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Sample records for performing waste load

  1. The importance of thermal loading conditions to waste package performance at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1994-10-01

    Temperature and relative humidity are primary environmental factors affecting waste package corrosion rates for the potential repository in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Under ambient conditions, the repository environment is quite humid. If relative humidity is low enough (<70%), corrosion will be minimal. Under humid conditions, corrosion is reduced if the temperature is low (<60 C). Using the V-TOUGH code, the authors model thermo-hydrological flow to investigate the effect of repository heat on temperature and relative humidity in the repository for a wide range of thermal loads. These calculations indicate that repository heat may substantially reduce relative humidity on the waste package, over hundreds of years for low thermal loads and over tens of thousands of year for high thermal loads. Temperatures associated with a given relative humidity decrease with increasing thermal load. Thermal load distributions can be optimized to yield a more uniform reduction in relative humidity during the boiling period

  2. MEASUREMENT OF WASTE LOADING IN SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-01-01

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixtures. One of those properties of importance is the Waste Loading (WL) of the decontaminated salt solution (DSS) in the Saltstone waste form. Waste loading is a measure of the amount of waste that can be incorporated within a waste form. The value of the Saltstone waste loading ultimately determines the number of vaults that will be required to disposition all of the DSS. In this report, the waste loading is defined as the volume in milliliters of DSS per liter of Saltstone waste form. The two most important parameters that determine waste loading for Saltstone are water to cementitious material (w/cm) ratio and the cured grout density. Data are provided that show the dependence of waste loading on the w/cm ratio for a fixed DSS composition using the current premix material (45% Blast Furnace Slag (BFS), 45% Fly Ash (FA) and 10% Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)). The impact of cured grout density on waste loading was also demonstrated. Mixes (at 0.60 w/cm) made with a Modular Caustic side extraction Unit (MCU) simulant and either OPC or BFS have higher cured grout densities than mixes made with premix and increase the WL to 709 mL/L for the OPC mix and 689 mL/L for the BFS mix versus the value of 653 mL/L for MCU in premix at 0.60 w/cm ratio. Bleed liquid reduces the waste loading and lowers the effective w/cm ratio of Saltstone. A method is presented (and will be used in future tasks) for correcting the waste loading and the w/cm ratio of the as-batched mixes in those cases where bleed liquid is present. For example, the Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment (DDA) mix at an as-batched 0.60 w/cm ratio, when corrected for % bleed, gives a mix with a 0.55 w/cm ratio and a WL that has been reduced from 662 to 625 mL/L. An example is provided that

  3. Effects of temperature and organic loading rate on the performance and microbial community of anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Chengliu; Yang, Zhaohui; Huang, Jing; Wang, Huiling; Xu, Haiyin; Wang, Like

    2014-06-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of waste activated sludge and food waste was investigated semi-continuously using continuously stirred tank reactors. Results showed that the performance of co-digestion system was distinctly influenced by temperature and organic loading rate (OLR) in terms of gas production rate (GPR), methane yield, volatile solids (VS) removal efficiency and the system stability. The highest GPR at 55 °C was 1.6 and 1.3 times higher than that at 35 and 45 °C with the OLR of 1 g VSL(-1)d(-1), and the corresponding average CH₄ yields were 0.40, 0.26 and 0.30 L CH₄ g(-1)VSadded, respectively. The thermophilic system exhibited the best load bearing capacity at extremely high OLR of 7 g VSL(-1)d(-1), while the mesophilic system showed the best process stability at low OLRs (< 5 g VSL(-1)d(-1)). Temperature had a more remarkable effect on the richness and diversity of microbial populations than the OLR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Engine Load Effects on the Energy and Exergy Performance of a Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC has been proved a promising technique to exploit waste heat from Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs. Waste heat recovery systems have usually been designed based on engine rated working conditions, while engines often operate under part load conditions. Hence, it is quite important to analyze the off-design performance of ORC systems under different engine loads. This paper presents an off-design Medium Cycle/Organic Rankine Cycle (MC/ORC system model by interconnecting the component models, which allows the prediction of system off-design behavior. The sliding pressure control method is applied to balance the variation of system parameters and evaporating pressure is chosen as the operational variable. The effect of operational variable and engine load on system performance is analyzed from the aspects of energy and exergy. The results show that with the drop of engine load, the MC/ORC system can always effectively recover waste heat, whereas the maximum net power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency decrease linearly. Considering the contributions of components to total exergy destruction, the proportions of the gas-oil exchanger and turbine increase, while the proportions of the evaporator and condenser decrease with the drop of engine load.

  5. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-01-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  6. High level waste at Hanford: Potential for waste loading maximization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Bailey, A.W.

    1995-09-01

    The loading of Hanford nuclear waste in borosilicate glass is limited by phase-related phenomena, such as crystallization or formation of immiscible liquids, and by breakdown of the glass structure because of an excessive concentration of modifiers. The phase-related phenomena cause both processing and product quality problems. The deterioration of product durability determines the ultimate waste loading limit if all processing problems are resolved. Concrete examples and mass-balance based calculations show that a substantial potential exists for increasing waste loading of high-level wastes that contain a large fraction of refractory components

  7. Calculation of projected waste loads for transuranic waste management alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.; Koebnick, B.; Wang, Y.; Kaicher, C.

    1995-01-01

    The level of treatment and the treatment and interim storage site configurations (decentralized, regional, or centralized) impact transuranic (TRU) waste loads at and en route to sites in the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Other elements that impact waste loads are the volume and characteristics of the waste and the unit operation parameters of the technologies used to treat it. Projected annual complexwide TRU waste loads under various TRU waste management alternatives were calculated using the WASTEunderscoreMGMT computational model. WASTEunderscoreMGMT accepts as input three types of data: (1) the waste stream inventory volume, mass, and contaminant characteristics by generating site and waste stream category; (2) unit operation parameters of treatment technologies; and (3) waste management alternative definitions. Results indicate that the designed capacity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, identified under all waste management alternatives as the permanent disposal facility for DOE-generated TRU waste, is sufficient for the projected complexwide TRU waste load under any of the alternatives

  8. Part-Load Performance Prediction and Operation Strategy Design of Organic Rankine Cycles with a Medium Cycle Used for Recovering Waste Heat from Gaseous Fuel Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC is regarded as a suitable way to recover waste heat from gaseous fuel internal combustion engines. As waste heat recovery systems (WHRS have always been designed based on rated working conditions, while engines often work under part-load conditions, it is quite significant to analyze the part-load performance and corresponding operation strategy of ORC systems. This paper presents a dynamic model of ORC with a medium cycle used for a large gaseous fuel engine and analyzes the effect of adjustable parameters on the system performance, giving effective control directions under various conditions. The results indicate that the intermediary fluid mass flow rate has nearly no effect on the output power and thermal efficiency of the ORC, while the mass flow rate of working fluid has a great effect on them. In order to get a better system performance under different working conditions, the system should be operated with the working fluid mass flow rate as large as possible, but with a slight degree of superheating. Then, with the control of constant superheat degree at the end of the heating process, the performance of the combined system that consists of ORC and the engine at steady state under seven typical working conditions is also analyzed. The results indicate that the energy-saving effect of WHRS becomes worse and worse as the working condition decreases. Especially at 40% working condition the WHRS nearly has no energy-saving effect anymore.

  9. High Level Waste (HLW) Processing Experience with Increased Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL

    2004-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Engineering requested characterization of glass samples that were taken after the second melter had been operational for about 5 months. After the new melter had been installed, the waste loading had been increased to about 38 weight percentage after a new quasicrystalline liquidus model had been implemented. The DWPF had also switched from processing with refractory Frit 200 to a more fluid Frit 320. The samples were taken after DWPF observed very rapid buildup of deposits in the upper pour spout bore and on the pour spout insert while processing the high waste loading feedstock. These samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques to determine the cause of the crystallization. The pour stream sample was homogeneous, amorphous, and representative of the feed batch from which it was derived. Chemical analysis of the pour stream sample indicated that a waste loading of 38.5 weight per cent had been achieved. The data analysis indicated that surface crystallization, induced by temperature and oxygen fugacity gradients in the pour spout, caused surface crystallization to occur in the spout and on the insert at the higher waste loadings even though there was no crystallization in the pour stream

  10. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date. An unusual aspect of this investigation is the use of commercial grade, ion exchange resins that have been loaded with over five times the radioactivity normally seen in a commercial application. That dramatically increases the total radiation dose to the resins. The objective of the resin solidification task is to determine the adequacy of test procedures specified by NRC for ion exchange resins having high radionuclide loadings

  11. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernadzikowski, T.A.; Allender, J.S.; Stone, J.A.; Gordon, D.E.; Gould, T.H. Jr.; Westberry, C.F. III.

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150 0 C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables

  12. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  13. Site Specific Waste Management Instructions for loading and shipment of category 3 investigation derived waste to ERDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corriveau, C.E.; Wolf, D.M.

    1996-08-01

    This Site Specific Waste Management Instruction (SSWMI) provides guidance for management of containerized investigation-derived waste being loaded and transported to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility. The SSWMI outlines the waste management practices that will be performed in the field to implement federal, state, and US Department of Energy requirements. Additional guidance for waste packaging, marking, labeling and shipping is provided (US DOT rules in 49 CFR have precedence)

  14. Areal thermal loading recommendations for nuclear waste repositories in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.E.

    1979-06-01

    This document gives a wider understanding of the history of the recommended thermal loadings in salt for both high-level waste (HLW) from fresh UO 2 -fueled, light-water reactors (LWR) with no recycle and spent unreprocessed fuel (SURF) from LWRs. Aspects of the current recommendations that need further study are identified. Finally, an interim set of design thermal-loading recommendations are given that have a common rationale of satisfying performance limits within our current state of knowledge. These recommendations are made on a generic rather than a site-specific basis. 11 figures, 5 tables

  15. Waste acceptance and waste loading for vitrified Oak Ridge tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, J.R.; Andrews, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Office of Science and Technology of the DOE has funded a joint project between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to evaluate vitrification and grouting for the immobilization of sludge from ORNL tank farms. The radioactive waste is from the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT), the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST), the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), and the Old Hydrofractgure Tanks (OHF). Glass formulation development for sludge from these tanks is discussed in an accompanying article for this conference (Andrews and Workman). The sludges contain transuranic radionuclides at levels which will make the glass waste form (at reasonable waste loadings) TRU. Therefore, one of the objectives for this project was to ensure that the vitrified waste form could be disposed of at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). In order to accomplish this, the waste form must meet the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). An alternate pathway is to send the glass waste forms for disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). A sludge waste loading in the feed of 6 wt percent will lead to a waste form which is non-TRU and could potentially be disposed of at NTS. The waste forms would then have to meet the requirements of the NTS WAC. This paper presents SRTC''s efforts at demonstrating that the glass waste form produced as a result of vitrification of ORNL sludge will meet all the criteria of the WIPP WAC or NTS WAC

  16. Projected transuranic waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, K.; Kotek, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on the volume of TRU waste loads requiring treatment, storage, and disposal at DOE facilities for three siting configurations. Input consisted of updated inventory and generation data from. Waste Isolation Pilot plant Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory report. Results indicate that WIPP's design capacity is sufficient for the CH TRU waste found throughout the DOE Complex

  17. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, Mitch; Howard, Bryan; Weyerman, Wade; Mctaggart, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  18. Waste package performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.; Stula, R.T.; Kirstein, B.E.

    1982-01-01

    A performance assessment model for multiple barrier packages containing unreprocessed spent fuel has been applied to several package designs. The resulting preliminary assessments were intended for use in making decisions about package development programs. A computer model called BARIER estimates the package life and subsequent rate of release of selected nuclides. The model accounts for temperature, pressure (and resulting stresses), bulk and localized corrosion, and nuclide retardation by the backfill after water intrusion into the waste form. The assessment model assumes a post-closure, flooded, geologic repository. Calculations indicated that, within the bounds of model assumptions, packages could last for several hundred years. Intact backfills of appropriate design may be capable of nuclide release delay times on the order of 10 7 yr for uranium, plutonium, and americium. 8 references, 6 figures, 9 tables

  19. Waste package performance allocation system study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memory, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Package Performance Allocation system study was performed in order to provide a technical basis for the selection of the waste package period of substantially complete containment and its resultant contribution to the overall total system performance. This study began with a reference case based on the current Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) baseline design and added a number of alternative designs. The waste package designs were selected from the designs being considered in detail during Advanced Conceptual Design (ACD). The waste packages considered were multi-barrier packages with a 0.95 cm Alloy 825 inner barrier and a 10, 20, or 45 cm thick carbon steel outer barrier. The waste package capacities varied from 6 to 12 to 21 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The vertical borehole and in-drift emplacement modes were also considered, as were thermal loadings of 25, 57, and 114 kW/acre. The repository cost analysis indicated that the 21 PWR in-drift emplacement mode option with the 10 cm and 20 cm outer barrier thicknesses are the least expensive and that the 12 PWR in-drift case has approximately the same cost as the 6 PWR vertical borehole. It was also found that the cost increase from the 10 cm outer barrier waste package to the 20 cm waste package was less per centimeter than the increase from the 20 cm outer barrier waste package to the 45 cm outer barrier waste package. However, the repository cost was nearly linear with the outer barrier thickness for the 21 PWR in-drift case. Finally, corrosion rate estimates are provided and the relationship of repository cost versus waste package lifetime is discussed as is cumulative radionuclide release from the waste package and to the accessible environment for time periods of 10,000 years and 100,000 years

  20. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianka, E.W.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs

  1. The effects of load drop, uniform load and concentrated loads on waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    This document provides the supporting calculations performed by others specifically for the TWRS FSAR and more detailed summaries of the important references issued in the past regarding the effects of various loads

  2. Performance of asphalt mixture incorporating recycled waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Baizura; Abdullah, Mohd Ezree; Sanik, Mohd Erwan; Mokhtar, Mardiha; Kaamin, Masiri; Raduan, Rasyidah; Ramli, Mohd Zakwan

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the amount of premix waste was increased every year, especially at the batching plants. Normally, the waste materials will be discarded without doing any innovative and effective research about those materials. This situation has become one of the global concerns due to the increasing number of premix waste produced every year. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of hot mix asphalt (HMA) using premix waste on improving asphalt mixture fatigue behaviour. The method used in this study was Superpave mix design method. The sample conducted in this study were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 100% of premix waste respectively. For a binder test, the laboratory test conducted were penetration test, softening test and thin film oven test while for the performance test were resilient modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test. From the laboratory test, the resilient modulus test was conducted with two different temperature which was 25°C and 40°C. The result from that test was 20% of premix waste had higher resilient modulus at that two different temperatures compared to another samples. From that test also shown that the sample at the lower temperature which was 25°C has higher resilient modulus compared to the temperature of 40°C. Indirect tensile fatigue test showed that the 30% of premix waste sample was suitable for the modified asphalt mixture with referring to the maximum deformation and strain for comparison control, 10%,20%, and 100% of premix waste samples. So, it can be concluded that premix waste inhibits great potential as road construction material and suitable for repeated traffic loading.

  3. Testing waste forms containing high radionuclide loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Low-Level Waste Data Base Development - EPICOR-II Resin/Liner Investigation Program of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is obtaining information on radioactive waste during NRC-prescribed tests and in a disposal environment. This paper describes the resin solidification task of that program, including the present status and results to date

  4. Waste Load Allocation for Conservative Substances to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  5. The Influence of Micro-Oxygen Addition on Desulfurization Performance and Microbial Communities during Waste-Activated Sludge Digestion in a Rusty Scrap Iron-Loaded Anaerobic Digester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjun Ruan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, micro-oxygen was integrated into a rusty scrap iron (RSI-loaded anaerobic digester. Under an optimal RSI dosage of 20 g/L, increasing O2 levels were added stepwise in seven stages in a semi-continuous experiment. Results showed the average methane yield was 306 mL/g COD (chemical oxygen demand, and the hydrogen sulphide (H2S concentration was 1933 ppmv with RSI addition. O2 addition induced the microbial oxidation of sulphide by stimulating sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and chemical corrosion of iron, which promoted the generation of FeS and Fe2S3. In the 6th phase of the semi-continuous test, deep desulfurization was achieved without negatively impacting system performance. Average methane yield was 301.1 mL/g COD, and H2S concentration was 75 ppmv. Sulfur mass balance was described, with 84.0%, 11.90% and 0.21% of sulfur present in solid, liquid and gaseous phases, respectively. The Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that RSI addition could enrich the diversity of hydrogenotrophic methanogens and iron-reducing bacteria to benefit methanogenesis and organic mineralization, and impoverish the methanotroph (Methylocella silvestris to reduce the consumption of methane. Micro-oxygen supplementation could enhance the diversity of iron-oxidizing bacteria arising from the improvement of Fe(II release rate and enrich the sulphur-oxidising bacteria to achieved desulfurization. These results demonstrated that RSI addition in combination with micro-oxygenation represents a promising method for simultaneously controlling biogas H2S concentration and improving digestion performance.

  6. 40 CFR 60.1320 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1320 Section 60.1320 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which Construction is Commenced After... Monitoring Requirements § 60.1320 How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit? (a) If...

  7. Towards optimization of nuclear waste glass: Constraints, property models, and waste loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.

    1994-04-01

    Vitrification of both low- and high-level wastes from 177 tanks at Hanford poses a great challenge to glass makers, whose task is to formulate a system of glasses that are acceptable to the federal repository for disposal. The enormous quantity of the waste requires a glass product of the lowest possible volume. The incomplete knowledge of waste composition, its variability, and lack of an appropriate vitrification technology further complicates this difficult task. A simple relationship between the waste loading and the waste glass volume is presented and applied to the predominantly refractory (usually high-activity) and predominantly alkaline (usually low-activity) waste types. Three factors that limit waste loading are discussed, namely product acceptability, melter processing, and model validity. Glass formulation and optimization problems are identified and a broader approach to uncertainties is suggested

  8. Load carriage, human performance, and employment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; Peoples, Gregory E; Petersen, Stewart R

    2016-06-01

    The focus of this review is on the physiological considerations necessary for developing employment standards within occupations that have a heavy reliance on load carriage. Employees within military, fire fighting, law enforcement, and search and rescue occupations regularly work with heavy loads. For example, soldiers often carry loads >50 kg, whilst structural firefighters wear 20-25 kg of protective clothing and equipment, in addition to carrying external loads. It has long been known that heavy loads modify gait, mobility, metabolic rate, and efficiency, while concurrently elevating the risk of muscle fatigue and injury. In addition, load carriage often occurs within environmentally stressful conditions, with protective ensembles adding to the thermal burden of the workplace. Indeed, physiological strain relates not just to the mass and dimensions of carried objects, but to how those loads are positioned on and around the body. Yet heavy loads must be borne by men and women of varying body size, and with the expectation that operational capability will not be impinged. This presents a recruitment conundrum. How do employers identify capable and injury-resistant individuals while simultaneously avoiding discriminatory selection practices? In this communication, the relevant metabolic, cardiopulmonary, and thermoregulatory consequences of loaded work are reviewed, along with concomitant impediments to physical endurance and mobility. Also emphasised is the importance of including occupation-specific clothing, protective equipment, and loads during work-performance testing. Finally, recommendations are presented for how to address these issues when evaluating readiness for duty.

  9. Alternative High-Performance Ceramic Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, S. K. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    powders were consolidated via SPS. Ce was reduced to the trivalent oxidation state and the zirconolite was converted into undesirable perovskite. The zirconolite polymorphs found in the synthesized powders were recovered after a post-SPS heat treatment in air. These results demonstrated the potential of processing in controlling the phase assemblage in these waste forms. Hollandites with Cr3+ trivalent cations were identified as potential hosts for Cs immobilization and are being investigated for Cs retention properties. Series of compositions Ba1.15-xCs2xCr2.3Ti5.7O16, with increasing Cs loadings, were prepared by sol-gel process and characterized for structural parameters. Structural characterization was performed by a combination of powder XRD and neutron powder diffraction. Phase pure hollandite adapting monoclinic symmetry (I2/m) was observed for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.55. These results were used to develop a new structural model to interpret Cs immobilization in these hollandites. Performance of these waste forms were evaluated for chemical durability and radiation resistance. Product consistency testing (PCT) and vapor hydration testing (VHT) were used for testing of chemical durability. Radiation resistance was tested using He+ ions to simulate $\\alpha$ particles and heavy ions such as Au3+ to simulate a recoil. These results showed that these waste forms were chemically durable. The waste forms also amorphized to various degrees on exposure to simulated radiation.

  10. Waste package performance in unsaturated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.-L.

    1989-03-01

    The unsaturated rock and near-atmospheric pressure of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain present new problems of predicting waste package performance. In this paper we present some illustrations of predictions of waste package performance and discuss important data needs. 11 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  11. An Optimization Waste Load Allocation Model in River Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirpoor Daylami, A.; jarihani, A. A.; Aminisola, K.

    2012-04-01

    In many river systems, increasing of the waste discharge leads to increasing pollution of these water bodies. While the capacity of the river flow for pollution acceptance is limited and the ability of river to clean itself is restricted, the dischargers have to release their waste into the river after a primary pollution treatment process. Waste Load Allocation as a well-known water quality control strategy is used to determine the optimal pollutant removal at a number of point sources along the river. This paper aim at developing a new approach for treatment and management of wastewater inputs into the river systems, such that water quality standards in these receiving waters are met. In this study, inspired by the fact that cooperation among some single point source waste dischargers can lead to a more waste acceptance capacity and/or more optimum quality control in a river, an efficient approach was implemented to determine both primary waste water treatment levels and/or the best releasing points of the waste into the river. In this methodology, a genetic algorithm is used as an optimization tool to calculate optimal fraction removal levels of each one of single or shared discharger. Besides, a sub-model embedded to optimization model was used to simulate water quality of the river in each one of discharging scenarios based on the modified Streeter and Phelps quality equations. The practical application of the model is illustrated with a case study of the Gharesoo river system in west of Iran.

  12. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A.; Mills, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI

  13. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  14. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  15. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Haglind, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Detailed algorithm to solve high temperature Kalina cycle in part load. • A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation considered as case study. • Part-load performance curves and fitted equations presented. - Abstract: The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as an alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. The cycle has been studied for use with both low and high temperature applications such as geothermal power plants, ocean thermal energy conversion, waste heat recovery, gas turbine bottoming cycle, and solar power plants. The high temperature cycle layouts are inherently more complex than the low temperature layouts due to the presence of a distillation-condensation subsystem, three pressure levels, and several heat exchangers. This paper presents a detailed approach to solve the Kalina cycle in part-load operating conditions for high temperature (a turbine inlet temperature of 500 °C) and high pressure (100 bar) applications. A central receiver concentrating solar power plant with direct vapour generation is considered as a case study where the part-load conditions are simulated by changing the solar heat input to the receiver. Compared with the steam Rankine cycle, the Kalina cycle has an additional degree of freedom in terms of the ammonia mass fraction which can be varied in order to maximize the part-load efficiency of the cycle. The results include the part-load curves for various turbine inlet ammonia mass fractions and the fitted equations for these curves.

  16. Test plan: Effects of phase separation on waste loading for high level waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the Tanks Focus Area's (TFA) effort to increase waste loading for high-level waste (HLW) vitrification at various facilities in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, the occurrence of phase separation in waste glasses spanning the Savannah River Site (SRS) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) composition ranges were studied during FY99. The type, extent, and impact of phase separation on glass durability for a series of HLW glasses, e.g., SRS-type and INEEL-type, were examined

  17. STRUCTURAL CALCULATION OF AN EMPLACEMENT PALLET STATICALLY LOADED BY A WASTE PACKAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Mastilovic

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the emplacement pallet (EP) subjected to static load from the mounted waste package (WP). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of stress intensity magnitudes. This calculation is associated with the waste emplacement systems design; calculations are performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The finite element solutions are performed by using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. The results of these calculations are provided in terms of maximum stress intensity magnitudes

  18. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  19. Microbial Community in a Biofilter for Removal of Low Load Nitrobenzene Waste Gas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhai

    Full Text Available To improve biofilter performance, the microbial community of a biofilter must be clearly defined. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale polyurethane biofilter for treating waste gas with low loads of nitrobenzene (NB (< 20 g m-3 h-1 was investigated when using different empty bed residence times (EBRT (64, 55.4 and 34 s, respectively. In addition, the variations of the bacterial community in the biofilm on the longitudinal distribution of the biofilters were analysed by using Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that NB waste gas was successfully degraded in the biofilter. High-throughput sequencing data suggested that the phylum Actinobacteria and genus Rhodococcus played important roles in the degradation of NB. The variations of the microbial community were attributed to the different intermediate degradation products of NB in each layer. The strains identified in this study were potential candidates for purifying waste gas effluents containing NB.

  20. Fuzzy Simulation-Optimization Model for Waste Load Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motahhare Saadatpour

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper present simulation-optimization models for waste load allocation from multiple point sources which include uncertainty due to vagueness of the parameters and goals. This model employs fuzzy sets with appropriate membership functions to deal with uncertainties due to vagueness. The fuzzy waste load allocation model (FWLAM incorporate QUAL2E as a water quality simulation model and Genetic Algorithm (GA as an optimization tool to find the optimal combination of the fraction removal level to the dischargers and pollution control agency (PCA. Penalty functions are employed to control the violations in the system.  The results demonstrate that the goal of PCA to achieve the best water quality and the goal of the dischargers to use the full assimilative capacity of the river have not been satisfied completely and a compromise solution between these goals is provided. This fuzzy optimization model with genetic algorithm has been used for a hypothetical problem. Results demonstrate a very suitable convergence of proposed optimization algorithm to the global optima.

  1. High-solids loading enzymatic hydrolysis of waste papers for biofuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Templer, Richard; Murphy, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Waste papers have great potential as a feedstock for bioethanol production. ► A wet blending step would significantly enhance enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency. ► High-solids loading saccharification was performed successfully on waste papers. ► Saccharification data were from four types of paper and two enzyme alternatives. ► Enzymatic hydrolysis kinetic models were validated by experimental data. -- Abstract: Waste papers (newspaper, office paper, magazines and cardboard in this study) with 50–73% (w/w oven dry weight) carbohydrate contents have considerable potential as raw materials for bioethanol production. A particle size reduction step of wet blending prior to enzymatic hydrolysis of newspaper was found to increase the glucan conversion efficiency by up to 10%. High-solids loading hydrolysis at 15% (w/w) of four types of paper using two enzyme alternatives, Celluclast 1.5L supplemented with Novozyme 188 and Cellic Ctec 1 (Novozymes A/S, Demark), at various enzyme concentrations were successfully performed in a lab-scale overhead-stirred reactor. This work has identified the relative saccharification performance for the four types of paper and shows office paper and cardboard to be more suitable for producing bioethanol than newspaper or magazine paper. The experimental data were also very well described by a modified, simple three parameter glucan and xylan hydrolysis model. These findings provide the possibility for incorporating this validated kinetic model into process designs required for commercial scale bioethanol production from waste paper resources.

  2. Waste Load Allocation Based on Total Maximum Daily Load Approach Using the Charged System Search (CSS Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Faraji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the capability of a charged system search algorithm (CSS in handling water management optimization problems is investigated. First, two complex mathematical problems are solved by CSS and the results are compared with those obtained from other metaheuristic algorithms. In the last step, the optimization model developed by the CSS algorithm is applied to the waste load allocation in rivers based on the total maximum daily load (TMDL concept. The results are presented in Tables and Figures for easy comparison. The study indicates the superiority of the CSS algorithm in terms of its speed and performance over the other metaheuristic algorithms while its precision in water management optimization problems is verified.

  3. The effect of vitrification technology on waste loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, P.R.; Smith, P.A.

    1994-08-01

    Radioactive wastes on the Hanford Site are going to be permanently disposed of by incorporation into a durable glass. These wastes will be separated into low and high-level portions, and then vitrified. The low-level waste (LLW) is water soluble. Its vitrifiable part (other than off-gas) contains approximately 80 wt% Na 2 O, the rest being Al 2 O 3 , P 2 O 5 , K 2 O, and minor components. The challenge is to formulate durable LLW glasses with as high Na 2 O content as possible by optimizing the additions of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O 3 , CaO, and ZrO 2 . This task will not be simple, considering the non-linear and interactive nature of glass properties as a function of composition. Once developed, the LLW glass, being similar in composition to commercial glasses, is unlikely to cause major processing problems, such as crystallization or molten salt segregation. For example, inexpensive LLW glass can be produced in a high-capacity Joule-heated melter with a cold cap to minimize volatilization. The high-level waste (HLW) consists of water-insoluble sludge (Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Cr 2 O 3 , NiO, and others) and a substantial water-soluble residue (Na 2 O). Most of the water-insoluble components are refractory; i.e., their melting points are above the glass melting temperature. With regard to product acceptability, the maximum loading of Hanford HLW in the glass is limited by product durability, not by radiolytic heat generation. However, this maximum may not be achievable because of technological constraints imposed by melter feed rheology, frit properties, and glass melter limits. These restrictions are discussed in this paper. 38 refs

  4. NNWSI waste form performance test development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A test method has been developed to measure the release of radionuclides from the waste package under simulated NNWSI repository conditions, and to provide information concerning materials interactions that may occur in the repository. Data from 13 weeks of unsaturated testing are discussed and compared to that from a 13-week analog test. The data indicate that the waste form test is capable of producing consistent, reproducible results that will be useful in evaluating the role of the waste in the long-term performance of the repository. 6 references, 3 figures

  5. Performance Assessments of Generic Nuclear Waste Repositories in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Mariner, P. E.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a generic shale formation showcase Geologic Disposal Safety Assessment (GDSA) Framework, a toolkit for repository performance assessment (PA) whose capabilities include domain discretization (Cubit), multiphysics simulations (PFLOTRAN), uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (Dakota), and visualization (Paraview). GDSA Framework is used to conduct PAs of two generic repositories in shale. The first considers the disposal of 22,000 metric tons heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear fuel. The second considers disposal of defense-related spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Each PA accounts for the thermal load and radionuclide inventory of applicable waste types, components of the engineered barrier system, and components of the natural barrier system including the host rock shale and underlying and overlying stratigraphic units. Model domains are half-symmetry, gridded with Cubit, and contain between 7 and 22 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of individual waste packages, emplacement drifts, access drifts, and shafts. Simulations are run in a high performance computing environment on as many as 2048 processes. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved with PFLOTRAN, an open-source, massively parallel multiphase flow and reactive transport code. Additional simulated processes include waste package degradation, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 106 y, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within aquifers at a point approximately 5 km downgradient of the repository. Dakota is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form and waste package degradation rates and properties of engineered and natural materials to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia National

  6. Task Performance induced Work Load in Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirazeh Arghami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: High workload may lead to increase human errors, compromise quality and safety of care, and reduce the nurses’ quality of working life. The aim of this study is to determine the task-induced workload in nursing. Methods: This is a descriptive analytical study. All of 214 nurses of one of the educational hospital took part in. After obtaining informed consent from participants, data were collected based on NASA-TLX questionnaire and the desired level assumed less than 50%. Analysis of data was performed by descriptive statistics and Anova in SPSS software (version 11. 0 at significant level of 0.05. Results: The results showed that perceived mental pressure for nurses is more than other NASA-TLX subscales (P< .001. Also, the mean perceived workload was more than 50%. However, mean workload score of NASA-TLX showed significant correlation with age (P< .001, work experience (P< .001, shift work (P< .02, and department (P< .001. Conclusion: The results show that effective programs will be required to reduce the work load, and to enhance nurses' performance

  7. Performance assessment of nuclear waste isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A number of concepts have been proposed for the isolation of highly radioactive wastes, and it will be necessary to demonstrate the safety of such systems. In many countries including the U.S., the waste isolation system of choice is deep mined geologic repositories. Because of the complex nature of the multiple isolation barriers afforded by mined geologic disposal systems, and the long isolation periods involved, this demonstration can only be indirect. In recent years this indirect demonstration, mostly through mathematical modeling, is called performance assessment. Performance Assessment can be defined to mean the development, testing, and application of a series of mathematical models and computer codes which traces the movement of radionuclides from a waste isolation system to the biosphere and any resultant dose to man. In modeling such a repository system, it is often convenient to divide it into a number of subsystems, there may be several different processes that need to be modeled, individually and interactively. For instance, this waste package will probably consist of a waste form such as borosilicate glass containing the radioisotopes, a canister, an overpack material such as steel or copper, and a buffer material such as bentonite. The processes to be modeled at the waste package scale include radioisotope inventory and decay, thermal radiation, radiolysis effects, corrosion, leading and fluid flow. In tracing radionuclide transport through rock, the processes of importance are probably groundwater flow, and sorption and retardation of radionuclide movement

  8. Optimization of waste loading in high-level glass in the presence of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoza, M.; Fann, G.I.; Hopkins, D.F.

    1995-02-01

    Hanford high-level liquid waste will be converted into a glass form for long-term storage. The glass must meet certain constraints on its composition and properties in order to have desired properties for processing (e.g., electrical conductivity, viscosity, and liquidus temperature) and acceptable durability for long-term storage. The Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models, based on rigorous mathematical optimization techniques, have been developed to minimize the number of glass logs required and determine glass-former compositions that will produce a glass meeting all relevant constraints. There is considerable uncertainty in many of the models and data relevant to the formulation of high-level glass. In this paper, we discuss how we handle uncertainty in the glass property models and in the high-level waste composition to the vitrification process. Glass property constraints used in optimization are inequalities that relate glass property models obtained by regression analysis of experimental data to numerical limits on property values. Therefore, these constraints are subject to uncertainty. The sampling distributions of the regression models are used to describe the uncertainties associated with the constraints. The optimization then accounts for these uncertainties by requiring the constraints to be satisfied within specified confidence limits. The uncertainty in waste composition is handled using stochastic optimization. Given means and standard deviations of component masses in the high-level waste stream, distributions of possible values for each component are generated. A series of optimization runs is performed; the distribution of each waste component is sampled for each run. The resultant distribution of solutions is then statistically summarized. The ability of OWL models to handle these forms of uncertainty make them very useful tools in designing and evaluating high-level waste glasses formulations

  9. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation: Antifoam Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAICH, MARKA

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed to determine the performance and fate of several commercial antifoams during evaporation of various simulants of Envelope A, B, and C mixed with simulated River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) recycle streams. Chemical and radiation stability of selected antifoams was also investigated.Contributors to this effort include: Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), DOW Corning Analytical, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)

  12. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  13. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations

  14. Demonstration of sulfur solubility determinations in high waste loading, low-activity waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-04-25

    A method recommended by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for sulfate solubility determinations in simulated low-activity waste glasses was demonstrated using three compositions from a recent Hanford high waste loading glass study. Sodium and sulfate concentrations in the glasses increased after each re-melting step. Visual observations of the glasses during the re-melting process reflected the changes in composition. The measured compositions showed that the glasses met the targeted values. The amount of SO3 retained in the glasses after washing was relatively high, ranging from 1.6 to 2.6 weight percent (wt %). Measured SnO2 concentrations were notably low in all of the study glasses. The composition of the wash solutions should be measured in future work to determine whether SnO2 is present with the excess sulfate washed from the glass. Increases in batch size and the amount of sodium sulfate added did not have a measureable impact on the amount of sulfate retained in the glass, although this was tested for only a single glass composition. A batch size of 250 g and a sodium sulfate addition targeting 7 wt %, as recommended by PNNL, will be used in future experiments.

  15. Temperature effects on waste glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazer, J.J.

    1991-02-01

    The temperature dependence of glass durability, particularly that of nuclear waste glasses, is assessed by reviewing past studies. The reaction mechanism for glass dissolution in water is complex and involves multiple simultaneous reaction proceeded, including molecular water diffusion, ion exchange, surface reaction, and precipitation. These processes can change in relative importance or dominance with time or changes in temperature. The temperature dependence of each reaction process has been shown to follow an Arrhenius relationship in studies where the reaction process has been isolated, but the overall temperature dependence for nuclear waste glass reaction mechanisms is less well understood, Nuclear waste glass studies have often neglected to identify and characterize the reaction mechanism because of difficulties in performing microanalyses; thus, it is unclear if such results can be extrapolated to other temperatures or reaction times. Recent developments in analytical capabilities suggest that investigations of nuclear waste glass reactions with water can lead to better understandings of their reaction mechanisms and their temperature dependences. Until a better understanding of glass reaction mechanisms is available, caution should be exercised in using temperature as an accelerating parameter. 76 refs., 1 tab

  16. Load Loss Performance of an Autonomous Self-Excited Induction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a dynamic analysis of an autonomous Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) showing dynamic loss of load performance. In stand-alone operation of the SEIG, especially when supplying a low power utility, an interesting performance of the SEIG observed for various power factor loads can be ...

  17. Utilization of small-angle neutron scattering to decide the maximum loading of nuclear waste in cement matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Avik; Mazumder, S.; Sen, D.; Yalmali, V.; Shah, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear power plants generate many kinds of hazardous nuclear waste which are needed to be disposed in an eco-friendly manner. Many different waste incarceration techniques have been adapted for managing the nuclear waste of different category of radioactivity. Immobilisation of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes in cement matrix is one of the widely used and cost-effective techniques in waste management. However, loading of nuclear waste in cement matrix can alter the mesoscopic structure of the hydrated cement and hence, it is very important to set the maximum limit of waste loading in cement for providing proper physical isolation to the nuclear waste

  18. Performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage test load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.

    1995-01-01

    A high-power, water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of 2 megawatts dissipation at 95 kV DC, was built and installed at the Advanced Photon Source for use in load-testing high voltage power supplies. During this testing, the test load has logged approximately 35 hours of operation at power levels in excess of one mezawatt. Slight variations in the resistance of the load during operation indicate that leakage currents in the cooling water may be a significant factor affecting the performance of the load. Sufficient performance data have been collected to indicate that leakage current through the deionized (DI) water coolant shunts roughly 15 percent of the full-load current around the load resistor elements. The leakage current could cause deterioration of internal components of the load. The load pressure vessel was disassembled and inspected internally for any signs of significant wear and distress. Results of this inspection and possible modifications for improved performance will be discussed

  19. EPA's high-level waste standards and waste package performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.

    1985-01-01

    The seven assurance requirements EPA was considering were these: (1) Disposal systems shall not depend on active institutional controls for more than 100 years after disposal; (2) Long-term disposal system performance should be monitored for a reasonable time as a supplement to other types of protection; (3) Disposal systems shall be marked and their locations recorded in all appropriate government records; (4) Disposal systems shall be designed with several different types of barriers, both natural and engineered; (5) Sites should not be located where scarce or easily accessible resources are located; (6) Site selection should consider the relative isolation offered by potential alternatives; and (7) Wastes shall be recoverable for a reasonable time after disposal. (orig./PW)

  20. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS, TEST PLAN 09T1690-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Matlack, K.S.; Kot, W.K.; Pegg, I.L.; Joseph, I.

    2009-01-01

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat transfer and

  1. Properties of vitrified rocky flats TRUW with different waste loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Miley, D.V.; Erickson, A.W.; Farnsworth, R.N.; Larsen, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Leach rates, phase structures, and mechanical properties of simulated Rocky Flats Plant 1st and 2nd slate sludge vitrified in an arc melter are described as a function of waste to soil fraction and method of devitrification to produce the glass-ceramic waste form. Volatile, hazardous, and transuranic (TRU) surrogate metals were added to assess dissolution effects. Zirconia and titania were also added to confirm their ability as transuranic-surrogate getters

  2. Performance implications of waste package emplacement orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.

    1991-05-01

    Emplacement borehole orientation directly impacts many aspects of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) and interactions with the near field environment. This paper considers the impacts of orientation on the hydrologic portion of the environment and its interactions with the EBS. The hydrologic environment is considered from a conceptual standpoint, the numerical analyses are left for subsequent work. As reported in this paper, several aspects of the hydrological environment are more favorable for long term performance of vertically oriented rather than horizontally oriented Waste Packages. 19 refs., 15 figs

  3. Cognitive load predicts point-of-care ultrasound simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldekhyl, Sara; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B; Naismith, Laura M

    2018-02-01

    The ability to maintain good performance with low cognitive load is an important marker of expertise. Incorporating cognitive load measurements in the context of simulation training may help to inform judgements of competence. This exploratory study investigated relationships between demographic markers of expertise, cognitive load measures, and simulator performance in the context of point-of-care ultrasonography. Twenty-nine medical trainees and clinicians at the University of Toronto with a range of clinical ultrasound experience were recruited. Participants answered a demographic questionnaire then used an ultrasound simulator to perform targeted scanning tasks based on clinical vignettes. Participants were scored on their ability to both acquire and interpret ultrasound images. Cognitive load measures included participant self-report, eye-based physiological indices, and behavioural measures. Data were analyzed using a multilevel linear modelling approach, wherein observations were clustered by participants. Experienced participants outperformed novice participants on ultrasound image acquisition. Ultrasound image interpretation was comparable between the two groups. Ultrasound image acquisition performance was predicted by level of training, prior ultrasound training, and cognitive load. There was significant convergence between cognitive load measurement techniques. A marginal model of ultrasound image acquisition performance including prior ultrasound training and cognitive load as fixed effects provided the best overall fit for the observed data. In this proof-of-principle study, the combination of demographic and cognitive load measures provided more sensitive metrics to predict ultrasound simulator performance. Performance assessments which include cognitive load can help differentiate between levels of expertise in simulation environments, and may serve as better predictors of skill transfer to clinical practice.

  4. Waste Load Allocation for Whole Effluent Toxicity to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-11-01

    A process is developed to determine a waste load allocation that will implement the narrative criteria for fish and wildlife propagation found in states' water quality standards. The waste load allocation to implement the narrative chronic criterion is determined to be percent effluent at a location in the receiving stream, as opposed to an effluent concentration derived from the numerical waste load allocation process. A typical narrative chronic criterion is "receiving streams shall not exhibit chronic toxicity outside the mixing zone," while a typical numerical chronic criterion is "receiving stream concentration shall not exceed 0.005 μg/L of chlordane outside the mixing zone." Toxicity tests are used to implement narrative criteria, while compliance with numerical criteria involves concentration measurements. It is shown that the appropriate percent effluent is inversely proportional to the dilution factor for chronic toxicity. An appropriate waste load allocation to implement the narrative acute criterion is 100% effluent. Waste load allocation for whole effluent toxicity is feasible. The required independent variables are available to regulatory agencies, and toxicity testing has become routine.

  5. Loaded Gelled Bipropellants for Optimized Performance, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of this program is the development and validation of formulations, and development methodologies, for optimizing high-performance particulate-loaded...

  6. Dry anaerobic digestion of food waste and cardboard at different substrate loads, solid contents and co-digestion proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2017-06-01

    The increasing food waste production calls for developing efficient technologies for its treatment. Anaerobic processes provide an effective waste valorization. The influence of the initial substrate load on the performance of batch dry anaerobic co-digestion reactors treating food waste and cardboard was investigated. The load was varied by modifying the substrate to inoculum ratio (S/X), the total solids content and the co-digestion proportions. The results showed that the S/X was a crucial parameter. Within the tested values (0.25, 1 and 4gVS·gVS -1 ), only the reactors working at 0.25 produced methane. Methanosarcina was the main archaea, indicating its importance for efficient methanogenesis. Acidogenic fermentation was predominant at higher S/X, producing hydrogen and other metabolites. Higher substrate conversions (≤48%) and hydrogen yields (≤62mL·gVS -1 ) were achieved at low loads. This study suggests that different value-added compounds can be produced in dry conditions, with the initial substrate load as easy-to-control operational parameter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  8. Loading, moving, and shipping radioactive waste in reusable radioactive material containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schillinger, F.J.; Mohr, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    While the dismantlement of systems and components at the Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant was a monumental task, the loading, movement, temporary storage, and shipping of over 2 1/2 million pounds of contaminated and/or activated material was nearly as difficult. Close coordination and teamwork between such diverse groups as craft labor, health physics, radiation controls, trucking companies and waste volume reducers were crucial elements in performing this work safely, cost effectively, and with particular attention to the station's very aggressive ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) goals. This paper discusses the actual work that was involved from the time the contaminated component was removed from its location in the plant through actual shipment offsite

  9. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] test phase plan: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing the disposition of transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from nuclear weapons production activities of the United States. These wastes are currently stored nationwide at several of the DOE's waste generating/storage sites. The goal is to eliminate interim waste storage and achieve environmentally and institutionally acceptable permanent disposal of these TRU wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being considered as a disposal facility for these TRU wastes. This document describes the first of the following two major programs planned for the Test Phase of WIPP: Performance Assessment -- determination of the long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system in accordance with the requirements of the EPA Standard; and Operations Demonstration -- evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the DOE TRU waste management system's ability to emplace design throughput quantities of TRU waste in the WIPP underground facility. 120 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  10. Multi-objective models of waste load allocation toward a sustainable reuse of drainage water in irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ayman; Tawfik, Ahmed; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fleifle, Amr

    2016-06-01

    The present study proposes a waste load allocation (WLA) framework for a sustainable quality management of agricultural drainage water (ADW). Two multi-objective models, namely, abatement-performance and abatement-equity-performance, were developed through the integration of a water quality model (QAUL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm, by considering (1) the total waste load abatement, and (2) the inequity among waste dischargers. For successfully accomplishing modeling tasks, we developed a comprehensive overall performance measure (E wla ) reflecting possible violations of Egyptian standards for ADW reuse in irrigation. This methodology was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, during both summer and winter seasons of 2012. Abatement-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 100 % corresponded to the abatement ratio of the dischargers ranging from 20.7 to 75.6 % and 29.5 to 78.5 % in summer and in winter, respectively, alongside highly shifting inequity values. Abatement-equity-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 90 % unraveled the necessity of increasing treatment efforts in three out of five dischargers during summer, and four out of five in winter. The trade-off curves obtained from WLA models proved their reliability in selecting appropriate WLA procedures as a function of budget constraints, principles of social equity, and desired overall performance level. Hence, the proposed framework of methodologies is of great importance to decision makers working toward a sustainable reuse of the ADW in irrigation.

  11. Assessing the performance of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Akanshu; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ozbolt, Josko; Hofmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures housing nuclear facilities must qualify against much stringent requirements of operating and accidental loads than conventional structures. One such accidental load that must be considered while assessing the performance of safety related RC structures is impact load. It is known that the behavior of concrete/reinforced concrete structures is strongly influenced by the loading rate. The RC structural members subjected to impact loads behave quite differently as compared to the same subjected to quasi-static loading due to the strain-rate influence on strength, stiffness, and ductility as well as to the activation of inertia forces. Moreover, for concrete structures, which exhibit damage and fracture phenomena, the failure mode and cracking pattern depend significantly on loading rate. In general, there is a tendency that with the increase of loading rate the failure mode changes from mode-I to mixed mode. In order to assess the performance of existing structures against impact loads that may be generated mainly due to man-made accidental conditions, it is important to have models that can realistically predict the impact behavior of concrete structures. The present paper focuses on a relatively new approach for 3D finite element analysis of RC structures under impact loads. The approach uses rate sensitive micro-plane model as constitutive law for concrete, while the strain-rate influence is captured by the activation energy. Inertia forces are implicitly accounted for through dynamic finite element analysis. It is shown with the help of different examples that the approach can very well simulate the behavior of RC structural elements under high rate loading. (author)

  12. Performance of Llampuedken with short circuit and plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, Hernan; Mitchell, Ian H.; Aliaga-Rossel, Raul; Favre, Mario; Wyndham, Edmund S.

    2002-01-01

    Llampuedken is a pulsed power generator designed to deliver a 1 MA, 250 ns risetime current pulse into a dense plasma load. The main novel feature of this generator is the two auxiliary transmission lines which transmit the energy not absorbed by the load, reflect it at the open end of the line and deliver it to the load when the energy from the main lines is decreasing. With the auxiliary lines an increase of 30% on the current as well as a decrease of the voltage at the load is obtained. To date Llampuedken has been operated up to the 400 kA level, into both short circuit and plasma loads. Details of actual performance of the pulse power generator are presented and compared with simulations

  13. Waste forms based on Cs-loaded silicotitanates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, M.L.; Bunker, B.C.

    1995-04-01

    Silicotitanate ion exchange materials are being considered for removal of radioactive Cs and Sr from tank wastes at the Hanford site. The phase evolution as a function of heat treatment temperature for several sol gel derived compositions within the Cs 2 O-SiO 2 -TiO 2 system was investigated, in order to determine if an adequate waste form can be achieved by direct thermal conversion. The Cs leach rates and Cs loss during heat treatment of select materials were measured. Some compositions which contain large amounts of Ti melt to form a glass with reasonably low aqueous leach rates. A new Cs-silicotitanate material with a structure isomorphous to pollucite was discovered. This material forms at low temperatures (700--800 C) where Cs volatility is negligible. The silicotitanate-pollucite exhibits extremely low leach rates (1.42 g/m 2 day ) at 90 C, and has been identified as a promising waste form for Cs containment

  14. Performance of evaporators in high level radioactive chemical waste service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical processing of nuclear fuels and targets at Savannah River Site resulted in generation of millions of gallons of liquid wastes. The wastes were further processed to reduce volume and allow for extended temporary storage of a more concentrated material. Waste evaporators have been a central point for waste reduction for many years. Currently, the transfer and processing of the concentrated wastes for permanent storage requires dilution and results in generation of significant quantities of additional liquid wastes. A new round of volume reduction is required to fit existing storage capacity and to allow for removal of older vessels from service. Evaporator design, performance and repairs are discussed in this report

  15. Optimal Waste Load Allocation Using Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Saberi

    2016-10-01

    , five alternatives and their performances under criteria are found. Values that are calculated by MOPSO are applied to form the cardinal Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM matrix. Afterwards, the cardinal MCDM matrix is transformed into the ordinal form. For studying competitive behaviors in such situations, a mathematical tool called game theory is used. Hence the transition matrix is formed for solving the problem by game theory and qualitative data. Finally the best non-dominated solution is defined using the Nash conflict resolution theory. Results and Discussion: The interaction point of the Sefidrood River and Caspian Sea is considered as a checkpoint and the standard amount of BOD considering the Iranian Protection Agency’s standards is equivalent to 5 mg/l. In the studied area, none of waste load dischargers perform current wastewater treatment. Under this circumstance, the BOD has the value of 26.59 mg/l which violated its standard amount. By MOPSO algorithm and Nash theory five alternatives, which each of them includes both the amount of BOD in checkpoint and treatment and penalty total cost, are obtained for two decision makers. The best and final alternative, that is preferred by both of decision-makers, reduces the BOD amount and the total payable cost to 6.16 mg/l and 296,293 $/year respectively. Conclusion: The practical utility of the proposed model in decision-making is illustrated through a realistic example of the Sefidrood River in the northern part of Iran. As a final alternative, that suggests the most economical measurement by minimizing of treatment and penalty total cost, there are acceptable percentage of treatment per discharge and the violation of standard for BOD parameter is negligible.

  16. Measuring cognitive load: performance, mental effort and simulation task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji, Faizal A; Rojas, David; Childs, Ruth; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Dubrowski, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Interest in applying cognitive load theory in health care simulation is growing. This line of inquiry requires measures that are sensitive to changes in cognitive load arising from different instructional designs. Recently, mental effort ratings and secondary task performance have shown promise as measures of cognitive load in health care simulation. We investigate the sensitivity of these measures to predicted differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in task complexity and learner expertise during simulation-based surgical skills training. We randomly assigned 28 novice medical students to simulation training on a simple or complex surgical knot-tying task. Participants completed 13 practice trials, interspersed with computer-based video instruction. On trials 1, 5, 9 and 13, knot-tying performance was assessed using time and movement efficiency measures, and cognitive load was assessed using subjective rating of mental effort (SRME) and simple reaction time (SRT) on a vibrotactile stimulus-monitoring secondary task. Significant improvements in knot-tying performance (F(1.04,24.95)  = 41.1, p cognitive load (F(2.3,58.5)  = 57.7, p load among novices engaged in simulation-based learning. These measures can be used to track cognitive load during skills training. Mental effort ratings are also sensitive to small differences in intrinsic load arising from variations in the physical complexity of a simulation task. The complementary nature of these subjective and objective measures suggests their combined use is advantageous in simulation instructional design research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Load Disaggregation Technologies: Real World and Laboratory Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T.; Sullivan, Greg P.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Butner, Ryan S.; Johnson, Erica M.

    2016-09-28

    Low cost interval metering and communication technology improvements over the past ten years have enabled the maturity of load disaggregation (or non-intrusive load monitoring) technologies to better estimate and report energy consumption of individual end-use loads. With the appropriate performance characteristics, these technologies have the potential to enable many utility and customer facing applications such as billing transparency, itemized demand and energy consumption, appliance diagnostics, commissioning, energy efficiency savings verification, load shape research, and demand response measurement. However, there has been much skepticism concerning the ability of load disaggregation products to accurately identify and estimate energy consumption of end-uses; which has hindered wide-spread market adoption. A contributing factor is that common test methods and metrics are not available to evaluate performance without having to perform large scale field demonstrations and pilots, which can be costly when developing such products. Without common and cost-effective methods of evaluation, more developed disaggregation technologies will continue to be slow to market and potential users will remain uncertain about their capabilities. This paper reviews recent field studies and laboratory tests of disaggregation technologies. Several factors are identified that are important to consider in test protocols, so that the results reflect real world performance. Potential metrics are examined to highlight their effectiveness in quantifying disaggregation performance. This analysis is then used to suggest performance metrics that are meaningful and of value to potential users and that will enable researchers/developers to identify beneficial ways to improve their technologies.

  18. Development and Performance Evaluation of a Low Cost Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design, development and performance evaluation of a low cost waste-water treatment plant had been carried out. The aim was to harness the usefulness of waste-waters from residential, institutional and commercial sources. The facultative lagoon method of waste-water treatment was adopted. Biological analysis of ...

  19. Locomotion With Loads: Practical Techniques for Predicting Performance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic energy consumption as a function of speed and body size in birds and mammals. J Exp Biol. 97, 1-21. Weyand, P., Smith, B., Puyau, M. and...height, weight (including load), speed, and grade algorithms proposed will allow walking metabolic rates to be predicted to within 6.0 and 12.0% in...gait, metabolism , performance, load carriage 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Unclassified 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  20. Chassis loading investigation of two-shaft shredder for construction waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatskicheva Malina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling industry development need cracked materials with different composition and characteristics. New constructions shredders creation, their engineering design, development through adequate mechanical-mathematical models and practical realization determines the actuality of this paper. The materials crushing for recycling solves important environmental tasks related to environmental protection. The two-shaft hydraulic shredder realized the first and the second stage from the crushing (disintegration process. Disintegration as part of the recycling process can be successfully applied to the domestic and industrial waste processing, singleand multi-component materials crushing, and to secondary raw materials grinding. The paper is dedicated to the emerging loading of the two-shaft shredder chassis and the resulting calculations and verifications. In the present work has been performed a modeling study of the chassis for such type of shredder for concrete, rubber, plastic and wood crushing. The studies of the mechanical load and behaviour of the chassis have been conducted. The equations characterizing the mechanical processes in the working conditions by the finite element method are solved. For this purpose has been generated a chassis three-dimensional geometrical model, which has been discretized to a planned network of finite elements in the ANSYS MECHANICAL APDL programming environment.

  1. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included

  2. Performance of CASTOR {sup registered} HAW cask cold trials for loading, Transport and storage of HAW canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With over 30 years of experience in the design, manufacturing, assembly and loading of CASTOR {sup registered} casks, GNS is one of the worldwide leading suppliers of casks for the transport and storage of spent fuel assemblies as well as for canisters with vitrified high active wastes (meanwhile over 1.000 casks loaded and stored and more than 1.500 ordered). GNS's products are used at around 30 sites worldwide for a wide range of inventories from pressurised and boiling water reactor fuels (PWR, VVER and BWR, RBMK), thorium high-temperature reactor fuels (THTR) and research reactor fuels (MTR) to vitrified high active wastes (HAW) from reprocessing plants. GNS is responsible for all nuclear wastes resulting from German Nuclear Power Plants and assists and/or performs in the loading and dispatch of CASTOR {sup registered} casks as well as their transport to and storage at central interim storage facilities and local interim storage areas. (orig.)

  3. Performance of Railway Sleepers with Holes under Impact Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chie Hong; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat; Mlilo, Nhlanganiso

    2017-12-01

    Prestressed concrete sleepers are essential structural components of railway track structures, with the purpose of redistributing wheel loads from the rails to the ground. To facilitate cables and signalling equipment, holes are often generated in these prestressed concrete sleepers. However, the performance of these sleepers under impact loading may be a concern with the addition of these holes. Numerical modelling using finite element analysis (FEA) is an ideal tool that enables static and dynamic simulation and can perform analyses of basic/advanced linear and nonlinear problems, without incurring a huge cost in resources like standard experimental test methods would. This paper will utilize the three-dimensional FE modelling software ABAQUS to investigate the behaviour of the prestressed concrete sleepers with holes of varying sizes upon impact loading. To obtain the results that resemble real-life behaviour of the sleepers under impact loading, the material properties, element types, mesh sizes, contact and interactions and boundary conditions will be defined as accurately as possible. Both Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) and Brittle Cracking models will be used in this study. With a better understanding of how the introduction of holes will influence the performance of prestressed sleepers under impact loading, track and railway engineers will be able to generate them in prestressed concrete sleepers without compromising the sleepers’ performance during operation

  4. Characterization and testing of a 238Pu loaded ceramic waste form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will describe the preparation and progress of the effort at Argonne National Laboratory-West to produce ceramic waste forms loaded with 238 Pu. The purpose of this study is to determine the extent of damage, if any, that alpha decay events will play over time to the ceramic waste form under development at Argonne. The ceramic waste form is glass-bonded sodalite. The sodalite is utilized to encapsulate the fission products and transuranics which are present in a chloride salt matrix which results from a spent fuel conditioning process. 238 Pu possesses approximately 250 times the specific activity of 239 Pu and thus allows for a much shorter time frame to address the issue. In preparation for production of 238 Pu loaded waste forms 239 Pu loaded samples were produced. Data is presented for samples produced with typical reactor grade plutonium. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron micrographs and durability test results will be presented. The ramifications for the production of the 238 Pu loaded samples will be discussed

  5. Nuclear heat-load limits for above-grade storage of solid transuranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clontz, B.G.

    1978-06-01

    Nuclear safety and heat load limits were established for above-grade storage of transuranium (TRU) wastes. Nuclear safety limits were obtained from a study by J.L. Forstner and are summarized. Heat load limits are based on temperature calculations for TRU waste drums stored in concrete containers (hats), and results are summarized. Waste already in storage is within these limits. The limiting factors for individual drum heat load limits were (1) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 190 0 F (decomposition temperature of anion resin) when anion resin is present in a concrete hat, and (2) avoidance of temperatures in excess of 450 0 F (ignition temperature of paper) at any point inside a waste drum. The limiting factor for concrete had heat load limits was avoidance of temperatures in excess of 265 0 F (melt point of high density polyethylene) at the drum liners. A temperature profile for drums and hats filled to recommended limits is shown. Equations and assumptions used were conservative

  6. Performance of a radioactive waste internment site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, D.E.; Owen, D.H.; Mishub, R.J.; Prewett, S.V.; Cole, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Aerojet disposed of 30,000 cubic meters of uranium and thorium wastes in an engineered 12,000 square meter (3 acre) internment site in Tennessee. The operation, performed under a State of Tennessee source material license, is based on termination of the license with the material remaining in place, and the option of future commercial use of the site. The closure plan included a long-term monitoring program. Yearly monitoring of the site has verified performance within the design criteria. Full-time construction monitored by a licensed engineer and extensive testing of materials ensured construction of the site according to or better than the specifications. Surface subsidence of the site has averaged about 2.2 cm with a range of 0 to 4.3 cm at 11 settlement markers after 4 years. The anticipated settlement, based on design parameters, was between 15 and 25 cm. The present anticipated settlement is 8 to 15 cm, based on the as-built parameters, and the long-term monitoring results. Slope stability analysis indicates the stability has improved with time due to consolidation of materials and reduced groundwater activity as a result of site construction. There has been no need for corrective action maintenance due to erosion, sluffing of slopes, or subsidence. Groundwater monitoring indicates the materials have been isolated, and there have also been no indications of springs or leakage from the site. 9 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Side loading vault system and method for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meess, D.C.; Jones, B.J.; Mello, R.M.; Weiss, T.G. Jr.; Wright, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method for the disposal of hazardous radioactive waste. It comprises: constructing a floor slab in the earth; constructing an elongated wall assembly over the floor slab having sidewalls and a front wall and a back wall at either end the side walls being longer than the front and back walls; providing an accessway in the front wall; constructing a ceiling slab over the wall assembly that is supported at least in part by the wall assembly to form a vault cell; inspecting the vault cell for structural defects, introducing hazardous radioactive waste through the accessway in the front wall and loading the cell with the waste from the back wall to the front wall in rows, each of which is substantially parallel to the back wall to minimize radiation exposure to workers loading the cell, and closing the accessway of the vault cell by constructing a removable wall structure within the accessway

  8. Survey of computer codes applicable to waste facility performance evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsharif, M.; Pung, D.L.; Rivera, A.L.; Dole, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    This study is an effort to review existing information that is useful to develop an integrated model for predicting the performance of a radioactive waste facility. A summary description of 162 computer codes is given. The identified computer programs address the performance of waste packages, waste transport and equilibrium geochemistry, hydrological processes in unsaturated and saturated zones, and general waste facility performance assessment. Some programs also deal with thermal analysis, structural analysis, and special purposes. A number of these computer programs are being used by the US Department of Energy, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and their contractors to analyze various aspects of waste package performance. Fifty-five of these codes were identified as being potentially useful on the analysis of low-level radioactive waste facilities located above the water table. The code summaries include authors, identification data, model types, and pertinent references. 14 refs., 5 tabs

  9. Models and criteria for waste repository performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.F.; Cohen, J.J.

    1981-03-01

    A primary objective of the Waste Management Program is to assure that public health is protected. Predictive modeling, to some extent, will play a role in assuring that this objective is met. This paper considers the requirements and limitations of predictive modeling in providing useful inputs to waste management decision making. Criteria development needs and the relation between criteria and models are also discussed

  10. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  11. The influence of geological loading on the structural integrity of an underground nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakeman, N.

    1985-08-01

    Stresses are developed in underground nuclear waste repositories as a result of applied loads from geological movements caused by the encroachment of ice sheets or seismic activity for example. These stresses may induce fracturing of the waste matrix, repository vault and nearfield host geology. This fracturing will enhance the advective flow and allow more-rapid transfer of radionuclides from their encapsulation through the repository barriers and nearfield host rock. Geological loads may be applied either gradually as in crustal folding or encroachment of ice sheets, or rapidly as in the case of seismic movements. The analysis outlined in this report is conducted with a view to including the effects of geological loading in a probabilistic repository site assessment computer code such as SYVAC. (author)

  12. Secondary Waste Cementitious Waste Form Data Package for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantrell, Kirk J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cozzi, Alex D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-16

    A review of the most up-to-date and relevant data currently available was conducted to develop a set of recommended values for use in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) performance assessment (PA) to model contaminant release from a cementitious waste form for aqueous wastes treated at the Hanford Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). This data package relies primarily upon recent data collected on Cast Stone formulations fabricated with simulants of low-activity waste (LAW) and liquid secondary wastes expected to be produced at Hanford. These data were supplemented, when necessary, with data developed for saltstone (a similar grout waste form used at the Savannah River Site). Work is currently underway to collect data on cementitious waste forms that are similar to Cast Stone and saltstone but are tailored to the characteristics of ETF-treated liquid secondary wastes. Recommended values for key parameters to conduct PA modeling of contaminant release from ETF-treated liquid waste are provided.

  13. 40 CFR 62.15265 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... continuously estimate load level (for example, the feed rate of municipal solid waste or refuse-derived fuel... municipal waste combustion unit? 62.15265 Section 62.15265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... DESIGNATED FACILITIES AND POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  14. Large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavazanjian, Edward; Gutierrez, Angel

    2017-10-01

    A large scale centrifuge test of a geomembrane-lined landfill subject to waste settlement and seismic loading was conducted to help validate a numerical model for performance based design of geomembrane liner systems. The test was conducted using the 240g-ton centrifuge at the University of California at Davis under the U.S. National Science Foundation Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation Research (NEESR) program. A 0.05mm thin film membrane was used to model the liner. The waste was modeled using a peat-sand mixture. The side slope membrane was underlain by lubricated low density polyethylene to maximize the difference between the interface shear strength on the top and bottom of the geomembrane and the induced tension in it. Instrumentation included thin film strain gages to monitor geomembrane strains and accelerometers to monitor seismic excitation. The model was subjected to an input design motion intended to simulate strong ground motion from the 1994 Hyogo-ken Nanbu earthquake. Results indicate that downdrag waste settlement and seismic loading together, and possibly each phenomenon individually, can induce potentially damaging tensile strains in geomembrane liners. The data collected from this test is publically available and can be used to validate numerical models for the performance of geomembrane liner systems. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Lateral load performance of SIP walls with full bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boren Yeh; Tom Skaggs; Xiping Wang; Tom Williamson

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop test data needed to characterize lateral load performance of structural insulated panel (SIP) walls with full bearing (restrained). The research program involved structural testing of 29 full-size SIP walls (8 ft tall by 8 ft long) of various configurations that bracket a range of SIP wall configurations commonly used in the...

  16. load loss performance of an autonomous self-excited induction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Seyoum, D. and Wolf, P., Self Excited In- duction Generators for Breaking Van Appli- cations, Proc. AUPEC, Brisbane Australia,. September, 2004. 12. Wang, L. and Su, J. Dynamic Performance of an isolated Self-Excited Induction gener- ator under various loading conditions, IEEE. Trans. on Energy Conversion, Vol. 14, No.

  17. Hydrothermal modeling for the efficient design of thermal loading in a nuclear waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won-Jin; Kim, Jin-Seop; Choi, Heui-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydrothermal modeling for HLW repository is performed. • The model reduces the peak temperature in the repository by about 10 °C. • Decreasing the tunnel distance is more efficient to improve the disposal density. • The EDZ surrounding the deposition hole increases the peak temperature. • The peak temperature for the double-layer repository remains below the limit. - Abstract: The thermal analysis of a geological repository for nuclear waste using the three-dimensional hydrothermal model is performed. The hydrothermal model reduces the maximum peak temperature in the repository by about 10 °C compared to the heat conduction model with constant thermal conductivities. Decreasing the tunnel distance is more efficient than decreasing the deposition hole spacing to improve the disposal density for a given thermal load. The annular excavation damaged zone surrounding the deposition hole has a considerable effect on the peak temperature. The possibility of double-layer repository is analyzed from the viewpoint of the thermal constraints of the repository. The maximum peak temperature for the double-layer repository is slightly higher than that for the single-layer repository, but remains below the temperature limit

  18. Simulating tokamak PFC performance using simultaneous dual beam particle loading with pulsed heat loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Gregory; Gonderman, Sean; Tripathi, Jitendra; Ray, Tyler; Hassanein, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    The performance of plasma facing components (PFCs) in a fusion device are expected to change due to high flux particle loading during operation. Tungsten (W) is a promising PFC candidate material, due to its high melting point, high thermal conductivity, and low tritium retention. However, ion irradiation of D and He have each shown to diminish the thermal strength of W. This work investigates the synergistic effect between ion species, using dual beam irradiation, on the thermal response of W during ELM-like pulsed heat loading. Experiments studied three different loading conditions: laser, laser + He+, and laser + He+ + D+. 100 eV He+ and D+ exposures used a flux of 3.0-3.5 x 1020 m-2 s-1. ELM-like loading was applied using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at an energy density of 0.38-1.51 MJ m-2 (3600 1 ms pulses at 1 Hz). SEM imaging revealed that laser + He+ loading at 0.76 MJ m-2 caused surface melting, inhibiting fuzz formation. Increasing the laser fluence decreased grain size and increased surface pore density. Thermally-enhanced migration of trapped gases appear to reflect resultant molten morphology. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation PIRE project.

  19. Optimised anaerobic treatment of house-sorted biodegradable waste and slaughterhouse waste in a high loaded half technical scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, C; Grasmug, M; Smeets, W; Braun, R; Kirchmayr, R

    2006-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes from households, slaughterhouses and meat processing industries was optimised in a half technical scale plant. The plant was operated for 130 days using two different substrates under organic loading rates of 10 and 12 kgCOD.m(-3).d(-1). Since the substrates were rich in fat and protein components (TKN: 12 g.kg(-1) the treatment was challenging. The process was monitored on-line and in the laboratory. It was demonstrated that an intensive and stable co-digestion of partly hydrolysed organic waste and protein rich slaughterhouse waste can be achieved in the balance of inconsistent pH and buffering NH4-N. In the first experimental period the reduction of the substrate COD was almost complete in an overall stable process (COD reduction >82%). In the second period methane productivity increased, but certain intermediate products accumulated constantly. Process design options for a second digestion phase for advanced degradation were investigated. Potential causes for slow and reduced propionic and valeric acid degradation were assessed. Recommendations for full-scale process implementation can be made from the experimental results reported. The highly loaded and stable codigestion of these substrates may be a good technical and economic treatment alternative.

  20. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - An example of 7 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas H; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-11-01

    An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies. The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering the benefits of recycling of materials and recovering and utilization of energy. Environmental benefits come from paper recycling and, to a lesser extent, the recycling of metals and glass. Waste-to-energy plants can lead to an environmental load (as in France) or a saving (Germany and Denmark), depending mainly on the composition of the energy being substituted. Sensitivity analysis and a data quality assessment identified a range of critical parameters, suggesting from where better data should be obtained. The study concluded that household waste management is environmentally the best in European countries with a minimum reliance on landfilling, also induced by the implementation of the Waste Hierarchy, though environmental performance does not correlate clearly with the rate of material recycling. From an environmental point of view, this calls for a change in the waste management paradigm, with less focus on where the waste is routed and more of a focus on the quality and utilization of recovered materials and energy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. EPR: High load variation performances with the 'Tmode' core control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossetete, A.

    2008-01-01

    The load variation performances on a PWR are directly linked to the core control design. This design is mainly characterized by the definition of the control rod banks and the way to both perform the banks movements and to modify the core boron concentration by injection of boric acid or water. The following paper presents the principles of the T mode, the new fully automatic core control mode for the EPR which provides high performance in terms of maneuverability and optimizes the effluents. First, the paper describes the division of the control rods into two control banks (Pbank for temperature and Hbank for power distribution). Then typical movements of these banks during power changes are shown. Then, the principle of the 3 control loops (Tave, AO, Pmax), used to obtain these desired control rod movements, is given. Finally, a load following transient simulation is presented. (authors)

  2. EPR: high load variation performances with the 'TMODE' core control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pairot, Frederic

    2008-01-01

    The load variation performances on a PWR are directly linked to the core control design. This design is mainly characterized by the definition of the control rod banks and the way to both perform the banks movements and to modify the core boron concentration by injection of boric acid or water. The following paper presents the principles of the T mode, the new fully automatic core control mode for the EPR which provides high performance in terms of maneuverability and optimizes the effluents. First, the paper describes the division of the control rods into two control banks (Pbank for temperature and Hbank for power distribution). Then typical movements of these banks during power changes are shown. Then, the principle of the 3 control loops (Tave, AO, Pmax), used to obtain these desired control rod movements, is given. Finally, a load following transient simulation is presented. (author)

  3. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  4. Evaluation of performance loss of paraffin oil loaded filtering facepieces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombolini, Francesca; Listrani, Stefano; Campopiano, Antonella; Plebani, Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Penetration measurements through commercially available filtering facepieces were performed with monodisperse DEHS aerosols ranging from 0.03 μm to 0.40 μm (either singly charged or neutralized), before and after 500 mg of paraffin oil loading. The distinct behavior of Coulomb and polarization capture efficiency is studied: as in the case of non loading also in the case of loading 500 mg of paraffin oil, the electrostatic capture mechanisms are mainly due to the Coulomb contribution up to aerosol particle diameter of about 0.10 μm, just when the polarization contribution becomes substantial. Both Coulomb and polarization capture mechanisms are influenced by the presence of 500 mg of paraffin oil, resulting less effective than the oil unloaded case of about 12% and 11%, respectively. By the occupational hygiene point of view, there is a degradation in the filter performance due to oil loading that the user does not realize because there is no remarkable variation in the breathing resistance.

  5. Laboratory performance testing of an extruded bitumen containing a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based, low-level aqueous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattus, A.J.; Kaczmarsky, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Laboratory results of a comprehensive, regulatory performance test program, utilizing an extruded bitumen and a surrogate, sodium nitrate-based waste, have been compiled at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using a 53 millimeter, Werner and Pfleiderer extruder, operated by personnel of WasteChem Corporation of Paramus, New Jersey, laboratory-scale, molded samples of type three, air blown bitumen were prepared for laboratory performance testing. A surrogate, low-level, mixed liquid waste, formulated to represent an actual on-site waste at ORNL, containing about 30 wt % sodium nitrate, in addition to eight heavy metals, cold cesium and strontium was utilized. Samples tested contained three levels of waste loading: that is, forty, fifty and sixty wt % salt. Performance test results include the ninety day ANS 16.1 leach test, with leach indices reported for all cations and anions, in addition to the EP Toxicity test, at all levels of waste loading. Additionally, test results presented also include the unconfined compressive strength and surface morphology utilizing scanning electron microscopy. Data presented include correlations between waste form loading and test results, in addition to their relationship to regulatory performance requirements

  6. Performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) on fermentative biohydrogen production from melon waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyari, K.; Sarto; Syamsiah, S.; Prasetya, A.

    2016-11-01

    This research was meant to investigate performance of continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) as bioreactor for producing biohydrogen from melon waste through dark fermentation method. Melon waste are commonly generated from agricultural processing stages i.e. cultivation, post-harvesting, industrial processing, and transportation. It accounted for more than 50% of total harvested fruit. Feedstock of melon waste was fed regularly to CSTR according to organic loading rate at value 1.2 - 3.6 g VS/ (l.d). Optimum condition was achieved at OLR 2.4 g VS/ (l.d) with the highest total gas volume 196 ml STP. Implication of higher OLR value is reduction of total gas volume due to accumulation of acids (pH 4.0), and lower substrate volatile solid removal. In summary, application of this method might valorize melon waste and generates renewable energy sources.

  7. Tribological study of PTFE composites loaded with porcelain tile waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.; Araujo Neto, A.P.; Souza, J.R.; Medeiros, J.T.N.

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian northeast is one of the largest producers of clays that burn in the white form and disposal of tailings from the process of polishing the ceramic pieces of porcelain stands out as a major source of environmental degradation. This problem can be reduced by adding such material as filler in composites, in order to improve the mechanical properties of the polymeric matrix. Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is characterized as a good solid lubricant, because it has excellent properties such as low coefficient of friction (0.01 < μ < 0.1), thermal stability at high temperatures and chemical resistance. However, the pure PTFE has high wear rates (greater than 10-13m2/N) leading to early failures of various components. To reuse the Tailings of Porcelain (TP), composites of PTFE + TP were developed in three different compositions (85:15, 75:25 and 65:35). For this investigation the particle size distribution and some chemical characteristics of the tailings by testing XRD, XRF, SEM and EDS were performed, registering a large amount of silica, aluminum and other metals. Roughness, wettability and sclerometry also were performed. It was noted that the values of arithmetic average roughness, Ra, is higher for composites with higher percentage of TP, in addition they have a lower contact angle and higher surface energy to distilled water, characterized as hydrophilic. The results of energy of deformation provided by the sclerometry test were non-linear. (author)

  8. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE Carlsbad Field Office

    2001-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the drummed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. These PDP sample components are distributed to the participating measurement facilities that have been designated and authorized by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO). The NDA Drum PDP materials are stored at these sites under secure conditions to

  10. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    The newly revised draft DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, requires that DOE low-level waste shall be managed on a systematic basis using the most appropriate combination of waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, and disposal practices so that the radioactive components are contained and the overall cost effectiveness is minimized. This order expects each site to prepare and maintain an overall waste management systems performance assessment supporting the combination of waste management practices used in generation reduction segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. A document prepared by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Department of Energy called Guidance for Conduct of Waste Management Systems Performance Assessment is specifically intended to provide the approach necessary to meet the systems performance assessment requirement of DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and other applicable state regulations dealing with LLW (low-level radioactive wastes). Methods and procedures are needed for assessing the performance of a waste management system. This report addresses this need. The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner, and thereby assist the DOE LLW mangers in complying with the DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and the associated guidance document

  11. Performance Of The Akosombo Waste Stabilization Ponds In Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the treatment performance of the Akosombo waste stabilization ponds and the effect of seasonal changes on the final effluent quality. The waste water quality parameters ... Une étude était entreprise pour déterminer le résultat de traitement de bassins de stabilisation du déchet d' ...

  12. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The study of the ''Admissible thermal loading in geological formations and its consequence on radioactive waste disposal methods'' comprises four volumes: Volume 1. ''Synthesis report'' (English/French text). Volume 2. Granite formations (French text). Volume 3. Salt formations (German text). Volume 4. Clay formations (French text). The present ''synthesis report'' brings together the formation produced by the three specific studies dealing with granite, salt and clay

  13. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The thermal loading in salt formation is studied for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste embedded in glass. Temperature effect on glass leaching, stability of gel layer on glass surface, quantity of leaching solution available in the borehole and corrosion resistance of materials used for containers are examined. The geological storage medium must satisfy particularly complex requirements: stratigraphy, brine migration, permeability, fissuring, mechanical strength, creep, thermal expansion, cavity structure ..

  14. Performance Evaluation of Concrete using Marble Mining Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, Sudarshan Dattatraya; Vyas, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    A huge amount waste (approximately 60%) is generated during mining and processing in marble industries. Such waste can be best utilized in infrastructure development works. Coarse aggregate 75% by weight was replaced by aggregate obtained from marble mining waste. The impact of marble waste as a partial replacement for conventional coarse aggregate on the properties of concrete mixes such as workability, compressive strength, permeability, abrasion, etc. was evaluated. The test results revealed that the compressive strength was comparable to that of control concrete. Other properties such as workability of concrete increased, water absorption reduced by 17%, and resistance to abrasion was marginally increased by 2% as compared to that of control concrete. Ultrasonic pulse velocity and FTIR results show improvement in quality of concrete with crushed marble waste. From the TGA analysis it was confirmed that, aggregate produced from marble waste shows better performance under elevated temperature than that of conventional aggregates.

  15. Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    New investments in waste treatment facilities are needed due to a number of factors including continuously increasing waste amounts, political demands for efficient utilization of the waste resources in terms of recycling or energy production, and decommissioning of existing waste treatment...... facilities due to age and stricter environmental regulation. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies will be economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing...... in multi criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented and the main challenges and the crucial parameters to take into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both...

  16. Treatment of uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.; Rao, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainties arise from a number of different sources in low-level waste performance assessment. In this paper the types of uncertainty are reviewed, and existing methods for quantifying and reducing each type of uncertainty are discussed. These approaches are examined in the context of the current low-level radioactive waste regulatory performance objectives, which are deterministic. The types of uncertainty discussed in this paper are model uncertainty, uncertainty about future conditions, and parameter uncertainty. The advantages and disadvantages of available methods for addressing uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment are presented. 25 refs

  17. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juul, N.; Münster, M.; Ravn, H.; Söderman, M. Ljunggren

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives

  18. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juul, N., E-mail: njua@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Münster, M., E-mail: maem@dtu.dk [DTU Management, Risø Campus, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Ravn, H., E-mail: hans.ravn@aeblevangen.dk [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Söderman, M. Ljunggren, E-mail: maria.ljunggren@chalmers.se [Energy and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • Review of main optimization tools in the field of waste management. • Different optimization methods are applied. • Different fractions are analyzed. • There is focus on different parameters in different geographical regions. • More research is needed which encompasses both recycling and energy solutions. - Abstract: Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi-criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy-makers and model-developers involved in assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives.

  19. Performance Enhancements to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Low-Activity Waste Vitrification System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, W. F.; Gerdes, K.; Holton, L. K.; Pegg, I.L.; Bowan, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy Office of River Protection (DOE-ORP) is constructing a Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) for the treatment and vitrification of underground tank wastes stored at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The WTP comprises four major facilities: a pretreatment facility to separate the tank waste into high level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) process streams, a HLW vitrification facility to immobilize the HLW fraction; a LAW vitrification facility to immobilize the LAW fraction, and an analytical laboratory to support the operations of all four treatment facilities. DOE has established strategic objectives to optimize the performance of the WTP facilities and the LAW and HLW waste forms to reduce the overall schedule and cost for treatment and vitrification of the Hanford tank wastes. This strategy has been implemented by establishing performance expectations in the WTP contract for the facilities and waste forms. In addition, DOE, as owner-operator of the WTP facilities, continues to evaluate 1) the design, to determine the potential for performance above the requirements specified in the WTP contract; and 2) improvements in production of the LAW and HLW waste forms. This paper reports recent progress directed at improving production of the LAW waste form. DOE's initial assessment, which is based on the work reported in this paper, is that the treatment rate of the WTP LAW vitrification facility can be increased by a factor of 2 to 4 with a combination of revised glass formulations, modest increases in melter glass operating temperatures, and a second-generation LAW melter with a larger surface area. Implementing these improvements in the LAW waste immobilization capability can benefit the LAW treatment mission by reducing the cost of waste treatment. (authors)

  20. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  1. 241-AY/AZ waste storage tanks: Supplemental gravity load analysis. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baliga, R.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis of the 241SY tanks performed by ADVENT(1994b) to resolve dome overload issues indicated that the tank can sustain the dome loads resulting from additional soil overburden depth, increased soil density, and increased concentrated load. Similar issues exist for the 241AY/AZ tanks and therefore, an interim analysis of the 241AY/AZ tanks is presented herein. The scope of this effort is to review and compare all design drawings pertaining to the 241AY and 241AZ tanks with those pertaining to the 241SY tanks; to modify the axisymmetric model of the 241SY tanks to represent the 241AY/AZ tanks; and to evaluate the effect of additional dome load on the 241AY/AZ tanks by performing a structural analysis for gravity loads (dead load + live load). ADVENTS's additional scope of work is to perform a qualitative evaluation of the 241AY/AZ tanks for seismic and thermal loadings (Vollert 1982 and Blume 1971). This qualitative evaluation does not include any detailed finite element analysis of the tanks. The following design-based gravity loading conditions are used in this interim analysis of the 241AY/AZ tanks to determine a baseline for the tank stresses or section loads

  2. Performance Analysis of Waste Heat Driven Pressurized Adsorption Chiller

    KAUST Repository

    LOH, Wai Soong; SAHA, Bidyut Baran; CHAKRABORTY, Anutosh; NG, Kim Choon; CHUN, Won Gee

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the transient modeling and performance of waste heat driven pressurized adsorption chillers for refrigeration at subzero applications. This innovative adsorption chiller employs pitch-based activated carbon of type Maxsorb III

  3. Reproductive performance of rabbits fed maize-milling waste based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The influence of maize-milling waste on the reproductive performance of rabbits was assessed. The .... stored in air-tight polythene bags prior to use in the experimental .... Nutrient digestibility and effect of heat treatment, J. Appl. Rabbit Res.

  4. Solid waste drum array fire performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louie, R.L.; Haecker, C.F.; Beitel, J.J.; Gottuck, D.T.; Rhodes, B.T.; Bayier, C.L.

    1995-09-01

    Fire hazards associated with drum storage of radioactively contaminated waste are a major concern in DOE waste storage facilities. This report is the second of two reports on fire testing designed to provide data relative to the propagation of a fire among storage drum arrays. The first report covers testing of individual drums subjected to an initiating fire and the development of the analytical methodology to predict fire propagation among storage drum arrays. This report is the second report, which documents the results of drum array fire tests. The purpose of the array tests was to confirm the analytical methodology developed by Phase I fire testing. These tests provide conclusive evidence that fire will not propagate from drum to drum unless an continuous fuel source other than drum contents is provided

  5. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Nondestructive Assay (NDA) is a test program designed to yield data on measurement system capability to characterize drummed transuranic (TRU) waste generated throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The tests are conducted periodically and provide a mechanism for the independent and objective assessment of NDA system performance and capability relative to the radiological characterization objectives and criteria of the Office of Characterization and Transportation (OCT). The primary documents requiring an NDA PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC), which requires annual characterization facility participation in the PDP, and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD). This NDA PDP implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC. Measurement facilities must demonstrate acceptable radiological characterization performance through measurement of test samples comprised of pre-specified PDP matrix drum/radioactive source configurations. Measurement facilities are required to analyze the NDA PDP drum samples using the same procedures approved and implemented for routine operational waste characterization activities. The test samples provide an independent means to assess NDA measurement system performance and compliance per criteria delineated in the NDA PDP Plan. General inter-comparison of NDA measurement system performance among DOE measurement facilities and commercial NDA services can also be evaluated using measurement results on similar NDA PDP test samples. A PDP test sample consists of a 55-gallon matrix drum containing a waste matrix type representative of a particular category of the DOE waste inventory and nuclear material standards of known radionuclide and isotopic composition typical of DOE radioactive material. The PDP sample components are made available to participating measurement facilities as designated by the

  6. IMPACT OF REDUCING THE 100 C LIQUIDUS TEMPERATURE OFFSET ON WASTE LOADING TARGETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-11-11

    The objective of this report is to assess the potential impact of reducing conservatism in the implementation of the current liquidus temperature (TL) model in the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) on the ability to target higher waste loadings (WLs) for future sludge batches. No changes to the TL model or the associated uncertainties (model or measurement) are proposed, rather only changes in the magnitude of the offset used between the nominal melt pool temperature (1150 C) and the Property Acceptance Region (PAR) value (1050 C). This strategy is consistent with that outlined and initially assessed by Brown et al. (2001). In that report, the authors stated even a fairly conservative change in this safety factor could have a significant impact on waste loading. The results of this study clearly indicate that the implementation of an 1100 C TL PAR criterion (which translates into a reduction in the TL offset from 100 C to 50 C) can have significantly positive impacts on the ability to gain access to WLs exceeding 45%. This is especially true for those frit and sludge systems that are TL limited using the current 1050 C TL criterion, and are not limited by a second constraint (such as viscosity, nepheline, or durability) until much higher WLs. Examples of various glass forming systems are provided that are currently limited to maximum WLs in the mid-40s, but could be processed in the lower 50s through implementation of this new strategy. One example is in the Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) system, where for a specific glass forming system the projected operating window of 38-41% WL (using the current constraints) became 38-52% WL with the use of an 1100 C TL PAR value. This change both provided access to significantly higher WLs, and transitioned a once infeasible flowsheet to a system that could potentially be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This potential change in the TL constraint also provides access to frit compositions (or glass

  7. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Drummed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Each testing and analytical facility performing waste characterization activities for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) participates in the Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) to comply with the Transuranic Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC) (DOE/WIPP-02-3122) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (CBFO-94-1012). The PDP serves as a quality control check for data generated in the characterization of waste destined for WIPP. Single blind audit samples are prepared and distributed to each of the facilities participating in the PDP. The PDP evaluates analyses of simulated headspace gases, constituents of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and transuranic (TRU) radionuclides using nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques.

  8. Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Bowerman, B.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods were developed as guidance in judging the suitability of solidified waste as a physico-chemical barrier to releases of radionuclides and RCRA regulated hazardous components. The criteria follow from the assumption that release of contaminants by leaching is the single most important property for judging the effectiveness of a waste form. A two-tier regimen is proposed. The first tier consists of a leach test designed to determine the net, forward leach rate of the solidified waste and a leach test required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The second tier of tests is to determine if a set of stresses (i.e., radiation, freeze-thaw, wet-dry cycling) on the waste form adversely impacts its ability to retain contaminants and remain physically intact. In the absence of site-specific performance assessments (PA), two generic modeling exercises are described which were used to calculate proposed acceptable leachates

  9. The Impact of Cognitive Load on Operatic Singers’ Timing Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muzaffer eCorlu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we report the results of an empirical study on the effects of cognitive load on operatic singing. The main aim of the study was to investigate to what extent a working memory task affected the timing of operatic singers’ performance. Thereby, we focused on singers’ tendency to speed up, or slow down their performance of musical phrases and pauses. Twelve professional operatic singers were asked to perform an operatic aria three times; once without an additional working memory task, once with a concurrent working memory task (counting shapes on a computer screen, and once with a relatively more difficult working memory task (more shapes to be counted appearing one after another. The results show that, in general, singers speeded up their performance under heightened cognitive load. Interestingly, this effect was more pronounced in pauses – more in particular longer pauses – compared to musical phrases. We discuss the role of sensorimotor control and feedback processes in musical timing to explain these findings.

  10. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of solid poultry slaughterhouse waste: effect of hydraulic retention time and loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Esa A; Rintala, Jukka A

    2002-07-01

    We studied the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) and loading on anaerobic digestion of poultry slaughterhouse wastes, using semi-continuously fed, laboratory-scale digesters at 31 degrees C. The effect on process performance was highly significant: Anaerobic digestion appeared feasible with a loading of up to 0.8 kg volatile solids (VS)/m3 d and an HRT of 50-100 days. The specific methane yield was high, from 0.52 to 0.55 m3/kg VS(added). On the other hand, at a higher loading, in the range from 1.0 to 2.1 kg VS/m3 d, and a shorter HRT, in the range from 25 to 13 days, the process appeared inhibited and/or overloaded, as indicated by the accumulation of volatile fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids and the decline in the methane yield. However, the inhibition was reversible. The nitrogen in the feed, ca. 7.8% of total solids (TS), was organic nitrogen with little ammonia present, whereas in the digested material ammonia accounted for 52-67% (up to 3.8 g/l) of total nitrogen. The TS and VS removals amounted to 76% and 64%, respectively. Our results show that on a continuous basis under the studied conditions and with a loading of up to 0.8 kg VS/m3 d metric ton (wet weight) of the studied waste mixture could yield up to 140 m3 of methane.

  11. Characteristics and Performance of Existing Load Disaggregation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butner, Ryan S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hao, He [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-10

    Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM) or non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is an analytic approach to disaggregate building loads based on a single metering point. This advanced load monitoring and disaggregation technique has the potential to provide an alternative solution to high-priced traditional sub-metering and enable innovative approaches for energy conservation, energy efficiency, and demand response. However, since the inception of the concept in the 1980’s, evaluations of these technologies have focused on reporting performance accuracy without investigating sources of inaccuracies or fully understanding and articulating the meaning of the metrics used to quantify performance. As a result, the market for, as well as, advances in these technologies have been slowly maturing.To improve the market for these NILM technologies, there has to be confidence that the deployment will lead to benefits. In reality, every end-user and application that this technology may enable does not require the highest levels of performance accuracy to produce benefits. Also, there are other important characteristics that need to be considered, which may affect the appeal of NILM products to certain market targets (i.e. residential and commercial building consumers) and the suitability for particular applications. These characteristics include the following: 1) ease of use, the level of expertise/bandwidth required to properly use the product; 2) ease of installation, the level of expertise required to install along with hardware needs that impact product cost; and 3) ability to inform decisions and actions, whether the energy outputs received by end-users (e.g. third party applications, residential users, building operators, etc.) empower decisions and actions to be taken at time frames required for certain applications. Therefore, stakeholders, researchers, and other interested parties should be kept abreast of the evolving capabilities, uses, and characteristics

  12. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Nondestructive Assay of Boxed Wastes for the TRU Waste Characterization Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for nondestructive assay (NDA) consists of a series of tests to evaluate the capability for NDA of transuranic (TRU) waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Each test is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements obtained from NDA systems used to characterize the radiological constituents of TRU waste. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Waste Acceptance Criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WAC; DOE 1999a) and the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE 1999b). The WAC requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAC. The WAC contains technical and quality requirements for acceptable NDA. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and applicable requirements of the WAC for the NDA PDP for boxed waste assay systems. Measurement facilities demonstrate acceptable performance by the successful testing of simulated waste containers according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Comparison among DOE measurement groups and commercial assay services is achieved by comparing the results of measurements on similar simulated waste containers reported by the different measurement facilities. These tests are used as an independent means to assess the performance of measurement groups regarding compliance with established quality assurance objectives (QAO's). Measurement facilities must analyze the simulated waste containers using the same procedures used for normal waste characterization activities. For the boxed waste PDP, a simulated waste container consists of a modified standard waste box (SWB) emplaced with radioactive standards and fabricated matrix inserts. An SWB is a waste box with ends designed specifically to fit the TRUPACT-II shipping container. SWB's will be used to package a substantial volume of the TRU waste for disposal. These PDP sample components

  13. Radiation loading effect proportional chamber on the performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, T.D.; Kalinina, N.A.; Karpukhin, V.V.; Kruglov, V.V.; Khazins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of a space charge which appears under the effect of radiation loading on counting characteristics of a proportional chamber, is experimentally investigated. Calculations are made which take into account the effect of a space charge of positive ions formed in the chamber. The investigations have been carried out on the test board which consists of a one-coordinate proportional chamber, a telescope of two scintillation counters and a collimated 90 Sr β-source. The proportional chamber has the 160x160 mm dimensions. The signal wires with the 50 μm diameter are located with the step of s=10 mm. High-voltage planes are coiled with a wire with the 100 μm diameter and a 2 mm step. The distance between high-voltage planes are 18 mm. The chamber is blown through with a gaseous mixture, its composition is 57% Ar+38% CH 4 +5% (OCH 3 ) 2 CH 2 . When carrying out measurements in wide ranges, the density of radiation loading and the amplifier threshold are changed. The experimental results show a considerable effect of radiation loading and the value of amplifier threshold on the value of a counting characteristic. This should be taken into account when estimating the performance of a proportional chamber according to board testing using radioactive sources, as conditions for investigations are usually different from those of a physical experiment on an accelerator

  14. MOV motor and gearbox performance under design basis loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of valve testing sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The research objective was to evaluate the capabilities of specific actuator motor and gearbox assemblies under various design basis loading conditions. The testing was performed using the motor-operated valve load simulator, a test fixture that simulates the stem load profiles a valve actuator would experience when closing a valve against flow and pressure loadings. The authors tested five typical motors (four ac motors and one dc motor) with three gearbox assemblies at conditions a motor might experience in a power plant, including such off-normal conditions as operation at high temperature and reduced voltage. The authors also determined the efficiency of the actuator gearbox. The testing produced the following significant results: all five motors operated at or above their rated torque during tests at full voltage and ambient temperature; for all five motors (dc as well as ac), the actual torque loss due to voltage degradation was greater than the torque loss predicted using common methods; startup torques in locked rotor tests compared well with stall torques in dynamometer-type tests; the methods commonly used to predict torque losses due to elevated operating temperatures sometimes bounded the actual losses, but not in all cases; the greatest discrepancy involved the prediction for the dc motor; running efficiencies published by the manufacturer for actuator gearboxes were higher than the actual efficiencies determined from testing, in some instances, the published pullout efficiencies were also higher than the actual values; operation of the gearbox at elevated temperature did not affect the operating efficiency

  15. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiao, E-mail: liuxiao07@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei [School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Gao Xingbao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qiao Wei [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Beijing 102249 (China); Zhou Yingjun [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nisikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and HRT of 15d. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2-8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}, with VS reduction rates of 61.7-69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89-5.28 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m{sup 3} (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1} and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m{sup 3} d){sup -1}. This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  16. Pilot-scale anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste and waste activated sludge in China: Effect of organic loading rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiao; Wang Wei; Shi Yunchun; Zheng Lei; Gao Xingbao; Qiao Wei; Zhou Yingjun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) was examined on a pilot-scale reactor. ► System performance and stability under OLR of 1.2, 2.4, 3.6, 4.8, 6.0 and 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 were analyzed. ► A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and HRT of 15d. ► With the increasing OLRs, pH values, VS removal rate and methane concentration decreased and VFA increased. ► The changing of biogas production rate can be a practical approach to monitor and control anaerobic digestion system. - Abstract: The effects of organic loading rate on the performance and stability of anaerobic co-digestion of municipal biomass waste (MBW) and waste activated sludge (WAS) were investigated on a pilot-scale reactor. The results showed that stable operation was achieved with organic loading rates (OLR) of 1.2–8.0 kg volatile solid (VS) (m 3 d) −1 , with VS reduction rates of 61.7–69.9%, and volumetric biogas production of 0.89–5.28 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 . A maximum methane production rate of 2.94 m 3 (m 3 d) −1 was achieved at OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 and hydraulic retention time of 15 days. With increasing OLRs, the anaerobic reactor showed a decrease in VS removal rate, average pH value and methane concentration, and a increase of volatile fatty acid concentration. By monitoring the biogas production rate (BPR), the anaerobic digestion system has a higher acidification risk under an OLR of 8.0 kg VS (m 3 d) −1 . This result remarks the possibility of relating bioreactor performance with BPR in order to better understand and monitor anaerobic digestion process.

  17. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  18. Equitable fund allocation, an economical approach for sustainable waste load allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtiani, Elham Feizi; Niksokhan, Mohammad Hossein; Jamshidi, Shervin

    2015-08-01

    This research aims to study a novel approach for waste load allocation (WLA) to meet environmental, economical, and equity objectives, simultaneously. For this purpose, based on a simulation-optimization model developed for Haraz River in north of Iran, the waste loads are allocated according to discharge permit market. The non-dominated solutions are initially achieved through multiobjective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO). Here, the violation of environmental standards based on dissolved oxygen (DO) versus biochemical oxidation demand (BOD) removal costs is minimized to find economical total maximum daily loads (TMDLs). This can save 41% in total abatement costs in comparison with the conventional command and control policy. The BOD discharge permit market then increases the revenues to 45%. This framework ensures that the environmental limits are fulfilled but the inequity index is rather high (about 4.65). For instance, the discharge permit buyer may not be satisfied about the equity of WLA. Consequently, it is recommended that a third party or institution should be in charge of reallocating the funds. It means that the polluters which gain benefits by unfair discharges should pay taxes (or funds) to compensate the losses of other polluters. This intends to reduce the costs below the required values of the lowest inequity index condition. These compensations of equitable fund allocation (EFA) may help to reduce the dissatisfactions and develop WLA policies. It is concluded that EFA in integration with water quality trading (WQT) is a promising approach to meet the objectives.

  19. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant

  20. Effects of intermediate load on performance limitations in excitation control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichai Aree

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The stability of excitation control systems is of great concern in power system operations. In this paper, the effects of intermediate load on performance limitation in excitation control are studied. The results reveal that the open-loop characteristic of synchronous machine’s flux linkage can be changed from minimum to non-minimum phase at a high level of intermediate load. This change leads to instability of synchronous machines under manual excitation control. A particular emphasis is also given to investigate the fundamental limitations in excitation control, imposed by non-minimum phases with regard to the open-loop right-half-plane (ORHP pole. The study demonstrates the difficulties of excitation control tuning to achieve the desired performance and robustness under the ORHP pole occurrence. Moreover, this paper shows the conditional stability in excitation control loop, where either an increase or decrease of the exciter gain causes a destabilization of the system’s stability. Frequency response techniques are used for these investigations.

  1. Aerodynamic loads and rotor performance for the Darrieus wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraschivoiu, I.

    1981-12-01

    Aerodynamic blade loads and rotor performance are studied for the Darrieus windmill by using a double-multiple streamtube model. The Darrieus is represented as a pair of actuator disks in tandem at each level of the rotor, with upstream and downstream half-cycles. An equilibrium velocity exists in the center plane, and the upwind velocity is higher than the downwind velocity; lift and drag coefficients are calculated from the Reynolds number and the local angle of attack. Half-rotor torque and power are found by averaging the contributions from each streamtube at each position of the rotor in the upwind cycle. An example is provided for a 17 m Darrieus employing NACA blades. While the method is found to be suitable for predicting blade and rotor performance, the need to incorporate the effects of dynamic stall in the model is stressed as a means to improve accuracy.

  2. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Bonface, Jean-Michael

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  3. Loading and transport of high-active waste (HAW) with the TN85 flask in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rys, Michael; Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH (Germany); Bonface, Jean-Michael [TN International, Montigny-le-Bretonneux (France)

    2009-07-01

    As a part of the operation of nuclear power plants, it is essential to safely manage the radioactive waste. With new developments in science and technology, it is a dynamic process to adapt procedures, equipment and flasks to be used in the future. This is a task for specialists - a task for GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH and for TN International. Until 1994 reprocessing of spent fuel from German nuclear power plants was mandatory for the Utilities (EVU) in Germany. Basis for the reprocessing was the German Atomic Act. The German Utilities concluded contracts on reprocessing with Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA, now AREVA NC) in France and British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL, now INS) in England. The total amount to be reprocessed comes to 5309 t HM contracted to AREVA NC and 768 t HM contracted to INS. The waste generated from reprocessing - or an equivalent amount of radioactive material - has to be returned to the country of origin. In 1979 already an exchange of notes took place between the German and the French government with the obligation of both sides to enable and support the return of reprocessing residues or equivalents. The return of high-active waste (HAW) from France has started in 1996 with the first attribution of 28 glass canisters (one flask) to German Utilities by AREVA NC. Until 2007, 75 flasks loaded with vitrified residue (VR) canisters have been transported to Gorleben. For these transports CASTOR {sup registered} HAW 20/28 CG flasks have been used. This presentation will give some background information about the last HAW transport in 2008 with the new flask generation of the type TN85. It will also describe the assembly of the new flask, the preparation of the flask for the loading campaign as well as the loading procedure. (orig.)

  4. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  5. Above and below boiling thermal loading strategies for large waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    A simplified repository thermal model was developed with the Mathcad computer code which indicates that large waste packages may be compatible with both above and below boiling repository thermal loading strategies. Minimum spent fuel decay time of at least 20 to 30 years was shown to be important for both thermal loading strategies. Constant isothermal boundary conditions are assumed at the ground surface (296 K) and 305 meters below the water table (309.7 K) with a uniform temperature change of 1.55 10 -2 K/meter. Homogeneous tuff properties are assumed: conductivity (2.1 watt/m-k); density (2.22 gm/cm 3 ); and thermal capacitance (2.17 joule/cm 3 K). Based on these properties, the tuff thermal diffusion coefficient is 9.68 x 10 -7 m 2 /sec

  6. Performance of patch repaired composite panels under fatigue loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, Feras H.; Hamoush, S.; Shivakumar, K.

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of bonded patch-scarf repairs of full scale laminated composite panels under cyclic load conditions. Nondestructive testing to characterize the quality of repairs and destructive testing to evaluate the performance of repaired panels were used in this study. Carbon/Epoxy prepreg material used was used to lay up six-ply (12 in. x 27 in. /305x686mm) (-60/60/0) s quasi-isotropic laminates. 7-ply scarf repair with a gradient of 0.5 inch (12.7mm) per layer was used to perform the repair of a damaged zone. The patch consisted of 7.5 inches (190mm) diameter adhesive film, 1 inch (25.4mm) diameter filler ply at 90fiber orientation, and six plies (2-7 inches (51-178mm) diameter) to match the lay-up of the parent material. The study was extended to include defective repairs. The defect was engineered by inserting a 1 inch (25.4 mm) circular Teflon flaw between the fifth and sixth layers of the patch. A total of 28 panels were prepared and divided into five categories: (1) three pristine panels (undamaged parental materials); (2) three damaged panels (1-inch-centered-hole); (3) two repaired panels with wrong fiber orientation; (4) nine good repaired panels, and (5) eleven defective repair panels (1 inch flaw). A nondestructive evaluation to check the conditions of the repairs was performed on most of the tested panels that include the pulse-echo C-scan and pseudo through transmission air coupled and water coupled C-scan. Based on the results of the experimental evaluation of this study, good repair restored 95% of the tensile strength while defective repair restored 90% of the tensile strength of the pristine panels. Under fatigue loading, panels repaired with a 1 inch delamination flaw within the patch layers showed a major reduction in fatigue life compared to the good repair panels under similar loading conditions. (author)

  7. Peer Review of the Waste Package Material Performance Interim Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. A. Beavers; T. M. Devine, Jr.; G. S. Frankel; R. H. Jones; R. G. Kelly; R. M. Latanision; J. H. Payer

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, formed the Waste Package Materials Performance Peer Review Panel (the Panel) to review the technical basis for evaluating the long-term performance of waste package materials in a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This is the interim report of the Panel; a final report will be issued in February 2002. In its work to date, the Panel has identified important issues regarding waste package materials performance. In the remainder of its work, the Panel will address approaches and plans to resolve these issues. In its review to date, the Panel has not found a technical basis to conclude that the waste package materials are unsuitable for long-term containment at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository. Nevertheless, significant technical issues remain unsettled and, primarily because of the extremely long life required for the waste packages, there will always be some uncertainty in the assessment. A significant base of scientific and engineering knowledge for assessing materials performance does exist and, therefore, the likelihood is great that uncertainty about the long-term performance can be substantially reduced through further experiments and analysis

  8. Sleep, training load and performance in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, J; Mariman, A; Boone, J; Delesie, L; Tobback, E; Vogelaers, D; Bourgois, J G

    2018-03-01

    Training load (TL) and recovery should be in optimal balance to obtain maximal performance gains. We aimed to study sleep as a recovery technique and its relationship with TL and performance in elite athletes. Twenty-six elite female artistic gymnasts were divided into an under 13 (n = 6), an under 14 (n = 6), a junior (n = 7; 14-15y) and a senior (=World Championship (WC) competitors, n = 7; ≥16y) category. Sleep, through sleep logs, and training parameters, using the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) scale, were monitored to calculate total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), TL, monotony and strain. Performance of WC competitors was evaluated through coach and WC qualification ranking. For the entire group, TST (effect sizes (ES) = -1.12, confidence intervals (CI) = -60:-47, P performance. Optimizing sleep and TL may therefore represent strategies to enhance performance.

  9. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-12-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V&V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M&S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V&V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V&V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M&S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V&V into subcontinuum scale M&S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  10. Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Waste Integrated Performance and Safety Codes (NEAMS Waste IPSC) is to provide an integrated suite of computational modeling and simulation (M and S) capabilities to quantitatively assess the long-term performance of waste forms in the engineered and geologic environments of a radioactive-waste storage facility or disposal repository. Achieving the objective of modeling the performance of a disposal scenario requires describing processes involved in waste form degradation and radionuclide release at the subcontinuum scale, beginning with mechanistic descriptions of chemical reactions and chemical kinetics at the atomic scale, and upscaling into effective, validated constitutive models for input to high-fidelity continuum scale codes for coupled multiphysics simulations of release and transport. Verification and validation (V and V) is required throughout the system to establish evidence-based metrics for the level of confidence in M and S codes and capabilities, including at the subcontiunuum scale and the constitutive models they inform or generate. This Report outlines the nature of the V and V challenge at the subcontinuum scale, an approach to incorporate V and V concepts into subcontinuum scale modeling and simulation (M and S), and a plan to incrementally incorporate effective V and V into subcontinuum scale M and S destined for use in the NEAMS Waste IPSC work flow to meet requirements of quantitative confidence in the constitutive models informed by subcontinuum scale phenomena.

  11. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  12. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Cooley, Scott K.; Vienna, John D.; Crum, Jarrod V.

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO 3 , has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO 3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO 3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer-layer glasses. The experimental

  13. Performance of a cognitive load inventory during simulated handoffs: Evidence for validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Q; Boscardin, Christy K; van Dijk, Savannah M; Abdullah, Ruqayyah; Irby, David M; Sewell, Justin L; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia S

    2016-01-01

    Advancing patient safety during handoffs remains a public health priority. The application of cognitive load theory offers promise, but is currently limited by the inability to measure cognitive load types. To develop and collect validity evidence for a revised self-report inventory that measures cognitive load types during a handoff. Based on prior published work, input from experts in cognitive load theory and handoffs, and a think-aloud exercise with residents, a revised Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs was developed. The Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs has items for intrinsic, extraneous, and germane load. Students who were second- and sixth-year students recruited from a Dutch medical school participated in four simulated handoffs (two simple and two complex cases). At the end of each handoff, study participants completed the Cognitive Load Inventory for Handoffs, Paas' Cognitive Load Scale, and one global rating item for intrinsic load, extraneous load, and germane load, respectively. Factor and correlational analyses were performed to collect evidence for validity. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single factor that combined intrinsic and germane loads. The extraneous load items performed poorly and were removed from the model. The score from the combined intrinsic and germane load items associated, as predicted by cognitive load theory, with a commonly used measure of overall cognitive load (Pearson's r = 0.83, p load during handoffs may be measured via a self-report measure. Additional work is required to develop an adequate measure of extraneous load.

  14. The influence of cognitive load on spatial search performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstaffe, Kate A; Hood, Bruce M; Gilchrist, Iain D

    2014-01-01

    During search, executive function enables individuals to direct attention to potential targets, remember locations visited, and inhibit distracting information. In the present study, we investigated these executive processes in large-scale search. In our tasks, participants searched a room containing an array of illuminated locations embedded in the floor. The participants' task was to press the switches at the illuminated locations on the floor so as to locate a target that changed color when pressed. The perceptual salience of the search locations was manipulated by having some locations flashing and some static. Participants were more likely to search at flashing locations, even when they were explicitly informed that the target was equally likely to be at any location. In large-scale search, attention was captured by the perceptual salience of the flashing lights, leading to a bias to explore these targets. Despite this failure of inhibition, participants were able to restrict returns to previously visited locations, a measure of spatial memory performance. Participants were more able to inhibit exploration to flashing locations when they were not required to remember which locations had previously been visited. A concurrent digit-span memory task further disrupted inhibition during search, as did a concurrent auditory attention task. These experiments extend a load theory of attention to large-scale search, which relies on egocentric representations of space. High cognitive load on working memory leads to increased distractor interference, providing evidence for distinct roles for the executive subprocesses of memory and inhibition during large-scale search.

  15. Impacts of cathodic protection on waste package performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, J.E.; Lee, J.H.; Andrews, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    The current design concept for a multi-barrier waste container for the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, calls for an outer barrier of 100 mm thick corrosion-allowance material (CAM) (carbon steel) and an inner barrier of 20 mm thick corrosion-resistant material (CRM) (Alloy 825). Fulfillment of the NRC subsystem requirements (10 CFR 60.113) of substantially complete containment and controlled release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system (EBS) will rely mostly upon the robust waste container design, among other EBS components. In the current waste container design, some degree of cathodic protection of CRM will be provided by CAM. This paper discusses a sensitivity case study for the impacts of cathodic protection of the inner barrier by the outer barrier on the performance of waste package

  16. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  17. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  18. Adsorption performance of silver-loaded activated carbon fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver-loaded activated carbon fiber is prepared, and its adsorption performance is studied experimentally using five methylene blue solutions with different concentrations under three different temperature conditions. The adsorption tests show that fibers adsorption increase as the increase of temperature, and there is an optimal value for solution concentration, beyond which its adsorption will de-crease. Fibers isothermal adsorption to methylene blue is different from those by the monolayer adsorption by Langmuir model and the multilayer adsorption by Freundlich model. Through the analysis of thermodynamic parameters, Gibbs free energy, standard entropy, and standard enthalpy, it is found that the fibers adsorption to methylene blue is an exothermic process of physical adsorption.

  19. Development of Waste Load Allocation Strategiesin Rivers Using Social Choice Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad amin zolfagharipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, river water quality management was implemented to minimize the costs of environmental protection and to meet the environmental water quality requirements. For this purpose, the social choice approach was adopted to consider the role of wastewater dischargers in the decision-making process and to increase the applicability of the proposed waste load allocation programs. Firstly, different wastewater treatment scenarios were identified for each water pollutant and treatment alternatives which are combinations of treatment scenarios were defined. For each treatment alternative, penalties due to violations of river water quality standards were then calculated using the qualitative simulation model (Qual2kw and each discharger was assumed to prioritize the treatment alternatives based on the treatment costs and the fines defined for water quality standard violations. Finally, using different social choice methods, the most preferred treatment alternative was identified. In order to reduce costs and to encourage dischargers to participate in river water quality protection programs, the most preferred treatment alternative was exchanged among the dischargers as an initial discharge permit using the extended trading-ratio system (ETRS. The results of applying the proposed model to a case study, the Zarjub River located in north Iran, showed the model’s efficiency in developing river waste load allocation strategies.

  20. Performance in tactical decision making on the physical load in the game.

    OpenAIRE

    Navara, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Title: Performance in tactical decision-making on the physical load in the game. Objectives: Determine the relationship between the physical load and tactical decision making. Methods: Watching. Results: The greater the physical load, the smaller the rightness of tactical decision-making. Keywords: Tactical decision-making, soccer, physical load.

  1. The Impact of Waste Loading on Viscosity in the Frit 418-SB3 System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PEELER, DAVID

    2004-01-01

    In this report, data are provided to gain insight into the potential impact of a lower viscosity glass on melter stability (i.e., pressure spikes, cold cap behavior) and/or pour stream stability. High temperature viscosity data are generated for the Frit 418-SB3 system as a function of waste loading (from 30 to 45 percent) and compared to similar data from other systems that have been (or are currently being) processed through the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter. The data are presented in various formats to potentially align the viscosity data with physical observations at various points in the melter system or critical DWPF processing unit operations. The expectations is that the data will be provided adequate insight into the vitrification parameters which might evolve into working solutions as DWPF strives to maximize waste throughput. This report attempts to provide insight into a physical interpretation of the data from a DWPF perspective. The theories present ed are certainly not an all inclusive list and the order in which they are present does imply a ranking, probability, or likelihood that the proposed theory is even plausible. The intent of this discussion is to provide a forum in which the viscosity data can be discussed in relation to possible mechanisms which could potentially lead to a workable solution as discussed in relation to possible solution as higher overall attainment is striven for during processing of the current or future sludge batches

  2. Real-Time Monitoring of Low-Level Mixed-Waste Loading during Polyethylene Microencapsulation using Transient Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Roger W.; Kalb, Paul D.; McClelland, John F.; Ochiai, Shukichi

    1999-01-01

    In polyethylene microencapsulation, low-level mixed waste (LLMW) is homogenized with molten polyethylene and extruded into containers, resulting in a lighter, lower-volume waste form than cementation and grout methods produce. Additionally, the polyethylene-based waste form solidifies by cooling, with no risk of the waste interfering with cure, as may occur with cementation and grout processes. We have demonstrated real-time monitoring of the polyethylene encapsulation process stream using a noncontact device based on transient infrared spectroscopy (TIRS). TIRS can acquire mid-infrared spectra from solid or viscous liquid process streams, such as the molten, waste-loaded polyethylene stream that exits the microencapsulation extruder. The waste loading in the stream was determined from the TIRS spectra using partial least squares techniques. The monitor has been demonstrated during the polyethylene microencapsulation of nitrate-salt LLMW and its surrogate, molten salt oxidation LLMW and its surrogate, and flyash. The monitor typically achieved a standard error of prediction for the waste loading of about 1% by weight with an analysis time under 1 minute

  3. Performance testing of waste forms in a tuff environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1983-11-01

    This paper describes experimental work conducted to establish the chemical composition of water which will have reacted with Topopah Spring Member tuff prior to contact with waste packages. The experimental program to determine the behavior of spent fuel and borosilicate glass in the presence of this water is then described. Preliminary results of experiments using spent fuel segments with defects in the Zircaloy cladding are presented. Some results from parametric testing of a borosilicate glass with tuff and 304L stainless steel are also discussed. Experiments conducted using Topopah Spring tuff and J-13 well water have been conducted to provide an estimate of the post-emplacement environment for waste packages in a repository at Yucca Mountain. The results show that emplacement of waste packages should cause only small changes in the water chemistry and rock mineralogy. The changes in environment should not have any detrimental effects on the performance of metal barriers or waste forms. The NNWSI waste form testing program has provided preliminary results related to the release rate of radionuclides from the waste package. Those results indicate that release rates from both spent fuel and borosilicate glass should be below 1 part in 10 5 per year. Future testing will be directed toward making release rate testing more closely relevant to site specific conditions. 17 references, 7 figures

  4. Regulatory basis for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, Bryan A.; Crawford, M.B.; Galson, D.A.; Marietta, Melvin G.

    2000-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is the first operational repository designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste from the defense programs of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is responsible for certifications and regulation of the WIPP facility for the radioactive components of the waste. The EPA has promulgated general radioactive waste disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 191. and WIPP-specific criteria to implement and interpret the generic disposal standards at 40 CFR Part 194. In October 1996. the DOE submitted its Compliance Certification Application (CCA) to the EPA to demonstrate compliance with the disposal standards at Subparts B and C of 40 CFR Part 191. This paper summarizes the development of the overall legal framework for radioactive waste disposal at the WIPP, the parallel development of the WIPP performance assessment (PA), and how the EPA disposal standards and implementing criteria formed the basis for the CCA WIPP PA. The CCA resulted in a certification in May 1998 by the EPA of the WIPP'S compliance with the EPA's disposal standard, thus enabling the WIPP to begin radioactive waste disposal

  5. Waste package performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.; Thatcher, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors completed a first cycle of model development from a specification to a computer program, PANDORA-1, for long-term performance assessment of waste packages. The model for one waste package at a time incorporates processes specific to the unsaturated environment at the proposed Yucca Mountain, NV, site. PANDORA-1 models the most likely processes and several modes of waste alteration and release. The development identified information needs for future models; many processes, local details, and combinations will have to be examined. Integration of ensemble performance and quantification of uncertainties are modeling steps at higher aggregation. Methodologies for these steps include sampling, which is well studied; we have focused on several open questions. The authors can now calculate the amount of variance reduction available from Latin hypercube sampling; it is a limited reduction. A new method, uncertainty analysis test-bed program compares the new with old sampling methods

  6. Study on the barrier performance of molten solidified waste (I). Review of the performance assessment research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Toshikatsu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Ogawa, Hiromichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Application of melting technique is thought as one of the effective methods to treatment of the waste from the view point of its homogeneity and waste volume reduction. Solidified products by melting are expected as potential candidates of engineered barrier in a repository due to the good properties for their stabilization of radionuclides and hazardous elements. However, the methodology of performance evaluation has not been estimated so far. In this report, a literature survey on the properties of molten solidified waste was performed. It is clarified that the leachability of waste elements such as Co or Sr in molten waste form would be controlled by the corrosion behaviors of iron or silica which are the matrix elements of the waste form. While, no investigations into the durability of waste form have performed so far. Also noticed that the research items on performance evaluation such as the leachability for long-lived radionuclides and durability of waste form would be necessary for the long-term barrier assessment on the disposal. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the performance of different anaerobic digestion technologies for solid waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez-Vazquez, M.; Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely-used technology in Europe with more than 50 full-scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools are required to evaluate the different available technologies, as well as the feed stocks that are suitable for treatment. Therefore, this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. To develop the framework, a review of the performance of digestion processes was first conducted. Because the data presented were for very different operational parameters (retention time, temperature, configuration set up, mixing, etc.) as well as substrates used for digestion, a standard method of comparison was developed. Gas production per Mg input, organic loading rate and percent volatile solids removal were identified as useful standard parameters for evaluating the performance of different technologies. This framework was constructed as a spread sheet and can be used for different set ups (configuration, organic loading rate, etc.) and with different substrates. It can predict, based on the input and using mass balances, the mass of products of the digester including biogas, treated solids and water. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs. (author)

  8. Evaluation of the performance of different anaerobic digestion technologies for solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez-Vazquez, M.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of solid wastes is now a widely-used technology in Europe with more than 50 full-scale plants operating. However, anaerobic solid waste digestion is still used to only a limited extent in North America with only three facilities in Canada. Because of the expected importance of anaerobic digestion in the future for energy recovery, reliable tools are required to evaluate the different available technologies, as well as the feed stocks that are suitable for treatment. Therefore, this paper presents a framework that has been developed for evaluating anaerobic solid waste digestion. To develop the framework, a review of the performance of digestion processes was first conducted. Because the data presented were for very different operational parameters (retention time, temperature, configuration set up, mixing, etc.) as well as substrates used for digestion, a standard method of comparison was developed. Gas production per Mg input, organic loading rate and percent volatile solids removal were identified as useful standard parameters for evaluating the performance of different technologies. This framework was constructed as a spread sheet and can be used for different set ups (configuration, organic loading rate, etc.) and with different substrates. It can predict, based on the input and using mass balances, the mass of products of the digester including biogas, treated solids and water. This framework provides a useful tool for evaluating the technical capabilities of different technologies, predicting the quantity of the products, and ultimately, making decisions as to which technologies best meet local needs. (author)

  9. The effect of load reductions on repetition performance for commonly performed multijoint resistance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto; Fontana, Fabio E

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 4 different loading schemes for the free weight bench press, wide grip front lat pull-down, and free weight back squat to determine the extent of progressive load reductions necessary to maintain repetition performance. Thirty-two recreationally trained women (age = 29.34 ± 4.58 years, body mass = 59.61 ± 4.72 kg, height = 162.06 ± 4.04 cm) performed 4 resistance exercise sessions that involved 3 sets of the free weight bench press, wide grip front lat pull-down, and free weight back squat, performed in this exercise order during all 4 sessions. Each of the 4 sessions was conducted under different randomly ordered loading schemes, including (a) a constant 10 repetition maximum (RM) load for all 3 sets and for all 3 exercises, (b) a 5% reduction after the first and second sets for all the 3 exercises, (c) a 10% reduction after the first and second sets for all the 3 exercises, and (d) a 15% reduction after the first and second sets for all the 3 exercises. The results indicated that for the wide grip front lat pull-down and free weight back squat, a 10% load reduction was necessary after the first and second sets to accomplish 10 repetitions on all the 3 sets. For the free weight bench press, a load reduction between 10 and 15% was necessary; specifically, a 10% reduction was insufficient and a 15% reduction was excessive, as evidenced by significantly >10 repetitions on the second and third sets for this exercise (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that a resistance training prescription that involves 1-minute rest intervals between multiple 10RM sets does require load reductions to maintain repetition performance. Practitioners might apply these results by considering an approximate 10% load reduction after the first and second sets for the exercises examined, when training women of similar characteristics as in this study.

  10. Effect of yoghurt waste on gut morphology and growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was carried out to determine the effect of yoghurt waste on intestinal morphology and growth performance of pigs weaned at 7 weeks of age. A total of 20 weaned pigs (15.6 ± 2kg, initial body weight {BW}) were randomly assigned in groups of four, to 5 experimental treatments in a randomized block design.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected.

  12. Radioactive Waste Management Complex low-level waste radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Magnuson, S.O.; Sussman, M.E.; Bhatt, R.N.

    1994-04-01

    This report documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of radioactive low-level waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This radiological performance assessment was conducted to evaluate compliance with applicable radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals inadvertently intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty and sensitivity analyses were performed. The results of the analyses indicate compliance with established radiological criteria and provide reasonable assurance that public health and safety will be protected

  13. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    2013-01-01

    -criteria analysis have been developed.A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented, and the main challenges and crucial parameters that need to be taken into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both policy...... example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi...

  14. Cognitive Load Theory: An Empirical Study of Anxiety and Task Performance in Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Jung; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores the relationship among three variables--cognitive load, foreign language anxiety, and task performance. Cognitive load refers to the load imposed on working memory while performing a particular task. The authors hypothesized that anxiety consumes the resources of working memory, leaving less capacity for cognitive…

  15. Reliable predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.

    1985-08-01

    Establishing reliable estimates of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis upon valid theories to predict performance. Predicting rates that radionuclides are released from waste packages cannot rest upon empirical extrapolations of laboratory leach data. Reliable predictions can be based on simple bounding theoretical models, such as solubility-limited bulk-flow, if the assumed parameters are reliably known or defensibly conservative. Wherever possible, performance analysis should proceed beyond simple bounding calculations to obtain more realistic - and usually more favorable - estimates of expected performance. Desire for greater realism must be balanced against increasing uncertainties in prediction and loss of reliability. Theoretical predictions of release rate based on mass-transfer analysis are bounding and the theory can be verified. Postulated repository analogues to simulate laboratory leach experiments introduce arbitrary and fictitious repository parameters and are shown not to agree with well-established theory. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Parametric study of geohydrologic performance characteristics for geologic waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, C.E.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-11-01

    One of the major objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage Program is to identify potential geologic sites for storage and isolation of radioactive waste (and possibly irradiated fuel). Potential sites for the storage and isolation of radioactive waste or spent fuel in a geologic rock unit are being carefully evaluated to ensure that radionuclides from the stored waste or fuel will never appear in the biosphere in amounts that would constitute a hazard to the health and safety of the public. The objective of this report is to quantify and present in graphical form the effects of significant geohydrologic and other performance characteristics that would influence the movement of radionuclides from a storage site in a rock unit to the biosphere. The effort in this study was focused on transport by groundwater because that is the most likely method of radionuclide escape. Graphs of the major performance characteristics that influence the transport of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere by groundwater are presented. The major characteristics addressed are radioactive decay, leach rate, hydraulic conductivity, porosity, groundwater gradient, hydrodynamic dispersion, ion exchange, and distance to the biosphere. These major performance characteristics are combind with each other and with the results of certain other combinations and presented in graphical form to provide the interrelationships of values measured during field studies. The graphical form of presentation should be useful in the screening process of site selection. An appendix illustrates the use of these graphs to assess the suitability of a site

  17. Estimation of waste package performance requirements for a nuclear waste repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, B.J.

    1980-07-01

    A method of developing waste package performance requirements for specific nuclides is described, and based on federal regulations concerning permissible concentrations in solution at the point of discharge to the accessible environment, a simple and conservative transport model, and baseline and potential worst-case release scenarios

  18. Proposed waste form performance criteria and testing methods for low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, E.M.; Fuhrmann, M.; Bowerman, B.; Bates, S.; Peters, R.

    1994-08-01

    This document describes proposed waste form performance criteria and testing method that could be used as guidance in judging viability of a waste form as a physico-chemical barrier to releases of radionuclides and RCRA regulated hazardous components. It is assumed that release of contaminants by leaching is the single most important property by which the effectiveness of a waste form is judged. A two-tier regimen is proposed. The first tier includes a leach test required by the Environmental Protection Agency and a leach test designed to determine the net forward leach rate for a variety of materials. The second tier of tests are to determine if a set of stresses (i.e., radiation, freeze-thaw, wet-dry cycling) on the waste form adversely impact its ability to retain contaminants and remain physically intact. It is recommended that the first tier tests be performed first to determine acceptability. Only on passing the given specifications for the leach tests should other tests be performed. In the absence of site-specific performance assessments (PA), two generic modeling exercises are described which were used to calculate proposed acceptable leach rates

  19. Waste Disposal: Long-term Performance Studies for Radioactive Waste Disposal and Hydrogeological Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marivoet, J

    2000-07-01

    The main objectives of SCK-CEN's R and D programme on long-term performance studies are: (1) to develop a methodology and associated tools for assessing the long-term safety of geological disposal of all types of radioactive waste in clay formations and of the shallow-land burial of low-level waste; (2) to assess the performance and to identify the most influential elements of integrated repository systems for the disposal of radioactive waste; (3) to collect geological, piezometric and hydraulic data required for studying the hydrogeological system in north-eastern Belgium; (4) to develop a regional aquifer model for north-easter Belgium and to apply it in the performance assessments for the Mol site; (5) to test, verify and improve computer codes used in the performance assessment calculations of waste disposal concepts and contaminated sites (the computer codes simulate water flow and transport of radionuclides in engineered barriers, aquifers and contaminated sites). The scientific programme and achievements in 1999 are described.

  20. The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Shephard, L.E.; Helton, J.C.; Basabilvazo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste that has been generated at government defense installations in the United States. The WIPP is located in an area of low population density in southeastern New Mexico. Waste disposal will take place in excavated chambers in a bedded salt formation approximately 655 m below the land surface. This presentation describes a performance assessment (PA) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) made by the DOE to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. Based on the CCA supported by the PA described in this presentation, the EPA has issued a preliminary decision to certify the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. At present (April 1998), it appears likely that the WIPP will be in operation by the end of 1998

  1. Fate of high loads of ammonia in a pond and wetland downstream from a hazardous waste disposal site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrofello, Michele; Durant, John L

    2007-07-01

    Halls Brook (eastern Massachusetts, USA) is a significant source of total dissolved ammonia (sum of NH(3) and NH(4)(+); (NH(3))(T)) to the Aberjona River, a water body listed for NH(3) impairment on the Clean Water Act section 303(d) list. We hypothesized (1) that (NH(3))(T) in Halls Brook derived from a hazardous waste site via groundwater discharging to a two-basin pond that feeds the brook; and (2) that transport of (NH(3))(T) to the Aberjona River was controlled by lacustrine and wetland processes. To test these hypotheses we measured (NH(3))(T) levels in the brook, the pond, and a wetlands directly downstream of the pond during both dry and wet weather over a ten month period. In addition, we analyzed sediment cores and nitrogen isotopes, and performed mass balance calculations. Groundwater discharge from beneath the hazardous waste site was the major source of (NH(3))(T) (20-67 kg d(-1)) and salinity to the north basin of the pond. The salty bottom waters of the north basin were anoxic on all sampling dates, and exhibited relatively stable (NH(3))(T) concentrations between 200 and 600 mg Nl(-1). These levels were >100-times higher than typical background levels, and 8-24-times above the acute effects level for (NH(3))(T) toxicity. Bottom waters from the north basin continuously spill over into the south basin contributing approximately 50% of the (NH(3))(T) load entering this basin. The remainder comes from Halls Brook, which receives (NH(3))(T) loadings from as yet unknown sources upstream. During storm events up to 50% of the mass of (NH(3))(T) was flushed from the south basin and into the wetlands. The wetlands acted as a (NH(3))(T) sink in dry weather in the growing season and a discharge-dependent (NH(3))(T) source to the Aberjona River during rainstorms.

  2. Dietary glycaemic load associated with cognitive performance in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Susan E; O'Connor, Eibhlís M; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine; O'Toole, Paul W; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Jeffery, Ian B

    2015-06-01

    Ageing is associated with loss of cognitive function and an increased risk of dementia which is expected to place growing demands on health and long-term care providers. Among multiple causative factors, evidence suggests that cognitive impairment in older subjects may be influenced by diet. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary patterns, dietary glycaemic load (GL) and cognition in older Irish adults. Community-dwelling subjects (n 208; 94 males and 114 females; aged 64-93 years) were analysed. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive capacity was tested using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). The data were clustered to derive patterns of dietary intake. Multivariable-adjusted logistic and Poisson regression models were used to examine the relationship between dietary GL and MMSE score. Elderly subjects consuming 'prudent' dietary patterns (high in fruit, vegetables, fish, low-fat dairy and salad dressings and low in red meat and white bread) had higher MMSE scores (better cognitive function) than those consuming 'Western' dietary pattern (high in red meat and white bread and low in fruit and vegetables; P nutritional status, residential property price, cardiovascular medications and energy intake. In this community-dwelling elderly Irish cohort, consumption of a high glycaemic diet is associated with poorer cognitive performance as assessed by the MMSE.

  3. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Every granite formation possesses, the following main characteristics: presence of fissures; physico-chemical alterability; presence of internal or peripheral heterogeneities. From samples at ambient temperature, sound granite is found to have the properties of a hard, elastic rock with a relatively low thermal conductivity. Its natural permeability is low or very low, and most of the percolating water passes through fissures affecting the rock mass. In this report are examined: effects of heat on cavity stability, mechanical interaction between conditioned wastes and the geological environment, effects on the stability of infilling materials, heat effects on the host rock and underground water, assessment of the permissible thermal load and design of the storage facility

  4. Vehicle Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery Model with Integrated Thermal Load Leveling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    backpressure can decrease engine power by ~1% per inch Hg.27 A specific exhaust heat exchanger design would need to take this effect into account...Materials. 2009;39:2142–2148. 4. Sprouse III C, Depcik C. Review of organic Rankine cycles for internal combustion engine exhaust waste heat recovery...Adams TG. Effect of exhaust system design on engine performance. 1980. SAE Technical Paper No. 800319. 16 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL

  5. Performance objectives of the tank waste remediation system low-level waste disposal program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the U.S. Department of Energy. The performance assessment is to determine whether open-quotes reasonable assuranceclose quotes exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal require: the protection of public health and safety; and the protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all exposure pathways exposure limit is 25 mrem/year), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the Peer Review Panel which DOE has established to review performance assessments, interacting with program management to establish their needs, and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Indian tribes) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest

  6. Temperature loading and rocks mechanics at final storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.; Stephansson, O.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the rock mechanical effects - in the far field - from the thermal loading at a final storage of radioactive waste in crystalline rocks. The stress distribution of a two-storey storage is described in more details. The temperature rise in a final storage of radiactive waste will create thermal stresses which may cause a failure of the rock mass, and thereby an increase of its permeability. However, the state of stress in the Earth's crust is able to neutralize the thermal stresses. By this analysis we have been able to demonstrate that the thermal stresses due to heat conduction from the final storage are compensated by the state of stress in the upper part of the crust. The absolute stress, which is the superposition of thermal stress and virgin rock stress, is in all cases found to be below the limit of failure due to frictional resistance between surfaces of constituent blocks in the rock mass. Failure by sliding friction is the most conservative failure criterion for a rock mass. (author)

  7. Load-following performance and assessment of CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayal, M.; Floyd, M.; Rattan, D.; Xu, Z.; Manzer, A.; Lau, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Kohn, E. [Ontario Power Generation, Fuel and Fuel Channel Analysis Dept., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Load following of nuclear reactors is now becoming an economic necessity in some countries. When nuclear power stations are operated in a load-following mode, the reactor and the fuel may be subjected to step changes in power on a weekly, daily, or even hourly basis, depending on the grid's needs. This paper updates the previous surveys of load-following capability of CANDU fuel, focusing mainly on the successful experience at the Bruce B station. As well, initial analytical assessments are provided that illustrate the capability of CANDU fuel to survive conditions other than those for which direct in-reactor evidence is available. (author)

  8. Uncertainty evaluation methods for waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.T.; Nair, P.K.; Journel, A.G.; Abramson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report identifies and investigates methodologies to deal with uncertainties in assessing high-level nuclear waste package performance. Four uncertainty evaluation methods (probability-distribution approach, bounding approach, expert judgment, and sensitivity analysis) are suggested as the elements of a methodology that, without either diminishing or enhancing the input uncertainties, can evaluate performance uncertainty. Such a methodology can also help identify critical inputs as a guide to reducing uncertainty so as to provide reasonable assurance that the risk objectives are met. This report examines the current qualitative waste containment regulation and shows how, in conjunction with the identified uncertainty evaluation methodology, a framework for a quantitative probability-based rule can be developed that takes account of the uncertainties. Current US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation requires that the waste packages provide ''substantially complete containment'' (SCC) during the containment period. The term ''SCC'' is ambiguous and subject to interpretation. This report, together with an accompanying report that describes the technical considerations that must be addressed to satisfy high-level waste containment requirements, provides a basis for a third report to develop recommendations for regulatory uncertainty reduction in the ''containment''requirement of 10 CFR Part 60. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Performance Evaluation of Asphalt Modified with Municipal Wastes for Sustainable Pavement Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasir Amin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The severe hot temperature and high traffic loadings in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA are causing distress in flexible pavements within a few years of service. Secondly, the conventional bitumen extracted from Saudi oil refineries have a performance grade of 64-10 (PG 64-10, which does not meet the SuperPave performance grade requirement for most of the KSA’s regions. In order to improve the performance grade of bitumen, different percentages of municipal wastes (plastic and crumb rubber were used as bitumen additives. The performance of bitumen at low, intermediate, and high temperatures was evaluated. This is important as the waste production is rising significantly due to the fast urbanization and high population growth in the KSA. Particularly, when there are very few ways of recycling these wastes (municipal, as well as industrial, which in fact have great impact on the environment. High-density polyethylene (HDP, low-density polyethylene (LDP, and crumb rubber (CR with 5%, 10%, and 15% by weight of bitumen, were mixed with the base bitumen (PG 64-10. Rotational viscometer (RV, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR, and bending beam rheometer (BBR were used to evaluate the viscosity, rutting, fatigue, and low-temperature behavior of base and modified binders. The test results indicated that the rutting (permanent deformation and fatigue resistance were significantly improved in modified binders due to the improvement in the visco-elastic properties.

  10. Pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate containing real waste plastics using Ni loaded zeolite catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-asadi, M.; Miskolczi, N.

    2018-05-01

    In this work the pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containing real waste plastic was investigated using different Ni loaded catalysts: Ni/ZSM-5, Ni/y-zeolite, Ni/β-zeolite and Ni/natural zeolite (clinoptilolite). Raw materials were pyrolyzed in a horizontal tubular reactor between 600 and 900°C using 10% of catalysts. It was found, that both temperature increasing and catalysts presence can increase the gas yields, however owing to gasification reactions, the pyrolysis oil yield decreased with increasing temperature. Ni/y-zeolite catalyst had the most benefit in gas yield increasing at low temperature; however Ni/ZSM-5 showed advanced property in gas yield increasing at high temperature. Gases contained hydrogen, carbon oxides and hydrocarbons, which composition was significantly affected by catalysts. Ni loaded zeolites favoured to the formation of hydrogen and branched hydrocarbons; furthermore the concentrations of both CO and CO2 were also increased as function of elevated temperature. That phenomenon was attributed to the further decomposition of PET, especially to the side chain scission reactions. Owing to the Boudouard reaction, the ratio of CO2/CO can increased with temperature. Pyrolysis oils were the mixtures of n-saturated, n-unsaturated, branched, oxygen free aromatics and oxygenated hydrocarbons. Temperature increasing has a significant effect to the aromatization and isomerization reactions, while the catalysts can efficiently decreased the concentration of oxygen containing compounds.

  11. Human footprint variation while performing load bearing tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara M Wall-Scheffler

    Full Text Available Human footprint fossils have provided essential evidence about the evolution of human bipedalism as well as the social dynamics of the footprint makers, including estimates of speed, sex and group composition. Generally such estimates are made by comparing footprint evidence with modern controls; however, previous studies have not accounted for the variation in footprint dimensions coming from load bearing activities. It is likely that a portion of the hominins who created these fossil footprints were carrying a significant load, such as offspring or foraging loads, which caused variation in the footprint which could extend to variation in any estimations concerning the footprint's maker. To identify significant variation in footprints due to load-bearing tasks, we had participants (N = 30, 15 males and 15 females walk at a series of speeds carrying a 20kg pack on their back, side and front. Paint was applied to the bare feet of each participant to create footprints that were compared in terms of foot length, foot width and foot area. Female foot length and width increased during multiple loaded conditions. An appreciation of footprint variability associated with carrying loads adds an additional layer to our understanding of the behavior and morphology of extinct hominin populations.

  12. Position paper: Live load design criteria for Project W-236A Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giller, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the live loads applied to the underground storage tanks of the Multi Function Waste Tank Facility, and to provide the basis for Project W-236A live load criteria. Project 236A provides encompasses building a Weather Enclosure over the two underground storage tanks at the 200-West area. According to the Material Handling Study, the Groves AT 1100 crane used within the Weather Enclosure will have a gross vehicle weight of 66.5 tons. Therefore, a 100-ton concentrated live load is being used for the planning of the construction of the Weather Enclosure

  13. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Coons, W.E.; Eastmond, R.; Morse, J.; Chakrabarti, S.; Zurkoff, J.; Colton, I.D.; Banz, I.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Program involves a comprehensive analysis of the WIPP project with respect to the recently finalized Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding the long-term geologic isolation of radioactive wastes. The performance assessment brings together the results of site characterization, underground experimental, and environmental studies into a rigorous determination of the performance of WIPP as a disposal system for transuranic radioactive waste. The Program consists of scenario development, geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical support analyses and will address the specific containment and individual protection requirements specified in 40 CFR 191 sub-part B. Calculated releases from these interrelated analyses will be reported as an overall probability distribution of cumulative release resulting from all processes and events occurring over the 10,000 year post-closure period. In addition, results will include any doses to the public resulting from natural processes occurring over the 1,000 year post-closure period. The overall plan for the WIPP Performance Assessment Program is presented along with approaches to issues specific to the WIPP project

  14. Evaluation of fourier transform profilometry performance: quantitative waste volume determination under simulated Hanford waste tank conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ping-Rey; Leone, Teresa; Long, Zhiling; Mott, Melissa A.; Perry Norton, O.; Okhuysen, Walter P.; Monts, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford Site is currently in the process of an extensive effort to empty and close its radioactive single-shell and double-shell waste storage tanks. Before this can be accomplished, it is necessary to know how much residual material is left in a given waste tank and the chemical makeup of the residue. The objective of Mississippi State University's Institute for Clean Energy Technology's (ICET) efforts is to develop, fabricate, and deploy inspection tools for the Hanford waste tanks that will (1) be remotely operable; (2) provide quantitative information on the amount of wastes remaining; and (3) provide information on the spatial distribution of chemical and radioactive species of interest. A collaborative arrangement has been established with the Hanford Site to develop probe-based inspection systems for deployment in the waste tanks. ICET is currently developing an in-tank inspection system based on Fourier Transform Profilometry, FTP. FTP is a non-contact, 3-D shape measurement technique. By projecting a fringe pattern onto a target surface and observing its deformation due to surface irregularities from a different view angle, FTP is capable of determining the height (depth) distribution (and hence volume distribution) of the target surface, thus reproducing the profile of the target accurately under a wide variety of conditions. Hence FTP has the potential to be utilized for quantitative determination of residual wastes within Hanford waste tanks. We have completed a preliminary performance evaluation of FTP in order to document the accuracy, precision, and operator dependence (minimal) of FTP under conditions similar to those that can be expected to pertain within Hanford waste tanks. Based on a Hanford C-200 series tank with camera access through a riser with significant offset relative to the centerline, we devised a testing methodology that encompassed a range of obstacles likely to be encountered 'in tank'. These test objects were inspected by use

  15. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Performance Improvement Of Cross-Flow Filtration For High Level Waste Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing cross-flow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Cross-flow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the cross-flow filter axial flowrate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and cross-flow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed

  17. PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OF CROSS-FLOW FILTRATION FOR HIGH LEVEL WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-01-12

    In the interest of accelerating waste treatment processing, the DOE has funded studies to better understand filtration with the goal of improving filter fluxes in existing cross-flow equipment. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was included in those studies, with a focus on start-up techniques, filter cake development, the application of filter aids (cake forming solid precoats), and body feeds (flux enhancing polymers). This paper discusses the progress of those filter studies. Cross-flow filtration is a key process step in many operating and planned waste treatment facilities to separate undissolved solids from supernate slurries. This separation technology generally has the advantage of self-cleaning through the action of wall shear stress created by the flow of waste slurry through the filter tubes. However, the ability of filter wall self-cleaning depends on the slurry being filtered. Many of the alkaline radioactive wastes are extremely challenging to filtration, e.g., those containing compounds of aluminum and iron, which have particles whose size and morphology reduce permeability. Unfortunately, low filter flux can be a bottleneck in waste processing facilities such as the Savannah River Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit and the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. Any improvement to the filtration rate would lead directly to increased throughput of the entire process. To date increased rates are generally realized by either increasing the cross-flow filter axial flowrate, limited by pump capacity, or by increasing filter surface area, limited by space and increasing the required pump load. SRNL set up both dead-end and cross-flow filter tests to better understand filter performance based on filter media structure, flow conditions, filter cleaning, and several different types of filter aids and body feeds. Using non-radioactive simulated wastes, both chemically and physically similar to the actual radioactive wastes, the authors performed

  18. Part-load performance of a high temperature Kalina cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The Kalina cycle has recently seen increased interest as an alternative to the conventional steam Rankine cycle. The cycle has been studied for use with both low and high temperature applications such as geothermal power plants, ocean thermal energy conversion, waste heat recovery, gas turbine...

  19. Development of a smart key performance indicator for in-situ load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieteren, G.; Bigaj-van Vliet, A.J.; Yang, Y.; Sangers, A.

    2017-01-01

    In-situ load testing of reinforced concrete (RC) structures is often performed to confirm the presence of the required resistance for the intended use (Conformity Load Testing) or to support the assessments of the residual capacity by models (Supplementary Load Testing for Condition Assessment).

  20. Evaluation of thermo-hydrological performance in support of the thermal loading systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Heat generated as a result of emplacing spent nuclear fuel will significantly affect the pre- and post-closure performance of the Mined Geological Disposal System (MGDS) at the potential repository site in Yucca Mountain. Understanding thermo-hydrological behavior under repository thermal loads is essential in (a) planning and conducting the site characterization and testing program, (b) designing the repository and engineered barrier system, and (c) assessing performance. The greatest concern for hydrological performance is source of water that would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. The primary sources of liquid water are: (1) natural infiltration, (2) condensate generated under boiling conditions, and (3) condensate generated under sub-boiling conditions. Buoyant vapor flow, occurring either on a sub-repository scale or on a mountain scale, any affect the generation of the second and third sources of liquid water. A system of connected fractures facilitates repository-heat-driven gas and liquid flow as well as natural infiltration. With the use of repository-scale and sub-repository-scale models, the authors analyze thermo-hydrological behavior for Areal Mass Loadings (AMLs) of 24.2, 35.9, 55.3, 83.4, and 110.5 MTU/acre for a wide range of bulk permeability. They examine the temporal and spatial extent of the temperature and saturation changes during the first 100,000 yr. They also examine the sensitivity of mountain scale moisture redistribution to a range of AMLs and bulk permeabilities. In addition, they investigate how boiling and buoyant, gas-phase convection influence thermo-hydrological behavior in the vicinity of emplacement drifts containing spent nuclear fuel

  1. Performance assessment requirements for the identification and tracking of transuranic waste intended for disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snider, C.A. [Department of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Weston, W.W. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To demonstrate compliance with environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive wastes, a performance assessment (PA) of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) was made of waste-waste and waste-repository interactions and impacts on disposal system performance. An estimate of waste components and accumulated quantities was derived from a roll-up of the generator/storage sites` TRU waste inventories. Waste components of significance, and some of negligible effect, were fixed input parameters in the model. The results identified several waste components that require identification and tracking of quantities to ensure that repository limits are not exceeded. The rationale used to establish waste component limits based on input estimates is discussed. The distinction between repository limits and waste container limits is explained. Controls used to ensure that no limits are exceeded are identified. For waste components with no explicit repository based limits, other applicable limits are contained in the WIPP Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). The 10 radionuclides targeted for identification and tracking on either a waste container or a waste stream basis include Am-241, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-242, U-233, U-234, U-238, Sr-90, and Cs-137. The accumulative activities of these radionuclides are to be inventoried at the time of emplacement in the WIPP. Changes in inventory curie content as a function of radionuclide decay and ingrowth over time will be calculated and tracked. Due to the large margin of compliance demonstrated by PA with the 10,000 year release limits specified, the quality assurance objective for radioassay of the 10 radionuclides need to be no more restrictive than those already identified for addressing the requirements imposed by transportation and WIPP disposal operations in Section 9 of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. 6 refs.

  2. Low-level radioactive waste performance assessments: Source term modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Godbee, H.W.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by government and commercial operations need to be isolated from the environment for at least 300 to 500 yr. Most existing sites for the storage or disposal of LLW employ the shallow-land burial approach. However, the U.S. Department of Energy currently emphasizes the use of engineered systems (e.g., packaging, concrete and metal barriers, and water collection systems). Future commercial LLW disposal sites may include such systems to mitigate radionuclide transport through the biosphere. Performance assessments must be conducted for LUW disposal facilities. These studies include comprehensive evaluations of radionuclide migration from the waste package, through the vadose zone, and within the water table. Atmospheric transport mechanisms are also studied. Figure I illustrates the performance assessment process. Estimates of the release of radionuclides from the waste packages (i.e., source terms) are used for subsequent hydrogeologic calculations required by a performance assessment. Computer models are typically used to describe the complex interactions of water with LLW and to determine the transport of radionuclides. Several commonly used computer programs for evaluating source terms include GWSCREEN, BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport), DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term), BARRIER (Ref. 5), as well as SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 (which are used in this study). The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes were prepared by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SOURCE1 is designed for tumulus-type facilities, and SOURCE2 is tailored for silo, well-in-silo, and trench-type disposal facilities. This paper focuses on the source term for ORNL disposal facilities, and it describes improved computational methods for determining radionuclide transport from waste packages

  3. Interim performance specifications for conceptual waste-package designs for geologic isolation in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The interim performance specifications and data requirements presented apply to conceptual waste package designs for all waste forms which will be isolated in salt geologic repositories. The waste package performance specifications and data requirements respond to the waste package performance criteria. Subject areas treated include: containment and controlled release, operational period safety, criticality control, identification, and waste package performance testing requirements. This document was generated for use in the development of conceptual waste package designs in salt. It will be revised as additional data, analyses, and regulatory requirements become available

  4. Performance assessment of an LNA used as active cold load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjærg, Sten Schmidl; Balling, Jan E.; Skou, Niels

    2015-01-01

    in various campaigns in very different environments. Primary calibration sources are a traditional hot load along with a noise diode, and the calibration quality is verified prior to almost each flight using a liquid Nitrogen cooled target. EMIRAD-2 also features a commercial-off-the-shelf (Miteq) low noise...

  5. Waste package performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.; Thatcher, R.M.

    1989-02-01

    We completed a first cycle of model development from a specification to a computer program, PANDORA-1, for long-term performance assessment of waste packages. The model for one waste package at a time incorporates processes specific to the unsaturated environment at the proposed Yucca Mountain, NV, site. PANDORA-1 models the most likely processes and several modes of waste alteration and release. The development identified information needs for future models; many processes, local details, and combinations will have to be examined. Integration of ensemble performance and quantification of uncertainties are modeling steps at higher aggregation. Methodologies for these steps include sampling, which is well studied; we have focused on several open questions. We can now calculate the amount of variance reduction available from Latin hypercube sampling; it is a limited reduction. A new method, controlled sampling, provides substantial variance reduction for a broad range of model functions. An uncertainty analysis test-bed program compares the new with old sampling methods. 7 refs., 1 tab

  6. Performance of engineered barriers for low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taplin, D.; Claridge, F.B.

    1987-09-01

    Geotechnical Resources Ltd., in association with Komex Consultants Ltd., was retained to collect, synthesize and evaluate the available information on the long term performance of engineered barriers for low-level radioactive wastes disposed in Canada. Literature was researched from Canadian, United States and European sources. A variety of barrier materials were assessed in the study and included natural clays, concrete and cement, metals, bentonite-sand admixes, bitumen and bituminous admixes, soil cement and polymeric membranes. The generalized geological and geotechnical conditions encountered within the soil and rock host media currently under consideration for disposal sites in southern Ontario were also summarized. Both internal barriers, or buffers, to immobilize the waste material and reduce radionuclide mobility, as well as external barriers to limit the migration of contaminants were examined. Microbial activities within the waste forms were analyzed, including cellulose degradation, methanogenesis and bicarbonate and organic reactions. Microbial interactions with the various engineered barrier materials under consideration were also assessed. Finally, the anticipated long term performances of the respective barrier materials under consideration were evaluated, along with the general suitability of the geological host media being proposed for disposal sites

  7. Characterization of a glass-bonded ceramic waste form loaded with U and Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkler, W.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Frank, S. M.; Richmann, M. K.; Johnson, S. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents microscopic characterization of four samples of a ceramic waste form (CWF) developed for disposal of actinide-containing electrorefiner salts. The four samples were prepared to investigate the influence of water content and the Pu:U ratio on CWF microstructure and performance. While the overall phase content is not strongly influenced by either variable, the presence of water in the initial zeolite has a detectable effect on CWF microstructure. It is found to influence the distribution of the major actinide host phase, a (U,Pu)O 2 mixed oxide

  8. Using a visual plate waste study to monitor menu performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla L; Rozell, Sarah B

    2004-01-01

    Two visual plate waste studies were conducted in 1-week phases over a 1-year period in an acute care hospital. A total of 383 trays were evaluated in the first phase and 467 in the second. Food items were ranked for consumption from a low (1) to high (6) score, with a score of 4.0 set as the benchmark denoting a minimum level of acceptable consumption. In the first phase two entrees, four starches, all of the vegetables, sliced white bread, and skim milk scored below the benchmark. As a result six menu items were replaced and one was modified. In the second phase all entrees scored at or above 4.0, as did seven vegetables, and a dinner roll that replaced sliced white bread. Skim milk continued to score below the benchmark. A visual plate waste study assists in benchmarking performance, planning menu changes, and assessing effectiveness.

  9. Case study of rutting performance of HMA modified with waste rubber powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Shafabakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low resistance against dynamic loads and short service life of pavement are the most significant problems in the conservation and maintenance of roads, to the extent that, annually enormous costs are spent in order to improve capabilities of road services in the country. Research shows that the use of some wastes such as waste rubber powder in asphalt mixtures not only increase its serves life but also cause to reduce production costs; furthermore, recycling the crumb rubber has also considerably environmental benefits environmental benefits such as reduced need for landfill, less atmospheric pollution from burning. In this paper, the effect of adding waste rubber powder on the rutting performance of asphalt mixtures has been studied. In order to compare the performance of rubberized asphalt mixtures and conventional asphalt, wheel track test has been used. The results of this study show that the use of rubber powder caused a significant decrease in the rate of rutting depth of rubber asphalt mixtures compared to control samples.

  10. Structure and short time degradation studies of sodium zirconium phosphate ceramics loaded with simulated fast breeder (FBR) waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayanan, A., E-mail: arvinda@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ambashta, R.D., E-mail: aritu@barc.gov.in [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Sudarsan, V. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Ajithkumar, T. [Applied Catalysis Unit, National Chemical Laboratory, Pune 411008 (India); Sen, D.; Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Wattal, P.K. [Process Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2017-04-15

    Sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) ceramics have been prepared using conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) routes. The structure of NZP ceramics, prepared using the HIP route, has been compared with conventionally sintered NZP using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and ({sup 31}P and {sup 23}Na) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. It is observed that NZP with no waste loading is aggressive toward the steel HIP-can during hot isostatic compaction and significant fraction of cations from the steel enter the ceramic material. Waste loaded NZP samples (10 wt% simulated FBR waste) show significantly low can-interaction and primary NZP phase is evident in this material. Upon exposure of can-interacted and waste loaded NZP to boiling water and steam, {sup 31}P NMR does not detect any major modifications in the network structure. However, the {sup 23}Na NMR spectra indicate migration of Na{sup +} ions from the surface and possible re-crystallization. This is corroborated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements carried out on these samples.

  11. Combustion and fuel loading characteristics of Hanford Site transuranic solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility is being designed for construction in the north end of the Central Waste Complex. The WRAP Facility will receive, store, and process radioactive solid waste of both transuranic (TRU) and mixed waste (mixed radioactive-chemical waste) categories. Most of the waste is in 208-L (55-gal) steel drums. Other containers such as wood and steel boxes, and various sized drums will also be processed in the facility. The largest volume of waste and the type addressed in this report is TRU in 208-L (55-gal) drums that is scheduled to be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1 (WRAP 1). Half of the TRU waste processed by WRAP 1 is expected to be retrieved stored waste and the other half newly generated waste. Both the stored and new waste will be processed to certify it for permanent storage in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) or disposal. The stored waste will go through a process of retrieval, examination, analysis, segregation, repackaging, relabeling, and documentation before certification and WIPP shipment. Newly generated waste should be much easier to process and certify. However, a substantial number of drums of both retrievable and newly generated waste will require temporary storage and handling in WRAP. Most of the TRU waste is combustible or has combustible components. Therefore, the presence of a substantial volume of drummed combustible waste raises concern about fire safety in WRAP and similar waste drum storage facilities. This report analyzes the fire related characteristics of the expected WRAP TRU waste stream

  12. Analysis of waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River, Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Routt County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Daniel P.; Steele, Timothy Doak; Anderson, Richard D.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis of the waste-load assimilative capacity of the Yampa River from Steamboat Springs to Hayden, Colo., a distance of 38 miles, was made during September 1975 to obtain information on the effects of projected waste loadings on this stream reach. Simulations of effects of waste loadings on streamflow quality were made using a steady-state water-quality model. The simulations were based on 7-day low-flow values with a 10-year recurrence interval and population projections for 2010. Model results for December and September streamflow conditions indicated that the recommended 1978 Colorado and 1976 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality standard of 0.02 milligram per liter for nonionized ammonia concentration would be exceeded. Model simulations also included the effect of a flow augmentation of 20 cubic feet per second from a proposed upstream reservoir. The permissible ammonia loading in the study reach could be increased approximately 25 percent with this amount of flow augmentation. Simulations of concentrations of dissolved oxygen, fecal-coliform bacteria, and nitrate nitrogen indicated that the State 's water-quality goals proposed for 1978, 1983, or 1985 would not be exceeded. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Methodologies for predicting the part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Prediction of the part-load performance of gas turbines is advantageous in various applications. Sometimes reasonable part-load performance is sufficient, while in other cases complete agreement with the performance of an existing machine is desirable. This paper is aimed at providing some guidance...... on methodologies for predicting part-load performance of aero-derivative gas turbines. Two different design models – one simple and one more complex – are created. Subsequently, for each of these models, the part-load performance is predicted using component maps and turbine constants, respectively. Comparisons...... with manufacturer data are made. With respect to the design models, the simple model, featuring a compressor, combustor and turbines, results in equally good performance prediction in terms of thermal efficiency and exhaust temperature as does a more complex model. As for part-load predictions, the results suggest...

  14. Performance of multifilamentary Nb3Sn under mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, D.S.; Schwall, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The critical current of a commercial multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor has been measured under the application of uniaxial tension at 4.2 K and following bending at room temperature. Significant reductions in J/subc/ are observed under uniaxial loading. Results are presented for a monolithic conductor manufactured by the bronze diffusion technique and for cable conductors formed by the tin-dip technique

  15. Performance of multifilamentary Nb3Sn under mechanical load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, D.S.; Schwall, R.E.

    1976-11-01

    The critical current density of commercial multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn conductor has been measured during the application of uniaxial tension at 4.2 0 K and after bending at room temperature. Significant reductions in the critical current density J/sub c/ occurred under uniaxial loading. Results are presented for a monolithic conductor manufactured by the bronze diffusion technique and for cable conductors formed by the tin-dip technique

  16. Developing a methodology for real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Maryam; Kerachian, Reza

    2018-04-15

    In this paper, a new methodology is proposed for the real-time trading of water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits in agricultural areas along the rivers. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) is chosen as an indicator of river water quality and the TDS load that agricultural water users discharge to the river are controlled by storing a part of return flows in some evaporation ponds. Available surface water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits are determined using a non-linear multi-objective optimization model. Total available permits are then fairly reallocated among agricultural water users, proportional to their arable lands. Water users can trade their water withdrawal and waste load discharge permits simultaneously, in a bilateral, step by step framework, which takes advantage of differences in their water use efficiencies and agricultural return flow rates. A trade that would take place at each time step results in either more benefit or less diverted return flow. The Nucleolus cooperative game is used to redistribute the benefits generated through trades in different time steps. The proposed methodology is applied to PayePol region in the Karkheh River catchment, southwest Iran. Predicting that 1922.7 Million Cubic Meters (MCM) of annual flow is available to agricultural lands at the beginning of the cultivation year, the real-time optimization model estimates the total annual benefit to reach 46.07 million US Dollars (USD), which requires 6.31 MCM of return flow to be diverted to the evaporation ponds. Fair reallocation of the permits, changes these values to 35.38 million USD and 13.69 MCM, respectively. Results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in the real-time water and waste load allocation and simultaneous trading of permits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance Assessment of a Generic Repository in Bedded Salt for DOE-Managed Nuclear Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J. M.; Mariner, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    A mined repository in salt is one of the concepts under consideration for disposal of DOE-managed defense-related spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high level waste (HLW). Bedded salt is a favorable medium for disposal of nuclear waste due to its low permeability, high thermal conductivity, and ability to self-heal. Sandia's Generic Disposal System Analysis framework is used to assess the ability of a generic repository in bedded salt to isolate radionuclides from the biosphere. The performance assessment considers multiple waste types of varying thermal load and radionuclide inventory, the engineered barrier system comprising the waste packages, backfill, and emplacement drifts, and the natural barrier system formed by a bedded salt deposit and the overlying sedimentary sequence (including an aquifer). The model simulates disposal of nearly the entire inventory of DOE-managed, defense-related SNF (excluding Naval SNF) and HLW in a half-symmetry domain containing approximately 6 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of 25,200 individual waste packages in 180 disposal panels, associated access halls, and 4 shafts connecting the land surface to the repository. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved numerically with PFLOTRAN, a massively parallel flow and transport code. Simulated processes include heat conduction and convection, waste package failure, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility limits, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 1 million years, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within an aquifer at a point approximately 4 kilometers downgradient of the repository. The software package DAKOTA is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form dissolution rates and properties of engineered and natural materials in order to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia

  18. Performance of continuous biodigestors supplied by young bull waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Monica Sarolli S. de M. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: monicas@unioeste.br; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias; Pivetta, Laercio Augusto [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Marechal C. Rondon, PR (Brazil); Costa, Luiz A. de Mendonca

    2008-07-01

    The various systems of livestock farming in the industrial model promote physical and chemical changes on waste. In the fattening of cattle in the model of confinement for young bulls has been a reversal in the proportion between roughage and concentrate, or the animals receive a higher amount of protein compared to the traditional system of confinement. This change of the waste characteristics involves modification in the system of treatment used. In this work, it was aimed to evaluate the performance of batch biodigestors operated in continuous system, supplied by young bulls waste which received two differentiated diets by the proportion between roughage and concentrate, whether or not containing inoculum in the substrate composition and subjected to three levels of temperature (25, 35 and 40 deg C). The parameters evaluated were: reduction of total solids (TS) and volatile (VS), and the potential for biogas production. The results showed a reduction of TS higher in the treatment which was not used inoculum for diet 1 and 2 with the exception of the treatment which the substrate was referred to temperature of 40 deg C on diet 2. For the reduction of VS there was no interference from the use of inoculum on diet 1. On diet 2, the largest reductions were observed without the use of inoculum, with the exception of the 40 deg C temperature. For the potential for biogas production the treatment where they used waste derived from animals fed with diet 2, with the use of inoculum, in the temperature of 40 deg C showed the greatest value, or 0.53 m{sup 3} of biogas per kg TS added. (author)

  19. Effect of feeding mode and dilution on the performance and microbial community population in anaerobic digestion of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Hun; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Kwon, Joong-Chun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun

    2018-01-01

    The effect of feeding mode and dilution was studied in anaerobic digestion of food waste. An upflow anaerobic digester with a settler was fed at six different organic loading rates (OLRs) from 4.6 to 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d for 200days. The highest methane productivity of 2.78LCH 4 /L/d was achieved at 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d during continuous feeding of diluted FW. Continuous feeding of diluted food waste showed more stable and efficient performance than stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste. Sharp increase in propionate concentration attributed towards deterioration of the digester performances in stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste. Microbial communities at various OLRs divulged that the microbial distribution in the continuous feeding of diluted food waste was not significantly perturbed despite the increase of OLR up to 8.6kgCOD/m 3 /d, which was contrast to the unstable distribution in stepwise feeding of undiluted food waste at 6.1kgCOD/m 3 /d. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance assessment for future low-level waste disposal facilities at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.; Kocher, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the strategy for waste management on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and the approach to preparing future performance assessments that has evolved from previous performance assessment studies of low-level radioactive waste disposal on the ORR. The strategy for waste management is based on the concept that waste classification should be determined by performance assessment other than the sources of waste. This dose-based strategy for waste classification and management places special importance on the preparation and interpretation of waste disposal performance assessments for selecting appropriate disposal technologies and developing waste acceptance criteria. Additionally, the challenges to be overcome in the preparation of performance assessments are discussed. 7 refs

  1. Proposal of a Global Training Load Measure Predicting Match Performance in an Elite Team Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan H. Lazarus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The use of external and internal load is an important aspect of monitoring systems in team sport. The aim of this study was to validate a novel measure of training load by quantifying the training-performance relationship of elite Australian footballers.Methods: The primary training measure of each of 36 players was weekly load derived from a weighted combination of Global Positioning System (GPS data and perceived wellness over a 24-week season. Smoothed loads representing an exponentially weighted rolling average were derived with decay time constants of 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Differential loads representing rate of change in load were generated in similar fashion. Other derived measures of training included monotony, strain and acute:chronic ratio. Performance was a proprietary score derived from match performance indicators. Effects of a 1 SD within-player change below and above the mean of each training measure were quantified with a quadratic mixed model for each position (defenders, forwards, midfielders, and rucks. Effects were interpreted using standardization and magnitude-based inferences.Results: Performance was generally highest near the mean or ~1 SD below the mean of each training measure, and 1 SD increases in the following measures produced small impairments: weekly load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; 1.5-week smoothed load (midfielders; 4-week differential load (defenders, forwards, and midfielders; and acute:chronic ratio (defenders and forwards. Effects of other measures in other positions were either trivial or unclear.Conclusion: The innovative combination of load was sensitive to performance in this elite Australian football cohort. Periods of high acute load and sustained increases in load impaired match performance. Positional differences should be taken into account for individual training prescription.

  2. An autonomous mobil robot to perform waste drum inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.D.; Ward, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    A mobile robot is being developed by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) Robotics Group of Westinghouse Savannah River company (WSRC) to perform mandated inspections of waste drums stored in warehouse facilities. The system will reduce personnel exposure and create accurate, high quality documentation to ensure regulatory compliance. Development work is being coordinated among several DOE, academic and commercial entities in accordance with DOE's technology transfer initiative. The prototype system was demonstrated in November of 1993. A system is now being developed for field trails at the Fernald site

  3. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  4. Performance Analysis of Waste Heat Driven Pressurized Adsorption Chiller

    KAUST Repository

    LOH, Wai Soong

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the transient modeling and performance of waste heat driven pressurized adsorption chillers for refrigeration at subzero applications. This innovative adsorption chiller employs pitch-based activated carbon of type Maxsorb III (adsorbent) with refrigerant R134a as the adsorbent-adsorbate pair. It consists of an evaporator, a condenser and two adsorber/desorber beds, and it utilizes a low-grade heat source to power the batch-operated cycle. The ranges of heat source temperatures are between 55 to 90°C whilst the cooling water temperature needed to reject heat is at 30°C. A parametric analysis is presented in the study where the effects of inlet temperature, adsorption/desorption cycle time and switching time on the system performance are reported in terms of cooling capacity and coefficient of performance. © 2010 by JSME.

  5. Effect of Waste Materials on Performance of Self Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREL, Sevgi; ÖZ, Hatice Öznur

    2017-01-01

    Asustainable waste management approach is increasingly important in order toconserve natural resources and reduce industrial waste. Creating new areas andmethods for evaluating waste materials has become one of the important researchareas of the scientific world. Due to the limited natural resources, recyclingapplications have emerged as a potential source of raw materials, especially inthe construction industry. For example, the use of industrial wastes (fly ash,marble dust, waste glass and ...

  6. Performance objectives for the Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the DOE (DOE 1988a, DOE 1999a). The performance assessment is to determine whether ''reasonable assurance'' exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal (DOE 1988a, DOE 1999a) require (see Appendix B): The protection of public health and safety; and The protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all-pathways exposure limit is 25 mredyear), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the review panels which DOE has established to review performance assessments; interacting with program management to establish the additional requirements of the program; and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Tribal Governments) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest. Because of space considerations, not all radionuclides and dangerous chemicals are listed in this document. The radionuclides listed here are those which were explicitly treated in the ILAW PA (Mann 1998). The dangerous chemicals listed here are those most often detected in Hanford tank waste as documented in the Regulatory Data Quality Objectives Supporting Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Project (Wiemers 1998)

  7. The comparison of DYNA3D to approximate solutions for a partially- full waste storage tank subjected to seismic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaslawsky, M.; Kennedy, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Mathematical solutions to the problem consisting of a partially-full waste tank subjected to seismic loading, embedded in soil, is classically difficult in that one has to address: soil-structure interaction, fluid-structure interaction, non-linear behavior of material, dynamic effects. Separating the problem and applying numerous assumptions will yield approximate solutions. This paper explores methods for generating these solutions accurately

  8. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment: 2001 Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided

  9. Maintenance Plan for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The plan for maintaining the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment (PA) is described. The plan includes expected work on PA reviews and revisions, waste reports, monitoring, other operational activities, etc

  10. Corrosion tests with uranium- and plutonium-loaded ceramic waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, L. R.; Johnson, S. G.; Ebert, W. L.; DiSanto, T.; Frank, S. M.; Holly, J. L.; Kropf, A. J.; Mertz, C. J.; O'Holleran, T. P.; Richmann, M. K.; Sinkler, W.; Tsai, Y.; Warren, A. R.; Noy, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tests were conducted with ceramic waste form (CWF) materials that contained small amounts of uranium and plutonium to study their release behavior as the CWF corroded. Materials made using the hot isostatic press (HIP) and pressureless consolidation (PC) methods were examined and tested. Four different materials were made using the HIP method with two salts having different U:Pu mole ratios and two zeolite reagents having different residual water contents. Tests with the four HIP U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at CWF-to-water mass ratios of 1:10 and 1:20, and for durations between 7 and 365 days. Materials made using two PC processing conditions were also tested. Tests with the two PC U,Pu-loaded CWF materials were conducted at 90 and 120 C, at a CWF-to-water mass ratio of 1:10, and for durations between 7 and 182 days. The releases of matrix elements, U, and Pu in tests conducted under different test conditions and with different materials are compared to evaluate the effects of composition and processing conditions on the release behavior of U and Pu and the chemical durabilities of the different materials. The distributions of released elements among the fractions that were dissolved, in colloidal form in the solution, and fixed to test vessel walls were measured and compared. Characterization of Pu-bearing colloidal particles recovered from the test solutions using solids analysis techniques are also reported. The principal findings from this study are: (1) The release of U and Pu is about 10X less than the release of Si and 50X less than the release of B under all test conditions. This implies that U and Pu are in a phase that is less soluble than the sodalite and binder glass matrix. (2) Almost all of the plutonium that is released from U,Pu-loaded CWF is present either as colloidal-sized particles in the size range between 5 and 100 nm in the test solution (about 15% of the total) or becomes fixed on stainless steel test vessel

  11. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  12. Influence of loading distribution on the performance of high pressure turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Daniel

    Midspan measurements were made in a transonic wind tunnel for three High Pressure (HP) turbine blade cascades at both design and off-design incidences. Comparisons with two-dimensional numerical simulations of the cascade flow were also made. The baseline profile is the midspan section of a HP turbine blade of fairly recent design. It is considered mid-loaded. To gain a better understanding of blade loading limits and the influence of loading distributions, the profile of the baseline airfoil was modified to create two new airfoils having aft-loaded and front-loaded pressure distributions. Tests were performed for exit Mach numbers between 0.6 and 1.2. In addition, measurements were made for an extended range of Reynolds numbers for constant Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.85, 0.95 and 1.05. At the design exit Mach number of 1.05 and at design incidence, the aft-loaded airfoil showed a reduction of almost 20% in the total pressure losses compared with the baseline airfoil. Based on the analysis of wake traverse data and base pressure measurements combined with numerical results, it was found that the poorer loss performance of the baseline mid-loaded profile compared to the aft-loaded blade could be attributed to the former's higher rear suction side curvature, which resulted in higher flow velocity in that region, which, in turn, contributed to reducing the base pressure. The lower base pressure at the trailing edge resulted in a stronger trailing edge shock system for the mid-loaded blade. This shock system increased the losses for the mid-loaded baseline profile when compared to the aft-loaded profile. On the negative side, it was also found that as Mach numbers were increased beyond the design value the performance of the aft-loaded blade deteriorated rapidly. Under such conditions, the front-loaded airfoil showed generally inferior performance compared with the baseline airfoil. At off-design incidence, the aft-loaded blade maintained a superior loss performance over a

  13. Effect of load carriage and natural terrain conditions on cognitive performance in desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Debojyoti; Pal, Madhusudan; Chatterjee, Tirthankar; Majumdar, Dhurjati

    2017-10-01

    Correct decision making is a critical component of cognitive performance of a soldier, which may be influenced by the load carriage and terrain conditions during their deployment in desert environment. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of loads and terrain conditions on the cognitive performance in a group of twelve healthy heat acclimatized infantry soldiers under natural desert environment. The soldiers participated in a 10min walking trial during carrying no load and also carrying 10.7, 21.4 and 30kg at two terrain conditions viz., sandy and hard. We studied attention, memory and executive function, which are having immense functional importance in military operations. Standardized cognitive test battery was applied to the participants after carrying each magnitude of load at each terrain. Baseline cognitive performance was recorded on a separate day and was compared with the performances recorded after the load carriage trials. An attempt was made to reveal the relationship between physiological workload (relative workload) and cognitive performance at the point of completion of load carriage trials. Load, terrains and load×terrain interaction did not produce any significant effect (p>0.05) on the cognitive performance. Attention and relative workload were found significantly correlated at hard terrain under no load, 21.4kg and 30kg. Significant correlation was found between executive function and relative workload at hard terrain under no load. Carrying upto 30kg load for 10min at 3.5-4kmph walking speed resulted in improvement in attention at sandy terrain, decrement in memory at both sandy and hard terrains and improvement in executive function at sandy terrain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Integrated waste load allocation for river water pollution control under uncertainty: a case study of Tuojiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiuping; Hou, Shuhua; Yao, Liming; Li, Chaozhi

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a bi-level optimization waste load allocation programming model under a fuzzy random environment to assist integrated river pollution control. Taking account of the leader-follower decision-making in the water function zones framework, the proposed approach examines the decision making feedback relationships and conflict coordination between the river basin authority and the regional Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) based on the Stackelberg-Nash equilibrium strategy. In the pollution control system, the river basin authority, as the leader, allocates equitable emissions rights to different subareas, and the then subarea EPA, as the followers, reallocates the limited resources to various functional zones to minimize pollution costs. This research also considers the uncertainty in the water pollution management, and the uncertain input information is expressed as fuzzy random variables. The proposed methodological approach is then applied to Tuojiang River in China and the bi-level linear programming model solutions are achieved using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker condition. Based on the waste load allocation scheme results and various scenario analyses and discussion, some operational policies are proposed to assist decision makers (DMs) cope with waste load allocation problem for integrated river pollution control for the overall benefits.

  15. Improving plant performance through efficient nuclear waste management - The French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses high and low level waste management and its effect on Plant Performance. In France, high level waste policy is an improtant factor in plant performance. The LLW section of the paper discusses the role of French Industry organization as well as the benefits of standard plants with standard practices. The regulation of the production of waste and the waste processing by utilities is covered

  16. Sediment filtration can reduce the N load of the waste water discharge - a full-scale lake experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, Sanni L.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Karvinen, Anu; Rissanen, Antti J.; Ropponen, Janne; Juntunen, Janne; Tiirola, Marja

    2016-04-01

    European commission has obliged Baltic states to reduce nitrate load, which requires high investments on the nitrate removal processes and may increase emissions of greenhouse gases, e.g. N2O, in the waste water treatment plants. We used ecosystem-scale experimental approach to test a novel sediment filtration method for economical waste water N removal in Lake Keurusselkä, Finland between 2014 and 2015. By spatially optimizing the waste water discharge, the contact area and time of nitrified waste water with the reducing microbes of the sediment was increased. This was expected to enhance microbial-driven N transformation and to alter microbial community composition. We utilized 15N isotope pairing technique to follow changes in the actual and potential denitrification rates, nitrous oxide formation and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) in the lake sediments receiving nitrate-rich waste water input and in the control site. In addition, we investigated the connections between observed process rates and microbial community composition and functioning by using next generation sequencing and quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we estimated the effect of sediment filtration method on waste water contact time with sediment using the 3D hydrodynamic model. We sampled one year before the full-scale experiment and observed strong seasonal patterns in the process rates, which reflects the seasonal variation in the temperature-related mixing patterns of the waste water within the lake. During the experiment, we found that spatial optimization enhanced both actual and potential denitrification rates of the sediment. Furthermore, it did not significantly promote N2O emissions, or N retention through DNRA. Overall, our results indicate that sediment filtration can be utilized as a supplemental or even alternative method for the waste water N removal.

  17. Impact of Cyclic Loading on Chloride Diffusivity and Mechanical Performance of RC Beams under Seawater Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Pang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was conducted to investigate the impact of cyclic loading on the mechanical performance and chloride diffusivity of RC beams exposed to seawater wet-dry cycles. To induce initial damage to RC beam specimen, cyclic loading controlled by max load and cycles was applied. Then beam specimens underwent 240 wet-dry cycles of seawater. Results show that the chloride content increased as max load and cycle increased. The chloride content at steel surface increased approximatively linearly as average crack width increased. Moreover, the max load had more influence on chloride content at steel surface than cycle. The difference of average chloride diffusion coefficient between tension and compression concrete was little at uncracked position. Average chloride diffusion coefficient increased as crack width increased when crack width was less than 0.11 mm whereas the increasing tendency was weak when crack width exceeded 0.11 mm. The residual yield load and ultimate load of RC beams decreased as max load and cycle increased. Based on univariate analysis of variance, the max load had more adverse effect on yield load and ultimate load than cycle.

  18. NWTS program criteria for mined geologic disposal of nuclear waste: functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has primary federal responsibility for the development and implementation of safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear waste disposal methods. Currently, the principal emphasis in the program is on emplacement of nuclear wastes in mined geologic repositories well beneath the earth's surface. A brief description of the mined geologic disposal system is provided. The National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) program was established under DOE's predecessor, the Energy Research and Development Administration, to provide facilities for the mined geologic disposal of radioactive wastes. The NWTS program includes both the development and the implementation of the technology necessary for designing, constructing, licensing, and operating repositories. The program does not include the management of processing radioactive wastes or of transporting the wastes to repositories. The NWTS-33 series, of which this document is a part, provides guidance for the NWTS program in the development and implementation of licensed mined geologic disposal systems for solidified high-level and transuranic (TRU) wastes. This document presents the functional requirements and performance criteria for waste packages for solidified high-level waste and spent fuel. A separate document to be developed, NWTS-33(4b), will present the requirements and criteria for waste packages for TRU wastes. The hierarchy and application of these requirements and criteria are discussed in Section 2.2

  19. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  20. Performance of the IEEE 802.3 EPON registration scheme under high load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Swapnil P.; Bartos, Radim

    2004-09-01

    The proposed standard for the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Passive Optical Network includes a random delayed transmission scheme for registration of new nodes. Although the scheme performs well on low loads, our simulation demonstrates the degraded and undesirable performance of the scheme at higher loads. We propose a simple modification to the current scheme that increases its range of operation and is compatible with the IEEE draft standard. We demonstrate the improvement in performance gained without any significant increase in registration delay.

  1. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Combined cycle performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    The part-load performance of combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry gas turbines on the part-load efficiency for combined...... cycles used for ship propulsion. Moreover, the paper is aimed at developing methodologies and deriving models for part-load simulations suitable for energy system analysis of various components within combined cycle power plants. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero......-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. The results suggest that by the use of variable geometry gas turbines, the combined cycle part-load performance can be improved. In order to minimise the voyage fuel consumption, a combined cycle featuring two-shaft gas turbines with VAN control...

  2. Variable geometry gas turbines for improving the part-load performance of marine combined cycles - Gas turbine performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    The part-load performance of gas and steam turbine combined cycles intended for naval use is of great importance, and it is influenced by the gas turbine configuration and load control strategy. This paper is aimed at quantifying the effects of variable geometry on the gas turbine part...... of various components within gas turbines. Two different gas turbine configurations are studied, a two-shaft aero-derivative configuration and a single-shaft industrial configuration. When both gas turbine configurations are running in part-load using fuel flow control, the results indicate better part......-load performance for the two-shaft gas turbine. Reducing the load this way is accompanied by a much larger decrease in exhaust gas temperature for the single-shaft gas turbine than for the two-shaft configuration. As used here, the results suggest that variable geometry generally deteriorates the gas turbine part...

  3. Performance of a Press-Lam bridge : a 5-year load-testing and monitoring program

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. S. Gromala; R. C. Moody; M. M. Sprinkel

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of load tests on an experimental highway bridge erected and put into service on the George Washington National Forest in Virginia in 1977. The bridge, made entirely of Press-Lam, a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) product, was load tested 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after erection. The bridge continues to perform quite well and,...

  4. A quantitative measure for degree of automation and its relation to system performance and mental load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Z G; Macwan, A P; Wieringa, P A

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we quantitatively model degree of automation (DofA) in supervisory control as a function of the number and nature of tasks to be performed by the operator and automation. This model uses a task weighting scheme in which weighting factors are obtained from task demand load, task mental load, and task effect on system performance. The computation of DofA is demonstrated using an experimental system. Based on controlled experiments using operators, analyses of the task effect on system performance, the prediction and assessment of task demand load, and the prediction of mental load were performed. Each experiment had a different DofA. The effect of a change in DofA on system performance and mental load was investigated. It was found that system performance became less sensitive to changes in DofA at higher levels of DofA. The experimental data showed that when the operator controlled a partly automated system, perceived mental load could be predicted from the task mental load for each task component, as calculated by analyzing a situation in which all tasks were manually controlled. Actual or potential applications of this research include a methodology to balance and optimize the automation of complex industrial systems.

  5. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schanfein, M.; Bonner, C.; Maez, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1997-11-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems` performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims of guaranteeing any system`s performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems` performance be evaluated. 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Performance validation of commercially available mobile waste-assay systems: Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schanfein, M.; Bonner, C.; Maez, R.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content to reduce the radioactive hazard to the public. Validation of the waste-assay systems' performance is critical for establishing the credibility of the assay results for storage and disposal purposes. Canberra Nuclear has evaluated regulations worldwide and identified standard, modular, neutron- and gamma-waste-assay systems that can be used to characterize a large portion of existing and newly generated transuranic (TRU) and low-level waste. Before making claims of guaranteeing any system's performance for specific waste types, the standardized systems' performance be evaluated. 7 figs., 11 tabs

  7. School education, physical performance in late midlife and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse M.; Andersen, Lars L.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.

    2016-01-01

    , sagittal flexibility) and muscle strength (jump height, trunk extension and flexion, and handgrip strength). RESULTS: Among women, higher school education was associated with better performance in all physical performance tests. Among men, higher school education was associated with better performance only......, and to determine to what extent cumulative physiological stress mediated these associations. METHODS: The study is based on data from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB; n=5467 participants, aged 48-62 years, 31.5% women). School education was measured as highest examination passed in primary...... in chair rise and jump height. AL partially mediated the association between school education and physical performance, and accounted only for 2-30% of the total effect among women. Similar results were observed among men for chair rise and jump height. CONCLUSIONS: These results might indicate that AL...

  8. Modeling Operator Performance in Low Task Load Supervisory Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    important to model the best and 65 worst performers separately. It is easy to see that the best performers were better multitaskers and more directed...the expected population this research will influence is expected to contain men and women between the ages of 18 and 50 with an interest in using...for your patience and great sense of humor. I could not ask for a better thesis reader. Thank you, Amy D’Agostino, for taking the time to read my

  9. Performance analysis of conceptual waste package designs in salt repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, G. Jr.; Raines, G.E.; Kircher, J.F.

    1984-01-01

    A performance analysis of commercial high-level waste and spent fuel conceptual package designs in reference repositories in three salt formations was conducted with the WAPPA waste package code. Expected conditions for temperature, stress, brine composition, radiation level, and brine flow rate were used as boundary conditions to compute expected corrosion of a thick-walled overpack of 1025 wrought steel. In all salt formations corrosion by low Mg salt-dissolution brines typical of intrusion scenarios was too slow to cause the package to fail for thousands of years after burial. In high Mg brines judged typical of thermally migrating brines in bedded salt formations, corrosion rates which would otherwise have caused the packages to fail within a few hundred years were limited by brine availability. All of the brine reaching the package was consumed by reaction with the iron in the overpack, thus preventing further corrosion. Uniform brine distribution over the package surface was an important factor in predicting long package lifetimes for the high Mg brines. 14 references, 15 figures

  10. Performance assessment of geological isolation systems for radioactive waste. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadelli, N.; Cottone, G.; Orlowski, S.; Bertozzi, G.; Girardi, F.; Saltelli, A.

    1988-01-01

    The report summarizes the studies undertaken in the framework of the project PAGIS of the CEC Research Programme on radioactive waste. It concerns the analysis of the safety performances on the deep disposal of vitrified high level waste in four geological options: clay, granite, salt and the sub-seabed. The report describes the selection of sites and scenarios with the corresponding data base. It outlines the methodology adopted for determining the safety level which can be achieved with an underground disposal system for HLW. Two complementary approaches have been implemented: 1) a set of deterministic calculations for evaluating the dose rates as a function of time and for analysing local sensitivity on single parameters or components of the disposal system, 2) stochastic calculations for both uncertainty and global sensitivity analyses. For each option, the report presents the most significant results, obtained from the calculations at specific sites-from both the approaches. Apart the dose rates and their expectation values, the predominant radionuclides and pathways to man are identified as well as the most sensitive parameters and phenomena. The final chapter concludes stating the feasibility of safe disposal of HLW in underground repositories. This document is one of a set of 5 reports covering a relevant project of the European Community on a nuclear safety subject having very wide interest. The five volumes are: the summary (EUR 11775-EN), the clay (EUR 11776-EN), the granite (EUR 11777-FR), the salt (EUR 11778-EN) and the sub-seabed (EUR 11779-EN)

  11. Analysis of Mesh Distribution Systems Considering Load Models and Load Growth Impact with Loops on System Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Sharma, A.; Murty, V. V. S. N.

    2014-12-01

    The distribution system is the final link between bulk power system and consumer end. A distinctive load flow solution method is used for analysis of the load flow of radial and weakly meshed network based on Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL) and KVL. This method has excellent convergence characteristics for both radial as well as weakly meshed structure and is based on bus injection to branch current and branch-current to bus-voltage matrix. The main contribution of the paper is: (i) an analysis has been carried out for a weekly mesh network considering number of loops addition and its impact on the losses, kW and kVAr requirements from a system, and voltage profile, (ii) different load models, realistic ZIP load model and load growth impact on losses, voltage profile, kVA and kVAr requirements, (iii) impact of addition of loops on losses, voltage profile, kVA and kVAr requirements from substation, and (iv) comparison of system performance with radial distribution system. Voltage stability is a major concern in planning and operation of power systems. This paper also includes identifying the closeness critical bus which is the most sensitive to the voltage collapse in radial distribution networks. Node having minimum value of voltage stability index is the most sensitive node. Voltage stability index values are computed for meshed network with number of loops added in the system. The results have been obtained for IEEE 33 and 69 bus test system. The results have also been obtained for radial distribution system for comparison.

  12. Waste Form Release Data Package for the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrail, B. Peter; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Martin, Paul F.; Schaef, Herbert T.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Steele, Jackie L.

    2001-02-01

    This data package documents the experimentally derived input data on the representative waste glasses LAWABP1 and HLP-31 that will be used for simulations of the immobilized lowactivity waste disposal system with the Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM) code. The STORM code will be used to provide the near-field radionuclide release source term for a performance assessment to be issued in March of 2001. Documented in this data package are data related to 1) kinetic rate law parameters for glass dissolution, 2) alkali-H ion exchange rate, 3) chemical reaction network of secondary phases that form in accelerated weathering tests, and 4) thermodynamic equilibrium constants assigned to these secondary phases. The kinetic rate law and Na+-H+ ion exchange rate were determined from single-pass flow-through experiments. Pressurized unsaturated flow and vapor hydration experiments were used for accelerated weathering or aging of the glasses. The majority of the thermodynamic data were extracted from the thermodynamic database package shipped with the geochemical code EQ3/6. However, several secondary reaction products identified from laboratory tests with prototypical LAW glasses were not included in this database, nor are the thermodynamic data available in the open literature. One of these phases, herschelite, was determined to have a potentially significant impact on the release calculations and so a solubility product was estimated using a polymer structure model developed for zeolites. Although this data package is relatively complete, final selection of ILAW glass compositions has not been done by the waste treatment plant contractor. Consequently, revisions to this data package to address new ILAW glass formulations are to be regularly expected.

  13. Conditions for enhanced performance of segmented thermoelectrics under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-08-01

    The Onsager-de Groot-Callen transport theory is used to investigate the performance of double segmented thermoelectrics as generators. We show that such an inhomogeneous device usually performs worse than predicted by the effective transport coefficients. This is caused by the difference of the open circuit Seebeck voltage and the Seebeck voltage under operating conditions. The electrical current and the related interface Peltier effect cause a self-organization of the temperature profile such that the temperature drop across the material with the higher absolute Seebeck coefficient is reduced. However, including Joule heating we derive conditions for the opposite effect resulting in an enhanced power.

  14. Effect of Physical Load on Aerobic Exercise Performance during Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, Robert W; Heavens, Kristen R; Luippold, Adam J; Charkoudian, Nisha; Schwartz, Steven A; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of increasing external loads on 5-km treadmill time trial (TT) performance in 20°C and 40°C environmental conditions and to construct an ecologically relevant performance prediction decision aid. Twenty-six male and four female volunteers (age, 23.5 ± 6.9 yr; weight, 76.0 ± 8.9 kg; height, 1.75 ± 0.07 m; V˙O2peak, 50.7 ± 4.5 mL·kg·min) participated in a counterbalanced, mixed-model design, with each subject assigned to a load group (20%, 30%, or 50% body mass (BM); n = 10 per group). Volunteers performed three, self-paced 5-km familiarization TT (treadmill) without external load. Each volunteer then performed a 5-km TT in each environment with loads of either 20% (n = 10), 30% (n = 10), or 50% (n = 10) of BM. 1) Loads of (20%, 30%, and 50% of BM) impaired 5-km TT performance compared with that when unloaded (P exercise trials, an ecologically valid decision aid was developed from self-paced data, in which pace (km·h) can be predicted for individual levels of heat, load, or heat + load in combination.

  15. Demonstration of a performance assessment methodology for nuclear waste isolation in basalt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonano, E.J.; Davis, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the demonstration of a performance assessment methodology developed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in the analysis of high-level radioactive waste disposal in deep basalts. Seven scenarios that could affect the performance of a repository in basalts were analyzed. One of these scenarios, normal ground-water flow, was called the base-case scenario. This was used to demonstrate the modeling capabilities in the methodology necessary to assess compliance with the ground-water travel time criterion. The scenario analysis consisted of both scenario screening and consequence modeling. Preliminary analyses of scenarios considering heat released from the waste and the alteration of the hydraulic properties of the rock mass due to loads created by a glacier suggested that these effects would not be significant. The analysis of other scenarios indicated that those changing the flow field in the vicinity of the repository would have an impact on radionuclide discharges, while changes far from the repository may not be significant. The analysis of the base-case scenario was used to show the importance of matrix diffusion as a radionuclide retardation mechanism in fractured media. The demonstration of the methodology also included an overall sensitivity analysis to identify important parameters and/or processes. 15 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Scenarios for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Scenarios describing representative exposure cases associated with the disposal of low activity waste from the Hanford Waste Tanks have been defined. These scenarios are based on guidance from the Department of Energy, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and previous Hanford waste disposal performance assessments

  17. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  18. Performance Analysis of Savonius Rotor Based Hydropower Generation Scheme with Electronic Load Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajen Pudur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the performance of electronic load controller (ELC of asynchronous generator (AG coupled to an uncontrolled Savonius turbine and variable water velocity. An AC-DC-AC converter with a dc link capacitor is employed to maintain the required frequency. The ELC which is feeding a resistive dump load is connected in parallel with the generating system and the power consumption is varied through the duty cycle of the chopper. Gate triggering of ELC is accomplished through sinusoidal pulse width modulation (SPWM by sensing the load current. A MATLAB/Simulink model of Savonius rotor, asynchronous generator, ELC, and three-phase load is presented. The proposed scheme is tested under various load conditions under varying water velocities and the performances are observed to be satisfactory.

  19. A performance assessment methodology for low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Mattingly, P.A.

    1990-07-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This report provides a summary of background reports on the development of the methodology and an overview of the models and codes selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology and a sequential procedure for applying the methodology. Discussions are provided of models and associated assumptions that are appropriate for each phase of the methodology, the goals of each phase, data required to implement the models, significant sources of uncertainty associated with each phase, and the computer codes used to implement the appropriate models. In addition, a sample demonstration of the methodology is presented for a simple conceptual model. 64 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs

  20. Radionuclide Incorporation and Long Term Performance of Apatite Waste Forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianwei [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Lian, Jie [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Gao, Fei [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-01-04

    This project aims to combines state-of-the-art experimental and characterization techniques with atomistic simulations based on density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. With an initial focus on long-lived I-129 and other radionuclides such as Cs, Sr in apatite structure, specific research objectives include the atomic scale understanding of: (1) incorporation behavior of the radionuclides and their effects on the crystal chemistry and phase stability; (2) stability and microstructure evolution of designed waste forms under coupled temperature and radiation environments; (3) incorporation and migration energetics of radionuclides and release behaviors as probed by DFT and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; and (4) chemical durability as measured in dissolution experiments for long term performance evaluation and model validation.

  1. Preparation and Performance of Asphalt Compound Modified with Waste Crumb Rubber and Waste Polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three kinds of modified asphalt were prepared by adding waste crumb rubber (WCR, waste polyethylene (WPE, and WCR/WPE to base asphalt, respectively. The influence of different doses on the performance of modified asphalt, such as 25°C penetration, softening point, 5°C ductility, and 135°C, 165°C viscosity, was studied, and the modification mechanism of modified asphalt was discussed through the fluorescence microscope. As the waterproofing materials, the waterproofness of WCR/WPE compound modified asphalt was tested. The results show that the WPE modified asphalt has excellent resistance to high temperature and WCR modified asphalt has good low temperature resistance. The resistance to deformation ability of WPE modified asphalt is better than that of the WCR modified asphalt. The 135°C viscosity of compound modified asphalt is better than that of WPE and WCR modified asphalt. In addition, the waterproofness of compound modified asphalt using waterproofing materials is better than that of common waterproofing materials.

  2. Review on Fuel Loading Process and Performance for Advanced Fuel Handling Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sang-Gyoon; Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Young-Baik; Lee, Deuck-Soo

    2007-01-01

    The fuel loading process and the performance of the advanced fuel handling equipment for OPR 1000 (Optimized Power Plant) are analyzed and evaluated. The fuel handling equipment, which acts critical processes in the refueling outage, has been improved to reduce fuel handling time. The analysis of the fuel loading process can be a useful tool to improve the performance of the fuel handling equipment effectively. Some recommendations for further improvement are provided based on this study

  3. Random spectrum loading of dental implants: An alternative approach to functional performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemtov-Yona, K; Rittel, D

    2016-09-01

    The fatigue performance of dental implants is usually assessed on the basis of cyclic S/N curves. This neither provides information on the anticipated service performance of the implant, nor does it allow for detailed comparisons between implants unless a thorough statistical analysis is performed, of the kind not currently required by certification standards. The notion of endurance limit is deemed to be of limited applicability, given unavoidable stress concentrations and random load excursions, that all characterize dental implants and their service conditions. We propose a completely different approach, based on random spectrum loading, as long used in aeronautical design. The implant is randomly loaded by a sequence of loads encompassing all load levels it would endure during its service life. This approach provides a quantitative and comparable estimate of its performance in terms of lifetime, based on the very fact that the implant will fracture sooner or later, instead of defining a fatigue endurance limit of limited practical application. Five commercial monolithic Ti-6Al-4V implants were tested under cyclic, and another 5 under spectrum loading conditions, at room temperature and dry air. The failure modes and fracture planes were identical for all implants. The approach is discussed, including its potential applications, for systematic, straightforward and reliable comparisons of various implant designs and environments, without the need for cumbersome statistical analyses. It is believed that spectrum loading can be considered for the generation of new standardization procedures and design applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Waste form performance assessment in the YUCCA Mountain engineered barrier system, American Nuclear Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, E. E.; Fanning, T. H.; Wigeland, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    This work demonstrates a technique for comparing the performance of waste forms in a repository environment when one or more of the waste forms constitute a small part of the total amount of waste planned for the repository. In applying the technique, it is important to identify radionuclides that are highly soluble in the transport fluid since it is only for these that the release is controlled by the dissolution rate of the waste form matrix. The techniques presented here have been applied to an evaluation of the performance of waste forms from the electrometallurgical treatment of spent fuel in the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository Engineered Barrier System (EBS)

  5. Scientific basis for long-term prediction of waste-form performance under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.

    1982-10-01

    This paper presents an overview of the fundamental principles involved in predicting long-term performance of waste forms by the as-low-as-reasonably-achievable approach. Repository conditions which make up the waste-form environment, the aging of the waste form, the important radionuclides in the waste form, the chemistry of repository fluids, and multicomponent interactions testing were considered in order to describe these principles. The need for confidence limits on the prediction of waste-form performance and ways of achieving a definition of the confidence limits are discussed

  6. Testing and Performance Validation of a Shielded Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor Designed for the Measurement of Low Level Waste-13043

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, John A.; Burke, Kevin J.; Towner, Antony C.N.; Beaven, Graham; Spence, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development, testing and validation of a shielded waste segregation and clearance monitor designed for the measurement of low-density low-level waste (LLW). The monitor is made of a measurement chamber surrounded by detectors and a shielded outer frame. The shielded chamber consists of a steel frame, which contains typically 1.5 inches (3.81 cm) of lead and 0.5 inches (1.27 cm) of steel shielding. Inside the shielding are plastic scintillator panels, which serve as gross gamma ray detectors. The detector panels, with embedded photomultipliers, completely surround the internal measurement chamber on all 6 sides. Care has been taken to distribute the plastic scintillator detectors in order to optimise both the efficiency for gamma ray detection and at the same time achieve a volumetric sensitivity, which is as uniform as possible. A common high voltage power supply provides the bias voltage for each of the six photomultipliers. The voltage signals arising from the detectors and photomultipliers are amplified by six sensitive amplifiers. Each amplifier incorporates a single channel analyser with both upper and lower thresholds and the digitised counts from each detector are recorded on six scalars. Operation of the device is by means of a microprocessor from which the scalars are controlled. An internal load cell linked to the microprocessor determines the weight of the waste object, and this information is used to calculate the specific activity of the waste. The monitor makes background measurements when the shielded door is closed and a sample, usually a bag of low-density waste, is not present in the measurement chamber. Measurements of the minimum detectable activity (MDA) of an earlier large volume prototype instrument are reported as part of the development of the Waste Segregation and Clearance Monitor (WSCM) described in the paper. For the optimised WSCM a detection efficiency of greater than 32% was measured using a small Cs-137

  7. CASTOR registered HAW28M - a high heat load cask for transport and storage of vitrified high level waste containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossnacke, A.; Klein, K.; Kuehne, B.

    2004-01-01

    Within the German return programme for vitrified high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing at COGEMA and BNFL up to now 39 casks loaded with 28 containers each were transported back to Germany and are stored in the Interim Storage Facility Gorleben (TBL-G) for up to 40 years. For transport and storage in all but one case the GNB casks CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG have been used. This cask type is designed to accommodate 20 or 28 HLW containers with a total thermal power of 45 kW maximum. In the near future, among the high level waste, which has to be returned to Germany, there will be an increasing number of containers of which the heat capacity and radioactive inventory will exceed the technical limits of the CASTOR registered HAW 20/28 CG. Therefore GNB has started the development of a new cask generation, named CASTOR registered HAW28M, meeting these future requirements. The CASTOR registered HAW28M is especially developed for the transport of vitrified residues from France and Great Britain to Germany. It complies with the international regulations for type B packages according to IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency). It is thus guaranteed that even in case of any accident the cask body and the lid system remain functional and the safe confinement of the radioactive contents remains intact during transport. The CASTOR registered HAW28M fulfills not only the requirements for transport but also the acceptance criteria of interim storage: radiation shielding, heat dissipation, safe confinement under both normal and hypothetical accident conditions. Storage buildings such as the TBL-G simply support the safety functions of the cask. The challenge for the development results from higher requirements of the technical specification, particularly related to fuel which is reprocessed. As a consequence of the reprocessing of fuel with increased enrichment and burn up, higher heat capacity and sophisticated shielding measures have to be considered. For the CASTOR

  8. Modeling and Performance of Waste Tires as Media in Fixed Bed Sequence Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Derakhshan

    2016-12-01

    Results: The maximum removal efficiencies of dissolved chemical oxygen demand for FBSBR and SBR reactors were 98.3 % and 97.9 %, respectively. In addition, Stover-Kincannon model provided a very suitable fitness (R2   > 0.99 for loading the bioreactor FBSBR. Conclusion: According to the results, not only waste tires can be reused, but also these wastes can be employed as a proper biological bed in wastewater refineries to improve their efficiency.

  9. Optimal loading and protection of multi-state systems considering performance sharing mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Hui; Shi, Daimin; Ding, Yi; Peng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Engineering systems are designed to carry the load. The performance of the system largely depends on how much load it carries. On the other hand, the failure rate of the system is strongly affected by its load. Besides internal failures, such as fatigue and aging process, systems may also fail due to external impacts such as nature disasters and terrorism. In this paper, we integrate the effect of loading and protection of external impacts on multi-state systems with performance sharing mechanism. The objective of this research is to determine how to balance the load and protection on system elements. An availability evaluation algorithm of the proposed system is suggested and the corresponding optimization problem is solved utilizing genetic algorithms. - Highlights: • Performance sharing of multi-state systems is considered. • The effect of load on system elements is analyzed. • Joint optimization model of element loading and protection is formulated. • Genetic Algorithms are adapted to solve the reliability optimization problem.

  10. Effects of Cognitive Load on Driving Performance: The Cognitive Control Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Johan; Markkula, Gustav; Victor, Trent; Merat, Natasha

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this paper was to outline an explanatory framework for understanding effects of cognitive load on driving performance and to review the existing experimental literature in the light of this framework. Although there is general consensus that taking the eyes off the forward roadway significantly impairs most aspects of driving, the effects of primarily cognitively loading tasks on driving performance are not well understood. Based on existing models of driver attention, an explanatory framework was outlined. This framework can be summarized in terms of the cognitive control hypothesis: Cognitive load selectively impairs driving subtasks that rely on cognitive control but leaves automatic performance unaffected. An extensive literature review was conducted wherein existing results were reinterpreted based on the proposed framework. It was demonstrated that the general pattern of experimental results reported in the literature aligns well with the cognitive control hypothesis and that several apparent discrepancies between studies can be reconciled based on the proposed framework. More specifically, performance on nonpracticed or inherently variable tasks, relying on cognitive control, is consistently impaired by cognitive load, whereas the performance on automatized (well-practiced and consistently mapped) tasks is unaffected and sometimes even improved. Effects of cognitive load on driving are strongly selective and task dependent. The present results have important implications for the generalization of results obtained from experimental studies to real-world driving. The proposed framework can also serve to guide future research on the potential causal role of cognitive load in real-world crashes.

  11. Performance of CASTORR HAW Cask Cold Trials for Loading, Transport and Storage of HAW canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmsmeier, Marco; Vossnacke, Andre

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of reprocessing contracts, concluded between the German Nuclear Utilities (GNUs) and the reprocessing companies in France (AREVA NC) and the UK (Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), GNS has the task to return the resulting residues to Germany. The high active waste (HAW) residuals from nuclear fuel reprocessing are vitrified and filled into steel cans, the HAW canisters. According to reprocessing contracts the equivalent number of HAW canisters to heavy metals delivered has to be returned to the country of origin and stored at an interim storage facility where applicable. The GNS' CASTOR R HAW casks are designed and licensed to fulfil the requirements for transport and long-term storage of HAW canisters. The new cask type CASTOR R HAW28M is capable of storing 28 HAW canisters with a maximum thermal power of 56 kW in total. Prior to the first active cask loading at a reprocessing facility it is required to demonstrate all important handling steps with the CASTOR R HAW28M cask according to a specific and approved sequence plan (MAP). These cold trials have to be carried out at the cask loading plant and at the reception area of an interim storage facility in Gorleben (TBL-G), witnessed by the licensing authorities and their independent experts. At transhipment stations GNS performs internal trials to demonstrate safe handling. A brand-new, empty CASTOR R HAW28M cask has been shipped from the GNS cask assembly facility in Muelheim to the TBL-G for cold trials. With this cask, GNS has to demonstrate the transhipment of casks at the Dannenberg transfer station from rail to road, transport to and reception at the TBL-G as well as incoming dose rate and contamination measurements and preparation for storage. After removal of all shock absorbers with a cask specific handling frame, tilting operation and assembly of the secondary lid with a pressure sensor, the helium leak tightness and 'Block-mass' tests have to be carried out as well. GNS long-term CASTOR R

  12. Property of filler-loaded magnetic ferrite from plastic waste bottle used to treat municipal domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Jin; Gong, Li-Ying; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Liu, Qiao; Xu, Li-Xia; Lu, Lu; Yang, Qi-Zhi

    2018-06-01

    The present work investigates the properties of self-made magnetic filler from plastic waste bottle and explores a new technology approach of waste plastic resource utilization. The magnetic filler was prepared by air plasma modification and loading magnetic ferrite on the plastic strip from waste plastic bottle. The surface properties of magnetic filler were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), contact angle system and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). AFM images of original and modified plastic strip showed that low-temperature plasma treatment markedly increased the surface roughness of plastic strip. The mean roughness (Ra) of plastic strip rose from 1.116 to 5.024 nm. FTIR spectra indicated that a lot of polar oxygenic groups were introduced onto the surface of plastic by plasma modification. Modification by low-temperature plasma increased the hydrophilicity of plastic strip surface. When treatment time is 40 s, water contact angle of plastic strip surface reduced from 78.2° of original plastic strip to 25.3°. When used in bioreactor, magnetic filler had very favorable microenvironment for microorganism growth. Magnetic filler was more efficient for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and [Formula: see text] in sewage than nonmagnetic filler. The resource utilization of plastic wastes will become reality if the magnetic filler is applied widely.

  13. Performance of Geosynthetic-Reinforced Soils Under Static and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Touahmia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates and discusses the composite behavior of geosynthetic reinforced soil mass. It presents the results of a series of large-scale laboratory tests supported by analytical methods to examine the performance of geogrid reinforcement subjected to static and cyclic pullout loading. The testing equipment and procedures used for this investigation are outlined. The results show that geosynthetic reinforcement can mobilize great resistance to static pulling load under high confining pressures. The reinforcement exhibits gradual deformation under cyclic loading showing no sign of imminent pullout failure for all levels of applied loads. In general, the results demonstrate that geosynthetic can be used in situations where loads are non-static, although care will be required in ensuring that appropriate factors of safety are applied to control the resulting deformation. A simplified analytical model for calculating the pulling capacity of geosynthetic reinforcement is proposed.

  14. Operation window and part-load performance study of a syngas fired gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Fen; Li, Zheng; Liu, Pei; Ma, Linwei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.

    2012-01-01

    Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) provides a great opportunity for clean utilization of coal while maintaining the advantage of high energy efficiency brought by gas turbines. A challenging problem arising from the integration of an existing gas turbine to an IGCC system is the performance change of the gas turbine due to the shift of fuel from natural gas to synthesis gas, or syngas, mainly consisting of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. Besides the change of base-load performance, which has been extensively studied, the change of part-load performance is also of great significance for the operation of a gas turbine and an IGCC plant. In this paper, a detailed mathematical model of a syngas fired gas turbine is developed to study its part-load performance. A baseline is firstly established using the part-load performance of a natural gas fired gas turbine, then the part-load performance of the gas turbine running with different compositions of syngas is investigated and compared with the baseline. Particularly, the impacts of the variable inlet guide vane, the degree of fuel dilution, and the degree of air bleed are investigated. Results indicate that insufficient cooling of turbine blades and a reduced compressor surge margin are the major factors that constrain the part-load performance of a syngas fired gas turbine. Results also show that air bleed from the compressor can greatly improve the working condition of a syngas fired gas turbine, especially for those fired with low lower heating value syngas. The regulating strategy of a syngas fired gas turbine should also be adjusted in accordance to the changes of part-load performance, and a reduced scope of constant TAT (turbine exhaust temperature) control mode is required.

  15. Effects of loading rate and temperature on anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge in a high frequency feeding system, looking in particular at stability and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Hao; Wang, Gaojun; Wang, Xiaochang

    2017-08-01

    A continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a high feeding frequency (HFF) of once every 15min was employed in order to ease the loading shock frequently occurred in digester with a low feeding frequency. The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on the co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge was evaluated in a 302-day long-term experiment. Due to the high hydrolysis rate, the maximum CH 4 yield in a thermophilic reactor was 407mL CH 4 /gVS added , a value that was significantly higher than the 350mL CH 4 /gVS added that occurred in a mesophilic reactor. Although the alkalinity declined when HRT was shorted than 10d, caused by the decrease of conversion ratio from protein to ammonium, the increase of specific methanogenic activity helped HFF system to achieve stable performance at an OLR of 11.2 (HRT 7.5d) and 30.2gVS/L/d (HRT 3d) under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation the anaerobic digestion performance of solid residual kitchen waste by NaHCO3 buffering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Shumei; Huang, Yue; Yang, Lili; Wang, Hao; Zhao, Mingxing; Xu, Zhiyang; Huang, Zhenxing; Ruan, Wenquan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum methane production of SRKW was 479 mL/gTS added . • Anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering. • Protease activity was mainly affected by high organic load. - Abstract: Anaerobic digestion has been considered as a promising energy-producing process for kitchen waste treatment. In this paper, the anaerobic digestion (AD) performances of solid residual kitchen waste (SRKW) with or without NaHCO 3 buffering were investigated. The results indicated that the methane production reached the maximum of 479 mL/gTS added at the inoculum to substrate ratio (ISR, based on VS) of 1:1.4 without buffering, accompanied by VS removal rate of 78.91%. Moreover, the anaerobic digestion capacity increased by 33.3% through NaHCO 3 buffering, and the methane yield at ISR 1:2.8 was improved by 48.5% with NaHCO 3 addition. However, the methanogenesis with or without NaHCO 3 buffer was suppressed at ISR 1:3.5, indicated from the lowest methane yield of 55.50 mL/gTS added and high volatile fatty acids concentration of more than 14,000 mg/L. Furthermore, proteins in SRKW were not degraded completely at excessive organic loading, since the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen in ISR 1:3.5 groups with (2738 mg/L) and without NaHCO 3 buffering (2654 mg/L) were lower than the theoretical value of 3500 mg/L and the protease activities in ISR 1:3.5 groups were also inhibited

  17. Impact of Converter Interfaced Generation and Load on Grid Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, Deepak

    Alternate sources of energy such as wind, solar photovoltaic and fuel cells are coupled to the power grid with the help of solid state converters. Continued deregulation of the power sector coupled with favorable government incentives has resulted in the rapid growth of renewable energy sources connected to the distribution system at a voltage level of 34.5kV or below. Of late, many utilities are also investing in these alternate sources of energy with the point of interconnection with the power grid being at the transmission level. These converter interfaced generation along with their associated control have the ability to provide the advantage of fast control of frequency, voltage, active, and reactive power. However, their ability to provide stability in a large system is yet to be investigated in detail. This is the primary objective of this research. In the future, along with an increase in the percentage of converter interfaced renewable energy sources connected to the transmission network, there exists a possibility of even connecting synchronous machines to the grid through converters. Thus, all sources of energy can be expected to be coupled to the grid through converters. The control and operation of such a grid will be unlike anything that has been encountered till now. In this dissertation, the operation and behavior of such a grid will be investigated. The first step in such an analysis will be to build an accurate and simple mathematical model to represent the corresponding components in commercial software. Once this bridge has been crossed, conventional machines will be replaced with their solid state interfaced counterparts in a phased manner. At each stage, attention will be devoted to the control of these sources and also on the stability performance of the large power system. This dissertation addresses various concerns regarding the control and operation of a futuristic power grid. In addition, this dissertation also aims to address the issue

  18. Dietary carbohydrate composition can change waste production and biofilter load in recirculating aquaculture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meriac, A.; Eding, E.H.; Schrama, J.W.; Kamstra, A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of dietary carbohydrate composition on the production, recovery and degradability of fecal waste from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Dietary carbohydrate composition was altered by substituting starch with non-starch

  19. Combustion characteristics, performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with a waste cooking oil biodiesel mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Can, Özer

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • High quality biodiesel fuels can be produced by using different waste cooking oils. • Biodiesel fuel blends (in 5 and 10% vol) can be used without any negative effects. • Effects of biodiesel addition on the combustion and exhaust emissions were investigated. - Abstract: In this study, a mixture of biodiesel fuels produced from two different kinds of waste cooking oils was blended in 5% and 10% with No. 2 diesel fuel. The biodiesel/No. 2 diesel fuel blends were tested in a single-cylinder, direct injection, four-stroke, natural aspirated diesel engine under four different engine loads (BMEP 0.48–0.36–0.24–0.12 MPa) and 2200 rpm engine speed. Despite of the earlier start of injection, the detailed combustion and engine performance results showed that the ignition delay with the biodiesel addition was decreased for the all engine loads with the earlier combustion timings due to higher cetane number of biodiesel fuel. Meanwhile the maximum heat release rate and the in-cylinder pressure rise rate were slightly decreased and the combustion duration was generally increased with the biodiesel addition. However, significant changings were not observed on the maximum in-cylinder pressures. In addition, it was observed that the indicated mean effective pressure values were slightly varied depending on the start of combustion timing and the center of heat release location. It was found that 5% and 10% biodiesel fuel addition resulted in slightly increment on break specific fuel consumption (up to 4%) and reduction on break thermal efficiency (up to 2.8%). The biodiesel additions also increased NO x emissions up to 8.7% and decreased smoke and total hydrocarbon emissions for the all engine loads. Although there were no significant changes on CO emissions at the low and medium engine loads, some reductions were observed at the full engine load. Also, CO 2 emissions were slightly increased for the all engine loads

  20. Separation of palladium from high-level waste using metal ferro cyanide loaded resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valsala, T.P.; Joseph, Annie; Yeotikar, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is generated during reprocessing of spent fuel. HLW contains corrosion products, unextracted actinides, process chemicals and fission products. A recent trend is there to consider waste as a source of wealth. Among the fission products separation and recovery of platinum group metals have gained great attention. HLW is a good source of palladium of the platinum group metal. The present study shows the feasibility of ion exchange separation of Pd from HLW. (author)

  1. Allostatic load but not medical burden predicts memory performance in late-life bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Sophie R; Rajji, Tarek K; Gildengers, Ariel G; Waters, Sarah E S; Butters, Meryl A; Menon, Mahesh; Blumberger, Daniel M; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Miranda, Dielle; Mulsant, Benoit H

    2018-03-01

    Older patients with bipolar disorder (BD) present with variable degrees of cognitive impairment. Over time, stress, mood episodes, and comorbidities increase the body's allostatic load. We assessed the extent to which allostatic load vs more traditional measures of medical burden account for the heterogeneity in cognition in this population. Thirty-five older euthymic patients with BD and 30 age-equated, gender-equated, and education-equated comparison participants were administered a comprehensive assessment including a neuropsychological battery, and 9 physiological measures to determine allostatic load. The relationship among allostatic load, medical burden, and cognition was assessed. Compared with the mentally healthy comparators, patients were impaired globally, and in 4 cognitive domains-information-processing speed / executive functioning, delayed memory, language, and visuomotor ability, and presented with greater medical burden but not a different allostatic load. Allostatic load, but not medical burden, was associated with delayed memory performance both in a correlational analysis and in a multivariate regression analysis. Euthymic older patients with BD are impaired on several cognitive domains and have high medical burden. Their memory performance is more strongly associated with allostatic load than with traditional measures of medical burden. These findings need to be replicated and extended longitudinally. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Methodologies for assessing long-term performance of high-level radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, K.; Boesch, L.; Crane, B.; Johnson, R.; Moler, R.; Smith, S.; Zaremba, L.

    1986-01-01

    Several methods the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) can use to independently assess Department of Energy (DOE) waste package performance were identified by The Aerospace Corporation. The report includes an overview of the necessary attributes of performance assessment, followed by discussions of DOE methods, probabilistic methods capable of predicting waste package lifetime and radionuclide releases, process modeling of waste package barriers, sufficiency of the necessary input data, and the applicability of probability density functions. It is recommended that the initial NRC performance assessment (for the basalt conceptual waste package design) should apply modular simulation, using available process models and data, to demonstrate this assessment method

  3. Determination of performance criteria for high-level solidified nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.

    1979-05-07

    To minimize radiological risk from the operation of a waste management system, performance limits on volatilization, particulate dispersion, and dissolution characteristics of solidified high level waste must be specified. The results show clearly that the pre-emplacement environs are more limiting in establishing the waste form performance criteria than the post-emplacement environs. Absolute values of expected risk are very sensitive to modeling assumptions. The transportation and interim storage operations appear to be most limiting in determining the performance characteristics required. The expected values of risk do not rely upon the repositories remaining intact over the potentially hazardous lifetime of the waste.

  4. Determination of performance criteria for high-level solidified nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, R.A.; Holdsworth, T.

    1979-01-01

    To minimize radiological risk from the operation of a waste management system, performance limits on volatilization, particulate dispersion, and dissolution characteristics of solidified high level waste must be specified. The results show clearly that the pre-emplacement environs are more limiting in establishing the waste form performance criteria than the post-emplacement environs. Absolute values of expected risk are very sensitive to modeling assumptions. The transportation and interim storage operations appear to be most limiting in determining the performance characteristics required. The expected values of risk do not rely upon the repositories remaining intact over the potentially hazardous lifetime of the waste

  5. Sex differences in muscular load among house painters performing identical work tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyland, Jacob; Heilskov-Hansen, Thomas; Alkjær, Tine

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study aimed to estimate possible differences in upper body muscular load between male and female house painters performing identical work tasks. Sex-related differences in muscular load may help explain why women, in general, have more musculoskeletal complaints than men....... METHODS: In a laboratory setting, 16 male and 16 female house painters performed nine standardised work tasks common to house painters. Unilateral electromyography (EMG) recordings were obtained from the supraspinatus muscle by intramuscular electrodes and from the trapezius, extensor and flexor carpi...... radialis muscles by surface electrodes. Relative muscular loads in %EMGmax as well as exerted force in Newton, based on ramp calibrations, were assessed. Sex differences were tested using a mixed model approach. RESULTS: Women worked at about 50% higher relative muscular loads than men in the supraspinatus...

  6. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS −1 , obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids

  7. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solli, Linn, E-mail: linn.solli@bioforsk.no; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS{sup −1}, obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids.

  8. The Effects of Surface Waves and Submergence on the Performance and Loading of a Tidal Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaoxian; Gao, Zhen; Yang, Jianmin; Moan, Torgeir; Lu, Haining; Li, Xin; Lu, Wenyue

    2017-01-01

    Tidal energy has the advantages of high predictability, high energy density, and limited environmental impacts. As tidal turbines are expected to be used in the most energetic waters where there might be significant waves, the assessment of unsteady hydrodynamic load due to surface waves is of great concern. The objective of this paper is to assess the effects of surface waves and submergence of the turbine on the power performance and loads of a tidal turbine by experimental approach. The ex...

  9. Performance and load data from Mod-0A and Mod-1 wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.; Janetzke, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental data, together with supporting analysis, are presented on the power conversion performance and blade loading of large, horizontal-axis wind turbines tested at electric utility sites in the U.S. Four turbine rotor configurations, from 28 to 61 meters in diameter, and data from five test sites are included. Performance data are presented in the form of graphs of power and system efficiency versus free-stream wind speed. Deviations from theoretical performance are analyzed statistically. Power conversion efficiency averaged 0.34 for all tests combined, compared with 0.31 predicted. Round blade tips appeared to improve performance significantly. Cyclic blade loads were normalized to develop load factors which can be used in the design of rotors with rigid hubs.

  10. Part load performance of air-cooled centrifugal chillers with variable speed condenser fan control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, F.W.; Chan, K.T. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2007-11-15

    Air-cooled centrifugal chillers are commonly used in commercial buildings but their performance analysis is lacking. This paper investigates the part load performance of the chillers via a thermodynamic model. The model was validated using a wide range of operating data from an existing chiller with specific settings of outdoor temperature and condensing pressure in controlling the condensing temperature. The validated model was developed specifically to ascertain the maximum coefficient of performance of chiller (COP) together with the strategy for optimizing the condensing temperature under various operating conditions. It is found that the highest COP occurs at a part load ratio (PLR) of 0.71-0.84, depending on the outdoor temperature and the control of condensing temperature, rather than at full load. Yet the chillers operating at such part load conditions will cause extra energy used for the early staging of chilled water pumps. To minimize the overall chiller plant energy consumption, it is still preferable to implement chiller sequencing based on the full load condition than on the aforementioned PLRs. The results of this paper present criteria for implementing low-energy strategies for operating air-cooled chillers satisfying a given building cooling load profile. (author)

  11. Do 'enabling technologies' affect customer performance in price-responsive load programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael; Heffner, Grayson

    2002-01-01

    Price-responsive load (PRL) programs vary significantly in overall design, the complexity of relationships between program administrators, load aggregators, and customers, and the availability of ''enabling technologies''. Enabling technologies include such features as web-based power system and price monitoring, control and dispatch of curtailable loads, communications and information systems links to program participants, availability of interval metering data to customers in near real time, and building/facility/end-use automation and management capabilities. Two state agencies - NYSERDA in New York and the CEC in California - have been conspicuous leaders in the demonstration of demand response (DR) programs utilizing enabling technologies. In partnership with key stakeholders in these two states (e.g., grid operator, state energy agencies, and program administrators), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) surveyed 56 customers who worked with five contractors participating in CEC or NYSERDA-sponsored DR programs. We combined market research and actual load curtailment data when available (i.e., New York) or customer load reduction targets in order to explore the relative importance of contractor's program design features, sophistication of control strategies, and reliance on enabling technologies in predicting customer's ability to deliver load reductions in DR programs targeted to large commercial/industrial customers. We found preliminary evidence that DR enabling technology has a positive effect on load curtailment potential. Many customers indicated that web-based energy information tools were useful for facilitating demand response (e.g., assessing actual performance compared to load reduction contract commitments), that multiple notification channels facilitated timely response, and that support for and use of backup generation allowed customers to achieve significant and predictable load

  12. Application of systems engineering to determine performance requirements for repository waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, E.A.; Stimmell, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The waste package for a nuclear waste repository in salt must contribute substantially to the performance objectives defined by the Salt Repository Project (SRP) general requirements document governing disposal of high-level waste. The waste package is one of the engineered barriers providing containment. In establishing the performance requirements for a project focused on design and fabrication of the waste package, the systems engineering methodology has been used to translate the hierarchy requirements for the repository system to specific performance requirements for design and fabrication of the waste package, a subsystem of the repository. This activity is ongoing and requires a methodology that provides traceability and is capable of iteration as baseline requirements are refined or changed. The purpose of this summary is to describe the methodology being used and the way it can be applied to similar activities in the nuclear industry

  13. A system dynamics-based environmental performance simulation of construction waste reduction management in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhikun; Yi, Guizhen; Tam, Vivian W Y; Huang, Tengyue

    2016-05-01

    A huge amount of construction waste has been generated from increasingly higher number of construction activities than in the past, which has significant negative impacts on the environment if they are not properly managed. Therefore, effective construction waste management is of primary importance for future sustainable development. Based on the theory of planned behaviors, this paper develops a system dynamic model of construction waste reduction management at the construction phase to simulate the environmental benefits of construction waste reduction management. The application of the proposed model is shown using a case study in Shenzhen, China. Vensim is applied to simulate and analyze the model. The simulation results indicate that source reduction is an effective waste reduction measure which can reduce 27.05% of the total waste generation. Sorting behaviors are a premise for improving the construction waste recycling and reuse rates which account for 15.49% of the total waste generated. The environmental benefits of source reduction outweigh those of sorting behaviors. Therefore, to achieve better environmental performance of the construction waste reduction management, attention should be paid to source reduction such as low waste technologies and on-site management performance. In the meantime, sorting behaviors encouragement such as improving stakeholders' waste awareness, refining regulations, strengthening government supervision and controlling illegal dumping should be emphasized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Los Alamos low-level waste performance assessment status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenzel, W.J.; Purtymun, W.D.; Dewart, J.M.; Rodgers, J.E.

    1986-06-01

    This report reviews the documented Los Alamos studies done to assess the containment of buried hazardous wastes. Five sections logically present the environmental studies, operational source terms, transport pathways, environmental dosimetry, and computer model development and use. This review gives a general picture of the Los Alamos solid waste disposal and liquid effluent sites and is intended for technical readers with waste management and environmental science backgrounds but without a detailed familiarization with Los Alamos. The review begins with a wide perspective on environmental studies at Los Alamos. Hydrology, geology, and meteorology are described for the site and region. The ongoing Laboratory-wide environmental surveillance and waste management environmental studies are presented. The next section describes the waste disposal sites and summarizes the current source terms for these sites. Hazardous chemical wastes and liquid effluents are also addressed by describing the sites and canyons that are impacted. The review then focuses on the transport pathways addressed mainly in reports by Healy and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. Once the source terms and potential transport pathways are described, the dose assessment methods are addressed. Three major studies, the waste alternatives, Hansen and Rogers, and the Pantex Environmental Impact Statement, contributed to the current Los Alamos dose assessment methodology. Finally, the current Los Alamos groundwater, surface water, and environmental assessment models for these mesa top and canyon sites are described

  15. Optimising waste management performance - The key to successful decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keep, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: On the 1. of April 2005 the United Kingdom's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority became responsible for the enormous task of decommissioning the UK's civilian nuclear liabilities. The success of the NDA in delivering its key objectives of safer, cheaper and faster decommissioning depends on a wide range factors. It is self-evident, however, that the development of robust waste management practices by those charged with decommissioning liability will be at the heart of the NDA's business. In addition, the implementation of rigorous waste minimisation techniques throughout decommissioning will deliver tangible environmental benefits as well as better value for money and release funds to accelerate the decommissioning program. There are mixed views as to whether waste minimisation can be achieved during decommissioning. There are those that argue that the radioactive inventory already exists, that the amount of radioactivity cannot be minimised and that the focus of activities should be focused on waste management rather than waste minimisation. Others argue that the management and decommissioning of the UK's civilian nuclear liability will generate significant volumes of additional radioactive waste and it is in this area where the opportunities for waste minimisation can be realised. (author)

  16. The Constitution, waste facility performance standards, and radioactive waste classification: Is equal protection possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eye, R.V. [Kansas Dept. of Health and Environment, Topeka, KS (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The process for disposal of so-called low-level radioactive waste is deadlocked at present. Supporters of the proposed near-surface facilities assert that their designs will meet minimum legal and regulatory standards currently in effect. Among opponents there is an overarching concern that the proposed waste management facilities will not isolate radiation from the biosphere for an adequate length of time. This clash between legal acceptability and a perceived need to protect the environment and public health by requiring more than the law demand sis one of the underlying reasons why the process is deadlocked. Perhaps the most exhaustive public hearing yet conducted on low-level radioactive waste management has recently concluded in Illinois. The Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Sitting Commission conducted 71 days of fact-finding hearings on the safety and suitability of a site near Martinsville, Illinois, to serve as a location for disposition of low-level radioactive waste. Ultimately, the siting commission rejected the proposed facility site for several reasons. However, almost all the reasons were related, to the prospect that, as currently conceived, the concrete barrier/shallow-land burial method will not isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. This paper reviews the relevant legal framework of the radioactive waste classification system and will argue that it is inadequate for long-lived radionuclides. Next, the paper will present a case for altering the classification system based on high-level waste regulatory considerations.

  17. Performance estimates for waste treatment pyroprocesses in ATW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, N.

    1997-01-01

    The author has identified several pyrometallurgical processes for the conceptual ATW waste treatment cycle. These processes include reductive extraction, electrowinning and electrorefining, which constitute some versatile treatment cycles for liquid-metal based and molten-salt based waste forms when they are properly integrated. This paper examines the implementation of these processes and the achievable separations for some typical species. The author also presents a simple analysis of the processing rates limited by mass diffusion through a thin hydrodynamic boundary layer. It is shown that these processes can be realized with compact and efficient devices to meet the ATW demand for the periodic feeding and cleaning of the waste

  18. Management of cesium loaded AMP- Part I preparation of 137Cesium concentrate and cementation of secondary wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, I.J.; Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Yalmali, Vrunda S.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-11-01

    Separation of 137 cesium from High Level Waste can be achieved by use of composite-AMP, an engineered form of Ammonium Molybdo-Phosphate(AMP). Direct vitrification of cesium loaded composite AMP in borosilicate glass matrix leads to separation of water soluble molybdate phase. A proposed process describes two different routes of selective separation of molybdates and phosphate to obtain solutions of cesium concentrates. Elution of 137 Cesium from composite-AMP by decomposing it under flow conditions using saturated barium hydroxide was investigated. This method leaves molybdate and phosphate embedded in the column but only 70% of total cesium loaded on column could be eluted. Alternatively composite-AMP was dissolved in sodium hydroxide and precipitation of barium molybdate-phosphate from the resultant solution, using barium nitrate was investigated by batch methods. The precipitation technique gave over 99.9% of 137 Cesium activity in solutions, free of molybdates and phosphates, which is ideally suited for immobilization in borosilicate glass matrix. Detailed studies were carried out to immobilize secondary waste of 137 Cesium contaminated barium molybdate-phosphate precipitates in the slag cement matrix using vermiculite and bentonite as admixtures. The cumulative fraction of 137 Cs leached from the cement matrix blocks was 0.05 in 140 days while the 137 Cs leach rate was 0.001 gm/cm 2 /d. (author)

  19. Inactivation of bacterial pathogenic load in compost against vermicompost of organic solid waste aiming to achieve sanitation goals: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soobhany, Nuhaa; Mohee, Romeela; Garg, Vinod Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Waste management strategies for organic residues, such as composting and vermicomposting, have been implemented in some developed and developing countries to solve the problem of organic solid waste (OSW). Yet, these biological treatment technologies do not always result in good quality compost or vermicompost with regards to sanitation capacity owing to the presence of bacterial pathogenic substances in objectionable concentrations. The presence of pathogens in soil conditioners poses a potential health hazard and their occurrence is of particular significance in composts and/or vermicomposts produced from organic materials. Past and present researches demonstrated a high-degree of agreement that various pathogens survive after the composting of certain OSW but whether similar changes in bacterial pathogenic loads arise during vermitechnology has not been thoroughly elucidated. This review garners information regarding the status of various pathogenic bacteria which survived or diffused after the composting process compared to the status of these pathogens after the vermicomposting of OSW with the aim of achieving sanitation goals. This work is also indispensable for the specification of compost quality guidelines concerning pathogen loads which would be specific to treatment technology. It was hypothesized that vermicomposting process for OSW can be efficacious in sustaining the existence of pathogenic organisms most specifically; human pathogens under safety levels. In summary, earthworms can be regarded as a way of obliterating pathogenic bacteria from OSW in a manner equivalent to earthworm gut transit mechanism which classifies vermicomposting as a promising sanitation technique in comparison to composting processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Admissible thermal loading in geological formations. Consequences on radioactive waste disposal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    For the final disposal of conditioned radioactive wastes clay formations have plasticity, low permeability and high sorption capacity in their favour. Their disadvantage lies in their thermal conductivity and moisture content. The aim of this document is to take stock of the state of the art pertaining to the thermal phenomena linked to the dispoasl of conditioned radioactive wastes. The study, limited to normal, non-accident operating conditions, considers vitrified wastes cast in metal containers and disposal of in an underground infrastructure built in clay. The composition and characteristics of clays can vary widely between formations and even between sites, since the nature and content of argillaceous and other minerals depend on age, sedimentation conditions, depth, origin of the sediments, etc. This study is therefore limited to a specific clay in a specific deposit, i.e., the Boom clay located at Mol beneath the CEN/SCK establishment

  1. Environmental performance of an innovative waste refinery based on enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    for virgin material and saving fossil resources. In this paper a life-cycle assessment of a pilot-scale waste refinery for the enzymatic treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) is presented. The refinery produced a liquid (liquefied organic materials and paper) and a solid fraction (non-degradable materials......Decrease of fossil fuel dependence and global warming mitigation has become increasingly important issues during the last decades. With respect to waste management higher recycling rates for valuable materials as well as energy recovery from waste streams could play a significant role substituting......) from the waste. The waste refinery was compared to alternative treatments such as incineration, bioreactor landfill and mechanical-biological treatment followed by utilization of the RDF (refuse-derived fuel) for energy. The performance of the waste refinery turned out to be comparable...

  2. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Waste Composition and High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ZIMMERMAN, B.D.

    2000-12-11

    This analysis evaluates the effect of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) waste isotopic composition on Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) accidents involving high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter failure in Double-Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs). The HEPA Filter Failure--Exposure to High Temperature or Pressure, and Steam Intrusion From Interfacing Systems accidents are considered. The analysis concludes that dose consequences based on the PFP waste isotopic composition are bounded by previous FSAR analyses. This supports USQD TF-00-0768.

  3. Rapid increases in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (nine training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed....... Maximal jump height increased by 7.8% ± 6.3% (P training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9% ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9% ± 9.6%) (both P ... within 17 days after the end of training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent...

  4. Thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles for multi-stream waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yufei; Tang, Qikui; Wang, Mengying; Feng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles (KC) for multi-stream waste heat recovery. • Divide waste heat into straight, convex and concave based on its composite curve. • Use heat ratio and temperature of the most point to show the feature of waste heat. • KC is suitable for straight and most concave heat, while ORC for convex one. - Abstract: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and Kalina cycle are the main technologies to recover waste heat for power generation. Up to now, many works dealing with the thermodynamic performance comparison between ORC and Kalina cycles are available, but these studies considered for heat recovery from a single heat source or stream. In the process industry, there are multiple waste heat streams, forming a complex heat source profile. In this paper, based on the simulation model developed in the Aspen Hysys software, the two cycles are calculated and compared. According to the waste heat composite curve, the multi-stream waste heat is divided into three kinds, straight, convex, and concave waste heat. Two parameters, the ratio of the heat above and below the most salient/concave point (R) and the temperature of the most point, are used to roughly express the feature of waste heat. With the efficiency from waste heat (exergy) to power as energy performance indicator, the calculation results for waste heat with maximum supply temperature 180 °C show that for straight and concave waste heat with R not less than 0.2, Kalina cycle is better than ORC, while for convex waste heat, ORC is preferable. The work can provide a reference to choose a suitable technology to recover low temperature waste heat for power generation in the process industry.

  5. Waste package performance criteria for deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, P.; Fuhrmann, M.

    1988-07-01

    Sea disposal of low-level radioactive waste began in the United States in 1946, and was placed under the licensing authority of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The practice stopped completely in 1970. Most of the waste disposed of at sea was packaged in second- hand or reconditioned 55-gallon drums filled with cement so that the average package density was sufficiently greater than that of sea water to ensure sinking. It was assumed that all the contents would eventually be released since the packages were not designed or required to remain intact for sustained periods of time after descent to the ocean bottom. Recently, there has been renewed interest in ocean disposal, both in this country and abroad, as a waste management alternative to land burial. The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (PL 92-532) gives EPA the regulatory responsibility for ocean dumping of all materials, including radioactive waste. This act prohibits the ocean disposal of high-level radioactive waste and requires EPA to control the ocean disposal of all other radioactive waste through the issuance of permits. In implementing its permit authorities, EPA issued on initial set of regulations and criteria in 1973 to control the disposal of material into the ocean waters. It was in these regulations that EPA initially introduced the general requirement of isolation and containment of radioactive waste as the basic operating philosophy. 37 refs

  6. On the performance of piezoelectric harvesters loaded by finite width impulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, A.; Medè, C.; Desideri, D.; Maschio, A.; Codecasa, L.; Moro, F.

    2018-02-01

    The response of cantilevered piezoelectric harvesters loaded by finite width impulses of base acceleration is studied analytically in the frequency domain in order to identify the parameters that influence the generated voltage. Experimental tests are then performed on harvesters loaded by hammer impacts. The latter are used to confirm analytical results and to validate a linear finite element (FE) model of a unimorph harvester. The FE model is, in turn, used to extend analytical results to more general harvesters (tapered, inverse tapered, triangular) and to more general impulses (heel strike in human gait). From analytical and numerical results design criteria for improving harvester performance are obtained.

  7. Study on Performance of Steel Fiber Concrete Bridge Pier Specimens under Horizontal Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiben Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of that steel fiber can effectively prevent the extension and development of small cracks in the concrete, steel fiber reinforced concrete has good toughness and tensile strength. In the application of building materials, steel fiber reinforced concrete is an ideal elastic-plastic material. For the seismic performance, it has advantages. In order to analyze the seismic performance of steel fiber reinforced concrete, 4 piers of the scale model test under horizontal cyclic loading were done. The results showed that failure mode of steel fiber reinforced concrete is better than that of ordinary concrete, and has a large yield moment under the external loads.

  8. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-01-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions...... including ‘as-large-as-possible’ changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer...... coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely...

  9. A theoretical and numerical consideration of rock mass behaviour under thermal loading of radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reivinen, M.; Freund, J.; Eloranta, E.

    1996-08-01

    The aim of the study is to model the geodynamic response of a ground rock block under horizontal stresses and also consider the thermal fields and deformations, especially on the ground surface, caused by the heat produced by nuclear waste. (12 refs.)

  10. Parasitic helminth load in urban waste-water of Kenitra City, Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste-waters of Kenitra City are rejected without any preliminary treatment in the receiving medium (Sebou River, Fouarat Lake). A small fraction is used to irrigate crops in the peri-urban area of Kenitra City. The parasitological characterization revealed an average parasitic helminth egg concentration of 25.07 per liter ...

  11. Control of Series Resonant Converter with Robust Performance Against Load and Power Circuit Components Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mohammadpour

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Robust performance controller design for duty-cycle controlled series resonant converter (SRC is proposed in this paper. The uncertainties of the converter are analyzed with load variation and power circuit components tolerances are taken into consideration. Additionally, a nominal performance (NP controller is designed. Closed-loop system is simulated with Orcad and simulation results of robust controller are compared with nominal performance controller. Although nominal performance controller has better performance for nominal plant, the robust performance controller is advantageous in dealing with uncertainties.

  12. Test plan for Fauske and Associates to perform tube propagation experiments with simulated Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.D.; Babad, H.

    1996-05-01

    This test plan, prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Westinghouse Hanford Company, provides guidance for performing tube propagation experiments on simulated Hanford tank wastes and on actual tank waste samples. Simulant compositions are defined and an experimental logic tree is provided for Fauske and Associates (FAI) to perform the experiments. From this guidance, methods and equipment for small-scale tube propagation experiments to be performed at the Hanford Site on actual tank samples will be developed. Propagation behavior of wastes will directly support the safety analysis (SARR) for the organic tanks. Tube propagation may be the definitive tool for determining the relative reactivity of the wastes contained in the Hanford tanks. FAI have performed tube propagation studies previously on simple two- and three-component surrogate mixtures. The simulant defined in this test plan more closely represents actual tank composition. Data will be used to support preparation of criteria for determining the relative safety of the organic bearing wastes

  13. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1% and 15 m (+4.0% were observed (P 0.05. Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: < 0.20. Based on these results we can conclude that a traditional training high-living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers, but further studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  14. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Calderón, Carmen; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Tomazin, Katja; Strumbelj, Boro; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT) camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men) were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT) and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level) that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight) were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1%) and 15 m (+4.0%) were observed (P 0.05). Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: training high-living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers, but further studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  15. The effects of self-report cognitive failures and cognitive load on antisaccade performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick eBerggren

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals reporting high levels of distractibility in everyday life show impaired performance in standard laboratory tasks measuring selective attention and inhibitory processes. Similarly, increasing cognitive load leads to more errors/distraction in a variety of cognitive tasks. How these two factors interact is currently unclear; highly distractible individuals may be affected more when their cognitive resources are taxed, or load may linearly affect performance for all individuals. We investigated the relationship between self-reported levels of cognitive failuresin daily life and performance in the antisaccade task, a widely used tool examining attentional control. Levels of concurrent cognitive demand were manipulated using a secondary auditory discrimination task. We found that both levels of self-reported cognitive failures and task load increased antisaccade latencies while having no effect on prosaccade eye-movements. However individuals rating themselves as suffering few daily life distractions showed a comparable load cost to those who experience many. These findings suggest that the likelihood of distraction is governed by the addition of both internal susceptibility and the external current load placed on working memory.

  16. LWR high burn-up operation and MOX introduction. Fuel cycle performance from the viewpoint of waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yaohiro; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Niibori, Yuichi; Sato, Seichi; Ohe, Toshiaki; Kato, Kazuyuki; Torikai, Seishi; Nagasaki, Shinya; Kitayama, Kazumi

    2009-01-01

    From the viewpoint of waste management, a quantitative evaluation of LWR nuclear fuel cycle system performance was carried out, considering both higher burn-up operation of UO 2 fuel coupled with the introduction of MOX fuel. A major parameter to quantify this performance is the number of high-level waste (HLW) glass units generated per GWd (gigawatt-day based on reactor thermal power generation before electrical conversion). This parameter was evaluated for each system up to a maximum burn-up of 70GWd/THM (gigawatt-day per ton of heavy metal) assuming current conventional reprocessing and vitrification conditions where the waste loading of glass is restricted by the heat generation rate, the MoO 3 content, or the noble metal content. The results showed that higher burn-up operation has no significant influence on the number of glass units generated per GWd for UO 2 fuel, though the number of glass units per THM increases linearly with burn-up and is restricted by the heat generation rate. On the other hand, the introduction of MOX fuel causes the number of glass units per GWd to double owing to the increase in the heat generation rate. An extended cooling period of the spent fuel prior to reprocessing effectively reduces the heat generation rate for UO 2 fuel, while a separation of minor actinides (Np, Am, and Cm) from the high-level waste provides additional reduction for MOX fuel. However, neither of these leads to a substantial reduction in the number of glass units, since the MoO 3 content or the noble metal content restricts the number of glass units rather than the heat generation rate. These results suggest that both the MoO 3 content and the noble metal content provide the key to reducing the amount of waste glass that is generated, leading to an overall improvement in fuel cycle system performance. (author)

  17. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  18. Research on the Environmental Performance Evaluation of Electronic Waste Reverse Logistics Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Fei-Yang; Tong, Tong

    According to the characteristic of e-waste reverse logistics, environmental performance evaluation system of electronic waste reverse logistics enterprise is proposed. We use fuzzy analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the system. In addition, this paper analyzes the enterprise X, as an example, to discuss the evaluation method. It's important to point out attributes and indexes which should be strengthen during the process of ewaste reverse logistics and provide guidance suggestions to domestic e-waste reverse logistics enterprises.

  19. Draft Technical Position Subtask 1.1: waste package performance after repository closure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, M.S.; Schweitzer, D.G.

    1983-08-01

    This document provides guidance to the DOE on the issues and information necessary for the NRC to evaluate waste package performance after repository closure. Minimal performance objectives of the waste package are required by proposed 10 CFR 60. This Draft Technical Position describes the various options available to the DOE for compliance and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various choices. Examples are discussed dealing with demonstrability, predictability and reasonable assurance. The types of performance are considered. The document summarizes presently identified high priority issues needed to evaluate waste package performance after repository closure. 20 references, 7 tables

  20. Performance evaluation of Genetic Algorithms on loading pattern optimization of PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombakoglu, M.; Bekar, K.B.; Erdemli, A.O.

    2001-01-01

    Genetic Algorithm (GA) based systems are used for search and optimization problems. There are several applications of GAs in literature successfully applied for loading pattern optimization problems. In this study, we have selected loading pattern optimization problem of Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR). The main objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of Genetic Algorithm operators such as regional crossover, crossover and mutation, and selection and construction of initial population and its size for PWR loading pattern optimization problems. The performance of GA with antithetic variates is compared to traditional GA. Antithetic variates are used to generate the initial population and its use with GA operators are also discussed. Finally, the results of multi-cycle optimization problems are discussed for objective function taking into account cycle burn-up and discharge burn-up.(author)

  1. Performance of an optimally contact-cooled high-heat-load mirror at the APS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Z.; Khounsary, A.; Lai, B.; McNulty, I.; Yun, W.

    1998-01-01

    X-ray undulator beamlines at third-generation synchrotrons facilities use either a monochromator or a mirror as the first optical element. In this paper, the thermal and optical performance of an optimally designed contact-cooled high-heat-load x-ray mirror used as the first optical element on the 2ID undulator beamline at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is reported. It is shown that this simple and economical mirror design can comfortably handle the high heat load of undulator beamlines and provide good performance with long-term reliability and ease of operation. Availability and advantages of such mirrors can make the mirror-first approach to high-heat-load beamline design an attractive alternative to monochromator-first beamlines in many circumstances

  2. Fatigue Performance of SFPSC under Hot-Wet Environments and Cyclic Bending Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new structural material named “steel fiber polymer structural concrete (SFPSC” with features of both high strength and high toughness was developed by this research group and applied to the bridge superstructures in the hot-wet environments. In order to investigate the fatigue performance and durability of SFPSC under hot-wet environments, the environment and fatigue load uncoupling method and the coupling action of environment and fatigue load were used or developed. Three-point bending fatigue experiments with uncoupling action of environments and cyclic loads were carried out for SFPSC specimens which were pretreated under hot-wet environments, and the experiments with the coupling action of environments and cyclic loads for SFPSC specimens were carried out under hot-wet environments. Then, the effects of hot-wet environments and the experimental methods on the fatigue mechanism of SFPSC material were discussed, and the environmental fatigue equations of SFPSC material under coupling and uncoupling action of hot-wet environments and cyclic bending loads were established. The research results show that the fatigue limits of SFPSC under the coupling action of the environments and cyclic loads were lower about 15%. The proposed fatigue equations could be used to estimate the fatigue lives and fatigue limits of SFPSC material.

  3. Design and performance of a 2-megawatt high voltage dc test load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horan, D.; Kustom, R.; Ferguson, M.

    1994-01-01

    A high-power water-cooled resistive load which simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron, capable of a 2 MW dissipation at 95 kV DC, is designed and installed. The load utilizes wirewound resistor elements suspended inside G-11 insulated tubing contained within a single-wall 316 stainless steel pressure vessel with flanged elliptical heads. The vessel supplies a continuous flow of deionized water. Baffles fabricated from G-10 sheets support the tubing and promote water turbulence to maximize heat removal. A companion oil tank houses resistive filament and mod-anode power supply test loads, plus an electrical interlock system which provides protection from inadequate water flow, excessive oil temperature, and arcing in either the pressure vessel or oil tank. A secondary safety system consists of both hydrostatic and steam pressure relief valves on the pressure vessel. Power supply tests indicate the load simulates the electrical load characteristics of a high-power klystron to a degree sufficient to accurately performance-test the rf high voltage power supplies used at the Advanced Photon Source

  4. Chemical and mechanical performance properties for various final waste forms -- PSPI scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Larsen, E.D.; Sears, J.W.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1996-09-01

    The US DOE is obtaining data on the performance properties of the various final waste forms that may be chosen as primary treatment products for the alpha-contaminated low-level and transuranic waste at the INEL's Transuranic Storage Area. This report collects and compares selected properties that are key indicators of mechanical and chemical durability for Portland cement concrete, concrete formed under elevated temperature and pressure, sulfur polymer cement, borosilicate glass, and various forms of alumino-silicate glass, including in situ vitrification glass and various compositions of iron-enriched basalt (IEB) and iron-enriched basalt IV (IEB4). Compressive strength and impact resistance properties were used as performance indicators in comparative evaluation of the mechanical durability of each waste form, while various leachability data were used in comparative evaluation of each waste form's chemical durability. The vitrified waste forms were generally more durable than the non-vitrified waste forms, with the iron-enriched alumino-silicate glasses and glass/ceramics exhibiting the most favorable chemical and mechanical durabilities. It appears that the addition of zirconia and titania to IEB (forming IEB4) increases the leach resistance of the lanthanides. The large compositional ranges for IEB and IEB4 more easily accommodate the compositions of the waste stored at the INEL than does the composition of borosilicate glass. It appears, however, that the large potential variation in IEB and IEB4 compositions resulting from differing waste feed compositions can impact waste form durability. Further work is needed to determine the range of waste stream feed compositions and rates of waste form cooling that will result in acceptable and optimized IEB or IEB4 waste form performance. 43 refs

  5. Performance demonstration program plan for RCRA constituent analysis of solidified wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Performance Demonstration Programs (PDPS) are designed to help ensure compliance with the Quality Assurance Objectives (QAOs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The PDPs are intended for use by the Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) to assess and approve the laboratories and other measurement facilities supplying services for the characterization of WIPP TRU waste. The PDPs may also be used by CAO in qualifying laboratories proposing to supply additional analytical services that are required for other than waste characterization, such as WIPP site operations. The purpose of this PDP is to test laboratory performance for the analysis of solidified waste samples for TRU waste characterization. This performance will be demonstrated by the successful analysis of blind audit samples of simulated, solidified TRU waste according to the criteria established in this plan. Blind audit samples (hereinafter referred to as PDP samples) will be used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the QAOs. The concentration of analytes in the PDP samples will address levels of regulatory concern and will encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual waste characterization samples. Analyses that are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with various regulatory requirements and which are included in the PDP must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in the PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples for the balance of this document

  6. Preliminary performance assessment strategy for single-shell tank waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnichsen, J.C. Jr.

    1991-10-01

    The disposal of the waste stored in single-shell tanks at the Hanford Site is recognized as a major environmental concern. A comprehensive program has been initiated to evaluate the various alternatives available for disposal of these wastes. Theses wastes will be disposed of in a manner consistent with applicable laws and regulations. Long-term waste isolation is one measure of performance that will be used for purposes of selection. The performance of each disposal alternative will be simulated using numerical models. Contained herein is a discussion of the strategy that has and continues to evolve to establish a general analytical framework to evaluate this performance. This general framework will be used to construct individual models of each waste disposal alternative selected for purposes of evaluation. 30 refs., 3 figs

  7. Reproducibility of the Internal Load and Performance-Based Responses to Simulated Amateur Boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Edward D; Lamb, Kevin L

    2017-12-01

    Thomson, ED and Lamb, KL. Reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to simulated amateur boxing. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3396-3402, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to repeated bouts of a three-round amateur boxing simulation protocol (boxing conditioning and fitness test [BOXFIT]). Twenty-eight amateur boxers completed 2 familiarization trials before performing 2 complete trials of the BOXFIT, separated by 4-7 days. To characterize the internal load, mean (HRmean) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), aerobic energy expenditure, excess carbon dioxide production (CO2excess), and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded throughout each round, and blood lactate determined post-BOXFIT. Additionally, an indication of the performance-based demands of the BOXFIT was provided by a measure of acceleration of the punches thrown in each round. Analyses revealed there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between repeated trials in any round for all dependent measures. The typical error (coefficient variation %) for all but 1 marker of internal load (CO2excess) was 1.2-16.5% and reflected a consistency that was sufficient for the detection of moderate changes in variables owing to an intervention. The reproducibility of the punch accelerations was high (coefficient of variance % range = 2.1-2.7%). In general, these findings suggest that the internal load and performance-based efforts recorded during the BOXFIT are reproducible and, thereby, offer practitioners a method by which meaningful changes impacting on performance could be identified.

  8. Performance of low pH biofilters treating a paint solvent mixture: Continuous and intermittent loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Bing; Moe, William M.

    2006-01-01

    Two biofilters packed with a reticulated polyurethane foam medium were inoculated with a compost-derived enrichment culture grown under acidic conditions (pH 3.0) and then operated over a period lasting 63 days. Both biofilters were supplied with a humidified gas stream containing a five-component mixture of acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, ethylbenzene, and p-xylene at a total VOC loading rate 80.3 g m -3 h -1 to simulate treatment of air emissions resulting from manufacture of reformulated paint. One biofilter was operated under continuous loading conditions and the other received intermittent loading with contaminants supplied only 8 h/day. Nutrient solution with pH 3.0 was supplied approximately once per week to provide nitrogen and other nutrients. Data are presented which demonstrate that undefined mixed cultures acclimated at low pH can successfully treat paint solvent mixtures in biofilters. The biofilter receiving continuous loading reached high overall removal efficiency (greater than 90% overall removal) 3 weeks after startup, and performance increased over time reaching overall removal in the range of 97-99% after 50 days. Performance of the intermittently loaded biofilter developed more slowly, requiring 6 weeks to stabilize at an overall removal efficiency in excess of 90%. In both biofilters, ketone components were more rapidly degraded than aromatic components, and removal of aromatic compounds was somewhat unstable even after 2 months of biofilter operation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that fungi dominated the microbial populations in both biofilters

  9. Performance of fuzzy approach in Malaysia short-term electricity load forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Rosnalini; Zulkifli, Malina; Yusof, Muhammad Mat; Ismail, Mohd Isfahani; Ismail, Suzilah; Yin, Yip Chee

    2014-12-01

    Many activities such as economic, education and manafucturing would paralyse with limited supply of electricity but surplus contribute to high operating cost. Therefore electricity load forecasting is important in order to avoid shortage or excess. Previous finding showed festive celebration has effect on short-term electricity load forecasting. Being a multi culture country Malaysia has many major festive celebrations such as Eidul Fitri, Chinese New Year and Deepavali but they are moving holidays due to non-fixed dates on the Gregorian calendar. This study emphasis on the performance of fuzzy approach in forecasting electricity load when considering the presence of moving holidays. Autoregressive Distributed Lag model was estimated using simulated data by including model simplification concept (manual or automatic), day types (weekdays or weekend), public holidays and lags of electricity load. The result indicated that day types, public holidays and several lags of electricity load were significant in the model. Overall, model simplification improves fuzzy performance due to less variables and rules.

  10. Load Absorption Characteristics of Tyre Production Waste Rubber for Playground Floor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Ghani A.N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The floor surfaces where slides and swings are placed in parks and playrooms should be soft and thick to ensure that whenever a child falls, the surface can withstand the impact and minimize injuries to the child. Shredded tyres from waste tyres or waste rubber from tyre manufacturing could become beneficial as shock absorber material which can be used as a playground floor. In this study, rubber cubes and rubber pads with 5%, 8% and 10% SBR mixes were prepared for mechanical testing. Two types of floor design surfaces with and without plywood on the surface were assembled for the shock test. Gmax and HIC of this waste rubber flooring system were investigated using the compression test for the rubber cube and the drop test for the rubber pad. The criteria of general protection standards are 200g for optimum acceleration and 1000 for HIC. The Gmax and HIC results indicated that the material and system could ensure a safe fall from up to 1.0m height.

  11. Effects of Different Relative Loads on Power Performance During the Ballistic Push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Sadres, Eliahu; Bartolomei, Sandro; Muddle, Tyler W D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2017-12-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Sadres, E, Bartolomei, S, Muddle, TWD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Effects of different relative loads on power performance during the ballistic push-up. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3411-3416, 2017-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of load on force and power performance during a ballistic push-up. Sixty (24.5 ± 4.3 years, 1.75 ± 0.07 m, and 80.8 ± 13.5 kg) recreationally active men who participated in this investigation completed all testing and were included in the data analysis. All participants were required to perform a 1 repetition maximum bench press, and ballistic push-ups without external load (T1), with 10% (T2) and 20% (T3) of their body mass. Ballistic push-ups during T2 and T3 were performed using a weight loaded vest. Peak and mean force, power, as well as net impulse and flight time were determined for each ballistic push-up. Peak and mean force were both significantly greater (p ballistic push-up, regardless of the participants' level of strength.

  12. Loaded Pistols: The Interplay of Social Intervention and Anti-Aesthetic Tradition in Learning Disabled Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the aesthetics of applied performance with people with learning disabilities. Focusing on the integrated punk band Heavy Load, it explores how the aesthetic structure reconstructs notions of learning disability and intervenes in its social experience. It argues that this is facilitated through the punk form which positions…

  13. A systems engineering cost analysis capability for use in assessing nuclear waste management system cost performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shay, M.R.

    1990-04-01

    The System Engineering Cost Analysis (SECA) capability has been developed by the System Integration Branch of the US Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management for use in assessing the cost performance of alternative waste management system configurations. The SECA capability is designed to provide rapid cost estimates of the waste management system for a given operational scenario and to permit aggregate or detailed cost comparisons for alternative waste system configurations. This capability may be used as an integral part of the System Integration Modeling System (SIMS) or, with appropriate input defining a scenario, as a separate cost analysis model

  14. Environmental performance of household waste management in Europe - an example of 7 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasi Bassi, Susanna; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    compositions, waste management practices, technologies, and energy systems. National data were collected from a range of sources regarding household waste composition, household sorting efficiency, collection, waste treatments, recycling, electricity and heat composition, and technological efficiencies......An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) of the management of 1 ton of household waste was conducted in accordance with ISO 14044:2006 and the ILCD Handbook for seven European countries, namely Germany, Denmark, France, UK, Italy, Poland and Greece, representing different household waste....... The objective was to quantify the environmental performance in the different countries, in order to analyze the sources of the main environmental impacts and national differences which affect the results. In most of the seven countries, household waste management provides environmental benefits when considering...

  15. Performance of borosilicate glass, Synroc and spent fuel as nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutze, W.; Grambow, B.; Ewing, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, there are three prominent waste forms under consideration for the disposal of high-level waste: Borosilicate glass and Synroc for high-level radioactive waste from fuel reprocessing and spent fuel as the waste form for non-reprocessed fuel. Using the present experimental data base, one may compare the performance of these three waste forms under repository relevant conditions. In low water flow regimes and at temperatures less than 100 degree C, the fractional release rates of all three waste forms are low, on the order of 10-7/d or less and may decrease with time. Under these conditions the three waste forms behave similarly. At elevated temperatures or in high flow regimes, the durability of borosilicate glass will be much less than that of Synroc, and thus, for certain disposal schemes (e.g., deep burial) Synroc is preferable. All predictions of the long-term behavior are based on the extrapolation of short term experimental data, we point out that appropriate and useful natural analogues are available for each of these waste forms and should be used in the performance assessment of each waste form's long-term behavior. 14 refs

  16. Performance of on-site Medical waste disinfection equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Taghipour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of studies available on the performance of on-site medical waste treatment facilities is rare, to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of onsite medical waste treatment equipment in hospitals of Tabriz, Iran. Methods: A various range of the on-site medical waste disinfection equipment (autoclave, chemical disinfection, hydroclave, and dry thermal treatment was considered to select 10 out of 22 hospitals in Tabriz to be included in the survey. The apparatus were monitored mechanically, chemically, and biologically for a six months period in all of the selected hospitals. Results: The results of the chemical monitoring (Bowie-Dick tests indicated that 38.9% of the inspected autoclaves had operational problems in pre-vacuum, air leaks, inadequate steam penetration into the waste, and/or vacuum pump. The biological indicators revealed that about 55.55% of the samples were positive. The most of applied devices were not suitable for treating anatomical, pharmaceutical, cytotoxic, and chemical waste. Conclusion: Although on-site medical waste treating facilities have been installed in all the hospitals, the most of infectious-hazardous medical waste generated in the hospitals were deposited into a municipal solid waste landfill, without enough disinfection. The responsible authorities should stringently inspect and evaluate the operation of on-site medical waste treating equipment. An advanced off-site central facility with multi-treatment and disinfection equipment and enough capacity is recommended as an alternative.

  17. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail.

  18. Analysis of the low-level waste radionuclide inventory for the Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plansky, L.E.; Hoiland, S.A.

    1992-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study to improve the estimates of the radionuclides in the low-level radioactive waste (LLW) inventory which is buried in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The work is done to support the RWMC draft performance assessment (PA). Improved radionuclide inventory estimates are provided for the INEL LLW generators. Engineering, environmental assessment or other research areas may find use for the information in this report. It may also serve as a LLW inventory baseline for data quality assurance. The individual INEL LLW generators, their history and their activities are also described in detail

  19. Performance of municipal waste stabilization ponds in the Canadian Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ragush, Colin M.; Schmidt, Jordan J.; Krkosek, Wendy H.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of small remote communities in the Canadian arctic territory of Nunavut utilize waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) for municipal wastewater treatment because of their relatively low capital and operational costs, and minimal complexity. New national effluent quality regulations have be...

  20. The effect of load imbalances on the performance of Monte Carlo algorithms in LWR analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.R.; Smith, K.; Romano, P.K.; Forget, B.; Felker, K.

    2013-01-01

    A model is developed to predict the impact of particle load imbalances on the performance of domain-decomposed Monte Carlo neutron transport algorithms. Expressions for upper bound performance “penalties” are derived in terms of simple machine characteristics, material characterizations and initial particle distributions. The hope is that these relations can be used to evaluate tradeoffs among different memory decomposition strategies in next generation Monte Carlo codes, and perhaps as a metric for triggering particle redistribution in production codes

  1. Effects of feed loading on nitrogen balances and fish performance in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of applying four fixed feed loadings to three replicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on water quality changes, nitrogenous balances and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Feed loadings ranged from 1.6 to 6.3kgfeed/m3 make-up...... water, with a constant make-up water renewal of 4.7% of total water volume per day in all twelve RAS. Fish densities ranged from 14 to 92kg/m3 during the prolonged trial of 10weeks. Selected water quality parameters were measured during two intensive sampling campaigns, evaluating biofilter...

  2. 40 CFR 60.1025 - Do subpart E new source performance standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... standards also apply to my municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1025 Section 60.1025 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units for Which... municipal waste combustion unit? If this subpart AAAA applies to your municipal waste combustion unit, then...

  3. Analyzing the Energy Performance, Wind Loading, and Costs of Photovoltaic Slat Modules on Commercial Rooftops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Geet, Otto D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); MacAlpine, Sara M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-13

    NREL studied a new type of photovoltaic (PV) module configuration wherein multiple narrow, tilted slats are mounted in a single frame. Each slat of the PV slat module contains a single row of cells and is made using ordinary crystalline silicon PV module materials and processes, including a glass front sheet and weatherproof polymer encapsulation. Compared to a conventional ballasted system, a system using slat modules offer higher energy production and lower weight at lower LCOE. The key benefits of slat modules are reduced wind loading, improved capacity factor and reduced installation cost. First, the individual slats allow air to flow through, which reduce wind loading. Using PV performance modeling software, we compared the performance of an optimized installation of slats modules to a typical installation of conventional modules in a ballasted rack mounting system. Based on the results of the performance modeling two different row tilt and spacing were tested in a wind tunnel. Scaled models of the PV Slat modules were wind tunnel tested to quantify the wind loading of a slat module system on a commercial rooftop, comparing the results to conventional ballasted rack mounted PV modules. Some commercial roofs do not have sufficient reserve dead load capacity to accommodate a ballasted system. A reduced ballast system design could make PV system installation on these roofs feasible for the first time without accepting the disadvantages of penetrating mounts. Finally, technoeconomic analysis was conducted to enable an economic comparison between a conventional commercial rooftop system and a reduced-ballast slat module installation.

  4. Experimental study of reactor waste lixiviation depending on waste loading Task 3 Characterization of radioactive waste forms A series of final reports (1985-89) No. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Girard, J.

    1991-01-01

    This study on the lixiviation of reactor wastes has been in progress since August 1988. The production of inactive samples and studies on their lixiviation, of which the results are presented, have been carried out by EDF (Electricite de France). The CEA (Commissariat a l'energie atomique) produced the active samples for which the results of lixiviation studies are available. The full-scale active packages have been manufactured and an indication of first values for lixiviation on these is given at 180 days. The main conclusions concerning lixiviation mechanisms are given

  5. Effects of Motion in the Far Peripheral Visual Field on Cognitive Test Performance and Cognitive Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andy; Paas, Fred; Krigbaum, Genomary

    2016-04-01

    Cognitive load theory posits that limited attention is in actuality a limitation in working memory resources. The load theory of selective attention and cognitive control sees the interplay between attention and awareness as separate modifying functions that act on working memory. Reconciling the theoretical differences in these two theories has important implications for learning. Thirty-nine adult participants performed a cognitively demanding test, with and without movement in the far peripheral field. Although the results for movement effects on cognitive load in this experiment were not statistically significant, men spent less time on the cognitive test in the peripheral movement condition than in the conditions without peripheral movement. No such difference was found for women. The implications of these results and recommendations for future research that extends the present study are presented. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi

    2016-01-01

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  7. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  8. Performance of photocatalyst based carbon nanodots from waste frying oil in water purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, Mahardika Prasetya, E-mail: mahardika190@gmail.com; Wiguna, Pradita Ajeng; Susanto,; Rosita, Nita; Suciningtyas, Siti Aisyah; Sulhadi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science Universitas Negeri Semarang, Jalan Raya Sekaran Gunungpati 50229 Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2016-04-19

    Carbon Nanodots (C-Dots) from waste frying oil could be used as a photocatalyst in water purification with solar light irradiation. Performance of C-Dots as a photocatalyst was tested in the process of water purification with a given synthetic sewage methylene blue. The tested was also conducted by comparing the performance C-Dots made from frying oil, waste fryng oil as a photocatalyst and solution of methylene blue without photocatalyst C-Dots. Performance of C-Dots from waste frying oil were estimated by the results of absorbance spectrum. The results of measurement absorbance spectrum from the process of water purification with photocatalyst C-Dots showed that the highest intensity at a wavelength 664 nm of methylene blue decreased. The test results showed that the performance of photocatalyst C-Dots from waste frying oil was better in water purification. This estimated that number of particles C-dots is more in waste frying oil because have experieced repeated the heating process so that the higher particles concentration make the photocatalyst process more effective. The observation of the performance C-Dots from waste frying oil as a photocatalyst in the water purification processes become important invention for solving the problems of waste and water purification.

  9. Sleep restriction and cognitive load affect performance on a simulated marksmanship task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl D; Cooper, Adam D; Merullo, Donna J; Cohen, Bruce S; Heaton, Kristin J; Claro, Pedro J; Smith, Tracey

    2017-11-24

    Sleep restriction degrades cognitive and motor performance, which can adversely impact job performance and increase the risk of accidents. Military personnel are prone to operating under sleep restriction, and previous work suggests that military marksmanship may be negatively affected under such conditions. Results of these studies, however, are mixed and have often incorporated additional stressors (e.g. energy restriction) beyond sleep restriction. Moreover, few studies have investigated how the degree of difficulty of a marksmanship task impacts performance following sleep restriction. The purpose of the current experiment was to study the effects of sleep restriction on marksmanship while minimizing the potential influence of other forms of stress. A friend-foe discrimination challenge with greater or lesser degrees of complexity (high versus low load) was used as the primary marksmanship task. Active duty Soldiers were recruited, and allowed 2 h of sleep every 24 h over a 72-h testing period. Marksmanship tasks, cognitive assessment metrics and the NASA-Task Load Index were administered daily. Results indicated that reaction times to shoot foe targets and signal friendly targets slowed over time. In addition, the ability to correctly discriminate between friend and foe targets significantly decreased in the high-cognitive-load condition over time despite shot accuracy remaining stable. The NASA-Task Load Index revealed that, although marksmanship performance degraded, participants believed their performance did not change over time. These results further characterize the consequences of sleep restriction on marksmanship performance and the perception of performance, and reinforce the importance of adequate sleep among service members when feasible. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Enhancing Photocatalytic Performance through Tuning the Interfacial Process between -Assembled and Pt-Loaded Microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a simple two-step approach to rutile TiO2-assembled microspheres loaded by Pt with an aim to tune semiconductor-metal interfacial processes for enhancing the photocatalytic performance. Systematic sample characterizations and structural analysis indicate that Pt loading did not produce any significant influences on the lattice structure of TiO2-assembled microspheres. Instead, upon Pt loading, Schottky barrier was formed in the interfaces between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles, which inhabited efficiently the recombination of photo-generated electron-hole pairs essential for the photocatalytic activities. In addition, TiO2 microspheres also showed a capacity of electrons storage and releasing as represented by a high dielectric constant, which increased the utility rate of photogenerated electrons. All these structural advantages contribute to the excellent photocatalytic activity under ultraviolet light irradiation. The interfacial process between microspheres and Pt nanoparticles was further tuned through adjusting the loading Pt content of metal Pt. As a consequence, the best photocatalytic activity on TiO2 was obtained at 0.85 wt% Pt loading, above or below which photocatalytic activity was apparently decreased.

  11. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Collado-Mateo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the “Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB” wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63 vs. 1.69 (0.51 respectively. The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  12. Performance of women with fibromyalgia in walking up stairs while carrying a load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Adsuar, José C; Olivares, Pedro R; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco J; Maestre-Cascales, Cristina; Gusi, Narcis

    2016-01-01

    Background. Fibromyalgia is a chronic disease characterized by widespread pain and other associated symptoms. It has a relevant impact on physical fitness and the ability to perform daily living tasks. The objective of the study was to analyze the step-by-step-performance and the trunk tilt of women with fibromyalgia in the 10-step stair climbing test compared with healthy controls. Methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out. Twelve women suffering from fibromyalgia and eight healthy controls were recruited from a local association. Participants were asked to climb 10 stairs without carrying a load and 10 stairs carrying a load of 5 kg in each hand. Mediolateral trunk tilt was assessed using the "Functional Assessment of Biomechanics (FAB)" wireless motion capture device, and the time between steps was assessed via weight-bearing insoles. Results. Trunk tilt in the stair-climbing task carrying a load was significantly higher in women with fibromyalgia when compared to the healthy controls (2.31 (0.63) vs. 1.69 (0.51) respectively). The effect of carrying a load was significantly higher for women with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls at the intermediate and final part of the task. Discussion. Trunk tilt during stair climbing while carrying a load was higher in women with FM, which could increase the risk of falling. Additionally, women with FM experienced a higher pace slowdown as a consequence of the load, which supports the need of including specific strength and resistance training to physical therapies for this population.

  13. Assessment of Loads and Performance of a Containment in a Hypothetical Accident (ALPHA). Facility design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Norihiro; Maruyama, Yu; Kudo, Tamotsu; Moriyama, Kiyofumi; Ito, Hideo; Komori, Keiichi; Sonobe, Hisao; Sugimoto, Jun

    1998-06-01

    In the ALPHA (Assessment of Loads and Performance of Containment in Hypothetical Accident) program, several tests have been performed to quantitatively evaluate loads to and performance of a containment vessel during a severe accident of a light water reactor. The ALPHA program focuses on investigating leak behavior through the containment vessel, fuel-coolant interaction, molten core-concrete interaction and FP aerosol behavior, which are generally recognized as significant phenomena considered to occur in the containment. In designing the experimental facility, it was considered to simulate appropriately the phenomena mentioned above, and to cover experimental conditions not covered by previous works involving high pressure and temperature. Experiments from the viewpoint of accident management were also included in the scope. The present report describes design specifications, dimensions, instrumentation of the ALPHA facility based on the specific test objectives and procedures. (author)

  14. Seismic Performance Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Frames Subjected to Seismic Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zameeruddin, Mohd.; Sangle, Keshav K.

    2017-06-01

    Ten storied-3 bays reinforced concrete bare frame designed for gravity loads following the guidelines of IS 456 and IS 13920 for ductility is subjected to seismic loads. The seismic demands on this building were calculated by following IS 1893 for response spectra of 5% damping (for hard soil type). Plastic hinges were assigned to the beam and column at both ends to represent the failure mode, when member yields. Non-linear static (pushover) analysis was performed to evaluate the performance of the building in reference to first (ATC 40), second (FEMA 356) and next-generation (FEMA 440) performance based seismic design procedures. Base shear against top displacement curve of structure, known as pushover curve was obtained for two actions of plastic hinge behavior, force-controlled (brittle) and deformation-controlled (ductile) actions. Lateral deformation corresponding to performance point proves the building capability to sustain a certain level of seismic loads. The failure is represented by a sequence of formation of plastic hinges. Deformation-controlled action of hinges showed that building behaves like strong-column-weak-beam mechanism, whereas force-controlled action showed formation of hinges in the column. The study aims to understand the first, second and next generation performance based design procedure in prediction of actual building responses and their conservatism into the acceptance criteria.

  15. Development of a working set of waste package performance criteria for deepsea disposal of low-level radioactive waste. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Columbo, P.; Fuhrmann, M.; Neilson, R.M. Jr; Sailor, V.L.

    1982-11-01

    The United States ocean dumping regulations developed pursuant to PL92-532, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, as amended, provide for a general policy of isolation and containment of low-level radioactive waste after disposal into the ocean. In order to determine whether any particular waste packaging system is adequate to meet this general requirement, it is necessary to establish a set of performance criteria against which to evaluate a particular packaging system. These performance criteria must present requirements for the behavior of the waste in combination with its immobilization agent and outer container in a deepsea environment. This report presents a working set of waste package performance criteria, and includes a glossary of terms, characteristics of low-level radioactive waste, radioisotopes of importance in low-level radioactive waste, and a summary of domestic and international regulations which control the ocean disposal of these wastes

  16. Scientific investigation plan for NNWSI WBS element 1.2.2.5.L: NNWSI waste package performance assessment: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggert, K.G.; O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Waste package performance assessment contains three broad categories of activities. These activities are: (1) development of a hydrothermal flow and transport model to test concepts to be used in establishing boundary conditions for performance calculations, and to interface EBS release calculations with total system performance calculations; (2) development of a waste package systems model to provide integrated deterministic assessments of performance and analyses of waste package designs; and (3) development of an uncertainty methodology for combination with the system model to perform probabilistic reliability and performance analysis waste package designs. The first category contains activities that aid in determining the scope of a separate, simplified set of hydrologic calculations needed to characterize the waste package environment for performance assessment calculations. The last two activity categories are directly concerned with waste package performance calculations. A rationale for each activity under these groups is presented. All of the activities of performance assessment are either code development or analyses of waste package problems

  17. Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 Monitoring the Durability Performance of Concrete in Nuclear Waste Containment. Technical Progress Report No. 3(NOTE: Part II A item 1 indicates ''PAPER'', but a report is attached electronically)

  18. The acute effects of manipulating volume and load of back squats on countermovement vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Gavin L; Mergy, David; Witmer, Ca; Davis, Shala E

    2011-06-01

    The acute effects of manipulating the volume and load of back squats on subsequent countermovement vertical jump performance were investigated in the present study. Eleven National Collegiate Athletic Association division II female volleyball players performed 10 countermovement vertical jumps (CMJs) on a force platform 2 minutes after the last squat repetition of a high-load (HL) or high-volume (HV) squat protocol. Two minutes of rest was provided between each CMJ. The HL protocol culminated in the subjects having to perform 3 repetitions with a load equivalent to 90% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) back squat, whereas 12 repetitions with a load equivalent to 37% 1RM were performed in the HV protocol. During an initial familiarization session, knee angles were recorded during a series of CMJs, and these angles were used to control the depth of descent during all subsequent back squats. Jump height (JH) and vertical stiffness (VStiff) were calculated during each of the 10 CMJ, and the change in these variables after the 2 squat protocols was assessed using an analysis of variance model with repeated measures on 2 factors (Protocol [2-levels]; Time [2-levels]). There was no significant difference in JH after the HL and HV protocols (p > 0.05). A significant Protocol × Time interaction for VStiff resulted from the increase after the HL protocol being greater than that after the HV protocol (p = 0.03). The knee angles before the HL and HV protocols were significantly greater than those measured during the initial familiarization session (p = 0.001). Although neither squat protocol provided any benefit in improving JH, the heavy squat protocol produced greater increases in VStiff during the CMJ. Because of the increased VStiff caused by the HL protocol, volleyball coaches may consider using such protocols with their players to improve performance in jumps performed from a run such as the spike and on-court agility.

  19. Sample loading for C-14 measurement in the simulated organic solvent waste from a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianu, Magdalena; Podina, C.; Nita, Valentina

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Sample preparation is a critical step in obtaining accurate results in scintillation counting. Standard (22 ml) glass and plastic vials were used in these experiments. The preliminary research was conducted using glass vials to allow visual verification that a homogeneous solution is obtained at the desired cocktail/sample ratio. Then, the research was moved into plastic vials to reduce backgrounds and improve the counting rate. Samples were counted in a Model 2100 TR Packard TRI-CARB liquid scintillation analyzer. The paper mainly contains: - Composition and data about liquid scintillation cocktails used (tables); - Characterization of radioactive waste - organic solvent contaminated with C-14; - Sample loading (tables); - Efficiency vs Sample Loading - for each cocktail used. Organic solvent sample volumes were added to the vials in 0.5 ml increments from 1 ml to 2 ml. Then, the liquid scintillation cocktail was added so that the sample-cocktail volume was 20 ml. Each vial was shaken vigorously for several seconds after each addition to ensure homogeneity and count. Blank vials were prepared using C-14-free organic solvent samples in the same sample-cocktail proportions. After at least two hours, the samples and blank vials were counted for ten minutes, using a Packard counter. (authors)

  20. Performance of aged cement - polymer composite immobilizing borate waste simulates during flooding scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander, S.B.; Bayoumi, T.A.; Saleh, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    An advanced composite of cement and water extended polyester based on the recycled Poly(ethylene terephthalate) waste was developed to incorporate the borate waste. Previous studies have reported the characterizations of the waste composite (cement-polymer composite immobilizing borate waste simulates) after 28 days of curing time. The current work studied the performance of waste composite aged for seven years and subjected to flooding scenario during 260 days using three types of water. The state of waste composite was assessed at the end of each definite interval of the water infiltration through visual examination and mechanical measurement. Scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses were used to investigate the changes that may occur in the microstructure of the waste composite under aging and flooding effects. The actual experimental results indicated reasonable evidence for the waste composite. Acceptable consistency was confirmed for the waste composite even after aging seven years and exposure to flooding scenario for 260 days.

  1. Performance of waste-paper/PETG wood–plastic composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Huang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wood–plastic composites were prepared from polyethylene terephthalate- 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol ester (PETG and waste-paper fiber that was unmodified, modified with alkyl-ketene-dimer (AKD, and modified with a silane-coupling agent. The mechanical properties, water absorption properties, surface structure, and thermal properties of the three prepared materials were compared. The results showed that the optimum amount of waste-paper powder is 10 wt%, while that of the waste-paper particles is 60–80 mesh. The use of AKD and coupling agent KH550 can reduce the water absorption of the composite; however, the reductive effect of the coupling agent is better, in that it is reduced by 0.3%. Modification using a 1-wt% KH550 coupling agent can effectively increase the tensile strength of a composite from 31.36 to 41.67 MPa (increase of 32.8%, while the bending strength increased from 86.47 to 98.31 MPa (increase of 13.7%. This also enhances the thermal stability of the composites. With the addition of the coupling agent, the composite material maintains good mechanical properties even after being immersed in water; this can enable the safe use of these composite materials in outdoor environments.

  2. Performance of waste-paper/PETG wood–plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lijie; An, Shuxiang; Li, Chunying; Huang, Chongxing; Wang, Shuangfei; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Mingzi; Chen, Jie; Zhou, Lei

    2018-05-01

    Wood-plastic composites were prepared from polyethylene terephthalate- 1,4-cyclohexanedimethanol ester (PETG) and waste-paper fiber that was unmodified, modified with alkyl-ketene-dimer (AKD), and modified with a silane-coupling agent. The mechanical properties, water absorption properties, surface structure, and thermal properties of the three prepared materials were compared. The results showed that the optimum amount of waste-paper powder is 10 wt%, while that of the waste-paper particles is 60-80 mesh. The use of AKD and coupling agent KH550 can reduce the water absorption of the composite; however, the reductive effect of the coupling agent is better, in that it is reduced by 0.3%. Modification using a 1-wt% KH550 coupling agent can effectively increase the tensile strength of a composite from 31.36 to 41.67 MPa (increase of 32.8%), while the bending strength increased from 86.47 to 98.31 MPa (increase of 13.7%). This also enhances the thermal stability of the composites. With the addition of the coupling agent, the composite material maintains good mechanical properties even after being immersed in water; this can enable the safe use of these composite materials in outdoor environments.

  3. An overview of the geochemical code MINTEQ: Applications to performance assessment for low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, S.R.; Opitz, B.E.; Graham, M.J.; Eary, L.E.

    1987-03-01

    The MINTEQ geochemical computer code, developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), integrates many of the capabilities of its two immediate predecessors, MINEQL and WATEQ3. The MINTEQ code will be used in the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program to perform the calculations necessary to simulate (model) the contact of low-level waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments of the interaction of ground water with solidified low-level wastes. The code can calculate ion speciation/solubilitya, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. Under the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program, the composition of effluents (leachates) from column and batch experiments, using laboratory-scale waste forms, will be used to develop a geochemical model of the interaction of ground water with commercial, solidified low-level wastes. The wastes being evaluated include power-reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen. The thermodynamic database for the code was upgraded preparatory to performing the geochemical modeling. Thermodynamic data for solid phases and aqueous species containing Sb, Ce, Cs, or Co were added to the MINTEQ database. The need to add these data was identified from the characterization of the waste streams. The geochemical model developed from the laboratory data will then be applied to predict the release from a field-lysimeter facility that contains full-scale waste samples. The contaminant concentrations migrating from the waste forms predicted using MINTEQ will be compared to the long-term lysimeter data. This comparison will constitute a partial field validation of the geochemical model

  4. French radioactive wastes performance assessment and the natural analogues approach: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escalier des Orres, P.

    1988-10-01

    One of the main difficulties linked to the Radioactive Waste Performance Assessment calculations lies in the scale of time and space underlying these calculations: mechanisms and parameters can directly be affected by time or space dependency. The ''natural analogues'' approach has evident advantages, at least qualitative, to enlighten these aspects. It may also provide confidence in our ability to model partial or overall natural systems. The following paper gives the headlines of the use of the ''natural analogues'' methodology in the French Radioactive Wastes Performance Assessment in the field of waste disposal

  5. Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Performance and Loads of a Novel Dual Rotor Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Moghadassian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to numerically investigate the effects of the atmospheric boundary layer on the aerodynamic performance and loads of a novel dual-rotor wind turbine (DRWT. Large eddy simulations are carried out with the turbines operating in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL and in a uniform inflow. Two stability conditions corresponding to neutral and slightly stable atmospheres are investigated. The turbines are modeled using the actuator line method where the rotor blades are modeled as body forces. Comparisons are drawn between the DRWT and a comparable conventional single-rotor wind turbine (SRWT to assess changes in aerodynamic efficiency and loads, as well as wake mixing and momentum and kinetic energy entrainment into the turbine wake layer. The results show that the DRWT improves isolated turbine aerodynamic performance by about 5%–6%. The DRWT also enhances turbulent axial momentum entrainment by about 3.3 %. The highest entrainment is observed in the neutral stability case when the turbulence in the ABL is moderately high. Aerodynamic loads for the DRWT, measured as out-of-plane blade root bending moment, are marginally reduced. Spectral analyses of ABL cases show peaks in unsteady loads at the rotor passing frequency and its harmonics for both rotors of the DRWT.

  6. Transient Performance of Radiator on Engine Rpm Variation with AC Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ricki Murti

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Radiator is one of heat exchanger applications that has a function to remove out of heat must be able to operate properly for allowed engine temperature limit. Vehicles that operate on the street usually driving with varying rpm so that the heat produced by the combustion process is not constant and then this study analyze the performance of radiators as a function of time (transient condition. Tests is done on the condition of operating the engine with five rpm variations, each for one hour with air conditioning load and without air-conditioning load. The data to be collected includ the inlet and outlet temperature of radiator and radiator fluid volume flow. The results obtained is heat exhausted rate as a performance radiator is increasing as with increasing of engine rpm and at load conditions with the AC produces heat exhausted rate is greater than AC without AC load. The heat exhausted rate in an hour of machine operation still shows the system operates at a transient condition due to there still exists a numerical increase in the heat exhausted rate as a function of time.

  7. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility

  8. Performance assessment for continuing and future operations at solid waste storage area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This revised performance assessment (PA) for the continued disposal operations at Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal contained in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. This revised PA considers disposal operations conducted from September 26, 1988, through the projects lifetime of the disposal facility.

  9. Overview of the geochemical code MINTEQ: applications to performance assessment for low-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, M.J.; Peterson, S.R.

    1985-09-01

    The MINTEQ geochemical computer code, developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory, integrates many of the capabilities of its two immediate predecessors, WATEQ3 and MINEQL. MINTEQ can be used to perform the calculations necessary to simulate (model) the contact of low-level waste solutions with heterogeneous sediments or the interaction of ground water with solidified low-level wastes. The code is capable of performing calculations of ion speciation/solubility, adsorption, oxidation-reduction, gas phase equilibria, and precipitation/dissolution of solid phases. Under the Special Waste Form Lysimeters-Arid program, the composition of effluents (leachates) from column and batch experiments, using laboratory-scale waste forms, will be used to develop a geochemical model of the interaction of ground water with commercial solidified low-level wastes. The wastes being evaluated include power reactor waste streams that have been solidified in cement, vinyl ester-styrene, and bitumen. The thermodynamic database for the code is being upgraded before the geochemical modeling is performed. Thermodynamic data for cobalt, antimony, cerium, and cesium solid phases and aqueous species are being added to the database. The need to add these data was identified from the characterization of the waste streams. The geochemical model developed from the laboratory data will then be applied to predict the release from a field-lysimeter facility that contains full-scale waste samples. The contaminant concentrations migrating from the wastes predicted using MINTEQ will be compared to the long-term lysimeter data. This comparison will constitute a partical field validation of the geochemical model. 28 refs

  10. Chain-loaded variable resistance warm-up improves free-weight maximal back squat performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Minas A; Blazevich, Anthony J; Giakas, Giannis; Seitz, Laurent B; Kay, Anthony D

    2016-11-01

    The acute influence of chain-loaded variable resistance exercise on subsequent free-weight one-repetition maximum (1-RM) back squat performance was examined in 16 recreationally active men. The participants performed either a free-weight resistance (FWR) or chain-loaded resistance (CLR) back squat warm-up at 85% 1-RM on two separate occasions. After a 5-min rest, the participants attempted a free-weight 1-RM back squat; if successful, subsequent 5% load additions were made until participants failed to complete the lift. During the 1-RM trials, 3D knee joint kinematics and knee extensor and flexor electromyograms (EMG) were recorded simultaneously. Significantly greater 1-RM (6.2 ± 5.0%; p  .05) was found in concentric EMG, eccentric or concentric knee angular velocity, or peak knee flexion angle. Performing a CLR warm-up enhanced subsequent free-weight 1-RM performance without changes in knee flexion angle or eccentric and concentric knee angular velocities; thus a real 1-RM increase was achieved as the mechanics of the lift were not altered. These results are indicative of a potentiating effect of CLR in a warm-up, which may benefit athletes in tasks where high-level strength is required.

  11. The effects of individual differences, prior experience and cognitive load on the transfer of dynamic decision-making performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brad; O'Hare, David

    2014-01-01

    Situational awareness is recognised as an important factor in the performance of individuals and teams in dynamic decision-making (DDM) environments (Salmon et al. 2014 ). The present study was designed to investigate whether the scores on the WOMBAT™ Situational Awareness and Stress Tolerance Test (Roscoe and North 1980 ) would predict the transfer of DDM performance from training under different levels of cognitive load to a novel situation. Participants practised a simulated firefighting task under either low or high conditions of cognitive load and then performed a (transfer) test in an alternative firefighting environment under an intermediate level of cognitive load. WOMBAT™ test scores were a better predictor of DDM performance than scores on the Raven Matrices. Participants with high WOMBAT™ scores performed better regardless of their training condition. Participants with recent gaming experience who practised under low cognitive load showed better practice phase performance but worse transfer performance than those who practised under high cognitive load. The relationship between task experience, situational awareness ability, cognitive load and the transfer of dynamic decision-making (DDM) performance was investigated. Results showed that the WOMBAT™ test predicted transfer of DDM performance regardless of task cognitive load. The effects of cognitive load on performance varied according to previous task-relevant experience.

  12. Ceramic stabilization of hazardous wastes: a high performance room temperature process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    ANL has developed a room-temperature process for converting hazardous materials to a ceramic structure. It is similar to vitrification but is achieved at low cost, similar to conventional cement stabilization. The waste constituents are both chemically stabilized and physically encapsulated, producing very low leaching levels and the potential for delisting. The process, which is pH-insensitive, is ideal for inorganic sludges and liquids, as well as mixed chemical-radioactive wastes, but can also handle significant percentages of salts and even halogenated organics. High waste loadings are possible and densification occurs,so that volumes are only slightly increased and in some cases (eg, incinerator ash) are reduced. The ceramic product has strength and weathering properties far superior to cement products

  13. Volumetric activity of SRS mixed waste and comparison with SRS performance and commercial facility limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Daugherty, B.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the comparative analysis performed to estimate the after-treatment volumetric activity of the radionuclides included in the Savannah River site (SRS) mixed-waste streams and its comparison with the following: (1) The performance evaluation (PE) limits established for each radionuclide for on-site disposal: These limits correspond to the permissible waste disposal limits that are the lowest limits evaluated for the most restrictive release scenarios that include the groundwater pathway, the atmospheric pathway, and the intruder scenarios. (2) The radiological performance assessment (PA) limits established for each radionuclide for disposal in the SRS disposal vaults that meet the requirements of Chap. III of the U.S. Department of Energy Order 5820.2A: The vaults considered are the low-activity waste (LAW) vaults, the intermediate-level non-tritium (ILNT) vaults. and the intermediate-level tritium (ILT) vaults. (3) The radioactive limits of a commercial mixed waste disposal facility

  14. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory low-level waste systems performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This Low-Level Radioactive Waste (LLW) Systems Performance Assessment (PA) presents a systematic analysis of the potential risks posed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) waste management system. Potential risks to the public and environment are compared to established performance objectives as required by DOE Order 5820.2A. The report determines the associated maximum individual committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) to a member of the public from LLW and mixed waste. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.01 mrem could result from routine radioactive liquid effluents. A maximum annual CEDE of 0.003 mrem could result from routine radioactive gaseous effluents. No other pathways for radiation exposure of the public indicated detectable levels of exposure. The dose rate, monitoring, and waste acceptance performance objectives were found to be adequately addressed by the LLNL Program. 88 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs

  15. Structure of technical systems: interpersonal networks and performance in nuclear waste and photovoltaic research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrum, W.M. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The organization of scientific technology in modern, industrialized societies is examined by comparing two large-scale, multi-organizational, mission-oriented research networks. Using national data from personal interviews with 297 scientists, engineers, research managers, and policy makers from 97 organizations involved in nuclear waste management and solar-photovoltaic development, this study develops and tests hypotheses on the relationships among governmental, academic, private, and public interest sectors and the kinds of social linkages which are associated with technical performance. The principal finding is that in photovoltaic research, contacts with the research community are associated with high levels of performance, while for nuclear waste researchers, they are not. Instead, linkages to the governmental sector predict performance in nuclear waste research. This difference is explained by the governmental domination of the nuclear-waste system and the lack of private-sector involvement

  16. Data on the no-load performance analysis of a tomato postharvest storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayomide, Orhewere B; Ajayi, Oluseyi O; Banjo, Solomon O; Ajayi, Adesola A

    2017-08-01

    In this present investigation, an original and detailed empirical data on the transfer of heat in a tomato postharvest storage system was presented. No-load tests were performed for a period of 96 h. The heat distribution at different locations, namely the top, middle and bottom of the system was acquired, at a time interval of 30 min for the test period. The humidity inside the system was taken into consideration. Thus, No-load tests with or without introduction of humidity were carried out and data showing the effect of a rise in humidity level, on temperature distribution were acquired. The temperatures at the external mechanical cooling components were acquired and could be used for showing the performance analysis of the storage system.

  17. Sample loading for C-14 measurement in the simulated organic solvent waste from a CANDU Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dianu, Magdalena; Dobrin, Relu; Podina, Corneliu

    2005-01-01

    The paper evaluates the performance of two commercially available liquid scintillation cocktails designed for counting nonaqueous (organic) samples. To choose a suitable scintillation cocktail is not always easy because many cocktails are available on the market. The efficiency, sample loading, sample type are all important variables that help determine the suitability of a liquid scintillation cocktail for C-14 measurement. Samples were counted in a 2100 TRI-CARB Packard Model liquid scintillation analyzer. (authors)

  18. Flexible fermentation of organically loaded industrial waste waters using a beverage manufacturer as an example; Flexible Vergaerung organisch belasteter Industrie-Abwaesser am Beispiel eines Getraenkeherstellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganagin, Waldemar; Loewen, Achim; Nelles, Michael [HAWK Hochschule fuer Angewandte Wissenschaft und Kunst Hildesheim/Holzminden/Goettingen, Goettingen (Germany). Fachgebiet Nachhaltige Energie- und Umwelttechnik (NEUTec)

    2013-10-01

    Industrial organic waste water is usually treated directly in an own or public sewage treatment plant which is highly cost-intensive. The anaerobic digestion of those waste waters is sometimes difficult to control. HAWK is working in a project about this topic, where a fixed bed reactor is investigated for the operation as a flexible plant. For this reason a semi-industrial pilot plant was developed and the capability will be tested on several sites. The gas production ought to run according to the companies demands and is integrated in the operation and processes. This flexible plant is specifically designed to deal with small amounts of waste water with low organic components and even sometimes discontinuously loads. This process is tested in a beverage factory. The reactor was implemented in the existing infrastructure and their waste water is treated. The assessment of the measurements shows, that the fixed bed reactor can handle the organic compounds of the waste water very well and reduce them significantly. Even fluctuating loads and a low organic concentration do not harm the process. The effect of power generation is an additional benefit for this system This innovative approach with low energy input and additional profit from the power sale makes the waste water treatment on site as a real alternative to the conventional treatment. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of amount of physical load in the Czech and Austrian footballers at the same level of performance

    OpenAIRE

    Bujnovský, David

    2011-01-01

    Title: Comparison of the size of the motor load in the Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level Objectives: The aim is to determine the size of the physical load of players during a football match. At the same time the next aim is to determinate the differences of physical load between Czech and Austrian soccer players at the same performance level. Methods: The indirect (mediated) observations was used in this bachelor thesis, because the data were recorded by computer...

  20. Deep Recurrent Model for Server Load and Performance Prediction in Data Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent neural network (RNN has been widely applied to many sequential tagging tasks such as natural language process (NLP and time series analysis, and it has been proved that RNN works well in those areas. In this paper, we propose using RNN with long short-term memory (LSTM units for server load and performance prediction. Classical methods for performance prediction focus on building relation between performance and time domain, which makes a lot of unrealistic hypotheses. Our model is built based on events (user requests, which is the root cause of server performance. We predict the performance of the servers using RNN-LSTM by analyzing the log of servers in data center which contains user’s access sequence. Previous work for workload prediction could not generate detailed simulated workload, which is useful in testing the working condition of servers. Our method provides a new way to reproduce user request sequence to solve this problem by using RNN-LSTM. Experiment result shows that our models get a good performance in generating load and predicting performance on the data set which has been logged in online service. We did experiments with nginx web server and mysql database server, and our methods can been easily applied to other servers in data center.

  1. Progress in waste package and engineered barrier system performance assessment and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Luik, A.; Stahl, D.; Harrison, D.

    1993-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's evaluation of site suitability for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository, long-term interactions between the engineered barrier system and the site must be determined. This requires a waste-package/engineered-system design, a description of the environment around the emplacement zone, and models that simulate operative processes describing these engineered/natural systems interactions. Candidate designs are being evaluated, including a more robust, multi-barrier waste package, and a drift emplacement mode. Tools for evaluating designs, and emplacement mode are the currently available waste-package/engineered-system performance assessment codes development for the project. For assessments that support site suitability, environmental impact, or licensing decisions, more capable codes are needed. Code capability requirements are being written, and existing codes are to be evaluated against those requirements. Recommendations are being made to focus waste-packaging/engineered-system code-development

  2. Testing and modelling the performance of inorganic exchangers for radionuclide removal from aqueous nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harjula, R.; Lehto, J.; Paajanen, A.; Saarinen, L.

    1997-01-01

    Three different inorganic sorbents/ion exchangers have been tested in this work. Granular hexacyanoferrate-based ion exchanger was developed for Cs removal from radioactive liquid waste at NPPs. It was tested for Cs removal from waste solutions containing different complexing agents and detergents. Radiation stability and thermal stability test has shown, that this sorbent can be used for treatment of medium-active waste treatment. Active carbon materials were tested for Co removal from liquid waste effluents at NPPs. It was found that 60 Co cannot be removed from the evaporator concentrates with reasonable efficiency and a combined process with up-stream precipitation step is needed for better Co separation efficiency. Granular modified titanium oxide was tested for 90 Sr removal from the waste effluents and showed very high efficiency. A mathematical model was developed to analyze ion exchange performance in feeds of different chemical and radiochemical compositions. (author). 9 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  3. The Relationship between Repeated Sprint Performance and Velocity Values during Loaded-Squat Jump Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Ibrahim; Sadik, Seda; Bayrakdaroglu, Serdar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between repeated sprint performance and velocity values during loaded-squat jump exercise. In accordance with this purpose, 23 kickboxing athletes (age: 21,1 ± 2,10 years; height: 178,7 ± 5,01 cm; weight: 70,8 ± 7,85 kg) participated voluntarily in this study. Participants were performed…

  4. Performance Assessment for the Idaho National Laboratory Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annette L. Schafer; A. Jeffrey Sondrup; Arthur S. Rood

    2012-05-01

    This performance assessment for the Remote-Handled Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory documents the projected radiological dose impacts associated with the disposal of low-level radioactive waste at the facility. This assessment evaluates compliance with the applicable radiological criteria of the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the public and the environment. The calculations involve modeling transport of radionuclides from buried waste to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the public via air, groundwater, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses are calculated for both offsite receptors and individuals who inadvertently intrude into the waste after site closure. The results of the calculations are used to evaluate the future performance of the low-level radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide input for establishment of waste acceptance criteria. In addition, one-factor-at-a-time, Monte Carlo, and rank correlation analyses are included for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. The comparison of the performance assessment results to the applicable performance objectives provides reasonable expectation that the performance objectives will be met

  5. Porous, Dexamethasone-loaded polyurethane coatings extend performance window of implantable glucose sensors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo-Heligon, Suzana G; Brown, Nga L; Reichert, William M; Klitzman, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Continuous glucose sensors offer the promise of tight glycemic control for insulin dependent diabetics; however, utilization of such systems has been hindered by issues of tissue compatibility. Here we report on the in vivo performance of implanted glucose sensors coated with Dexamethasone-loaded (Dex-loaded) porous coatings employed to mediate the tissue-sensor interface. Two animal studies were conducted to (1) characterize the tissue modifying effects of the porous Dex-loaded coatings deployed on sensor surrogate implants and (2) investigate the effects of the same coatings on the in vivo performance of Medtronic MiniMed SOF-SENSOR™ glucose sensors. The tissue response to implants was evaluated by quantifying macrophage infiltration, blood vessel formation, and collagen density around implants. Sensor function was assessed by measuring changes in sensor sensitivity and time lag, calculating the Mean Absolute Relative Difference (MARD) for each sensor treatment, and performing functional glucose challenge test at relevant time points. Implants treated with porous Dex-loaded coatings diminished inflammation and enhanced vascularization of the tissue surrounding the implants. Functional sensors with Dex-loaded porous coatings showed enhanced sensor sensitivity over a 21-day period when compared to controls. Enhanced sensor sensitivity was accompanied with an increase in sensor signal lag and MARD score. These results indicate that Dex-loaded porous coatings were able to elicit an attenuated tissue response, and that such tissue microenvironment could be conducive towards extending the performance window of glucose sensors in vivo. In the present article, a coating to extend the functionality of implantable glucose sensors in vivo was developed. Our study showed that the delivery of an anti-inflammatory agent with the presentation of micro-sized topographical cues from coatings may lead to improved long-term glucose sensor function in vivo. We believe that

  6. Performance Evaluation of a Lithium-Chloride Absorption Refrigeration and an Assessment of Its Suitability for Biomass Waste Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Oberweis

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computer model that will evaluate the performance of a thermo-chemical accumulator. The model is based on operational data such as temperatures and flow rates. The ultimate goal for this model is to estimate the coefficient of performance (COP of this unit when run on hot water from biomass combustion as the heat source. The outputs of the model are verified by comparing the simulation of the actual machine with published experimental data. The computed results for cooling COP are within 10% of the measured data. The simulations are all run for heat load temperatures varying between 80 °C and 110 °C. As expected, simulation results showed an increase in COP with increased heat source temperatures. The results demonstrate that the potential of combined solar and biomass combustion as a heat source for absorption cooling/heating in climates with low solar radiation can be coupled with biomass waste.

  7. Selective loads periodization attenuates biochemical disturbances and enhances performance in female futsal players during competitive season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricelli Endrigo Ruppel da Rocha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of selective loads periodization on physical performance and biochemical parameters in professional female futsal players during competitive season. Twelve elite female futsal players from Kindermann team (Brazil participated in the study. Variables of physical performance and erythrogram, leukogram, plasma cortisol, plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA in the beginning of the preparatory period (PP, in the competitive period (CP and in the final competitive period (FCP were evaluated. Using selective loads periodization, all variables of physical performance increased (p < .01 during CP and were maintained during FCP (p < .05. White blood cells did not modify during CP and the increase of FCP in 28% remained within normal ranges. Plasma cortisol also increased during CP (p < .01 and was within the normal ranges during FCP. Plasma IgA also was within the normal ranges during CP and FCP. Selective loads periodization is adequate and attends the requirements of the sport during competitive season in female futsal players.

  8. Anthropometry as a predictor of bench press performance done at different loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, John F; Taylor, Skyler T; Lutz, Brant M; Olson, Nathan M; Mason, Melissa L; Borgsmiller, Jake A; Riner, Rebekah D

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the ability of anthropometric variables (body mass, total arm length, biacromial width) to predict bench press performance at both maximal and submaximal loads. Our methods required 36 men to visit our laboratory and submit to anthropometric measurements, followed by lifting as much weight as possible in good form one time (1 repetition maximum, 1RM) in the exercise. They made 3 more visits in which they performed 4 sets of bench presses to volitional failure at 1 of 3 (40, 55, or 75% 1RM) submaximal loads. An accelerometer (Myotest Inc., Royal Oak MI) measured peak force, velocity, and power after each submaximal load set. With stepwise multivariate regression, our 3 anthropometric variables attempted to explain significant amounts of variance for 13 bench press performance indices. For criterion measures that reached significance, separate Pearson product moment correlation coefficients further assessed if the strength of association each anthropometric variable had with the criterion was also significant. Our analyses showed that anthropometry explained significant amounts (p bench press prowess in athletes.

  9. Abdominal crunch exercise analysis performed with maximum and submaximum loads: An electromyographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Moura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis during abdominal crunch exercise performed with maximum and submaximum loads. Thirteen male and female university students participated in this investigation (18-23 years old. The subjects completed abdominal crunch exercise until exhaustion with 20, 40, 60 and 80% of the maximum load. The root-mean-square (RMS from electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis and obliquus externus muscles from the first and last three repetitions from each workload performed was analyzed. RMS for the last repetitions increased in relation to the first repetitions for the 20% workload, first two repetitions on 40% workload and first repetition on the 80% workload. There was no difference for the 60% workload. Results showed that external load on abdominal crunch exercise might be an alternative to increase intensity while performing abdominal crunch exercise, which on its turn can be a practical tool for subjects that aim to increase abdominal strength level.

  10. Performance of high level waste forms and engineered barriers under repository conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    The IAEA initiated in 1977 a co-ordinated research programme on the ''Evaluation of Solidified High-Level Waste Forms'' which was terminated in 1983. As there was a continuing need for international collaboration in research on solidified high-level waste form and spent fuel, the IAEA initiated a new programme in 1984. The new programme, besides including spent fuel and SYNROC, also placed greater emphasis on the effect of the engineered barriers of future repositories on the properties of the waste form. These engineered barriers included containers, overpacks, buffer and backfill materials etc. as components of the ''near-field'' of the repository. The Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Performance of High-Level Waste Forms and Engineered Barriers Under Repository Conditions had the objectives of promoting the exchange of information on the experience gained by different Member States in experimental performance data and technical model evaluation of solidified high level waste forms, components of the waste package and the complete waste management system under conditions relevant to final repository disposal. The programme includes studies on both irradiated spent fuel and glass and ceramic forms as the final solidified waste forms. The following topics were discussed: Leaching of vitrified high-level wastes, modelling of glass behaviour in clay, salt and granite repositories, environmental impacts of radionuclide release, synroc use for high--level waste solidification, leachate-rock interactions, spent fuel disposal in deep geologic repositories and radionuclide release mechanisms from various fuel types, radiolysis and selective leaching correlated with matrix alteration. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Performance analysis of waste heat recovery with a dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system for diesel engine under various operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fubin; Dong, Xiaorui; Zhang, Hongguang; Wang, Zhen; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Enhua; Liu, Hao; Zhao, Guangyao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dual loop ORC system is designed to recover waste heat from a diesel engine. • R245fa is used as working fluid for the dual loop ORC system. • Waste heat characteristic under engine various operating conditions is analyzed. • Performance of the combined system under various operating conditions is studied. • The waste heat from coolant and intake air has considerable potential for recovery. - Abstract: To take full advantage of the waste heat from a diesel engine, a set of dual loop organic Rankine cycle (ORC) system is designed to recover exhaust energy, waste heat from the coolant system, and released heat from turbocharged air in the intercooler of a six-cylinder diesel engine. The dual loop ORC system consists of a high temperature loop ORC system and a low temperature loop ORC system. R245fa is selected as the working fluid for both loops. Through the engine test, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, the performance of the dual loop ORC system for waste heat recovery is discussed based on the analysis of its waste heat characteristics under engine various operating conditions. Subsequently, the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system is presented, and the effective thermal efficiency and the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) are chosen to evaluate the operating performances of the diesel engine-dual loop ORC combined system. The results show that, the maximum waste heat recovery efficiency (WHRE) of the dual loop ORC system can reach 5.4% under engine various operating conditions. At the engine rated condition, the dual loop ORC system achieves the largest net power output at 27.85 kW. Compared with the diesel engine, the thermal efficiency of the combined system can be increased by 13%. When the diesel engine is operating at the high load region, the BSFC can be reduced by a maximum 4%

  12. Experimental studies on the performance of novel layered materials under highly dynamic loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, A, E-mail: shuklaa@egr.uri.ed [Dynamic Photomechanics Laboratory Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2009-08-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental observations of the performance of different layered composite material systems subjected to blast loadings. These material systems include layered composites and sandwich composite materials. A controlled blast loading of pre-defined pressure magnitude and rise time were obtained using a shock tube apparatus. Rectangular plate elements of the desired material system were subjected to such a controlled blast loading and the effects of the blast loading on these elements were studied using optical and residual strength measurements. A high speed imaging technique was utilized to study the damage modes and mechanisms in real time. It was observed that layering of a conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer provided better blast resistance and sandwiching the polymer greatly enhanced its survivability under extreme air blast conditions. Aside from layering the conventional composite material with a soft visco-elastic polymer, it was observed that layering or grading the core can successfully mitigate the impact damage and thus improve the overall blast resistance as well. In addition to these, three dimensional (3D) woven skin and core reinforcements were introduced in the conventional sandwich composites and their effects on the blast resistance were studied experimentally. It was observed that these reinforcements also enhance the blast resistance of conventional sandwich composites by changing the mechanism of failure initiation and propagation in these sandwich structures.

  13. The Effect of Cyclic Loading on the Mechanical Performance of Surgical Mesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Y.C.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric meshes in the form of knitted nets are commonly used in the surgical repair of pelvic organ prolapses. Although a number of these prosthetic meshes are commercially available, there is little published data on their mechanical performance, in particular on the change in stiffness under the repeated loading experienced in vivo. In this in vitro study, cyclic tensile loading was applied to rectangular strips of four different commercially available meshes. The applied force and resultant displacement was monitored throughout the tests in order to evaluate the change in stiffness. In addition, each mesh was randomly marked using indelible ink in order to permit the use of threedimensional digital image correlation to evaluate local displacements during the tests. However, the scale and form of the deformation experienced by some of the meshes made correlation difficult so that confirmation of the values of stiffness were only obtained for two meshes. The results demonstrate that all the meshes experience an increase in stiffness during cyclic loading, that in most cases cyclic creep occurs and in some cases large-scale, irreversible reorganisation of the mesh structure occurs after as few as 200 cycles at loads of the order of 10N.

  14. 10^{7}-A load-current B-dot monitor: Simulations, design, and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rose

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A B-dot monitor that measures the current 6 cm from the axis of dynamic loads fielded on 10^{7}-A multiterawatt pulsed-power accelerators has been developed. The monitor improves upon the multimegampere load-current gauge described in Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 11, 100401 (2008PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.11.100401. The design of the improved monitor was developed using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations that model vacuum electron flow in the transmission line near the monitor. The simulations include important geometric features of the B-dot probe and model the deposition of electron energy within the probe. The simulations show that the improved design reduces by as much as a factor of 5 the electron energy deposition to the interior of the monitor. Data taken on accelerator shots demonstrate that the improved monitor works as well as the original monitor on shots with low-impedance loads, and delivers superior performance on higher-impedance-load shots.

  15. Preliminary Performance Assessment for Disposal of APT and CLWR/TEF Wastes at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    This section provides the descriptive information for understanding the analyses presented in this preliminary performance assessment. This section addresses the approach taken in the PA, provides a general description of the Savannah River Site E-Area low-level waste facility, and discusses the performance criteria used for evaluating performance

  16. Principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, R.G.; Wilde, R.T.

    1983-12-01

    In this paper, three of the principal elements of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) performance assessment studies are focused on: (1) development of a methodology for probabilistic risk assessment, (2) performance analyses of repository subsystems, and (3) selection and ranking of disruptive event scenarios. Other elements of the BWIP performance assessment studies are briefly outlined. 12 references, 5 figures

  17. Solid Waste Disposal in Chinese Cities: An Evaluation of Local Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boya Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available China meets increasingly serious solid waste problems and has adopted various policies in response in recent years. Meanwhile, few studies have investigated the performance of solid waste disposal through statistical analysis with empirical data. This study examines provincial resource use policy’s influence on the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste in Chinese cities. Through comparing results for statistical analysis in the year 2009 and 2015 by multiple linear regression analysis, this study analyzes similarities and differences in the drivers for solid waste disposal in the era of the 11th Five-Year Plan and the 12th Five-Year Plan in China. It finds that the adoption of resource use policy positively increases the comprehensive utilization rate of industrial solid waste. Other factors such as industrial SO2 emission, local environmental regulations, GDP per capita, population density and educational level also affect industrial solid waste disposal. Therefore, China should continue implementing solid waste disposal policies, upgrade current industrial systems, push forward economic and social reform and increase environmental education to enhance the effectiveness of solid waste disposal for long-term sustainable development.

  18. Preparing, Loading and Shipping Irradiated Metals in Canisters Classified as Remote-Handled (RH) Low-Level Waste (LLW) From Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, B.C.; Moore, T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Irradiated metals, classified as remote-handled low-level waste generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, were containerised in various sized canisters for long-term storage. The legacy waste canisters were placed in below-grade wells located at the 7827 Facility until a pathway for final disposal at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) could be identified and approved. Once the pathway was approved, WESKEM, LLC was selected by Bechtel Jacobs Company, LLC to prepare, load, and ship these canisters from ORNL to the NTS. This paper details some of the technical challenges encountered during the retrieval process and solutions implemented to ensure the waste was safely and efficiently over-packed and shipped for final disposal. The technical challenges detailed in this paper include: 1) how to best perform canister/lanyard pre-lift inspections since some canisters had not been moved in ∼10 years, so deterioration was a concern; 2) replacing or removing damaged canister lanyards; 3) correcting a mis-cut waste canister lanyard resulting in a shielded overpack lid not seating properly; 4) retrieving a stuck canister; and 5) developing a path forward after an overstrained lanyard failed causing a well shield plug to fall and come in contact with a waste canister. Several of these methods can serve as positive lessons learned for other projects encountering similar situations. (authors)

  19. Data Packages for the Hanford Immobilized Low Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment 2001 Version [SEC 1 THRU 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-03-02

    Data package supporting the 2001 Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Performance Analysis. Geology, hydrology, geochemistry, facility, waste form, and dosimetry data based on recent investigation are provided. Verification and benchmarking packages for selected software codes are provided.

  20. SCFR Fuel Cycles and Their Impact on the Performance of High-Level Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Daisuke; Nogi, Naoyuki; Saito, Takumi [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan); Nagasaki, Shinya [Nuclear Professional School, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1188 (Japan)

    2009-06-15

    The concept of supercritical-pressure light water cooled fast reactor (SCFR) is developed and studied at the University of Tokyo. The impact of disposal of the waste generated in a fuel cycle with SCFR is also investigated in the project. It is of great interest how a fuel cycle with SCFR compares to the other fuel cycles from the back-end view point. With its various neutron spectrum, SCFR may be used to transmute both actinides and fission products. The objective of the present study is to evaluate and compare multiple fuel cycle designs in order to investigate the effects of SCFR and its transmutation capability upon the back-end risks. Three designs of fuel cycle are considered for evaluation in the present study. First, a simple fuel cycle with PWR and recycling is considered. The spent fuel from the PWR is reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium, and the rest of the radioactive nuclides are vitrified and disposed of in a geologic repository. In the second design, the recovered uranium and plutonium in the reprocessing of PWR spent fuel is fabricated into a MOX fuel and irradiated in SCFR. The spent fuel from the SCFR is reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium. In the third design, actinide elements are also separated from the PWR spent fuel and is loaded as the blanket fuel in SCFR core together with the MOX fuel fabricated from the recovered uranium and plutonium. In the same way as in the second design, the spent fuel from the SCFR is reprocessed to recover uranium and plutonium. In the second and the third designs, there are two streams of highly radioactive waste; one from the reprocessing (separation process) of the PWR spent fuel, and the other from the reprocessing of the SCFR spent fuel. Numerical codes Origen2.1 and SWAT is used for fuel irradiation calculation. The performance of the high-level radioactive waste repository is evaluated for each design of fuel cycle. It is assumed that the repository is located in a water-saturated geologic

  1. Cognitive load, emotion, and performance in high-fidelity simulation among beginning nursing students: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlairet, Maura C; Schlairet, Timothy James; Sauls, Denise H; Bellflowers, Lois

    2015-03-01

    Establishing the impact of the high-fidelity simulation environment on student performance, as well as identifying factors that could predict learning, would refine simulation outcome expectations among educators. The purpose of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the impact of simulation on emotion and cognitive load among beginning nursing students. Forty baccalaureate nursing students participated in teaching simulations, rated their emotional state and cognitive load, and completed evaluation simulations. Two principal components of emotion were identified representing the pleasant activation and pleasant deactivation components of affect. Mean rating of cognitive load following simulation was high. Linear regression identiffed slight but statistically nonsignificant positive associations between principal components of emotion and cognitive load. Logistic regression identified a negative but statistically nonsignificant effect of cognitive load on assessment performance. Among lower ability students, a more pronounced effect of cognitive load on assessment performance was observed; this also was statistically non-significant. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Effect of meal glycemic load and caffeine consumption on prolonged monotonous driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Hall, Susan; Irwin, Christopher

    2017-11-01

    Monotonous driving involves low levels of stimulation and high levels of repetition and is essentially an exercise in sustained attention and vigilance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of consuming a high or low glycemic load meal on prolonged monotonous driving performance. The effect of consuming caffeine with a high glycemic load meal was also examined. Ten healthy, non-diabetic participants (7 males, age 51±7yrs, mean±SD) completed a repeated measures investigation involving 3 experimental trials. On separate occasions, participants were provided one of three treatments prior to undertaking a 90min computer-based simulated drive. The 3 treatment conditions involved consuming: (1) a low glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (LGL), (2) a high glycemic load meal+placebo capsules (HGL) and (3) a high glycemic load meal+caffeine capsules (3mgkg -1 body weight) (CAF). Measures of driving performance included lateral (standard deviation of lane position (SDLP), average lane position (AVLP), total number of lane crossings (LC)) and longitudinal (average speed (AVSP) and standard deviation of speed (SDSP)) vehicle control parameters. Blood glucose levels, plasma caffeine concentrations and subjective ratings of sleepiness, alertness, mood, hunger and simulator sickness were also collected throughout each trial. No difference in either lateral or longitudinal vehicle control parameters or subjective ratings were observed between HGL and LGL treatments. A significant reduction in SDLP (0.36±0.20m vs 0.41±0.19m, p=0.004) and LC (34.4±31.4 vs 56.7±31.5, p=0.018) was observed in the CAF trial compared to the HGL trial. However, no differences in AVLP, AVSP and SDSP or subjective ratings were detected between these two trials (p>0.05). Altering the glycemic load of a breakfast meal had no effect on measures of monotonous driving performance in non-diabetic adults. Individuals planning to undertake a prolonged monotonous drive following consumption of a

  3. An analytical one-dimensional model for predicting waste package performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Wood, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A method for allocating waste package performance requirements among waste package components with regard to radionuclide isolation has been developed. Modification or change in this approach can be expected as the understanding of radionuclide behavior in the waste package improves. Thus, the performance requirements derived in this document are preliminary and subject to change. However, this kind of analysis is a useful starting point. It has also proved useful for identifying a small group of radionuclides which should be emphasized in a laboratory experimental program designed to characterize the behavior of specific radionuclides in the waste package environment. A simple one-dimensional, two media transport model has been derived and used to calculate radionuclide transport from the waste form-packing material interface of the waste package into the host rock. Cumulative release over 10,000 years, maximum yearly releases and release rates at the packing material-host rock interface were evaluated on a radionuclide-by radionuclide basis. The major parameters controlling radionuclide release were found to be: radionuclide solubility, porosity of the rock, isotopic ratio of the radionuclide and surface area of the waste form-packing material interface. 15 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Performance of a Steel/Oxide Composite Waste Form for Combined Waste Steams from Advanced Electrochemical Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indacochea, J. E.; Gattu, V. K.; Chen, X.; Rahman, T.

    2017-01-01

    The results of electrochemical corrosion tests and modeling activities performed collaboratively by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory as part of workpackage NU-13-IL-UIC-0203-02 are summarized herein. The overall objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate testing and modeling approaches that could be used to evaluate the use of composite alloy/ceramic materials as high-level durable waste forms. Several prototypical composite waste form materials were made from stainless steels representing fuel cladding, reagent metals representing metallic fuel waste streams, and reagent oxides representing oxide fuel waste streams to study the microstructures and corrosion behaviors of the oxide and alloy phases. Microelectrodes fabricated from small specimens of the composite materials were used in a series of electrochemical tests to assess the corrosion behaviors of the constituent phases and phase boundaries in an aggressive acid brine solution at various imposed surface potentials. The microstructures were characterized in detail before and after the electrochemical tests to relate the electrochemical responses to changes in both the electrode surface and the solution composition. The results of microscopic, electrochemical, and solution analyses were used to develop equivalent circuit and physical models representing the measured corrosion behaviors of the different materials pertinent to long-term corrosion behavior. This report provides details regarding (1) the production of the composite materials, (2) the protocol for the electrochemical measurements and interpretations of the responses of multi-phase alloy and oxide composites, (3) relating corrosion behaviors to microstructures of multi-phase alloys based on 316L stainless steel and HT9 (410 stainless steel was used as a substitute) with added Mo, Ni, and/or Mn, and (4) modeling the corrosion behaviors and rates of several alloy/oxide composite

  5. Performance of a Steel/Oxide Composite Waste Form for Combined Waste Steams from Advanced Electrochemical Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indacochea, J. E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Gattu, V. K. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Chen, X. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States); Rahman, T. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The results of electrochemical corrosion tests and modeling activities performed collaboratively by researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory as part of workpackage NU-13-IL-UIC-0203-02 are summarized herein. The overall objective of the project was to develop and demonstrate testing and modeling approaches that could be used to evaluate the use of composite alloy/ceramic materials as high-level durable waste forms. Several prototypical composite waste form materials were made from stainless steels representing fuel cladding, reagent metals representing metallic fuel waste streams, and reagent oxides representing oxide fuel waste streams to study the microstructures and corrosion behaviors of the oxide and alloy phases. Microelectrodes fabricated from small specimens of the composite materials were used in a series of electrochemical tests to assess the corrosion behaviors of the constituent phases and phase boundaries in an aggressive acid brine solution at various imposed surface potentials. The microstructures were characterized in detail before and after the electrochemical tests to relate the electrochemical responses to changes in both the electrode surface and the solution composition. The results of microscopic, electrochemical, and solution analyses were used to develop equivalent circuit and physical models representing the measured corrosion behaviors of the different materials pertinent to long-term corrosion behavior. This report provides details regarding (1) the production of the composite materials, (2) the protocol for the electrochemical measurements and interpretations of the responses of multi-phase alloy and oxide composites, (3) relating corrosion behaviors to microstructures of multi-phase alloys based on 316L stainless steel and HT9 (410 stainless steel was used as a substitute) with added Mo, Ni, and/or Mn, and (4) modeling the corrosion behaviors and rates of several alloy/oxide composite

  6. Experimental tests performed with liquid waste contained in the tank F-710/D at EUREX plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasso, G.; Momo, S.; Pietrelli, L.; Troiani, F.

    1989-11-01

    In this report the result of experimental test performed with real liquid waste earning from reprocessing of MTR nuclear fuel is reported. The aim of the research is to separate the actinides and long-lived radioactive fission products from bulk salt matrix of HLW. Taking into account the chemical and radiochemical composition of the liquid waste, process based on the chemical precipitation and/or adsorption were studied by using the radioactive waste sampled from the tank. The results show that decontamination factors of 100, 1000, 5000 were obtained for Sr, Cs and Pu respectively. (author)

  7. Performance test results of noninvasive characterization of RCRA surrogate waste by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Propp, W.A.

    1997-11-01

    A performance evaluation to determine the feasibility of using prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) for noninvasive, quantitative assay of mixed waste containers was sponsored by DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD), the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The evaluation was conducted using a surrogate waste, based on Portland cement, that was spiked with three RCRA metals, mercury, cadmium, and lead. The results indicate that PGNAA has potential as a process monitor. However, further development is required to improve its sensitivity to meet regulatory requirements for determination of these RCRA metals

  8. Performance assessment of an alpha waste deposit in a clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quercia, F.; D'Alessandro, M.; Saltelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    The probabilistic code LISA (Long term Isolation Safety Assessment) has been used to assess the risk related to the disposal of alpha waste in a geological formation. The code has been modified to take into account waste form properties and leaching processes pertinent to alpha waste produced at fuel reprocessing plants. The exercise refers to a repository in a deep clay formation located at Harwell (U.K.) where some hydrogeological data were available. Radionuclide migration through repository and geological barriers has been simulated together with biosphere contamination. Results of the assessment are presented as dose rate (or risk) distributions; a sensitivity analysis on input parameters has been performed

  9. The performance assessment impacts of disposal of high-moisture, low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Hansen, W.; Hechnova, A.; Voss, C.; Waters, R.; Sully, M.; Levitt, D.

    1999-01-01

    A panel of independent scientists was convened by the Department of Energy to assess the performance impacts of disposal of low-level radioactive waste from the Fernald Environmental Management Project. This waste stream was involved in a transportation incident in December 1997. A resulting outgrowth of investigations of the transportation incident was the recognition that the waste was transported and disposed in stress-fractured metal boxes and some of the waste contained excess moisture (high volumetric water contents). The panel was charged with determining whether disposal of this waste in the Area 5 radioactive waste management site on the Nevada Test Site has impacted the conclusions of the completed performance assessment. Three questions were developed by the panel to assess performance impacts: (1) the performance impacts of reduced container integrity, (2) the impact of reduced container integrity on subsidence of waste in the disposal pits and (3) the performance impacts of excess moisture. No performance or subsidence impacts were noted from disposal of the Fernald waste. The impacts of excess moisture were assessed through simulation modeling of the movement of moisture in the vadose zone assuming high water contents (wet waste) for different percentages of the waste inventory. No performance impacts were noted for either the base-case scenario (ambient conditions) or a scenario involving subsidence and flooding of the waste cells. The absence of performance impacts results form the extreme conservatism used in the Area 5-performance assessment and the robust nature of the disposal site

  10. Grid Load Shifting and Performance Assessments of Residential Efficient Energy Technologies, a Case Study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxue Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of renewable energy decreases grid flexibility; thus, decentralized energy management or demand response are emerging as the main approaches to resolve this limitation and to provide flexibility of resources. This research investigates the performance of high energy efficiency appliances and grid-integrated distributed generators based on real monitored data from a social demonstration project. The analysis not only explores the potential cost savings and environmental benefits of high energy efficiency systems in the private sector, but also evaluates public grid load leveling potential from a bottom-up approach. This research provides a better understanding of the behavior of high decentralized efficient energy and includes detailed scenarios of monitored power generation and consumption in a social demonstration project. The scheduled heat pump effectively lifts valley load via transforming electricity to thermal energy, its daily electricity consumption varies from 4 kWh to 10 kWh and is concentrated in the early morning over the period of a year. Aggregated vehicle to home (V2H brings flexible resources to the grid, by discharging energy to cover the residential night peak load, with fuel cost savings attributed to 90% of profit. The potential for grid load leveling via integrating the power utility and consumer is examined using a bottom-up approach. Five hundred thousand contributions from scheduled electrical vehicles (EVs and fuel cells provide 5.0% of reliable peak power capacity at 20:00 in winter. The outcome illustrates the energy cost saving and carbon emission reduction scenarios of each of the proposed technologies. Relevant subsidies for heat pump water heater systems and cogeneration are essential customers due to the high initial capital investment. Optimal mixes in structure and coordinated control of high efficiency technologies enable customers to participate in grid load leveling in terms of

  11. The evaluation of solidifying performance of heavy metal waste using cementitious materials (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Hideki; Harasawa, Shuichi

    2005-02-01

    Some of radioactive waste generated from JNC's facilities contain the poisonous substances such as lead, cadmium and mercury. In order to establish an appropriate method of the treatment of these heavy metals, solidification performance was evaluated using cementitious materials. In this report, the solidification performance of lead and mercury, which accounts for relatively high ratio in total wastes, was evaluated. The results are summarized below: 1. The test of stabilization process of mercury. The conversion process from mercury to the powdery mercury sulfide (red) was examined on the beaker scale. As a result, it was confirmed that the conversion was possible using the liquid phase reaction at 80deg C by the addition of sulfur powder with the NaOH solution. After the process, the mercury concentration in the filtrate was relatively high (0.6 mass%), so it was judged that the reuse of the recovered mercury waste fluid was indispensable. 2. The fabrication and evaluation of solidified wastes. The solidified waste were fabricated with cementitious material, and were evaluated by the measurement of one-axis compressive strength, the elution ratio of lead, mercury and so on. Powdery lead sulfide and the mercury sulfide of reagent were used as model waste. (1) solidification test of the lead waste. It was confirmed one-axis compressive strength for all solidified waste to pass the technical standards 15 kg/cm 2 (1.5 Mpa) for homogeneously solidified waste as the Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center in Aomori Prefecture, and as for the elution ratio of lead, it had obtained the better result (0.06 mg/L) at the case of solidification of sulfide lead 30 mass% packed in the total solidified waste by using Highly Fly-ash contained Silica fume Cement (HFSC) than standard value (0.3 mg/L) at Regulations of Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law. Additionally, it was confirmed the using admixture of the inorganic reducing agent such as the Iron (II) chloride

  12. Assessment of co-composting process with high load of an inorganic industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Quina, Margarida J; Reis, Marco S; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the co-composting of an inorganic industrial waste (eggshell - ES) in very high levels (up to 60% w/w). Since composting is a process in which solid, liquid and gaseous phases interact in a very complex way, there is a need to shed light on statistical tools that can unravel the main relationships structuring the variability associated to this process. In this study, PCA and data visualisation were used with that purpose. The co-composting tests were designed with increasing quantities of ES (0, 10, 20, 30 and 60%ES w/w) mixed with industrial potato peel and rice husks. Principal component analysis showed that physical properties like free air space, bulk density and moisture are the most relevant variables for explaining the variability due to ES content. On the other hand, variability in time dynamics is mostly driven by some chemical and phytoxicological parameters, such as organic matter decay and nitrate content. Higher ES incorporation (60% ES) enhanced the initial biological activity of the mixture, but the higher bulk density and lower water holding capacity had a negative effect on the aerobic biological activity as the process evolved. Nevertheless, pathogen-killing temperatures (>70°C for 11h) were attained. All the final products obtained after 90days were stable and non-phytotoxic. This work proved that valorisation of high amounts of eggshell by co-composting is feasible, but prone to be influenced by the physical properties of the mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Safety Analysis of 'Older/Aged' Handling and Transportation Equipment for Heavy Loads, Radioactive Waste and Materials in Accordance with German Nuclear Standards KTA 3902, 3903 and 3905

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, P.; Prucker, E.; Stang, W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a general safety analysis of important handling and transportation processes and their related equipment ('load chains' consisting of cranes, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points). This project was arranged by the responsible Bavarian ministry for environment, health and consumer protection (StMUGV) in agreement with the power plant operators of all Bavarian nuclear power plants to work out potential safety improvements. The range of the equipment (e.g. reactor building, crane, refuelling machine, load-bearing equipment and load-attaching points) covers the handling and transportation of fuel elements (e. g. with fuel flasks), heavy loads (e.g. reactor pressure vessel closure head, shielding slabs) and radioactive materials and waste (e.g. waste flasks, control elements, fuel channels, structure elements). The handling equipment was subjected to a general safety analysis taking into account the ageing of the equipment and the progress of standards. Compliance with the current valid requirements of the state of science and technology as required by German Atomic Act and particularly of the nuclear safety KTA-standards (3902, 3903 and 3905) was examined. The higher protection aims 'safe handling and transportation of heavy loads and safe handling of radioactive materials and waste' of the whole analysis are to avoid a criticality accident, the release of radioactivity and inadmissible effects on important technical equipment and buildings. The scope of the analysis was to check whether these protection aims were fulfilled for all important technical handling and transportation processes. In particularly the design and manufacturing of the components and the regulations of the handling itself were examined. (authors)

  14. Performance Deterioration of Heavy-Haul Railway Bridges under Fatigue Loading Monitored by a Multisensor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy-haul railway bridges play an increasingly essential role in the transportation in China due to the increasing transport volume. The performance deterioration of the scale models of a typical heavy-haul railway bridge under fatigue loading is monitored in this work, based on a multisensor system including the fiber-reinforced polymer optical fiber Bragg grating and electrical resistance strain gauges, linear variable displacement transducer, and accelerometer. Specifically, by monitoring/observing on the failure mode, fatigue life, load-midspan deflection response, material strain development, and so forth, this work develops an S-N model by comparing the relationship between fatigue life and rebar stress range with that between fatigue life and load level and proposes a damage evolution model considering the coupling of the stiffness degradation and inelastic deformation of specimens. It is found that the fatigue life of specimens is determined by the fatigue life of the rebar at the bottom and it may be lower than 2.0 million cycles with a 30-ton axle weight when environmental factors are taken into account. The predictions of the models agree well with experimental results. Therefore, this work furthers the understanding of the fatigue performance deterioration of the bridges by using a multisensor system.

  15. Observations of Building Performance under Combined Wind and Surge Loading from Hurricane Harvey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, F.; Roueche, D. B.; Krupar, R. J.; Smith, D. J.; Soto, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Hurricane Harvey struck the Texas coastline on August 25, 2017, as a Category 4 hurricane - the first major hurricane to reach the US in twelve years. Wind gusts over 130 mph and storm surge as high as 12.5 ft caused widespread damage to buildings and critical infrastructure in coastal communities including Rockport, Fulton, Port Aransas and Aransas Pass. This study presents the methodology and preliminary observations of a coordinated response effort to document residential building performance under wind and storm surge loading. Over a twelve day survey period the study team assessed the performance of more than 1,000 individual, geo-located residential buildings. Assessments were logged via a smartphone application to facilitate rapid collection and collation of geotagged photographs, building attributes and structural details, and structural damage observations. Detailed assessments were also made of hazard intensity, specifically storm surge heights and both wind speed and direction indicators. Preliminary observations and findings will be presented, showing strong gradients in damage between inland and coastal regions of the affected areas that may be due in part to enhanced individual loading effects of wind and storm surge and potentially joint-hazard loading effects. Contributing factors to the many cases of disproportionate damage observed in close proximity will also be discussed. Ongoing efforts to relate building damage to near-surface hazard measurements (e.g., radar, anemometry) in close proximity will also be described.

  16. Experimental study on performance of laterally loaded plumb and battered piles in layered sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushra S. Albusoda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces a series of single and pile group model tests subjected to lateral loads in . multilayered sand from Karbala, Iraq. The aim of this study is to investigate: the performance of the pile groups subjected to lateral loads; in which the pile batter inclination angle is changed; the effect of pile spacing (s/d ratio, the influence of using different number of piles and pile group configuration. Results revealed that the performance of single negative (Reverse Battered piles with inclination of 10° and 20° show a gain of 32% and 76 % in the ultimate lateral capacity over the regular ones. For pile groups, the use of a combination of regular, negative and positive battered piles in different angles of inclination within the same group shows a significant increase in the ultimate lateral load carrying capacity. Increasing the spacing between piles in groups of the same category shows an increase in the group efficiency, also changing the piles number within the group by using different patterns will influence the ultimate lateral resistance of the pile group.

  17. MONITORING TRAINING LOADS, STRESS, IMMUNE-ENDOCRINE RESPONSES AND PERFORMANCE IN TENNIS PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vitasovic Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to investigate the effect of a periodised pre-season training plan on internal training load and subsequent stress tolerance, immune-endocrine responses and physical performance in tennis players. Well-trained young tennis players (n = 10 were monitored across the pre-season period, which was divided into 4 weeks of progressive overloading training and a 1-week tapering period. Weekly measures of internal training load, training monotony and stress tolerance (sources and symptoms of stress were taken, along with salivary testosterone, cortisol and immunoglobulin A. One repetition maximum strength, running endurance, jump height and agility were assessed before and after training. The periodised training plan led to significant weekly changes in training loads (i.e. increasing in weeks 3 and 4, decreasing in week 5 and post-training improvements in strength, endurance and agility (P < 0.05. Cortisol concentration and the symptoms of stress also increased in weeks 3 and/or 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05. Conversely, the testosterone to cortisol ratio decreased in weeks 3 and 4, before returning to baseline in week 5 (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the training plan evoked adaptive changes in stress tolerance and hormonal responses, which may have mediated the improvements in physical performance.

  18. Cyclic Elastoplastic Performance of Aluminum 7075-T6 Under Strain- and Stress-Controlled Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, Dylan; Wallbrink, Chris; Kourousis, Kyriakos I.

    2017-12-01

    Elastoplastic investigations of aerospace aluminum are important in the development of an understanding of the possible cyclic transient effects and their contribution to the material performance under cyclic loading. Cyclic plasticity can occur in an aerospace aluminum component or structure depending on the loading conditions and the presence of external and internal discontinuities. Therefore, it is vital that the cyclic transient effects of aerospace aluminum are recognized and understood. This study investigates experimentally the cyclic elastoplastic performance of aluminum 7075-T6 loaded in symmetric strain control, and asymmetric stress and strain control. A combination of cyclic hardening and softening was noticed from high strain amplitude symmetric strain-controlled tests and at low stress amplitude asymmetric stress-controlled tests. From asymmetric strain control results, the extent of mean stress relaxation depended on the size of the strain amplitude. Additionally, saturation of the ratcheting strain (plastic shakedown) was also found to occur during asymmetric stress control tests. The experimental results were further analyzed using published microstructure research from the past two decades to provide added explanation of the micro-mechanism contribution to the cyclic transient behavior.

  19. Structural condition assessment and service load performance of deteriorated prestressed concrete deck beam bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan Bolivar

    Precast pretensioned deck beam bridges are a generic bridge type widely used by IDOT for new construction through the end of the 1970's and still widely used on county roads throughout Illinois. While these bridges were economical to build, IDOT discontinued their use because reflective cracks developed along the length of the longitudinal joints between beams. Three 30 years old deteriorated beams were removed from an existing bridge over Spoon River in Fulton County, IL and delivered to Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory. The program consisted of a series of comprehensive, destructive and non-destructive, tests and evaluations of the three beams with emphasis on three major areas; (1) The Condition Assessment of the as-delivered beams. (2) The service load performance of the bridge sub-assemblage constructed from those beams. After a comprehensive inspection of the beams was completed, the beams were integrated together into a bridge subassembly that simulated a bridge lane. (3) Following the service load tests, the three beams were separated and tested individually to failure. The critical signs to be observed in existing structures that will lead the inspectors to conclude that a deck beam is being overloaded were are also studied. Several conclusions were found. Cracking of the longitudinal joint has little effect on the stiffness of the bridge if the transverse rod is snug. The presence of a snug transverse tie rod increases the strength of the longitudinal joint. After a longitudinal joint has fractured, reincorporating a snug transverse rod can significantly reestablish the stiffness of the longitudinal joint and reduce overloading of a deteriorated beam. Participation factors must be based on relative bending moments of one beam with respect to the total amount of bending moment produced by the applied load and not to the amount of total vertical displacement. The participation factors will vary along the span of the bridge deck and will depend on the

  20. A life-cycle model approach to multimedia waste reduction measuring performance for environmental cleanup projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phifer, B.E. Jr.; George, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RIs), feasibility studies, decontamination and decommissioning, and surveillance and maintenance site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. The ER Program waste generation rates are projected to steadily increase through the year 2005 for all waste categories. Standard production units utilized to measure waste minimization apply to production/manufacturing facilities. Since ER inherited contaminated waste from previous production processes, no historical production data can be applied. Therefore, a more accurate measure for pollution prevention was identified as a need for the ER Program. The Energy Systems ER Program adopted a life-cycle model approach and implemented the concept of numerically scoring their waste generators to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention/waste minimization programs and elected to develop a numerical scoring system (NSS) to accomplish these measurements. The prototype NSS, a computerized, user-friendly information management database system, was designed to be utilized in each phase of the ER Program. The NSS was designed to measure a generator's success in incorporating pollution prevention in their work plans and reducing investigation-derived waste (IDW) during RIs. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed NSS and actually scoring the generators of IDW at six ER Program sites. Once RI waste generators are scored utilizing the NSS, the numerical scores are distributed into six performance categories: training, self-assessment, field implementation, documentation, technology transfer, and planning

  1. Effects of Unloaded vs. Loaded Plyometrics on Speed and Power Performance of Elite Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Kobal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loaded and unloaded plyometric training strategies on speed and power performance of elite young soccer players. Twenty-three under-17 male soccer players (age: 15.9 ± 1.2 years, height: 178.3 ± 8.1 cm, body-mass (BM: 68.1 ± 9.3 kg from the same club took part in this study. The athletes were pair-matched in two training groups: loaded vertical and horizontal jumps using an haltere type handheld with a load of 8% of the athletes' body mass (LJ; n = 12 and unloaded vertical and horizontal plyometrics (UJ; n = 11. Sprinting speeds at 5-, 10-, and 20-m, mean propulsive power (MPP relative to the players' BM in the jump squat exercise, and performance in the squat jump (SJ and countermovement jump (CMJ were assessed pre- and post-training period. During the experimental period, soccer players performed 12 plyometric training sessions across a 6-week preseason period. Magnitude based inferences and standardized differences were used for statistical analysis. A very likely increase in the vertical jumps was observed for the LJ group (99/01/00 and 98/02/00 for SJ and CMJ, respectively. In the UJ group a likely increase was observed for both vertical jumps (83/16/01 and 90/10/00, for SJ and CMJ, respectively. An almost certainly decrease in the sprinting velocities along the 20-m course were found in the LJ group (00/00/100 for all split distances tested. Meanwhile, in the UJ likely to very likely decreases were observed for all sprinting velocities tested (03/18/79, 01/13/86, and 00/04/96, for velocities in 5-, 10-, and 20-m, respectively. No meaningful differences were observed for the MPP in either training group (11/85/04 and 37/55/08 for LJ and UJ, respectively. In summary, under-17 professional soccer players increased jumping ability after a 6-week preseason training program, using loaded or unloaded jumps. Despite these positive adaptations, both plyometric strategies failed to

  2. Performance of the Opalinus Clay under thermal loading: experimental results from Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gens, A. [Universitat Politència de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Wieczorek, K. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany); Gaus, I. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland); and others

    2017-04-15

    The paper presents an overview of the behaviour of Opalinus Clay under thermal loading as observed in three in situ heating tests performed in the Mont Terri rock laboratory: HE-B, HE-D and HE-E. The three tests are summarily described; they encompass a broad range of test layouts and experimental conditions. Afterwards, the following topics are examined: determination of thermal conductivity, thermally-induced pore pressure generation and thermally-induced mechanical effects. The mechanisms underlying pore pressure generation and dissipation are discussed in detail and the relationship between rock damage and thermal loading is examined using an additional in situ test: SE-H. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the various thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) interactions identified in the heating tests. (authors)

  3. Automated load balancing in the ATLAS high-performance storage software

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, Fabrice; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment collects proton-proton collision events delivered by the LHC accelerator at CERN. The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) system selects, transports and eventually records event data from the detector at several gigabytes per second. The data are recorded on transient storage before being delivered to permanent storage. The transient storage consists of high-performance direct-attached storage servers accounting for about 500 hard drives. The transient storage operates dedicated software in the form of a distributed multi-threaded application. The workload includes both CPU-demanding and IO-oriented tasks. This paper presents the original application threading model for this particular workload, discussing the load-sharing strategy among the available CPU cores. The limitations of this strategy were reached in 2016 due to changes in the trigger configuration involving a new data distribution pattern. We then describe a novel data-driven load-sharing strategy, designed to automatical...

  4. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  5. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  6. Performance testing of the finance platform based on LoadRunner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Mengyun

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper,a performance testing scheme is designed to test the software interface of the financial management platform based on LoadRunner,and the scheme has been used for the performance testing of the interactive interface of the financial management platform of Shanghai Zuo Hao Network Technology Co.Ltd.The result shows that the performance characteristics of the system interface are different under different scenarios,and TPS and CPU usage performance characteristics are in an optimal status when the number of concurrent users is 40,while CPU becomes the bottleneck which is need to be addressed by system when the number of concurrent users is 50.At last,the effectiveness of the scheme has been proved.

  7. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  8. The use of performance assessments in Yucca Mountain repository waste package design activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project is developing performance assessment approaches as part of the evaluations of the suitability of Yucca Mountain as a repository site. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing design concepts and the scientific performance assessment methodologies and techniques used for the waste package and engineered barrier system components. This paper presents an overview of the approach under development for postclosure performance assessments that will guide the conceptual design activities and assist in the site suitability evaluations. This approach includes establishing and modeling for the long time periods required by regulations: near-field environment characteristics surrounding the emplaced wastes; container materials performance responses; and waste form properties. All technical work is being done under a fully qualified quality assurance program

  9. Performance Evaluation of UPQC under Nonlinear Unbalanced Load Conditions Using Synchronous Reference Frame Based Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Venkata Reddy; Vinnakoti, Sudheer

    2017-12-01

    Today, maintaining Power Quality (PQ) is very important in the growing competent world. With new equipments and devices, new challenges are also being put before power system operators. Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) is proposed to mitigate many power quality problems and to improve the performance of the power system. In this paper, an UPQC with Fuzzy Logic controller for capacitor voltage balancing is proposed in Synchronous Reference Frame (SRF) based control with Modified Phased Locked Loop (MPLL). The proposed controller with SRF-MPLL based control is tested under non-linear and unbalanced load conditions. The system is developed in Matlab/Simulink and its performance is analyzed under various conditions like non-linear, unbalanced load and polluted supply voltage including voltage sag/swells. Active and reactive power flow in the system, power factor and %THD of voltages and currents before and after compensation are also analyzed in this work. Results prove the applicability of the proposed scheme for power quality improvement. It is observed that the fuzzy controller gives better performance than PI controller with faster capacitor voltage balancing and also improves the dynamic performance of the system.

  10. Performance assessment of a power loaded supercapacitor based on manufacturer data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellincovsky, Martin; Kuperman, Alon; Lerman, Chaim; Aharon, Ilan; Reichbach, Noam; Geula, Gal; Nakash, Ronen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytic performance of a power loaded supercapacitor is derived. • Power and energy capabilities based on manufacturer data are obtained. • Power limitations based on depth of discharge are presented. - Abstract: Analytical derivation of constant power loaded supercapacitor behavior is presented in the paper. Simple RC model based on manufacturer datasheet extracted parameters is employed. Power and energy related figures of merit are obtained from the derived expressions and compared to the datasheet provided values. It is revealed that some of the performance characteristics provided in most of the datasheets are theoretical and cannot be achieved in practice. The process of a realistic Ragone plot derivation based on the proposed method is described in the paper as well. It is shown that the lower limit of supercapacitor voltage imposes certain limits on power and energy capabilities of the device. Extended simulation and experimental results are provided in order to reinforce the proposed method and justify the selected RC model for describing the supercapacitor performance. By appropriate comparison of simulations and experiments it is proven that the selected model, while being oversimplified and low order, may be used to predict supercapacitor behavior with reasonable accuracy to perform at least an initial design

  11. Haptic force-feedback devices for the office computer: performance and musculoskeletal loading issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennerlein, J T; Yang, M C

    2001-01-01

    Pointing devices, essential input tools for the graphical user interface (GUI) of desktop computers, require precise motor control and dexterity to use. Haptic force-feedback devices provide the human operator with tactile cues, adding the sense of touch to existing visual and auditory interfaces. However, the performance enhancements, comfort, and possible musculoskeletal loading of using a force-feedback device in an office environment are unknown. Hypothesizing that the time to perform a task and the self-reported pain and discomfort of the task improve with the addition of force feedback, 26 people ranging in age from 22 to 44 years performed a point-and-click task 540 times with and without an attractive force field surrounding the desired target. The point-and-click movements were approximately 25% faster with the addition of force feedback (paired t-tests, p user discomfort and pain, as measured through a questionnaire, were also smaller with the addition of force feedback (p device improves performance, and potentially reduces musculoskeletal loading during mouse use. Actual or potential applications of this research include human-computer interface design, specifically that of the pointing device extensively used for the graphical user interface.

  12. Improving Asphalt Mixture Performance by Partially Replacing Bitumen with Waste Motor Oil and Elastomer Modifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental concern about waste generation and the gradual decrease of oil reserves has led the way to finding new waste materials that may partially replace the bitumens used in the road paving industry. Used motor oil from vehicles is a waste product that could answer that demand, but it can also drastically reduce the viscosity, increasing the asphalt mixture’s rutting potential. Therefore, polymer modification should be used in order to avoid compromising the required performance of asphalt mixtures when higher amounts of waste motor oil are used. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing the performance of an asphalt binder/mixture obtained by replacing part of a paving grade bitumen (35/50 with 10% waste motor oil and 5% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS as an elastomer modifier. A comparison was also made with the results of a previous study using a blend of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis and ground tire rubber modifier as a partial substitute for usual PG64-22 bitumen. The asphalt binders were tested by means of Fourier infrared spectra and dynamic shear rheology, namely by assessing their continuous high-performance grade. Later, the water sensitivity, fatigue cracking resistance, dynamic modulus and rut resistance performance of the resulting asphalt mixtures was evaluated. It was concluded that the new binder studied in this work improves the asphalt mixture’s performance, making it an excellent solution for paving works.

  13. Proposal of an environmental performance index to assess solid waste treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulart Coelho, Hosmanny Mauro; Lange, Liséte Celina; Coelho, Lineker Max Goulart

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposal of a new concept in waste management: Cleaner Treatment. ► Development of an index to assess quantitatively waste treatment technologies. ► Delphi Method was carried out so as to define environmental indicators. ► Environmental performance evaluation of waste-to-energy plants. - Abstract: Although the concern with sustainable development and environment protection has considerably grown in the last years it is noted that the majority of decision making models and tools are still either excessively tied to economic aspects or geared to the production process. Moreover, existing models focus on the priority steps of solid waste management, beyond waste energy recovery and disposal. So, in order to help the lack of models and tools aiming at the waste treatment and final disposal, a new concept is proposed: the Cleaner Treatment, which is based on the Cleaner Production principles. This paper focuses on the development and validation of the Cleaner Treatment Index (CTI), to assess environmental performance of waste treatment technologies based on the Cleaner Treatment concept. The index is formed by aggregation (summation or product) of several indicators that consists in operational parameters. The weights of the indicator were established by Delphi Method and Brazilian Environmental Laws. In addition, sensitivity analyses were carried out comparing both aggregation methods. Finally, index validation was carried out by applying the CTI to 10 waste-to-energy plants data. From sensitivity analysis and validation results it is possible to infer that summation model is the most suitable aggregation method. For summation method, CTI results were superior to 0.5 (in a scale from 0 to 1) for most facilities evaluated. So, this study demonstrates that CTI is a simple and robust tool to assess and compare the environmental performance of different treatment plants being an excellent quantitative tool to support Cleaner Treatment implementation.

  14. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for RCRA Constituent Analysis of Solidified Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) constituents distributes test samples for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and metals in solid matrices. Each distribution of test samples is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD; DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department. The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the RCRA PDP. Participating laboratories demonstrate acceptable performance by successfully analyzing single-blind performance evaluation samples (subsequently referred to as PDP samples) according to the criteria established in this plan. PDP samples are used as an independent means to assess laboratory performance regarding compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). The concentrations of analytes in the PDP samples address levels of regulatory concern and encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in waste characterization samples. The WIPP requires analyses of homogeneous solid wastes to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by laboratories that demonstrate acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses, and the samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples. Participating laboratories must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for WIPP samples.

  15. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram-Howery, S G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swift, P N [Tech Reps Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1991-07-15

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  16. Early-1990 status of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant disposal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Swift, P.N.

    1991-07-01

    This paper summarizes the early-1990 status of the performance-assessment work being done to evaluate compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulation 40 CFR Part 191, Subpart B. This regulation sets environmental standards for radioactive waste disposal (Environmental Radiation Protection Standards for Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes). As required by Subpart B, evaluations of compliance will include probabilistic numerical simulations of repository performance and qualitative judgments. Compliance appears uncertain only in the event of human intrusion into the repository after decommissioning. Issues affecting compliance following intrusion include properties of the plugs used to seal the intruding borehole, permeability and porosity of the waste, and possible pressurization of the repository by gas generated from the organic decomposition and corrosion of the waste and containers. Research is in progress to determine the probability of intrusion and to quantify parameter uncertainties needed to include these factors in simulations of repository performance. The Department of Energy (DOE) is following two strategies to assure compliance. First, passive marker systems will be designed and implemented to reduce the likelihood of intrusion and increase the likelihood that intruders will properly reseal the repository. Second, modifications to the form of the waste and the design of the repository to achieve acceptable performance if the intruding borehole is not adequately sealed will be designed. Goals include reductions in gas generation and waste permeability and porosity. Numerous modifications are technically possible. Work in progress will evaluate proposed modifications and recommend the most promising for further testing. The DOE is confident that compliance with Subpart B of 40 CFR 191 can be established using a combination of the two strategies

  17. Volatile fatty acids production from food waste: effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin; Wang, Quan; Gong, Changxiu; Li, Menglu

    2013-09-01

    The effects of pH, temperature, and organic loading rate (OLR) on the acidogenesis of food waste have been determined. The present study investigated their effects on soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), volatile solids (VS), and ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N). Both the concentration and yield of VFAs were highest at pH 6.0, acetate and butyrate accounted for 77% of total VFAs. VFAs concentration and the VFA/SCOD ratio were highest, and VS levels were lowest, at 45 °C, but the differences compared to the values at 35 °C were slight. The concentrations of VFAs, SCOD, and NH4(+)-N increased as OLR increased, whereas the yield of VFAs decreased from 0.504 at 5 g/Ld to 0.306 at 16 g/Ld. Acetate and butyrate accounted for 60% of total VFAs. The percentage of acetate and valerate increased as OLR increased, whereas a high OLR produced a lower percentage of propionate and butyrate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic Solid Phase Extraction and Removal of Five Cationic Dyes from Aqueous Solution Using Magnetite Nanoparticle Loaded Platanusorientalis Waste Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Madrakian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on synthesis of a magnetic adsorbent for wastewater treatment purposes. In this regard, platanus orientalis waste leaves were chosen as a cheap material for preparing the magnetic adsorbent by loading magnetite nanoparticles on it. The synthesized adsorbent was characterized using scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffractometer. Then, it was used for magnetic solid phase extraction and removal of five cationic dyes including methyl violet (MV, methylene blue (MB, malachite green (MG, crystal violet (CV, and neutral red (NR from aqueous solution as a model application. Different important factors affecting the adsorption process were optimized, and the results showed that under the optimized conditions (pH 10 for CV, MV, MB, and MG; pH 6 for NR; adsorbent dosage, 20 mg; agitation time, 25 min efficient removal of the investigated dyes (adsorption capacities between of 89-133 mg g-1 is achievable using the synthesized adsorbent. Furthermore, the reusability experiments showed that the adsorbent could be reused at least ten cycles without any significant loss in its sorption behavior.

  19. An overview of U.S. plant performance improvement through effective radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieberling, R.; Lyons, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive waste volumes in the United States commercial nuclear power industry have declined over the last five years after increasing steadily in the late 1970's. This decline is considered to be especially significant because major backfits/modifications and major component repair/replacement at U.S. nuclear power stations have been accomplished during this period. This paper analyzes the key reasons for this performance and outlines the positive effects that this trend has upon overall nuclear plant performance. In reviewing plant performance data, there appears to be a direct correlation between overall plant performance and radioactive waste performance. For example, plants with high capacity factors, strong industrial safety programs, low collective man-rem, and good contamination controls, generally have a history of low radioactive waste volumes. The reasons for this excellent performance is the result of direct management and supervisory involvement in plant operations, implementation of high standards of performance, and monitoring performance against these standards. Using the techniques outlined in this paper, the U.S. nuclear power industry can continue to reduce the volume of low-level solid radioactive waste being generated

  20. Waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain disposal system for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, Rob P.; Stockman, Christine T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper summarizes modeling of waste degradation and mobilization in performance assessments (PAs) conducted between 1984 and 2008 to evaluate feasibility, viability, and assess compliance of a repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada. As understanding of the Yucca Mountain disposal system increased, the waste degradation module, or succinctly called the source-term, evolved from initial assumptions in 1984 to results based on process modeling in 2008. In early PAs, waste degradation had significant influence on calculated behavior but as the robustness of the waste container was increased and modeling of the container degradation improved, waste degradation had much less influence in later PAs. The variation of dissolved concentrations of radionuclides progressed from simple probability distributions in early PAs to functions dependent upon water chemistry in later PAs. Also, transport modeling of radionuclides in the waste, container, and invert were added in 1995; and, colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides was added in 1998. - Highlights: • Progression of modeling of waste degradation in performance assessments is discussed for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. • Progression of evaluating dissolved concentrations of radionuclides in the source-term is discussed. • Radionuclide transport modeling in the waste, container, and invert in 1995 and thereafter is discussed. • Colloid-facilitated transport in the waste, container, and invert in 1998 and thereafter is discussed

  1. Performance of Hybrid Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Subjected to Air Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Alias Yusof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experimental data and simulation on the performance of hybrid steel fiber reinforced concrete (HSFRC and also normal reinforced concrete (NRC subjected to air blast loading. HSFRC concrete mix consists of a combination of 70% long steel hook end fibre and also 30% of short steel hook end fibre with a volume fraction of 1.5% mix. A total of six concrete panels were subjected to air blast using plastic explosive (PE4 weighing 1 kg each at standoff distance of 0.3 meter. The parameters measured are mode of failure under static and blast loading and also peak overpressure that resulted from detonation using high speed data acquisition system. In addition to this simulation work using AUTODYN was carried out and validated using experimental data. The experimental results indicate that hybrid steel fiber reinforced concrete panel (HSFRC possesses excellent resistance to air blast loading as compared to normal reinforced concrete (NRC panel. The simulation results were also found to be close with experimental data. Therefore the results have been validated using experimental data.

  2. High power RF performance test of an improved SiC load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W.H.; Kim, S.H.; Park, Y.J. [Pohang Accelerator Lab., Pohang Inst. of Sceince and Technology, Pohang (KR)] [and others

    1998-11-01

    Two prototypes of SiC loads sustaining a maximum peak power of 50 MW were fabricated by Nihon Koshuha Co. in Japan. The PAL conducted the high power RF performance tests of SiC loads to verify the operation characteristics for the application to the PLS Linac. The in-situ facility for the K 12 module was used for the test, which consists of a modulator and klystron system, waveguide network, vacuum and cooling system, and RF analyzing equipment. As the test results, no breakdown appeared up to 50 MW peak power of 1 {mu}s pulse width at a repetition rate of 50 Hz. However, as the peak power increased above 20 MW at 4 {mu}s with 10 Hz, the breakdown phenomena has been observed. Analysing the test results with the current operation power level of PLS Linac, it is confirmed that the SiC loads well satisfy the criteria of the PLS Linac operation. (author)

  3. Branch technical position for performance assessment of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.C.; Abramson, L.; Byrne, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a Draft Branch Technical Position on Performance Assessment of Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facilities. The draft technical position addresses important issues in performance assessment modeling and provides a framework and technical basis for conducting and evaluating performance assessments in a disposal facility license application. The technical position also addresses specific technical policy issues and augments existing NRC guidance pertaining to LLW performance assessment

  4. Effects of bolt pre-loading variations on performance of GDL in a bolted PEMFC by 3-D FEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, Chi-Hui; Hu, Yao-Lun; Su, Ting-Hsuan; Liu, Hsuan-Ting; Wang, Chung-Ting; Yang, Ping-Feng; Lu, Ying-Xu

    2016-01-01

    This study numerically investigated the effects of different bolt pre-loadings on the performance of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a bolted proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Firstly, a complete three-dimensional finite element model of a PEMFC bolted by 12 bolts with a reactive area of 5 cm by 5 cm was established using the commercial software SolidWorks. Then, a pre-loading of 1 MPa to 7 MPa on each bolt was applied, increasing in increments 1 MPa, and the corresponding deformation and stress fields of each component of the fuel cell were obtained using the commercial software ANSYS 15.0/Workbench. Finally, the effects of the bolt pre-loading variations on the performance of the GDL were discussed. The results showed that the compression ratio of the GDL increased linearly with the magnitude of bolt pre-loading, and improving the performance of the GDL. However, when the pre-loading on each bolt reached 7 MPa, the compression ratio exceeded 15%, degrading the efficiency of the PEMFC. Also, by comparing the relationships between bolt pre-loading and conductivity and porosity of GDL, in order to obtain the maximum performance of GDL, an optimum value of 4 MPa for bolt preloading was recommended. - Highlights: • Effect of bolt pre-loading on deformations is more serious than that of thermal loading. • Bolt pre-loading improves compression ratio of GDL. • For obtaining a maximum performance of GDL, 4 MPa of bolt pre-loading was recommended. • Flow channel volume reduced by bolt pre-loading degrades the efficiency of PEMFC.

  5. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.-W.; Chang, N.-B.; Chen, J.-C.; Tsai, S.-J.

    2010-01-01

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA) - a production economics tool - to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world.

  6. Development of high-performance supercapacitor electrode derived from sugar industry spent wash waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahto, Ashesh; Gupta, Rajeev; Ghara, Krishna Kanta; Srivastava, Divesh N; Maiti, Pratyush; D, Kalpana; Rivera, Paul-Zavala; Meena, R; Nataraj, S K

    2017-10-15

    This study aims at developing supercapacitor materials from sugar and distillery industry wastes, thereby mediating waste disposal problem through reuse. In a two-step process, biomethanated spent wash (BMSW) was acid treated to produce solid waste sludge and waste water with significantly reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) content. Further, waste sludge was directly calcined in presence of activating agent ZnCl 2 in inert atmosphere resulting in high surface area (730-900m 2 g -1 ) carbon of unique hexagonal morphology. Present technique resulted in achieving two-faceted target of liquid-solid waste remediation and production of high-performance carbon material. The resulted high surface area carbon was tested in both three and two electrode systems. Electrochemical tests viz. cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and impedance measurement were carried out in aqueous KOH electrolyte yielding specific capacitance as high as 120Fg -1 , whereas all solid supercapacitor devised using PVA/H 3 PO 4 polyelectrolyte showed stable capacitance of 105Fg -1 at 0.2Ag -1 . The presence of transition metal particles and hetero-atoms on carbon surface were confirmed by XPS, EDX and TEM analysis which enhanced the conductivity and imparted pseudocapacitance to some extent into the working electrode. The present study successfully demonstrated production of high-performance electrode material from dirtiest wastewater making process green, sustainable and economically viable. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Environmental performance evaluation of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ho-Wen; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chen, Jeng-Chung; Tsai, Shu-Ju

    2010-07-01

    Limited to insufficient land resources, incinerators are considered in many countries such as Japan and Germany as the major technology for a waste management scheme capable of dealing with the increasing demand for municipal and industrial solid waste treatment in urban regions. The evaluation of these municipal incinerators in terms of secondary pollution potential, cost-effectiveness, and operational efficiency has become a new focus in the highly interdisciplinary area of production economics, systems analysis, and waste management. This paper aims to demonstrate the application of data envelopment analysis (DEA)--a production economics tool--to evaluate performance-based efficiencies of 19 large-scale municipal incinerators in Taiwan with different operational conditions. A 4-year operational data set from 2002 to 2005 was collected in support of DEA modeling using Monte Carlo simulation to outline the possibility distributions of operational efficiency of these incinerators. Uncertainty analysis using the Monte Carlo simulation provides a balance between simplifications of our analysis and the soundness of capturing the essential random features that complicate solid waste management systems. To cope with future challenges, efforts in the DEA modeling, systems analysis, and prediction of the performance of large-scale municipal solid waste incinerators under normal operation and special conditions were directed toward generating a compromised assessment procedure. Our research findings will eventually lead to the identification of the optimal management strategies for promoting the quality of solid waste incineration, not only in Taiwan, but also elsewhere in the world. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The acute effects of moderately loaded concentric-only quarter squats on vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crum, Aaron J; Kawamori, Naoki; Stone, Michael H; Haff, G Gregory

    2012-04-01

    Limited research exists examining the effect of moderately loaded conditioning activities that are employed as part of a strength-power potentiating complex (SPPC). Additionally, no studies to date have explored the effects of using a concentric-only quarter back squat protocol as part of an SPPC. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a moderately loaded (50-65% of 1RM) concentric-only quarter back squat protocol on the occurrence of potentiation effects at various time points. Twenty men who could quarter back squat a minimum of 2.4 times their body mass (3.7 ± 0.7 kg·per body mass) participated in this investigation. All subjects participated in 3 conditions: control (CT), a 50% of 1RM trial (50POT), and a 65% of 1RM trial (65POT). One minute before each condition, a maximal countermovement vertical jump (CMJ) was performed. One minute later, the subject performed 1 of 3 conditions: CT condition, 50POT, or 65POT, followed by vertical jumps at 0.5, 3, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after conditioning activity. A force plate was used to quantify displacement, peak power output, peak force, and the rate of force development for each CMJ. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in any of the performance measures quantified during the CMJ trials when comparing the CT, 50POT, and 65POT treatment conditions. However, 48% of the subjects demonstrated some degree of potentiation at the 30 seconds after completing the 65POT trial, but this percent increase was not statistically significant. From a practical perspective, if the goal of the SPPC is to create a maximization of the potentiation effect, moderately loaded activities may not be the best alternative.

  9. A study of waste and delivery valve design modification to the pump performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harith, M. N.; Bakar, R. A.; Ramasamy, D.; Kardigama, K.; Quanjin, Ma

    2018-04-01

    This paper objective is to share design revolution of waste and delivery valve that contribute to the overall pump performance. In this paper, 3 new designs of waste and delivery valve pump are presented with comprehensive internal flow analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation over 4 cases that have been deeply study for one of the design chosen. 4 cases involving opening and closing both valve or either one. 0.265m height size of customized waste valve with an opening limiter and spring was used to demonstrate cyclic closing and opening valve operation extended up to 0.164m gap. Based on result, this characteristics contribute to 10-20% waste water reduction and enhancement of flow rate height up to 80m. Apart from that this paper also share some of pressure (dynamic, total, static), velocity (x, y, z axis) simulation including the vector flow were under different flow cases.

  10. Performance Characteristics of Waste Glass Powder Substituting Portland Cement in Mortar Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, P.; Csetényi, L. J.; Borosnyói, A.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, soda-lime glass cullet (flint, amber, green) and special glass cullet (soda-alkaline earth-silicate glass coming from low pressure mercury-discharge lamp cullet and incandescent light bulb borosilicate glass waste cullet) were ground into fine powders in a laboratory planetary ball mill for 30 minutes. CEM I 42.5N Portland cement was applied in mortar mixtures, substituted with waste glass powder at levels of 20% and 30%. Characterisation and testing of waste glass powders included fineness by laser diffraction particle size analysis, specific surface area by nitrogen adsorption technique, particle density by pycnometry and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence spectrophotometry. Compressive strength, early age shrinkage cracking and drying shrinkage tests, heat of hydration of mortars, temperature of hydration, X-ray diffraction analysis and volume stability tests were performed to observe the influence of waste glass powder substitution for Portland cement on physical and engineering properties of mortar mixtures.

  11. Studies of glass waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banba, Tsunetaka; Kamizono, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Tashiro, Shingo

    1989-08-01

    The recent studies of glass waste form performance at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute can be classified into the following three categories; (1) Study on the volatilization of radionuclides from the waste glass, which is necessary to estimate the safety in relation to operation of a storage facility. (2) Study on the radiation (alpha-radiation) effects which have relation to the long-term stability of the waste glass. (3) Study on the leaching behavior of actinides under the repository conditions, which is necessary to predict the long-term release rate of radionuclides from the waste glass. In the present report, the recent results corresponding to the above categories are described. (author)

  12. Integrated performance assessment model for waste policy package behavior and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossik, R.; Miller, I.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. This paper describes one component of the RIP software, the waste package behavior and radionuclide release model. The waste package component model considers waste package failure by various modes, matrix alteration/dissolution, and radionuclide mass transfer. Model parameters can be described as functions of local environmental conditions. The waste package component model is coupled to component models for far-field radionuclide transport and disruptive events. The model has recently been applied to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

  13. Integrated performance assessment model for waste package behavior and radionuclide release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossik, R.; Miller, I.; Cunnane, M.

    1992-01-01

    Golder Associates Inc. (GAI) has developed a probabilistic total system performance assessment and strategy evaluation model (RIP) which can be applied in an iterative manner to evaluate repository site suitability and guide site characterization. This paper describes one component of the RIP software, the waste package behavior and radionuclide release model. The waste package component model considers waste package failure by various modes, matrix alteration/dissolution, and radionuclide mass transfer. Model parameters can be described as functions of local environmental conditions. The waste package component model is coupled to component models for far-field radionuclide transport and disruptive events. The model has recently been applied to the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain

  14. Current Status and Performance Tests of Korea Heat Load Test Facility KoHLT-EB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukkwon; Jin, Hyunggon; Shin, Kyuin; Choi, Boguen; Lee, Eohwak; Yoon, Jaesung; Lee, Dongwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duckhoi; Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A commissioning test has been scheduled to establish the installation and preliminary performance experiments of the copper hypervapotron mockups. And a qualification test will be performed to evaluate the CuCrZr duct liner in the ITER neutral beam injection facility and the ITER first wall small-scale mockups of the semi-prototype, at up to 1.5 and 5 MW/m{sup 2} high heat flux. Also, this system will be used to test other PFCs for ITER and materials for tokamak reactors. Korean high heat flux test facility(KoHLT-EB; Korea Heat Load Test facility - Electron Beam) by using an electron beam system has been constructed in KAERI to perform the qualification test for ITER blanket FW semi-prototype mockups, hypervapotron cooling devices in fusion devices, and other ITER plasma facing components. The commissioning and performance tests with the supplier of e-gun system have been performed on November 2012. The high heat flux test for hypervapotron cooling device and calorimetry were performed to measure the surface heat flux, the temperature profile and cooling performance. Korean high heat flux test facility for the plasma facing components of nuclear fusion machines will be constructed to evaluate the performance of each component. This facility for the plasma facing materials will be equipped with an electron beam system with a 60 kV acceleration gun.

  15. DOE's performance evaluation project for mixed low-level waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, R.D.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Gruebel, M.M.; Lee, D.W.

    1995-01-01

    A performance evaluation (PE) is an analysis that estimates radionuclide concentration limits for 16 potential Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low-level waste (ULLW) disposal sites based on the analysis of two environmental exposure pathways (air and water) to an off-site individual and an inadvertent-intruder exposure pathway. Sites are analyzed for their ability to attenuate concentrations of specific radionuclides that could be released from wastes in a hypothetical ULLW disposal facility. Site-specific data and knowledge are used within a generic framework that is consistent across all sites being evaluated. After estimates of waste concentrations for the three pathways are calculated, the minimum of the waste concentration values is selected as the permissible waste concentration for each radionuclide. The PE results will be used as input to the process for DOE's ULLW disposal configuration. Preliminary comparisons of results from the PE and site-specific performance assessments indicate that the simple PE results generally agree with results of the performance assessments, even when site conditions are complex. This agreement with performance-assessment results increases confidence that similar results can be obtained at other sites that have good characterization data. In addition, the simple analyses contained in the PE illustrate a potential method to satisfy the needs of many regulators and the general public for a simple, conservative, defensible, and easily understandable analysis that provides results similar to those of more complex analyses

  16. Cooling load and coefficient of performance optimizations for real air-refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Youming; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2006-01-01

    Based on a simple irreversible variable-temperature heat reservoir air (Brayton) refrigeration cycle model, a performance analysis and optimization of a real air refrigerator is carried out using finite-time thermodynamics. To maximize the cooling load and the coefficient of performance (COP) of the cycle, the allocation of a fixed total heat-exchanger inventory and thermal-capacity rate matching between the working fluid and heat reservoirs are optimized, respectively. The influences of pressure ratio, the total heat-exchanger inventory, the efficiencies of the compressor and expander, the thermal capacity rate of the working fluid and the ratio of the thermal-capacity rates of the heat reservoirs on the performance of the cycle are shown by numerical examples. The results obtained provide guidances for the design of practical air-refrigeration plants

  17. Performance Values for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Technique Applied to Wastes: Evaluation by the ESARDA NDA Working Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackham, Jamie; Weber, Anne-Laure; Chard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The first evaluation of NDA performance values was undertaken by the ESARDA Working Group for Standards and Non Destructive Assay Techniques and was published in 1993. Almost ten years later in 2002 the Working Group reviewed those values and reported on improvements in performance values and new measurement techniques that had emerged since the original assessment. The 2002 evaluation of NDA performance values did not include waste measurements (although these had been incorporated into the 1993 exercise), because although the same measurement techniques are generally applied, the performance is significantly different compared to the assay of conventional Safeguarded special nuclear material. It was therefore considered more appropriate to perform a separate evaluation of performance values for waste assay. Waste assay is becoming increasingly important within the Safeguards community, particularly since the implementation of the Additional Protocol, which calls for declaration of plutonium and HEU bearing waste in addition to information on existing declared material or facilities. Improvements in the measurement performance in recent years, in particular the accuracy, mean that special nuclear materials can now be accounted for in wastes with greater certainty. This paper presents an evaluation of performance values for the NDA techniques in common usage for the assay of waste containing special nuclear material. The main topics covered by the document are: 1- Techniques for plutonium bearing solid wastes 2- Techniques for uranium bearing solid wastes 3 - Techniques for assay of fissile material in spent fuel wastes. Originally it was intended to include performance values for measurements of uranium and plutonium in liquid wastes; however, as no performance data for liquid waste measurements was obtained it was decided to exclude liquid wastes from this report. This issue of the performance values for waste assay has been evaluated and discussed by the ESARDA

  18. Performance Values for Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Technique Applied to Wastes: Evaluation by the ESARDA NDA Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackham, Jamie [Babcock International Group, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, (United Kingdom); Weber, Anne-Laure [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Chard, Patrick [Canberra, Forss Business and Technology park, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    The first evaluation of NDA performance values was undertaken by the ESARDA Working Group for Standards and Non Destructive Assay Techniques and was published in 1993. Almost ten years later in 2002 the Working Group reviewed those values and reported on improvements in performance values and new measurement techniques that had emerged since the original assessment. The 2002 evaluation of NDA performance values did not include waste measurements (although these had been incorporated into the 1993 exercise), because although the same measurement techniques are generally applied, the performance is significantly different compared to the assay of conventional Safeguarded special nuclear material. It was therefore considered more appropriate to perform a separate evaluation of performance values for waste assay. Waste assay is becoming increasingly important within the Safeguards community, particularly since the implementation of the Additional Protocol, which calls for declaration of plutonium and HEU bearing waste in addition to information on existing declared material or facilities. Improvements in the measurement performance in recent years, in particular the accuracy, mean that special nuclear materials can now be accounted for in wastes with greater certainty. This paper presents an evaluation of performance values for the NDA techniques in common usage for the assay of waste containing special nuclear material. The main topics covered by the document are: 1- Techniques for plutonium bearing solid wastes 2- Techniques for uranium bearing solid wastes 3 - Techniques for assay of fissile material in spent fuel wastes. Originally it was intended to include performance values for measurements of uranium and plutonium in liquid wastes; however, as no performance data for liquid waste measurements was obtained it was decided to exclude liquid wastes from this report. This issue of the performance values for waste assay has been evaluated and discussed by the ESARDA

  19. Performance Evaluation of a Thermal Load Reduction System in a Hyundai Sonata PHEV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreutzer, Cory J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Titov, Eugene V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gallagher, James [Gentherm, Inc.; Scott, Matthew [Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc.

    2017-11-28

    Increased adoption of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) requires overcoming hurdles including limited vehicle range. Vehicle cabin heating and cooling demand for occupant climate control requires energy from the main battery and has been shown to significantly degrade vehicle range. During peak cooling and heating conditions, climate control can require as much or more energy as propulsion. As part of an ongoing project, NREL and project partners Hyundai America Technical Center, Inc. (HATCI), Gentherm , Pittsburgh Glass Works (PGW), PPG Industries, Sekisui, 3M, and Hanon Systems developed a thermal load reduction system in order to reduce the range penalty associated with electric vehicle climate control. Solar reflective paint, solar control glass, heated and cooled/ventilated seats, heated surfaces, and heated windshield with door demisters were integrated into a Hyundai Sonata plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Cold weather field-testing was conducted in Fairbanks, Alaska while warm weather testing was conducted in Death Valley, California to assess the system performance in comparison to the baseline production vehicle. In addition, environmental chamber testing at peak heating and cooling conditions was performed to assess the performance of the system in standardized conditions compared to the baseline. Experimental results are presented in this paper providing quantitative data to automobile manufacturers on the impact of climate control thermal load reduction technologies to increase the advanced thermal technology adoption and market penetration of electric drive vehicles.

  20. Investigation of the Flow Field and Performances of a Centrifugal Pump at Part Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunières, R.; Inoue, Y.; Nagahara, T.

    2016-11-01

    Centrifugal pump performance curve instability, characterized by a local dent at part load, can be the consequence of flow instabilities in rotating or stationary parts. Such flow instabilities often result in abnormal operating conditions which can damage both the pump and the system. In order for the pump to have reliable operation over a wide flow rate range, it is necessary to achieve a design free of instability. The present paper focuses on performance curve instability of a centrifugal pump of mid specific speed (ωs = 0.65) for which instability was observed at part load during tests. The geometry used for this research consist of the first stage of a multi-stage centrifugal pump and is composed of a suction bend, a closed-type impeller, a vaned diffuser and return guide vanes. In order to analyse the instability phenomenon, PIV and CFD analysis were performed. Both methods qualitatively agree relatively well. It appears that the main difference before and after head drop is an increase of reverse flow rate at the diffuser passage inlet on the hub side. This reverse flow decreases the flow passing area at the diffuser passage inlet, disallowing effective flow deceleration and impairing static pressure recovery.

  1. DOE progress in assessing the long term performance of waste package materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berusch, A.; Gause, E.

    1987-01-01

    Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA)[1], the US Dept. of Energy (DOE) is conducting activities to select and characterize candidate sites suitable for the construction and operation of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. DOE is funding three first repository projects: Basalt Waste Isolation Project, BWIP; Nevada Nuclear Waste Isolation Project, NNWSI; and Salt Repository Project Office, SRPO. It is essential in the licensing process that DOE demonstrate to the NRC that the long-term performance of the materials and design will be in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.113 on substantially complete containment within the waste packages for 300 to 1000 years and a controlled release rate from the engineered barrier system (EBS) for 10,000 years of 1 part in 10 5 per year for radionuclides present in defined quantities 100 years after permanent closure. Obviously, the time spans involved make it impractical to base the assessment of the long term performance of waste package materials on real time, prototypical testing. The assessment of performance will be implemented by the use of models that are supported by real time field and laboratory tests, monitoring, and natural analog studies. Each of the repository projects is developing a plan for demonstrating long-term waste package material performance depending on the particular materials and the package-perturbed, time-dependent environment under which the materials must function. An overview of progress in each of these activities for each of the projects is provided in the following

  2. Normalized performance and load data for the deepwind demonstrator in controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battisti, L.; Benini, E.; Brighenti, A.

    2016-01-01

    , derived from real scale measurements on a three-bladed Troposkien vertical-axis wind turbine, are manipulated in a convenient form to be easily compared with the typical outputs provided by simulation codes. The here proposed data complement and support the measurements already presented in "Wind Tunnel......Performance and load normalized coefficients, deriving from an experimental campaign of measurements conducted at the large scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy), are presented with the aim of providing useful benchmark data for the validation of numerical codes. Rough data...... Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions" (Battisti et al., 2016) [1]....

  3. Performance of large-scale helium refrigerators subjected to pulsed heat load from fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, R.; Ghosh, P.; Chowdhury, K. [Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur (India)

    2012-07-01

    The immediate effect of pulsed heat load from fusion devices in helium refrigerators is wide variation in mass flow rate of low pressure stream returning to the cold-box. In this paper, a four expander based modified Claude cycle has been analyzed in quasi steady and dynamic simulations using Aspen HYSYS to identify critical equipment that may be affected due to such flow rate fluctuations at the return stream and their transient performance. Additional constraints on process parameters over steady state design have been identified. Suitable techniques for mitigation of fluctuation of return stream have also been explored. (author)

  4. Performance of large-scale helium refrigerators subjected to pulsed heat load from fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, R.; Ghosh, P.; Chowdhury, K.

    2012-01-01

    The immediate effect of pulsed heat load from fusion devices in helium refrigerators is wide variation in mass flow rate of low pressure stream returning to the cold-box. In this paper, a four expander based modified Claude cycle has been analyzed in quasi steady and dynamic simulations using Aspen HYSYS to identify critical equipment that may be affected due to such flow rate fluctuations at the return stream and their transient performance. Additional constraints on process parameters over steady state design have been identified. Suitable techniques for mitigation of fluctuation of return stream have also been explored. (author)

  5. Optimization of waste water discharge and waste water cleaning on the basis of measurements of the organic pollutant load; Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und Abwasserreinigung durch Messung der organischen Abwasserbelastung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeck, M. [Dr. Bruno Lange GmbH Berlin, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient (SAC) is a sum parameter for describing the organic pollutant load of waste water. It is based on a purely physical measuring technique and can be monitored continuously and directly in the medium by means of the described UV process probe. From this arise numerous opportunities for optimizing waste water discharge and cleaning. (orig.) [German] Der spektrale Absorptionskoeffizient (SAK) ist ein Summenparameter zur Beschreibung der organischen Abwasserbelastung. Er basiert auf einem rein physikalischen Messverfahren und kann mit der hier vorgestellten UV-Prozess-Sonde kontinuierlich und direkt im Medium erfasst werden. Daraus ergeben sich zahlreiche Moeglichkeiten zur Optimierung von Abwasserableitung und -reinigung. (orig.)

  6. Performance assessment handbook for low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Starmer, R.J.

    1992-02-01

    Performance assessments of proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities must be conducted to support licensing. This handbook provides a reference document that can be used as a resource by management and staff responsible for performance assessments. Brief discussions describe the performance assessment process and emphasize selected critical aspects of the process. References are also provided for additional information on many aspects of the performance assessment process. The user's manual for the National Low-Level Waste Management Program's Performance Assessment Center (PAC) on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cray computer is included as Appendix A. The PAC provides users an opportunity to experiment with a number of performance assessment computer codes on a Cray computer. Appendix B describes input data required for 22 performance assessment codes

  7. Vitrified waste form performance modeling applied to the treatment and disposal of mixed-waste sludge at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whited, A.R.; Fjeld, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Vitrification, the conversion of source components into a solid amorphous glass matrix, has emerged as a viable treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste. To dispose of vitrified low-level waste at US Department of Energy facilities, site-specific radiological performance assessments must be conducted to demonstrate that waste glass satisfies performance objectives for environmental protection. More than 2,500 m 3 of F0006-listed low-level mixed-waste sludge stored in the Reactor Materials Department (M-Area) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is scheduled for vitrification. This study evaluates the feasibility of on-site disposal of vitrified M-Area waste at SRS. Laboratory leaching tests that accelerate the glass corrosion process are currently the best indicators of vitrified waste form durability. A method to incorporate laboratory leaching data into performance assessments is presented. A screening-level performance assessments code is used to model trench disposal of M-Area waste glass. The allowable leach rate for vitrified M-Area waste is determined based on both a maximum radiological dose equivalent of 4 mrem/yr for the drinking water pathway and a maximum uranium concentration of 20 microg/ell in groundwater. The allowable leach rate is compared with published long-term leaching data for a wide range of waste glass compositions and test conditions. This analysis demonstrates that trench disposal of the waste glass is likely to meet applicable performance objectives if the glass is of above average durability compared with the reference set of glasses

  8. The influence of variable range of motion training on neuromuscular performance and control of external loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ross A; Humphries, Brendan; Hohmann, Erik; Bryant, Adam L

    2011-03-01

    Resistance training programs that emphasize high force production in different regions of the range of motion (ROM) may provide performance benefits. This study examined whether variable ROM (VROM) training, which consists of partial ROM training with countermovements performed in a different phase of the ROM for each set, results in improved functional performance. Twenty-two athletes (age 22.7 ± 2.4 years, height 1.81 ± 0.07 m, and body mass 94.6 ± 14.5 kg) with extensive resistance training backgrounds performed either a VROM or full ROM control (CON) 5-week, concentric work-matched training program. The participants were assigned to a group based on stratified randomization incorporating their strength levels and performance gains in preceding training microcycles. Testing consisted of assessing the force-ROM relationship during isokinetic and isometric bench press and ballistic bench throws, with normalized electromyography amplitude assessed during the isometric tests. Repeated-measure analyses of variance revealed that the VROM intervention significantly (p force (+15.7%), in addition to isokinetic peak force in the terminal ROM (13.5% increase). No significant differences were observed in the CON group or between groups for any other outcome measures. Analysis of the force-ROM relationship revealed that that the VROM intervention enhanced performance at shorter muscle lengths. These findings suggest that VROM training improves terminal and midrange performance gains, resulting in the athlete possessing an improved ability to control external loading and produce dynamic force.

  9. The evaluation of solidifying performance of heavy metal waste using cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takei, Akihiko; Fujita, Hideki; Harasawa, Shuichi

    2004-02-01

    Some of radioactive waste generated form JNC's facilities contain the poisonous substances such as lead, cadmium and mercury. In order to establish an appropriate method of the treatment of these heavy metals, solidification performance was evaluated using cementitious materials. In this report, the solidification performance of lead, which accounts for relatively high ratio in total wastes, was evaluated. The results are summarized below: 1. The test of stabilization process of lead: The conversion process from block lead to the powdery lead sulfide was examined on the beaker scale. As a result, it was confirmed that the conversion was possible using the liquid phase reaction by the addition of thiourea after block lead had been dissolved by the acetic acid with bubbling air. After the process, the lead concentration in the filtrate was extremely low (0.02 mg/L), so it was judged that almost all of the lead was converted and recovered as lead sulfide. 2. The fabrication and evaluation of solidified wastes: Five types of solidified waste were fabricated with different binder, and were evaluated by the measurement of one-axis compressive strength, porosity, the elution ratio of lead, and so on. Powdery lead and sulfide lead reagent were used as model waste. As a result of the test, it was confirmed one-axis compressive strength for all solidified waste to pass the technical standards 15 kg/cm 2 (1.5 MPa) for homogeneously solidified waste as the Low-level Radioactive Waste Disposal Center in Aomori Prefecture, and as for the elution ratio of lead, it had obtained the better result (0.27 mg/L) at the case of solidification of sulfide lead 20 mass% packed in the total solidified waste by using low alkaline cement (including Hauyne mineral) than standard value (0.3 mg/L) at Regulations of Waste Management and Public Cleansing Law. Moreover, it was understood that the elution of lead had high relationship with not only the character of the binder but also the physical

  10. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Feed Flow Loop Phase VI: PulseEcho System Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.

    2012-11-21

    This document presents the visual and ultrasonic PulseEcho critical velocity test results obtained from the System Performance test campaign that was completed in September 2012 with the Remote Sampler Demonstration (RSD)/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform located at the Monarch test facility in Pasco, Washington. This report is intended to complement and accompany the report that will be developed by WRPS on the design of the System Performance simulant matrix, the analysis of the slurry test sample concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) data, and the design and construction of the RSD/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform.

  11. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  12. Establishment and application of performance evaluation model for collection and transportation system of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭绪亚; 林晓东; 贾传兴; 王渝昆; 黄媛媛

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the typical waste collection and transportation mode,the evaluation index system for performance of the waste collection and transportation system was proposed with three grades,which related to six factors,such as economic evaluation,high efficient evaluation,environmental impact assessment,resource evaluation,evaluation of security and emergency,evaluation of management and society. With the performance evaluation theory,the performance evaluation model of waste collection and transportation system was constructed,which quantified the grading standard of index and determined the index weight in analytic hierarchy process (AHP). After evaluating the waste collection and transportation system of the main districts of Chongqing city,the results show that the it has an excellent performance evaluation grade with very high performance level of three indices involving evaluation of management and society,environmental impact assessment,evaluation of security and emergency and quite low performance level of two indices that include high efficient evaluation and economic evaluation.

  13. Review on technical issues influencing the performance of chemical barriers of TRU waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tomonari; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Tsukamoto, Masaki; Yokoyama, Hayaichi

    1997-01-01

    Studies of technical issues influencing the performance assessment of TRU waste disposal which is occurred from the nuclear fuel reprocessing were reviewed in related to the development of safety analysis method. Especially, the chemical containment was investigated as a key barrier to radionuclide migration. TRU waste including long-lived radionuclides need long-term performance assessment which could be assumed only by the chemical barrier. The description of technical issues concerned with the performance of TRU waste repository has been divided into the following categories: long-term degradation of cementitious materials as engineered barrier for radionuclide migration, effect of colloids, organic macromolecules and organic degradation products on chemical behavior of radionuclides, gas generation by corrosion of metallic wastes, and effects of microbial activity. Preliminary performance assessment indicated that important factors affecting performance of chemical barriers in near-field were the distribution coefficient and the solubility of radionuclides in near-field groundwater. Therefore, it was identified that key issues associated with performance of chemical barrier were evaluation of (a) the long-term change of distribution coefficient of cementitious material through the degradation under repository condition and (b) chemical speciation change of radionuclides such as increase of solubility by the presence of colloidal-size materials. (author)

  14. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  15. 40 CFR 60.1810 - How do I monitor the load of my municipal waste combustion unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal waste combustion unit? 60.1810 Section 60.1810 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Guidelines and Compliance Times for Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30... combustion unit? (a) If your municipal waste combustion unit generates steam, you must install, calibrate...

  16. Performance evaluation model of a pilot food waste collection system in Suzhou City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zongguo; Wang, Yuanjia; De Clercq, Djavan

    2015-05-01

    This paper analyses the food waste collection and transportation (C&T) system in a pilot project in Suzhou by using a novel performance evaluation method. The method employed to conduct this analysis involves a unified performance evaluation index containing qualitative and quantitative indicators applied to data from Suzhou City. Two major inefficiencies were identified: a) low system efficiency due to insufficient processing capacity of commercial food waste facilities; and b) low waste resource utilization due to low efficiency of manual sorting. The performance evaluation indicated that the pilot project collection system's strong points included strong economics, low environmental impact and low social impact. This study also shows that Suzhou's integrated system has developed a comprehensive body of laws and clarified regulatory responsibilities for each of the various government departments to solve the problems of commercial food waste management. Based on Suzhou's experience, perspectives and lessons can be drawn for other cities and areas where food waste management systems are in the planning stage, or are encountering operational problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Performance assessment of stabilised/solidified waste-forms

    OpenAIRE

    Antemir, Aurora

    2010-01-01

    A method to treat contaminated land is stabilisation/solidification (S/S), which physically encapsulates and chemically stabilises the contaminants. The current knowledge on the behaviour of S/S systems is based upon scarce and incomplete data, mostly obtained from laboratory simulations or small scale trials of the technology. The field performance of S/S soils is largely unknown.\\ud \\ud The aim of this research was to improve the understanding of the long-term performance of S/S soils, by e...

  18. Loaded and unloaded jump performance of top-level volleyball players from different age categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Katia; Pereira, Lucas Adriano; Kobal, Ronaldo; Cal Abad, Cesar Cavinato; Finotti, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Loturco, Irineu

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in loaded and unloaded jump performances between different age categories of top-level volleyball players from the same club. Forty-three volleyball players were divided into four age groups: under-17, under-19, under-21 and professional. Vertical jumping height for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swing (CMJa) and mean propulsive velocity (MPV) in the loaded jump squat exercise with 40% of the athlete's body mass were compared among the different age categories, considering body mass as a covariate. SJ and CMJ jump height values were higher for professional and under-21 players than under-17 players (pjump squat was higher for under-21 players than under-17 players (pjump performances across different age categories of top-level volleyball players. Therefore, to increase the vertical jumping ability of these team sport athletes throughout their long-term development, coaches and strength and conditioning professionals are encouraged to implement consistent neuromuscular training strategies, in accordance with the specific needs and physiological characteristics of each age group.

  19. Evaluation of sealing performance of metal cask subjected to vertical impact load due to aircraft engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namba, Kosuke; Shirai, Koji; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2010-01-01

    To confirm the sealing performance of a metal cask subjected to impact force due to commercial aircraft crash against a spent fuel storage facility, a vertical impact test was carried out. In this test, a simplified deformable missile was used by considering the rigidity of the actual aircraft engine and accelerated to the specified impact velocity (60 m/s) to hit the full-scale lid structure with the primary and secondary lids. Then, the leak rate, the inner pressure between the lids, and the displacement of the lids were measured. The leak rate of the secondary lid exceeded 1.0x10 -3 Pa·m 3 /s upon impact. However, because no residual lid opening displacement occurred after loading, the leak rate recovered to less than 1.0x10 -6 Pa·m 3 /s after 3 h from the impact test. In addition, to clarify the impact behaviour of the lid structure, the impact analysis using the LS-DYNA code was executed. It was found that the lid bolts maintained the good tightening force after impact loading, and the sealing performance of the full-scale metal cask would not be affected immediately by the vertical impact of the aircraft engine with a speed of 60 m/s. (author)

  20. On the performance of circular concrete-filled high strength steel columns under axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mahmoud El-Heweity

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study to investigate the performance of circular high-strength steel tubes filled with concrete (CFT under monotonic axial loading. A model is developed to implement the material constitutive relationships and non-linearity. Calibration against previous experimental data shows good agreement. A parametric study is then conducted using the model and compared with codes provisions. Strength and ductility of confined concrete are of primary concern. Variables considered are yield stress of steel tube and column diameter. The assessment of column performance is based on axial load carrying capacities and enhancements of both strength and ductility due to confinement. Two parameters namely strength enhancement factor (Kf and ductility index (μ are clearly defined and introduced for assessment. Results indicate that both concrete strength and ductility of CFT columns are enhanced but to different extents. The ductile behaviors are significantly evident. The increase in yield stress of steel tube has a minimal effect on concrete strength but pronounced effect on concrete ductility. However, reduction in ductility is associated with using high-tensile steel of Grade 70. The overall findings indicate that the use of high-strength tube in CFT columns is not promising. This finding may seriously be considered in seismic design.

  1. Performance of an Active Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Reduced Catalyst Loading MEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Falcão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The micro direct methanol fuel cell (MicroDMFC is an emergent technology due to its special interest for portable applications. This work presents the results of a set of experiments conducted at room temperature using an active metallic MicroDMFC with an active area of 2.25 cm2. The MicroDMFC uses available commercial materials with low platinum content in order to reduce the overall fuel cell cost. The main goal of this work is to provide useful information to easily design an active MicroDMFC with a good performance recurring to cheaper commercial Membrane Electrode Assemblies MEAs. A performance/cost analysis for each MEA tested is provided. The maximum power output obtained was 18.1 mW/cm2 for a hot-pressed MEA with materials purchased from Quintech with very low catalyst loading (3 mg/cm2 Pt–Ru at anode side and 0.5 mg/cm2 PtB at the cathode side costing around 15 euros. Similar power values are reported in literature for the same type of micro fuel cells working at higher operating temperatures and substantially higher cathode catalyst loadings. Experimental studies using metallic active micro direct methanol fuel cells operating at room temperature are very scarce. The results presented in this work are, therefore, very useful for the scientific community.

  2. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Durkalec-Michalski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg−1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo (p = 0.0142, was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  3. The Effect of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Loading Regimen on Anaerobic Capacity and Wrestling Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkalec-Michalski, Krzysztof; Zawieja, Emilia Ewa; Podgórski, Tomasz; Zawieja, Bogna Ewa; Michałowska, Patrycja; Łoniewski, Igor; Jeszka, Jan

    2018-05-30

    Gastrointestinal side effects are the main problem with sodium bicarbonate (SB) use in sports. Therefore, our study assessed the effect of a new SB loading regimen on anaerobic capacity and wrestling performance. Fifty-eight wrestlers were randomized to either a progressive-dose regimen of up to 100 mg∙kg -1 of SB or a placebo for 10 days. Before and after treatment, athletes completed an exercise protocol that comprised, in sequence, the first Wingate, dummy throw, and second Wingate tests. Blood samples were taken pre- and post-exercise. No gastrointestinal side effects were reported during the study. After SB treatment, there were no significant improvements in the outcomes of the Wingate and dummy throw tests. The only index that significantly improved with SB, compared to the placebo ( p = 0.0142), was the time-to-peak power in the second Wingate test, which decreased from 3.44 ± 1.98 to 2.35 ± 1.17 s. There were also no differences in blood lactate or glucose concentrations. In conclusion, although the new loading regimen eliminated gastrointestinal symptoms, the doses could have been too small to elicit additional improvements in anaerobic power and wrestling performance. However, shortening the time-to-peak power during fatigue may be particularly valuable and is one of the variables contributing to the final success of a combat sports athlete.

  4. Loading, transport and storage of casks of the type CASTOR registered HAW28M in the frame of vitrified high-level waste repatriation from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, Thomas; Graf, Wilhelm; Gosch-Warning, Michaela

    2011-01-01

    Until 2005 the German nuclear power plant operators have contracts with AREVA NC (former COGEMA) and NDA (former BNFL) concerning the reprocessing of spent fuel elements. The reprocessed and vitrified radioactive waste has to be repatriated to Germany. Due to the reprocessing of spent fuel elements with increased burnup and the repatriation after shorter cooling time the total activity and the Cm-244 content of the high-level-waste coquilles have increased since 2008. Consequently the heat output has increased to 2 kW/coquille. Therefore the new transport cask type CASTOR registered HAW28M was developed. The authors describe the design of the casks, the licensing accor