the evaluated HRV metrics was able to discriminate survivors from non-survivors during hemorrhagic shock. Moreover, metabolic and hemodynamic variables were more reliable to reflect hemorrhagic shock severity than HRV metrics.

  2. Prognostic study of risk stratification among Japanese patients with ischemic heart disease using gated myocardial perfusion SPECT: J-ACCESS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Nakajima, Kenichi; Kusuoka, Hideo; Yamashina, Akira; Nishimura, Shigeyuki

    2008-01-01

    Although the prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging using gated single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) for predicting major cardiac events has been evaluated, little is known about the relevance of this procedure to the Japanese population. A total of 4,031 consecutive Japanese patients with suspected or confirmed ischemic heart diseases were registered at 117 hospitals in the Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT investigation. Gated stress/rest myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed and the patients were followed up for 3 years. Segmental perfusion scores and quantitative gated SPECT results were calculated. Major cardiac events were defined as cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and severe heart failure. During the 3-year follow-up, cardiac death (n = 57) and nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 39) occurred in 96 patients (2.4%/3 years) when hard events were the endpoints. When severe heart failure was included as an endpoint, major cardiac events that developed in 175 patients (4.3%/3 years) comprised cardiac death (n = 45), nonfatal myocardial infarction (n = 37), and severe heart failure (n = 93). Normal and severely abnormal summed stress score values were associated with low (2.31%/3 years) and high (9.21%/3 years) rates of major cardiac events, respectively. Rates of major cardiac events were significantly higher in patients with ejection fraction (EF) <45% than in those with EF 45% or higher (16.55 vs 2.94%/3 years; P < 0.001). The incidence of major cardiac events within 3 years was also significantly higher among patients with high end-systolic volumes. The major event rates were similar among nondiabetic patients with and diabetic patients without prior myocardial infarction at 5.06% and 5.73%/3 years, respectively. Cardiac event rates were significantly lower in the Japanese than in the USA and European populations. However, large myocardial perfusion defects and

  3. ECG-manifest and ECG-silent dipyridamole technetium-99m sestamibi SPET perfusion defects in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, M.; Marcassa, C.; Bosimini, E.; Zoccarato, O.; Comazzi, F.; Giannuzzi, P.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between ECG changes and perfusion abnormalities, body surface maps were recorded during dipyridamole infusion in 55 subjects (11 normals and 44 patients with ischaemic heart disease) undergoing dipyridamole technetium-99m sestamibi single-photon emission tomography (SPET). All had a normal resting ECG. The extent and severity of the sestamibi defect were quantified. New negative areas in the isointegral maps and rest-dipyridamole map differences >2 SD from normal limits were considered abnormal. After dipyridamole in normals, neither perfusion defects nor ≥1 mm ST segment depression on 12-lead ECG nor new negative areas in isointegral maps occurred. In patients, dipyridamole induced new perfusion defects in 35 (80%) but ST segment depression in only 18 (41%, P<0.001). Of the 35 patients with perfusion defects, 17 (49%, group 1) showed ST segment depression, while the other 18 (51%, group 2) did not. Abnormal body surface maps were found in 100% of group 1 and 88% of group 2 patients (NS). In group 1, the provoked hypoperfusion was of greater extent (P=0.007) and severity (P=0.01) and the onset of map abnormalities was significantly earlier (P<0.001) than in group 2; time to map abnormalities was also significantly shorter than time to ST segment depression (P=0.01). In the 35 patients with complete scintigraphic, body map and angiographic data, the severity of reversible perfusion defect proved to be the strongest correlate of ST segment depression upon logistic regression analysis. Thus, sestamibi SPET abnormalities after dipyridamole are almost always associated with electrical changes on body surface maps, suggesting myocardial ischaemia as their cause. The much less common 12-lead ECG changes are slower to appear and reflect a more severe hypoperfusion. (orig./MG). With 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Fusion of CT coronary angiography and whole-heart dynamic 3D cardiac MR perfusion: building a framework for comprehensive cardiac imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Spiczak, Jochen; Manka, Robert; Gotschy, Alexander; Oebel, Sabrina; Kozerke, Sebastian; Hamada, Sandra; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a framework for 3D fusion of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and whole-heart dynamic 3D cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion (3D-CMR-Perf) image data-correlating coronary artery stenoses to stress-induced myocardial perfusion deficits for the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-three patients who underwent CTCA and 3D-CMR-Perf for various indications were included retrospectively. For CTCA, image quality and coronary diameter stenoses > 50% were documented. For 3D-CMR-Perf, image quality and stress-induced perfusion deficits were noted. A software framework was developed to allow for 3D image fusion of both datasets. Computation steps included: (1) fully automated segmentation of coronary arteries and heart contours from CT; (2) manual segmentation of the left ventricle in 3D-CMR-Perf images; (3) semi-automatic co-registration of CT/CMR datasets; (4) projection of the 3D-CMR-Perf values on the CT left ventricle. 3D fusion analysis was compared to separate inspection of CTCA and 3D-CMR-Perf data. CT and CMR scans resulted in an image quality being rated as good to excellent (mean scores 3.5 ± 0.5 and 3.7 ± 0.4, respectively, scale 1-4). 3D-fusion was feasible in all 23 patients, and perfusion deficits could be correlated to culprit coronary lesions in all but one case (22/23 = 96%). Compared to separate analysis of CT and CMR data, coronary supply territories of 3D-CMR-Perf perfusion deficits were refined in two cases (2/23 = 9%), and the relevance of stenoses in CTCA was re-judged in four cases (4/23 = 17%). In conclusion, 3D fusion of CTCA/3D-CMR-Perf facilitates anatomic correlation of coronary lesions and stress-induced myocardial perfusion deficits thereby helping to refine diagnostic assessment of CAD.

  5. The Effect of Heart Rate on Exposure Window and Best Phase for Stress Perfusion Computed Tomography: Lessons From the CORE320 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steveson, Chloe; Schuijf, Joanne D; Vavere, Andrea L; Mather, Richard T; Caton, Teresa; Mehra, Vishal; Betoko, Aisha; Cox, Christopher; Lima, Joao Ac; George, Richard T

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of heart rate on exposure window, best phase, and image quality for stress computed tomography perfusion (CTP) in the CORE320 study. The CTP data sets were analyzed to determine the best phase for perfusion analysis. A predefined exposure window covering 75% to 95% of the R-R cycle was used. Of the 368 patients included in the analysis, 93% received oral β blockade before the rest scan. The median heart rate during the stress acquisition was 69 bpm (interquartile range [IQR], 60-77). The median best phase was 81% (IQR, 76-90), and length of exposure window was 22% (IQR, 19-24). The best phase was significantly later in the cardiac cycle with higher heart rates (P stress scan was 5.3 mSv (IQR, 3.8-6.1). Stress myocardial CTP imaging can be performed using prospective electrocardiography triggering, an exposure window of 75% to 95%, and β-blockade resulting in good or excellent image quality in the majority (80%) of patients while maintaining a low effective radiation dose.

  6. Quantification of the effect of water exchange in dynamic contrast MRI perfusion measurements in the brain and heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Rosenbaum, S; Fritz-Hansen, T

    2001-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial and brain perfusion when using exogenous contrast agents (CAs) such as gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) and MRI is affected by the diffusion of water between compartments. This water exchange may have an impact on signal enhancement, or, equivalently, on the longitudinal...... exchange can have a significant effect on perfusion estimation (F) in the brain when using Gd-DTPA, where it acts as an intravascular contrast agent....

  7. Quantitative perfusion parameters in a cohort of patients with no known ischemic heart disease and normal myocardial perfusion imaging studied by 82Rb-PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Camilla; Balche, Abdallah; Majgaard, J

    Purpose 82Rb perfusion PET allows for visual as well as quantitative interpretation of myocardial function. Whereas visual interpretation relies on intra-individual redistribution of the tracer between rest and stress studies, quantitative interpretation of absolute flow values requires robust.......86 mL/g/min. Global coronary flow reserve (CFR) was 2.81 (±SD 0.71). EF at rest was 65.3% (±SD 10) and during stress 69% (±SD 12.3), yielding an EF reserve of 4.5%. TPD at rest and stress was 6% (±SD 4). Conclusion Based on a representative population of patients in which coronary artery disease...

  8. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate kinetics differentiate normal, stunned, hibernating, and nonviable myocardium in a perfused rat heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, David R. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Liu, Zhonglin [University of Arizona School of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Robert D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK (United States); University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States); Beju, Delia [Oklahoma State University School of Medicine, Tulsa, OK (United States); Khaw, Ban An [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-10-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate is an infarct-avid imaging agent. However, patients may have mixtures of normal, irreversibly injured, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. The purposes were to determine {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake and clearance kinetics in these four conditions, and its ability to determine the extent of injury. Twenty-two perfused rat hearts were studied: controls (n = 5), stunned (n = 5; 20-min no-flow followed by 5-min reflow), hibernating (n = 6; 120-min low flow at 4 ml/min), and ischemic-reperfused (n = 6; 120-min no-flow followed by reflow). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate was then infused. Tracer activity was monitored using a NaI scintillation detector and a multichannel analyzer. Creatine kinase, electron microscopy, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride determined viability. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 10-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (2.50 {+-} 0.09) (cpm, SEM) than in control (1.74 {+-} 0.07), stunned (1.68 {+-} 0.11), and hibernating (1.59 {+-} 0.11) (p < 0.05). Tracer retention curves for ischemic-reperfused were elevated at all time points as compared with the other groups. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 60-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (7.60 {+-} 0.63) than in control (1.98 {+-} 0.15), stunned (1.79 {+-} 0.08), and hibernating (2.33 {+-} 0.15) (p < 0.05). The 60-min well-counted tracer activity ratio of ischemic-reperfused to control was 9:1 and corroborated the NaI detector results. Creatine kinase, triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and electron microscopy all demonstrated significantly greater injury in ischemic-reperfused compared to the other groups. An excellent correlation was observed between viability markers and tracer activity (r = 0.99 triphenyltetrazolium chloride; r = 0.90 creatine kinase). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate activity continually and progressively increased in irreversibly injured myocardium. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake was strongly correlated with myocardial necrosis as

  9. Prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in minced meat, pig tongues and hearts at the retail level in the Czech Republic detected by real time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Lorencova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Yersiniosis is the third most frequently reported zoonosis in the European Union and Yersinia enterocolitica is the most common species causing human infections. Pigs are assumed to be the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica with the presence of bacteria mainly in the tonsils and intestinal content. Undercooked pork and pork products have been suggested as the primary source of human yersiniosis. Nevertheless, data on the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in foodstuffs including pork products are very limited. A molecular based method (real time PCR targeting the ompF gene (detection of Yersinia genus and the ail gene (a chromosomally located virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica was used to determine the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in minced meat and edible pork offal at the retail level in the Czech Republic. A total of 50 pig tongues, 50 pig hearts, and 93 samples of minced meat containing pork were purchased at nine retail outlets in Brno. High detection rates of Yersinia spp. were found in all types of samples (pig tongues, 80.0%; pig hearts, 40.0%; and minced meat, 55.9%. The highest prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was found in pig tongues (40.0%, followed by pig hearts (18.0% and minced meat samples (17.2%. Although from the point of view of food safety the merely molecular detection of DNA of the pathogenic bacteria could represent a false positive result, our results indicate the presence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in raw pork products at the retail level in the Czech Republic, which may pose a risk of consumer infection. Sufficient heat treatment and prevention of cross-contamination during preparation of food in the kitchen should be recommended.

  10. The effect of adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes on intramuscular fat and backfat content in Meishan crossbred pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens, F.; Koning, de D.J.; Harders, F.L.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Veerkamp, R.L.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Pas, te M.F.W.

    2000-01-01

    Effects of genetic variation in porcine adipocyte and heart fatty acid-binding protein genes, A-FABP and H-FABP, respectively, on intramuscular fat (IMF) content and backfat thickness (BFT) were examined in F2 crossbreds of Meishan and Western pigs. The involvement of each FABP gene in IMF accretion

  11. The effect of shot biopsy on behavior, salivary cortisol, and heart rate in slaughter pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geverink, NA; Ruis, MAW; Eisen, R; Lambooij, E; Blokhuis, HJ; Wiegant, VM

    This paper describes behavioral and. physiological responses of pigs to shot biopsy, an experimental method used to study muscle tissue processes or to:predict meat quality. One biopsy sample from the longissimus muscle was obtained from 23-wk-old gilts (n = 10) using a cannula connected to a

  12. SELECTIVITY PROFILE OF SOME RECENT MUSCARINIC ANTAGONISTS IN BOVINE AND GUINEA-PIG TRACHEA AND HEART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; HAMSTRA, JJ; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The functional affinities of some recently developed subtype-selective muscarinic antagonists towards bovine tracheal smooth muscle muscarinic M(3) receptors were established and compared to binding affinities for bovine cardiac M(2) and functional affinities for guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle

  13. Pharmacological characterization of Tc-99m(CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/: A potential heart agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, D.B.; Delano, M.L.; Sands, H.; Gallagher, B.M.; Liteplo, M.P.; Camin, L.L.; Subramanyam, V.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have investigated the pharmacological behavior of hexakis (t-butylisonitrile)Tc(I) and evaluated it as a potential myocardial perfusion radiopharmaceutical. This complex produces good to excellent heart images in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, cats, dogs, pigs and baboons. Good heart uptake in guinea pigs, cats and pigs may be predictive of good myocardial imaging in man, since the hearts of these three species extract Tl-201, but not Tc-99m(dmpe)/sub 2/-Cl/sub 2//sup +/ (similar to man, but unlike other animal species). Biodistribution studies reveal initial heart uptake of 1.3 to 2.2% of the injected activity. Imaging and biodistribution show significant initial lung activity which clears substantially during the first hour after injection. Little or no myocardial washout is observed. In rabbits with ischemia induced by coronary artery ligation, the complex distributes as a function of blood flow. Simultaneous injection of Tl-201 and Tc-99m (CN-t-butyl)/sub 6//sup +/ with subsequent dual isotope imaging shows that their initial distribution is a similar. The complex is extracted 100% by isolated rabbit and guinea pig hearts perfused with buffer. When human blood is mixed and co-injected with the complex, myocardial extraction is reduced, but remains high (73-75%). Uptake of the complex by rat myocytes in culture is not inhibited by either ouabain or K/sup +/. These results suggest that this complex may be a promising myocardial perfusion agent and should be tested in man

  14. Comparison of Gated SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging with Echocardiography for the Measurement of Left Ventricular Volumes and Ejection Fraction in Patients With Severe Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeifard, Maryam; Ghaedian, Tahereh; Yaghoobi, Nahid; Malek, Hadi; Firoozabadi, Hasan; Bitarafan-Rajabi, Ahmad; Haghjoo, Majid; Amin, Ahmad; Azizian, Nasrin; Rastgou, Feridoon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is known as a feasible tool for the measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and volumes, which are of great importance in the management and follow-up of patients with coronary artery diseases. However, considering the technical shortcomings of SPECT in the presence of perfusion defect, the accuracy of this method in heart failure patients is still controversial. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare the results from gated SPECT MPI with those from echocardiography in heart failure patients to compare echocardiographically-derived left ventricular dimension and function data to those from gated SPECT MPI in heart failure patients. Patients and Methods: Forty-one patients with severely reduced left ventricular systolic function (EF ≤ 35%) who were referred for gated SPECT MPI were prospectively enrolled. Quantification of EF, end-diastolic volume (EDV), and end-systolic volume (ESV) was performed by using quantitative gated spect (QGS) (QGS, version 0.4, May 2009) and emory cardiac toolbox (ECTb) (ECTb, revision 1.0, copyright 2007) software packages. EF, EDV, and ESV were also measured with two-dimensional echocardiography within 3 days after MPI. Results: A good correlation was found between echocardiographically-derived EF, EDV, and ESV and the values derived using QGS (r = 0.67, r = 0.78, and r = 0.80 for EF, EDV, and ESV, respectively; P echocardiography. ECTb-derived EDV was also significantly higher than the EDV measured with echocardiography and QGS. The highest correlation between echocardiography and gated SPECT MPI was found for mean values of ESV different. Conclusions: Gated SPECT MPI has a good correlation with echocardiography for the measurement of left ventricular EF, EDV, and ESV in patients with severe heart failure. However, the absolute values of these functional parameters from echocardiography and gated

  15. Omentum-derived stromal cells improve myocardial regeneration in pig post-infarcted heart through a potent paracrine mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Siena, Rocco; Balducci, Luigi; Blasi, Antonella; Montanaro, Manuela Gessica; Saldarelli, Marilisa [Medestea Research and Production Laboratories, Consorzio Carso, 70010 Valenzano, Bari (Italy); Saponaro, Vittorio [Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari (Italy); Martino, Carmela [Medestea Research and Production Laboratories, Consorzio Carso, 70010 Valenzano, Bari (Italy); Logrieco, Gaetano [Department of Surgery, Hospital ' F. Miulli' 70021 AcquaViva delle Fonti, Bari (Italy); Soleti, Antonio; Fiobellot, Simona [Medestea Research and Production Laboratories, Consorzio Carso, 70010 Valenzano, Bari (Italy); Madeddu, Paolo [Experimental Cardiovascular Medicine, Bristol Heart Institute, Bristol BS2 8WH (United Kingdom); Rossi, Giacomo [Department of Pathology, University of Camerino, 63100 Ascoli Piceno (Italy); Ribatti, Domenico [Department of Human Anatomy, University of Bari, 70125 Bari (Italy); Crovace, Antonio [Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, 70010 Valenzano, Bari (Italy); Cristini, Silvia; Invernici, Gloria; Parati, Eugenio Agostino [Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Neurological Institute ' Carlo Besta' , 20133 Milan (Italy); Alessandri, Giulio, E-mail: cisiamo2@yahoo.com [Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, Department of Cerebrovascular Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Neurological Institute ' Carlo Besta' , 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    Cell-based therapy could be a valid option to treat myocardial infarct (MI). Adipose-derived stromal cells (ADStCs) have demonstrated tissue regenerative potential including cardiomyogenesis. Omentum is an extremely rich source of visceral fat and its accumulation seems to correlate with cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the capacity of human fat Omentum-derived StCs (FOStCs) to affect heart function upon acute infarct in pigs induced by permanent ligation of the anterior interventricular artery (IVA). We demonstrated for the first time that the local injection of 50 x 10{sup 6} of FOStCs ameliorates the functional parameters of post-infarct heart. Most importantly, histology of FOStCs treated hearts demonstrated a substantial improvement of cardiomyogenesis. In culture, FOStCs produced an impressive number and amount of angiogenic factors and cytokines. Moreover, the conditioned medium of FOStCs (FOStCs-CM) stimulates in vitro cardiac endothelial cells (ECs) proliferation and vascular morphogenesis and inhibits monocytes, EC activation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Since FOStCs in vivo did not trans-differentiate into cardiomyocyte-like cells, we conclude that FOStCs efficacy was presumably mediated by a potent paracrine mechanism involving molecules that concomitantly improved angiogenesis, reduced inflammation and prevented cardiomyocytes death. Our results highlight for the first time the important role that human FOStCs may have in cardiac regeneration.

  16. The Effect of Milrinone on Splanchnic and Cerebral Perfusion in Infants With Congenital Heart Disease Prior to Surgery: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Maria Otilia; Cheung, Po-Yin; Phillipos, Ernest; Aranha-Netto, Abimael; Joynt, Chloe

    2015-08-01

    Despite the advancement in the postoperative care of neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD), there is little information on preoperative management of systemic and regional hemodynamics, which may be related to outcomes. We aimed to determine the preoperative effect of milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, on cardiac output and splanchnic and cerebral perfusion in neonates with CHD. Neonates with CHD requiring cardiac surgery were enrolled in a prospective, single-blinded study once a clinical decision of starting milrinone (0.75 μg/kg per minute intravenously) using institutional criteria was made. Demographic and clinical variables and outcomes were recorded. Combined cardiac output and measures of splanchnic (superior mesenteric and celiac arteries) and cerebral (anterior and middle cerebral arteries) perfusion were determined by Doppler studies at 0, 6, 24, and 48 h after milrinone infusion. Investigators were unaware of intervention time points and patients in analyzing blood flow measurements. Seventeen term (39.2 ± 1.3 weeks) neonates were included with hypoplastic left-sided heart syndrome (78.5%) as the most common diagnosis. Combined cardiac output increased by 28% within 48 h (613 ± 154 vs. 479 ± 147 mL/kg per minute at baseline, P milrinone infusion (P milrinone infusion (P milrinone infusion. Milrinone increases cardiac output with concurrent effects on splanchnic and cerebral blood flows during the short-term preoperative use in neonates with CHD.

  17. 16-Channel surface coil for 13C-hyperpolarized spectroscopic imaging of cardiac metabolism in pig heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frijia, Francesca; Santarelli, Maria Filomena; Koellisch, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate and its metabolites in large animal models is a powerful tool for assessing cardiac metabolism in patho-physiological conditions. In 13C studies, a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is crucial to overcome the intrinsic data quality...... both targets. In this study, a 16-channel receive surface coil was designed for 13C hyperpolarized studies of the pig heart with a clinical 3-T scanner. The coil performance was characterized by phantom experiments and compared with that of a birdcage coil used in transmit/receive mode. Segmental...... of the 16-channel coil is recommended for studies of septal and anterior LV walls....

  18. Effect of transportation stress on heat shock protein 70 concentration and mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues and serum enzyme activities and hormone concentrations of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong; Bao, En-Dong; Zhao, Ru-Qian; Lv, Qiong-Xia

    2007-11-01

    To determine the enzymatic and hormonal responses, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) production, and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues of transport-stressed pigs. 24 pigs (mean weight, 20 +/- 1 kg). Pigs were randomly placed into groups of 12 each. One group was transported for 2 hours. The other group was kept under normal conditions and used as control pigs. Sera were used to detect triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and cortisol concentrations and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase activities. The heart and kidneys of anesthetized pigs were harvested and frozen in liquid nitrogen for quantification of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA. No significant differences were detected in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and triiodothyronine and cortisol concentrations between groups; however, the serum creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase activities and thyroxine concentrations were higher in transported pigs. Densitometric readings of western blots revealed that the amount of Hsp70 in heart and kidney tissues was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Results of fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR assay revealed that the Hsp70 mRNA transcription in heart tissue, but not kidney tissue, was significantly higher in transported pigs, compared with control pigs. Transportation imposed a severe stress on pigs that was manifested as increased serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase and increased amounts of Hsp70 and Hsp70 mRNA expression in heart and kidney tissues. Changes in serum enzyme activities were related to the tissue damage of transport-stressed pigs.

  19. Evaluation of heart perfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte; Hansen, Thomas Fritz; Dirks, Christina G

    2004-01-01

    with acute transmural myocardial infarction were studied using a Turbo-fast low angle shot (FLASH) MRI sequence to monitor the first pass of an extravascular contrast agent (CA), gadolinium diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Quantitation of perfusion, expressed as Ki (mL/100 g/minute), in five...

  20. Effects of a novel multimodal group intervention on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theissen, P.; Schicha, H.; Albus, C.; Koehle, K.; Griebenow, R.; Son, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Recently, it could be shown that a multimodal intervention can promote health behavior in patients with CHD. Purpose of the actual study was to evaluate the effects on somatic endpoints, e.g. myocardial perfusion. We randomly assigned 77 patients (age 54 ± 6.9 y, male 87 %) with angiographically documented CHD to a multimodal group intervention plus standardized cardiological care (INT n=39) or standardized cardiological care only (CO n = 38). The intervention, for out-patients only, consisted of 77.5 hours of group-psychotherapy, relaxation and exercise training, and teaching lessons for one year. A Thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MyoSc) (after bicycle exercise test and at rest; 70 - 110 MBq Thallium-201, SPECT-technique, quantitative wash-out (w.-o.) analysis derived from polar maps) was performed at baseline, after 2 years, and 3 years, respectively: A w.-o. increase res. decrease by 5 % or more indicated an improved / a diminished myocardial perfusion within the affected coronary artery territory. Results were analyzed on an intention to treat basis. 70/77 patients (91 %) completed the study (drop-outs CO n=4, INT n=3). After 2 years (1st interval), there was no significant difference between groups. After 3 years (2nd interval) 36/39 patients (92.3 %) of INT showed a stable or improved myocardial perfusion, compared to 18/38 patients (47.4 %) of CO (p= 0.008). The recent data analysis demonstrates the extra benefit of a multimodal intervention, compared to standardized cardiological care alone, on myocardial perfusion in CHD patients. (author)

  1. The value of gated myocardial perfusion imaging for the evaluation of early treatment effectiveness of ischemic heart disease using Ad-HGF myocardial injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianlin; Cheng Xu; Li Jianhua; Xu Zhaoqiang; Li Dianfu; Yuan Biao; Zhang Yourong; Cao Kejiang; Huang Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has multipotent actions mediated by c- Mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (Met) receptor. Preclinical studies in animal models of myocardial ischemia demonstrated that treatment with HGF could benefit myocardial perfusion, cardiac remodeling, angiogenesis and myocardial function. This study used gated 99 Tc m -methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI) to assess the early treatment effectiveness of adenovirus HGF (Ad-HGF) directly administered in ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients. Methods: Eighteen patients with IHD were divided into 3 groups receiving low dose [5 x 10 8 plaque forming unit (PFU)/site], medium (1.5 x 10 9 PFU/site) and high dose (5 x l0 9 PFU/site) of Ad-HGF. And the Ad-HGF was injected at 10 sites in each patient. Rest G-MPI was performed before and after treatment for myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function measurement. Stata 7.0 was used to analyse the data. Results: (1) After Ad-HGF, myocardial perfusion was improved in 3/6, 5/6 and 6/6 patients in low, medium and high dosage groups. The dosage of AD-HGF was closely correlated with the improvement of myocardial perfusion (χ 2 =4.34, P<0.05). (2) Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was significantly increased [(50.1 ± 6.4)% vs (58.7 ± 5.6)%, t=6.1, P<0.01], end-diastolic volume [EDV, (137.7 ± 33.2) ml vs (123.7 ± 32.7) ml] and end-systolic volume [ESV, (70.2 ± 22.4) ml vs (51.9 ± 14.9) ml] were significantly reduced. (3) The LVEFs were increased in all groups, and the LVEF improvement in the high dosage group [(8.6 ± 5.9)%] was significantly greater than the other two groups [(4.3 ± l.2)%, (6.8 ± 5.7)%]. The difference of post-treatment improvement on LVEF between the low and medium dosage groups was not significant. The dosage of Ad-HGF was closely correlated with the improvement of LVEF (r=0.67, P< 0.01). Conclusion: G-MPI is a reliable method for evaluating the early effectiveness of

  2. Remodeling of intrinsic cardiac neurons: effects of β-adrenergic receptor blockade in guinea pig models of chronic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Jean C; Southerland, E Marie; Girasole, Allison E; Ryan, Shannon E; Negrotto, Sara; Ardell, Jeffrey L

    2012-11-01

    Chronic heart disease induces remodeling of cardiac tissue and associated neuronal components. Treatment of chronic heart disease often involves pharmacological blockade of adrenergic receptors. This study examined the specific changes in neuronal sensitivity of guinea pig intrinsic cardiac neurons to autonomic modulators in animals with chronic cardiac disease, in the presence or absence of adrenergic blockage. Myocardial infarction (MI) was produced by ligature of the coronary artery and associated vein on the dorsal surface of the heart. Pressure overload (PO) was induced by a banding of the descending dorsal aorta (∼20% constriction). Animals were allowed to recover for 2 wk and then implanted with an osmotic pump (Alzet) containing either timolol (2 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle, for a total of 6-7 wk of drug treatment. At termination, intracellular recordings from individual neurons in whole mounts of the cardiac plexus were used to assess changes in physiological responses. Timolol treatment did not inhibit the increased sensitivity to norepinephrine seen in both MI and PO animals, but it did inhibit the stimulatory effects of angiotensin II on the norepinephrine-induced increases in neuronal excitability. Timolol treatment also inhibited the increase in synaptically evoked action potentials observed in PO animals with stimulation of fiber tract bundles. These results demonstrate that β-adrenergic blockade can inhibit specific aspects of remodeling within the intrinsic cardiac plexus. In addition, this effect was preferentially observed with active cardiac disease states, indicating that the β-receptors were more influential on remodeling during dynamic disease progression.

  3. Evaluation of pulmonary hypertension and surgical therapeutic efficacy using first-pass radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging in patients with pulmonary hypertension of valvular heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuemei; Shi Rongfang; Fang Wei; Wang Daoyu; Zhou Baogui; Wang Qi; Pan Shiwei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate pulmonary hypertension (PH) and surgical therapeutic efficacy using first-pass radionuclide pulmonary perfusion imaging (FPPPI) and pulmonary perfusion imaging (PPI) in patients with PH of valvular heart disease. Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with valvular disease were included in the study. Swan-Ganz catheterization, echocardiography, FPPPI and PPI were performed on all patients before surgery. The patients were divided into four groups. Results: 1) Correlation coefficients were 0.856, 0.503 and 0.572 (P<0.01) between lung equilibrium time (LET) by FPPPI, superior lung/low lung ratio (S/L) by PPI , systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) from echocardiography and SPAP from the catheter manometer. 2)The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PAP using FPPPI measuring were 94.7%, 68.3% and 85.3%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PAP using PPI measuring were 78.8%, 52.8% and 70.7%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PAP using FPPPI plus PPI measuring were 96.4%, 72.7% and 89.7%, respectively. 3)LET by FPPPI before surgery and 5-14 d after surgery were (27.71 ± 10.85) and (20.96 ± 6.25) s, respectively (P<0.001). SPL by PPI were 1.43 ± 0.41 and 1.30 ± 0.35, respectively (P<0.001). 4) Complete improvement rates of LET in the PAP slightly risen group, moderately risen group and weightily risen group were 47.6%, 34.5% and 1/4, respectively; part improvement rates of LET for corresponding groups were 40.5%, 62.1% and 3/4, respectively (P<0.001). Complete improvement rates of SPL were 31.0%, 34.5% and 0/4, respectively; part improvement rates of SPL were 35.7%, 55.2% and 3/4, respectively (P<0.05). Complete improvement rates of LET + SPL were 57.1%, 58.6% and 1/4; part improvement rates of LET+SPL were 38.1%, 41.4% and 3/4, respectively (P<0.01). Conclusions: 1)FPPPI is better than PPI and echocardiography for evaluating PH in valvular heart disease. 2)Combined FPPPI and PPI can

  4. Glucagon effects on 3H-histamine uptake by the isolated guinea-pig heart during anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosic, Mirko; Parodi, Oberdan; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Colic, Maja; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Jokovic, Vuk; Pantovic, Suzana

    2014-01-01

    We estimated the influence of acute glucagon applications on (3)H-histamine uptake by the isolated guinea-pig heart, during a single (3)H-histamine passage through the coronary circulation, before and during anaphylaxis, and the influence of glucagon on level of histamine, NO, O2 (-), and H2O2 in the venous effluent during anaphylaxis. Before anaphylaxis, glucagon pretreatment does not change (3)H-histamine Umax and the level of endogenous histamine. At the same time, in the presence of glucagon, (3)H-histamine Unet is increased and backflux is decreased when compared to the corresponding values in the absence of glucagon. During anaphylaxis, in the presence of glucagon, the values of (3)H-histamine Umax and Unet are significantly higher and backflux is significantly lower in the presence of glucagon when compared to the corresponding values in the absence of glucagon. The level of endogenous histamine during anaphylaxis in the presence of glucagon (6.9-7.38 × 10(-8) μM) is significantly lower than the histamine level in the absence of glucagon (10.35-10.45 × 10(-8) μM). Glucagon pretreatment leads to a significant increase in NO release (5.69 nmol/mL) in comparison with the period before glucagon administration (2.49 nmol/mL). Then, in the presence of glucagon, O2 (-) level fails to increase during anaphylaxis. Also, our results show no significant differences in H2O2 levels before, during, and after anaphylaxis in the presence of glucagon, but these values are significantly lower than the corresponding values in the absence of glucagon. In conclusion, our results show that glucagon increases NO release and prevents the increased release of free radicals during anaphylaxis, and decreases histamine level in the venous effluent during cardiac anaphylaxis, which may be a consequence of decreased histamine release and/or intensified histamine capturing by the heart during anaphylaxis.

  5. Assessment by three-dimensional power Doppler ultrasound of cerebral blood flow perfusion in fetuses with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, S; Zhou, J; Peng, Q; Tian, L; Xu, G; Zhao, Y; Wang, T; Zhou, Q

    2015-06-01

    To use three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound to investigate cerebral blood flow perfusion in fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD). The vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI) and vascularization flow index (VFI) in the total intracranial volume and the main arterial territories (middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA)) were evaluated prospectively and compared in 112 fetuses with CHD and 112 normal fetuses using 3D power Doppler. Correlations between the 3D power Doppler indices and neurodevelopment scores at 12 months of age were assessed in a subset of the CHD group, and values were compared with those of controls. Compared with the controls, the VI, FI and VFI of the total intracranial volume and the three main arteries were significantly higher in fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and left-sided obstructive lesions (P power Doppler values in the ACA territory were significantly higher in fetuses with transposition of the great arteries (P power Doppler ultrasound might help to identify cases of brain vasodilatation earlier and inform parental counseling. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Influence of polymeric microspheres on the myocardial oxygen partial pressure in the beating heart of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebl, B; Mrowietz, C; Lee, S; Braune, S; Knaut, M; Lendlein, A; Franke, R P; Jung, F

    2011-07-01

    Injection of labeled microspheres is an established method in animal models to analyze the capillary organ blood flow at different time points. However, the microspheres can lead to stenoses of the capillary lumen, which might affect tissue oxygen supply. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of repeated injections of microspheres into the left coronary artery on the tissue oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)) in the downstream supplied myocardium of Göttingen minipigs. Tests (n=6 pigs each) were performed with two differently sized microspheres (ø=10 ± 0.1 μm (M10) or ø=15 ± 0.15 μm (M15)) from polystyrene. The pO(2) was measured in the midmyocardium of the left and right ventricle for 6 min continuously after each of five injections (1 × 10(6) microspheres each). There was a time laps of 12 min between each injection. In addition, the influence of the carrier solution was analyzed solely in the identical time frame. pO(2) decreased significantly in the myocardial area supplied by the ramus interventricularis paraconalis after injection of M15 microspheres. In contrast, the application of the M10 microspheres did not change the myocardial pO(2). This finding suggests to use microspheres with diameters not exceeding 10 μm for the coronary blood flow assessment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of in situ hypothermic perfusion on intrahepatic pO(2) and reactive oxygen species formation after partial hepatectomy under total hepatic vascular exclusion in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, Bob H. M.; Straatsburg, Irene H.; Kager, Liesbeth M.; van der Kleij, Ad J.; Gouma, Dirk J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: This study examined attenuation of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) induced liver injury during liver resections by hypothermic perfusion of the liver under total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE). Method: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, microcirculatory integrity and endothelial cell

  8. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion SPECT images in combination with the maximal heart rate at exercise testing in Japanese patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. A sub-analysis of J-ACCESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Kenji; Usami, Satoru; Yasuno, Shinji; Nakao, Kazuwa; Yamashina, Akira; Nishiyama, Osamu; Yamazaki, Takuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    We assessed whether a combination of summed stress scores (SSS) using exercise myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) (Ex-SPECT) and maximal heart rate accurately predicts cardiac events through a sub-analysis of J-ACCESS (Japanese Assessment of Cardiac Events and Survival Study by Quantitative Gated SPECT) which was conducted to evaluate the prognosis of Japanese patients with suspected ischemic heart disease. In J-ACCESS, 2,373 patients with suspected coronary artery disease not receiving beta-blocker treatment underwent Ex-SPECT. These patients were categorized into the following four groups: Group A [achieved target heart rate (THR) and SSS<4: n=631], B (did not achieve THR and SSS<4: n=612), C (achieved THR and SSS≥4: n=570), and D (did not achieve THR and SSS≥4: n=560). We evaluated the incidence rate of cardiac events including cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and heart failure requiring hospital admission during a 3-year period. In Group A, B, C, and D, 9 of 631 (1.4%), 15 of 612 (2.4%), 23 of 570 (4.0%) and 30 of 560 (5.4%) patients experienced cardiac events, respectively. Although the hazard ratio of the SSS≥4 was 2.45 (p<0.001) and that of the attained THR was 0.69 (p=0.10) in the multiple Cox regression analysis, Kaplan-Meier curves showed that the cardiac events rate was lower in the order of A, B, C, and D (p<0.001). The combination of SSS using Ex-SPECT and the maximal heart rate is a useful predictor of cardiac events in patients with suspected coronary artery disease. (author)

  9. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J.; Alfonso-Almazán, José M.; Quintanilla, Jorge G.; Chorro, Francisco J.; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-02-01

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model.

  10. Biological pacemaker created by minimally invasive somatic reprogramming in pigs with complete heart block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yu-Feng; Dawkins, James Frederick; Cho, Hee Cheol; Marbán, Eduardo; Cingolani, Eugenio

    2016-01-01

    Somatic reprogramming by reexpression of the embryonic transcription factor T-box 18 (TBX18) converts cardiomyocytes into pacemaker cells. We hypothesized that this could be a viable therapeutic avenue for pacemaker-dependent patients afflicted with device-related complications, and therefore tested whether adenoviral TBX18 gene transfer could create biological pacemaker activity in vivo in a large-animal model of complete heart block. Biological pacemaker activity, originating from the intramyocardial injection site, was evident in TBX18-transduced animals starting at day 2 and persisted for the duration of the study (14 days) with minimal backup electronic pacemaker use. Relative to controls transduced with a reporter gene, TBX18-transduced animals exhibited enhanced autonomic responses and physiologically superior chronotropic support of physical activity. Induced sinoatrial node cells could be identified by their distinctive morphology at the site of injection in TBX18-transduced animals, but not in controls. No local or systemic safety concerns arose. Thus, minimally invasive TBX18 gene transfer creates physiologically relevant pacemaker activity in complete heart block, providing evidence for therapeutic somatic reprogramming in a clinically relevant disease model. PMID:25031269

  11. Development of an Assay Based on the Effects of PGBx on the Isolated Perfused Rat Heart and Rat Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    had no effect on discphe- nol induced alterations in spontaneous heart rate, but did appear to prevent the increase in coronary flow caused by...Phosphorylase a i -24 activity was also the same in each of the groups examined (Table 2-4). DISCUSSION The ability of PGBx to prevent 2,4-dinitrophenol-induced...euthyroid and hyperthyroid rats. Eur. J. Pharmac. 19, 12-17. Aronson, C. E. and Serlick, E. R. (1977a) Effects of chlorpromazine on the isolated

  12. Glucagon Effects on 3H-Histamine Uptake by the Isolated Guinea-Pig Heart during Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Rosic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the influence of acute glucagon applications on 3H-histamine uptake by the isolated guinea-pig heart, during a single 3H-histamine passage through the coronary circulation, before and during anaphylaxis, and the influence of glucagon on level of histamine, NO, O2-, and H2O2 in the venous effluent during anaphylaxis. Before anaphylaxis, glucagon pretreatment does not change 3H-histamine Umax and the level of endogenous histamine. At the same time, in the presence of glucagon, 3H-histamine Unet is increased and backflux is decreased when compared to the corresponding values in the absence of glucagon. During anaphylaxis, in the presence of glucagon, the values of 3H-histamine Umax and Unet are significantly higher and backflux is significantly lower in the presence of glucagon when compared to the corresponding values in the absence of glucagon. The level of endogenous histamine during anaphylaxis in the presence of glucagon (6.9–7.38 × 10−8 μM is significantly lower than the histamine level in the absence of glucagon (10.35–10.45 × 10−8 μM. Glucagon pretreatment leads to a significant increase in NO release (5.69 nmol/mL in comparison with the period before glucagon administration (2.49 nmol/mL. Then, in the presence of glucagon, O2- level fails to increase during anaphylaxis. Also, our results show no significant differences in H2O2 levels before, during, and after anaphylaxis in the presence of glucagon, but these values are significantly lower than the corresponding values in the absence of glucagon. In conclusion, our results show that glucagon increases NO release and prevents the increased release of free radicals during anaphylaxis, and decreases histamine level in the venous effluent during cardiac anaphylaxis, which may be a consequence of decreased histamine release and/or intensified histamine capturing by the heart during anaphylaxis.

  13. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 μ/L, to Ringer's solution containing 3 H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO 2 to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L

  14. Assessment of automatic quantification of myocardial perfusion and left ventricular function derived from ECG gated myocardial SPECT with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin in ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Mitsunori; Habara, Hirokazu; Tatsuno, Hironari; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Hamada, Noriko; Kazatani, Yukio [Ehime Prefectural Central Hospital (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    Non-invasive assessment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) requires information of both myocardial perfusion and left ventricular (LV) function. Recently, automatic quantification of ECG-gated myocardial scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (QGS) can provide both of them. QGS, coronary angiograms (CAG) and left venticulograms (LVG) were performed in 83 patients with severe IHD in same period. Significant stenosis of coronary artery in CAG were assessed by QGS. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of significant stenosis by QGS was excellent (85%, 93% and 88%). The LV end-distolic and end-systolic volumes (EDV and ESV), LV ejection fraction (EF) and regional LV wall motion determined by QGS were compared to LVG. There was a good correlation between the values obtained from QGS and LVG (EDV: r=0.86, ESV: r=0.94, EF: r=0.84, p<0.0001), but QGS tended to underestimate EDV and EF. High complete agreement of regional LV wall motion was gained with 427 (74.0%) out of total 581 segments. In conclusion, QGS data was considered to be useful for assessment of determine significant stenosis and LV function in severe IHD. (author)

  15. Desensitization by progressive up-titration prevents first-dose effects on the heart: guinea pig study with ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rey

    Full Text Available Ponesimod, a selective S1P1 receptor modulator, reduces the blood lymphocyte count in all tested species by preventing egress of T and B cells from thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs. In addition, ponesimod transiently affects heart rate and atrioventricular (AV conduction in humans, effects not observed in mice, rats, and dogs with selective S1P1 receptor modulators, suggesting that the regulation of heart rate and rhythm is species dependent. In the present study, we used conscious guinea pigs implanted with a telemetry device to investigate the effects of single and multiple oral doses of ponesimod on ECG variables, heart rate, and blood pressure. Oral administration of ponesimod did not affect the sinus rate (P rate but dose-dependently induced AV block type I to III. A single oral dose of 0.1 mg/kg had no effect on ECG variables, while a dose of 3 mg/kg induced AV block type III in all treated guinea pigs. Repeated oral dosing of 1 or 3 mg/kg ponesimod resulted in rapid desensitization, so that the second dose had no or a clearly reduced effect on ECG variables as compared with the first dose. Resensitization of the S1P1 receptor in the heart was concentration dependent. After desensitization had been induced by the first dose of ponesimod, the cardiac system remained desensitized as long as the plasma concentration was ≥75 ng/ml. By using a progressive up-titration regimen, the first-dose effect of ponesimod on heart rate and AV conduction was significantly reduced due to desensitization of the S1P1 receptor. In summary, conscious guinea pigs implanted with a telemetry device represent a useful model to study first-dose effects of S1P1 receptor modulators on heart rate and rhythm. This knowledge was translated to a dosing regimen of ponesimod to be tested in humans to avoid or significantly reduce the first-dose effects.

  16. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 ..mu../L, to Ringer's solution containing /sup 3/H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO/sub 2/ to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L.

  17. Electrophysiological effects of Chinese medicine Shen song Yang xin (SSYX) on Chinese miniature swine heart and isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Gong, Jing; Jin, Zhen-yi; Li, Ning; Sun, Li-ping; Wu, Yi-ling; Pu, Jie-lin

    2009-07-05

    Shen song Yang xin (SSYX) is a compound of Chinese medicine with the effect of increasing heart rate (HR). This study aimed to evaluate its electrophysiological properties at heart and cellular levels. The Chinese miniature swines were randomly assigned to two groups, administered with SSYX or placebo for 4 weeks (n = 8 per group). Cardiac electrophysiological study (EPS) was performed before and after drug administration. The guinea pig ventricular myocytes were enzymatically isolated and whole cell voltage-clamp technique was used to evaluate the effect of SSYX on cardiac action potential (AP). SSYX treatment accelerated the HR from (141.8 +/- 36.0) beats per minute to (163.0 +/- 38.0) beats per minute (P = 0.013) without changing the other parameters in surface electrocardiogram. After blockage of the autonomic nervous system with metoprolol and atropin, SSYX had no effect on intrinsic HR (IHR), but decreased corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT) and sinus atrium conducting time (SACT). Intra cardiac EPS showed that SSYX significantly decreased the A-H and A-V intervals as well as shortened the atrial (A), atrioventricular node (AVN) and ventricular (V) effective refractory period (ERP). In isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, the most obvious effect of SSYX on action potential was a shortening of the action potential duration (APD) without change in shape of action potential. The shortening rates of APD(30), APD(50) and APD(90) were 19.5%, 17.8% and 15.3%, respectively. The resting potential (Em) and the interval between the end of APD(30) and APD(90) did not significantly change. The present study demonstrates that SSYX increases the HR and enhances the conducting capacity of the heart in the condition of the intact autonomic nervous system. SSYX homogenously decreases the ERP of the heart and shortens the APD of the myocytes, suggesting its antiarrhythmic effect without proarrhythmia.

  18. Comparison of the oxime-induced reactivation of rhesus monkey, swine and guinea pig erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase following inhibition by sarin or paraoxon, using a perfusion model for the real-time determination of membrane-bound acetylcholinesterase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkert, Nadja M; Lallement, Guy; Clarençon, Didier; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz

    2009-04-28

    Recently, a dynamically working in vitro model with real-time determination of membrane-bound human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was shown to be a versatile model to investigate oxime-induced reactivation kinetics of organophosphate- (OP) inhibited enzyme. In this assay, AChE was immobilized on particle filters which were perfused with acetylthiocholine, Ellman's reagent and phosphate buffer. Subsequently, AChE activity was continuously analyzed in a flow-through detector. Now, it was an intriguing question whether this model could be used with erythrocyte AChE from other species in order to investigate kinetic interactions in the absence of annoying side reactions. Rhesus monkey, swine and guinea pig erythrocytes were a stable and highly reproducible enzyme source. Then, the model was applied to the reactivation of sarin- and paraoxon-inhibited AChE by obidoxime or HI 6 and it could be shown that the derived reactivation rate constants were in good agreement to previous results obtained from experiments with a static model. Hence, this dynamic model offers the possibility to investigate highly reproducible interactions between AChE, OP and oximes with human and animal AChE.

  19. Texas Heart Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of seminars and conferences. Resources Texas Heart Institute Journal Scientific Publications Library & Learning Resources Resources for Physicians Fellowships & Residencies School of Perfusion Technology THI Spotlight Check out the ...

  20. The kinetics of {beta}-methyl-substituted labelled fatty acids in ischaemic myocardium: an analysis in man and with a blood-perfused isolated heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, P.Y.; Ayalew, A.; Hassan, N.; Olivier, P.; Karcher, G.; Bertrand, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, UPRES EA, Nancy (France); Menu, P. [Dept. of Hematology and Physiology, University Henri Poincare, Nancy (France); Angioi, M.; Mertes, P.M.; Danchin, N. [Dept. of Cardiology, UPRES EA, Nancy (France); Fagret, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Grenoble (France); Pasqualini, R. [CIS Bio International, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-05-01

    {beta}-Methyl-substituted free fatty acids (FFAs) have been developed for myocardial single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging, but little is known about their kinetics in ischaemic conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the myocardial kinetics of a {beta}-methyl-branched FFA, [{sup 123}I]16-iodo-3-methyl-hexadecanoic acid (MIHA), under ischaemic conditions. The kinetics of MIHA were analysed: (a) using a blood-perfused isolated heart model subjected to moderate ischaemia (50% flow reduction) and (b) in patients who had an exercise thallium-201 SPET defect corresponding to either necrotic (n = 13) or chronically ischaemic and viable (n = 15) myocardium, and who underwent two consecutive SPET studies after MIHA injection. In animals, the myocardial early retention fraction of MIHA, but not its clearance rate, was dependent on coronary flow, the early retention fraction being higher in ischaemic than in normoxic conditions (0.24{+-}0.10 vs 0.14{+-}0.04, P = 0.004). In the patient SPET studies, the uptake of MIHA calculated in ischaemic and viable areas (G1: 74%{+-}9% of maximal left ventricular value) was different from that calculated in necrotic (G2: 59%{+-}7%, P<0.001) or normal (G3: 88{+-}6%, P<0.001) areas. By contrast, MIHA-clearance calculated between the two consecutive SPET studies was not different in G1, G2 and G3. Unlike in the case of other FFAs, the myocardial clearance of MIHA is not decreased by ischaemia. However, the early retention of MIHA is increased in the case of a moderate reduction in coronary flow, a property which might help in the detection of viability in chronically ischaemic myocardium. (orig.) With 5 figs., 3 tabs., 44 refs.

  1. A comparative study between TL-201 SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and dobutamine stress echocardiography in the detection of coronary artery disease at the Philippine Heart Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogbac, R.V.; Martinez, A.O.; Obaldo, J.M.; Monzon, O.P.; Torres, J.F.; Rondilla, L.W.S.; Yap, J.S.; Flores, V.B.; Santos, R.J.; Jara, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Although thallium-201 SPECT myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) has shown considerable accuracy for the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD), dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), a relatively new method for the detection of CAD had been recently utilized at the Philippine Heart Center. To assess its diagnostic worth versus that of thallium-201 spect myocardial scintigraphy (MPS), we studied 18 patients who underwent both procedures. Coronary angiography (CA) was used as the gold standard. MPS was performed with maximal treadmill exercise or with dipyridamole (0.568 mg/kg over 4 minutes) and Tl-201 was injected at peak stress. DSE was performed by infusing dobutamine at an increment of 5 μg/kg/min up to a maximum of 40. Atropine (0.01%) was added when 85% of maximum predicted heart rate is not achieved. Significant stenosis (>70%) was found in 16 out of 18 patients by CA. The sensitivity for the presence of CAD was 88% (14/16) and 69% (11/16) for MPS and DSE respectively. Specificity was 100% (2/2) for both. PPV was 100% for both while NPV was 50% and 29% for MPS and DSE respectively. Diagnostic accuracies were 89% and 72% for MPS and DSE respectively (P>0.05). Sensitivity for detecting left anterior descending artery (LAD) lesion was 71% 64% for MPS and DSE respectively; specificity was 75% and 100% respectively. For the left circumplex artery (LCX) lesion, both MPS and DSE had a sensitivity of 62% and specificity of 60%. Likewise for the right coronary artery (RCA) lesion, both had a sensitivity of 66% and specificity of 50%. Diagnostic accuracies were equal for both tests at 72% for LAD; 61% for LCX; and 61% for RCA. Kappa tests for association shows ρ values of >0.05 for overall and individual CAD detection suggesting no significant difference between MPS and DSE. Although there is a trend showing better detection of CAD with MPS, this particular study shows that both tests are comparable with regards to detection of the presence of CAD and of

  2. Renal perfusion scintiscan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radionuclide renal perfusion scan; Perfusion scintiscan - renal; Scintiscan - renal perfusion Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Intravenous pyelogram References Rottenberg G, Andi AC. Renal ...

  3. Blood perfusion in osteomyelitis studied with [15O]water PET in a juvenile porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jødal, Lars; Nielsen, Ole L; Afzelius, Pia

    2017-01-01

    and not quantitative. Quantitative assessment of perfusion could aid in the selection of therapy. A non-invasive, quantitative way to study perfusion is dynamic [15O]water positron emission tomography (PET). We aim to demonstrate that the method can be used for measuring perfusion in OM lesions and hypothesize...... that perfusion will be less elevated in OM lesions than in soft tissue (ST) infection. The study comprised 11 juvenile pigs with haematogenous osteomyelitis induced by injection of Staphylococcus aureus into the right femoral artery 1 week before scanning (in one pig, 2 weeks). The pigs were dynamically PET...

  4. Beneficial effects of hyperosmotic perfusion in the myocardium after ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated rat hearts Efeitos benéficos da perfusão hiperosmótica no miocárdio após lesão isquemia/reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A simple method to reduce the ischemia/reperfusion injury that can accompany cardiac surgery would have great clinical value. This study was to investigate the effect of hyperosmotic perfusion on ischemia/reperfusion injury in isolated perfused rat hearts. METHOD: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided either to have their isolated hearts perfused with normal osmotic buffer or buffer made hyperosmotic by addition of glucose. Hearts were then subjected to 30 min ischemia followed by 30 min reperfusion. Coronary flow, time to ischemic arrest, reperfusion arrhythmia, and ventricular function were recorded. Creatine phosphokinase leakage into the coronary artery, and myocardial content and activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase were also examined. RESULTS: Rat hearts with hyperosmotic perfusion showed higher coronary flow, a prolonged time to ischemic arrest (10.60 vs. 5.63 min, POBJETIVO: Um método simples para reduzir a lesão de isquemia/reperfusão que pode acompanhar a cirurgia cardíaca teria grande valor clínico. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da perfusão hiperosmótica na isquemia/reperfusão em corações isolados de ratos perfundidos. MÉTODOS: Quarenta ratos machos Sprague-Dawley foram divididos aleatoriamente e tiveram os seus corações isolados perfundidos com tampão osmótico normal ou tampão hiperosmótico com a adição de glucose. Os corações foram então submetidos a 30 minutos de isquemia, seguida de 30 min de reperfusão. O fluxo coronariano, tempo de parada isquêmica, arritmia de reperfusão e da função ventricular foram registrados. Vazamento creatinofosfoquinase na artéria coronária, o miocárdio e atividade de superóxido dismutase e catalase foram também examinados. RESULTADOS: Crações de ratos com perfusão hiperosmótica apresentaram maior fluxo coronariano, tempo prolongado de parada isquêmica (10,60 vs. 5,63 min, P<0,005, menor pontuação de reperfus

  5. Long-Term Haloperidol Treatment Prolongs QT Interval and Increases Expression of Sigma 1 and IP3 Receptors in Guinea Pig Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracina, Tibor; Slaninova, Iva; Polanska, Hana; Axmanova, Martina; Olejnickova, Veronika; Konecny, Petr; Masarik, Michal; Krizanova, Olga; Novakova, Marie

    2015-07-01

    Haloperidol is a neuroleptic drug used for a medication of various psychoses and deliria. Its administration is frequently accompanied by cardiovascular side effects, expressed as QT interval prolongation and occurrence of even lethal arrhythmias. Despite these side effects, haloperidol is still prescribed in Europe in clinical practice. Haloperidol binds to sigma receptors that are coupled with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors. Sigma receptors are expressed in various tissues, including heart muscle, and they modulate potassium channels. Together with IP3 receptors, sigma receptors are also involved in calcium handling in various tissues. Therefore, the present work aimed to study the effects of long-term haloperidol administration on the cardiac function. Haloperidol (2 mg/kg once a day) or vehiculum was administered by intraperitoneal injection to guinea pigs for 21 consecutive days. We measured the responsiveness of the hearts isolated from the haloperidol-treated animals to additional application of haloperidol. Expression of the sigma 1 receptor and IP3 receptors was studied by real time-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Haloperidol treatment caused the significant decrease in the relative heart rate and the prolongation of QT interval of the isolated hearts from the haloperidol-treated animals, compared to the hearts isolated from control animals. The expression of sigma 1 and IP3 type 1 and type 2 receptors was increased in both atria of the haloperidol-treated animals but not in ventricles. The modulation of sigma 1 and IP3 receptors may lead to altered calcium handling in cardiomyocytes and thus contribute to changed sensitivity of cardiac cells to arrhythmias.

  6. Nuclear cardiology. I - Radionuclide angiographic assessment of left ventricular contraction: uses, limitations and future directions. II - The role of myocardial perfusion imaging using thallium-201 in diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodenheimer, M.M.; Banka, V.S.; Helfant, R.H.; Pennsylvania, University, Philadelphia, PA)

    1980-01-01

    The current status of radionuclide angiography is reviewed. First pass and gated equilibrium methods for determining left ventricular contraction are compared. Some clinical applications of radionuclide angiography are then examined, including the detection of discrete versus diffuse asynergy and the assessment of myocardial infarction. The second part of this work reviews the uses and limitations of thallium-201 perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of the acute and chronic manifestations of coronary heart disease. Theoretical and technical considerations of thallium-201 imaging are reviewed along with the clinical implications of the technique

  7. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares

    2011-07-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  8. Dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno; Ribeiro, Tarcisio P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper conducts a dosimetric investigation on the myocardial perfusion image protocol, together with a literature reviewing, motivated by the significant statistic increasing on mortality, morbidity and disability associated with cardiovascular disease, surpassing infectious diseases. Nuclear Cardiology plays a role n the diagnostic functional evaluation of the heart and in the prognostic of patients with suspected or known cardiac ischemia. In the context of unstable myocardial ischemic syndrome, myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is a non-invasive procedure performed by administering a radiopharmaceutical targeted to the heart. As tool for this study are that the images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta as a anatomic and functional information for model reproduction in SISCODES - System of Codes for Absorbed Dose Calculations based on Stochastic Methods. Data were manipulated in order to create a voxel computational model of the heart to be running in MCNP - Monte Carlo Neutron Particle Code. . It was assumed a homogeneous distribution of Tl-201 in cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissue were performed. As a result, the isodose curves in the heart model are displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. We conclude that the present computational tools can generate doses distributed in myocardial perfusion. (author)

  9. Liver Function in the Pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-12

    Jun 12, 1974 ... The assessment of function of the isolated perfused liver remains complex. Much of this problem relates to an inability to compare function in vitro with that in vivo, because of a lack of knowledge of hepatic blood flow. This article documents measurement of total hepatic and portal blood flow in vivo in pigs, ...

  10. Antiarrhythmic effect of either negative modulation or blockade of small conductance Ca2+ activated K+ channels on ventricular fibrillation in guinea pig Langendorff perfused heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas Goldin; Kirchhoff, Jeppe Egedal; Sheykhzade, Majid

    2015-01-01

    During recent years small conductance Ca activated K (SK) channels have been reported to play a role in cardiac electrophysiology. SK channels seem to be expressed in atria and ventricles but from a functional perspective atrial activity is predominant. A general notion seems to be that cardiac S...

  11. Understanding the C-pulse device and its potential to treat heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Virna L; McCarthy, Patrick M

    2010-03-01

    The Sunshine Heart C-Pulse (C-Pulse; Sunshine Heart Inc., Tustin, CA) device is an extra-aortic implantable counterpulsation pump designed as a non-blood contacting ambulatory heart assist device, which may provide relief from symptoms for class II-III congestive heart failure patients. It has a comparable hemodynamic augmentation to intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation devices. The C-Pulse cuff is implanted through a median sternotomy, secured around the ascending aorta, and pneumatically driven by an external system controller. Pre-clinical studies in the acute pig model, and initial temporary clinical studies in patients undergoing off-pump coronary bypass surgery have shown substantial increase in diastolic perfusion of the coronary vessels, which translated to a favorable improvement in ventricular function. A U.S. prospective multi-center trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the C-Pulse in class III patients with moderate heart failure is now in progress.

  12. Effects of the new imidazopyridine CL 86-02-01 on isolated papillary muscle of guinea-pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenik, C; Lemmens-Gruber, R; Heistracher, P

    1998-06-01

    Inotropic activity and the effect of CL 86-02-01 (2-(3-methoxy-5-methylsulfinyl-2-thienyl)-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine hydrochloride, CAS 109 792-24-7) on membrane resting and action potentials were studied in isolated guinea-pig papillary muscles. Membrane resting potential and action potential parameters were not significantly changed, while CL 86-02-01 exerted a concentration-dependent inotropic effect by increasing the maximum rate of force development and maximum rate of force relaxation. Time to peak force, relaxation time and total contraction time were reduced. These effects are similar to those of beta-adrenergic drugs and phosphodiesterase inhibitors, but markedly differ from those described for other positive inotropic agents like cardiac glycosides, calcium agonists, alpha-adrenergic drugs or increased extracellular calcium concentration.

  13. Ischemia- and agonist-induced changes in α- and β-adrenergic receptor traffic in guinea pig hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisel, A.S.; Motulsky, H.J.; Ziegler, M.G.; Insel, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors have used radioligand binding techniques and subcellular fraction to assess whether changes in expression of myocardial α 1 - and β-adrenergic receptors are mediated by a redistribution of receptors between various membrane fractions. Three fractions were prepared from the left ventricles of guinea pigs that underwent either 1 h of ischemia or injection of epinephrine a crude membrane, a purified sarcolemma, and a light vesicle fraction. In control animals α 1 -adrenergic receptors ([ 3 H]prazosin binding) in light vesicles was only 25% of the total α 1 -receptor density found in sarcolemmal and light vesicle fractions as compared with 50% for β-adrenergic receptors ([ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol binding sites). Although ischemia was associated with a 53% decrease in the number of light vesicle β-adrenergic receptors and a 42% increase in the number of sarcolemma β-receptors there was no change in the number of light vesicle α 1 -receptors, even though the number of sarcolemmal α 1 -receptors increased 34%. Epinephrine treatment promoted internalization of β-adrenergic receptors. These results indicate that α 1 and β 1 -adrenergic receptors may undergo a different cellular itinerary in guinea pig myocardium. Agonist and ischemia-induced changes in surface β-receptors, but not α 1 -receptors, appear to result from entry and exit of receptors from an intracellular pool that can be isolated in a light vesicle fraction. Changes in expression of α 1 -adrenergic receptors may represent changes in the properties of receptors found in the sarcolemma or in a membrane fraction other than the light vesicle fraction that they have isolated

  14. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caruso, Damiano; Eid, Marwen; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Jin, Kwang Nam; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Tesche, Christian; Mangold, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  15. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncological and Pathological Sciences, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Latina (Italy); Eid, Marwen [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government-Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); and others

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • CT myocardial perfusion provides functional assessment of the myocardium. • CCTA is limited in determining the hemodynamic significance of coronary stenosis. • CT-MPI can accurately detect hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenosis. - Abstract: Non-invasive cardiac imaging has rapidly evolved during the last decade due to advancements in CT based technologies. Coronary CT angiography has been shown to reliably assess coronary anatomy and detect high risk coronary artery disease. However, this technique is limited to anatomical assessment, thus non-invasive techniques for functional assessment of the heart are necessary. CT myocardial perfusion is a new CT based technique that provides functional assessment of the myocardium and allows for a comprehensive assessment of coronary artery disease with a single modality when combined with CTA. This review aims to discuss dynamic CT myocardial perfusion as a new technique in the assessment of CAD.

  16. Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP mediates slow delayed-rectifier current remodeling by sustained β-adrenergic activation in guinea pig hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflaki, Mona; Qi, Xiao-Yan; Xiao, Ling; Ordog, Balazs; Tadevosyan, Artavazd; Luo, Xiaobin; Maguy, Ange; Shi, Yanfen; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Nattel, Stanley

    2014-03-14

    β-Adrenoceptor activation contributes to sudden death risk in heart failure. Chronic β-adrenergic stimulation, as occurs in patients with heart failure, causes potentially arrhythmogenic reductions in slow delayed-rectifier K(+) current (IKs). To assess the molecular mechanisms of IKs downregulation caused by chronic β-adrenergic activation, particularly the role of exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac). Isolated guinea pig left ventricular cardiomyocytes were incubated in primary culture and exposed to isoproterenol (1 μmol/L) or vehicle for 30 hours. Sustained isoproterenol exposure decreased IKs density (whole cell patch clamp) by 58% (P<0.0001), with corresponding decreases in potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E member 1 (KCNE1) mRNA and membrane protein expression (by 45% and 51%, respectively). Potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 (KCNQ1) mRNA expression was unchanged. The β1-adrenoceptor antagonist 1-[2-((3-Carbamoyl-4-hydroxy)phenoxy)ethylamino]-3-[4-(1-methyl-4-trifluoromethyl-2-imidazolyl)phenoxy]-2-propanol dihydrochloride (CGP-20712A) prevented isoproterenol-induced IKs downregulation, whereas the β2-antagonist ICI-118551 had no effect. The selective Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP decreased IKs density to an extent similar to isoproterenol exposure, and adenoviral-mediated knockdown of Epac1 prevented isoproterenol-induced IKs/KCNE1 downregulation. In contrast, protein kinase A inhibition with a cell-permeable highly selective peptide blocker did not affect IKs downregulation. 1,2-Bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetate-AM acetoxymethyl ester (BAPTA-AM), cyclosporine, and inhibitor of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-calcineurin association-6 (INCA6) prevented IKs reduction by isoproterenol and INCA6 suppressed isoproterenol-induced KCNE1 downregulation, consistent with signal-transduction via the Ca(2+)/calcineurin/NFAT pathway. Isoproterenol induced nuclear NFATc3/c4

  17. Myocardial kinetics of hexakis (trimethylphosphite) technetium-99m (I) chloride (Tc-TMP) in rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbins, M.S.; Adams, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-TMP is readily taken up by the myocardium following intravenous administration to rats and dogs. In order to assess its potential as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent, the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of Tc-TMP were evaluated following intravenous administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and miniature pigs. Rats and rabbits were killed at several time points within a 24 hr period after treatment and tissue samples were assayed for radioactivity. In rats, estimated heart, liver and lung half-lives were 14.4 hr, 24 min and 40 min, respectively. In rabbits, 0.6% dose/g was observed in the heart at 30 min. Corresponding heart/blood, heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were 39.1, 10.7 and 5.1. Gamma camera imaging experiments were conducted in rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs over a 1-2 hr period following administration of Tc-TMP. All species exhibited myocardial uptake resulting in sustained visualization, although myocardial image intensity was less pronounced in the pig compared to the other species. Regions of interest were selected over the heart, liver and background, and time-activity curves were generated. Minimal myocardial clearance was observed in all species during the imaging time course. Hepatic activity was rapidly cleared in rabbits and pigs (t1/2 < 1.0 hr) resulting in improved heart/liver ratios at later time intervals. The myocardial accumulation and retention of Tc-TMP, demonstrated in five species, supports clinical evaluation as a myocardial imaging agent

  18. How Does the Ca2+-paradox Injury Induce Contracture in the Heart?—A Combined Study of the Intracellular Ca2+ Dynamics and Cell Structures in Perfused Rat Hearts—

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mani, Hiroki; Tanaka, Hideo; Adachi, Tetsuya; Ikegawa, Masaya; Dai, Ping; Fujita, Naohisa; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    The calcium (Ca 2+ )-paradox injury of the heart, induced by restoration of extracellular Ca 2+ after its short-term depletion, is known to provoke cardiomyocyte contracture. However, undetermined is how the Ca 2+ -paradox provokes such a distinctive presentation of myocytes in the heart. To address this, we imaged sequential intracellular Ca 2+ dynamics and concomitant structures of the subepicardial ventricular myocytes in fluo3-loaded, Langendorff-perfused rat hearts produced by the Ca 2+ paradox. Under rapid-scanning confocal microscopy, repletion of Ca 2+ following its depletion produced high-frequency Ca 2+ waves in individual myocytes with asynchronous localized contractions, resulting in contracture within 10 min. Such alterations of myocytes were attenuated by 5-mM NiCl 2 , but not by verapamil, SEA0400, or combination of ryanodine and thapsigargin, indicating a contribution of non-specific transmembrane Ca 2+ influx in the injury. However, saponin-induced membrane permeabilization of Ca 2+ showed no apparent contracture despite the emergence of high-frequency Ca 2+ waves, indicating an essential role of myocyte-myocyte and myocyte-extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanical connections in the Ca 2+ paradox. In immunohistochemistry Ca 2+ depletion produced separation of the intercalated disc that expresses cadherin and dissipation of β-dystroglycan located along the sarcolemma. Taken together, along with the trans-sarcolemmal Ca 2+ influx, disruption of cell-cell and cell-ECM connections is essential for contracture in the Ca 2+ -paradox injury

  19. Light-enhanced inhibition of ouabain binding to digitalis receptor in rat brain and guinea pig heart by the food dye erythrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, M.; LaBella, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    Erythrosine (ERY) (FD and C red no. 3) inhibited specific binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to rat brain homogenates with an IC50 of 23 mM in the dark and 1 mM in ordinary fluorescent light. Competition studies demonstrated the presence of two components, only one of which was affected by light. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated that ERY preferentially antagonizes [ 3 H]ouabain binding at a high-affinity site in the light, whereas in the dark the dye inhibits binding in a manner qualitatively similar to inhibition by ouabain. Light enhancement of ERY potency occurred only when dye and tissue were present together in the incubation medium, pointing to participation of transient molecular species. However, neither superoxide dismutase nor catalase altered the effects of ERY in the light or dark, suggesting the absence of oxygen free radicals. In contrast to brain, membranes from guinea pig heart showed only one binding site for [ 3 H]ouabain, and antagonism by ERY at this site was markedly enhanced by light. Structural differences between classes of ouabain binding regions probably accounts for the discrimination exhibited by ERY in the presence of light and oxygen. Our findings also caution that metabolic transformation of this common food dye, light decomposition, or photoreaction with foodstuff may yield more toxic derivatives

  20. Light-enhanced inhibition of ouabain binding to digitalis receptor in rat brain and guinea pig heart by the food dye erythrosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnatowich, M.; LaBella, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    Erythrosine (ERY) (FD and C red no. 3) inhibited specific binding of [ 3 H]ouabain to rat brain homogenates with an IC50 of 23 microM in the dark and 1 microM in ordinary fluorescent light. Competition studies demonstrated the presence of two components, only one of which was affected by light. Lineweaver-Burk analysis indicated that ERY preferentially antagonizes [ 3 H]ouabain binding at a high-affinity site in the light, whereas in the dark the dye inhibits binding in a manner qualitatively similar to inhibition by ouabain. Light enhancement of ERY potency occurred only when dye and tissue were present together in the incubation medium, pointing to participation of transient molecular species. However, neither superoxide dismutase nor catalase altered the effects of ERY in the light or dark, suggesting the absence of oxygen free radicals. When oxygen levels were raised, there was enhancement of inhibition by ERY at a high-affinity receptor accompanied by disappearance of [ 3 H]ouabain binding at one of lower affinity. In contrast to brain, membranes from guinea pig heart showed only one binding site for [ 3 H]ouabain, and antagonism by ERY at this site was markedly enhanced by light. Structural differences between classes of ouabain binding regions probably accounts for the discrimination exhibited by ERY in the presence of light and oxygen. Our findings also caution that metabolic transformation of this common food dye, light decomposition, or photoreaction with foodstuff may yield more toxic derivatives

  1. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D. (Univ. of Cape Town (South Africa))

    1990-08-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis.

  2. Pulmonary ventilation and perfusion abnormalities and ventilation perfusion imbalance in children with pulmonary atresia or extreme tetralogy of Fallot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdle, S.C.; Human, D.G.; Mann, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Xenon-133 lung ventilation and perfusion scans were done preoperatively after cardiac catheterization and cineangiocardiography in 19 children; 6 had pulmonary atresia with an intact ventricular septum and hypoplastic right ventricle, 4 pulmonary atresia with associated complex univentricular heart, and 9 extreme Tetralogy of Fallot. The four patients with discrepancies in the sizes of the left and right pulmonary arteries on angiography had marked asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance on scintigraphy. Similar degrees of asymmetry and imbalance were present in 6 of the 15 children with equal-size pulmonary vessels. Asymmetry of pulmonary perfusion and ventilation-perfusion imbalance were associated with a poor prognosis

  3. Energy status of pig donor organs after ischemia is independent of donor type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Stiegler, Philipp; Taeubl, Philipp; Sereinigg, Michael; Puntschart, Andreas; Bradatsch, Andrea; Curcic, Pero; Seifert-Held, Thomas; Zmugg, Gerda; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Leopold, Barbara; Blattl, Daniela; Horki, Vera; Mayrhauser, Ursula; Wiederstein-Grasser, Iris; Leber, Bettina; Jürgens, Günther; Tscheliessnigg, Karlheinz; Hallström, Seth

    2013-04-01

    Literature is controversial whether organs from living donors have a better graft function than brain dead (BD) and non-heart-beating donor organs. Success of transplantation has been correlated with high-energy phosphate (HEP) contents of the graft. HEP contents in heart, liver, kidney, and pancreas from living, BD, and donation after cardiac death in a pig model (n=6 per donor type) were evaluated systematically. BD was induced under general anesthesia by inflating a balloon in the epidural space. Ten hours after confirmation, organs were retrieved. Cardiac arrest was induced by 9V direct current. After 10min of ventricular fibrillation without cardiac output, mechanical and medical reanimation was performed for 30min before organ retrieval. In living donors, organs were explanted immediately. Freeze-clamped biopsies were taken before perfusion with Celsior solution (heart) or University of Wisconsin solution (abdominal organs) in BD and living donors or with Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutaric solution (all organs) in non-heart-beating donors, after perfusion, and after cold ischemia (4h for heart, 6h for liver and pancreas, and 12h for kidney). HEPs (adenosine triphosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine monophosphate, and phosphocreatine), xanthine, and hypoxanthine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Energy charge and adenosine triphosphate-to-adenosine diphosphate ratio were calculated. After ischemia, organs from different donor types showed no difference in energy status. In all organs, a decrease of HEP and an increase in hypoxanthine contents were observed during perfusion and ischemia, irrespective of the donor type. Organs from BD or non-heart-beating donors do not differ from living donor organs in their energy status after average tolerable ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Taking radionuclides to heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleynhans, P.H.T.; Lotter, M.G.; Van Aswegen, A.; Minnaar, P.C.; Iturralde, M.; Herbst, C.P.; Marx, D.

    1980-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease is a main cause of death in South Africa. Non-invasive ECG gated radionuclide bloodpool imaging plays an increasingly useful role in the evalution of the function of the heart as a pump, and the extent of heart muscle perfusion defects is further pinpointed by invasive krypton-81m studies to improve patient management

  5. Programming Pig

    CERN Document Server

    Gates, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This guide is an ideal learning tool and reference for Apache Pig, the open source engine for executing parallel data flows on Hadoop. With Pig, you can batch-process data without having to create a full-fledged application-making it easy for you to experiment with new datasets. Programming Pig introduces new users to Pig, and provides experienced users with comprehensive coverage on key features such as the Pig Latin scripting language, the Grunt shell, and User Defined Functions (UDFs) for extending Pig. If you need to analyze terabytes of data, this book shows you how to do it efficiently

  6. Perfusion-induced changes in cardiac contractility depend on capillary perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, M A; Heslinga, J W; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    1998-02-01

    The perfusion-induced increase in cardiac contractility (Gregg phenomenon) is especially found in heart preparations that lack adequate coronary autoregulation and thus protection of changes in capillary pressure. We determined in the isolated perfused papillary muscle of the rat whether cardiac muscle contractility is related to capillary perfusion. Oxygen availability of this muscle is independent of internal perfusion, and perfusion may be varied or even stopped without loss of function. Muscles contracted isometrically at 27 degrees C (n = 7). During the control state stepwise increases in perfusion pressure resulted in all muscles in a significant increase in active tension. Muscle diameter always increased with increased perfusion pressure, but muscle segment length was unaffected. Capillary perfusion was then obstructed by plastic microspheres (15 microns). Flow, at a perfusion pressure of 66.6 +/- 26.2 cmH2O, reduced from 17.6 +/- 5.4 microliters/min in the control state to 3.2 +/- 1.3 microliters/min after microspheres. Active tension developed by the muscle in the unperfused condition before microspheres and after microspheres did not differ significantly (-12.8 +/- 29.4% change). After microspheres similar perfusion pressure steps as in control never resulted in an increase in active tension. Even at the two highest perfusion pressures (89.1 +/- 28.4 and 106.5 +/- 31.7 cmH2O) that were applied a significant decrease in active tension was found. We conclude that the Gregg phenomenon is related to capillary perfusion.

  7. Encapsulated Glucagon-Like Peptide-1-Producing Mesenchymal Stem Cells Have a Beneficial Effect on Failing Pig Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Elizabeth J.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Malik, Nadim; Kassem, Moustapha; Lewis, Andrew L.; Wallrapp, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is an exciting and emerging treatment option to promote post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) healing; however, cell retention and efficacy in the heart remain problematic. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone with cardioprotective properties but a short half-life in vivo. The effects of prolonged GLP-1 delivery from stromal cells post-MI were evaluated in a porcine model. Human mesenchymal stem cells immortalized and engineered to produce a GLP-1 fusion protein were encapsulated in alginate (bead-GLP-1 MSC) and delivered to coronary artery branches. Control groups were cell-free beads and beads containing unmodified MSCs (bead-MSC), n = 4–5 per group. Echocardiography confirmed left ventricular (LV) dysfunction at time of delivery in all groups. Four weeks after intervention, only the bead-GLP-1 MSC group demonstrated LV function improvement toward baseline and showed decreased infarction area compared with controls. Histological analysis showed reduced inflammation and a trend toward reduced apoptosis in the infarct zone. Increased collagen but fewer myofibroblasts were observed in infarcts of the bead-GLP-1 MSC and bead-MSC groups, and significantly more vessels per mm2 were noted in the infarct of the bead-GLP-1 MSC group. No differences were observed in myocyte cross-sectional area between groups. Post-MI delivery of GLP-1 encapsulated genetically modified MSCs provided a prolonged supply of GLP-1 and paracrine stem cell factors, which improved LV function and reduced epicardial infarct size. This was associated with increased angiogenesis and an altered remodeling response. Combined benefits of paracrine stem cell factors and GLP-1 were superior to those of stem cells alone. These results suggest that encapsulated genetically modified MSCs would be beneficial for recovery following MI. PMID:23197668

  8. Visualization of myocardial perfusion derived from coronary anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, M.A.; Bescos, J.O.; Breeuwer, M.; Vilanova, A.; Gerritsen, F.A.; Gröller, M.E.; Nagel, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Visually assessing the effect of the coronary artery anatomy on the perfusion of the heart muscle in patients with coronary artery disease remains a challenging task. We explore the feasibility of visualizing this effect on perfusion using a numerical approach. We perform a computational simulation

  9. Study on the effect of the survival time and the T cells in the discordant heart xenotransplantation produced by intrathymic inoculation with xenogeneic antigen using the model of pig to monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jichen; Jiang Gening; Ding Jiaan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of survival time and T cells on the delayed xenograft rejection caused by intrathymic injection of xenogeneic antigen in the discordant cardiac xenotransplantation, and to investigate the possibility of inducing the tolerance for cardiac xenografts. Methods: In this experiment, pig and monkey were, respectively, selected as donor and recipient. Donor and recipient were divided randomly into four groups. In the blank group (group A) recipients didn't accept any treatments but heart xenotransplantation; In the whole body irradiation (WBI) group (group B) 3 Gy ( 60 Co) was received on d30 before transplantation. In the intrathymic injection group (group C) monkeys were pretreated by the intrathymic injection of pig spleen cells (5 x 10 7 ) on d21 before transplantation, the other treatments were the same as that in group A. In the irradiation and intrathymic injection group (group D) monkeys were pretreated by WBI and the intrathymic injection of pig spleen cells at the time just as that in group B and group C. In every group, monkeys were performed heterotopic heart xenotransplantation in abdomen in order to observe the survival time of cardiac xenografts. Results: (1) Survival time of donor heart in group D (91.1 ± 22.8 h) was significantly longer than group B(42.56 ± 1.4 h) and group A (35.6 ± 2.2 h) (P 0.05). (3) The results of MLR showed that there is significant reduction in group D than in group A and B (P + and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood, but pretreatment with IT and WBI can induce T cells immune 4 suppression or immune tolerance, that is similar to allotransplantation in the rodent. (2) Pretreatment with IT and WBI can induce T cells immune suppression or immune tolerance. (authors)

  10. Comparison of rest and adenosine stress quantitative and semi-quantitative myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance in patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qayyum, Abbas A; Qayyum, Faiza; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2017-01-01

    software. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that absolute quantitative data correlated stronger to maxSI (rest: r=0.296, p=.193; stress: r=0.583, p=0.011; myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR): r=0.789, pr=0.683, p=0.004) than to upslope (rest: r=0.420, p=0.......058; stress: r=0.096, p=0.704; MPR: r=0.682, p=0.004; and Δ MBF: r=0.055, p=0.804). Absolute quantified MP was able to distinguish between ischemic and non-ischemic territories at rest (left anterior descending artery (LAD): 103.1±11.3mL/100g/min vs. 206.3±98.5mL/100g/min; p=0.001, right coronary artery (RCA......: 206.6±105.1mL/100g/min vs. 273.8±78.0mL/100g/min; p=0.186). The correlation between global maxSI and positron emission tomography data was non-significant at rest and borderline significant at stress (r=0.265, p=0.382 and r=0.601, p=0.050, respectively). Quantified MP may be useful in patients...

  11. Role of myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography in pediatric cardiology practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundaram P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic and prognostic power of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with coronary artery disease has been demonstrated with planar imaging which was further improvised with addition of gated SPECT and newer Technetium labeled myocardial perfusion tracers like SestaMIBI, Tetrofosmin. Myocardial perfusion abnormalities at rest and after stress are considered to be the best predictors of cardiac event-free survival in adults with ischemic heart disease. This article highlights various myocardial perfusion imaging (MPIradiopharmaceuticals, exercise procedures, pharmacological stress protocols, indications for MPI and myocardial perfusion patterns in children with some of the common congenital and acquired heart diseases.

  12. Animal models got you puzzled?: think pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Eric M; Agca, Yuksel; Ganjam, Venkataseshu; Evans, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Swine are an excellent large animal model for human health and disease because their size and physiology are similar to humans, in particular, with respect to the skin, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. In addition, the pig has many emerging technologies that will only enhance the development of the pig as the nonrodent biomedical model of choice. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Development of a new extracorporeal whole-liver perfusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Katsutoshi; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Guo, Lei; Natori, Takeshi; Shindoh, Junichi; Karasawa, Yasuaki; Iida, Yuhki; Kojima, Kentaro; Michishita, Kazuya; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    We have developed a new extracorporeal whole-liver accommodation device in which a whole swine liver is placed in a physiological state by modeling the intraabdominal arrangement in the pig body, with the liver supported by a special inferior vena cava tube. Furthermore, we employed a diaphragm-type artificial heart in our system to produce pulsatile blood flow through the hepatic artery, which is considered to be indispensable to dilate peripheral vessels and supply oxygenated whole blood to the peripheral liver tissue. Beneficial effects were demonstrated in visual findings and bile juice secretion. The color of the liver surface in our system remained bright red, indicating that the liver vessels were well drained and free from congestion, and bile juice secretion was maintained at more than 10 ml/h throughout the perfusion period. Our system exhibited excellent ammonia removal and urea nitrogen synthesis, and serum aspartate aminotransferase levels showed no increase, indicating the absence of hepatocyte destruction. Histological findings showed that the liver could expand appropriately and was free from compression caused by its own weight. In conclusion, our original liver accommodation device enabled appropriate expansion of the whole liver and supplied adequate oxygenated blood to peripheral areas by means of a pulsatile pump.

  14. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  15. Surveillance study for creating the national clinical database relating to ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT of asymptomatic ischemic heart disease in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus. J-ACCESS 2 study design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusuoka, Hideo; Yamasaki, Yoshimitsu; Izumi, Tohru; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Shimamoto, Kazuaki; Yamada, Nobuhiro; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2008-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction. Thus, a surveillance study was conducted as part of studies to create a national database related to electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of ischemic heart disease. Single-photon emission computed tomography was conducted in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their prognoses will be followed for 3 years, stratified by patients' clinical background and SPECT findings. A total of 513 patients from 50 institutions were enrolled in this study, 297 of whom were men (age 66.2±0.4 years, mean±standard error of the mean (SEM)) and 261 women (age 67.8±0.5 years). They have a history of retinopathy (25.3%), neuropathy (19.9%), cerebrovascular disorder, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and photocoagulation. Major risk factors for present disease were hypertension (82.3%) and hyperlipidemia (79.7%). In 244 patients (129 men and 115 women), body mass index (BMI) was 25 or more. Fifty-two of them (10.1%) underwent coronary angiography; of these, 26 (50.0%) had no coronary artery lesions with 75% or more stenosis, and only 1 (1.9%) had a left main trunk with 50% or more stenosis. An overwhelming majority of patients (94.3%) underwent SPECT imaging by a 1-day stress-followed-by-rest procedure. Stress procedure was exercise in most (70.8%) patients, followed by dipyridamole infusion in 14.6%, adenosine infusion in 6.6%, and adenosine triphosphate infusion in 5.7%. Endpoint of stress examination was most often fatigue in lower limbs (40.7%), followed by completion of pharmacological stress protocol (28.7%), and achievement of target heart rate (26.3%). The largest number of patients (198, 38.6%) received 99m Tc-tetrofosmin at an initial dosage of 200-300 MBq (mean 331±3 MBq) followed by a second dosage of 700-800 MBq (mean 748±8 MBq). Among them, 491 (95.7%) received some kind of therapeutic drug: hypoglycemic drugs were

  16. Optimization of perfusion studies using Atropine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, A.N.; Valle, V.M.; Montoya, M.J.; Eskenazi, E.S.; Montiel, M.L.; Cueto, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    The studies of myocardial perfusion require an adequate stress; exercise or pharmacological. Every day, more pharmacological studies are performed, specially in some group of patients (women, AMI, etc). There some drugs that are used for this purpose, as adenosine and dobutamine. However, their cost and the lack of availability and infrastructure in our country do not allow there routinely use. We performed dipyridamol as a pharmacological stress, however in some patients there is a doubt regarding if the pharmacological effect was adequate. Atropine is a drug that is frequently used for different purpose and it is well know its tachycardic response. We present and alternative technique, using dipyridamol-atropine as a protocol of stress perfusion study. Our goal was to correlate the standard dipyridamol -thallium perfusion study and the dipyridamol -atropine-perfusion in patients with chronic coronary disease. We evaluated 6 patients (5 males) with stable angina and chronic coronary disease. A standard dipyridamol-thallium study was performed in all of them. Dipyridamole was administered intravenously at a rate of 0.14 mg/kg/min over 6 min for a total of 0.84 mg/kg body weight. Blood pressure, heart rate, EKG and symptoms were monitored before, during and after the pharmacological infusion. Two minutes after the infusion was completed, the radiotracer was injected intravenously. In the next 6 months, without any modification of the clinical situation (symptoms and therapy) a new dipyridamol study was performed, using 1 mg of atropine after the administration of dipyridamol. There were no differences in the collateral effects and we observed and average increase of 30% in the heart rate in relation with the study using dipyridamol alone. The addition of atropine to the standard dipyridamol perfusion study is safe, cheaper and improved the detection of perfusion defects in patients with coronary artery disease

  17. Prevalence of the Novel Torque Teno Sus Virus Species k2b from Pigs in the United States and Lack of Association with Post-Weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome or Mulberry Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A J; Huang, Y-W; Heffron, C L; Opriessnig, T; Patterson, A R; Meng, X-J

    2017-12-01

    The family Anelloviridae includes a number of viruses infecting humans (Torque teno viruses, TTV) and other animals including swine (Torque teno sus viruses, TTSuV). Two genetically distinct TTSuV species have been identified from swine thus far (TTSuV1 and TTSuVk2), although their definitive association with disease remains debatable. In 2012, a novel TTSuV species was identified from commercial swine serum and classified in the genus Kappatorquevirus as TTSuVk2b. The other Kappatorquevirus species, TTSuVk2a, has been associated with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) when coinfected with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2). Therefore, in this study, we initially amplified a portion of TTSuVk2b ORF1 and, subsequently, assessed the molecular prevalence of the virus in pigs in the United States. A total of 127 serum and 115 tissue samples were obtained from pigs with PMWS or mulberry heart disease (MHD) in six states and tested by PCR for the presence of TTSuVk2b DNA. Approximately 27.6% of the serum and 21.7% of tissue samples tested positive for TTSuVk2b DNA, and the positive products were confirmed by sequencing. However, we did not detect a correlation between TTSuVk2b infection and PMWS or MHD. The near full-length genomic sequence of US TTSuVk2b was determined, and sequence analysis revealed that the US TTSuVk2b isolates were 95% identical to the TTSuVk2b isolate from Spain, with most of the variations clustering in ORF1. We conclude that the novel TTSuVk2b species is present in pigs in the United States and its potential association with a disease warrants further investigation. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Perfusion dyssynchrony analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiribiri, A.; Villa, A.D.M.; Sammut, E.; Breeuwer, M.; Nagel, E.

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: We sought to describe perfusion dyssynchrony analysis specifically to exploit the high temporal resolution of stress perfusion CMR. This novel approach detects differences in the temporal distribution of the wash-in of contrast agent across the left ventricular wall. METHODS AND RESULTS:

  19. Laser doppler perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waardell, K.

    1992-01-01

    Recording of tissue perfusion is important in assessing the influence of peripheral vascular diseases on the microcirculation. This thesis reports on a laser doppler perfusion imager based on dynamic light scattering in tissue. When a low power He-Ne laser beam sequentally scans the tissue, moving blood cells generate doppler components in the back-scattered light. A fraction of this light is detected by a photodetector and converted into an electrical signal. In the processor, a signal proportional to the tissue perfusion at each measurement site is calculated and stored. When the scanning procedure is completed, a color-coded perfusion image is presented on a monitor. To convert important aspects of the perfusion image into more quantitative parameters, data analysis functions are implemented in the software. A theory describing the dependence of the distance between individual measurement points and detector on the system amplification factor is proposed and correction algorithms are presented. The performance of the laser doppler perfusion imager was evaluated using a flow simulator. A linear relationship between processor output signal and flow through the simulator was demonstrated for blood cell concentrations below 0.2%. The median sampling depth of the laser beam was simulated by a Monte Carlo technique and estimated to 235 μm. The perfusion imager has been used in the clinic to study perfusion changes in port wine stains treated with argon laser and to investigate the intensity and extension of the cutaneous axon reflex response after electrical nerve stimulation. The fact that perfusion can be visualized without touching the tissue implies elimination of sterilization problems, thus simplifying clinical investigations of perfusion in association with diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular diseases. 22 refs

  20. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1984-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the pig pancreas is localized to nerves, many of which travel along the pancreatic ducts. VIP stimulates pancreatic fluid and bicarbonate secretion like secretin. Electrical vagal stimulation in the pig causes an atropine-resistant profuse secretion...... of bicarbonate-rich pancreatic juice. In an isolated perfused preparation of the pig pancreas with intact vagal nerve supply, electrical vagal stimulation caused an atropine-resistant release of VIP, which accurately parallelled the exocrine secretion of juice and bicarbonate. Perfusion of the pancreas...... with a potent VIP-antiserum inhibited the effect of vagal stimulation on the exocrine secretion. It is concluded, that VIP is responsible for (at least part of) the neurally controlled fluid and bicarbonate secretion from the pig pancreas....

  1. Effects of assisted and variable mechanical ventilation on cardiorespiratory interactions in anesthetized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Alessandro; Güldner, Andreas; Simpson, David M; Carvalho, Nadja C; Franke, Susanne; Uhlig, Christopher; Koch, Thea; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2012-03-01

    The physiological importance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardioventilatory coupling (CVC) has not yet been fully elucidated, but these phenomena might contribute to improve ventilation/perfusion matching, with beneficial effects on gas exchange. Furthermore, decreased RSA amplitude has been suggested as an indicator of impaired autonomic control and poor clinical outcome, also during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation (MV). However, it is currently unknown how different modes of MV, including variable tidal volumes (V(T)), affect RSA and CVC during anesthesia. We compared the effects of pressure controlled (PCV) versus pressure assisted (PSV) ventilation, and of random variable versus constant V(T), on RSA and CVC in eight anesthetized pigs. At comparable depth of anesthesia, global hemodynamics, and ventilation, RSA amplitude increased from 20 ms in PCV to 50 ms in PSV (p < 0.05). CVC was detected (using proportional Shannon entropy of the interval between each inspiration onset and the previous R-peak in ECG) in two animals in PCV and seven animals in PSV. Variable V(T) did not significantly influence these phenomena. Furthermore, heart period and systolic arterial pressure oscillations were in phase during PCV but in counter-phase during PSV. At the same depth of anesthesia in pigs, PSV increases RSA amplitude and CVC compared to PCV. Our data suggest that the central respiratory drive, but not the baroreflex or the mechano-electric feedback in the heart, is the main mechanism behind the RSA increase. Hence, differences in RSA and CVC between mechanically ventilated patients might reflect the difference in ventilation mode rather than autonomic impairment. Also, since gas exchange did not increase from PCV to PSV, it is questionable whether RSA has any significance in improving ventilation/perfusion matching during MV.

  2. Effects of assisted and variable mechanical ventilation on cardiorespiratory interactions in anesthetized pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beda, Alessandro; Güldner, Andreas; Carvalho, Nadja C; Franke, Susanne; Uhlig, Christopher; Koch, Thea; De Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Simpson, David M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    The physiological importance of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and cardioventilatory coupling (CVC) has not yet been fully elucidated, but these phenomena might contribute to improve ventilation/perfusion matching, with beneficial effects on gas exchange. Furthermore, decreased RSA amplitude has been suggested as an indicator of impaired autonomic control and poor clinical outcome, also during positive-pressure mechanical ventilation (MV). However, it is currently unknown how different modes of MV, including variable tidal volumes (V T ), affect RSA and CVC during anesthesia. We compared the effects of pressure controlled (PCV) versus pressure assisted (PSV) ventilation, and of random variable versus constant V T , on RSA and CVC in eight anesthetized pigs. At comparable depth of anesthesia, global hemodynamics, and ventilation, RSA amplitude increased from 20 ms in PCV to 50 ms in PSV (p < 0.05). CVC was detected (using proportional Shannon entropy of the interval between each inspiration onset and the previous R-peak in ECG) in two animals in PCV and seven animals in PSV. Variable V T did not significantly influence these phenomena. Furthermore, heart period and systolic arterial pressure oscillations were in phase during PCV but in counter-phase during PSV. At the same depth of anesthesia in pigs, PSV increases RSA amplitude and CVC compared to PCV. Our data suggest that the central respiratory drive, but not the baroreflex or the mechano-electric feedback in the heart, is the main mechanism behind the RSA increase. Hence, differences in RSA and CVC between mechanically ventilated patients might reflect the difference in ventilation mode rather than autonomic impairment. Also, since gas exchange did not increase from PCV to PSV, it is questionable whether RSA has any significance in improving ventilation/perfusion matching during MV. (paper)

  3. Sympathetic Nervous Regulation of Calcium and Action Potential Alternans in the Intact Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, James; Bishop, Martin J; Wilder, Catherine D E; O'Shea, Christopher; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Arrhythmogenic cardiac alternans are thought to be an important determinant for the initiation of ventricular fibrillation. There is limited information on the effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation (SNS) on alternans in the intact heart and the conclusions of existing studies, focused on investigating electrical alternans, are conflicted. Meanwhile, several lines of evidence implicate instabilities in Ca handling, not electrical restitution, as the primary mechanism underpinning alternans. Despite this, there have been no studies on Ca alternans and SNS in the intact heart. The present study sought to address this, by application of voltage and Ca optical mapping for the simultaneous study of APD and Ca alternans in the intact guinea pig heart during direct SNS. Objective : To determine the effects of SNS on APD and Ca alternans in the intact guinea pig heart and to examine the mechanism(s) by which the effects of SNS are mediated. Methods and Results : Studies utilized simultaneous voltage and Ca optical mapping in isolated guinea pig hearts with intact innervation. Alternans were induced using a rapid dynamic pacing protocol. SNS was associated with rate-independent shortening of action potential duration (APD) and the suppression of APD and Ca alternans, as indicated by a shift in the alternans threshold to faster pacing rates. Qualitatively similar results were observed with exogenous noradrenaline perfusion. In contrast with previous reports, both SNS and noradrenaline acted to flatten the slope of the electrical restitution curve. Pharmacological block of the slow delayed rectifying potassium current (I Ks ), sufficient to abolish I Ks -mediated APD-adaptation, partially reversed the effects of SNS on pacing-induced alternans. Treatment with cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum ATPase, had opposite effects to that of SNS, acting to increase susceptibility to alternans, and suggesting that accelerated Ca reuptake

  4. A Unifying model of perfusion and motion applied to reconstruction of sparsely sampled free-breathing myocardial perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    The clinical potential of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is currently limited by respiratory induced motion of the heart. This paper presents a unifying model of perfusion and motion in which respiratory motion becomes an integral part of myocardial perfusion...... quantification. Hence, the need for tedious manual motion correction prior to perfusion quantification is avoided. In addition, we demonstrate that the proposed framework facilitates the process of reconstructing DCEMRI from sparsely sampled data in the presence of respiratory motion. The paper focuses primarily...... on the underlying theory of the proposed framework, but shows in vivo results of respiratory motion correction and simulation results of reconstructing sparsely sampled data....

  5. Normothermic extracorporeal perfusion of isolated porcine liver after warm ischaemia: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Suzuki, Satoshi; Marino, Bruno; Starkey, Graeme K; Chambers, Brenton; Fink, Michael A; Wang, Bao Zhong; Houston, Shane; Eastwood, Glenn; Calzavacca, Paolo; Glassford, Neil; Skene, Alison; Jones, Daryl A; Jones, Robert

    2012-09-01

    Liver transplantation is a major life-saving procedure, and donation after cardiac death (DCD) has increased the pool of potential liver donors. However, DCD livers are at increased risk of primary graft dysfunction and biliary tract ischaemia. Normothermic extracorporeal liver perfusion (NELP) may increase the ability to protect, evaluate and, in future, transplant DCD livers. We conducted proof-of-concept experiments using a DCD model in the pig to assess the short-term (4 hours) feasibility and functional efficacy of NELP. Using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, parenteral nutrition, separate hepatic artery and portal vein perfusion, and physiological perfusion pressures, we achieved NELP and evidence of function (bile production, paracetamol removal, maintenance of normal ammonia and lactate levels) for 4 hours in pig livers subjected to 15 and 30 minutes of cardiac arrest before explantation. Our experiments justify further investigations of the feasibility and efficacy of human DCD liver preservation by ex-vivo perfusion.

  6. Spatio-temporal analysis of blood perfusion by imaging photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaunseder, Sebastian; Trumpp, Alexander; Ernst, Hannes; Förster, Michael; Malberg, Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) has attracted much attention over the last years. The vast majority of works focuses on methods to reliably extract the heart rate from videos. Only a few works addressed iPPGs ability to exploit spatio-temporal perfusion pattern to derive further diagnostic statements. This work directs at the spatio-temporal analysis of blood perfusion from videos. We present a novel algorithm that bases on the two-dimensional representation of the blood pulsation (perfusion map). The basic idea behind the proposed algorithm consists of a pairwise estimation of time delays between photoplethysmographic signals of spatially separated regions. The probabilistic approach yields a parameter denoted as perfusion speed. We compare the perfusion speed versus two parameters, which assess the strength of blood pulsation (perfusion strength and signal to noise ratio). Preliminary results using video data with different physiological stimuli (cold pressure test, cold face test) show that all measures are influenced by those stimuli (some of them with statistical certainty). The perfusion speed turned out to be more sensitive than the other measures in some cases. However, our results also show that the intraindividual stability and interindividual comparability of all used measures remain critical points. This work proves the general feasibility of employing the perfusion speed as novel iPPG quantity. Future studies will address open points like the handling of ballistocardiographic effects and will try to deepen the understanding of the predominant physiological mechanisms and their relation to the algorithmic performance.

  7. The isolated perfused human skin flap model: A missing link in skin penetration studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternullo, Selenia; de Weerd, Louis; Flaten, Gøril Eide; Holsæter, Ann Mari; Škalko-Basnet, Nataša

    2017-01-01

    Development of effective (trans)dermal drug delivery systems requires reliable skin models to evaluate skin drug penetration. The isolated perfused human skin flap remains metabolically active tissue for up to 6h during in vitro perfusion. We introduce the isolated perfused human skin flap as a close-to-in vivo skin penetration model. To validate the model's ability to evaluate skin drug penetration the solutions of a hydrophilic (calcein) and a lipophilic (rhodamine) fluorescence marker were applied. The skin flaps were perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer (pH7.4). Infrared technology was used to monitor perfusion and to select a well-perfused skin area for administration of the markers. Flap perfusion and physiological parameters were maintained constant during the 6h experiments and the amount of markers in the perfusate was determined. Calcein was detected in the perfusate, whereas rhodamine was not detectable. Confocal images of skin cross-sections shoved that calcein was uniformly distributed through the skin, whereas rhodamine accumulated in the stratum corneum. For comparison, the penetration of both markers was evaluated on ex vivo human skin, pig skin and cellophane membrane. The proposed perfused flap model enabled us to distinguish between the penetrations of the two markers and could be a promising close-to-in vivo tool in skin penetration studies and optimization of formulations destined for skin administration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulmonary perfusion ''without ventilation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.N.; Sziklas, J.J.; Spencer, R.P.; Rosenberg, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An 88-yr-old man, with prior left upper lobectomy and phrenic nerve injury, had a ventilation/perfusion lung image. Both wash-in and equilibrium ventilation images showed no radioactive gas in the left lung. Nevertheless, the left lung was perfused. A similar result was obtained on a repeat study 8 days later. Delayed images, during washout, showed some radioactive gas in the left lung. Nearly absent ventilation (but continued perfusion) of that lung might have been related to altered gas dynamics brought about by the prior lobectomy, a submucosal bronchial lesion, phrenic nerve damage, and limited motion of the left part of the diaphragm. This case raises the issue of the degree of ventilation (and the phase relationship between the lungs) required for the entry of radioactive gas into a diseased lung, and the production of a ''reversed ventilation/perfusion mismatch.''

  9. Establishment of a hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; He, Fu-Liang; Liu, Fu-Quan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2015-08-28

    To determine the feasibility and safety of establishing a porcine hepatic cirrhosis and portal hypertension model by hepatic arterial perfusion with 80% alcohol. Twenty-one healthy Guizhou miniature pigs were randomly divided into three experimental groups and three control groups. The pigs in the three experimental groups were subjected to hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of 80% alcohol, respectively, while those in the three control groups underwent hepatic arterial perfusion with 7, 12 and 17 mL of saline, respectively. Hepatic arteriography and direct portal phlebography were performed on all animals before and after perfusion, and the portal venous pressure and diameter were measured before perfusion, immediately after perfusion, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after perfusion. The following procedures were performed at different time points: routine blood sampling, blood biochemistry, blood coagulation and blood ammonia tests before surgery, and at 2, 4 and 6 wk after surgery; hepatic biopsy before surgery, within 6 h after surgery, and at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 wk after surgery; abdominal enhanced computed tomography examination before surgery and at 6 wk after surgery; autopsy and multi-point sampling of various liver lobes for histological examination at 6 wk after surgery. In experimental group 1, different degrees of hepatic fibrosis were observed, and one pig developed hepatic cirrhosis. In experimental group 2, there were cases of hepatic cirrhosis, different degrees of increased portal venous pressure, and intrahepatic portal venous bypass, but neither extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation nor death occurred. In experimental group 3, two animals died and three animals developed hepatic cirrhosis, and different degrees of increased portal venous pressure and intrahepatic portal venous bypass were also observed, but there was no extrahepatic portal-systemic bypass circulation. It is feasible to establish an animal model of hepatic cirrhosis and

  10. A capillary-based perfusion phantom for simulation of brain perfusion for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciak, A.; Kronfeld, A.; Mueller-Forell, W.; Wille, C.; Kempski, O.; Stoeter, P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The measurement of the CBF is a non-standardized procedure and there are no reliable gold standards. This abstract shows a capillary-based perfusion-phantom for CE-DSC-MRI. It has equivalent flow properties to those within the tissue capillary system of the human brain and allows the validation of the Siemens Perfusion (MR) software. Materials and Methods: The perfusion phantom consists of a dialyzer for the simulation of the capillary system, a feeding tube for simulation of the AIF and a pulsatile pump for simulation of the heart. Using this perfusion phantom, the exact determination of the gold standard CBF due to the well-known geometry of the phantom is easy. It was validated based on different perfusion measurements. These measurements were investigated with standard software (Siemens Perfusion MR). The software determined the CBF within the capillary system. Based on this CBF, a comparison to the gold standard was made with several different flow speeds. After AIF selection, a total of 726 CBF data points were automatically extracted by the software. Results: This results in a comparison of the gold standard CBF to these 726 CBF values. Therefore, a reproducible and reliable deviation estimation between gold standard CBF and measured CBF using the software was computed. It can be shown that the deviation between gold standard and software-based evaluation ranges between 1 and 31 %. Conclusion: There is no significance for any correlation between flow speed and amount of deviation. The mean measured CBF is 11.4 % higher than the gold standard CBF (p-value < 0.001). Using this kind of perfusion-phantom, the validation of different software systems allows reliable conclusions about their quality. (orig.)

  11. Nifedipine and thallium-201 myocardial perfusion in progressive systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahan, A.; Devaux, J.Y.; Amor, B.

    1986-01-01

    Heart disease in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis may be due in part to myocardial ischemia caused by a disturbance of the coronary microcirculation. To determine whether abnormalities of myocardial perfusion in this disorder are potentially reversible, we evaluated the effect of the coronary vasodilator nifedipine on myocardial perfusion assessed by thallium-201 scanning in 20 patients. Thallium-201 single-photon-emission computerized tomography was performed under control conditions and 90 minutes after 20 mg of oral nifedipine. The mean (+/- SD) number of left ventricular segments with perfusion defects decreased from 5.3 +/- 2.0 to 3.3 +/- 2.2 after nifedipine (P = 0.0003). Perfusion abnormalities were quantified by a perfusion score (0 to 2.0) assigned to each left ventricular segment and by a global perfusion score (0 to 18) for the entire left ventricle. The mean perfusion score in segments with resting defects increased from 0.97 +/- 0.24 to 1.26 +/- 0.44 after nifedipine (P less than 0.00001). The mean global perfusion score increased from 11.2 +/- 1.7 to 12.8 +/- 2.4 after nifedipine (P = 0.003). The global perfusion score increased by at least 2.0 in 10 patients and decreased by at least 2.0 in only 1. These observations reveal short-term improvement in thallium-201 myocardial perfusion with nifedipine in patients with progressive systemic sclerosis. The results are consistent with a potentially reversible abnormality of coronary vasomotion in this disorder, but the long-term therapeutic effects of nifedipine remain to be determined

  12. Goal-directed-perfusion in neonatal aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesnjevar, Robert Anton; Purbojo, Ariawan; Muench, Frank; Juengert, Joerg; Rueffer, André

    2016-07-01

    Reduction of mortality and morbidity in congenital cardiac surgery has always been and remains a major target for the complete team involved. As operative techniques are more and more standardized and refined, surgical risk and associated complication rates have constantly been reduced to an acceptable level but are both still present. Aortic arch surgery in neonates seems to be of particular interest, because perfusion techniques differ widely among institutions and an ideal form of a so called "total body perfusion (TBP)" is somewhat difficult to achieve. Thus concepts of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA), regional cerebral perfusion (RCP/with cardioplegic cardiac arrest or on the perfused beating heart) and TBP exist in parallel and all carry an individual risk for organ damage related to perfusion management, chosen core temperature and time on bypass. Patient safety relies more and more on adequate end organ perfusion on cardiopulmonary bypass, especially sensitive organs like the brain, heart, kidney, liver and the gut, whereby on adequate tissue protection, temperature management and oxygen delivery should be visualized and monitored.

  13. Acute heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Sénior Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Gándara Ricardo, Jairo Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    We describe the clinical case of a 26 year-old woman who came to Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación (Medellín, Colombia) with symptoms and signs of acute heart failure. She had been previously diagnosed with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction without clear origin, pulmonary thromboembolism and ischemic stroke, without optimal neurohormonal modulation. She was admitted with clinical findings of fluid overload and low tissue perfusion, with inotropic support requirem...

  14. General concepts of ventricular function, Myocardial perfusion, and exercise physiology relevant to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, M.W.; Becker, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of ventricular mechanics, the physiology of the coronary circulation, and exercise physiology is necessary for the accurate interpretation of radionuclide ventriculographic and myocardial perfusion images. This chapter outlines these important basic concepts as applied to the whole heart

  15. Skin Blood Perfusion and Cellular Response to Insertion of Insulin Pen Needles With Different Diameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente Merete; Bo Jensen, Casper

    2014-01-01

    skin blood perfusion response around needle insertion sites. Three common sized pen needles of 28G, 30G, and 32G as well as hooked 32G needles, were inserted into the neck skin of pigs and then removed. Laser Speckle Contrast Analysis was used to measure skin blood perfusion for 20 minutes after...... blood perfusion recording and grouped according to needle type, skin blood perfusion response relates to needle diameter. The response was significantly higher after insertions with 28G and hooked 32G needles than with 30G (P ..., but there was a trend of an increased response with increasing needle diameter. Skin blood perfusion response to pen needle insertions rank according to needle diameter, and the tissue response caused by hooked 32G needles corresponds to that of 28G needles. The relation between needle diameter and trauma when...

  16. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette D Rieg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH. However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs and humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL. RESULTS: In the IPL (GP, milrinone (10 µM lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP, milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120% and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823, adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536 and protein kinase A (KT 5720, but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME. In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%, however only if pre-constricted. DISCUSSION: Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  17. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  18. Differential physiologic effects of perfusion of scala tympani versus scala vestibuli in the ischemic cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Rokugo, M; Takasaka, T; Thalmann, R

    1993-07-01

    The effectiveness of perilymphatic perfusion with oxygenated artificial media upon the endocochlear potential (EP) was measured during systemic ischemia in the guinea pig. Differences in the effects of perfusion of the two perilymphatic scalae were determined. Perfusion of scala vestibuli with oxygenated artificial perilymph at a high flow rate resulted in complete recovery of the EP to the pre-ischemic level, whereas perfusion of scala tympani with the same medium was unable to effect complete recovery. The recovery obtained by perfusion of scala tympani was about half that obtained of scala vestibuli. The pO2 in scala media was measured during perfusion by means of oxygen-sensitive microelectrodes. perfusion of scala vestibuli led to an approximately two-fold higher pO2 in scala media than perfusion of scala tympani. During perfusion, the pO2 in scala media varied dependent upon depth of electrode insertion, with a gradient decreasing toward the stria vascularis, a direction opposite to that seen under normal metabolic conditions. These findings suggest that, in the ischemic cochlea, oxygen enters scala media more easily from scala vestibuli across Reissner's membrane than from scala tympani via the basilar membrane/organ of Corti complex.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG UTERUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus

  20. Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kinji; Ogai, Toshihiro; Katori, Ryo

    1986-01-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; 1) at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 2) 100 msec before the R wave, and 3) 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery. In all patients with anterior myocardial infarction, low perfusion was observed at the infarcted portion compared to the non-infarcted myocardium. In patients with inferior myocardial infarction, this low perfusion area was not observed because right coronary angiography was not subjected to DSA in this study. (J.P.N.)

  1. Evidence of two different Na/sup +/-dependent (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding sites of a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase of guinea-pig hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, U; Klaus, W [Koeln Univ. (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-11-01

    The influence of various Na/sup +/ concentrations on (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding was studied in experiments on a microsomal Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) from guinea-pig hearts. The ATP-independent cardiac glycoside binding was not influenced by increasing Na/sup +/ concentrations. However, a good correlation was found between the ATP-dependent (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding and Na/sup +/ concentration. A more detailed analysis of these results revealed two distinct processes involved in this interaction: one ouabain binding process was activated at rather low Na/sup +/ concentrations, (Ksub(0.5) = 4.5 mM); this type of (/sup 3/H)-ouabain binding was strongly correlated to the Na/sup +/ concentration necessary for half maximum phosphorylation (Ksub(0.5) = 1 mM). The other ouabain binding process was predominant at high Na/sup +/ concentrations (Ksub(0.5 = 69 mM). On the basis of the commonly accepted ATPase reaction cycle a model for the interaction of cardiac glycosides with the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-ATPase is proposed, assuming two different binding sites for cardiac glycosides (E/sub 2/ -P and Esub(l) -P) and involving a translocation of these drugs from an outer to an inner compartment of the cell membrane.

  2. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, Bram F.; Moonen, Rik P. M.; Paulis, Leonie E. M.; Geelen, Tessa; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300-400 msec. The method was

  3. Mouse myocardial first-pass perfusion MR imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coolen, B.F.; Moonen, R.P.M.; Paulis, L.E.M.; Geelen, T.; Nicolay, K.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    A first-pass myocardial perfusion sequence for mouse cardiac MRI is presented. A segmented ECG-triggered acquisition combined with parallel imaging acceleration was used to capture the first pass of a Gd-DTPA bolus through the mouse heart with a temporal resolution of 300–400 msec. The method was

  4. Myocardial slice: a physiological approach to beta-adrenergic ([3H] CGP-12177) receptor binding in hamster and guinea pig heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Wright, W M; Armour, J A; Johnstone, D E; Wilkinson, M

    1989-08-01

    A new technique is described for the characterization and quantification of beta-adrenergic receptors in biologically viable slices of myocardium from the hamster right ventricle using the hydrophilic radioligand, [3H]CGP-12177 (CGP). Binding was stereospecific, saturable, of high affinity, reversible, displaceable by appropriate drugs, and highly positively correlated with increasing tissue concentrations. Bmax for CGP binding to myocardial slices from 50-day-old male Golden Syrian hamsters was 3.28 +/- 0.15 fmol/mg wet weight, while Kd was 0.21 +/- 0.02 nM. Freezing resulted in a close to 50% loss of receptor number with no apparent change in affinity. The slice preparation may be utilized to detect in vivo changes in myocardial cell surface receptors, as evidenced by the fact that the number of receptors in slices from ischemic guinea pigs was increased (Bmax = 15.5 +/- 1.25 fmol/mg wet wt) compared with sham-operated controls (Bmax = 10.4 +/- 0.38 fmol/mg wet wt). The minimal tissue disruption associated with this procedure, as well as its speed, simplicity, and relatively low cost, suggest that the myocardial slice preparation provides an important methodology for the study of beta-adrenergic receptor binding in the semiintact myocardium.

  5. Vasoactive mediators and splanchnic perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, P M; Bulkley, G B

    1993-02-01

    To provide an overview of the splanchnic hemodynamic response to circulatory shock. Previous studies performed in our own laboratory, as well as a computer-assisted search of the English language literature (MEDLINE, 1966 to 1991), followed by a selective review of pertinent articles. Studies were selected that demonstrated relevance to the splanchnic hemodynamic response to circulatory shock, either by investigating the pathophysiology or documenting the sequelae. Article selection included clinical studies as well as studies in appropriate animal models. Pertinent data were abstracted from the cited articles. The splanchnic hemodynamic response to circulatory shock is characterized by a selective vasoconstriction of the mesenteric vasculature mediated largely by the renin-angiotensin axis. This vasospasm, while providing a natural selective advantage to the organism in mild-to-moderate shock (preserving relative perfusion of the heart, kidneys, and brain), may, in more severe shock, cause consequent loss of the gut epithelial barrier, or even hemorrhagic gastritis, ischemic colitis, or ischemic hepatitis. From a physiologic standpoint, nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass, a controlled form of circulatory shock, has been found experimentally to significantly increase circulating levels of angiotensin II, the hormone responsible for this selective splanchnic vasoconstriction. While angiotensin II has been viewed primarily as the mediator responsible for the increased total vascular resistance seen during (and after) cardiopulmonary bypass, it may also cause the disproportionate decrease in mesenteric perfusion, as measured in human subjects by intraluminal gastric tonometry and galactose clearance by the liver, as well as the consequent development of the multiple organ failure syndrome seen in 1% to 5% of patients after cardiac surgery.

  6. Human Umbilical Cord-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Improve Left Ventricular Function, Perfusion, and Remodeling in a Porcine Model of Chronic Myocardial Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan-Bin; Huang, He; Sun, Ping; Ma, Shi-Ze; Liu, An-Heng; Xue, Jian; Fu, Jin-Hui; Liang, Yu-Qian; Liu, Bing; Wu, Dong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell therapy has emerged as a new strategy for treatment of ischemic heart disease. Although umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (UC-MSCs) have been used preferentially in the acute ischemia model, data for the chronic ischemia model are lacking. In this study, we investigated the effect of UC-MSCs originated from Wharton’s jelly in the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia in a porcine model induced by ameroid constrictor. Four weeks after ameroid constrictor placement, the surviving animals were divided randomly into two groups to undergo saline injection (n = 6) or UC-MSC transplantation (n = 6) through the left main coronary artery. Two additional intravenous administrations of UC-MSCs were performed in the following 2 weeks to enhance therapeutic effect. Cardiac function and perfusion were examined just before and at 4 weeks after intracoronary transplantation. The results showed that pigs with UC-MSC transplantation exhibited significantly greater left ventricular ejection fraction compared with control animals (61.3% ± 1.3% vs. 50.3% ± 2.0%, p UC-MSC treatment improves left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodeling in a porcine model with chronic myocardial ischemia. Significance Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many patients with chronic myocardial ischemia are not suitable for surgery and have no effective drug treatment; they are called “no-option” patients. This study finds that umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stromal cells transplanted by intracoronary delivery combined with two intravenous administrations was safe and could significantly improve left ventricular function, perfusion, and remodeling in a large-animal model of chronic myocardial ischemia, which provides a new choice for the no-option patients. In addition, this study used clinical-grade mesenchymal stem cells with delivery and assessment methods commonly used clinically to facilitate further clinical transformation. PMID

  7. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  8. Effect of mobilization of bone marrow stem cells by granulocyte colony stimulating factor on clinical symptoms, left ventricular perfusion and function in patients with severe chronic ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yongzhong; Tägil, Kristina; Ripa, Rasmus S.

    2005-01-01

    . Myocardial perfusion was unchanged at adenosine stress single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) or magnetic resonance images (MRI). Left ventricular ejection fraction decreased from 57% to 52% (p... with echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment by G-CSF improved symptoms but not signs of myocardial ischemia in patients with severe IHD. The effects seemed related to mobilization of stem cells. An adverse effect on ejection fraction could not be excluded...

  9. Hepatic artery perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Gyves, J.W.; Ziessman, H.A.; Ensminger, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Organ and region-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy have been used for more than two decades to treat malignant neoplasms in the extremities, head and neck region, pelvis, liver, and other areas. Substantial evidence of improved response to regional chemotherapy now exists, but there are stringent requirements for successful application of the regional technique. First, the chemotherapeutic agent employed must have appropriate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Second, the drug must be reliably delivered to the tumor-bearing area. This typically requires an arteriographic assessment of the vascular supply of the tumor, followed by placement of a therapeutic catheter and confirmation that the ''watershed'' perfusion distribution from the catheter truly encompasses the tumor. Optimal catheter placement also minimizes perfusion of nontarget organs. Radionuclide perfusion imaging with technetium 99m-labeled particles, either microspheres or macroaggregates of albumin, has become the method of choice for making these assessments. Catheter placement itself is considered by many to represent a type of ''therapeutic'' intervention. However, once the catheter is in the hepatic artery the radionuclide perfusion technique can be used to assess adjunctive pharmacologic maneuvers designed to further exploit the regional approach to chemotherapy. This chapter presents the technetium Tc 99m macroaggregated albumin method for assessing catheter placement and the pharmacokinetic rationale for regional chemotherapy, and discusses two promising avenues for further intervention

  10. Extremity perfusion for sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Harald Joan

    2008-01-01

    For more than 50 years, the technique of extremity perfusion has been explored in the limb salvage treatment of local, recurrent, and multifocal sarcomas. The "discovery" of tumor necrosis factor-or. in combination with melphalan was a real breakthrough in the treatment of primarily irresectable

  11. Isolated limb perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Rosalyn; Chantier, Nariane

    1994-12-08

    Growing concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma has brought about a need for information on this disorder and the treatment available. Isolated limb perfusion is a relatively new technique used in only a few hospitals. An increased knowledge base will lead to a better understanding of the nursing care required and to a more in-depth care plan.

  12. The SLE heart in scintigraphic diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rottensteiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of SLE-heart of 14 patients with 201Ti-SPECT and 18 FDG-SPECT and comparison with clinical and laboratory parameters. Results: SLE-patients with unspecific heart symptoms show in spite of sufficiently perfusion in 201Ti-SPECT considerable defects in 18-FDG. Interpretation: cause of the defects in FDG in a disturbed glucose metabolism independent of perfusion. (boteke)

  13. Patient-specific coronary blood supply territories for quantitative perfusion analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkaroff, Constantine; Biglands, John D.; Greenwood, John P.; Plein, Sven; Boyle, Roger D.; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Magee, Derek R.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Myocardial perfusion imaging, coupled with quantitative perfusion analysis, provides an important diagnostic tool for the identification of ischaemic heart disease caused by coronary stenoses. The accurate mapping between coronary anatomy and under-perfused areas of the myocardium is important for diagnosis and treatment. However, in the absence of the actual coronary anatomy during the reporting of perfusion images, areas of ischaemia are allocated to a coronary territory based on a population-derived 17-segment (American Heart Association) AHA model of coronary blood supply. This work presents a solution for the fusion of 2D Magnetic Resonance (MR) myocardial perfusion images and 3D MR angiography data with the aim to improve the detection of ischaemic heart disease. The key contribution of this work is a novel method for the mediated spatiotemporal registration of perfusion and angiography data and a novel method for the calculation of patient-specific coronary supply territories. The registration method uses 4D cardiac MR cine series spanning the complete cardiac cycle in order to overcome the under-constrained nature of non-rigid slice-to-volume perfusion-to-angiography registration. This is achieved by separating out the deformable registration problem and solving it through phase-to-phase registration of the cine series. The use of patient-specific blood supply territories in quantitative perfusion analysis (instead of the population-based model of coronary blood supply) has the potential of increasing the accuracy of perfusion analysis. Quantitative perfusion analysis diagnostic accuracy evaluation with patient-specific territories against the AHA model demonstrates the value of the mediated spatiotemporal registration in the context of ischaemic heart disease diagnosis. PMID:29392098

  14. Variability in the leptin, leptin receptor and heart fatty acid binding protein genes in relationship with meat quality traits in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Mikolášová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The leptin (LEP-HinfI, leptin receptor (LEPR-HpaII and heart fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP-HinfI genes and their genotypes combination (LEP-HinfI *LEPR-HpaII were tested for associations with the pH1, pH24, myoglobin content (mg/100 g, intramuscular fat content (% and remission (%. The genotypes were determined in Large White, Landrace and Duroc breeds (n = 106, 56 and 4, respectively. The allele frequencies were: LEP-HinfI: C = 0.133 T = 0.867; LEPR-HpaII: A = 0.331 B = 0.669; H-FABP-HinfI: H = 0.745 h = 0.255. The populations of breeds were in the genetic equilibrium according to the χ2 test in the tested loci. The combinations of LEP-HinfI and LEPR-HpaII were significantly associated with the pH24 and remission. The H-FABP-HinfI locus was significantly associated with intramuscular fat content.

  15. Regional cerebral perfusion in cardiovascular reflex syncope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeyry, J.P.; Kuikka, J.T.; Laensimies, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the regional cerebral perfusion in subjects with presyncope or syncope, and the impact that autonomic nervous dysfunction has on it. Seven subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor reflex syncope were studied. A baseline test was performed with the patients standing in the 70 upright position, while the passive head-up tilt table test with and without isoprenaline infusion was employed for provocation. Regional cerebral perfusion was assessed by means of single-photon emission tomography with technetium-99m labelled V-oxo-1,2-N,N 1 -ethylenedylbis-l-cysteine diethylester (baseline, and during blood pressure decline in the provocation test) and the autonomic nervous function by means of spectral analysis of heart rate variability (baseline, and before blood pressure decline in the provocation test). Every subject showed an abrupt decline in blood pressure in the provocation test (five with presyncope and two with syncope). The systolic and diastolic blood pressures decreased significantly (P<0.001) between the baseline and the provocation study time points (radiopharmaceutical injection and lowest systolic blood pressure). Mean cerebral perfusion as average count densities decreased upon provocation as compared with baseline (190±63 vs 307±90 counts/voxel, respectively, P=0.013). Hypoperfusion was most pronounced in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that cerebral perfusion decreases markedly during presyncope or syncope with systemic blood pressure decline in subjects with cardiovascular vasodepressor syncope. Furthermore, the autonomic nervous function remains unchanged before the systemic blood pressure decline. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Differential and directional effects of perfusion on electrical and thermal conductivities in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhajsky, Ronald J; Yi, Ming; Mahajan, Roop L

    2009-01-01

    Two different measurement probes--an electrical probe and a thermal conductivity probe--were designed, fabricated, calibrated, and used in experimental studies on a pig liver model that was designed to control perfusion rates. These probes were fabricated by photolithography and mounted in 1.5-mm diameter catheters. We measured the local impedance and thermal conductivity, respectively, of the artificially perfused liver at different flow rates and, by rotating the probes, in different directions. The results show that both the local electrical conductivity and the thermal conductivity varied location to location, that thermal conductivity increased with decreased distance to large blood vessels, and that significant directional differences exist in both electrical and thermal conductivities. Measurements at different perfusion rates demonstrated that both the local electrical and local thermal conductivities increased linearly with the square root of perfusion rate. These correlations may be of great value to many energy-based biomedical applications.

  17. Perfusion based cell culture chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiskanen, Arto; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Performing cell culture in miniaturized perfusion chambers gives possibilities to experiment with cells under near in vivo like conditions. In contrast to traditional batch cultures, miniaturized perfusion systems provide precise control of medium composition, long term unattended cultures...... and tissue like structuring of the cultures. However, as this chapter illustrates, many issues remain to be identified regarding perfusion cell culture such as design, material choice and how to use these systems before they will be widespread amongst biomedical researchers....

  18. Effects of smoking on lung uptake of 201Tl during exercise myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang Wei; He Guorong; Liu Jinhua

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of smoking on lung uptake of 201 Tl during myocardial perfusion imaging. Methods: Ninety-two healthy subjects, with normal 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging findings but no evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary disease, were divided into three groups, smoker, nonsmoker and quitted smoker groups. Exercise/delay 201 Tl myocardial perfusion imaging was performed on all subjects included. Lung/heart ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise tomography. Results: Both the lung/heart ratios during exercise in smoker (0.40 ± 0.07, F=10.635, P 201 Tl lung/heart ratios in smokers are higher than in nonsmokers and this must be kept in mind when 201 Tl lung/heart ratios are used clinically, even in quitted smokers

  19. Treating pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Svendsen, Mette N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how animal modelling is negotiated and practised in the field of translational neonatology research in Denmark. Based on ethnography from a biomedical research centre, NEOMUNE, in which veterinary and medical scientists worked on developing a ‘preterm pig brain model’, we...... examine how they strived to balance traditional scientific norms of standardisation against clinical researchers’ requests for clinical care in the modelling practice. We develop the notion of ‘patientising’ to capture how the research piglets are made to model not only the biological consequences...... of prematurity, but also the suffering of the human patient entitled to individual care. Based on this ethnographic fieldwork we argue that the demand for clinical relevance in translational research highlights the animal laboratory as also being a “moral laboratory” (Mattingly, 2014). In seeking to align...

  20. Release of PYY from pig intestinal mucosa; luminal and neural regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, S P; Holst, J J; Orskov, C

    1989-01-01

    in release of PYY into the circulation. Stimulation of the splanchnic nerves did not affect the basal release of PYY. PYY-immunoreactivity extracted from ileal tissue or released to plasma or perfusate from the ileum was indistinguishable from synthetic porcine PYY by gel filtration and reverse phase HPLC...... of PYY was observed in isolated perfused pig ileum in response to luminal stimulation with glucose and vascular administration of the neuropeptide gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve supply to the distal small intestine in intact anaesthetized pigs resulted...

  1. Secretion of neurotensin from isolated perfused porcine ileum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Pedersen, J; Knuthsen, S; Bernabei, M

    1988-01-01

    The secretion and molecular nature of immunoreactive neurotensin (NT) was studied following stimulation of an isolated perfused porcine ileal segment with glucose, triglyceride and intra-arterial infusion of gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Secreted peptides were separated using gel chromatography...... in doses from 10(-10) to 10(-8) M stimulated NT release in a dose-related manner. Following gel chromatography only the intact peptide and no smaller or larger molecular size immunoreactive components were observed. The study showed that both luminal and humoral stimuli release NT from the isolated pig...

  2. Radioisotope heart examination during exercise to diagnose ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farsky, S.

    1986-01-01

    The radioisotope exercise test is discussed and its benefits characterized for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease, namely the use of 99m Tc in scintiscanning heart ventricles and of 201 Tl in scintiscanning myocardial perfusion. The exercise ventricular function and perfusion scintigraphies are compared with the common exercise ECG examination, and their superior sensitivity and specificity emphasized. Considering the constraints of scintigraphic imaging, indications are outlined for patients including those with suspect serious ischemic heart disease in whom the exercise ECG test has been negative or inconclusive, patients with the so-called nondiagnostic ECG, patients with atypical symptoms, and healthy individuals for whom the exercise ECG test indicated with respect to their occupation has been positive. Both radionuclide imaging techniques are complementary and are shown to be valuable not only in improving the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease but also in identifying the high-risk patients in whom cardiac surgery is to be considered. (L.O.)

  3. Dynamic Chest Image Analysis: Model-Based Perfusion Analysis in Dynamic Pulmonary Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiuru Aaro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Dynamic Chest Image Analysis" project aims to develop model-based computer analysis and visualization methods for showing focal and general abnormalities of lung ventilation and perfusion based on a sequence of digital chest fluoroscopy frames collected with the dynamic pulmonary imaging technique. We have proposed and evaluated a multiresolutional method with an explicit ventilation model for ventilation analysis. This paper presents a new model-based method for pulmonary perfusion analysis. According to perfusion properties, we first devise a novel mathematical function to form a perfusion model. A simple yet accurate approach is further introduced to extract cardiac systolic and diastolic phases from the heart, so that this cardiac information may be utilized to accelerate the perfusion analysis and improve its sensitivity in detecting pulmonary perfusion abnormalities. This makes perfusion analysis not only fast but also robust in computation; consequently, perfusion analysis becomes computationally feasible without using contrast media. Our clinical case studies with 52 patients show that this technique is effective for pulmonary embolism even without using contrast media, demonstrating consistent correlations with computed tomography (CT and nuclear medicine (NM studies. This fluoroscopical examination takes only about 2 seconds for perfusion study with only low radiation dose to patient, involving no preparation, no radioactive isotopes, and no contrast media.

  4. Pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging—A review of methods and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johns, Christopher S.; Swift, Andrew J.; Hughes, Paul J.C. [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, KobeUniversity Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Schiebler, Mark [UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Wild, Jim M., E-mail: j.m.wild@sheffield.ac.uk [University of Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • This article represents an overview of the methodology and clinical applications of pulmonary MRA and perfusion imaging. • Both contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced metholodology for MRA and perfusion are covered. • The current clinical uses and future directions of MRA and MR perfusion are discussed. - Abstract: The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology. In many centres pulmonary MR angiography and dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion MRI are now well established in the routine workflow of patients particularly with pulmonary hypertension and thromboembolic disease. However, these imaging modalities offer exciting new directions for future research and clinical use in other respiratory diseases where consideration of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange can provide insight in to pathophysiology.

  5. Pulmonary MR angiography and perfusion imaging—A review of methods and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johns, Christopher S.; Swift, Andrew J.; Hughes, Paul J.C.; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Schiebler, Mark; Wild, Jim M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This article represents an overview of the methodology and clinical applications of pulmonary MRA and perfusion imaging. • Both contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced metholodology for MRA and perfusion are covered. • The current clinical uses and future directions of MRA and MR perfusion are discussed. - Abstract: The pulmonary vasculature and its role in perfusion and gas exchange is an important consideration in many conditions of the lung and heart. Currently the mainstay of imaging of the vasculature and perfusion of the lungs lies with CT and nuclear medicine perfusion scans, both of which require ionizing radiation exposure. Improvements in MRI techniques have increased the use of MRI in pulmonary vascular imaging. Here we review MRI methods for imaging the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary perfusion, both using contrast enhanced and non-contrast enhanced methodology. In many centres pulmonary MR angiography and dynamic contrast enhanced perfusion MRI are now well established in the routine workflow of patients particularly with pulmonary hypertension and thromboembolic disease. However, these imaging modalities offer exciting new directions for future research and clinical use in other respiratory diseases where consideration of pulmonary perfusion and gas exchange can provide insight in to pathophysiology.

  6. Gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Important aspects of the gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion and the diverse clinical applications in the neurological diseases are comment in this article. We focus in the usefulness of the photon emission cerebral tomography (SPECT) and its capacity to cross the hemato encephalic barrier through the use of radiopharmacons like 99 mTc-H M-PAO and 99mTc-EDC, thus managing to offer functional data on the captantes neurons of the radiopharmacon. The clinical applications of SPECT are studied; cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attacks, dementias, Alzheimer disease, as well as other neurological diseases are referred. (The author)

  7. Inhibitory effects of tiamulin on contractile and electrical responses in isolated thoracic aorta and cardiac muscle of guinea-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajyo, S; Hara, Y; Hirano, S; Agata, N; Shimizu, K; Urakawa, N

    1992-09-01

    The inhibitory effect of tiamulin, an antibiotic produced by Pleurotus mutilis, on contractile and electrical responses in isolated thoracic aorta and cardiac muscle of guinea-pigs was studied. In the thoracic aorta, tiamulin with an IC50 of 9.7 x 10(-6) M inhibited sustained contractions induced by isosmotically added 60 mM KCl. The inhibitory effect of tiamulin on a Ca(2+)-induced contraction in a depolarized muscle was competitively antagonized by raising external Ca2+ concentration. Bay K 8644 (10(-7) M) antagonized tiamulin's inhibition of the Ca(2+)-induced contraction. Tiamulin (2 x 10(-5) M) decreased the elevated cytoplasmic Ca2+ level measured by the fura 2 AM method in the depolarized muscle. In high K(+)-isoprenaline-treated left atria, tiamulin (2 x 10(-5)-2 x 10(-4) M) produced negative inotropic effects. On the other hand in the membrane action potential of papillary muscles, tiamulin (2 x 10(-6)-2 x 10(-4) M) produced decreases in action potential and durations and 2 x 10(-4) M tiamulin depressed the slow response action potential in depolarized muscles. Tiamulin produced prolongations of the PR interval in ECG, negative chrono- and inotropic effects, and an increase in perfusion flow in guinea-pig isolated and perfused hearts. These effects of tiamulin on the aorta or cardiac muscle were similar to those of verapamil and nifedipine. These results suggest that both the inhibitory action of tiamulin on the high K(+)-induced contraction in the aorta and the negative inotropic effect of tiamulin on the cardiac muscle are due to an inhibition of Ca2+ entry through the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels of cells of both these muscles.

  8. Blockade of Inflammation and Apoptosis Pathways by siRNA Prolongs Cold Preservation Time and Protects Donor Hearts in a Porcine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In donor hearts from mini pigs, overtime cold preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury cause poor graft quality and impaired heart function. Blockage of complement, apoptosis, and inflammation is considered a strategy for attenuating ischemia-reperfusion injury and protecting cardiac function. Minipig donor hearts were perfused and preserved in Celsior solution or transfection reagent containing Celsior solution with scramble siRNA or siRNAs targeting complement 3, caspase-8, caspase-3, and nuclear factor κB-p65 genes at 4°C and subsequently hemo-reperfused ex vivo (38°C or transplanted into recipients. The protective effect of the siRNA solution was evaluated by measuring cell apoptosis, structural alteration, protein markers for tissue damage and oxidative stress, and cardiac function. We found a reduction in cell apoptosis, myocardial damage, and tissue inflammation by reduced biochemistry and markers and protein expression of proinflammatory cytokines and improvement in cardiac function, as shown by the improved hemodynamic indices in 12-hr-preserved siRNA-treated hearts of both ex vivo and orthotopic transplantation models. These findings demonstrate that blockade of inflammation and apoptosis pathways using siRNA can prolong cold preservation time and better protect donor heart function in cardiac transplantation of large animals, which may be beneficial for human heart preservation.

  9. Heart Health - Brave Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health Brave Heart Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... you can have a good life after a heart attack." Lifestyle Changes Surviving—and thriving—after such ...

  10. Counteracting negative venous line pressures to avoid arterial air bubbles: an experimental study comparing two different types of miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Anas; Mederos-Dahms, Hendrikje; Liebing, Kai; Zittermann, Armin; Schubert, Harald; Murray, Edward; Renner, Andre; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-05-29

    Because of its low rate of clinical complications, miniaturized extracorporeal perfusion systems (MEPS) are frequently used in heart centers worldwide. However, many recent studies refer to the higher probability of gaseous microemboli formation by MEPS, caused by subzero pressure values. This is the main reason why various de-airing devices were developed for today's perfusion systems. In the present study, we investigated the potential benefits of a simple one-way-valve connected to a volume replacement reservoir (OVR) for volume and pressure compensation. In an experimental study on 26 pigs, we compared MEPS (n = 13) with MEPS plus OVR (n = 13). Except OVR, perfusion equipment was identical in both groups. Primary endpoints were pressure values in the venous line and the right atrium as well as the number and volume of air bubbles. Secondary endpoints were biochemical parameters of systemic inflammatory response, ischemia, hemodilution and hemolysis. One animal was lost in the MEPS + OVR group. In the MEPS + OVR group no pressure values below -150 mmHg in the venous line and no values under -100 mmHg in right atrium were noticed. On the contrary, nearly 20% of venous pressure values in the MEPS group were below -150 and approximately 10% of right atrial pressure values were below -100 mmHg. Compared with the MEPS group, the bubble counter device showed lower numbers of arterial air bubbles in the MEPS + OVR group (mean ± SD: 13444 ± 5709 vs. 1 ± 2, respectively; p pressures and to reduce the number and volume of arterial air bubbles. This approach may lead to a lower rate of neurological complications.

  11. Positron emission tomography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Moyer, B.R.; Mathis, C.A.; Ganz, E.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart can measure blood perfusion, metabolism of fatty acids, metabolism of sugars, uptake of amino acids and can quantitate infarction volume. The principles which are basic to PET instrumentation and procedures for quantitative studies of the heart muscle with examples of measurements of myocardial flow and metabolism, are reviewed

  12. Positron emission tomography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Mathis, C.A.; Moyer, B.R.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers the opportunity to noninvasively measure heart muscle blood perfusion, oxygen utilization, metabolism of fatty acids, sugars and amino acids. This paper reviews physiological principles which are basic to PET instrumentation for imaging the heart and gives examples of the application of positron emission tomography for measuring myocardial flow and metabolism. 33 references, 11 figures, 1 table

  13. Effect of myocardial perfusion and metabolic interventions on cardiac kinetics of phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) I 123

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reske, S.N.; Schoen, S.; Schmitt, W.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of regional myocardial perfusion and flow-independent adrenergic stimulation, as well as lactate-mediated inhibition of cardiac lipolysis, on cardiac IPPA uptake and metabolism was examined in canine hearts (flow studies) and in the isolated perfused Langendorff rat heart (metabolic interventions). In both normal and ischaemic myocardium, local perfusion is a major determinant of cardiac IPPA uptake. In pacing-induced hyperaemia, the strict flow-dependence of cardiac IPPA uptake is not preserved. Adrenergic stimulation raises the rate of oxidation of both palmitic acid /sup 14/C and IPPA. This change is reflected by increased metabolite production released into the perfusate and radioactivity clearance recorded externally. Lactate in high concentrations exerts the opposite effect on cardiac free fatty acid oxidation. IPPA is stored in this condition preferentially in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides.

  14. Effect of myocardial perfusion and metabolic interventions on cardiac kinetics of phenylpentadecanoic acid (IPPA) I 123

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reske, S.N.; Schoen, S.; Schmitt, W.; Knopp, R.; Winkler, C.; Machulla, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of regional myocardial perfusion and flow-independent adrenergic stimulation, as well as lactate-mediated inhibition of cardiac lipolysis, on cardiac IPPA uptake and metabolism was examined in canine hearts (flow studies) and in the isolated perfused Langendorff rat heart (metabolic interventions). In both normal and ischaemic myocardium, local perfusion is a major determinant of cardiac IPPA uptake. In pacing-induced hyperaemia, the strict flow-dependence of cardiac IPPA uptake is not preserved. Adrenergic stimulation raises the rate of oxidation of both palmitic acid 14 C and IPPA. This change is reflected by increased metabolite production released into the perfusate and radioactivity clearance recorded externally. Lactate in high concentrations exerts the opposite effect on cardiac free fatty acid oxidation. IPPA is stored in this condition preferentially in tissue phospholipids and triglycerides. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of myocardial involvement in Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Naoki; Sotobata, Iwao; Okada, Mitsuhiro

    1985-01-01

    Myocardial involvement in progressive muscular dystrophy of the Duchenne type was evaluated in 19 patients using thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging. A qualitative analysis was performed from five projection images by three experienced physicians. Distinct perfusion defects were shown in 13 patients, especially in the LV posterolateral or posterior wall (11 patients). There was no significant relationship between the presence of perfusion defects and the skeletal muscle involvements or thoracic deformities assessed by transmission computed tomography. Extensive perfusion defects were shown in 2 patients who died of congestive heart failure 1 to 2 years after the scintigraphic study. Progression of the myocardial scintigraphic abnormalities were considered to be minimal in 7 of 9 patients who underwent two serial scintigraphic studies over 2 to 3 years. It was concluded that thallium myocardial perfusion imaging is a useful clinical technique to assess myocardial involvement in Duchenne's progressive muscular dystrophy. (author)

  16. Basal hyperaemia is the primary abnormality of perfusion in Takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Emil; Ahtarovski, Kiril Aleksov; Bang, Lia Evi

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by acute completely reversible regional left ventricle (LV) akinesia and decreased tracer uptake in the akinetic region on semi-quantitative perfusion imaging. The latter may be due to normoperfusion of the akinetic mid/apical area and basal...... hyperperfusion. Our aim was to examine abnormalities of perfusion in TTC, and we hypothesized that basal hyperperfusion is the primary perfusion abnormality in the acute state. METHOD AND RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were diagnosed with TTC due to (i) acute onset of symptoms, (ii) typical apical ballooning......-on follow-up. Patients initially had severe heart failure, mid/apical oedema but no infarction, and a rise in cardiac biomarkers. On initial perfusion PET imaging, eight patients appeared to have normal, whereas 17 patients had impaired LV perfusion. In the latter, flow in the basal region was increased...

  17. Tale of 2 cities: heart transplant progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturralde, M.P.; Novitzky, D.

    1986-01-01

    Heart transplantation, today an accepted modality in managing selected terminal heart disease patients, still suffers from the major complications of acute rejection and infection. Joint research at Pretoria and Cape Town shows that the use of radionuclide techniques allows non-invasive, reliable and rapid quantification of ventricular function and myocardial perfusion for the diagnosis and management of heart transplant patients. Blood pool scintigraphy, using the in vivo labelling with sup(99m) Tc, was used to measure left ventricular volumes. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy using Tl 201 was also performed in some patients

  18. Systematic review of cost-effectiveness of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy in patients with ischaemic heart disease: A report from the cardiovascular committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. Endorsed by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trägårdh, Elin; Tan, Siok Swan; Bucerius, Jan; Gimelli, Alessia; Gaemperli, Oliver; Lindner, Oliver; Agostini, Denis; Übleis, Christopher; Sciagrà, Roberto; Slart, Riemer H; Underwood, S Richard; Hyafil, Fabien; Hacker, Marcus; Verberne, Hein J

    2017-05-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of death and disability. Several diagnostic tests, such as myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS), are accurate for the detection of CAD, as well as having prognostic value for the prediction of cardiovascular events. Nevertheless, the diagnostic and prognostic value of these tests should be cost-effective and should lead to improved clinical outcome. We have reviewed the literature on the cost-effectiveness of MPS in different circumstances: (i) the diagnosis and management of CAD; (ii) comparison with exercise electrocardiography (ECG) and other imaging tests; (iii) as gatekeeper to invasive coronary angiography (ICA), (iv) the impact of appropriate use criteria; (v) acute chest pain, and (vi) screening of asymptomatic patients with type-2 diabetes. In total 57 reports were included. Although most non-invasive imaging tests are cost-effective compared with alternatives, the data conflict on which non-invasive strategy is the most cost-effective. Different definitions of cost-effectiveness further confound the subject. Computer simulations of clinical diagnosis and management are influenced by the assumptions made. For instance, diagnostic accuracy is often defined against an anatomical standard that is wrongly assumed to be perfect. Conflicting data arise most commonly from these incorrect or differing assumptions. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Brain perfusion: computed tomography applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    Within recent years, the broad introduction of fast multi-detector computed tomography (CT) systems and the availability of commercial software for perfusion analysis have made cerebral perfusion imaging with CT a practical technique for the clinical environment. The technique is widely available at low cost, accurate and easy to perform. Perfusion CT is particularly applicable to those clinical circumstances where patients already undergo CT for other reasons, including stroke, head injury, subarachnoid haemorrhage and radiotherapy planning. Future technical developments in multi-slice CT systems may diminish the current limitations of limited spatial coverage and radiation burden. CT perfusion imaging on combined PET-CT systems offers new opportunities to improve the evaluation of patients with cerebral ischaemia or tumours by demonstrating the relationship between cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Yet CT is often not perceived as a technique for imaging cerebral perfusion. This article reviews the use of CT for imaging cerebral perfusion, highlighting its advantages and disadvantages and draws comparisons between perfusion CT and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  20. [Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, H; Ishikawa, K; Ogai, T; Katori, R

    1986-03-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 100 msec before the R wave, and 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. A Short Period of Ventilation without Perfusion Seems to Reduce Atelectasis without Harming the Lungs during Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lindstedt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the lung function of donors after circulatory deaths (DCDs, ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP has been shown to be a valuable method. We present modified EVLP where lung atelectasis is removed, while the lung perfusion is temporarily shut down. Twelve pigs were randomized into two groups: modified EVLP and conventional EVLP. When the lungs had reached 37°C in the EVLP circuit, lung perfusion was temporarily shut down in the modified EVLP group, and positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes. In the conventional EVLP group, PEEP was increased to 10 cm H2O for 10 minutes with unchanged lung perfusion. In the modified EVLP group, the arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 was 18.5 ± 7.0 kPa before and 64.5 ± 6.0 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.001. In the conventional EVLP group, the PaO2 was 16.8 ± 3.1 kPa and 46.8 ± 2.7 kPa after the maneuver (P<0.01; P<0.01. In the modified EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was unchanged, while in the conventional EVLP group, the pulmonary graft weight was significantly increased. Modified EVLP with normoventilation of the lungs without ongoing lung perfusion for 10 minutes may eliminate atelectasis almost completely without harming the lungs.

  2. Heart MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging - cardiac; Magnetic resonance imaging - heart; Nuclear magnetic resonance - cardiac; NMR - cardiac; MRI of the heart; Cardiomyopathy - MRI; Heart failure - MRI; Congenital heart disease - MRI

  3. Perfusion CT in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Bernd; Roether, Joachim; Fiehler, Jens; Thomalla, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Modern multislice CT scanners enable multimodal protocols including non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion. A 64-slice CT scanner provides 4-cm coverage. To cover the whole brain, a 128 - 256-slice scanner is needed. The use of perfusion CT requires an optimized scan protocol in order to reduce exposure to radiation. As compared to non-enhanced CT and CT angiography, the use of CT perfusion increases detection rates of cerebral ischemia, especially small cortical ischemic lesions, while the detection of lacunar and infratentorial stroke lesions remains limited. Perfusion CT enables estimation of collateral flow in acute occlusion of large intra- or extracranial arteries. Currently, no established reliable thresholds are available for determining infarct core and penumbral tissue by CT perfusion. Moreover, perfusion parameters depend on the processing algorithms and the software used for calculation. However, a number of studies point towards a reduction of cerebral blood volume (CBV) below 2 ml/100 g as a critical threshold that identifies infarct core. Large CBV lesions are associated with poor outcome even in the context of recanalization. The extent of early ischemic signs on non-enhanced CT remains the main parameter from CT imaging to guide acute reperfusion treatment. Nevertheless, perfusion CT increases diagnostic and therapeutic certainty in the acute setting. Similar to stroke MRI, perfusion CT enables the identification of tissue at risk of infarction by the mismatch between infarct core and the larger area of critical hypoperfusion. Further insights into the validity of perfusion parameters are expected from ongoing trials of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke.

  4. Interactions of the heart and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bernardi, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    There is a mutual interaction between the function of the heart and the liver and a broad spectrum of acute and chronic entities that affect both the heart and the liver. These can be classified into heart diseases affecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart, and conditions affecting...... the heart and the liver at the same time. In chronic and acute cardiac hepatopathy, owing to cardiac failure, a combination of reduced arterial perfusion and passive congestion leads to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic hypoxic hepatitis. These conditions may impair the liver function and treatment should...... be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek to secure perfusion of vital organs. In patients with advanced cirrhosis, physical and/or pharmacological stress may reveal a reduced cardiac performance with systolic and diastolic dysfunction and electrophysical abnormalities termed cirrhotic...

  5. Assmentment of myocardial perfusion by magnetic resonance imaging: on the way to clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, S.E.; Lorenz, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging detects the flow of contrast - enhanced blood and even allows the quantitative assessment of myocardial perfusion. The clinical application of this method is being held back by the difficulties in image evaluation and the limitation of standard techniques to the acquisition of a single slice per heart beat cycle. Recent developments in scanner hardware as well as in image acquisition techniques open up the possibility of assessing myocardial perfusion over the entire heart with a spatial resolution in the range of 2 mm. As an example of such a new scanning strategy, a segmented gradient-echo recalled echo planar imaging sequence with preceding saturation is discussed and results in a patient with an infarction are presented. The clinical use of perfusion assessment covering the entire heart for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease is enhanced by the flexibility of magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of functional cardiac parameters. (orig.) [de

  6. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...

  7. Tc99m-sestamibi dosimetry in myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, Janine M.; Trindade, Bruno M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addressed myocardial perfusion imaging providing a spatial dosimetric investigation of the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical dose distribution at the myocardium. Radiological data manipulation was performed in order to create a computational voxel model of the heart. A set of images obtained by thoracic angiotomography and abdominal aorta was set up providing anatomic and functional information for heart modeling in SISCODES code. A homogeneous distribution of 99m Tc was assumed into the cardiac muscle. Simulations of the transport of particles through the voxel and the interaction with the heart tissues were performed on the MCNP - Monte Carlo Code. The spatial dose distribution in the heart model is displayed as well as the dose versus volume histogram of the heart muscle. The present computational tools can generate spatial doses distribution in myocardial perfusion imaging. Specially, the dosimetry performed elucidates imparted dose distribution in the myocardial muscle per unit of injected 99m Tc activity, which can contribute to future deterministic effect investigations. (author)

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance of perfused tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpen, M.D.; Allison, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of perfusion on the NMR signal observed in NMR imaging is studied in a phantom and in two isolated perfused canine lungs. It is observed that perfusion in tissue has little effect on longitudinal relaxation times. Transverse relaxation rates are observed to correlate linearly with rates of perfusion, in accordance with a model presented. (author)

  9. Quantitative lung perfusion evaluation using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjørstad, Åsmund; Corteville, Dominique M R; Fischer, Andre; Henzler, Thomas; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald; Zöllner, Frank G; Schad, Lothar R

    2014-08-01

    To quantitatively evaluate lung perfusion using Fourier decomposition perfusion MRI. The Fourier decomposition (FD) method is a noninvasive method for assessing ventilation- and perfusion-related information in the lungs, where the perfusion maps in particular have shown promise for clinical use. However, the perfusion maps are nonquantitative and dimensionless, making follow-ups and direct comparisons between patients difficult. We present an approach to obtain physically meaningful and quantifiable perfusion maps using the FD method. The standard FD perfusion images are quantified by comparing the partially blood-filled pixels in the lung parenchyma with the fully blood-filled pixels in the aorta. The percentage of blood in a pixel is then combined with the temporal information, yielding quantitative blood flow values. The values of 10 healthy volunteers are compared with SEEPAGE measurements which have shown high consistency with dynamic contrast enhanced-MRI. All pulmonary blood flow (PBF) values are within the expected range. The two methods are in good agreement (mean difference = 0.2 mL/min/100 mL, mean absolute difference = 11 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-FD = 150 mL/min/100 mL, mean PBF-SEEPAGE = 151 mL/min/100 mL). The Bland-Altman plot shows a good spread of values, indicating no systematic bias between the methods. Quantitative lung perfusion can be obtained using the Fourier Decomposition method combined with a small amount of postprocessing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Laparoscopic kidney orthotopic transplant: preclinical study in the pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B; Musk, G C; Mou, L; Waneck, G L; Delriviere, L

    2013-06-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has rapidly expanded in clinical practice replacing conventional open surgery over the last three decades. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has been favored due to its multiple benefits. The aim of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of kidney transplantation by a laparoscopic technique in a pig model. The study was approved by the university animal ethics committee. Eight female pigs (Sus Scrofra, weighing 45-50 kg) were divided into 2 groups: group I included 4 animals that underwent laparoscopic kidney orthotopic transplantation on the left side. The right kidney was remained functional in situ. The pigs recovered and were observed for 1 week. In the 4 hosts group II pigs underwent a laparoscopic kidney transplantation on the left side. With simultaneous clipping of the right ureter. After recovery, the pigs were observed for 4 weeks. A laparotomy for examination was performed prior to euthanasia. All 4 group I pigs survived for 1 week. The laparotomy showed normal graft perfusion with wall patent renal artery and vein as well as satisfactory urine output upon transection of ureter in 3 hosts. Renal artery stenosis occurred in one pig. In The Immediate kidney graft function was achieved in 3 group II pigs. The fourth died following extubation due to laryngospasm despite a functional graft. The average creatinine levels were 195.5 μmol/L on day 3; 224.5 μmol/L at week 1; 127 μmol/L at week 2; 182.7 umol/L at week 3; and 154.7 umol/L at week 4. Laparoscopic kidney transplantation was feasible and safe in a pig model with immediate graft function. This study will provide further evidence to support application of laparoscopic technique to human kidney transplant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of local perfusion rate (LPR) and local glucose transport rate (LGTR) in brain and heart in man by means of C-11-methyl-D-glucose (CMG) and dynamic positron emission tomography (dPET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyska, K.; Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Becker, V.; Schmidt, A.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Kloster, G.; Stoecklin, G.; Heiss, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure simultaneously the LPR and LGTR. CMG is used as an indicator. The transaxial distribution of activity in organism is registered with dPET. On the basis of a mathematical model, the LPR and LGTR can be calculated in terms of parameters of the time activity curves registered over different brain or heart regions and over the sup. long. sinus (brain) or the ventricular cavity (heart) (blood activity). The method was used in 10 normal subjects and 20 patients with ischemic brain or heart disease. The values of LGTR range from 0.43 to 0.6 μmol/min g in normal cortex and from 0.09 to 0.12 μmol/min g in normal white matter. The LPR was 0.9-098 ml/min g for the cortex and 0.3-0.4 ml/min g for the white matter. In patients with stroke the ischemic defects appeared to be larger in CMG scans than in CT. The results obtained in a patient with left homonymous hemianopia, caused by infarctions in the distribution area of RMCA, and in a patient with TIA, demonstrate that the inactivation of morphologically intact, cerebral cortex, observed in stroke patients, may be caused by undercutting of cortical fiber tracts as well as by the impairment of the glucose transport systems in the inactivated area. In myocardial studies the LPR in normal left myocardium was 0.68 ml/min g (subendocardium 0.74 ml/min g; subepicardiuim 0.65 ml/min g). In patients with old myocardial infarction, the infarcted areas could be easily recognized as accumulation defects. The results obtained in a patient with narrowing of the RCA indicate that repeated exposure of myocardial tissue to transient ischemia produces an irreversible damage of the glucose transport system. We conclude from the data that for diagnostic evaluation of ultimate brain or heart damage simultaneous quantitative assessment of both LPR and LGTR is of basic importance. (Author)

  12. Correlation of the myocardial perfusion corrected by attenuation with the coronariography. Preliminary results; Correlacion de la perfusion miocardica corregida por atenuacion con la coronariografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia C, S.E.; Garcia O, R. [Servicio de Medicina Nuclear, Centro Medico ABC, Campis Observatorio, IAP (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The attenuation that suffers the radiation in the soft tissues of the hinders the appropriate interpretation of the myocardial perfusion studies, for what have been implemented attenuation correction systems to reduce the attenuation for soft tissues and to provide myocardial perfusion images more accurate in the diagnosis of coronary illness. The objective was to evaluate the utility of an attenuation correction system (with source of Gadolinium 153) to minimize the devices that look like true defects of myocardial perfusion, caused by soft tissues (mammary tissue, thoracic wall, abdomen, left hemi diaphragm), and to compare those interpretations of the studies with the interpretations of the corresponding coronariographies. The method consists of 95 electronic files which were revised with the concept of heart catheterization, being identified 20 patients from the masculine sex to those that underwent coronariography among May 1999 and December 2002, and that they had study of myocardial perfusion in a maximum period of 3 months foresaw to the invasive procedure. (Author)

  13. Hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion chemotherapy: Evaluation with perfusion CT and perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.L.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Lutz, R.J.; Chang, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    The standard method for the evaluation of hepatic perfusion during hepatic artery infusion (HAI) chemotherapy is planar hepatic artery perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS). Planar HAPS was performed with 2 mCi of [99mTc] macroaggregated albumin infused at 1 ml/min and compared with single photon emission CT (SPECT) HAPS and with a new study, CT performed during the slow injection of contrast material through the HAI catheter (HAI-CT). Thirteen patients underwent 16 HAI-CT studies, 14 planar HAPS studies, and 9 SPECT HAPS studies. In 13 of 14 studies (93%) HAI-CT and planar HAPS were in complete agreement as to the perfusion pattern of intrahepatic metastases and normal liver. In nine studies where all modalities were performed, the findings identified by HAI-CT and planar HAPS agreed in all cases, whereas the results of two SPECT scans disagreed with the other studies. With respect to perfusion of individual metastases, 14 of 14 HAI-CT studies, 12 of 13 planar HAPS studies, and 9 of 9 SPECT HAPS studies correctly demonstrated the perfusion status of individual lesions as indicated by the pattern of changes in tumor size determined on CT obtained before and after the perfusion studies. Hepatic artery infusion CT was superior for delineation of individual metastases, particularly small lesions, and for the evaluation of nonperfused portions of the liver. Planar HAPS detected extrahepatic perfusion in four patients, and this was not detected by HAI-CT. We conclude that HAI-CT and scintigraphy are complementary techniques. Hepatic artery infusion CT has advantages for the evaluation of intrahepatic perfusion, and planar HAPS is superior to HAI-CT for the detection of extrahepatic perfusion

  14. The angiotensin type 1 receptor activates extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 by G protein-dependent and -independent pathways in cardiac myocytes and langendorff-perfused hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aplin, Mark; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Schneider, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    The angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT(1)R) has been shown to activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) through G proteins or G protein-independently through beta-arrestin2 in cellular expression systems. As activation mechanisms may greatly influence the biological...... effects of ERK1/2 activity, differential activation of the AT(1)R in its native cellular context could have important biological and pharmacological implications. To examine if AT(1)R activates ERK1/2 by G protein-independent mechanisms in the heart, we used the [Sar(1), Ile(4), Ile(8)]-AngII ([SII] Ang......II) analogue in native preparations of cardiac myocytes and beating hearts. We found that [SII] AngII does not activate G(q)-coupling, yet stimulates the beta-arrestin2-dependent ERK1/2. The G(q)-activated pool of ERK1/2 rapidly translocates to the nucleus, while the beta-arrestin2-scaffolded pool remains...

  15. Sensitization of the Guinea Pig Myocardium through the Mucous Membrane of the Digestive Tract,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under certain conditions, sessile antibodies can be bound by the guinea - pig myocardium that had been sensitized by direct introduction of the allergen into the stomach. This is confirmed by the positive anaphylactic reaction in the isolated heart of animals treated in this manner, which reaction manifests itself in a modified heart rate when the isolated heart is challenged by the sensitizing allergen.

  16. Perfusion device for liver preservation ex vivo before transplantation: first experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Reznik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Successful liver transplantation including from donors with a sudden irreversible cardiac arrest requires the use of modern hardware and technical support to maintain, select and sustain organ viability for the period from harvesting to transplantation to the recipient.Materials and methods. Hardware-software system (HSS developed by the Russian State Scientific Center for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics (RTC was used for testing of normothermic perfusion of donor’s liver ex vivo. The experiment was conducted on the isolated pig liver (Duroc breed in accordance with the ethical principles.Result. During perfusion spontaneous recovery of bile outflow through the cannula installed in the common bile duct (volume of bile released – 240 ml was observed, and the color and uniformity of the perfused liver did not differ from the normal parameters. Biochemical indicators were stabilized at the physiological values after 40 minutes of perfusion procedure.Conclusion. Isolated liver transplant was completely restored after 30 minutes of warm ischemia and was functioning well due to ex vivo perfusion procedure on the new perfusion device. The first case of the new device usage for normothermic liver ex vivo demonstrated hopeful results to be further investigated.

  17. Nuclear cardiology and heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco; Milan, Elisa; Mut, Fernando; Dondi, Maurizio; Metra, Marco; Rodella, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of heart failure in the adult population is increasing. It varies between 1% and 2%, although it mainly affects elderly people (6-10% of people over the age of 65 years will develop heart failure). The syndrome of heart failure arises as a consequence of an abnormality in cardiac structure, function, rhythm, or conduction. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart failure and it accounts for this disorder in 60-70% of all patients affected. Nuclear techniques provide unique information on left ventricular function and perfusion by gated-single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Myocardial viability can be assessed by both SPECT and PET imaging. Finally, autonomic dysfunction has been shown to increase the risk of death in patients with heart disease and this may be applicable to all patients with cardiac disease regardless of aetiology. MIBG scanning has a very promising prognostic value in patients with heart failure. (orig.)

  18. Nuclear cardiology and heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giubbini, Raffaele; Bertagna, Francesco [University of Brescia, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brescia (Italy); Milan, Elisa [Ospedale Di Castelfranco Veneto, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Castelfranco Veneto (Italy); Mut, Fernando; Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency, Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Vienna (Austria); Metra, Marco [University of Brescia, Department of Cardiology, Brescia (Italy); Rodella, Carlo [Health Physics Department, Spedali Civili di Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2009-12-15

    The prevalence of heart failure in the adult population is increasing. It varies between 1% and 2%, although it mainly affects elderly people (6-10% of people over the age of 65 years will develop heart failure). The syndrome of heart failure arises as a consequence of an abnormality in cardiac structure, function, rhythm, or conduction. Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of heart failure and it accounts for this disorder in 60-70% of all patients affected. Nuclear techniques provide unique information on left ventricular function and perfusion by gated-single photon emission tomography (SPECT). Myocardial viability can be assessed by both SPECT and PET imaging. Finally, autonomic dysfunction has been shown to increase the risk of death in patients with heart disease and this may be applicable to all patients with cardiac disease regardless of aetiology. MIBG scanning has a very promising prognostic value in patients with heart failure. (orig.)

  19. Normothermic perfusion: a new paradigm for organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Jens; Reddy, Srikanth; Coussios, Constantin; Pigott, David; Guirriero, Dino; Hughes, David; Morovat, Alireza; Roy, Debabrata; Winter, Lucy; Friend, Peter J

    2009-07-01

    Transplantation of organs retrieved after cardiac arrest could increase the donor organ supply. However, the combination of warm ischemia and cold preservation is highly detrimental to the reperfused organ. Our objective was to maintain physiological temperature and organ function during preservation and thereby alleviate this injury and allow successful transplantation. We have developed a liver perfusion device that maintains physiological temperature with provision of oxygen and nutrition. Reperfusion experiments suggested that this allows recovery of ischemic damage. In a pig liver transplant model, we compared the outcome following either conventional cold preservation or warm preservation. Preservation periods of 5 and 20 hours and durations of warm ischemia of 40 and 60 minutes were tested. After 20 hours preservation without warm ischemia, post-transplant survival was improved (27%-86%, P = 0.026), with corresponding differences in transaminase levels and histological analysis. With the addition of 40 minutes warm ischemia, the differences were even more marked (cold vs. warm groups 0% vs. 83%, P = 0.001). However, with 60 minutes warm ischemia and 20 hours preservation, there were no survivors. Analysis of hemodynamic and liver function data during perfusion showed several factors to be predictive of posttransplant survival, including bile production, base excess, portal vein flow, and hepatocellular enzymes. Organ preservation by warm perfusion, maintaining physiological pressure and flow parameters, has enabled prolonged preservation and successful transplantation of both normal livers and those with substantial ischemic damage. This technique has the potential to address the shortage of organs for transplantation.

  20. Myocardial stress perfusion magnetic resonance: initial experience in a pediatric and young adult population using regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Cory V.; Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Moffett, Brady

    2017-01-01

    Dipyridamole and adenosine are traditional pharmacological stressors for myocardial perfusion. Regadenoson, a selective adenosine A2A agonist, has a lower side effect profile with lower incidence of bronchospasm and bradycardia. There is a growing need for myocardial perfusion assessment within pediatrics. There is no report on the utility of regadenoson as a stress agent in children. To observe the safety and feasibility of regadenoson as a pharmacologic stressor for perfusion cardiac MR in a pilot cohort of pediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg who have congenital heart disease and pediatric acquired heart disease. We reviewed our initial experience with regadenoson stress cardiac MR in 31 pediatric patients 15.8 ± 1.7 years (range 12-22 years) with congenital heart disease and acquired heart disease. Mean patient weight was 60 ± 15 kg (range of 40-93 kg). All patients underwent cardiac MR because of concern for ischemia. The cohort included a heterogeneous group of patients at a pediatric institution with potential risk for ischemia. Subjects' heart rate and blood pressure were monitored and pharmacologic stress was induced by injection of 400 mcg of regadenoson. We evaluated their hemodynamic response and adverse effects using changes in vital signs and onset of symptoms. A pediatric cardiologist and radiologist qualitatively assessed myocardial perfusion and viability images. One child was unable to complete the stress perfusion portion of the examination, but did complete the remaining portion of the CMR. Resting heart rate was 72 ± 14 beats per minute (bpm) and rose to peak of 124 ± 17 bpm (95 ± 50% increase, P < 0.005) with regadenoson. Image quality was considered good or diagnostic in all cases. Three patients had irreversible perfusion defects. Four patients had reversible perfusion defects. Nine of the patients underwent cardiac catheterization with angiography and the findings showed excellent agreement. Regadenoson might be a safe and

  1. Myocardial stress perfusion magnetic resonance: initial experience in a pediatric and young adult population using regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, Cory V. [Baylor College of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Houston, TX (United States); Krishnamurthy, Ramkumar; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Houston, TX (United States); Moffett, Brady [Texas Children' s Hospital, Department of Pharmacology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Dipyridamole and adenosine are traditional pharmacological stressors for myocardial perfusion. Regadenoson, a selective adenosine A2A agonist, has a lower side effect profile with lower incidence of bronchospasm and bradycardia. There is a growing need for myocardial perfusion assessment within pediatrics. There is no report on the utility of regadenoson as a stress agent in children. To observe the safety and feasibility of regadenoson as a pharmacologic stressor for perfusion cardiac MR in a pilot cohort of pediatric patients weighing more than 40 kg who have congenital heart disease and pediatric acquired heart disease. We reviewed our initial experience with regadenoson stress cardiac MR in 31 pediatric patients 15.8 ± 1.7 years (range 12-22 years) with congenital heart disease and acquired heart disease. Mean patient weight was 60 ± 15 kg (range of 40-93 kg). All patients underwent cardiac MR because of concern for ischemia. The cohort included a heterogeneous group of patients at a pediatric institution with potential risk for ischemia. Subjects' heart rate and blood pressure were monitored and pharmacologic stress was induced by injection of 400 mcg of regadenoson. We evaluated their hemodynamic response and adverse effects using changes in vital signs and onset of symptoms. A pediatric cardiologist and radiologist qualitatively assessed myocardial perfusion and viability images. One child was unable to complete the stress perfusion portion of the examination, but did complete the remaining portion of the CMR. Resting heart rate was 72 ± 14 beats per minute (bpm) and rose to peak of 124 ± 17 bpm (95 ± 50% increase, P < 0.005) with regadenoson. Image quality was considered good or diagnostic in all cases. Three patients had irreversible perfusion defects. Four patients had reversible perfusion defects. Nine of the patients underwent cardiac catheterization with angiography and the findings showed excellent agreement. Regadenoson might be a safe and

  2. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure

  3. The structurally novel Ca2+ channel blocker Ro 40-5967, which binds to the [3H] desmethoxyverapamil receptor, is devoid of the negative inotropic effects of verapamil in normal and failing rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clozel, J.P.; Veniant, M.; Osterrieder, W.

    1990-01-01

    Ro 40-5967 is a structurally novel Ca 2+ channel blocker that binds to the verapamil-type receptor of cardiac membranes but that has been shown in isolated guinea-pig hearts to be about ten times less potent a negative inotropic agent than verapamil. The goals of the present study were to confirm these findings in vitro in isolated perfused rat hearts as well as in vivo in conscious rats and to compare Ro 40-5967 to verapamil. The effects of Ro 40-5967 and verapamil were tested not only in normal rats, but also in rats with heart failure induced by chronic myocardial infarction. In isolated Langendorff hearts (without heart failure), no decrease of contractility was observed with Ro 40-5967 up to complete AV block. In contrast, verapamil decreased contractility with an IC50 of 100 nM. In isolated, electrically stimulated rat papillary muscles, the IC50 values for the decrease of contractile force were 15,000 and 440 nM for Ro 40-5967 and verapamil, respectively. In vivo, Ro 40-5967 did not decrease left ventricular contractility (as assessed by changes of dP/dt max +) in rats without and with heart failure. In contrast, verapamil was markedly negative inotropic in both conditions

  4. Heart murmurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest sounds - murmurs; Heart sounds - abnormal; Murmur - innocent; Innocent murmur; Systolic heart murmur; Diastolic heart murmur ... The heart has 4 chambers: Two upper chambers (atria) Two lower chambers (ventricles) The heart has valves that close ...

  5. Biolasol: novel perfusion and preservation solution for kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierpka, L; Ryszka, F; Dolińska, B; Smorąg, Z; Słomski, R; Wiaderkiewicz, R; Caban, A; Budziński, G; Oczkowicz, G; Wieczorek, J

    2014-10-01

    Biolasol solution (Pharmaceutical Research and Production Plant "Biochefa," Sosnowiec, Poland) is a novel extracellular perfusion and ex vivo hypothermic kidney preservation solution. It ensures maintenance of homeostasis, reduces tissue edema, has low viscosity, and allows the graft to preserve structural and functional integrity. It minimizes ischemia-reperfusion damage. Perfundates from control and transplanted kidneys flushed with Biolasol or ViaSpan solutions (Arkas, Warszawa, Poland) were analyzed. Parameters of serum and urine collected from 12 pigs after auto-transplantation were also analyzed. Renal medulla was investigated for structural alterations by analyzing hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides. The mean survival time of pigs after the auto-transplantation procedure was the measure for the novel Biolasol solution effectiveness. We observed a statistically significant decrease in marker enzyme levels alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and ions (Na and K) in pigs with grafts flushed with Biolasol. Histopathologic examination revealed that the renal cortex structure was not damaged after the use of Biolasol solution. Biolasol solution protects kidneys against ischemia damage and does not differ significantly from the "golden standard" ViaSpan solution.

  6. Isolated heart models: cardiovascular system studies and technological advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnickova, Veronika; Novakova, Marie; Provaznik, Ivo

    2015-07-01

    Isolated heart model is a relevant tool for cardiovascular system studies. It represents a highly reproducible model for studying broad spectrum of biochemical, physiological, morphological, and pharmaceutical parameters, including analysis of intrinsic heart mechanics, metabolism, and coronary vascular response. Results obtained in this model are under no influence of other organ systems, plasma concentration of hormones or ions and influence of autonomic nervous system. The review describes various isolated heart models, the modes of heart perfusion, and advantages and limitations of various experimental setups. It reports the improvements of perfusion setup according to Langendorff introduced by the authors.

  7. Smallholder pig production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Ngowi, Helena; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in the Mbeya Region, Tanzania, with the aim of describing the distribution and diversity of ectoparasites on pigs, within confinement and free-range production systems of smallholder farms. A total of 128 farms were surveyed, with 96 practising confinement...... and 32 practising free-range production systems. The prevalence of ectoparasites on pigs within confinement and free-range production systems was 24% and 84%, respectively. Logistic regression analyses revealed that keeping pigs in a free-range system and the presence of neighbouring pigs were risk...... although highly prevalent within both production systems. Keeping pigs in a free-range system and contact with neighbouring pigs were main risk factors for the presence of ectoparasites. Confinement was highly effective as a preventive tool against hard ticks....

  8. Altered carnitine transport in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Rourke, B.; Foster, K.; Reibel, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously observed reduced carnitine levels in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. In an attempt to determine the mechanism for reduced myocardial carnitine content, carnitine transport was examined in isolated perfused hearts. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats 3 weeks following surgery and perfused at 60 mm Hg aortic pressure with buffer containing various concentrations of L- 14 C-carnitine. Carnitine uptake by control and hypertrophied hearts was linear throughout 30 minutes of perfusion with 40 μM carnitine. Total carnitine uptake was significantly reduced by 25% in hypertrophied hearts at each time point examined. The reduction in uptake by hypertrophied hearts was also evident when hearts were perfused with 100 or 200 μM carnitine. When 0.05 mM mersalyl acid was included in the buffer to inhibit the carrier-mediated component of transport, no difference in carnitine uptake was observed indicating that the transport of carnitine by diffusion was unaltered in the hypertrophied myocardium. Carrier-mediated carnitine uptake (total uptake - uptake by diffusion) was significantly reduced by approximately 40% in hypertrophied hearts at all concentrations examined. Thus, the reduction in carnitine content in the pressure-overload hypertrophied rat heart appears to be due to a reduction in carrier-mediated carnitine uptake by the heart

  9. Pig model for diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a transgenic pig comprising a mutated IAPP gene and displaying a phenotype associated with diabetes. The invention also relates to a transgenic blastocyst, embryo, fetus, donor cell and/or cell nucleusderived from said transgenic pig. The invention further relates...... to use of the transgenic pig as a model system for studying therapy, treatment and/or prevention of diabetes....

  10. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with thallium-201 - principle and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, J.

    1981-01-01

    Since from the cardiological and cardio-surgical aspects non-invasive methods practicable in the diagnostics of regional myocardial blood perfusion are claiming priority, the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with thallium 201 has gained more and more importance in the diagnostics of coronary heart diseases. Although radiothallium because of its nucleo-physical characteristics is not regarded as ideal radiopharmaceutical, it is at present, because of its potassium-analogue biokinetics the best radiopharmaceutical to represent the regional coronary perfusion distribution, the vitality and configuration of the heart muscle non-invasively. With careful clinical indication and under consideration of the physico-technical limitations, the informative value provided by the serial scintigraphy with thallium 201 is greater than that provided by the excercise ECG. Various possibilities for solving the problem of quantitative analysis of the myocardial scintigrams have been given. Up to the present day a standardised evaluation procedure corresponding to that of the visual scintigram interpretation has not yet found general acceptance. (orig.) [de

  11. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Cardiologia]. E-mail: rodrigo_dsp@hcrp.fmrp.usp.br; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica. Dept. de Tecnologia da Informacao; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de [Instituto de Ensino Superior COC, Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Lab. of Artifical Intelligence and Applications; Castro, Adelson Antonio de [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Ana, Lauro Wichert [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Centro de Ciencias das Imagens e Fisica Medica; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Divisao de Cardiologia

    2008-11-15

    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  12. Aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion abnormality utilizing SPECT atlas and images registration: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padua, Rodrigo Donizete Santana de; Oliveira, Lucas Ferrari de; Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo; Groote, Jean-Jacques Georges Soares de; Castro, Adelson Antonio de; Ana, Lauro Wichert; Simoes, Marcus Vinicius

    2008-01-01

    To develop an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and evaluating its applicability in computer-aided detection of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with ischemic heart disease. The atlas was created with rest-stress myocardial perfusion scintigraphic images of 20 patients of both genders with low probability of coronary artery disease and considered as normal by two experienced observers. Techniques of image registration and mathematical operations on images were utilized for obtaining template images depicting mean myocardial uptake and standard deviation for each gender and physiological condition. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy images of one male and one female patient were aligned with the corresponding atlas template image, and voxels with myocardial uptake rates two standard deviations below the mean voxel value of the respective region in the atlas template image were highlighted on the tomographic sections and confirmed as perfusion defects by both observe. The present study demonstrated the creation of an atlas of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with promising results of this tool as an aid in the detection of myocardial perfusion defects. However, further prospective validation with a more representative sample is recommended. (author)

  13. Correlation of the myocardial perfusion corrected by attenuation with the coronariography. Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, S.E.; Garcia O, R.

    2005-01-01

    The attenuation that suffers the radiation in the soft tissues of the hinders the appropriate interpretation of the myocardial perfusion studies, for what have been implemented attenuation correction systems to reduce the attenuation for soft tissues and to provide myocardial perfusion images more accurate in the diagnosis of coronary illness. The objective was to evaluate the utility of an attenuation correction system (with source of Gadolinium 153) to minimize the devices that look like true defects of myocardial perfusion, caused by soft tissues (mammary tissue, thoracic wall, abdomen, left hemi diaphragm), and to compare those interpretations of the studies with the interpretations of the corresponding coronariographies. The method consists of 95 electronic files which were revised with the concept of heart catheterization, being identified 20 patients from the masculine sex to those that underwent coronariography among May 1999 and December 2002, and that they had study of myocardial perfusion in a maximum period of 3 months foresaw to the invasive procedure. (Author)

  14. Lung perfusion scintigraphy by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takanobu

    1990-01-01

    The initial study reports the characteristic performance using lung segmental phantom filled in Tc-99m pertechnetate. To evaluate the segmental defect in lung perfusion scintigraphy, we applied Bull's-eye analysis in addition to planar image set. Bull's-eye analysis especially facilitated the interpretation in both middle and lower lobes. Subsequently, to evolute the clinical application of Bull's-eye analysis, pulmonary scintigraphy was performed on 10 normal subjects and 60 patients with several pulmonary diseases. Of interest, Bull's-eye analysis, however, encouraged the interpretation in both lower lobes. To calculate the extention and severity of perfusion defect, the present study describes Bull's-eye analysis. Quantitative scoring showed higher in patients with lung cancer than those with pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study focus that Bull's-eye analysis can be useful for evaluating perfusion in patients with a couple of pulmonary diseases. (author)

  15. Enlarged Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rheumatic fever, a heart defect, infections (infectious endocarditis), connective tissue disorders, certain medications or radiation treatments for cancer, your heart may enlarge. Disease of the heart ...

  16. Using a pulse oximeter to determine clinical depth of anesthesia-investigation of the utility of the perfusion index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamohan, Anirudh; Siriwardana, Viraj; Skowno, Justin J

    2016-11-01

    Peripheral vasodilation is a well-recognized side effect of general anesthesia, and induces changes in the amplitude of the pulse plethysmograph (PPG) waveform. This can be continuously quantitaed using the Perfusion Index (PI), a ratio of the pulsatile to nonpulsatile signal amplitude in the PPG waveform. We hypothesized that the perfusion index would rise with the induction of anesthesia in children, and fall with emergence, and performed a prospective, observational study to test this. Our primary aim was to test whether the different clinical stages of anesthesia were associated with changes in the perfusion index, and the secondary aim was to test the correlation between the normalized perfusion index and the MAC value. Twenty-one patients between the ages of 1 and 18 undergoing minor procedures with no anticipated painful stimuli were recruited. Patients with significant illnesses were excluded. Data collection commenced with a preinduction baseline, and data were collected continuously, with event marking, until completion of the anesthesia and removal of the pulse oximeter. Data collected included perfusion index, heart rate, and anesthetic gas concentration values. A normalized perfusion index was calculated by subtracting the initial baseline perfusion index value from all perfusion index values, allowing changes, from a standardized initial baseline value of zero, to be analyzed. During induction, the mean normalized perfusion index rose from 0.0 to 4.2, and then declined to 0.470 when the patients returned to consciousness. P < 0.001 using repeated measures anova test. The normalized perfusion index was correlated with MAC values (r 2 = 0.33, 95% CI 0.18-0.47, P < 0.01). The perfusion index changed significantly during different stages of anesthesia. There is a significant correlation between the perfusion index, measured by pulse oximetry, and the MAC value, in pediatric patients undergoing minor procedures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging identifies early perfusion abnormalities in diabetes and hypertension : Insights from a multicenter registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Pelgrim, Gert Jan; Tesche, Christian; Ebersberger, Ullrich; Pugliese, Francesca; Bamberg, Fabian; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Schoepf, U. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background: To identify patients with early signs of myocardial perfusion reduction, a reference base for perfusion measures is needed. Objective: To analyze perfusion parameters derived from dynamic computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI) in patients with suspected coronary artery disease

  18. Automatic assessment of cardiac perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille; Larsson, Henrik B.W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on Active Appearance Models (AAM) is applied for automatic registration of myocardial perfusion MRI. A semi-quantitative perfusion assessment of the registered image sequences is presented. This includes the formation of perfusion maps for three parameters; maximum up...

  19. Intracoronary infusion of catecholamines causes focal arrhythmias in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Harish; Jin, Qi; Dosdall, Derek J; Qin, Hao; Walcott, Gregory P; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Smith, William M; Ideker, Raymond E; Huang, Jian

    2008-09-01

    Acute ischemia causes myriad changes including increased catecholamines. We tested the hypothesis that elevated catecholamines alone are arrhythmogenic. A 504 electrode sock was placed over both ventricles in six open-chest pigs. During control infusion of saline through a catheter in the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), no sustained arrhythmias occurred, and the refractory period estimated by the activation recovery interval (ARI) was 175 +/- 14 ms in the LAD bed below the catheter. After infusion of isoproterenol at 0.1 microg/kg/min through the catheter, the ARI in this bed was significantly reduced to 109 +/- 10 ms. A sharp gradient of refractoriness of 43 +/- 10 ms was at the border of the perfused bed. Sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia occurred after drug infusion in the perfused bed or near its boundary in all animals with a cycle length of 329 +/- 26 ms and a focal origin. The maximum slope of the ARI restitution curve at the focal origins of the tachyarrhythmias was always <1 (0.62 +/- 0.15). Similar results with a focal arrhythmia origin occurred in two additional pigs in which intramural mapping was performed with 36 plunge needle electrodes in the left ventricular perfused bed. Regional elevation of a catecholamine, which is one of the alterations produced by acute ischemia, can by itself cause tachyarrhythmias. These arrhythmias are closely associated with a shortened refractory period and a large gradient of the spatial distribution of refractoriness but not with a steep restitution curve.

  20. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stop eating (fast), be on a special diet, or take any medicines before the test. A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan. You wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have ...

  1. Simultaneous detection of landmarks and key-frame in cardiac perfusion MRI using a joint spatial-temporal context model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Xue, Hui; Jolly, Marie-Pierre; Guetter, Christoph; Kellman, Peter; Hsu, Li-Yueh; Arai, Andrew; Zuehlsdorff, Sven; Littmann, Arne; Georgescu, Bogdan; Guehring, Jens

    2011-03-01

    Cardiac perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has proven clinical significance in diagnosis of heart diseases. However, analysis of perfusion data is time-consuming, where automatic detection of anatomic landmarks and key-frames from perfusion MR sequences is helpful for anchoring structures and functional analysis of the heart, leading toward fully automated perfusion analysis. Learning-based object detection methods have demonstrated their capabilities to handle large variations of the object by exploring a local region, i.e., context. Conventional 2D approaches take into account spatial context only. Temporal signals in perfusion data present a strong cue for anchoring. We propose a joint context model to encode both spatial and temporal evidence. In addition, our spatial context is constructed not only based on the landmark of interest, but also the landmarks that are correlated in the neighboring anatomies. A discriminative model is learned through a probabilistic boosting tree. A marginal space learning strategy is applied to efficiently learn and search in a high dimensional parameter space. A fully automatic system is developed to simultaneously detect anatomic landmarks and key frames in both RV and LV from perfusion sequences. The proposed approach was evaluated on a database of 373 cardiac perfusion MRI sequences from 77 patients. Experimental results of a 4-fold cross validation show superior landmark detection accuracies of the proposed joint spatial-temporal approach to the 2D approach that is based on spatial context only. The key-frame identification results are promising.

  2. Role of coronary endothelium in cyclic AMP formation by the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, K.; Schrader, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to quantify the activation of adenylate cyclase of the coronary endothelium in vivo, endothelial adenine nucleotides of isolated guinea pig hearts were selectively pre-labeled by intracoronary infusion of tritiated (H3)-adenosine, and the coronary efflux of H3-cAMP was measured. The adenosine receptor agonist, NECA (12 μM), increased total cAMP release 4 fold, and raised H3-cAMP release 22 fold. Several classes of coronary vasodilators (adenosine, L-PIA, D-PIA, the beta 2-adrenergic agonist procaterol, and PGE1) caused dose-dependent increases in endothelial-derived H3-cAMP release. These increases were accompanied by decreases in vascular resistance, at agonist doses without positive intropic effects. Hypoxic perfusion also raised H3-cAMP release, and this was antagonized by theophylline. It is concluded: (1) cyclic AMP formation by coronary endothelium can dominate total cAMP production by the heart; (2) coronary endothelial adenylate cyclase-coupled receptors for adenosine (A2), catecholamines (beta2) and prostaglandins are activated in parallel with coronary vasodilation; (3) endothelial adenylate cyclase can be activated by endogenous adenosine

  3. Evaluating optimal superficial limb perfusion at different angles using non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmanin, Geraldine; Jaggard, Matthew; Hettiaratchy, Shehan; Nanchahal, Jagdeep; Jain, Abhilash

    2013-06-01

    It is common practice to elevate the limbs postoperatively to reduce oedema and hence optimise perfusion and facilitate rehabilitation. However, elevation may be counterproductive as it reduces the mean perfusion pressure. There are no clear data on the optimal position of the limbs even in normal subjects. The optimal position of limbs was investigated in 25 healthy subjects using a non-invasive micro-lightguide spectrophotometry system "O2C", which indirectly measures skin and superficial tissue perfusion through blood flow, oxygen saturation and relative haemoglobin concentration. We found a reduction in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 17% (p=0.0001) on arm elevation (180° shoulder flexion) as compared to heart level and an increase in skin and superficial tissue blood flow of 25% (p=0.02) on forearm elevation of 45°. Lower limb skin and superficial tissue blood flow decreased by 15% (p=0.004) on elevation to 47 cm and by 70% on dependency (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. However, on elevation of the lower limb there was also a 28% reduction in superficial venous pooling (p=0.0001) compared to heart level. In the normal limb, the position for optimal superficial perfusion of the upper limb is with the arm placed at heart level and forearm at 45°. In the lower limb the optimal position for superficial perfusion would be at heart level. However, some degree of elevation may be useful if there is an element of venous congestion. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 3D whole-heart myocardial tissue analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, HT; de Jong, Leon; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Chamuleau, Steven A.J.; van Slochteren, Frebus J.; Van Es, René

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac regenerative therapies aim to protect and repair the injured heart in patients with ischemic heart disease. By injecting stem cells or other biologicals that enhance angio- or vasculogenesis into the infarct border zone (IBZ), tissue perfusion is improved, and the myocardium can be protected

  5. Contralateral thalamic hypoperfusion on brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun; Yoo, Kyung Moo; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is useful for the localization of cerebrovascular lesion and sometimes reveals more definite lesion than radiologic imaging modality such as CT or MRI does. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of brain perfusion SPECT in patients with hemisensory impairment. Thirteen consecutive patients (M:F= 8:5, mean age = 48) who has hemisensory impairment were included. Brain perfusion SPECT was performed after intravenous injection of 1110 MBq of Tc-99m ECD. The images were obtained using a dual-head gamma camera with ultra-high resolution collimator. Semiquantitative analysis was performed after placing multiple ROIs on cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum. There were 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment and 3 patients with right-sided symptom. Only 2 patients revealed abnormal signal change in the thalamus on MRI. But brain perfusion SPECT showed decreased perfusion in the thalamus in 9 patients. Six patients among 10 patients with left hemisensory impairment revealed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. The other 4 patients revealed no abnormality. Two patients among 3 patients with right hemisensory impairment also showed decreased perfusion in the contralateral thalamus on brain SPECT. One patients with right hemisensory impairment showed ipsilateral perfusion decrease. Two patients who had follow-up brain perfusion SEPCT after treatment revealed normalization of perfusion in the thalamus. Brain perfusion SPECT might be a useful tool in diagnosing patients with hemisensory impairment

  6. Magnetic resonance perfusion imaging without contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosian, Petros; Graf, Hansjoerg; Schick, Fritz; Boss, Andreas; Schraml, Christina; Schwenzer, Nina F.; Claussen, Claus D.

    2010-01-01

    Principles of magnetic resonance imaging techniques providing perfusion-related contrast weighting without administration of contrast media are reported and analysed systematically. Especially common approaches to arterial spin labelling (ASL) perfusion imaging allowing quantitative assessment of specific perfusion rates are described in detail. The potential of ASL for perfusion imaging was tested in several types of tissue. After a systematic comparison of technical aspects of continuous and pulsed ASL techniques the standard kinetic model and tissue properties of influence to quantitative measurements of perfusion are reported. For the applications demonstrated in this paper a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL perfusion preparation approach followed by true fast imaging with steady precession (true FISP) data recording was developed and implemented on whole-body scanners operating at 0.2, 1.5 and 3 T for quantitative perfusion measurement in various types of tissue. ASL imaging provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of tissue perfusion rates in vivo. Images recorded from kidney, lung, brain, salivary gland and thyroid gland provide a spatial resolution of a few millimetres and sufficient signal to noise ratio in perfusion maps after 2-5 min of examination time. Newly developed ASL techniques provide especially high image quality and quantitative perfusion maps in tissues with relatively high perfusion rates (as also present in many tumours). Averaging of acquisitions and image subtraction procedures are mandatory, leading to the necessity of synchronization of data recording to breathing in abdominal and thoracic organs. (orig.)

  7. Manipulating early pig embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, H; Reichelt, B

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of established surgical procedures for embryo recovery and transfer, the early pig embryo can be subjected to various manipulations aimed at a long-term preservation of genetic material, the generation of identical multiplets, the early determination of sex or the alteration of the genetic make-up. Most of these procedures are still at an experimental stage and despite recent considerable progress are far from practical application. Normal piglets have been obtained after cryopreservation of pig blastocysts hatched in vitro, whereas all attempts to freeze embryos with intact zona pellucida have been unsuccessful. Pig embryos at the morula and blastocyst stage can be bisected microsurgically and the resulting demi-embryos possess a high developmental potential in vitro, whereas their development in vivo is impaired. Pregnancy rates are similar (80%) but litter size is reduced compared with intact embryos and twinning rate is approximately 2%. Pig blastomeres isolated from embryos up to the 16-cell stage can be grown in culture and result in normal blastocysts. Normal piglets have been born upon transfer of blastocysts derived from isolated eight-cell blastomeres, clearly underlining the totipotency of this developmental stage. Upon nuclear transfer the developmental capacity of reconstituted pig embryos is low and culture. Sex determination can be achieved either by separation of X and Y chromosome bearing spermatozoa by flow cytometry or by analysing the expression of the HY antigen in pig embryos from the eight-cell to morula stage. Microinjection of foreign DNA has been successfully used to alter growth and development of transgenic pigs, and to produce foreign proteins in the mammary gland or in the bloodstream, indicating that pigs can be used as donors for valuable human pharmaceutical proteins. Another promising area of gene transfer is the increase of disease resistance in transgenic lines of pigs. Approximately 30% of pig spermatozoa bind

  8. Positron emission tomography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budinger, T.F.; Yano, Y.; Huesman, R.H.; Derenzo, S.E.; Moyer, B.R.; Mathis, C.A.; Ganz, E.; Knittel, B.

    1983-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) of the heart can measure blood perfusion, metabolism of fatty acids, metabolism of sugars, uptake of amino acids and can quantitate infarction volume. The principles are reviewed which are basic to PET instrumentation and procedures for quantitative studies of human physiology with examples of measurements of myocardial flow and metabolism

  9. Assessment of Cu-ETS as a PET radiopharmaceutical for evaluation of regional renal perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Mark A.; Mathias, Carla J.; Willis, Lynn R.; Handa, Rajash K.; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Miller, Michael A.; Hutchins, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    The copper(II) complex of ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ETS) was evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical for assessment of regional renal perfusion. Methods: The concordance of renal flow estimates obtained with 11- and 15-μm microspheres was confirmed in four immature farm pigs using co-injected 46 Sc- and 57 Co-microspheres administered into the left ventricle. With the use of both immature farm pigs (n=3) and mature Goettingen minipigs (n=6), regional renal radiocopper uptake following intravenous [ 64 Cu]Cu-ETS administration was compared to microsphere measurements of renal perfusion. The distribution and kinetics of [ 64 Cu]Cu-ETS were further studied by PET imaging of the kidneys. The rate of [ 64 Cu]Cu-ETS decomposition by blood was evaluated in vitro, employing octanol extraction to recover intact [ 64 Cu]Cu-ETS. Results: The co-injected 11- and 15-μm microspheres provided similar estimates of renal flow. A linear relationship was observed between the renal uptake of intravenous [ 64 Cu]Cu-ETS and regional renal perfusion measured using microspheres. [ 64 Cu]Cu-ETS provided high-quality PET kidney images demonstrating the expected count gradient from high-flow outer cortex to low-flow medulla. When incubated with pig blood in vitro at 37 o C, the [ 64 Cu]Cu-ETS radiopharmaceutical was observed to decompose with a half-time of 2.8 min. Conclusion: Cu-ETS appears suitable for use as a PET radiopharmaceutical for evaluation of regional renal perfusion, affording renal uptake of radiocopper that varies linearly with microsphere perfusion measurements. Quantification of renal perfusion (in ml min -1 g -1 ) with [ 60,61,62,64 Cu]Cu-ETS will require correcting the arterial input function for the fraction of blood radiocopper remaining present as the intact Cu-ETS radiopharmaceutical, since the Cu-ETS chelate has limited chemical stability in blood. Rapid octanol extraction of blood samples appears suitable as an approach

  10. Assessment of Cu-ETS as a PET radiopharmaceutical for evaluation of regional renal perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Mark A. [Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)]. E-mail: magreen@purdue.edu; Mathias, Carla J. [Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Willis, Lynn R. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Handa, Rajash K. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Lacy, Jeffrey L. [Proportional Technologies, Inc., Houston, TX 77054 (United States); Miller, Michael A. [Department of Radiology and the Indiana Center of Excellence in Biomedical Imaging, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Hutchins, Gary D. [Department of Radiology and the Indiana Center of Excellence in Biomedical Imaging, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States)

    2007-04-15

    The copper(II) complex of ethylglyoxal bis(thiosemicarbazone) (Cu-ETS) was evaluated as a positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceutical for assessment of regional renal perfusion. Methods: The concordance of renal flow estimates obtained with 11- and 15-{mu}m microspheres was confirmed in four immature farm pigs using co-injected {sup 46}Sc- and {sup 57}Co-microspheres administered into the left ventricle. With the use of both immature farm pigs (n=3) and mature Goettingen minipigs (n=6), regional renal radiocopper uptake following intravenous [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ETS administration was compared to microsphere measurements of renal perfusion. The distribution and kinetics of [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ETS were further studied by PET imaging of the kidneys. The rate of [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ETS decomposition by blood was evaluated in vitro, employing octanol extraction to recover intact [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ETS. Results: The co-injected 11- and 15-{mu}m microspheres provided similar estimates of renal flow. A linear relationship was observed between the renal uptake of intravenous [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ETS and regional renal perfusion measured using microspheres. [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ETS provided high-quality PET kidney images demonstrating the expected count gradient from high-flow outer cortex to low-flow medulla. When incubated with pig blood in vitro at 37{sup o}C, the [{sup 64}Cu]Cu-ETS radiopharmaceutical was observed to decompose with a half-time of 2.8 min. Conclusion: Cu-ETS appears suitable for use as a PET radiopharmaceutical for evaluation of regional renal perfusion, affording renal uptake of radiocopper that varies linearly with microsphere perfusion measurements. Quantification of renal perfusion (in ml min{sup -1} g{sup -1}) with [{sup 60,61,62,64}Cu]Cu-ETS will require correcting the arterial input function for the fraction of blood radiocopper remaining present as the intact Cu-ETS radiopharmaceutical, since the Cu-ETS chelate has limited chemical stability in blood. Rapid octanol

  11. Selective cerebro-myocardial perfusion in complex congenital aortic arch pathology: a novel technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rita, Fabrizio; Lucchese, Gianluca; Barozzi, Luca; Menon, Tiziano; Faggian, Giuseppe; Mazzucco, Alessandro; Luciani, Giovanni Battista

    2011-11-01

    Simultaneous cerebro-myocardial perfusion has been described in neonatal and infant arch surgery, suggesting a reduction in cardiac morbidity. Here reported is a novel technique for selective cerebral perfusion combined with controlled and independent myocardial perfusion during surgery for complex or recurrent aortic arch lesions. From April 2008 to April 2011, 10 patients with arch pathology underwent surgery (two hypoplastic left heart syndrome [HLHS], four recurrent arch obstruction, two aortic arch hypoplasia + ventricular septal defect [VSD], one single ventricle + transposition of the great arteries + arch hypoplasia, one interrupted aortic arch type B + VSD). Median age was 63 days (6 days-36 years) and median weight 4.0 kg (1.6-52). Via midline sternotomy, an arterial cannula (6 or 8 Fr for infants) was directly inserted into the innominate artery or through a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft (for neonates cerebro-myocardial perfusion was 39 ± 18 min (17-69). Weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass was achieved without inotropic support in three and with low dose in seven patients. One patient required veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Four patients, body weight cerebro-myocardial perfusion is feasible in patients with complex or recurrent aortic arch disease, starting from premature newborn less than 2.0 kg of body weight to adults. The technique is as safe as previously reported methods of cerebro-myocardial perfusion and possibly more versatile. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Pulmonary O2 transfer during pulsatile and non-pulsatile perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauge, A; Nicolaysen, G

    1980-07-01

    The importance of the perfusion pattern for the oxygen transfer has been examined in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with plasma at constant volume inflow. The lungs were ventilated with constant tidal volume and constant end-expiratory pressure. Following a standardized rise in FIO2 the rate of rise in pulmonary venous PO2 (delta PO2/delta t) was measured during alternately pulsatile and non-pulsatile perfusion in normal lungs and in lungs made edematous by elevation of left atrial pressure. In normal lungs there was no difference in delta PO2/delta t when the two modes of perfusion were compared. In edematous lungs delta PO/delta t was statistically higher during pulsatile perfusion, indicating a beneficial effect of flow- and pressure pulsations, e.g. a better distribution of V/Q ratios throughout the lungs. In a separate series of expts. the advancement of a high O2 front through the airways was measured, and the two perfusion patterns compared. Since no difference was found, we suggest that the phenomenon of "cardiogenic gas mixing" in the airways in vivo is a result of a direct action of the heart on the lungs rather than arterial pulsations.

  13. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  14. Endoluminal norepinephrine inhibits smooth muscle activity of the pig pyeloureter by stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors without side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens; Holst, Uffe; Jacobsen, Jørn Skibsted

    2008-01-01

    of pyeloureter and to reveal possible side effects on cardiovascular and renal functions. Renal pelvis was perfused, while pelvic pressure, cardiovascular and renal functional parameters were recorded. In group A, a pelvic pressure increase was examined during pressure flow studies with norepinephrine solutions......It has been demonstrated in pigs that endoluminal administration of norepinephrine reduces the increase in renal pelvic pressure during perfusion. The purposes were to describe concentration-response relationship and receptor mechanism of the effect of norepinephrine on muscle function...... a renal pelvis pressure increase to perfusion in a dose-related way without side effects. Endoluminal norepinephrine is safe in pigs and may be useful under endoscopy of the pyeloureter....

  15. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  16. Myocardial perfusion modeling using MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, H B; Fritz-Hansen, T; Rostrup, Egill

    1996-01-01

    In the present study, it is shown that it is possible to quantify myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance imaging in combination with gadolinium diethylenetriaminopentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA). Previously, a simple model and method for measuring myocardial perfusion using an inversion recovery...... turbo-FLASH (fast low-angle shot) sequence and Gd-DTPA has been presented. Here, an extension of the model is presented taking into account fast and slow water exchange between the compartments, enabling the calculation of the unidirectional influx constant (Ki) for Gd-DTPA, the distribution volume...... of Gd-DTPA (lambda), the vascular blood volume (Vb), and the time delay through the coronary arteries (delta T). The model was evaluated by computer simulation and used on experimental results from seven healthy subjects. The results in the healthy volunteers for a region of interest placed...

  17. Antibody responses measured by various serologic tests in pigs orally inoculated with low numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J. P.; Andrews, C.D.; Lind, Peter

    1996-01-01

    ) infective oocysts, and 6 pigs served as uninoculated controls. Blood (serum) samples were obtained at 1- to 3-week intervals until euthanasia. At necropsy, the brain, heart, and tongue of pigs were bioassayed in mice and cats for isolation of T gondii. Modified agglutination test (MAT), using whole, fixed...

  18. Fatty acid utilization in pressure-overload hypertrophied rat hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, D.K.; O'Rourke, B.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have previously shown that the levels of total tissue coenzyme A and carnitine are reduced in hypertrophied hearts of rats subjected to aortic constriction. It was therefore of interest to determine if these changes were associated with alterations in fatty acid oxidation by the hypertrophied myocardium. Hearts were excised from sham-operated and aortic-constricted rats and perfused at 10 cm H 2 O left atrial filling pressure with a ventricular afterload of 80 cm of H 2 O with buffer containing 1.2 mM 14 C-linoleate. Heart rate and peak systolic pressure were not different in control and hypertrophied hearts. 14 CO 2 production was linear in both groups of hearts between 10 and 30 minutes of perfusion. The rate of fatty acid oxidation determined by 14 CO 2 production during this time was 0.728 +/- 0.06 μmoles/min/g dry in control hearts and 0.710 +/- 0.02 μmoles/min/g dry in hypertrophied hearts. Comparable rates of fatty acid oxidation were associated with comparable rates of O 2 consumption in the two groups of hearts (39.06 +/- 3.50 and 36.78 +/- 2.39 μmoles/g dry/min for control and hypertrophied hearts, respectively). The data indicate that the ability of the hypertrophied heart to oxidize fatty acids under these perfusion conditions is not impaired in spite of significant reductions in tissue levels of coenzyme A and carnitine

  19. Myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1989-01-01

    To investigate myocardial perfusion in silent myocardial ischemia, we performed exercise stress myocardial tomography with thallium-201 (Tl) in 85 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise stress myocardial tomography was obtained both immediately after exercise and three hours later. Patients were classified into two groups according to the presence (Symptomatic Group, n=36) or absence (Silent Group, n=49) of chest pain during exercise stress. Clinical features (age, gender and history of myocardial infarction) and arteriographically determined severity of CAD were the same in both groups. The extent of myocardial ischemia (% Ischemia) estimated by exercise stress myocardial tomography was the same in each group (30±10 % in Silent Group, 28±12 % in Symptomatic Group, NS). The severity of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia was expressed as a minimal value of myocardial Tl washout rate (minimal WOR) of each patient. Although exercise heart rate was identical in both groups, minimal WOR in Silent Group was significantly higher than that of Symptomatic Group (4±10% vs -16±14%, p<0.001). The study in patients who exhibited both silent and symptomatic ischemia showed the same results. These findings suggest that the severity of ischemia is a fundamental factor in determining the presence or absence of pain during exercise induced ischemia. (author)

  20. A capillary-based perfusion phantom for simulation of brain perfusion for MRI; Ein kapillarbasiertes Phantom zur Simulation der Gehirnperfusion mit der Magnet-Resonanz-Tomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciak, A.; Kronfeld, A.; Mueller-Forell, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuroradiologie; Wille, C. [Fachhochschule Bingen (Germany). Inst. fuer Informatik; Kempski, O. [Universitaetsklinikum Mainz (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurochirurgische Pathophysiologie; Stoeter, P. [CEDIMAT, Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Inst. of Neuroradiology

    2010-10-15

    Purpose: The measurement of the CBF is a non-standardized procedure and there are no reliable gold standards. This abstract shows a capillary-based perfusion-phantom for CE-DSC-MRI. It has equivalent flow properties to those within the tissue capillary system of the human brain and allows the validation of the Siemens Perfusion (MR) software. Materials and Methods: The perfusion phantom consists of a dialyzer for the simulation of the capillary system, a feeding tube for simulation of the AIF and a pulsatile pump for simulation of the heart. Using this perfusion phantom, the exact determination of the gold standard CBF due to the well-known geometry of the phantom is easy. It was validated based on different perfusion measurements. These measurements were investigated with standard software (Siemens Perfusion MR). The software determined the CBF within the capillary system. Based on this CBF, a comparison to the gold standard was made with several different flow speeds. After AIF selection, a total of 726 CBF data points were automatically extracted by the software. Results: This results in a comparison of the gold standard CBF to these 726 CBF values. Therefore, a reproducible and reliable deviation estimation between gold standard CBF and measured CBF using the software was computed. It can be shown that the deviation between gold standard and software-based evaluation ranges between 1 and 31 %. Conclusion: There is no significance for any correlation between flow speed and amount of deviation. The mean measured CBF is 11.4 % higher than the gold standard CBF (p-value < 0.001). Using this kind of perfusion-phantom, the validation of different software systems allows reliable conclusions about their quality. (orig.)

  1. Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  2. Improvements in the technique of vascular perfusion-fixation employing a fluorocarbon-containing perfusate and a peristaltic pump controlled by pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, J; Qvortrup, Klaus; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1993-01-01

    A new improved technique for whole-body perfusion-fixation of rats and other small animals is described. The driving force is a peristaltic pump which is feedback regulated by a pressure transducer that monitors the blood-perfusion pressure in the left ventricle of the heart. The primary perfusate...... to cannulate the heart; the outer and inner barrels of the cannula are connected to the peristaltic pump and to the pressure transducer, respectively. The tissue oxygen tension in the rat is monitored by a subcutaneous oxygen electrode. Measurements showed that tissue hypoxia/anoxia did not develop before......-fixative is composed of a blood substitute--13.3% oxygenated fluorocarbon FC-75--in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with a 2% glutaraldehyde. The secondary perfusate-fixative is composed of 2% glutaraldehyde in 0.05 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) with 20 mM CaCl2. A double-barrelled, self-holding cannula is used...

  3. Abolished ventilation and perfusion of lung caused by blood clot in the left main bronchus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, P; Bergmann, A; Henriksen, J H

    2015-01-01

    /Q) scintigraphy with single-photon emission CT (SPECT)/CT. V/Q SPECT/CT demonstrated abolished ventilation due to obstruction of the left main bronchus and markedly reduced perfusion of the entire left lung, a condition that was completely reversed after removal of a blood clot. We present the first pictorially......It is generally assumed that the lungs possess arterial autoregulation associated with bronchial obstruction. A patient with pneumonia and congestive heart failure unexpectedly developed frequent haemoptysis. High-resolution CT and diagnostic CT were performed as well as ventilation/perfusion (V...

  4. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral......(mean) during ergometer cycling (n = 8). Separate, randomized and counterbalanced trials were performed in control (no drug) conditions and following muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate increased resting heart rate from approximately 60 to approximately 110 beats min(-1...... abolished by glycopyrrolate (P important for the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion without affecting the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen....

  5. Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of routine meat inspection of danish slaughter pigs using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Marianne; Toft, Nils; Thomsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    and heart disorders will cause a significant underestimation of the prevalence of diseases reported to the pig producers. Based on our results the true prevalence of diseases (conventional vs. organic slaughter pigs) was (in %): 42 vs. 16, 5 vs. 51, 5 vs. 12 and 9 vs. 5 for RESP, PAR, INT and HEART......Two groups of observers, regular meat inspectors and two veterinary researchers, respectively, conducted independent veterinary meat inspection of organs of slaughter pigs from organic or conventional production systems slaughtered at one abattoir in April 2005. A total of 3054 pigs (899 organic...... and 2155 conventional) were examined. The observed pathological disorders were grouped in four categories; respiratory disorders (RESP), parasitic disorders (PAR), intestinal disorders (INT) and heart disorders (HEART). Using a latent class model, the sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of meat...

  6. Perfusion abnormalities in congenital and neoplastic pulmonary disease: comparison of MR perfusion and multislice CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boll, Daniel T.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Young, Philip; Gilkeson, Robert C.; Siwik, Ernest S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to assess magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion patterns of chronic, nonembolic pulmonary diseases of congenital and neoplastic origin and to compare the findings with results obtained with pulmonary, contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (CT) imaging to prove that congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions require MR imaging over the pulmonary perfusion cycle to successfully and directly detect changes in lung perfusion patterns. Twenty-five patients underwent concurrent CT and MR evaluation of chronic pulmonary diseases of congenital (n=15) or neoplastic (n=10) origin. Analysis of MR perfusion and contrast-enhanced CT datasets was realized by defining pulmonary and vascular regions of interest in corresponding positions. MR perfusion calculated time-to-peak enhancement, maximal enhancement and the area under the perfusion curve. CT datasets provided pulmonary signal-to-noise ratio measurements. Vessel centerlines of bronchial arteries were determined. Underlying perfusion type, such as pulmonary arterial or systemic arterial supply, as well as regions with significant variations in perfusion were determined statistically. Analysis of the pulmonary perfusion pattern detected pulmonary arterial supply in 19 patients; six patients showed systemic arterial supply. In pulmonary arterial perfusion, MR and multislice CT imaging consistently detected the perfusion type and regions with altered perfusion patterns. In bronchial arterial supply, MR perfusion and CT imaging showed significant perfusion differences. Patients with bronchial arterial supply had bronchial arteries ranging from 2.0 to 3.6 mm compared with submillimeter diameters in pulmonary arterial perfusion. Dynamic MR imaging of congenital and neoplastic pulmonary conditions allowed characterization of the pulmonary perfusion type. CT imaging suggested the presence of systemic arterial perfusion by visualizing hypertrophied bronchial arteries. (orig.)

  7. Ex Vivo Spleen and Kidney Absorption of Xenoreactive Natural Antibodies Decreases Severity of Hyperacute Rejection in Pig-to-dog Renal Xenotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Nitta, Kohsaku

    1996-01-01

    The severe hyperacute rejection in pig-to-dog renal xenotransplantation is mainly caused by xenoreactive natural antibodies (NAb). Organ absorption (ex vivo perfusion of spleen and kidney of donor species) was performed to remove xenoreactive NAb. A pig-to-dog renal transplantation model was used for discordant combination xenografting. The experimental animals were divided into 4 groups: group 1, control; group 2, recipients splenectomized prior to renal xenografting; group 3, splenectomy al...

  8. Fetal Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rounds Seminar Series & Daily Conferences Fellowships and Residencies School of Perfusion Technology Education Resources Library & Learning Resource Center CME Resources THI Journal THI Cardiac Society Register for the Cardiac Society ...

  9. Heart Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rounds Seminar Series & Daily Conferences Fellowships and Residencies School of Perfusion Technology Education Resources Library & Learning Resource Center CME Resources THI Journal THI Cardiac Society Register for the Cardiac Society ...

  10. 31P-NMR studies on perfused mouse liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, A.C.; Takeda, H.; Chance, B.

    1978-01-01

    From a metabolic viewpoint, the most important organ in the body is the liver. In contrast to more specialized organs such as heart and kidney which perform only one major function, the liver performs a number of major metabolic functions. Two of the most important functions are the catabolism and storage of foodstuffs (in the form of glycogen) and the control of most of the constituents of the blood (in particular, the blood glucose level). Most of these functions are localized within a single type of cell. One way that the liver is able to regulate these diverse reactions is by the control of the ATP level in the cell. Encouraged by the recent success of many groups in using 31 P-NMR to provide a continuous and non-destructive monitor of ATP levels in isolated cells, skeletal muscle, and perfused organs such as heart and kidney, 31 P-NMR was used to investigate ATP levels in perfused liver of mice

  11. Quantitative perfusion modeling in cardiac in-vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carme, Sabin Charles

    2004-01-01

    A parametrical analysis of contrast agent distribution is proposed to interpret first pass MR images and to quantify the myocardial perfusion. We are concerned with the correction of spatial intensity variations in images. Furthermore, we are interested in the application of a robust NMR signal processing technique and deconvolution techniques adapted to low signal-to-noise ratio. Data sets were provided, close to clinical conditions, using in-vivo experiments applying several pharmacological stresses on ischemic pigs presenting a stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery. The agreement and accuracy measurements between observers are respectively 57.1% and 53.1% for visual analysis, and 81.2% and 81.1% for parametric map analysis. A linear relationship between perfusion parameters and radioactive microspheres is established for low blood flows [fr

  12. Isolated working heart: description of models relevant to radioisotopic and pharmacological assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depre, Christophe

    1998-01-01

    Isolated heart preparations are used to study physiological and metabolic parameters of the heart independently of its environment. Several preparations of isolated perfused heart are currently used, mainly the retrograde perfusion system and the working heart model. Both models allow investigations of the metabolic regulation of the heart in various physiological conditions (changes in workload, hormonal influences, substrate competition). These systems may also reproduce different pathological conditions, such as ischemia, reperfusion and hypoxia. Quantitation of metabolic activity can be performed with specific radioactive tracers. Finally, the effects of various drugs on cardiac performance and resistance to ischemia can be studied as well. Heart perfusion also revealed efficient methods to determine the tracer/tracee relation for radioisotopic analogues used with Positron Emission Tomography

  13. Pulmonary artery perfusion versus no pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Sundskard, Martin M; Jonassen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Absence of pulmonary perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may be associated with reduced postoperative oxygenation. Effects of active pulmonary artery perfusion were explored in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: 90...... perfusion with normothermic oxygenated blood during cardiopulmonary bypass appears to improve postoperative oxygenation in patients with COPD undergoing cardiac surgery. Pulmonary artery perfusion with hypothermic HTK solution does not seem to improve postoperative oxygenation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER...

  14. Normal anatomy of lung perfusion SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, G.W.; Levy, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    Ten patients studies for possible pulmonary embolic disease had normal lung perfusion planar and SPECT scintigraphy. A computer program was developed to superimpose the CT scans on corresponding SPECT images. Superimposition of CT scans on corresponding SPECT transaxial cross-sectional images, when available, provides the needed definition and relationships of adjacent organs. SPECT transaxial sections provide clear anatomic definition of perfusion defects without foreground and background lung tissue superimposed. The location, shape, and size of the perfusion defects can be readily assessed by SPECT. An algorithm was developed for the differentiation of abnormal pulmonary perfusion patterns from normal structures on variation

  15. Chlamydiaceae infections in pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schautteet Katelijn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

  16. Pipeline pig or swipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, H J

    1974-03-26

    A pig or swipe is used for cleaning piplines and for maintaining fluids separated while being transmitted through the line. It is adapted to be propelled through the line by a pressure gradient therein. The pig includes a sponge-like body of foamed plastic material, having an external coating or cover of durable material, such as unfoamed plastic in which reenforcing material, such a wire mesh or glass fabric may be embedded to increase resistance to tearing and wear. The covering is applied to leave openings through which the sponge-like body may project into wiping contact with the surrounding internal surface of the pipe when a longitudinal compressive force is exerted on the pig by the fluid in the pipe in advance of and following the pig therein. The pig also has a barrier layer at one end positioned to close the sponge-like body against the passage of fluid there through and to form a fluid-tight seal with the surrounding pipe. (3 claims)

  17. NMR-tomography of the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weikl, A.; Bachmann, K.

    1987-01-01

    The NMR-tomography as a non-invasive imaging process is examined regarding to the value to answer clinical issues. This method allows an evaluation of qualitative, quantitative, morphological and functional parameters. The diagnostic use on the heart shows early myocardial changes, thrombosis, changes in the dynamics of the left ventricle (EDV, ESV, EF), the quantitative wall movement and the blood flow in a shunt defect. The placed value of echocardiography, myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography in the diagnosis of acquired valvular heart disease, myocardial perfusion and coronary heart disease is not lowered by the above mentioned method. (orig.) [de

  18. NMR-tomography of the heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weikl, A.; Bachmann, K.

    1987-04-03

    The NMR-tomography as a non-invasive imaging process is examined regarding to the value to answer clinical issues. This method allows an evaluation of qualitative, quantitative, morphological and functional parameters. The diagnostic use on the heart shows early myocardial changes, thrombosis, changes in the dynamics of the left ventricle (EDV, ESV, EF), the quantitative wall movement and the blood flow in a shunt defect. The placed value of echocardiography, myocardial scintigraphy and coronary angiography in the diagnosis of acquired valvular heart disease, myocardial perfusion and coronary heart disease is not lowered by the above mentioned method.

  19. Study of a new method for the evaluation of portal vein pressure by hepatic perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Muhua; Ling Yunbiao; Pan Zhiheng; Zhang Feng; Chen Weizhen

    2002-01-01

    To study a new method for predication of portal vein pressure (PVP) by hepatic perfusion imaging. 25 hepato-cirrhotic cases and 13 normal controls were performed the hepatic perfusion imaging. According to two compartmental model the values of portal vein indexes (PVI) was calculated using curve slope, area and hepatic heart perfusion ratio methods etc. The relationship of PVI with different method to PVP was also observed. All PVI by three methods in hepatocirrhosis were higher than those in normal controls (P<0.01), and also positively correlated with the PVP, their correlated coefficients was 0.79, 0.60, 0.68 respectively. Among them the slope method was most markedly significant than normal control and closely correlated with PVP. PVI can sensitively reflect the changes of portal vein blood flow. And it was an atraumatic, simple method for the evaluation of PVP

  20. Pre- and postjunctional inhibitory effects of fenspiride on guinea-pig bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, V; Naline, E; Crambes, O; Malbezin, M; Malmström, R E; Lundberg, J M; Advenier, C

    1997-05-01

    Fenspiride is a drug with potential benefits in the treatment of obstructive airways disease. It has antibronchoconstriction and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this drug on the contractions induced in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and perfused lung by electrical field stimulation (EFS) or exogenously added agents. Bronchi were stimulated transmurally in the presence of indomethacin 10(-6) M and propranolol 10(-6) M, and isometric tension was measured. In the perfused lung model calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release was determined in the perfusate fractions as a measure of neuropeptide production. Two successive contractile responses were observed: a rapid cholinergic contraction, followed by a long-lasting contraction due to local release of neuropeptides from C-fibre endings. Fenspiride (10(-6) to 10(-4) M) inhibited the nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) component of the contraction of the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus induced by EFS. Fenspiride significantly affected contractions induced by exogenously added substance P or [Nle10]-NKA(4-10) only at concentrations higher than 10(-3) M. In the guinea-pig perfused lung, fenspiride inhibited low pH- but not capsaicin-evoked release of CGRP. At higher concentrations (10(-4) M to 3x10(-4) M) fenspiride exhibited a significant inhibitory effect both on the cholinergic component of contractile response induced by EFS in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus and on exogenously added acetylcholine. In conclusion, the result of this study suggests that fenspiride, in moderate concentrations, reduces the release of neuropeptides, including tachykinins, from sensory nerve endings at a prejunctional level. At higher concentrations, postjunctional actions on bronchial smooth muscle are also present.

  1. Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

  2. Stress perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to detect coronary artery lesions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijarnsorn, Chodchanok; Noga, Michelle; Schantz, Daryl; Pepelassis, Dion; Tham, Edythe B

    2017-05-01

    Stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is used widely in adult ischemic heart disease, but data in children is limited. We sought to evaluate feasibility, accuracy and prognostic value of stress CMR in children with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). Stress CMR was reviewed from two pediatric centers over 5 years using a standard pharmacologic protocol. Wall motion abnormalities, perfusion deficits and late enhancement were correlated with coronary angiogram (CAG) when available, and clinical status at 1 year follow-up for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; coronary revascularization, non-fatal myocardial infarction and death due to CAD) was recorded. Sixty-four stress perfusion CMR studies in 48 children (10.9 ± 4.8 years) using adenosine; 59 (92%) and dipyridamole; 5 (8%), were reviewed. Indications were Kawasaki disease (39%), post arterial switch operation (12.5%), post heart transplantation (12.5%), post anomalous coronary artery repair (11%), chest pain (11%), suspected myocarditis or CAD (3%), post coronary revascularization (3%), and others (8%). Twenty-six studies were performed under sedation. Of all studies performed, 66% showed no evidence of ischemia or infarction, 28% had perfusion deficits and 6% had late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) without perfusion deficit. Compared to CAG, the positive predictive value (PPV) of stress CMR was 80% with negative predictive value (NPV) of 88%. At 1 year clinical follow-up, the PPV and NPV of stress CMR to predict MACE were 78 and 98%. Stress-perfusion CMR, in combination with LGE and wall motion-analysis is a feasible and an accurate method of diagnosing CAD in children. In difficult cases, it also helps guide clinical intervention by complementing conventional CAG with functional information.

  3. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses of conscious pigs during physical restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.E.; Bossone, C.A.; Hannon, J.P.; Hunt, M.M.; Rodkey, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of physical restraint on cardiovascular function and plasma hormone levels in 20 to 25 kg conscious Duroc pigs. Pigs were placed in a Pavlov sling or remained in a portable holding cage. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and blood samples taken at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. Placement into the sling increased heart rate from 106 ''+ or -'' 3 to 151 ''+ or -'' 13 beats/min and mean arterial pressure rose from 95 ''+ or -'' 2 to 115 ''+ or -'' 2 mm Hg. Both heart rate and blood pressure returned to basal values within 10 min. Hematocrit was increased from 26 ''+ or -'' 1 to 32 ''+ or -'' 1%. Heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit were not changed in caged animals. Plasma norepinephrine increased from 179 ''+ or -'' 32 to 461 ''+ or -'' 52 pg/ml returning to basal values within 10 min. Epinephrine showed a similar trend rising from 69 ''+ or -'' 10 to 337 ''+ or -'' 53 pg/ml. Plasma renin activity increased after 5 min in the sling and remained increased from a basal level of 1.0 ''+ or -'' 0.2 to 2.8 ''+ or -'' 0.5 ng AI/ml/hr at four hr. Plasma cortisol (4.5 ''+ or -'' 0.6 to 8.2 ''+ or -'' 1.5 microg/dl), ACTH (45 ''+ or -'' 9 to 169 ''+ or -'' pg/ml) and aldosterone (3.5 ''+ or -'' 0.4 to 11.2 ''+ or -'' 1.1 ng/dl) rose over the four hr period. Pigs in cages showed no change in plasma hormones. Placement of an untrained pig into a sling raises heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit and produces increases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone

  4. Heart Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're like most people, you think that heart disease is a problem for others. But heart disease is the number one killer in the ... of disability. There are many different forms of heart disease. The most common cause of heart disease ...

  5. Heart Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A heart transplant removes a damaged or diseased heart and replaces it with a healthy one. The healthy heart comes from a donor who has died. It is the last resort for people with heart failure when all other treatments have failed. The ...

  6. Double-Balloon Catheter for Isolated Liver Perfusion: An Experimental Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cwikiel, Wojciech; Bergqvist, Lennart; Harnek, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Further development of a previously described interventional method for isolated liver perfusion (ILP) with a new double-lumen balloon catheter, and evaluation of the side-effects of such isolation.Methods: In six pigs a double-balloon occlusion catheter was placed via the transjugular approach with its tip in the portal vein. One of the balloons was positioned in the inferior vena cava (IVC), cranial to the origin of the hepatic veins and the other balloon in the portal vein. By the transfemoral approach, a single-balloon occlusion catheter was placed in the IVC caudal to the origin of the hepatic veins. A third catheter was placed by the transfemoral route with the occlusion balloon in the proper hepatic artery. After inflation of all balloons 99 Tc m -labelled human serum albumin was recirculated through the liver. The isolation was evaluated by repeated measurement of radioactivity levels in peripheral blood. Laboratory tests of liver and pancreas function, and hemoglobin, were taken before, at the end of, and 3 days after the procedure. Blood gases were tested at the beginning and end of the procedure.Results: One pig died during the procedure due to technical failure and was excluded from the study. In the other pigs leakage from the isolated liver to the systemic circulation increased slowly, up to 9.7% (mean) during 30 min of recirculation of the perfusate through the liver. Laboratory tests were normal in all pigs except insignificant acidosis directly after the procedure and the slight elevation of s-ALAT after 3 days.Conclusions: Only minor leakage from the liver to the systemic circulation was noted during ILP performed with a new, double-balloon catheter. There were no serious side effects

  7. Pig design patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Pasupuleti, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Pig makes Hadoop programming simple, intuitive, and fun to work with. It removes the complexity from Map Reduce programming by giving the programmer immense power through its flexibility. What used to be extremely lengthy and intricate code written in other high level languages can now be written in almost one tenth of the size using its easy to understand constructs. Pig has proven to be the easiest way to learn how to program Hadoop clusters, as evidenced by its widespread adoption. This comprehensive guide enables readers to readily use design patterns to simplify the creation of complex da

  8. Myocardial images in nonacute coronary and noncoronary heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poe, N.D.; Eber, L.M.; Norman, A.S.; Selin, C.E.; Terao, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    To determine the variables that might affect interpretability of myocardial perfusion images in patients with acute myocardial infarctions, images obtained following intravenous administration of potassium-43 or cesium-129 were evaluated in 68 patients with nonacute coronary or noncoronary heart diseases, who were undergoing cardiac catheterization. Severe coronary arterial disease usually produces no distinctive perfusion defects in the resting state. Remote infarcts likewise tend to remain undetectable unless accompanied by wall-motion disturbances that can be detected by ventriculography. Left ventricular hypertrophy or cardiac dilatation can produce perfusion patterns indistinguishable from the ischemic defects of infarction. Right ventricular hypertrophy can cause image alterations that mimic infarcts in the left ventricle. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, sequential imaging studies with perfusion indicators should be of value in determining the effects of various therapeutic maneuvers on regional myocardial perfusion, but variations caused by conditions other than acute vascular occlusion limit the usefulness of perfusion imaging for diagnosing acute infarction. In suspected acute infarction, perfusion imaging will be used most effectively in conjunction with other imaging or nonimaging procedures that show the presence of damaged or necrotic myocardium. The information derived from this study should be generally applicable to the interpretation of imaging results obtained with the newer indicators of myocardial perfusion now in use or under development

  9. Quality assessment of a placental perfusion protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Line; Mose, Tina; Mørck, Thit Juul

    2010-01-01

    mlh(-1) from the fetal reservoir) when adding 2 (n=7) and 20mg (n=9) FITC-dextran/100ml fetal perfusion media. Success rate of the Copenhagen placental perfusions is provided in this study, including considerations and quality control parameters. Three checkpoints suggested to determine success rate...

  10. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S. [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p<0.05). There was no correlation between the severity of the motor abnormality and any of the regional cerebral perfusion indices (p>0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  11. Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion in Abdominal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Lundsgaard; Norling, Rikke; Lauridsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) Perfusion is an evolving method to visualize perfusion in organs and tissue. With the introduction of multidetector CT scanners, it is now possible to cover up to 16 cm in one rotation, and thereby making it possible to scan entire organs such as the liver with a fixed...

  12. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  13. Bambuterol: uptake and metabolism in guinea pig isolated lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryrfeldt, A.; Nilsson, E.; Tunek, A.; Svensson, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    The lung uptake and biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol, a prodrug to terbutaline, were studied using isolated perfused and ventilated guinea pig lungs. 14 C-Sucrose was used as an extracellular marker. The lung uptake of bambuterol was significantly (0.05 greater than or equal to P greater than or equal to 0.001) higher than that found for sucrose in single-pass perfusion experiments. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis showed that 95.6 +/- 3.6% of the effluent 3 H radioactivity was attributable to bambuterol. In recirculating experiments (120 min) the lung biotransformation of 3 H-bambuterol (8.5 pmol/ml) was studied. Both oxidative and hydrolytic metabolism took place. The dominating metabolites were hydroxylated bambuterol and the monocarbamate derivative which is a product of hydrolysis of bambuterol. Traces of terbutaline were also formed. The results show that bambuterol has a certain affinity to lung tissue and that the drug is, to some extent, biotransformed in the guinea pig lung

  14. Anatomy & distribution of coronary arteries in pig in comparison with man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Daisy; Kaur, G D; Jit, Harjeet; Jit, Indar

    2008-06-01

    The suitability of pig as an animal model for research in coronary artery disease is well established. As coronary arteries (CAs) of the pig are reportedly closely resemble those of man. We investigated the CAs of the pig (Sus scrofa) and study differences between the two, if any. The origin and pattern of the coronary arteries were studied in the hearts of 30 fully grown pigs obtained from a slaughter house in Chandigarh (India). The openings of the CAs were identified at the commencement of the ascending aorta. The arteries were washed with acetone by introducing appropriate sized cannulae in their ostia. A 20 per cent solution of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), a plastic material, dissolved in acetone was injected in the CAs. The hearts were fixed in 10 per cent formalin solution for three to four days after which the CAs and their branches were dissected. Both coronary arteries arose from the aortic sinuses below the supravalvular ridge in all the cases. Sinuatrial nodal artery (SAN) arose from the RCA in 70 per cent and from the circumflex artery (CX) in 30 per cent of instances. There was RCA dominance in all hearts of the pig. The atrioventricular nodal artery (AVN) and the posterior interventricular artery (PIV) were branches of RCA. The coronary arterial circulation in the pig was found to be similar to that in human. By and large the coronary arterial pattern of the pig was similar in that of the humans. We can conclude that the heart of a pig can be used for experiments but differences have to be kept in mind.

  15. Experimental infection with the Toxoplasma gondii ME-49 strain in the Brazilian BR-1 mini pig is a suitable animal model for human toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farlen José Bebber Miranda

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain. Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.

  16. The pathophysiology of heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Clinton D; Conte, John V

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure is a clinical syndrome that results when the heart is unable to provide sufficient blood flow to meet metabolic requirements or accommodate systemic venous return. This common condition affects over 5 million people in the United States at a cost of $10-38 billion per year. Heart failure results from injury to the myocardium from a variety of causes including ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Less common etiologies include cardiomyopathies, valvular disease, myocarditis, infections, systemic toxins, and cardiotoxic drugs. As the heart fails, patients develop symptoms which include dyspnea from pulmonary congestion, and peripheral edema and ascites from impaired venous return. Constitutional symptoms such as nausea, lack of appetite, and fatigue are also common. There are several compensatory mechanisms that occur as the failing heart attempts to maintain adequate function. These include increasing cardiac output via the Frank-Starling mechanism, increasing ventricular volume and wall thickness through ventricular remodeling, and maintaining tissue perfusion with augmented mean arterial pressure through activation of neurohormonal systems. Although initially beneficial in the early stages of heart failure, all of these compensatory mechanisms eventually lead to a vicious cycle of worsening heart failure. Treatment strategies have been developed based upon the understanding of these compensatory mechanisms. Medical therapy includes diuresis, suppression of the overactive neurohormonal systems, and augmentation of contractility. Surgical options include ventricular resynchronization therapy, surgical ventricular remodeling, ventricular assist device implantation, and heart transplantation. Despite significant understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in heart failure, this disease causes significant morbidity and carries a 50% 5-year mortality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The relationship between ventilatory lung motion and pulmonary perfusion shown by ventilatory lung motion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Nakatsuka, Tatsuya; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko; Hirose, Yoshiki; Hirayama, Jiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1991-01-01

    Using ventilatory lung motion imaging, which was obtained from two perfusion lung scintigrams with 99m Tc-macroaggregated albumin taken in maximal inspiration and maximal expiration, the lung motion (E-I/I) of the each unilateral lung was studied in various cardiopulmonary diseases. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the unilateral lung was decreased in the diseased lung for localized pleuropulmonary diseases, including primary lung cancer and pleural thickening, and in both lungs for heart diseases, and diffuse pulmonary diseases including diffuse interstitial pneumonia and diffuse panbronchiolitis. The sum of (E-I)/I(+) of the both lungs, which correlated with vital capacity and PaO 2 , was decreased in diffuse interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary emphysema, diffuse panbronchiolitis, primary lung cancer, pleural diseases and so on. (E-I)/I(+), correlated with pulmonary perfusion (n=49, r=0.51, p 81m Kr or 133 Xe (n=49, r=0.61, p<0.001) than pulmonary perfusion. The ventilatory lung motion imaging, which demonstrates the motion of the intra-pulmonary areas and lung edges, appears useful for estimating pulmonary ventilation of the perfused area as well as pulmonary perfusion. (author)

  18. Evaluation of myocardial involvement in Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawai, Naoki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Okada, Mitsuhiro (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-12-01

    Myocardial involvement in progressive muscular dystrophy of the Duchenne type was evaluated in 19 patients using thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging. The qualitative analysis was performed in anterior, 3 left anterior oblique and left lateral projection images by three experienced physicians. Distinct perfusion defects were shown in 13 patients, especially in LV posterolateral or posterior walls (11 patients). There was no significant relationship between the presence of perfusion defects and the skeletal muscle changes or thoracic deformities assessed by transmission computed tomography. Slightly increased thallium-201 activity in RV free wall and lungs was shown in nine and one patient, respectively. The extensive perfusion defects were shown in 2 patients who died of congestive heart failure 1 to 2 years after the scintigraphic study. The myocardial scintigraphic changes were considered to be minimal in 7 of 9 patients who underwent two serial scintigraphic studies in 2 to 3 years. It was concluded that the thallium myocardial perfusion imaging was a useful clinical technique to evaluate the cardiomyopathy in Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy.

  19. Evaluation of myocardial involvement in Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy with thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Naoki; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Okada, Mitsuhiro

    1983-01-01

    Myocardial involvement in progressive muscular dystrophy of the Duchenne type was evaluated in 19 patients using thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging. The qualitative analysis was performed in anterior, 3 left anterior oblique and left lateral projection images by three experienced physicians. Distinct perfusion defects were shown in 13 patients, especially in LV posterolateral or posterior walls (11 patients). There was no significant relationship between the presence of perfusion defects and the skeletal muscle changes or thoracic deformities assessed by transmission computed tomography. Slightly increased thallium-201 activity in RV free wall and lungs was shown in nine and one patient, respectively. The extensive perfusion defects were shown in 2 patients who died of congestive heart failure 1 to 2 years after the scintigraphic study. The myocardial scintigraphic changes were considered to be minimal in 7 of 9 patients who underwent two serial scintigraphic studies in 2 to 3 years. It was concluded that the thallium myocardial perfusion imaging was a useful clinical technique to evaluate the cardiomyopathy in Duchenne progressive muscular dystrophy. (author)

  20. Methodology for ventilation/perfusion SPECT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajc, Marika; Neilly, Brian; Miniati, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    radiolabeled liquid aerosols are not restricted to the presence of obstructive lung disease. Radiolabeled macroaggregated human albumin is the imaging agent of choice for perfusion scintigraphy. An optimal combination of nuclide activities and acquisition times for ventilation and perfusion, collimators......Ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/Q SPECT) is the scintigraphic technique of choice for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and many other disorders that affect lung function. Data from recent ventilation studies show that the theoretic advantages of Technegas over......, and imaging matrix yields an adequate V/Q SPECT study in approximately 20 minutes of imaging time. The recommended protocol based on the patient remaining in an unchanged position during the initial ventilation study and the perfusion study allows presentation of matching ventilation and perfusion slices...

  1. Sex- and age-related differences of myocardial perfusion at rest assessed with multidetector computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Christina; Kühl, J Tobias; Zacho, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The clinical presentation of ischemic heart disease in women differs from men, which could reflect sex-related differences of normal physiology. Cardiac CT angiography provides a noninvasive method to assess both regional and transmural myocardial perfusion in addition to coronary atherosclerosis....

  2. Hypoplastic left heart syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiagarajan Ravi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hypoplastic left heart syndrome(HLHS refers to the abnormal development of the left-sided cardiac structures, resulting in obstruction to blood flow from the left ventricular outflow tract. In addition, the syndrome includes underdevelopment of the left ventricle, aorta, and aortic arch, as well as mitral atresia or stenosis. HLHS has been reported to occur in approximately 0.016 to 0.036% of all live births. Newborn infants with the condition generally are born at full term and initially appear healthy. As the arterial duct closes, the systemic perfusion becomes decreased, resulting in hypoxemia, acidosis, and shock. Usually, no heart murmur, or a non-specific heart murmur, may be detected. The second heart sound is loud and single because of aortic atresia. Often the liver is enlarged secondary to congestive heart failure. The embryologic cause of the disease, as in the case of most congenital cardiac defects, is not fully known. The most useful diagnostic modality is the echocardiogram. The syndrome can be diagnosed by fetal echocardiography between 18 and 22 weeks of gestation. Differential diagnosis includes other left-sided obstructive lesions where the systemic circulation is dependent on ductal flow (critical aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, interrupted aortic arch. Children with the syndrome require surgery as neonates, as they have duct-dependent systemic circulation. Currently, there are two major modalities, primary cardiac transplantation or a series of staged functionally univentricular palliations. The treatment chosen is dependent on the preference of the institution, its experience, and also preference. Although survival following initial surgical intervention has improved significantly over the last 20 years, significant mortality and morbidity are present for both surgical strategies. As a result pediatric cardiologists continue to be challenged by discussions with families regarding initial decision

  3. Brain Perfusion Changes in Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mititelu, R.; Mazilu, C.; Ghita, S.; Rimbu, A.; Marinescu, G.; Codorean, I.; Bajenaru, O.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purpose: Despite the latest advances in medical treatment and neuro critical care, patients suffering spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) still have a very poor prognosis, with a greater mortality and larger neurological deficits at the survivors than for ischemic stroke. Many authors have shown that there are many mechanisms involved in the pathology of SICH: edema, ischemia, inflammation, apoptosis. All of these factors are affecting brain tissue surrounding hematoma and are responsible of the progressive neurological deterioration; most of these damages are not revealed by anatomical imaging techniques. The aim of our study was to asses the role of brain perfusion SPECT in demonstrating perfusion changes in SICH patients. Method: 17 SICH pts were studied. All pts underwent same day CT and brain SPECT with 99mTcHMPAO, 24h-5d from onset of stroke. Results: 14/17 pts showed a larger perfusion defect than expected after CT. In 2 pts hematoma diameter was comparable on CT and SPECT; 1pt had quasinormal aspect of SPECT study. In pts with larger defects, SPECT revealed a large cold spot with similar size compared with CT, and a surrounding hypo perfused area. 6/17 pts revealed cortical hyper perfusion adjacent to hypo perfused area and corresponding to a normal-appearing brain tissue on CT. In 3 pts we found crossed cerebellar diaskisis.In 2 pts we found cortical hypo perfused area in the contralateral cortex, with normal appearing brain tissue on CT. Conclusions: Brain perfusion SPECT revealed different types of perfusion changes in the brain tissue surrounding hematoma. These areas contain viable brain tissue that may be a target for future ne uroprotective strategies. Further studies are definitely required to demonstrate prognostic significance of these changes, but we can conclude that brain perfusion SPECT can play an important role in SICH, by early demonstrating functional changes responsible of clinical deterioration, thus allowing prompt

  4. Preliminary studies of pulmonary perfusion scanning in patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Wang Yanqun

    1986-01-01

    A comparative analysis of pulmonary perfusion scanning through cardiac catheterization of 57 patients including 32 patients with congenital heart disease, 8 patients with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and 7 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension is reported. The lung scintigram obtained with In-113m or Tc-99m-MAA represents the distribution of pulmonary blood. It has been found that the lung scintigram was abnormal in patients of congenital heart disease with pulmonary hypertension (i. e. pulmonary artery pressure between 41-80 mmHg) and the extent of radoiactive regional defects is proportional to the level of pulmonary hypertension. The results of the analysis indicated that pulmonary perfusion scanning being a noninvasive technique would be a useful method in evaluating the level of pulmonary hypertension in patients with left to right shunt before and after surgical operation

  5. Behavioural and physiological measures indicate subtle variations in the emotional valence of young pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliveld, Lisette M C; Düpjan, Sandra; Tuchscherer, Armin; Puppe, Birger

    2016-04-01

    In the study of animal emotions, emotional valence has been found to be difficult to measure. Many studies of farm animals' emotions have therefore focussed on the identification of indicators of strong, mainly negative, emotions. However, subtle variations in emotional valence, such as those caused by rather moderate differences in husbandry conditions, may also affect animals' mood and welfare when such variations occur consistently. In this study, we investigated whether repeated moderate aversive or rewarding events could lead to measurable differences in emotional valence in young, weaned pigs. We conditioned 105 female pigs in a test arena to either a repeated startling procedure (sudden noises or appearances of objects) or a repeated rewarding procedure (applesauce, toy and straw) over 11 sessions. Control pigs were also regularly exposed to the same test arena but without conditioning. Before and after conditioning, we measured heart rate and its variability as well as the behavioural reactions of the subjects in the test arena, with a special focus on detailed acoustic analyses of their vocalisations. The behavioural and heart rate measures were analysed as changes compared to the baseline values before conditioning. A limited number of the putative indicators of emotional valence were affected by the conditioning. We found that the negatively conditioned pigs showed changes that were significantly different from those in control pigs, namely a decrease in locomotion and an increase in standing. The positively conditioned pigs, however, showed a stronger increase in heart rate and a smaller decrease in SDNN (a heart rate variability parameter indicating changes in autonomic regulation) compared to the controls. Compared to the negatively conditioned pigs, the positively conditioned pigs produced fewer vocalisations overall as well as fewer low-frequency grunts but more high-frequency grunts. The low-frequency grunts of the negatively conditioned pigs also

  6. Social behaviour of pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Park, S. Y,; Oord, R. van; Staay, F.J. van der; Nordquist, R.E.

    2010-01-01

    Improper social behavior development brings problems in later social life. Several time points are known to be crucial for the development and in other words, susceptible to interruptions during those time points. In conventional pigs, those time points could be categorized to three interaction

  7. pig production in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All matings were natural. All sows were mated three times using the same boar at 12 hour intervals after stand- .... up to 21 days was significantly affected by number of pigs born alive, parity, sow breed, farrowing ..... (1991) reported that under hot summer conditions, pregnant or lactating sows eat less, lose more weight and ...

  8. (EPEC) from pig

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-26

    Mar 26, 2014 ... 16 belonged to O60 (94.1%) and 1(5.88%) was untypeable. Virulence genes ..... Figure 4. a) Confluent monolayer of healthy vero cells; b) CPE in verocells after 12 h of incubation with filtrate extracts .... about 5 to 10 pigs near their residence and share the ... of Stx to vero cells remains the 'gold standard' for.

  9. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  10. Imaging of acute myocardial infarction in pigs with Indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin scintigraphy and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kate, C.I.; Kroonenburgh, M.J. van; Schipperheyn, J.J.; Doornbos, J.; Hoedemaeker, P.J.; Maes, A.; Nat, K.H. van der; Camps, J.A.; Huysmans, H.A.; Pauwels, E.K.

    1990-01-01

    Indium-111 antimyosin F(ab')2 was used in a series of scintigraphic studies on experimentally induced myocardial infarctions in pigs. Antimyosin distribution recorded by planar images of in vivo pigs and by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) of excised hearts delineated areas of myocardial necrosis if infarct volume exceeded 3.3 cm3. Scintigraphic images were compared with magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained from excised hearts and with photographs of slices of the hearts. Infarct size and localization determined with antimyosin were compared. The MR images, with or without gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA), of the in vivo pigs were all false-negative; some myocardial wall thinning and high bloodpool signals were visible. Results show that both the antimyosin and the MR technique are specific methods for the visualization of induced myocardial necrosis in this animal model. However, the use of antimyosin is limited to a period ranging from 24 to 72 hours after infarction

  11. Diagnostic Value of Myocardial Perfusion SPECT with Dipyridamole in a Female Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Iruela, Juan; Pastor, Purificacion; Lumbreras, Luis; Martin, Ana M.; Ruiz, Francisco J.; Posadas, A.; Puentes, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exercise stress scintigraphy is a safe procedure widely used for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease. Pharmacologic stress testing is an important alternative. The delayed presentation of ischemic heart disease in women, together with a lower diagnostic accuracy of exercise stress testing in this population, has generated interest in the potential benefits provided by myocardial perfusion imaging tests. Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of myocardial perfusion images with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin in a one day protocol after a pharmacologic stress with dipyridamole in a female population, and the relation with the coronary territories using coronary angiography as a reference technique. Material and Methods: In total, 149 clinical charts of women with suspected ischemic heart disease undergoing myocardial perfusion imaging tests and coronary angiography were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were 94% (93.47%-94.53%) and 82% (80.94%-83.06%), respectively. Values of sensitivity and specificity according to coronary territories were 71.62% (70.88%-72.36%) and 76% (75.27%-76.73%) for the left anterior descending (LAD) artery, 69.09% (68.11%-70.07%) and 76.84% (76.26%-77.42%) for the left circumflex (LCx) coronary artery, and 87.23% (86.11%-88.36%) and 74.51% (73.97%-75.05%) for the right coronary artery (RCA), respectively. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and dipyridamole using a one day stress-rest protocol has high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in women. (authors) [es

  12. GATED SPECT TO EVALUATE LEFT VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIAL PERFUSION, FUNCTION AND DYSSYNCHRONY FOR RESYNCHRONIZATION THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Ostroumov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 15 consecutive patients with heart failure and substantial LV dyssynchrony undergoing CRT. Clinical and phase analysis of gated myocardial perfusion SPECT assessed at baseline, after 2–3 days and after 3–4 months of CRT. The results demonstrated inversely relationship between the response to CRT and the nonviable myocardium. Evaluation of myocardial viability is necessary to considered in the selection process for CRT.

  13. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in Canadian market-age pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajadhar, A A; Aramini, J J; Tiffin, G; Bisaillon, J R

    1998-08-01

    During 1991 and 1992, 2,800 market-age pigs were sampled at federally inspected abattoirs from across Canada. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG at titers of > or =1:32 were found in 240 pigs examined by a commercial, latex agglutination test. Seroprevalences ranged from 3.5 to 13.2% in the different regions of the country. Tissue hybridization studies using a previously developed probe demonstrated T. gondii ribosomal RNA in 9 of 36 animals, whereas mouse bioassay testing of heart muscle and diaphragm from all 2,800 pigs failed to demonstrate the presence of infective stages of T. gondii in tissues. Although serology results from this study indicated that Canadian market-age pigs are infected with T. gondii at rates similar to those reported from other parts of North America, mouse bioassay results suggested that Canadian pork products contain low levels of infective organisms. This apparent discrepancy suggests that serological evidence of T. gondii infection in pigs alone does not accurately assess the public health risks associated with consuming improperly cooked pork products.

  14. Regional Cerebral Perfusion in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Won Yong; Lee, Ki Hyeong; Yoon, Byung Woo; Lee, Sang Bok; Jeon, Beom S.; Lee, Kyung Han; Lee, Myung Chul

    1996-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a Parkinson-plus syndrome characterized clinically by supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, pseudobulbar palsy, axial rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability and dementia. Presence of dementia and lack of cortical histopathology suggest the derangement of cortical function by pathological changes in subcortical structures in PSP, which is supported by the pattern of behavioral changes and measurement of brain metabolism using positron emission tomography. This study was done to examine whether there are specific changes of regional cerebral perfusion in PSP and whether there is a correlation between severity of motor abnormaility and degree of changes in cerebral perfusion. We measured regional cerebral perfusion indices in 5 cortical and 2 subcortical areas in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of PSP and 6 healthy age and sex matched controls using Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT. Compared with age and sex matched controls, only superior frontal regional perfusion index was significantly decreased in PSP (p 0.05). We affirm the previous reports that perfusion in superior frontal cortex is decreased in PSP. Based on our results that there was no correlation between severity of motor abnormality and cerebral perfusion in the superior frontal cortex, nonmotoric symptoms including dementia needs to be looked at whether there is a correlation with the perfusion abnormality in superior frontal cortex

  15. Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turowski, B.; Haenggi, D.; Wittsack, H.J.; Beck, A.; Aurich, V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The development of a computerized method which allows a direct quantitative comparison of perfusion parameters. The display should allow a clear direct comparison of brain perfusion parameters in different vascular territories and over the course of time. The analysis is intended to be the basis for further evaluation of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The method should permit early diagnosis of cerebral vasospasm. Materials and Methods: The Angiotux 2D-ECCET software was developed with a close cooperation between computer scientists and clinicians. Starting from parameter images of brain perfusion, the cortex was marked, segmented and assigned to definite vascular territories. The underlying values were averages for each segment and were displayed in a graph. If a follow-up was available, the mean values of the perfusion parameters were displayed in relation to time. The method was developed under consideration of CT perfusion values but is applicable for other methods of perfusion imaging. Results: Computerized analysis of brain perfusion parameter images allows an immediate comparison of these parameters and follow-up of mean values in a clear and concise manner. Values are related to definite vascular territories. The tabular output facilitates further statistic evaluations. The computerized analysis is precisely reproducible, i. e., repetitions result in exactly the same output. (orig.)

  16. Diagnostic value of perfusion 201Tl scintigraphy of the myocardium in assessing right ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandova, R.; Bakos, K.; Fridl, P.

    1986-01-01

    Perfusion scintigraphy of the heart muscle with Tl 201 was tested in the diagnosis of overloading of the right ventricle in a group of 24 patients with chronic pulmonary disease and in a group of 26 patients with mitral stenosis only. The results of scintigraphy of the heart muscle and ECG examination were compared with results of the examination of haemodynamics of the lesser circulation, blood gases and spirometric examination. The study shows that thallium scintigraphy is a fairly sensitive method for noninvasive diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is an auxiliary method and its validity increases when combined with other noninvasive methods. (author)

  17. Transplantation of Hearts Donated after Circulatory Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. White

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac transplantation has become limited by a critical shortage of suitable organs from brain-dead donors. Reports describing the successful clinical transplantation of hearts donated after circulatory death (DCD have recently emerged. Hearts from DCD donors suffer significant ischemic injury prior to organ procurement; therefore, the traditional approach to the transplantation of hearts from brain-dead donors is not applicable to the DCD context. Advances in our understanding of ischemic post-conditioning have facilitated the development of DCD heart resuscitation strategies that can be used to minimize ischemia-reperfusion injury at the time of organ procurement. The availability of a clinically approved ex situ heart perfusion device now allows DCD heart preservation in a normothermic beating state and minimizes exposure to incremental cold ischemia. This technology also facilitates assessments of organ viability to be undertaken prior to transplantation, thereby minimizing the risk of primary graft dysfunction. The application of a tailored approach to DCD heart transplantation that focuses on organ resuscitation at the time of procurement, ex situ preservation, and pre-transplant assessments of organ viability has facilitated the successful clinical application of DCD heart transplantation. The transplantation of hearts from DCD donors is now a clinical reality. Investigating ways to optimize the resuscitation, preservation, evaluation, and long-term outcomes is vital to ensure a broader application of DCD heart transplantation in the future.

  18. Heart Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health! Get a free badge or banner to post to your website or blog. Are you at risk for heart disease? Here's how to find out . Planning to use The Heart Truth logo? Check out our logo guidelines and downloads. ...

  19. Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it may be caused by diseases, such as connective tissue disorders, excessive iron buildup in your body (hemochromatosis), the buildup of abnormal proteins (amyloidosis) or by some cancer treatments. Causes of heart infection A heart infection, ...

  20. Heart Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family history of heart attack race – African Americans, Mexican Americans, Native Americans, and native Hawaiians are at ... Your doctor will prescribe the medicines that are right for you. If you have had a heart ...

  1. Dynamic contrast enhanced MRI for perfusion quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Irene Klærke

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging, during bolus passage of a paramagnetic contrast agent, is used world-wide to obtain parameters that reflect the pathological state of tissue. Abnormal perfusion occurs in diseases such as stoke and tumour. Consequently, perfusion quantication could have signi cant...... clinical value both in diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies. One approach for perfusion quanti cation involves using the contrast mechanism that a ects the transverse relaxation rates of the magnetization, R2 or R 2 , since this provides the most pronounced effect. However, the linearity between...

  2. Establishing Early Functional Perfusion and Structure in Tissue Engineered Cardiac Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Patnaik, Sourav S; Brazile, Bryn; Butler, J Ryan; Claude, Andrew; Zhang, Ge; Guan, Jianjun; Hong, Yi; Liao, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) causes massive heart muscle death and remains a leading cause of death in the world. Cardiac tissue engineering aims to replace the infarcted tissues with functional engineered heart muscles or revitalize the infarcted heart by delivering cells, bioactive factors, and/or biomaterials. One major challenge of cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration is the establishment of functional perfusion and structure to achieve timely angiogenesis and effective vascularization, which are essential to the survival of thick implants and the integration of repaired tissue with host heart. In this paper, we review four major approaches to promoting angiogenesis and vascularization in cardiac tissue engineering and regeneration: delivery of pro-angiogenic factors/molecules, direct cell implantation/cell sheet grafting, fabrication of prevascularized cardiac constructs, and the use of bioreactors to promote angiogenesis and vascularization. We further provide a detailed review and discussion on the early perfusion design in nature-derived biomaterials, synthetic biodegradable polymers, tissue-derived acellular scaffolds/whole hearts, and hydrogel derived from extracellular matrix. A better understanding of the current approaches and their advantages, limitations, and hurdles could be useful for developing better materials for future clinical applications.

  3. Heart pacemaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiac pacemaker implantation; Artificial pacemaker; Permanent pacemaker; Internal pacemaker; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; CRT; Biventricular pacemaker; Arrhythmia - pacemaker; Abnormal heart ...

  4. Resting cardiointegram: correlation with stress thallium perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, L.A.; Betzu, R.; Judge, D.; Lee, J.; Taddeo, M.; Yang, D.

    1988-01-01

    The cardiointegram is a noninvasive technique for the analysis of the electrical signals of the heart obtained by a transformation of the voltage versus time format by a series of integrations. The stress thallium perfusion study is a widely used test for the detection of coronary artery disease. In order to evaluate the correlation between the resting cardiointegram and the stress thallium 201 perfusion study, 20 patients with normal resting electrocardiograms underwent stress thallium tests and resting cardiointegrams. The cardiointegram was determined on two resting complexes of leads I, II, V4, V5, and V6 and called abnormal if five of ten complexes deviated outside a normalized template. There was concordance of the cardiointegram and the thallium study in 16 of 20 patients (80%). The sensitivity for the detection of coronary artery disease was 71%, and the specificity was 80%. The overall accuracy was 74%. Thus in patients with normal electrocardiograms, the cardiointegram is a useful noninvasive test for the detection of coronary artery disease

  5. The Pig PeptideAtlas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselager, Marianne Overgaard; Codrea, Marius; Sun, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Biological research of Sus scrofa, the domestic pig, is of immediate relevance for food production sciences, and for developing pig as a model organism for human biomedical research. Publicly available data repositories play a fundamental role for all biological sciences, and protein data...... repositories are in particular essential for the successful development of new proteomic methods. Cumulative proteome data repositories, including the PeptideAtlas, provide the means for targeted proteomics, system-wide observations, and cross-species observational studies, but pigs have so far been...... underrepresented in existing repositories. We here present a significantly improved build of the Pig PeptideAtlas, which includes pig proteome data from 25 tissues and three body fluid types mapped to 7139 canonical proteins. The content of the Pig PeptideAtlas reflects actively ongoing research within...

  6. Quantitative Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Versus Visual Analysis in Diagnosing Myocardial Ischemia: A CE-MARC Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglands, John D; Ibraheem, Montasir; Magee, Derek R; Radjenovic, Aleksandra; Plein, Sven; Greenwood, John P

    2018-05-01

    This study sought to compare the diagnostic accuracy of visual and quantitative analyses of myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance against a reference standard of quantitative coronary angiography. Visual analysis of perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies for assessing myocardial perfusion has been shown to have high diagnostic accuracy for coronary artery disease. However, only a few small studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of quantitative myocardial perfusion. This retrospective study included 128 patients randomly selected from the CE-MARC (Clinical Evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Coronary Heart Disease) study population such that the distribution of risk factors and disease status was proportionate to the full population. Visual analysis results of cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion images, by consensus of 2 expert readers, were taken from the original study reports. Quantitative myocardial blood flow estimates were obtained using Fermi-constrained deconvolution. The reference standard for myocardial ischemia was a quantitative coronary x-ray angiogram stenosis severity of ≥70% diameter in any coronary artery of >2 mm diameter, or ≥50% in the left main stem. Diagnostic performance was calculated using receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis. The area under the curve for visual analysis was 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.81 to 0.95) with a sensitivity of 81.0% (95% confidence interval: 69.1% to 92.8%) and specificity of 86.0% (95% confidence interval: 78.7% to 93.4%). For quantitative stress myocardial blood flow the area under the curve was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.83 to 0.96) with a sensitivity of 87.5% (95% confidence interval: 77.3% to 97.7%) and specificity of 84.5% (95% confidence interval: 76.8% to 92.3%). There was no statistically significant difference between the diagnostic performance of quantitative and visual analyses (p = 0.72). Incorporating rest myocardial

  7. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  8. High-resolution MRI for the quantitative evaluation of subendocardial and subepicardial perfusion under pharmalogical stress and at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, C.O.; Savio, K. del; Brackertz, A.; Beer, M.; Hahn, D.; Koestler, H.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: MR stress perfusion imaging of the heart allows the quantification of myocardial perfusion and the evaluation of myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) and the ratio of subendocardial to subepicardial perfusion at rest and under adenosine stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate a high-resolution GRAPPA sequence for quantitative MR first pass perfusion imaging in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: First pass stress and rest perfusion studies were performed on 10 healthy volunteers using a 1.5 T MR scanner with a multislice SR-TrueFISP first pass perfusion sequence with a GRAPPA algorithm (acceleration factor 3) in prebolus technique and an image resolution of 1.8 x 1.8 mm. For the comparison group, we examined 12 different healthy volunteers with a standard first pass perfusion SR-TrueFISP sequence using a resolution of 2.7 x 3.3 mm. Myocardial contours were manually delineated followed by an automatic division of the myocardium into two rings with an equal thickness for the subendo- and subepicardial layer. Eight sectors per slice were evaluated using contamination and baseline correction. Results: Using the GRAPPA sequence, the ratio of subendo- to subepimyocardial perfusion was 1.18 ± 0.32 for the examination at rest. Under pharmacologically induced stress, the ratio was 1.08 ± 0.27. For the standard sequence the ratio was 1.15 ± 0.28 at rest and 1.11 ± 0.33 under stress. For the high resolution sequence higher mean values for the subendo- to subepimyocardial ratio were obtained with comparable standard deviations. The difference between the sequences was not significant. Conclusion: The evaluation of subendomyocardial and subepimyocardial perfusion is feasible with a high-resolution first pass perfusion sequence. The use of a higher resolution to avoid systematic error leads to increased image noise. However, no relevant reduction in the quantitative perfusion values under stress and at rest was able to be depicted. (orig.)

  9. Protective effect of active perfusion in porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zanxiang; Mao, Zhifu; Dong, Shengjun; Liu, Baohui

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates associated with off-pump coronary artery bypass (CAB) are relatively high, as the majority of patients requiring CAB are at a high risk for cardiac events. The present study aimed to establish porcine models of acute myocardial ischemia, and evaluate the protective role of shunt and active perfusion. A total of 30 pigs were randomly assigned to five groups, as follows: i) Sham (control); ii) A1 (shunt; stenosis rate, 55%); iii) A2 (shunt; stenosis rate, 75%); iv) B1 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 55%); and v) B2 (active perfusion; stenosis rate, 75%) groups. Aortic pressure (P0), left anterior descending coronary pressure (P1), and coronary effective perfusion pressure (P1/P0) were measured. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cardiac troponin (cTnI), creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), and caspase-3 were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or western blotting. The myocardial apoptosis rate was determined using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay. Ischemia models with stenosis rates of 55 and 75% were successfully constructed following suturing of the descending artery. Compared with the control, the 55 and 75% stenosis groups demonstrated significantly decreased P1/P0, increased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, an increased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and a decreased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. At 30 min following successful establishment of the model (ST segment elevation to 1 mm), group B demonstrated significantly increased P1/P0, decreased expression levels of TNF-α, cTnI, CK-MB, IL-6, IL-10 and caspase-3, a decreased rate of myocardial apoptosis, and an increased expression level of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Furthermore, the current study indicated that active perfusion was more efficacious in maintaining myocardial perfusion and alleviating

  10. Myocardial perfusion scintigraphy - possibilities of diagnosing CAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsonevska, A.

    1998-01-01

    A reviewing the diagnostic methods used in the intricate process of evaluating CAD patients in a attempt to establish the role played by radionuclide methods in the diagnostic strategy is done. The perfusion cardiotropic radiopharmaceuticals used and the various methods of evaluating myocardial are discussed. Although 210 Tl-chloride is the most widely used myocardial perfusion agent, recently 99m Tc-MIBI is proposed as an alternative because of its advantages. Myocardial perfusion assessment is done by various techniques depending on the specific aim, each of them having its proper advantages and shortcomings. The inference is reached that regardless of the routine practical implementation of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and comprehensive studies along this line in course, there are problems still not well enough clarified awaiting solution

  11. Regional myocardial perfusion of cardioplegic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eugene, J.; Lyons, K.P.; Ott, R.A.; Gelezunas, V.L.; Chang, C.W.; Kowall, M.G.; Haiduc, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    We compared the regional myocardial perfusion of blood cardioplegic solution (BCP) and crystalloid cardioplegic solution (CCP) in 14 mongrel dogs. Cardiopulmonary bypass was established at 28 degrees C, and a hydraulic occluder was placed around the proximal left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery. In group 1 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were ligated; in group 2 (N = 7) collateral coronary arteries were left in situ. After the aorta was clamped, BCP and CCP were alternately perfused at 200 ml/min. The occluder was inflated to produce moderate, severe, and critical LAD stenosis, and regional perfusion was measured by xenon-133 washout with the Silicon Avalanche Radiation Detector. BCP infusion produced a consistently higher aortic pressure, but CCP flow was better than BCP flow under all conditions, particularly without coronary collaterals. Regional myocardial perfusion of CCP is superior to BCP

  12. MRI of pulmonary perfusion; MRT der Lungenperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, C. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Risse, F.; Semmler, W. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Medizinische Physik in der Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany); Schoenberg, S.O.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern der Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen (Germany). Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie; Kauczor, H.-U. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum (DKFZ), Abteilung Radiologie, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Lung perfusion is a crucial prerequisite for effective gas exchange. Quantification of pulmonary perfusion is important for diagnostic considerations and treatment planning in various diseases of the lungs. Besides disorders of pulmonary vessels such as acute pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, these also include diseases of the respiratory tract and lung tissue as well as pulmonary tumors. This contribution presents the possibilities and technical requirements of MRI for diagnostic work-up of pulmonary perfusion. (orig.) [German] Die Perfusion der Lunge ist eine entscheidende Voraussetzung fuer einen effektiven Gasaustausch. Die Bestimmung der Lungenperfusion ist bei verschiedenen Erkrankungen der Lunge fuer Diagnostik und Therapieplanung bedeutsam. Hierzu zaehlen neben Erkrankungen der Lungengefaesse wie akute Lungenembolie und pulmonale Hypertension ebenso Erkrankungen der Atemwege, des Lungengeruests und Lungentumoren. In diesem Beitrag werden die Moeglichkeiten und technischen Voraussetzungen der MRT zur Diagnostik der Lungenperfusion dargestellt. (orig.)

  13. Vicarious audiovisual learning in perfusion education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Thomas E; Holt, David W

    2010-12-01

    Perfusion technology is a mechanical and visual science traditionally taught with didactic instruction combined with clinical experience. It is difficult to provide perfusion students the opportunity to experience difficult clinical situations, set up complex perfusion equipment, or observe corrective measures taken during catastrophic events because of patient safety concerns. Although high fidelity simulators offer exciting opportunities for future perfusion training, we explore the use of a less costly low fidelity form of simulation instruction, vicarious audiovisual learning. Two low fidelity modes of instruction; description with text and a vicarious, first person audiovisual production depicting the same content were compared. Students (n = 37) sampled from five North American perfusion schools were prospectively randomized to one of two online learning modules, text or video.These modules described the setup and operation of the MAQUET ROTAFLOW stand-alone centrifugal console and pump. Using a 10 question multiple-choice test, students were assessed immediately after viewing the module (test #1) and then again 2 weeks later (test #2) to determine cognition and recall of the module content. In addition, students completed a questionnaire assessing the learning preferences of today's perfusion student. Mean test scores from test #1 for video learners (n = 18) were significantly higher (88.89%) than for text learners (n = 19) (74.74%), (p audiovisual learning modules may be an efficacious, low cost means of delivering perfusion training on subjects such as equipment setup and operation. Video learning appears to improve cognition and retention of learned content and may play an important role in how we teach perfusion in the future, as simulation technology becomes more prevalent.

  14. Improved exercise myocardial perfusion during lidoflazine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, W.; Narahara, K.A.; Park, J.

    1983-01-01

    Lidoflazine is a synthetic drug with calcium-channel blocking effects. In a study of 6 patients with severe classic angina pectoris, single-blind administration of lidoflazine was associated with improved myocardial perfusion during exercise as determined by thallium-201 stress scintigraphy. These studies demonstrate that lidoflazine therapy is associated with relief of angina, an increased physical work capacity, and improved regional myocardial perfusion during exercise

  15. Measurement of myocardial perfusion using magnetic resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritz-Hansen, T.; Jensen, L.T.; Larsson, H.B.

    2008-01-01

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has evolved rapidly. Recent developments have made non-invasive quantitative myocardial perfusion measurements possible. MRI is particularly attractive due to its high spatial resolution and because it does not involve ionising radiation. This paper reviews...... myocardial perfusion imaging with MR contrast agents: methods, validation and experiences from clinical studies. Unresolved issues still restrict the use of these techniques to research although clinical applications are within reach Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/8...

  16. Ventilation-perfused studies using SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwijnenburg, A.

    1989-01-01

    A method for the quantitative analysis of ventilation-perfusion SPECT studies is decribed and an effort is made to evaluate its usefullness. The technical details of the emthod are described. In the the transaxial reconstructions of the tomographic studies the contour of the lungs is detected and regional values of lung volume, ventilation, perfusion and ventilation-perfusion ratios are calculated. The method is operator independent. The lung volume calculations from the SPECT studies are validated by comparing them with lung volume measurements using the helium dilution technique. A good correlation (r=0.91) was found between the two volumes. SPECT volume was greater than the volume measured with helium dilution, which was attributed to non-gas-containing structures in the. lungs. The use of ventilation-perfusion ratio SPECT is described to evaluate the effect of ionizing radiation on the lungs in patients treated with mantle field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease. Perfusion changes appear as early as 2 months after the start of irradiation. Ventilation changes appear later and relatively minor. No changes are seen outside the radiation portals. The ventilation-perfusion inequality in pulmonary sarcoidosis is treated. It is suggested that the decrease D LCO in these patients may be partly due to an even distribution of ventilation perfusion ratios. An effort is made to establish the properties of a new tracer used for the assessment of the metabolic function of the pulmonary endothelium. The lung uptake of I-123 IMP mimics the distribution of a perfusion tracer and it is suggested that this tracer may be useful for the early detection of pulmonary vascular damage, even when blood flow is still intact. Some aspects of the use of Kr-81m as a ventilation tracer are discussed as well as the effect of noise on Kr-81m SPECT reconstructions. (author). 146 refs.; 39 figs.; 8 tabs

  17. Quantitative perfusion imaging in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoellner, F.G.; Gaa, T.; Zimmer, F.; Ong, M.M.; Riffel, P.; Hausmann, D.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Weis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recognized for its superior tissue contrast while being non-invasive and free of ionizing radiation. Due to the development of new scanner hardware and fast imaging techniques during the last decades, access to tissue and organ functions became possible. One of these functional imaging techniques is perfusion imaging with which tissue perfusion and capillary permeability can be determined from dynamic imaging data. Perfusion imaging by MRI can be performed by two approaches, arterial spin labeling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI. While the first method uses magnetically labelled water protons in arterial blood as an endogenous tracer, the latter involves the injection of a contrast agent, usually gadolinium (Gd), as a tracer for calculating hemodynamic parameters. Studies have demonstrated the potential of perfusion MRI for diagnostics and also for therapy monitoring. The utilization and application of perfusion MRI are still restricted to specialized centers, such as university hospitals. A broad application of the technique has not yet been implemented. The MRI perfusion technique is a valuable tool that might come broadly available after implementation of standards on European and international levels. Such efforts are being promoted by the respective professional bodies. (orig.) [de

  18. Insulin degradation products from perfused rat kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duckworth, W.C.; Hamel, F.G.; Liepnieks, J.; Peavy, D.; Frank, B.; Rabkin, R.

    1989-01-01

    The kidney is a major site for insulin metabolism, but the enzymes involved and the products generated have not been established. To examine the products, we have perfused rat kidneys with insulin specifically iodinated on either the A14 or the B26 tyrosine. Labeled material from both the perfusate and kidney extract was examined by Sephadex G50 and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In perfusate from a filtering kidney, 22% of the insulin-sized material was not intact insulin on HPLC. With the nonfiltering kidney, 10.6% was not intact insulin. Labeled material from HPLC was sulfitolyzed and reinjected on HPLC. By use of 125 I-iodo(A14)-insulin, almost all the degradation products contained an intact A-chain. By use of 125 I-iodo(B26)-insulin, several different B-chain-cleaved products were obtained. The material extracted from the perfused kidney was different from perfusate products but similar to intracellular products from hepatocytes, suggesting that cellular metabolism by kidney and liver are similar. The major intracellular product had characteristics consistent with a cleavage between the B16 and B17 amino acids. This product and several of the perfusate products are also produced by insulin protease suggesting that this enzyme is involved in the degradation of insulin by kidney

  19. CT perfusion study of neck lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Jin; Liu Jun; Hua Rui; Qiao Hui; Gong Yi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the CT perfusion features of various lymph nodes in the neck. Methods: Dynamic perfusion CT scanning was performed in 83 neck lymph nodes proved by pathology, including tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes. The shapes, blood flow modes, and perfusion parameters of these lymph nodes were compared among 3 groups. Statistical analysis of L/T and CT perfusion parameters was performed by one-way ANOVA and LSD test. Results: The values of MTT of tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes were (28.13±5.08), (31.08±5.82), and (11.24±5.31) s, respectively. The MTT of metastatic lymph nodes was statistically lower than that of tuberculosis lymph nodes and lymphoma (P -1 · 100 g -1 , respectively. The values of BV were (24.68±2.84), (25.30±3.16), and (25.15± 8.81) ml·100 g -1 respectively. The values of TTP were (40.90±8.85), (40.67±6.45), and (40.98±6.62) s, respectively. There were no significant differences in L/T, BF, BV and TTP among tuberculosis lymph nodes, lymphoma and metastatic lymph nodes (P>0.05). Conclusion: CT perfusion, especially combination functional imaging with perfusion images may be helpful in judging the nature of neck lymph nodes. (authors)

  20. Value of T1-201 myocardial perfusion scan for predicting prognosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yutaka; Tomoda, Haruo [Tokai Univ., Isehara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Sugihara, Masami

    1983-05-01

    The extent of Tl-201 perfusion defects was determined in three views by the average ratio of perfusion defects to that of the left ventricle. As the percent Tl-201 defect index increased, the peak value of creatine phosphokinase, the grade of Peel index, incidence of congestion on the initial chest X-ray, and pulmonary artery end-diastolic pressure all gradually increased. In 48 patients followed for 23 months on the average after discharge, the incidence of congestive heart failure and ventricular premature beat also increased. The prognosis was particulary poor in patients who had the percent Tl-201 defect index greater than 40%.

  1. Degenerative processes in bioprosthetic mitral valves in juvenile pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Torben B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutaraldehyde-treated bioprosthetic heart valves are commonly used for replacement of diseased heart valves. However, calcification and wear limit their durability, and the development of new and improved bioprosthetic valve designs is needed and must be evaluated in a reliable animal model. We studied glutaraldehyde-treated valves 6 months after implantation to evaluate bioprosthetic valve complications in the mitral position in juvenile pigs. Materials The study material comprised eight, 5-month old, 60-kg pigs. All pigs received a size 27, glutaraldehyde-treated, stented, Carpentier-Edwards S.A.V. mitral valve prosthesis. After six months, echocardiography was performed, and the valves explanted for gross examination, high resolution X-ray, and histological evaluation. Results Five pigs survived the follow-up period. Preexplant echocardiography revealed a median peak and mean velocity of 1.61 m/s (range: 1.17-2.00 and 1.20 (SD = ±0.25, respectively, and a median peak and mean pressure difference of 10.42 mmHg (range: 5.83-16.55 and 6.51 mmHg (SD = ±2.57, respectively. Gross examination showed minor thrombotic depositions at two commissures in two valves and at all three commissures in three valves. High resolution X-ray imaging revealed different degrees of calcification in all explanted valves, primarily in the commissural and belly areas. In all valves, histological evaluation demonstrated various degrees of fibrous sheath formation, limited immunological infiltration, and no overgrowth of host endothelium. Conclusions Bioprosthetic glutaraldehyde-treated mitral valves can be implanted into the mitral position in pigs and function after 6 months. Echocardiographic data, calcification, and histological examinations were comparable to results obtained in sheep models and human demonstrating the suitability of the porcine model.

  2. Lung perfusion scintigraphy in the diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary stenosis in patients after repair of Fallot tetralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabiniewicz, R.; Chojnicki, M.; Alszewicz-Baranowska, J.; Erecinski, J.; Romanowicz, G.; Lass, P.; Bandurski, T.

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis in patients after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) ranges from 20 to 40%. This can be either primary or secondary to the surgical intervention. The influence of resulting lung perfusion alterations on the life quality of patients is difficult to predict. The aim of this study was to compare the utility of the diagnostic procedures in this group of patients, with particular focus on lung perfusion scintigraphy. This study comprised 104 patients who underwent repair of TOF at ages from 5 months to 25 years. The patients have been followed up for from 4.2 to 25 years. On the basis of chest X-ray peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis was suspected in 11 patients, in 12 on the basis of echocardiography examination. Lung perfusion scintigraphy has been performed on 87 patients. The disturbances in lung perfusion (mostly in the left lung) were show by means of lung perfusion scintigraphy in 43 (49%) of patients. In 27 of them heart catheterisation has been performed. Angiography revealed stenosis of the lung artery branch in 15/43 (34.9%) patients with abnormal perfusion lung scan and in 4/44 (9%) in patients with normal perfusion lung scan. Intervention procedures were carried out on 10 patients. Lung perfusion scintigraphy may prove a valuable, non-invasive screening tool in the assessment of patients after TOF repair, although both false-negative and false positive results may happen. Therefore, it should play an auxiliary role together with other diagnostic modalities. (author)

  3. Metabolic variations of fatty acid in isolated rat heart reperfused after a transient global ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Gang; Michel Comet; Zhao Huiyang; Zhu Cuiying; Yuan Jimin

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: The fatty acid metabolism and the effect of glucose on it were studied in isolated and reperfused rat heat. Methods: 32 isolated working rat hearts were perfused in Langengdorff device with modified Krebs and were divided into normal and ischemia-reperfused group. Each group was also classified into two subgroups, modified krebs with or without glucose subgroup. 131 I-HA was injected into aorta of isolated working rat heart and then the radio-residue curves were acquired. Results: When the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs plus glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid was significantly decreased in normal group, but a remarkable increase of fatty acid catabolism was found in ischemia-reperfused group. While the isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat hearts were perfused with krebs without glucose, the catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart was less than that in normal group. Conclusions: Transient ischemia damages the catabolism of myocardial fatty acid in mitochondria in some degree. In normal isolated working rat heart, the principal energy source is glucose. However, the major energy source is switched to catabolism of fatty acid in ischemia-reperfused isolated rat heart. This phenomenon may be related to compensative increase of fatty acid catabolism for replenishing the loss of energy during ischemia

  4. Protective effects of isorhynchophylline on cardiac arrhythmias in rats and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Runtao; Dong, Guo; Yu, Jiangbo; Wang, Xu; Fu, Songbin; Yang, Shusen

    2011-09-01

    As one important constituent extracted from a traditional Chinese medicine, Uncaria Rhynchophylla Miq Jacks, isorhynchophylline has been used to treat hypertension, epilepsy, headache, and other illnesses. Whether isorhynchophylline protects hearts against cardiac arrhythmias is still incompletely investigated. This study was therefore aimed to examine the preventive effects of isorhynchophylline on heart arrhythmias in guinea pigs and rats and then explore their electrophysiological mechanisms. In vivo, ouabain and calcium chloride were used to establish experimental arrhythmic models in guinea pigs and rats. In vitro, the whole-cell patch-lamp technique was used to study the effect of isorhynchophylline on action potential duration and calcium channels in acutely isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes. The dose of ouabain required to induce cardiac arrhythmias was much larger in guinea pigs administered with isorhynchophylline. Additionally, the onset time of cardiac arrhythmias induced by calcium chloride was prolonged, and the duration was shortened in rats pretreated with isorhynchophylline. The further study showed that isorhynchophylline could significantly decrease action potential duration and inhibit calcium currents in isolated guinea pig and rat cardiomyocytes in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, isorhynchophylline played a remarkably preventive role in cardiac arrhythmias through the inhibition of calcium currents in rats and guinea pigs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Evaluation of a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Harry

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cause of osteonecrosis of the femoral head is interruption of a blood supply to the proximal femur. In order to evaluate blood circulation and pathogenetic alterations, a pig femoral head osteonecrosis model was examined to address whether ligature of the femoral neck (vasculature deprivation induces a reduction of blood circulation in the femoral head, and whether transphyseal vessels exist for communications between the epiphysis and the metaphysis. We also tested the hypothesis that the vessels surrounding the femoral neck and the ligamentum teres represent the primary source of blood flow to the femoral head. Methods Avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head was induced in Yorkshire pigs by transecting the ligamentum teres and placing two ligatures around the femoral neck. After heparinized saline infusion and microfil perfusion via the abdominal aorta, blood circulation in the femoral head was evaluated by optical and CT imaging. Results An angiogram of the microfil casted sample allowed identification of the major blood vessels to the proximal femur including the iliac, common femoral, superficial femoral, deep femoral and circumflex arteries. Optical imaging in the femoral neck showed that a microfil stained vessel network was visible in control sections but less noticeable in necrotic sections. CT images showed a lack of microfil staining in the epiphysis. Furthermore, no transphyseal vessels were observed to link the epiphysis to the metaphysis. Conclusion Optical and CT imaging analyses revealed that in this present pig model the ligatures around the femoral neck were the primary cause of induction of avascular osteonecrosis. Since the vessels surrounding the femoral neck are comprised of the branches of the medial and the lateral femoral circumflex vessels, together with the extracapsular arterial ring and the lateral epiphyseal arteries, augmentation of blood circulation in those arteries will improve

  6. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jung Yeom

    Full Text Available Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1, an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs. Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  7. Generation and characterization of human heme oxygenase-1 transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Hye-Jung; Koo, Ok Jae; Yang, Jaeseok; Cho, Bumrae; Hwang, Jong-Ik; Park, Sol Ji; Hurh, Sunghoon; Kim, Hwajung; Lee, Eun Mi; Ro, Han; Kang, Jung Taek; Kim, Su Jin; Won, Jae-Kyung; O'Connell, Philip J; Kim, Hyunil; Surh, Charles D; Lee, Byeong-Chun; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Xenotransplantation using transgenic pigs as an organ source is a promising strategy to overcome shortage of human organ for transplantation. Various genetic modifications have been tried to ameliorate xenograft rejection. In the present study we assessed effect of transgenic expression of human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1), an inducible protein capable of cytoprotection by scavenging reactive oxygen species and preventing apoptosis caused by cellular stress during inflammatory processes, in neonatal porcine islet-like cluster cells (NPCCs). Transduction of NPCCs with adenovirus containing hHO-1 gene significantly reduced apoptosis compared with the GFP-expressing adenovirus control after treatment with either hydrogen peroxide or hTNF-α and cycloheximide. These protective effects were diminished by co-treatment of hHO-1 antagonist, Zinc protoporphyrin IX. We also generated transgenic pigs expressing hHO-1 and analyzed expression and function of the transgene. Human HO-1 was expressed in most tissues, including the heart, kidney, lung, pancreas, spleen and skin, however, expression levels and patterns of the hHO-1 gene are not consistent in each organ. We isolate fibroblast from transgenic pigs to analyze protective effect of the hHO-1. As expected, fibroblasts derived from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs were significantly resistant to both hydrogen peroxide damage and hTNF-α and cycloheximide-mediated apoptosis when compared with wild-type fibroblasts. Furthermore, induction of RANTES in response to hTNF-α or LPS was significantly decreased in fibroblasts obtained from the hHO-1 transgenic pigs. These findings suggest that transgenic expression of hHO-1 can protect xenografts when exposed to oxidative stresses, especially from ischemia/reperfusion injury, and/or acute rejection mediated by cytokines. Accordingly, hHO-1 could be an important candidate molecule in a multi-transgenic pig strategy for xenotransplantation.

  8. Effects of Changing to Individually Ventilated Caging on Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giral, Marta; Armengol, Clara; Sánchez-Gómez, Sonia; Gavaldà, Amadeu

    2015-05-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of changing to IVC housing on guinea pigs by recording several physiologic parameters in guinea pigs housed sequentially in open-top cages (OTC) and IVC. To register heart rate and locomotor activity, 10 male Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs implanted with telemetric transmitters were moved from OTC to new, freshly prepared OTC or IVC and subsequently monitored by telemetry during the 4 d after the first cage change. Body weight and food consumption were measured twice during the study. Comparison of data from OTC- and IVC-housed guinea pigs showed no relevant differences in heart rate (mean ± 1 SD; 213 ± 10 bpm and 207 ± 9 bpm, respectively) at any time point. In contrast, locomotor activity varied: whereas activity during the first 4 h after the change of cage type was greater in IVC-housed animals, that during the following 24 h was greater in OTC but was similar between groups thereafter. Animals housed in OTC consumed more food than did those in IVC and, under both conditions, consumption was statistically related to body weight changes. Together, these results show that a change to IVC housing induced only transient increases in locomotor activity in guinea pigs without a marked increase in heart rate but with a decrease in food consumption. Because decreased food consumption was the only stress-associated sign during the 4-d observation, longer studies are needed to ascertain the importance of this finding.

  9. Control of ribosome formation in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetes of 9 days duration produced a 17% diminution in the rate of total protein synthesis in rat hearts perfused as Langendorff preparations supplied with glucose, plasma levels of amino acids, and 400 μU/ml insulin. This reduction was attributable to a decrease in efficiency of protein synthesis and total RNA content. Total messenger RNA content decreased in diabetic hearts in proportion to the reduction in total RNA. Diabetes also resulted in diminished ribosome content as reflected by the induction in total RNA. Ribosome production was investigated by monitoring incorporation of [ 3 H]phenylalanine into the proteins of cytoplasmic ribosomes. Rates of ribosome formation in diabetic hearts were as fast as control rates in the presence of insulin, and were faster than control rates in the absence of the hormone. These results indicated that ribosome content fell in diabetic hearts despite unchanged or faster rates of ribosome formation

  10. Regional cortical hyper perfusion on perfusion CT during postical motor deficit: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Hye Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    Postictal neurologic deficit is a well-known complication mimicking the manifestation of a stroke. We present a case of a patient with clinical evidence of Todd's paralysis correlating with reversible postictal parenchymal changes on perfusion CT and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In this case, perfusion CT and MR imaging were helpful in the differential diagnosis of stroke-mimicking conditions.

  11. The Groningen hypothermic liver perfusion pump : Functional evaluation of a new machine perfusion system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Plaats, A.; Maathuis, M. H. J.; Hart, N. A. 't; Bellekom, A. A.; Hofker, H. S.; van der Houwen, E. B.; Verkerke, G. J.; Leuvenink, H. G. D.; Verdonck, P.; Ploeg, R. J.; Rakhorst, G.

    2006-01-01

    To improve preservation of donor livers, we have developed a portable hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) system as an alternative for static cold storage. A prototype of the system was built and evaluated on functionality. Evaluation criteria included 24 h of adequate pressure controlled perfusion,

  12. Heart regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, Kaja; Weinberger, Florian; Eschenhagen, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Regenerating an injured heart holds great promise for millions of patients suffering from heart diseases. Since the human heart has very limited regenerative capacity, this is a challenging task. Numerous strategies aiming to improve heart function have been developed. In this review we focus on approaches intending to replace damaged heart muscle by new cardiomyocytes. Different strategies for the production of cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem cells or human induced pluripotent stem cells, by direct reprogramming and induction of cardiomyocyte proliferation are discussed regarding their therapeutic potential and respective advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, different methods for the transplantation of pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes are described and their clinical perspectives are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cardiomyocyte Biology: Integration of Developmental and Environmental Cues in the Heart edited by Marcus Schaub and Hughes Abriel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Near infrared spectroscopy for controlling the quality of distal leg perfusion in remote access cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Thomas; Bonaros, Nikolaos; Bonatti, Johannes; Kolbitsch, Christian

    2008-12-01

    The prevention of leg ischemia is necessary in all patients undergoing femoral artery cannulation for extracorporeal circulation. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established non-invasive method for measuring tissue oxygen saturation. Ten patients underwent robotically assisted endoscopic coronary surgery or ASD repair on the arrested heart using aortic endo-occlusion catheters. They were monitored by transcutaneous NIRS (placed on both lower legs) for quality control of distal leg perfusion during femoral access cardiopulmonary bypass. The baseline NIRS values were 61 (52-80) on the cannulated side versus 70 (53-80) on the contralateral leg (p=n.s.). During clamping of the femoral artery for installation of the remote access perfusion system the tissue oxygen saturation dropped to 38 (18-58) (p=0.001 vs baseline) while it remained stable on the contralateral leg. After successful implantation of the distal leg perfusion the NIRS values normalized to similar amounts on both legs. We conclude that transcutaneous NIRS of the lower legs might be a useful non-invasive tool for monitoring leg perfusion in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation via the femoral vessels.

  14. Assessment of the myocardial perfusion pattern in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandrian, A.S.; Hakki, A.H.; Segal, B.L.; Kane, S.A.; Amenta, A.

    1983-01-01

    A total of 42 symptomatic patients with coronary artery disease involving two or three vessels were studied using exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. Qualitative analysis of the images predicted multivessel disease in 75% of the patients with two-vessel disease and in 82% of the patients with three-vessel disease. Quantitative analysis of the size of the perfusion defect indicated that approximately 40% of the left ventricular perimeter showed abnormal perfusion pattern during stress in these patients, and there was no significant difference in the size of the defect in patients with two-vessel disease or three-vessel disease (41 +/- 17% vs 42 +/- 14%, respectively, mean +/- SD). The exercise heart rate, exercise ECG response, and severity of narrowing did not correlate with the size of the perfusion defect. Patients with anterior infarction had larger defects in the distribution of the left anterior descending artery than those without infarction. Collaterals offered partial protection during exercise only when they were not jeopardized. This study confirms the value of qualitative analysis of exercise thallium-201 imaging in predicting multivessel disease, and describes a simple method of assessing the extent of perfusion abnormalities during stress in patients with multivessel disease. The results may be important in patient management and prognosis

  15. Vascular perfusion of reproductive organs in pony mares and heifers during sedation with detomidine or xylazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Reno R; Ginther, O J

    2009-01-01

    To assess the vascular effects of detomidine and xylazine in pony mares and heifers, respectively, as determined in a major artery and by extent of vascular perfusion of reproductive organs. 10 pony mares and 10 Holstein heifers. Pony mares were assigned to receive physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (n = 5) or detomidine (3.0 mg/mare, IV; 5). Heifers were assigned to receive saline solution (5) or xylazine (14 mg/heifer, IM; 5). Color Doppler ultrasonographic examinations were performed immediately before and 10 minutes after administration of saline solution or sedative. In spectral Doppler mode, a spectral graph of blood flow velocities during a cardiac cycle was obtained at the internal iliac artery and at the ovarian pedicle. In color-flow mode, color signals of blood flow in vessels of the corpus luteum and endometrium were assessed. Systemic effects of sedation in the 2 species were evident as a decrease in heart rate; increase in duration of systole, diastole, or both; decrease in volume of blood flow; and decrease in velocity of blood flow within the internal iliac artery. However, an effect of sedatives on local vascular perfusion in the ovaries and endometrium was not detected. Sedation with detomidine in pony mares and xylazine in heifers did not affect vascular perfusion in reproductive organs. These sedatives can be used in experimental and clinical color Doppler evaluations of vascular perfusion of the corpus luteum and endometrium.

  16. Characteristics of myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary artery angiography in patients of NIDDM complicated with AMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peiqin; Zhao Jinhua; Qin Mingzhao; Dai HaoJie; Zhang Runwu; Xiao Fen

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristic changes of myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary artery angiography in patients of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with underlined type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: 25 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients were enrolled for having clinical manifestation of AMI. Ten inpatients with AMI of simple coronary heart disease origin were served as controls. All subjects underwent both myocardial perfusion imagings (resting and nitroglycerine invention) and coronary artery angiography. Results: Compared to controls (40%), type 2 diabetes mellitus + AMI group had higher rate of multivessel disease (60%). For type 2 diabetes mellitus + AMI patients, 129/400 segments (32.25%) showed fixed defect, 25/160 segments (15.62%) in controls. Conclusions: For type 2 diabetes mellitus + AMI group, myocardial perfusion defects are widely distributed and multivessel or severe stenosis is more often presented. Good correlation exists between abnormal segments and angiographic lesions in both the number of segments involved and the severity of the lesions. Radionuclide myocardial perfusion is therefore considered a useful screening test not inferior to angiography, especially for those who are not tolerant enough to undergoing angiography

  17. Myocardial perfusion MRI with sliding-window conjugate-gradient HYPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lan; Kino, Aya; Griswold, Mark; Mistretta, Charles; Carr, James C; Li, Debiao

    2009-10-01

    First-pass perfusion MRI is a promising technique for detecting ischemic heart disease. However, the diagnostic value of the method is limited by the low spatial coverage, resolution, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and cardiac motion-related image artifacts. In this study we investigated the feasibility of using a method that combines sliding window and CG-HYPR methods (SW-CG-HYPR) to reduce the acquisition window for each slice while maintaining the temporal resolution of one frame per heartbeat in myocardial perfusion MRI. This method allows an increased number of slices, reduced motion artifacts, and preserves the relatively high SNR and spatial resolution of the "composite images." Results from eight volunteers demonstrate the feasibility of SW-CG-HYPR for accelerated myocardial perfusion imaging with accurate signal intensity changes of left ventricle blood pool and myocardium. Using this method the acquisition time per cardiac cycle was reduced by a factor of 4 and the number of slices was increased from 3 to 8 as compared to the conventional technique. The SNR of the myocardium at peak enhancement with SW-CG-HYPR (13.83 +/- 2.60) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the conventional turbo-FLASH protocol (8.40 +/- 1.62). Also, the spatial resolution of the myocardial perfection images was significantly improved. SW-CG-HYPR is a promising technique for myocardial perfusion MRI. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Impaired glymphatic perfusion after strokes revealed by contrast-enhanced MRI: a new target for fibrinolysis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaberel, Thomas; Gakuba, Clement; Goulay, Romain; Martinez De Lizarrondo, Sara; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Emery, Evelyne; Touze, Emmanuel; Vivien, Denis; Gauberti, Maxime

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different stroke subtypes on the glymphatic system using MRI. We first improved and characterized an in vivo protocol to measure the perfusion of the glymphatic system using MRI after minimally invasive injection of a gadolinium chelate within the cisterna magna. Then, the integrity of the glymphatic system was evaluated in 4 stroke models in mice including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), intracerebral hemorrhage, carotid ligature, and embolic ischemic stroke. We were able to reliably evaluate the glymphatic system function using MRI. Moreover, we provided evidence that the glymphatic system was severely impaired after SAH and in the acute phase of ischemic stroke, but was not altered after carotid ligature or in case of intracerebral hemorrhage. Notably, this alteration in glymphatic perfusion reduced brain clearance rate of low-molecular-weight compounds. Interestingly, glymphatic perfusion after SAH can be improved by intracerebroventricular injection of tissue-type plasminogen activator. Moreover, spontaneous arterial recanalization was associated with restoration of the glymphatic function after embolic ischemic stroke. SAH and acute ischemic stroke significantly impair the glymphatic system perfusion. In these contexts, injection of tissue-type plasminogen activator either intracerebroventricularly to clear perivascular spaces (for SAH) or intravenously to restore arterial patency (for ischemic stroke) may improve glymphatic function. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Effects of Steroid Hormones on Sex Differences in Cerebral Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Ghisleni

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the brain appear to play an important role in the prevalence and progression of various neuropsychiatric disorders, but to date little is known about the cerebral mechanisms underlying these differences. One widely reported finding is that women demonstrate higher cerebral perfusion than men, but the underlying cause of this difference in perfusion is not known. This study investigated the putative role of steroid hormones such as oestradiol, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS as underlying factors influencing cerebral perfusion. We acquired arterial spin labelling perfusion images of 36 healthy adult subjects (16 men, 20 women. Analyses on average whole brain perfusion levels included a multiple regression analysis to test for the relative impact of each hormone on the global perfusion. Additionally, voxel-based analyses were performed to investigate the sex difference in regional perfusion as well as the correlations between local perfusion and serum oestradiol, testosterone, and DHEAS concentrations. Our results replicated the known sex difference in perfusion, with women showing significantly higher global and regional perfusion. For the global perfusion, DHEAS was the only significant predictor amongst the steroid hormones, showing a strong negative correlation with cerebral perfusion. The voxel-based analyses revealed modest sex-dependent correlations between local perfusion and testosterone, in addition to a strong modulatory effect of DHEAS in cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar regions. We conclude that DHEAS in particular may play an important role as an underlying factor driving the difference in cerebral perfusion between men and women.

  20. Biodistribution and stability studies of [18F]Fluoroethylrhodamine B, a potential PET myocardial perfusion agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottumukkala, Vijay; Heinrich, Tobias K.; Baker, Amanda; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic H.; Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Fluorine-18-labeled rhodamine B was developed as a potential positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion, but preliminary studies in mice showed no accumulation in the heart suggesting that it was rapidly hydrolyzed in vivo in mice. A study was therefore undertaken to further evaluate this hypothesis. Methods: [ 18 F]Fluoroethylrhodamine B was equilibrated for 2 h at 37 deg. C in human, rat and mouse serum and in phosphate-buffered saline. Samples were removed periodically and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Based on the results of the stability study, microPET imaging and a biodistribution study were carried out in rats. Results: In vitro stability studies demonstrated that [ 18 F]fluoroethylrhodamine B much more stable in rat and human sera than in mouse serum. After 2 h, the compound was >80% intact in rat serum but 18 F-labeled rhodamines should accumulate in the heart. Conclusions: [ 18 F]Fluoroethylrhodamine B is more stable in rat and human sera than it is in mouse serum. This improved stability is demonstrated by the high uptake of the tracer in the rat heart in comparison to the absence of visible uptake in the mouse heart. These observations suggest that 18 F-labeled rhodamines are promising candidates for more extensive evaluation as PET tracers for the evaluation of myocardial perfusion.

  1. Bull's-eye map of myocardial perfusion MR imaging. Comparison with SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Yukihiro; Nanjo, Shuji; Yamazaki, Junichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Inoue, Yusuke

    2003-01-01

    When diagnosing heart disease, chest roentgenograms, ultrasonography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and coronary arteriography are usually performed. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is not widely used for evaluating heart disease. Recent technological progress has allowed high quality images of the heart to be reliably obtained. A routine MR study taking about 30-40 minutes can provide a large amount of diagnostic information, such as cardiac structure, function, perfusion, and myocardial viability. The analysis software that can offer Bull's-eye maps from myocardial perfusion images has recently become commercially available. In this study, the characteristics of Bull's-eye mapping of MR imaging is compared with that of Bull's-eye mapping of SPECT using the same heart phantom. The difference in the image quality of the Bull's-eye maps was evaluated among the receiver coils of MR imaging. On Bull's-eye maps from both MR imaging and SPECT, decreased signal intensity was noted in the posterolateral wall. The degree of decrease in the signal of the MR imaging was more prominent than of SPECT. The decrease was severe for the general-purpose receive-only flexible (GPFLEX) coil, moderate for the cardiac and TORSO coil, and slight for the body coil. In the selection of a coil, it is necessary to take into consideration the trade-off between the distribution of signal intensity and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). (author)

  2. Heart Failure

    OpenAIRE

    McMurray, John; Ponikowski, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure.

  3. Artificial heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-18

    Super-pure plutonium-238 could use heat produced during fission to power an implanted artificial heart. Three model hearts have worked for some time. Concern that excess heat would make the procedure unsafe for humans has broadened the search for another energy source, such as electrohydraulic drive or an external power battery. A back pack approach may provide an interim solution until materials are developed which can withstand heart activity and be small enough for implantation.

  4. Perfusion MRI in CNS disease: current concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, M.; Giesel, F.; Le-Huu, M.; Stieltjes, B.; Tengg, H. von; Weber, M.-A.

    2004-01-01

    Today there are several indications for cerebral perfusion MRI. The major indications routinely used in increasing numbers of imaging centers include cerebrovascular disease, tumor imaging and recently psychiatric disorders. Perfusion MRI is based on the injection of a gadolinium chelate and the rapid acquisition of images as the bolus of contrast agent passes through the blood vessels in the brain. The contrast agent causes a signal change; this signal change over time can be analysed to measure cerebral hemodynamics. The quality of brain perfusion studies is very dependent on the contrast agent used: a robust and strong signal decrease with a compact bolus is needed. MultiHance (gadobenate dimeglumine, Gd-BOPTA) is the first of a new class of paramagnetic MR contrast agents with a weak affinity for serum proteins. Due to the interaction of Gd-BOPTA with serum albumin, MultiHance presents with significantly higher T1- and T2-relaxivities enabling a sharper bolus profile. This article reviews the indications of perfusion MRI and the performance of MultiHance in MR perfusion of different diseases. Previous studies using perfusion MRI for a variety of purposes required the use of double dose of contrast agent to achieve a sufficiently large signal drop to enable the acquisition of a clear input function and the calculation of perfusion rCBV and rCBF maps of adequate quality. Recent studies with Multi-Hance suggest that only a single dose of this agent is needed to cause a signal drop of about 30% which is sufficient to allow the calculation of high quality rCBV and rCBF maps. (orig.)

  5. Enteric Methane Emission from Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Theil, Peter Kappel; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2011-01-01

    per kg meat produced is increased (Fernández et al. 1983; Lekule et al. 1990). The present chapter will summarise our current knowledge concerning dietary and enteric fermentation that may influence the methane (CH4) emission in pigs. Enteric fermentation is the digestive process by which.......3 % of the worlds pig population. The main number of pigs is in Asia (59.6 %) where the main pig population stay in China (47.8 % of the worlds pig population). The objective of the chapter is therefore: To obtain a general overview of the pigs’ contribution to methane emission. Where is the pigs’ enteric gas...... produced and how is it measured. The variation in methane emission and factors affecting the emission. Possibility for reducing the enteric methane emission and the consequences....

  6. Types of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Introduction Types of Heart Failure Classes of Heart Failure Heart Failure in Children Advanced Heart Failure • Causes and ... and procedures related to heart disease and stroke. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Use these questions ...

  7. Fast Doppler as a novel bedside measure of cerebral perfusion in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeples, Eric S; Mehic, Edin; Mourad, Pierre D; Juul, Sandra E

    2016-02-01

    Altered cerebral perfusion from impaired autoregulation may contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with premature birth. We hypothesized that fast Doppler imaging could provide a reproducible bedside estimation of cerebral perfusion and autoregulation in preterm infants. This is a prospective pilot study using fast Doppler ultrasound to assess blood flow velocity in the basal ganglia of 19 subjects born at 26-32 wk gestation. Intraclass correlation provided a measure of test-retest reliability, and linear regression of cerebral blood flow velocity and heart rate or blood pressure allowed for estimations of autoregulatory ability. The intraclass correlation when imaging in the first 48 h of life was 0.634. We found significant and independent correlations between the systolic blood flow velocity and both systolic blood pressure and heart rate (P = 0.015 and 0.012 respectively) only in the 26-28 wk gestational age infants in the first 48 h of life. Our results suggest that fast Doppler provides reliable bedside measurements of cerebral blood flow velocity at the tissue level in premature infants, acting as a proxy for cerebral tissue perfusion. Additionally, autoregulation appears to be impaired in the extremely preterm infants, even within a normal range of blood pressures.

  8. Development of 99Tcm-Q3 as a new type myocardial perfusion imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunchun; Tan Tianzhi; Fan Chengzhong; Zhao Keqing; Wei Xihe; Li Quan

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To develop 99 Tc m -N,N'-ethylene-bis (acetylacetone iminato) bis [tris (3-methoxy-1-propyl) phosphine] ( 99 Tc m -Q 3 ) as a new type of myocardial perfusion imaging agent. Methods: After N,N'-ethylene-bis (acetylacetone iminato) and tris (3-methoxy-1-propyl) phosphine were made, N,N'-ethylene-bis (acetylacetone iminato) was labelled using reduced 99 Tc m O 4 - by SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O under the presence of alkali, then tris (3-methoxy-1-propyl) phosphine was added and reacted for ten minutes, 99 Tc m -Q 3 was obtained at the end. Biodistribution in mice, in vitro stability and acute toxicity of 99 Tc m -Q 3 were examined. Results: 99 Tc m -Q 3 was taken up rapidly by the heart, and the uptake rate was very high, by 5 minutes post injection, 24.66% of the injected dose was taken up in per gram heart, and no significant washout was shown up by 4 hours. But 99 Tc m -Q 3 was cleaned out rapidly from blood, lung and liver. No poisonousness and adverse effects were observed, and its stability lasted more than 6 hours. Conclusions: 99 Tc m -Q 3 is a fairly good myocardial perfusion imaging agent for improving the quality of myocardial perfusion imaging

  9. Sodium addition and/or oxygen saturation of iohexol during normal and reduced perfusion pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, L.

    1990-01-01

    The influence on contractile force (CF) and the propensity for ventricular fibrillation (VF) from infusing the non-ionic contrast medium iohexol during normal (75 cm H 2 O) and reduced perfusion pressure (35 cm H 2 O) were investigated in the isolated rabbit heart. Both during normal and reduced perfusion pressure iohexol (150 mg I/ml) with oxygen saturation caused a smaller reduction of CF than iohexol without oxygen. During reduced pressure iohexol with sodium addition (28 mM NaCl) caused less depression of CF than iohexol without sodium. The combination of sodium addition and oxygen saturation had the least influence on CF. Iohexol (350 mg I/ml) without sodium had a similar fibrillatory propensity during both normal and reduced pressure. Enriching iohexol with 28 mM NaCl decreased the risk of VF. The decrease was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. The risk of VF from oxygen saturation of iohexol (350 mg I/ml, without sodium) was similar during both normal and reduced pressure. It is concluded that a small addition of sodium and/or oxygen saturation of a non-ionic monomeric contrast medium have beneficial effects on the heart both during normal perfusion pressure and during ischemia. (orig.)

  10. [An automatic system controlled by microcontroller for carotid sinus perfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, X L; Wang, M Y; Fan, Z Z; He, R R

    2001-08-01

    To establish a new method for controlling automatically the carotid perfusion pressure. A cheap practical automatic perfusion unit based on AT89C2051 micro controller was designed. The unit, LDB-M perfusion pump and the carotid sinus of an animal constituted an automatic perfusion system. This system was able to provide ramp and stepwise updown perfusion pattern and has been used in the research of baroreflex. It can insure the precision and reproducibility of perfusion pressure curve, and improve the technical level in corresponding medical field.

  11. Productivity and parasitic infections of pigs kept under different management systems by smallholder farmers in Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipendele, Calvin Paul; Lekule, Faustine Paul; Mushi, Daniel Elias; Ngowi, Helena; Kimbi, Eliakunda Casmir; Mejer, Helena; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-08-01

    An on farm experiment was carried out to assess the effects of production systems on the performance of local pigs kept by smallholder farmers. Six villages from Mbeya and Mbozi districts, Tanzania were purposely selected based on the prominent pig production systems: free range, semi-confinement and total confinement. Fifteen pig keeping households were randomly selected from each village to participate in the study. A participatory rural appraisal and structured questionnaire were used for collecting information from the households on pig production and reproduction performance. In addition, a total of 180 weaner pigs, 2-3 months old, were purchased and randomly allocated to the 90 participating households. The pigs were subjected to three production systems: free range (M1), confinement with local diet (M2) and confinement with a compounded diet and anthelmintic treatment (M3). The anthelmintic treatment (piperazine citrate) was administered at 1 g per kg body weight. Faecal and blood samples were collected at month three of the experiment to assess the burden of intestinal helminths and sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis, respectively. Sows kept under free range system were reported to have smaller litter size both at farrowing and at weaning compared to those kept under confinement. The experiment showed pigs under M3 had higher (P pigs in M2 (73 g/day) and M1 (68 g/day). In addition, pigs in M3 had higher body length and heart girth size with the feed to gain ratio of 8.5. Free range pigs tended to have lower faecal egg counts for most worm species compared to permanently confined pigs. Sero-prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis was 26%, with village prevalence ranging from 8 to 52%. Although pigs kept in M3 performed better than the rest, the compounded feed was too expensive for the farmers to afford. Locally available feed types combined with vitamin and mineral supplements may be a more sustainable option.

  12. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute L-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette Rønne; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-01-01

    products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences......, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA...... in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin...

  13. Myocardial perfusion imaging with dual energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Kwang Nam [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiology, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); De Cecco, Carlo N. [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Caruso, Damiano [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, University of Rome “Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Tesche, Christian [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Spandorfer, Adam; Varga-Szemes, Akos [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U. Joseph, E-mail: schoepf@musc.edu [Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States); Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI offers the possibility to directly detect the presence of myocardial perfusion defects. • Stress dual-energy sCTMPI allows differentiating between reversible and fixed myocardial perfusion defects. • The combination of coronary CT angiography and dual-energy sCTMPI can improve the ability of CT to detect hemodynamically relevant coronary artery disease. - Abstract: Dual-energy CT (DECT) enables simultaneous use of two different tube voltages, thus different x-ray absorption characteristics are acquired in the same anatomic location with two different X-ray spectra. The various DECT techniques allow material decomposition and mapping of the iodine distribution within the myocardium. Static dual-energy myocardial perfusion imaging (sCTMPI) using pharmacological stress agents demonstrate myocardial ischemia by single snapshot images of myocardial iodine distribution. sCTMPI gives incremental values to coronary artery stenosis detected on coronary CT angiography (CCTA) by showing consequent reversible or fixed myocardial perfusion defects. The comprehensive acquisition of CCTA and sCTMPI offers extensive morphological and functional evaluation of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have revealed that dual-energy sCTMPI shows promising diagnostic accuracy for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease compared to single-photon emission computed tomography, invasive coronary angiography, and cardiac MRI. The aim of this review is to present currently available DECT techniques for static myocardial perfusion imaging and recent clinical applications and ongoing investigations.

  14. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  15. Levels of protein hydroperoxides and carbonyl groups in guinea pigs native of high altitudes (Huancavelica, 3660 m)

    OpenAIRE

    Huayta, Roxana; Zúñiga, Haydée; Esquerre, Cynthia; Hernández, Luz; Carranza, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The influence of hypobaric hypoxia on protein oxidation in lungs, heart, liver, kidneys and testicles of high altitude native guinea pigs (Huancavelica, 3660 m) in comparison to sea level (Lima, 150 m) native guinea pigs was evaluated. The concentration of protein hydroperoxides (POOH) and carbonyl groups (GC) as markers of protein oxidation, as well as total thiols (TT) concentration, powerful reducing agents that act as live antioxidants were determined. The results showed low concentration...

  16. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii in a pig from a local abattoir in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inoculation of pepsin digested muscle (mixed heart and diaphragm) from a slaughter pig into six Balb C mice resulted in the isolation of Toxoplasma gondii which proved to be pathogenic to mice. These infected mice were retarded in growth when compared to the two uninoculated control animals. Mouse No.3 and Mouse ...

  17. Standardized perfusion value of the esophageal carcinoma and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion parameter values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djuric-Stefanovic, A., E-mail: avstefan@eunet.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Saranovic, Dj., E-mail: crvzve4@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Sobic-Saranovic, D., E-mail: dsobic2@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Masulovic, D., E-mail: draganmasulovic@yahoo.com [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Unit of Digestive Radiology (First University Surgical Clinic), Center of Radiology and MR, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia); Artiko, V., E-mail: veraart@beotel.rs [Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Center of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Standardized perfusion value (SPV) is a universal indicator of tissue perfusion, normalized to the whole-body perfusion, which was proposed to simplify, unify and allow the interchangeability among the perfusion measurements and comparison between the tumor perfusion and metabolism. The aims of our study were to assess the standardized perfusion value (SPV) of the esophageal carcinoma, and its correlation with quantitative CT perfusion measurements: blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) of the same tumor volume samples, which were obtained by deconvolution-based CT perfusion analysis. Methods: Forty CT perfusion studies of the esophageal cancer were analyzed, using the commercial deconvolution-based CT perfusion software (Perfusion 3.0, GE Healthcare). The SPV of the esophageal tumor and neighboring skeletal muscle were correlated with the corresponding mean tumor and muscle quantitative CT perfusion parameter values, using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (r{sub S}). Results: Median SPV of the esophageal carcinoma (7.1; range: 2.8–13.4) significantly differed from the SPV of the skeletal muscle (median: 1.0; range: 0.4–2.4), (Z = −5.511, p < 0.001). The cut-off value of the SPV of 2.5 enabled discrimination of esophageal cancer from the skeletal muscle with sensitivity and specificity of 100%. SPV of the esophageal carcinoma significantly correlated with corresponding tumor BF (r{sub S} = 0.484, p = 0.002), BV (r{sub S} = 0.637, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.432, p = 0.005), and SPV of the skeletal muscle significantly correlated with corresponding muscle BF (r{sub S} = 0.573, p < 0.001), BV (r{sub S} = 0.849, p < 0.001) and PS (r{sub S} = 0.761, p < 0.001). Conclusions: We presented a database of the SPV for the esophageal cancer and proved that SPV of the esophageal neoplasm significantly differs from the SPV of the skeletal muscle, which represented a sample of healthy

  18. In vivo efficiency of four commercial monopolar radiofrequency ablation systems: a comparative experimental study in pig liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, Jens; Pereira, Philippe L; Trübenbach, Jochen; Schenk, Martin; Kröber, Stefan-Martin; Schmidt, Diethard; Aubé, Christophe; Claussen, Claus D; Schick, Fritz

    2003-10-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of 4 radiofrequency (RF) systems by assessing the amount of delivered energy for each thermal induced lesion after perfusion mediated RF ablation and to compare the influence of perfusion mediation types on the energy efficiency. A total of 43 ablations in 16 male landrace pigs with 4 RF devices were performed strictly according to the manufacturers' instructions. Total absorbed energy was computed and then related to 3D volumetry obtained after histopathological evaluation. Sixteen ablations were performed under physiological liver perfusion and 27 ablations with occlusion of portal vein, hepatic artery, or both vessels. Energy efficiency values of the RF systems for different vascular occlusion techniques were compared and analyzed by a nonparametrical rank sum test. Under physiological perfusion, the average energy delivered to produce 1-cm3 lesion size was calculated to 1650 +/- 929, 3097 +/- 389, 8312 +/- 2068, and 5493 +/- 2306 Watt x s/cm3 for the Berchtold, Radionics, Radiotherapeutics, and RITA system, respectively. After perfusion-mediated RF ablation, artery occlusion was not as effective as portal vein occlusion, which reduced the energy to 587 +/- 148, 869 +/- 276, and 903 +/- 394 Watt. s/cm3 for the Berchtold, Radionics, and Radiotherapeutics system, respectively. The occlusion of vessels, portal vein, and artery or portal vein alone increased the energy efficiency compared with physiological liver perfusion or occlusion of the artery (P = 0,003). Under physiological liver perfusion the open perfused system and the internally cooled system provided the best efficiency values with lowest standard deviations. The energy efficiency was increased markedly for all systems after occlusion of the portal vein either alone or in combination with arterial occlusion. Occlusion of the hepatic artery did not improve the efficiency.

  19. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van; Zaknun, John J.; Maes, Alex; Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon; Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina; Bal, C.S.; Dondi, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  20. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  1. Cardiac tissue engineering using perfusion bioreactor systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radisic, Milica; Marsano, Anna; Maidhof, Robert; Wang, Yadong; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2009-01-01

    This protocol describes tissue engineering of synchronously contractile cardiac constructs by culturing cardiac cell populations on porous scaffolds (in some cases with an array of channels) and bioreactors with perfusion of culture medium (in some cases supplemented with an oxygen carrier). The overall approach is ‘biomimetic’ in nature as it tends to provide in vivo-like oxygen supply to cultured cells and thereby overcome inherent limitations of diffusional transport in conventional culture systems. In order to mimic the capillary network, cells are cultured on channeled elastomer scaffolds that are perfused with culture medium that can contain oxygen carriers. The overall protocol takes 2–4 weeks, including assembly of the perfusion systems, preparation of scaffolds, cell seeding and cultivation, and on-line and end-point assessment methods. This model is well suited for a wide range of cardiac tissue engineering applications, including the use of human stem cells, and high-fidelity models for biological research. PMID:18388955

  2. Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scanning in patients with right bundle branch block coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirani, J.; Malpani, A.R.; Blend, M.J.; Bekerman, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the specificity of stress T1-201 myocardial perfusion studies (T1-201 MPS) for coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB). Twenty-four patients with RBBB and atypical chest pain with ECG findings limited to RBBB, adequate stress test (ie, >85% of maximal heart rate for age), and no clinical, hemodynamic, or ECG evidence of ischemia during exercise underwent T1-201 MPS. These perfusion patterns were compared with an equal number of age- and gender-matched controls with a normal ECG who met all other criteria mentioned above. Patients with RBBB showed a significantly higher frequency of reversible inferoposterior T1-201 defects (62.5% vs 20.8%)

  3. Welfare of Pigs Being Transported over Long Distances Using a Pot-Belly Trailer during Winter and Summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Correa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2,145 pigs were transported for 8 h in summer (six trips and winter (five trips using a pot-belly trailer accommodating pigs in four locations (upper deck or UD, bottom-nose or BN, middle deck or MD and bottom deck or BD. Heart rate of pigs during loading and transportation and lactate and creatine kinase (CK concentrations in exsanguination blood were measured. Meat quality was evaluated in the Longissimus thoracis (LT, Semimembranosus (SM and Adductor (AD muscles. During summer, pigs loaded in the UD and MD had higher (P < 0.05 heart rate at loading compared to those located in the BD and BN. Blood lactate and CK concentrations were higher (P < 0.001 in winter than in summer. Lactate concentration was higher (P = 0.01 in the blood of pigs transported in the BN. Pigs transported in the BN had higher pHu values in the LT, SM and AD muscles (P = 0.02, P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively and lower (P = 0.002 drip loss values in the SM muscle. This study