WorldWideScience

Sample records for performing testes-related functions

  1. Results of data base management system parameterized performance testing related to GSFC scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carchedi, C. H.; Gough, T. L.; Huston, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of a variety of tests designed to demonstrate and evaluate the performance of several commercially available data base management system (DBMS) products compatible with the Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 11/780 computer system are summarized. The tests were performed on the INGRES, ORACLE, and SEED DBMS products employing applications that were similar to scientific applications under development by NASA. The objectives of this testing included determining the strength and weaknesses of the candidate systems, performance trade-offs of various design alternatives and the impact of some installation and environmental (computer related) influences.

  2. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  3. Aggregate Toughness/Abrasion Resistance and Durability/Soundness Tests Related to Asphalt Concrete Performance in Pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The properties of aggregates used in asphalt concretes are very important to the performance of the pavements in which the asphalt concretes are used. Often pavement distress, such as stripping and rutting, can be traced directly to the aggregates us...

  4. Functional High Performance Financial IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthold, Jost; Filinski, Andrzej; Henglein, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    at the University of Copenhagen that attacks this triple challenge of increased performance, transparency and productivity in the financial sector by a novel integration of financial mathematics, domain-specific language technology, parallel functional programming, and emerging massively parallel hardware. HIPERFIT......The world of finance faces the computational performance challenge of massively expanding data volumes, extreme response time requirements, and compute-intensive complex (risk) analyses. Simultaneously, new international regulatory rules require considerably more transparency and external...... auditability of financial institutions, including their software systems. To top it off, increased product variety and customisation necessitates shorter software development cycles and higher development productivity. In this paper, we report about HIPERFIT, a recently etablished strategic research center...

  5. Effect of Functional diversity on Software Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanatha Rao, Balajee

    2011-01-01

    For the past few decades, there has been numerous literature produced on functional diversity and performance. However, the relationship between functional diversity and performance in software industry is clearly not explained and results are found to be inconsistent. The main focus of this research is to explore the effects of functional diversity on software project performance by conducting a qualitative study. Four metrics were chosen from literature namely decision making, creativity an...

  6. Summary of functional and performance test procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Gülzow, Erich; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition.......Different Test Modules (TM) are defined for the functional and performance characterization of a PEMFC stack. The master document TM2.00 defines requirements and methodology for parameter variation, stability and data acquisition....

  7. Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasold, Anke; Foged, Isak Worre

    2011-01-01

    As the title ‘Function Follows Performance in Evolutionary Computational Processing’ suggests, this paper explores the potentials of employing multiple design and evaluation criteria within one processing model in order to account for a number of performative parameters desired within varied...

  8. Pulmonary Function Affects Language Performance in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewina O Lee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Good pulmonary function (PF is associated with preservation of cognitive performance, primarily of executive functions, in aging (Albert et al., 1995; Chyou et al., 1996; Emery, Finkel, & Pedersen, 2012; Yohannes & Gindo, 2013. The contribution of PF to older adults’ language abilities, however, has never been explored, to our knowledge. We addressed this gap by examining the effects of PF on older adults’ language functions, as measured by naming and sentence processing accuracy. We predicted similar effects as found for executive functions, given the positive associations between executive functions and sentence processing in aging (e.g., Goral et al., 2011. Methods Data were collected from 190 healthy adults aged 55 to 84 years (M = 71.1, SD = 8.1, with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. Procedure PF was measured prior to language testing. Measures included forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC. Language functions were assessed through performance on computer-administered lexical retrieval and sentence processing tasks. Sentence processing was measured using two auditory comprehension tasks: one, of embedded sentences (ES, the other, of sentences with multiple negatives (MN. Lexical retrieval was measured using the Boston Naming Test (BNT and Action Naming Test (ANT. Performance was scored for percent accuracy. Additionally, lexical retrieval was evaluated with a phonemic fluency task (FAS, which also taps executive function abilities. Statistical Analyses Multiple regression was used to examine the association between pulmonary and language functions, adjusting for age, education, gender, history of respiratory illness, current level of physical activities, and current and past smoking. Results Better PF was associated with better sentence processing and lexical retrieval on naming tasks, but not with phonemic fluency, after adjusting for covariates. Higher FVC was

  9. Altered Functional Performance in Patients with Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Isis da Silva; Gamund?, Antoni; Miranda, Jos? G. Vivas; Fran?a, Lucas G. Souza; De Santana, Charles Novaes; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ...

  10. Altered Functional Performance in Patients with Fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Isis da Silva; Gamundí, Antoni; Miranda, José G Vivas; França, Lucas G Souza; De Santana, Charles Novaes; Montoya, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a common chronic pain condition that exerts a considerable impact on patients' daily activities and quality of life. Objectives: The main objective of the present study was to evaluate kinematic parameters of gait, functional performance, and balance in women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Methods: The study included 26 female patients with fibromyalgia (49.2 ± 8.0 years) according to the criteria of the American College of Rheumatology, as well as 16 pain-free women (43.5 ± 8.5 years). Gait and balance parameters were extracted from video recordings of participants performing several motor tasks. Non-linear dynamic of body sway time series was also analyzed by computing the Hurst exponent. In addition, functional performance and clinical pain were obtained by using standardized motor tests (Berg's balance scale, 6-min walking test, timed up and go task, Romberg's balance test) and self-report questionnaires (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire). Results: Walking speed was significantly diminished ( p fibromyalgia and pain-free controls on body sway in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior axes (all ps gait and balance were significantly associated with high levels of pain, depression, stiffness, anxiety, and fatigue in fibromyalgia. Conclusion: Our data revealed that both gait and balance were severely impaired in FM, and that subjective complaints associated with FM could contribute to functional disability in these patients. These findings suggest that optimal rehabilitation and fall prevention in fibromyalgia require a comprehensive assessment of both psychological responses to pain and physical impairments during postural control and gait.

  11. Permanent isolation surface barrier: Functional performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wing, N.R.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the functional performance parameters for permanent isolation surface barriers. Permanent isolation surface barriers have been proposed for use at the Hanford Site (and elsewhere) to isolate and dispose of certain types of waste in place. Much of the waste that would be disposed of using in-place isolation techniques is located in subsurface structures, such as solid waste burial grounds, tanks, vaults, and cribs. Unless protected in some way, the wastes could be transported to the accessible environment via transport pathways, such as water infiltration, biointrusion, wind and water erosion, human interference, and/or gaseous release

  12. Estado actual y perspectiva de las pruebas relacionadas con el estudio de la función tiroidea Present state and prospects of tests related to the thyroid function study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Alavez Martín

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades tiroideas pueden ser diagnosticadas, en la mayoría de los casos, por la clínica. Sin embargo, existen situaciones que requieren de las pruebas de función tiroidea con el fin de valorar correctamente al paciente en las etapas iniciales de la disfunción de esta glàndula, con el fin de establecer el tratamiento adecuado de forma individual y el seguimiento de la evolución de la enfermedad. En esta revisión hacemos referencia a las pruebas empleadas para valorar el estado de la función tiroidea y se señalan sus ventajas, limitaciones y tendencias actuales. La determinación de TSH por procederes de segunda y tercera generaciones permite establecer el diagnóstico del hipertiroidismo e hipotiroidismo primarios, aún en las formas subclínicas de ambos, al mostrar inhibición o hipersecreción, respectivamente, así como la dosis adecuada de l-levotiroxina y orientar a una causa hipofisaria de esta disfunción. La determinación de T4 es de gran valor para conocer la intensidad de la disfunción tiroidea y para valorar la eficacia del tratamiento en las primeras semanas de iniciado. La determinación de T3 tiene su principal indicación ante la sospecha de la presencia del llamado hipertiroidismo por T3. La determinación de T4 y T3 totales da lugar a una interpretación incorrecta en cuanto a las situaciones que modifican la globulina transportadora de tiroxina (TBG. La tendencia actual es al empleo de TSHs como prueba inicial para el diagnóstico de la disfunción tiroidea, la cual se debe indicar teniendo siempre en cuenta la clínica y, de ser necesario, asociarla a la determinación de T4 o T3 libres.The thyroid diseases may be diagnosed in most of cases by the clinics. However, there are circumstances that required thyroid function tests to correctly assess the patient in initial stages of thyroid dysfunction and give an adequate treatment on an individual basis and the follow-up of the disease. This review makes

  13. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  14. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT TESTS AND PERFORMANCE TESTS IN YOUNG ELITE MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J

    2015-10-01

    Sprinting and jumping are two common and important components of high-level sport performance. The weight-bearing dorsiflexion test (WB-DF) and Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) are tools developed to identify athletes at risk for lower extremity injury and may be related to running and jumping performance among athletes. The purposes of the present study were: 1) to identify any relationships between functional movement tests (WB-DF and SEBT) and performance tests (jumping, sprinting and changing direction); 2) to examine any relationships between asymmetries in functional movements and performance tests. Descriptive cohort study. Fifteen elite male basketball players (age: 15.4 ± 0.9 years) were assessed during a three-week period to determine the reliability of functional screening tools and performance tests and to examine the relationships between these tests. Relative (intraclass correlation coefficient) and absolute (coefficient of variation) reliability were used to assess the reproducibility of the tests. Significant correlations were detected between certain functional movement tests and performance tests. Both left and right excursion composite scores related to slower performance times in sprint testing, demonstrating that greater dynamic reach relates to decreased quickness and acceleration among these elite basketball athletes. The various relationships between dynamic functional movement testing, speed, and jump performance provide guidance for the strength and conditioning professional when conducting and evaluating data in an effort to improve performance and reduce risk of injury. The results of the present study suggest that these functional and performance tests do not measure the same components of human movement, and could be paired as outcome measures for the clinical and sport assessment of lower extremity function. 2b.

  15. THE PERFORMANT FUNCTION AND THE REFERENTIAL FUNCTION IN THEATRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca GHERVAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pour illustrer la dynamique et l’alternance entre la fonction performative et la fonction référentielle dans le théâtre, il faut réaliser une analyse d’autres deux domaines, ayant des ressemblances de point de vue de la même alternance, le sport de performance et le spectacle de cirque. Tout en investiguant le besoin humain d’être témoin aux spectacles publics, on peut comprendre mieux sa façon de diviser l’attention entre ce que détient, dans un spectacle, une fonction performative et une fonction référentielle. Le poids de cette alternance dépend de la modalité de réaliser son double rôle de producteur de signe et du signe en soi.

  16. Testing relativity with solar system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellings, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    A major breakthrough is described in the accuracy of Solar System dynamical tests of relativistic gravity. The breakthrough was achieved by factoring in ranging data from Viking Landers 1 and 2 from the surface of Mars. Other key data sources included optical transit circle observations, lunar laser ranging, planetary radar, and spacecraft (Mariner 9 to Mars and Mariner 10 to Mercury). The Solar System model which is used to fit the data and the process by which such fits are performed are explained and results are discussed. The results are fully consistent with the predictions of General Relativity.

  17. [Effect of physical activity on functional performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, T

    2001-02-01

    Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people. Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life.

  18. Relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in a functional capacity evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneman, MF; Jorritsma, W; Dijkstra, SJ; Dijkstra, PU

    2003-01-01

    Fear of movement and (re) injury (kinesiophobia) has been postulated to play an important role in the performance in a Functional Capacity Evaluation (FCE). This study was performed to analyze the relationship between kinesiophobia and performance in an FCE. Kinesiophobia and FCE performance of 54

  19. Renewing functionalized graphene as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yan [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Song, Qi [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); Kang, Feiyu [Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, Zhongguancun, Beiyitiao No.11, Beijing, 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, Jungong Road 516, 200093, Shanghai (China)

    2012-12-11

    An acid-assisted ultrarapid thermal strategy is developed for constructing specifically functionalized graphene. The electrochemical performance of functionalized graphene can be boosted via elaborate coupling between the pseudocapacitance and the electronic double layer capacitance through rationally tailoring the structure of graphene sheets. This presents an opportunity for developing further high-performance graphene-based electrodes to bridge the performance gap between traditional capacitors and batteries. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Renewing functionalized graphene as electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yan; Luo, Bin; Jia, Yuying; Li, Xianglong; Wang, Bin; Song, Qi; Kang, Feiyu; Zhi, Linjie

    2012-12-11

    An acid-assisted ultrarapid thermal strategy is developed for constructing specifically functionalized graphene. The electrochemical performance of functionalized graphene can be boosted via elaborate coupling between the pseudocapacitance and the electronic double layer capacitance through rationally tailoring the structure of graphene sheets. This presents an opportunity for developing further high-performance graphene-based electrodes to bridge the performance gap between traditional capacitors and batteries. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Performance analysis, quality function deployment and structured methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. W.

    Quality function deployment, (QFD), an approach to synthesizing several elements of system modeling and design into a single unit, is presented. Behavioral, physical, and performance modeling are usually considered as separate aspects of system design without explicit linkages. Structured methodologies have developed linkages between behavioral and physical models before, but have not considered the integration of performance models. QFD integrates performance models with traditional structured models. In this method, performance requirements such as cost, weight, and detection range are partitioned into matrices. Partitioning is done by developing a performance model, preferably quantitative, for each requirement. The parameters of the model become the engineering objectives in a QFD analysis and the models are embedded in a spreadsheet version of the traditional QFD matrices. The performance model and its parameters are used to derive part of the functional model by recognizing that a given performance model implies some structure to the functionality of the system.

  2. Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Feedback, D. L.; Feiverson, A. H.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J.; Spiering, B. A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objectives of the FTT are to: Develop a set of functional tasks that represent critical mission tasks for Constellation. Determine the ability to perform these tasks after flight. Identify the key physiological factors that contribute to functional decrements. Use this information to develop targeted countermeasures. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper and lower body muscle strength, power, fatigue, control and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers will perform both functional and physiological tests before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data will be collected on R+0 (Shuttle only), R

  3. Functionalized graphene hydrogel-based high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxi; Lin, Zhaoyang; Huang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yang; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2013-10-25

    Functionalized graphene hydrogels are prepared by a one-step low-temperature reduction process and exhibit ultrahigh specific capacitances and excellent cycling stability in the aqueous electrolyte. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on functionalized graphene hydrogels are demonstrated with superior capacitive performances and extraordinary mechanical flexibility. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Is performance better when brain functions are typically lateralized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Reint; Zickert, Nele; Beking, Tess; Groothuis, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Lateralization refers to the dominant involvement of one homologous region of the brain over the other in functional task performance. Direction and strength of lateralization depend on the functional task. It is well known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere, even in most

  5. Modularization, inter-functional integration and operational performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    for firms to indeed use product modularity beneficially, in particular inter-functional integration between manufacturing and purchasing, design and sales, respectively. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the direct performance effects of modularization, as well as the mediating effects of the three...... forms of integration in the modularization-performance relationship....

  6. A Study on Relationships between Functional Performance and Task Performance Measure through Experiments in NPP MCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, In Seok; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2011-01-01

    Further improvements in levels of organization, management, man-machine interfaces, education, training, etc. are required, if high operating reliability of operators in huge and complex plants such as chemical plants and electrical power generating plants is to be maintained. Improvement requires good understanding of operators' behavior, including defining what is good performance for operators, especially in emergency situations. Human performance measures, therefore, are important to enhance performance and to reduce the probability of incidents and accidents in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Operators' performance measures are used for multi-objectives such as control room design, human system interface evaluation, training, procedure and so on. There are two kinds of representative methods to measure operators' performance. These methods are now known as the functional performance measure and task performance measure. Functional performance measures are basically based on the plant process parameters. Functional performance measures indicate how well the operators controlled selected critical parameters. The parameters selected in this paper are derived from the four Critical Safety Functions (CSFs) identified in the emergency operating procedures such as achievement of subcriticality, maintenance of core cooling, maintenance of heat sink and maintenance of containment integrity. Task performance measures are based on the task analysis. Task analysis is to determine the tasks required and how operators are performed. In this paper, task analysis is done with ideal path for an accident completed by experts and Emergency Operation Procedure (EOP). However, most literatures related to operators' performance have been using one of these measures and there is no research to find out the relationships between two measures. In this paper, the relationships between functional performance measure and task performance measure are investigated using experiments. Shortly

  7. Muscle Functions and Functional Performance among Older Persons with and without Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare muscle functions and functional performances between older persons with and without low back pain (LBP and to determine the association between muscle functions and functional performances. This is a cross-sectional study, involving 95 older persons (age = 70.27±7.26 years. Anthropometric characteristics, muscle functions, and functional performances were measured. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and multiple linear regression. The functional performances showed no significant differences (females LBP versus non-LBP, males LBP versus non-LBP (p<0.05. For muscle functions, significant differences were found (females LBP versus non-LBP for abdominal muscle strength (p=0.006 and back muscle strength (p=0.07. In the LBP group, significant correlations were found between back and abdominal muscle strength and hand grip strength (r=0.377 and r=0.396, resp., multifidus control and lower limb function (r=0.363 in females, and back muscle strength and lower limb function (r=0.393 in males (all p<0.05. Regression analysis showed that abdominal and back muscle strengths were significant predictors of hand grip strength (p=0.041 and p=0.049, resp., and multifidus control was a significant predictor of lower limb function in females (p=0.047. This study demonstrates that older women with LBP exhibit poorer muscle functions compared to older women without LBP.

  8. The ALMT Gene Family Performs Multiple Functions in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aluminium activated malate transporter (ALMT gene family is named after the first member of the family identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The product of this gene controls resistance to aluminium (Al toxicity. ALMT genes encode transmembrane proteins that function as anion channels and perform multiple functions involving the transport of organic anions (e.g., carboxylates and inorganic anions in cells. They share a PF11744 domain and are classified in the Fusaric acid resistance protein-like superfamily, CL0307. The proteins typically have five to seven transmembrane regions in the N-terminal half and a long hydrophillic C-terminal tail but predictions of secondary structure vary. Although widely spread in plants, relatively little information is available on the roles performed by other members of this family. In this review, we summarized functions of ALMT gene families, including Al resistance, stomatal function, mineral nutrition, microbe interactions, fruit acidity, light response and seed development.

  9. Diabetes, child care, and performance of family functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Kobos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Parents caring for a child with diabetes may experience a burden on both a practical and an emotional level. Aim of the research : Analysis of the correlations between the care burden level and the perceived influence of type 1 diabetes in children on the performance of family functions. Material and methods : The study included 112 caregivers of children with diabetes. The following inclusion criteria were taken into account: full family, direct caregiver of the child, the child’s age 3–16 years, disease duration of at least 6 months, and no chronic diseases in siblings. The study material was collected using an interview questionnaire and the Caregiver Burden Scale. Correlation analysis was performed using the Spearman correlation coefficient. The significance level was defined as p = 0.05. Results : A higher burden level of a caregiver in the individual subscales of the CB Scale was associated with a significant decrease in the intensity of performance of the cultural and social function as well as consumption function, the increased amount of time spent with a sick child, and an increase in parental disagreements. The overall burden level differentiated the performance of the religious function. An increase in the burden level on the overall effort subscale was accompanied by lower interest in sex and less frequent sexual intercourse. The higher level of caregiver burden occurs in families where permanent job income has fallen. The differences were shown in the performance of control-socialisation function due to the sense of burden on the environment subscale. Conclusions : The burden level of a caregiver is important in the perceived influence of the child’s illness on the functioning of the family. Stimulating a caregiver in dealing with the problems that are the consequence of the disease, as well as activating and preparing other family members to participate in the care of a sick child, and financial support may

  10. Bike Desks in the Classroom: Energy Expenditure, Physical Health, Cognitive Performance, Brain Functioning, and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Meeusen, Romain

    2017-06-01

    Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents' energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention. Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed. As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents' academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents' physical health.

  11. Comparative evaluation of maintenance performance using subsurvival functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, J.L.; Cooke, R.; Nyman, R.

    1997-01-01

    Subsurvival functions are applied to operational data for the control rod drive systems of Nordic nuclear reactors to evaluate maintenance performance. Competing failure modes are preventive and corrective maintenance. Maintenance indicators are defined and evaluated for 8 plants. (C) 1997 Elsevier...

  12. Human performance in nondestructive inspections and functional tests: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1988-10-01

    Human performance plays a vital role in the inspections and tests conducted to assure the physical integrity of nuclear power plants. Even when technically-sophisticated equipment is employed, the outcome is highly dependent on human control actions, calibrations, observations, analyses, and interpretations. The principal consequences of inadequate performance are missed or falsely-reported defects. However, the cost-avoidance that stems from addressing potential risks promptly, and the increasing costs likely with aging plants, emphasize that timeliness and efficiency are important inspection-performance considerations also. Human performance issues were studied in a sample of inspections and tests regularly conducted in nuclear power plants. These tasks, selected by an industry advisory panel, were: eddy-current inspection of steam-generator tubes; ultrasonic inspection of pipe welds; inservice testing of pumps and valves; and functional testing of shock suppressors. Information was obtained for the study from industry and plant procedural documents; training materials; research reports and related documents; interviews with training specialists, inspectors, supervisory personnel, and equipment designers; and first-hand observations of task performance. Eleven recommendations are developed for improving human performance on nondestructive inspections and functional tests. Two recommendations were for the more-effective application of existing knowledge; nine recommendations were for research projects that should be undertaken to assure continuing improvements in human performance on these tasks. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  13. Functional Movement Screening and Paddle-Sport Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hatchett

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study reported here was to determine the relationship between an endurance paddle-sport athlete’s total functional movement screening (FMS score and individual race performance. Fifty elite level endurance canoeists and kayakers completed the seven-stage FMS protocol prior to the 2016 United States Canoe and Kayak Association National Championship race. Time taken to finish the race was then associated to overall FMS score and respective sub-scores. Total FMS score and various sub-scores were significantly related to race performance. Female and male athletes differed in which sub-scores were shown to be significantly correlated to finishing time. Outcomes from this study indicate that limitations in functional movement are related to endurance paddle-sport race performance.

  14. Improved Functional Performance in Geriatric Patients During Hospital Stay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Anders; Loeb, Mads Rohde; Andersen, Kristine Bramsen

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the time course of changes in strength and functional performance in elderly hospitalized medical patients. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study in elderly medical patients of age 65 years or older at a geriatric department.Measurement......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to evaluate the time course of changes in strength and functional performance in elderly hospitalized medical patients. DESIGN: This was a prospective observational study in elderly medical patients of age 65 years or older at a geriatric department.......Measurements were obtained on days 2 to 4, day 5 to 8, and days 9 to 13. Functional performance was measured with De Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) test and a 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST). Muscular strength was measured with handgrip strength. Activity level was determined with accelerometry (Activ...... in 30-s CST (P performance of the lower extremities in geriatric patients improves moderately over the time of a hospital stay...

  15. Robust design principles for reducing variation in functional performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability and percei......This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability...... and perceived quality of a product and efforts should be made to minimise it. The design principles are identified by a systematic decomposition of the Taguchi Transfer Function in combination with the use of existing literature and the authors’ experience. The paper presents 15 principles and describes...... their advantages and disadvantages along with example cases. Subsequently, the principles are classified based on their applicability in the various development and production stages. The VRP are to be added to existing robust design methodologies, helping the designer to think beyond robust design tool and method...

  16. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  17. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  18. Scholastic performance and functional connectivity of brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Chaddock-Heyman

    Full Text Available One of the keys to understanding scholastic success is to determine the neural processes involved in school performance. The present study is the first to use a whole-brain connectivity approach to explore whether functional connectivity of resting state brain networks is associated with scholastic performance in seventy-four 7- to 9-year-old children. We demonstrate that children with higher scholastic performance across reading, math and language have more integrated and interconnected resting state networks, specifically the default mode network, salience network, and frontoparietal network. To add specificity, core regions of the dorsal attention and visual networks did not relate to scholastic performance. The results extend the cognitive role of brain networks in children as well as suggest the importance of network connectivity in scholastic success.

  19. Kinesiophobia, Pain, Muscle Functions, and Functional Performances among Older Persons with Low Back Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azizah Ishak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims (1 to determine the association between kinesiophobia and pain, muscle functions, and functional performances and (2 to determine whether kinesiophobia predicts pain, muscle functions, and functional performance among older persons with low back pain (LBP. Methods. This is a correlational study, involving 63 institutionalized older persons (age = 70.98±7.90 years diagnosed with LBP. Anthropometric characteristics (BMI and functional performances (lower limb function, balance and mobility, and hand grip strength were measured. Muscle strength (abdominal and back muscle strength was assessed using the Baseline® Mechanical Push/Pull Dynamometer, while muscle control (transverse abdominus and multifidus was measured by using the Pressure Biofeedback Unit. The pain intensity and the level of kinesiophobia were measured using Numerical Rating Scale and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, respectively. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and multivariate linear regressions. Results. No significant correlations were found between kinesiophobia and pain and muscle functions (all p>0.05. Kinesiophobia was significantly correlated with mobility and balance (p=0.038, r=0.263. Regressions analysis showed that kinesiophobia was a significant predictor of mobility and balance (p=0.038. Conclusion. We can conclude that kinesiophobia predicted mobility and balance in older persons with LBP. Kinesiophobia should be continuously assessed in clinical settings to recognize the obstacles that may affect patient’s compliance towards a rehabilitation program in older persons with LBP.

  20. Normative Functional Performance Values in High School Athletes: The Functional Pre-Participation Evaluation Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, James A; Starkel, Cambrie; Clifton, Daniel R; Best, Thomas M; Borchers, James; Chaudhari, Ajit; Comstock, R Dawn; Cortes, Nelson; Grooms, Dustin R; Hertel, Jay; Hewett, Timothy E; Miller, Meghan Maume; Pan, Xueliang; Schussler, Eric; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2018-01-01

      The fourth edition of the Preparticipation Physical Evaluation recommends functional testing for the musculoskeletal portion of the examination; however, normative data across sex and grade level are limited. Establishing normative data can provide clinicians reference points with which to compare their patients, potentially aiding in the development of future injury-risk assessments and injury-mitigation programs.   To establish normative functional performance and limb-symmetry data for high school-aged male and female athletes in the United States.   Cross-sectional study.   Athletic training facilities and gymnasiums across the United States.   A total of 3951 male and female athletes who participated on high school-sponsored basketball, football, lacrosse, or soccer teams enrolled in this nationwide study.   Functional performance testing consisted of 3 evaluations. Ankle-joint range of motion, balance, and lower extremity muscular power and landing control were assessed via the weight-bearing ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and anterior single-legged hop-for-distance (SLHOP) tests, respectively. We used 2-way analyses of variance and χ 2 analyses to examine the effects of sex and grade level on ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge, single-legged anterior-reach, and SLHOP test performance and symmetry.   The SLHOP performance differed between sexes (males = 187.8% ± 33.1% of limb length, females = 157.5% ± 27.8% of limb length; t = 30.3, P performance. We observed differences for SLHOP and ankle-dorsiflexion-lunge performance among grade levels, but these differences were not clinically meaningful.   We demonstrated differences in normative data for lower extremity functional performance during preparticipation physical evaluations across sex and grade levels. The results of this study will allow clinicians to compare sex- and grade-specific functional performances and implement approaches for preventing musculoskeletal

  1. Study on functional relationships between ergonomics indexes of manual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui-Min; Ding, Li; Chen, Shou-Ping; Yang, Chun-Xin; Yuan, Xiu-Gan

    This paper investigates functional relationships between some of the key ergonomics indexes in manual performance, and attempts to condense the ergonomics appraisal indexes system and thus evaluate hand performance wearing EVA (extravehicular activity) glove, design and improve EVA glove's performance. Four types of ergonomics indexes were studied, i.e., dexterity, tactile sensibility (TS), strength and fatigue. Two test items of insert sticks into a holes-board (ISIHB) and nuts-bolts assembly task (NBAT) were used to measure dexterity, while shape discrimination (SD) was employed for TS, and grip force (GF) for strength and fatigue. The variables measured in this investigation included accomplishing time (AT) of ISIHB and NBAT, correct rate (CR) of SD, maximal grip force (MGF), instant grip force (IGF) and endurance time of grip force (ETGF). Experiments were conducted on 31 undergraduates (eight female and 23 male) with two experiment conditions of bare-hand group and gloved hand group. Results demonstrated that dexterity and TS performance of gloved hand group declined significantly compared with those of bare-hand group (pfatigue between two conditions (p>0.05). Four effective functional relationships were developed between four pairs of ergonomics indexes in bare-hand group. In gloved hand group, in addition to above-mentioned four pairs of relationships, another formula was found, which was y^=0.02061+0.01233x ( p<0.01, dexterity and TS).

  2. Executive Functioning: Relationship with High School Student Role Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna P. Mann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Student role performance for academic success in secondary education is under represented in the occupational therapy literature, despite the persistently high dropout rate in the United States (Stillwell & Sable, 2013. Executive dysfunction is one of many possible contributors to difficulties in the classroom (Dirette & Kolak, 2004 and is a better indicator of school performance than IQ (Diamond, 2012. This research examined executive functioning of both alternative and traditional high school students to determine if there is a relationship between executive function and academic success as measured by cumulative grade point average. METHOD. 132 high school students from three different school settings were given the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Self Report (BRIEF-SR. The Global Executive Composite (GEC and individual subscale scores were compared to GPA. RESULTS. No significant difference in GEC scores was found among settings. Subscale scores for “inhibition” and “task completion” were significantly different in the alternative school setting. A weak negative correlation was seen between the GEC and GPA. However, academically unsuccessful students scored statistically lower on the GEC. CONCLUSION. Global executive dysfunction was not predicted by setting but was seen in academically unsuccessful students.

  3. Effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Sook; Rha, Dong Wook; Shin, Jung Soon; Kim, Soohyeon; Jung, Soojin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). We recruited 34 children (M:F=15:19, age: 3-12 years) with spastic CP who underwent hippotherapy for 45 minutes twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-one children with spastic CP were recruited for control group. The distribution of gross motor function classification system level and mean age were not significantly different between the two groups. Outcome measures, including the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM)-66, GMFM-88 and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory: Functional Skills Scale (PEDI-FSS), were assessed before therapy and after the 8-weeks intervention as outcome measures. There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups in mean baseline total scores of GMFM-66, GMFM-88 or PEDI-FSS. After the 8-weeks intervention, mean GMFM-66 and GMFM-88 scores were significantly improved in both groups. However, the hippotherapy group had significantly greater improvement in dimension E and GMFM-66 total score than the control group. The total PEDI-FSS score and the sub-scores of its 3 domains were significantly improved in the hippotherapy group, but not in the control group. The results of our study demonstrate the beneficial effects of hippotherapy on gross motor function and functional performance in children with CP compared to control group. The significant improvement in PEDI-FSS scores suggests that hippotherapy may be useful to maximize the functional performance of children with CP.

  4. An advanced probabilistic structural analysis method for implicit performance functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.; Cruse, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    In probabilistic structural analysis, the performance or response functions usually are implicitly defined and must be solved by numerical analysis methods such as finite element methods. In such cases, the most commonly used probabilistic analysis tool is the mean-based, second-moment method which provides only the first two statistical moments. This paper presents a generalized advanced mean value (AMV) method which is capable of establishing the distributions to provide additional information for reliability design. The method requires slightly more computations than the second-moment method but is highly efficient relative to the other alternative methods. In particular, the examples show that the AMV method can be used to solve problems involving non-monotonic functions that result in truncated distributions.

  5. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  6. Functionalized Materials From Elastomers to High Performance Thermoplastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Laura Ann [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Synthesis and incorporation of functionalized materials continues to generate significant research interest in academia and in industry. If chosen correctly, a functional group when incorporated into a polymer can deliver enhanced properties, such as adhesion, water solubility, thermal stability, etc. The utility of these new materials has been demonstrated in drug-delivery systems, coatings, membranes and compatibilizers. Two approaches exist to functionalize a material. The desired moiety can be added to the monomer either before or after polymerization. The polymers used range from low glass transition temperature elastomers to high glass transition temperature, high performance materials. One industrial example of the first approach is the synthesis of Teflon(reg. sign). Poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE or Teflon(reg. sign)) is synthesized from tetrafluoroethylene, a functionalized monomer. The resulting material has significant property differences from the parent, poly(ethylene). Due to the fluorine in the polymer, PTFE has excellent solvent and heat resistance, a low surface energy and a low coefficient of friction. This allows the material to be used in high temperature applications where the surface needs to be nonabrasive and nonstick. This material has a wide spread use in the cooking industry because it allows for ease of cooking and cleaning as a nonstick coating on cookware. One of the best examples of the second approach, functionalization after polymerization, is the vulcanization process used to make tires. Natural rubber (from the Hevea brasiliensis) has a very low glass transition temperature, is very tacky and would not be useful to make tires without synthetic alteration. Goodyear's invention was the vulcanization of polyisoprene by crosslinking the material with sulfur to create a rubber that was tough enough to withstand the elements of weather and road conditions. Due to the development of polymerization techniques to make cis

  7. Translation and adaptation of functional auditory performance indicators (FAPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Ferreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Work with deaf children has gained new attention since the expectation and goal of therapy has expanded to language development and subsequent language learning. Many clinical tests were developed for evaluation of speech sound perception in young children in response to the need for accurate assessment of hearing skills that developed from the use of individual hearing aids or cochlear implants. These tests also allow the evaluation of the rehabilitation program. However, few of these tests are available in Portuguese. Evaluation with the Functional Auditory Performance Indicators (FAPI generates a child's functional auditory skills profile, which lists auditory skills in an integrated and hierarchical order. It has seven hierarchical categories, including sound awareness, meaningful sound, auditory feedback, sound source localizing, auditory discrimination, short-term auditory memory, and linguistic auditory processing. FAPI evaluation allows the therapist to map the child's hearing profile performance, determine the target for increasing the hearing abilities, and develop an effective therapeutic plan. Objective: Since the FAPI is an American test, the inventory was adapted for application in the Brazilian population. Material and Methods: The translation was done following the steps of translation and back translation, and reproducibility was evaluated. Four translated versions (two originals and two back-translated were compared, and revisions were done to ensure language adaptation and grammatical and idiomatic equivalence. Results: The inventory was duly translated and adapted. Conclusion: Further studies about the application of the translated FAPI are necessary to make the test practicable in Brazilian clinical use.

  8. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-mete...

  9. Optical functional performance of the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard M H; Ong, Gek L; Lam, Fook Chang; White, Joy; Crook, David; Liu, Christopher S C; Hull, Chris C

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate optical and visual functional performance of the osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP). Optical design and analysis was performed with customized optical design software. Nine patients with implanted OOKP devices and 9 age-matched control patients were assessed. Contrast sensitivity was assessed and glare effect was measured with a brightness acuity test. All OOKP patients underwent kinetic Goldmann perimetry and wavefront aberrometry and completed the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25). Optical analysis showed that the optical cylinder is near diffraction-limited. A reduction in median visual acuity (VA) with increasing glare settings was observed from 0.04 logMAR (without glare) to 0.20 logMAR (with glare at "high" setting) and significantly reduced statistically when compared with the control group at all levels of glare (P < 0.05). Contrast sensitivity was significantly reduced when compared with age-matched controls at medium and high spatial frequencies (P < 0.05). Median Goldmann perimetry was 65 degrees (interquartile range, 64-74 degrees; V-4e isopters) and 69 degrees excluding 2 glaucomatous subjects. Several vision-related NEI VFQ-25 subscales correlated significantly with VA at various brightness acuity test levels and contrast sensitivity at medium spatial frequencies, including dependency, general vision, near activities and distance activities. The OOKP optical cylinder provides patients with a good level of VA that is significantly reduced by glare. We have shown in vivo that updates to the optical cylinder design have improved the patient's field of view. Reduction of glare and refinement of cylinder alignment methods may further improve visual function and patient satisfaction.

  10. Safeguarding the functions and performance of instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, M.; Schoerner, O.

    1996-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the existing nuclear power plant control technology, the necessity of providing in the medium-term advanced and future-oriented, digital control system, both for normal operation and for safety-relevant tasks of the reactor and safety control systems. Siemens KWU has been promoting the development, review and marketing of the digital instrumentation and control systems called TELEPERM XS and TELEPERM XP in addition to the measures taken for safeguarding the functions of existing, wired systems. The paper briefly explains the performance and advantages of digital systems and the progress in approval and pioneering of the TELEPERM XS safety control system. Many examples discussed show the diversity of applications of the systems both in new reactor plants and as retrofitting measures, for KWU power plants and those of other manufacturers. (orig.) [de

  11. Application Of Quality Function Deployment (QFD) To Measure Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazila Said; Mohd Amirul Shafiq Shafiee; Nurul Hasanah Mohd Abd Basir

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to measure service quality performance and identify critical service quality characteristics as perceived by the customers. An integrated results survey that conducted by seven service centers that certified with Quality Management System (QMS) in Nuclear Malaysia are analysed. This is followed by constructing House of Quality (HoQ) and identifying other parameters for the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) matrix. HoQ is a simple and attractive service innovation tool which can be used to directly show comprehensive information which contained the voice of customer (VOC), technical response, technical correlation and matrix relationship. This study revealed that the information's from HoQ with further discussion on planning part which can be used to assist management in knowing the overall detail information of service center achievement and recognizes the solution for unsatisfied customer through priority improvement activity to enhance the customer satisfaction in future. (author)

  12. Heat Transfer Performance of Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelet Aqueous Nanofluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Agromayor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The low thermal conductivity of fluids used in many industrial applications is one of the primary limitations in the development of more efficient heat transfer systems. A promising solution to this problem is the suspension of nanoparticles with high thermal conductivities in a base fluid. These suspensions, known as nanofluids, have great potential for enhancing heat transfer. The heat transfer enhancement of sulfonic acid-functionalized graphene nanoplatelet water-based nanofluids is addressed in this work. A new experimental setup was designed for this purpose. Convection coefficients, pressure drops, and thermophysical properties of various nanofluids at different concentrations were measured for several operational conditions and the results are compared with those of pure water. Enhancements in thermal conductivity and in convection heat transfer coefficient reach 12% (1 wt % and 32% (0.5 wt %, respectively. New correlations capable of predicting the Nusselt number and the friction factor of this kind of nanofluid as a function of other dimensionless quantities are developed. In addition, thermal performance factors are obtained from the experimental convection coefficient and pressure drop data in order to assess the convenience of replacing the base fluid with designed nanofluids.

  13. LEGAL PRINCIPLES IN FUNCTION AND PERFORMANCE OF BOT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reifon Cristabella Eventia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT represents a long term partnership of the government and private sector. In BOT project, either the government or a private sector identifies a need for a development project. The philosophy in BOT contract begins from the increasing infrastructural needs in all areas and with a limited budget, government are required to commit the duties and functions state governance so that the concept of BOT give a solution through a partnership with the private sector. The government then gives a concession to the private sector to build the project and operate it for a fixed period years, after the period ended, the building shall be transferred to the government. Through BOT, the country is able to gain asset without government spending while maintaining a measure of regulatory control over the project. BOT permits the government to use private sector fund to finance public infrastructure development. The main issues elaborated in this article are the legal principle in the formation of BOT contract and the legal principle in the performance of BOT contract. There are two results; firstly, in the formation of a BOT contract, the principles of partnership and the principle of transparency should be emphasized. Secondly, in performance of the BOT contract, the principle of risk management and the principle of proportionality should be clearly stated in the rules and legal norms.

  14. Approaching human performance the functionality-driven Awiwi robot hand

    CERN Document Server

    Grebenstein, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Humanoid robotics have made remarkable progress since the dawn of robotics. So why don't we have humanoid robot assistants in day-to-day life yet? This book analyzes the keys to building a successful humanoid robot for field robotics, where collisions become an unavoidable part of the game. The author argues that the design goal should be real anthropomorphism, as opposed to mere human-like appearance. He deduces three major characteristics to aim for when designing a humanoid robot, particularly robot hands: _ Robustness against impacts _ Fast dynamics _ Human-like grasping and manipulation performance   Instead of blindly copying human anatomy, this book opts for a holistic design me-tho-do-lo-gy. It analyzes human hands and existing robot hands to elucidate the important functionalities that are the building blocks toward these necessary characteristics.They are the keys to designing an anthropomorphic robot hand, as illustrated in the high performance anthropomorphic Awiwi Hand presented in this book.  ...

  15. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Developing high-performance cross-functional teams: Understanding motivations, functional loyalties, and teaming fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.A.

    1996-08-01

    Teamwork is the key to the future of effective technology management. Today`s technologies and markets have become too complex for individuals to work alone. Global competition, limited resources, cost consciousness, and time pressures have forced organizations and project managers to encourage teamwork. Many of these teams will be cross-functional teams that can draw on a multitude of talents and knowledge. To develop high-performing cross-functional teams, managers must understand motivations, functional loyalties, and the different backgrounds of the individual team members. To develop a better understanding of these issues, managers can learn from experience and from literature on teams and teaming concepts. When studying the literature to learn about cross-functional teaming, managers will find many good theoretical concepts, but when put into practice, these concepts have varying effects. This issue of varying effectiveness is what drives the research for this paper. The teaming concepts were studied to confirm or modify current understanding. The literature was compared with a {open_quotes}ground truth{close_quotes}, a survey of the reality of teaming practices, to examine the teaming concepts that the literature finds to be critical to the success of teams. These results are compared to existing teams to determine if such techniques apply in real-world cases.

  17. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  18. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT) and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG). Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY), Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS), Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E), and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). In women with PD, Kendall's tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  19. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Medijainen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson’s disease (PD is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-meter walk test (10MWT and by performing timed-up-and-go-test (TUG. Neurological assessment included Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY, Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS, Schwab and England Activities of Daily Living Scale (S-E, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results. In women with PD, Kendall’s tau-b correlation analyses revealed significant correlations between functional performance tests and neurological assessment measures, with the exception in MMSE. No corresponding associations were found for men, although they demonstrated better functional performance, as expected. Conclusion. Men in similar clinical stage of the PD perform better on functional tests than women. Disease severity reflects upon functional performance differently in men and women with PD. Results indicate that when interpreting the assessment results of both functional performance and neurological assessment tests, the gender of the patient should be taken into consideration.

  20. Effects of blueberries on inflammation, motor performance and cognitive function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motor and cognitive function decrease with age, to include deficits in balance, coordination, gait, processing speed, executive function, memory, and spatial learning. These functional declines may be caused by long term increases in and susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. Research ...

  1. Performance of density functional theory methods to describe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fukui function shows a small dependence with both the exchange and correlation functional and the basis set. Evolution of the Fukui function along the reaction path describes important changes in the basic sites of the corresponding molecules. These results are in agreement with the chemical behavior of those species.

  2. Superplasticizer function and sorption in high performance cement based grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onofrei, M.; Gray, M.N.; Roe, L.H.

    1991-08-01

    This report describes laboratory studies undertaken to determine interactions between the main components of high-performance cement-based grout. These interactions were studied with the grouts in both their unset and hardened states with the specific intention of determining the following: the mechanistic function of superplasticizer; the phase of residence of the superplasticizer in hardened materials; and the permanence of the superplasticizer in hardened grouts. In unset pastes attempts were made to extract superplasticizer by mechanical processes. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was leached from the grouts. A microautoradiographic method was developed to investigate the phases of residence of superplasticizer in hardened grouts and confirm the inferences from the leaching studies. In hardened grout the superplasticizer was located on the hydrated phases formed during the early stages of cement hydration. These include tricalcium aluminate hydrates and tricalcium silicate phases. There is some tendency for the superplasticizer to sorb on ettringite. The presence of superplasticizer did not coincide with the locations of unreacted silica fume and high silica content phases such as C 2 S-H. The observations explain the findings of the studies of unset pastes which also showed that the sorption of superplasticizer is likely to be enhanced with increased mixing water content and, hence, distribution in and exposure to the hydration reaction surfaces in the grout. Superplasticizer can be leached in very small quantities from the hardened grouts. Rapid release takes place from the unsorbed superplasticizer contained in the accessible pore space. Subsequent release likely occurs with dissolution of the cement phases and the exposure of isolated pores to groundwater. (au) (37 refs.)

  3. Work Functioning Among Firefighters: A Comparison Between Self-Reported Limitations and Functional Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, Joy C; Tang, Kenneth; Sinden, Kathryn E; D'Amico, Robert

    2018-05-25

    Purpose Performance-based and disease indicators have been widely studied in firefighters; self-reported work role limitations have not. The aim of this study was to describe the distributions and correlations of a generic self-reported Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ-26) and firefighting-specific task performance-based tests. Methods Active firefighters from the City of Hamilton Fire Services (n = 293) were recruited. Participants completed the WLQ-26 to quantify on-the-job difficulties over five work domains: work scheduling (4 items), output demands (7 items), physical demands (8 items), mental demands (4 items), and social demands (3 items). A subset of participants (n = 149) were also assessed on hose drag and stair climb with a high-rise pack performance-based tests. Descriptive statistics and correlations were used to compare item/subscale performance; and to describe the inter-relationships between tests. Results The mean WLQ-26 item scores (/5) ranged from 4.1 to 4.4 (median = 5 for all items); most firefighters (54.5-80.5%) selected "difficult none of the time" response option on all items. A substantial ceiling effect was observed across all five WLQ-26 subscales as 44.0-55.6% were in the highest category. Subscale means ranged from 61.8 (social demands) to 78.7 (output demands and physical demands). Internal consistency exceeded 0.90 on all subscales. For the hose drag task, the mean time-to-completion was 48.0 s (SD = 14.5; range 20.4-95.0). For the stair climb task, the mean time-to-completion was 76.7 s (SD = 37.2; range 21.0-218.0). There were no significant correlations between self-report work limitations and performance of firefighting tasks. Conclusions The WLQ-26 measured five domains, but had ceiling effects in firefighters. Performance-based testing showed wider score range, lacked ceiling effects and did not correlate to the WLQ-26. A firefighter-specific, self-report role functioning scale may be needed to identify

  4. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.

    2016-07-05

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  5. Thermoelectric performance of functionalized Sc2C MXenes

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Functionalization of the MXene Sc2C, which has the rare property to realize semiconducting states for various functionalizations including O, F, and OH, is studied with respect to the electronic and thermal behavior. The lowest lattice thermal conductivity is obtained for OH functionalization and an additional 30% decrease can be achieved by confining the phonon mean free path to 100 nm. Despite a relatively low Seebeck coefficient, Sc2C(OH)2 is a candidate for intermediate-temperature thermoelectric applications due to compensation by a high electrical conductivity and very low lattice thermal conductivity.

  6. Performance of exchange-correlation functionals in density functional theory calculations for liquid metal: A benchmark test for sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Hwan; Oda, Takuji

    2018-04-01

    The performance of exchange-correlation functionals in density-functional theory (DFT) calculations for liquid metal has not been sufficiently examined. In the present study, benchmark tests of Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE), Armiento-Mattsson 2005 (AM05), PBE re-parameterized for solids, and local density approximation (LDA) functionals are conducted for liquid sodium. The pair correlation function, equilibrium atomic volume, bulk modulus, and relative enthalpy are evaluated at 600 K and 1000 K. Compared with the available experimental data, the errors range from -11.2% to 0.0% for the atomic volume, from -5.2% to 22.0% for the bulk modulus, and from -3.5% to 2.5% for the relative enthalpy depending on the DFT functional. The generalized gradient approximation functionals are superior to the LDA functional, and the PBE and AM05 functionals exhibit the best performance. In addition, we assess whether the error tendency in liquid simulations is comparable to that in solid simulations, which would suggest that the atomic volume and relative enthalpy performances are comparable between solid and liquid states but that the bulk modulus performance is not. These benchmark test results indicate that the results of liquid simulations are significantly dependent on the exchange-correlation functional and that the DFT functional performance in solid simulations can be used to roughly estimate the performance in liquid simulations.

  7. 36 CFR 1194.31 - Functional performance criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Functional... technology used by people who are deaf or hard of hearing shall be provided. (d) Where audio information is...

  8. NMDA receptor function during senescence: implication on cognitive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok eKumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors, a family of L-glutamate receptors, play an important role in learning and memory, and are critical for spatial memory. These receptors are tetrameric ion channels composed of a family of related subunits. One of the hallmarks of the aging human population is a decline in cognitive function; studies in the past couple of years have demonstrated deterioration in NMDA receptor subunit expression and function with advancing age. However, a direct relationship between impaired memory function and a decline in NMDA receptors is still ambiguous. Recent studies indicate a link between an age-associated NMDA receptor hypofunction and memory impairment and provide evidence that age-associated enhanced oxidative stress might be contributing to the alterations associated with senescence. However, clear evidence is still deficient in demonstrating the underlying mechanisms and a relationship between age-associated impaired cognitive faculties and NMDA receptor hypofunction. The current review intends to present an overview of the research findings regarding changes in expression of various NMDA receptor subunits and deficits in NMDA receptor function during senescence and its implication in age-associated impaired hippocampal-dependent memory function.

  9. Human-Robot Teams Informed by Human Performance Moderator Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    performance factors that affect the ability of a human to drive at night, which includes the eyesight of the driver, the fatigue level of the driver...where human factors are factors that affect the performance of an individual. 7 for human interaction. For instance, they explain the various human... affecting trust in human-robot interaction. Human Factors 53(5), 517-527 (2001) 35. Hart, S. G. and Staveland, L. E. Development of NASA-TLX (Task

  10. Performance practice and functions of local wine and beer parlor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the phenomenon of music is ubiquitous and indispensable among the Yoruba and Africans in general, beer and wine parlors/shops engages in one form of musical ... The songs also plays some psychological roles and plays functional roles in celebrating drinking and relaxation session after a stressful day work.

  11. The FPGA realization of the general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions: Performance and effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Klyucharev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the author considers hardware implementation of the GRACE-H family general cellular automata based cryptographic hash functions. VHDL is used as a language and Altera FPGA as a platform for hardware implementation. Performance and effectiveness of the FPGA implementations of GRACE-H hash functions were compared with Keccak (SHA-3, SHA-256, BLAKE, Groestl, JH, Skein hash functions. According to the performed tests, performance of the hardware implementation of GRACE-H family hash functions significantly (up to 12 times exceeded performance of the hardware implementation of previously known hash functions, and effectiveness of that hardware implementation was also better (up to 4 times.

  12. Influence function method for fast estimation of BWR core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnema, F.; Martin, C.L.; Parkos, G.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The model, which is based on the influence function method, provides rapid estimate of important quantities such as margins to fuel operating limits, the effective multiplication factor, nodal power and void and bundle flow distributions as well as the traversing in-core probe (TIP) and local power range monitor (LPRM) readings. The fast model has been incorporated into GE's three-dimensional core monitoring system (3D Monicore). In addition to its predicative capability, the model adapts to LPRM readings in the monitoring mode. Comparisons have shown that the agreement between the results of the fast method and those of the standard 3D Monicore is within a few percent. (orig.)

  13. Functionalizing aluminum substrata by quaternary ammonium for antifouling performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoyan; Suo, Xinkun; Bai, Xiuqin; Yuan, Chengqing; Li, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Due to the great loss induced by biofouling, developing new strategies for combating biofouling has attracted extensive attention. Quaternary ammonium salts are potent cationic antimicrobials used in consumer products and their use for surface immobilization could create a contact-active antimicrobial layer. Here we report the facile preparation of a contact-active antifouling coating by tethering polyethyleneimine (PEI) onto flat/nanostructured aluminum surface by hydrogen bonding between PEI and AlOOH. Quaternized PEI (QPEI) is obtained through quaternization reactions. Biofouling testing suggests excellent antifouling performances of the samples by declining the adhesion of 95% Phaeodactylum tricornutum and 98% of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The antifouling properties of PEI/QPEI are attributed predominately to their hydrophilic and antimicrobial nature. The technical route of PEI/QPEI surface grafting shows great potential for modifying marine infrastructures for enhanced antifouling performances.

  14. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Kweonha, E-mail: khpark@kmou.ac.kr [Division of Mechanical and Energy systems Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Yeongdo-gu, Busan 606-791 (Korea, Republic of); Khor, Chong Lee, E-mail: itachi_829@hotmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Maritime University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  15. CFD analysis of PAR performance as function of inlet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kweonha; Khor, Chong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The new concept of PAR (passive autocatalytic recombiner) was proposed and analyzed. • Guidance wall was added at the bottom of PAR to enhance the flow rate through the catalyst. • The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance. - Abstract: Passive autocatalytic recombiner (PAR) is very useful hydrogen mitigation measurement. It is widely implemented in the current and advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). The design of the PARs should be optimized for the specific use under severe accident scenarios. Several techniques and innovations have been fused into the PAR, as an effort to increase its efficiency of hydrogen mitigation. This study proposes different concepts of PAR, which applied some changes to the honeycomb catalyst PAR made by the Korea Nuclear Technology (KNT) Inc. Two slices of plate are added to the bottom of PAR model, which intended to act as a reflection wall and promote the gas flow into PAR. Hydrogen volume fraction was given 4 vol. % which tested by KNT to investigate the performance of PAR in different direction gas flow conditions to see maximum hydrogen recombination rate. The new concept of PAR was proved to have a better hydrogen removal performance compared to the original honeycomb catalyst PAR.

  16. Evaluation of Thermoelectric Performance and Durability of Functionalized Skutterudite Legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomedal, Gunstein; Kristiansen, Nils R.; Sottong, Reinhard; Middleton, Hugh

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric generators are a promising technology for waste heat recovery. As new materials and devices enter a market penetration stage, it is of interest to employ fast and efficient measurement methods to evaluate the long-term stability of thermoelectric materials in combination with metallization and coating (functionalized thermoelectric legs). We have investigated a method for measuring several thermoelectric legs simultaneously. The legs are put under a common temperature gradient, and the electrical characteristics of each leg are measured individually during thermal cycling. Using this method, one can test different types of metallization and coating applied to skutterudite thermoelectric legs and look at the relative changes over time. Postcharacterization of these initial tests with skutterudite legs using a potential Seebeck microprobe and an electron microscope showed that oxidation and interlayer diffusion are the main reasons for the gradual increase in internal resistance and the decrease in open-circuit voltage. Although we only tested skutterudite material in this work, the method is fully capable of testing all kinds of material, metallization, and coating. It is thus a promising method for studying the relationship between failure modes and mechanisms of functionalized thermoelectric legs.

  17. Functionality and performance of the ALFA_CTPIN module

    CERN Document Server

    Iwanski, Wieslaw; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Oechsle, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The ALFA_CTPIN module has been designed in response to increased internal processing time of the Central Trigger Processor (CTP) of the ATLAS experiment which resulted in reducing time left to the ALFA detector to deliver its own triggers to the CTP within specified latency. Accelerated extraction of ALFA triggers from encoded signals and the possibility to perform local triggers processing by this module allowed ALFA to contribute to global triggering of the ATLAS detector. A huge number of implemented scalers and flexibility in defining triggers processing criteria make also from this module a very attractive tool for in-depth analysis of properties of the LHC beam.

  18. Symptom burden and its relationship to functional performance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Melhem, Omar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore symptom burden and its relationship to functional performance in patients with COPD. A descriptive, cross-sectional, correlational survey design was used and a sample of 214 patients with COPD. The sample was recruited from patients attending one of the major teaching hospitals in Dublin. Symptom burden was measured using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the functional performance was measured using the Functional Performance Inventory-Sho...

  19. Functionalized nanostructures for enhanced photocatalytic performance under solar light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liejin Guo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic hydrogen production from water has been considered to be one of the most promising solar-to-hydrogen conversion technologies. In the last decade, various functionalized nanostructures were designed to address the primary requirements for an efficient photocatalytic generation of hydrogen by using solar energy: visible-light activity, chemical stability, appropriate band-edge characteristics, and potential for low-cost fabrication. Our aim is to present a short review of our recent attempts that center on the above requirements. We begin with a brief introduction of photocatalysts coupling two or more semiconductors, followed by a further discussion of the heterostructures with improved matching of both band structures and crystal lattices. We then elaborate on the heterostructure design of the targeted materials from macroscopic regulation of compositions and phases, to the more precise control at the nanoscale, i.e., materials with the same compositions but different phases with certain band alignment. We conclude this review with perspectives on nanostructure design that might direct future research of this technology.

  20. Improving the Performance of Semiconductor Sensor Devices Using Surface Functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbaugh, Nathaniel W.

    As production and understanding of III-nitride growth has progressed, this class of material has been used for its semiconducting properties in the fields of computer processing, microelectronics, and LEDs. As understanding of materials properties has advanced, devices were fabricated to be sensitive to environmental surroundings such as pH, gas, or ionic concentration. Simultaneously the world of pharmaceuticals and environmental science has come to the age where the use of wearable devices and active environmental sensing can not only help us learn more about our surroundings, but help save lives. At the crossroads of these two fields work has been done in marrying the high stability and electrical properties of the III-nitrides with the needs of a growing sensor field for various environments and stimuli. Device architecture can only get one so far, and thus the need for well understood surface functionalization techniques has arisen in the field of III-nitride environmental sensing. Many existing schemes for functionalization involve chemistries that may be unfriendly to a biological environment, unstable in solution, or expensive to produce. One possible solution to these issues is the work presented here, which highlights a surface modification scheme utilizing phosphonic acid based chemistry and biomolecular attachment. This dissertation presents a set of studies and experiments quantifying and analyzing the response behaviors of AlGaN/GaN field effect transistor (FET) devices via their interfacial electronic properties. Additional investigation was done on the modification of these surfaces, effects of stressful environmental conditions, and the utility of the phosphonic acid surface treatments. Signals of AlGaN/GaN FETs were measured as IDrain values and in the earliest study an average signal increase of 96.43% was observed when surfaces were incubated in a solution of a known recognition peptide sequence (SVSVGMKPSPRP). This work showed that even without

  1. THE FEATURES OF AIRCRAFT FUNCTIONAL SYSTEMS PERFORMANCE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Alexandrovich Krotov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The key steps of aircraft essential parameters and events monitoring during its operation are considered in the arti- cle. Conditions for specific risk monitoring are also presented.The notion of fail-safe feature of aircraft functional systems is analysed, and the necessity of continuous process of safety flight level estimate is shown. The method of quantitative assessment of key events and risks probabilities with the use of modern software is proposed. This method contains 5 basic stages: The monitoring parameters setting - this stage is initial and begins with the consideration of organization safety cul- ture, the main purposes and problems determination, the basic parameters and characteristics forming which are to be monitored. The event monitoring in operation - on this stage continuous process of key events searching and monitoring which are a thing of importance within the framework of the established problems takes place. This process is closely relat- ed to parameters monitoring set on the first stage. The event and risk estimate - this stage begins directly after the event has been discovered. The estimate pro- cess is as long as it is required to identify the event gravity. It also contains the preliminary risk estimate for using in priori- tization of initial expanded estimate and in the working out of plan for activities realization. The working out of plan for activities - on this stage correction data is determined that will make changes to aero- technics working out, operation, maintenance and to staff training directly in linkage to the problem event identified earlier. The activity carrying-out - the realization of actions according to the activity plan. This stage concludes priori- tization, planning and problem carrying-out. The dependence set between the probability of failure situations and the degree of their danger is shown. The key factors which are subject to be estimated while aircraft operating and which aim with

  2. High-performance functional ecopolymers based on flora and fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    Liquid crystalline (LC) polymers of rigid monomers based on flora and fauna were prepared by in-bulk polymerization. Para-coumaric (p-coumaric) acid [4-hydroxycinnamic acid (4HCA)] and its derivatives were selected as phytomonomers and bile acids were selected as biomonomers. The 4HCA homopolymer showed a thermotropic LC phase only in a state of low molecular weight. The copolymers of 4HCA with bile acids such as lithocholic acid (LCA) and cholic acid (CA) showed excellent cell compatibilities but low molecular weights. However, P(4HCA-co-CA)s allowed LC spinning to create molecularly oriented biofibers, presumably due to the chain entanglement that occurs during in-bulk chain propagation into hyperbranching architecture. P[4HCA-co-3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid (DHCA)]s showed high molecular weight, high mechanical strength, high Young's modulus, and high softening temperature, which may be achieved through the entanglement by in-bulk formation of hyperbranching, rigid structures. P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s showed a smooth hydrolysis, in-soil degradation, and photo-tunable hydrolysis. Thus, P(4HCA-co-DHCA)s might be applied as an environmentally degradable plastic with extremely high performance.

  3. Entrepreneurial orientation and firm performance : the mediating role of functional performances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaei, J.; Ortt, J.R.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Earlier studies have generally shown a positive relationship between entrepreneurial orientation (EO) and the overall performance of the firm. The purpose of this paper is to understand in more detail how EO influences firm performance. It adds to the literature by distinguishing

  4. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Ledogar

    2016-07-01

    dislocation and constrained the maximum recruitment levels of the masticatory muscles on the balancing (non-biting side of the head. Our results do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that anterior tooth (incisors, canines, premolars biting could have been selectively important in humans, although the reduced size of the premolars in humans has been shown to increase the risk of tooth crown fracture. We interpret our results to suggest that human craniofacial evolution was probably not driven by selection for high magnitude unilateral biting, and that increased masticatory muscle efficiency in humans is likely to be a secondary byproduct of selection for some function unrelated to forceful biting behaviors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift to softer foods and/or the innovation of pre-oral food processing techniques relaxed selective pressures maintaining craniofacial features that favor forceful biting and chewing behaviors, leading to the characteristically small and gracile faces of modern humans.

  5. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H.; Baab, Karen L.; Smith, Amanda L.; Weber, Gerhard W.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S.

    2016-01-01

    constrained the maximum recruitment levels of the masticatory muscles on the balancing (non-biting) side of the head. Our results do not necessarily conflict with the hypothesis that anterior tooth (incisors, canines, premolars) biting could have been selectively important in humans, although the reduced size of the premolars in humans has been shown to increase the risk of tooth crown fracture. We interpret our results to suggest that human craniofacial evolution was probably not driven by selection for high magnitude unilateral biting, and that increased masticatory muscle efficiency in humans is likely to be a secondary byproduct of selection for some function unrelated to forceful biting behaviors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a shift to softer foods and/or the innovation of pre-oral food processing techniques relaxed selective pressures maintaining craniofacial features that favor forceful biting and chewing behaviors, leading to the characteristically small and gracile faces of modern humans. PMID:27547550

  6. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  7. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between

  8. Defining the Physiological Factors that Contribute to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N.; Buxton, R.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I.; Lawrence, E.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts, S. H.; hide

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts experience alterations in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. These physiological changes include sensorimotor disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes might affect the ability of crewmembers to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on lunar and Martian surfaces. To date, changes in functional performance have not been systematically studied or correlated with physiological changes. To understand how changes in physiological function impact functional performance an interdisciplinary pre/postflight testing regimen (Functional Task Test, FTT) has been developed that systematically evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. The overall objective of the FTT is to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to performance of functional tests that are representative of critical mission tasks. This study will identify which physiological systems contribute the most to impaired performance on each functional test. This will allow us to identify the physiological systems that play the largest role in decrement in functional performance. Using this information we can then design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight. The functional test battery was designed to address high priority tasks identified by the Constellation program as critical for mission success. The set of functional tests making up the FTT include the: 1) Seat Egress and Walk Test, 2) Ladder Climb Test, 3) Recovery from Fall/Stand Test, 4) Rock Translation Test, 5) Jump Down Test, 6) Torque Generation Test, and 7) Construction Activity Board Test. Corresponding physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor

  9. 29 CFR 825.123 - Unable to perform the functions of the position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... position within the meaning of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 12101 et... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unable to perform the functions of the position. 825.123... Act § 825.123 Unable to perform the functions of the position. (a) Definition. An employee is “unable...

  10. Why performance appraisal does not lead to performance improvement : Excellent performance as a function of uniqueness instead of uniformity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerkom, M.; de Bruijn, M.J.

    Dissatisfaction with performance appraisal is at an all-time high (Adler et al., 2016). In this commentary we argue that one of the reasons why performance appraisal is unable to get the most out of employees is the way in which employees are evaluated against a uniform set of criteria, leading to a

  11. Representation of the Physiological Factors Contributing to Postflight Changes in Functional Performance Using Motion Analysis Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Kelsey

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience changes in multiple physiological systems due to exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight. To understand how changes in physiological function influence functional performance, a testing procedure has been developed that evaluates both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. Astronauts complete seven functional and physiological tests. The objective of this project is to use motion tracking and digitizing software to visually display the postflight decrement in the functional performance of the astronauts. The motion analysis software will be used to digitize astronaut data videos into stick figure videos to represent the astronauts as they perform the Functional Tasks Tests. This project will benefit NASA by allowing NASA scientists to present data of their neurological studies without revealing the identities of the astronauts.

  12. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims: Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision. That refers to selfperceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. Methods: This study ...

  13. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  14. Sleep Disturbance, Daytime Symptoms, and Functional Performance in Patients With Stable Heart Failure: A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sangchoon; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common among patients with heart failure (HF) who also experience symptom burden and poor functional performance. We evaluated the extent to which sleep-related, daytime symptoms (fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, and depressive symptoms) mediate the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance among patients with stable HF. We recruited patients with stable HF for this secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional, observational study. Participants completed unattended ambulatory polysomnography from which the Respiratory Disturbance Index was calculated, along with a Six-Minute Walk Test, questionnaires to elicit sleep disturbance (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Symptoms from the Sleep Habits Questionnaire), daytime symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Global Fatigue Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale), and self-reported functional performance (Medical Outcomes Study SF36 V2 Physical Function Scale). We used structural equation modeling with latent variables for the key analysis. Follow-up, exploratory regression analysis with bootstrapped samples was used to examine the extent to which individual daytime symptoms mediated effects of sleep disturbance on functional performance after controlling for clinical and demographic covariates. The sample included 173 New York Heart Association Class I-IV HF patients (n = 60/34.7% women; M = 60.7, SD = 16.07 years of age). Daytime symptoms mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and functional performance. Fatigue and depression mediated the relationship between insomnia symptoms and self-reported functional performance, whereas fatigue and sleepiness mediated the relationship between sleep quality and functional performance. Sleepiness mediated the relationship between the respiratory index and self-reported functional performance only in people who did not report insomnia. Daytime symptoms explain the relationships between sleep

  15. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pperformance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

  16. Chewing gum and cognitive performance: a case of a functional food with function but no food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Recent reports suggest that enhancement of memory performance while chewing gum is a fairly robust phenomenon. The processes underlying the effect are not known, but may involve glucose delivery, context-dependent effects and arousal mechanisms amongst others. This brief commentary outlines the main findings from these studies and raises some issues regarding interpretation, methodology and future research directions.

  17. Modeling the Non-functional Requirements in the Context of Usability, Performance, Safety and Security

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiq, Mazhar

    2007-01-01

    Requirement engineering is the most significant part of the software development life cycle. Until now great emphasis has been put on the maturity of the functional requirements. But with the passage of time it reveals that the success of software development does not only pertain to the functional requirements rather non-functional requirements should also be taken into consideration. Among the non-functional requirements usability, performance, safety and security are considered important. ...

  18. Performance of wave function and density functional methods for water hydrogen bond spin-spin coupling constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de la Vega, J M; Omar, S; San Fabián, J

    2017-04-01

    Spin-spin coupling constants in water monomer and dimer have been calculated using several wave function and density functional-based methods. CCSD, MCSCF, and SOPPA wave functions methods yield similar results, specially when an additive approach is used with the MCSCF. Several functionals have been used to analyze their performance with the Jacob's ladder and a set of functionals with different HF exchange were tested. Functionals with large HF exchange appropriately predict 1 J O H , 2 J H H and 2h J O O couplings, while 1h J O H is better calculated with functionals that include a reduced fraction of HF exchange. Accurate functionals for 1 J O H and 2 J H H have been tested in a tetramer water model. The hydrogen bond effects on these intramolecular couplings are additive when they are calculated by SOPPA(CCSD) wave function and DFT methods. Graphical Abstract Evaluation of the additive effect of the hydrogen bond on spin-spin coupling constants of water using WF and DFT methods.

  19. Merging assistance function with task distribution model to enhance user performance in collaborative virtual environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Alam, A.

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) falls under Virtual Reality (VR) where two or more users manipulate objects collaboratively. In this paper we have made some experiments to make assembly from constituents parts scattered in Virtual Environment (VE) based on task distribution model using assistance functions for checking and enhancing user performance. The CVEs subjects setting on distinct connected machines via local area network. In this perspective, we consider the effects of assistance function with oral communication on collaboration, co-presence and users performance. Twenty subjects performed collaboratively an assembly task on static and dynamic based task distribution. We examine the degree of influence of assistance function with oral communications on user's performance based on task distribution model. The results show that assistance functions with oral communication based on task distribution model not only increase user performance but also enhance the sense of copresence and awareness. (author)

  20. Performance of SEM scintillation detector evaluated by modulation transfer function and detective quantum efficiency function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Jan; Schauer, Petr

    2014-01-01

    In the paper, the SEM detector is evaluated by the modulation transfer function (MTF) which expresses the detector's influence on the SEM image contrast. This is a novel approach, since the MTF was used previously to describe only the area imaging detectors, or whole imaging systems. The measurement technique and calculation of the MTF for the SEM detector are presented. In addition, the measurement and calculation of the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of the spatial frequency for the SEM detector are described. In this technique, the time modulated e-beam is used in order to create well-defined input signal for the detector. The MTF and DQE measurements are demonstrated on the Everhart-Thornley scintillation detector. This detector was alternated using the YAG:Ce, YAP:Ce, and CRY18 single-crystal scintillators. The presented MTF and DQE characteristics show good imaging properties of the detectors with the YAP:Ce or CRY18 scintillator, especially for a specific type of the e-beam scan. The results demonstrate the great benefit of the description of SEM detectors using the MTF and DQE. In addition, point-by-point and continual-sweep e-beam scans in SEM were discussed and their influence on the image quality was revealed using the MTF. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Enhancing catalytic performance of Au catalysts by noncovalent functionalized graphene using functional ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuwen; Guo, Shujing; Yang, Honglei; Gou, Galian; Ren, Ren; Li, Jing; Dong, Zhengping; Jin, Jun; Ma, Jiantai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The new catalyst was fabricated by a facile and environment-friendly approach. • The catalyst has excellent activity and reusability due to the synergistic effect. • The approach provides a green way to synthesize low cost Au-based catalysts. - Abstract: New catalyst, prepared through Au nanoparticles anchored on the Ionic Liquid of 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic acid-noncovalent functionalized graphene (Au/PDIL-GS), was fabricated using a facile and environment-friendly approach. The information of the morphologies, sizes, dispersion of Au nanoparticles (NPs) and chemical composition for the as-prepared catalysts was verified by systematic characterizations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As a new catalyst, the resulting Au/PDIL-GS exhibited excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol because of the synergistic effect between the PDIL-GS and Au NPs. The facile and environment-friendly approach provides a green way to effectively synthesize low cost Au-based catalysts for 4-NP reduction and is promising for the development of other useful materials

  2. Development of multi-functional streetscape green infrastructure using a performance index approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, L. D.; Heidrich, O.; Namdeo, A.; Bandaru, V.; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 208, jan (2016), s. 209-220 ISSN 0269-7491 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Green infrastructure * Multi-functional * Pollution * Performance index * Streetscape Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 5.099, year: 2016

  3. Performance analysis of demodulation with diversity -- A combinatorial approach I: Symmetric function theoretical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Dornstetter

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.

  4. Performance analysis of demodulation with diversity -- A combinatorial approach I: Symmetric function theoretical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis Dornstetter; Daniel Krob; Jean-Yves Thibon; Ekaterina A. Vassilieva

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.

  5. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  6. PTSD is negatively associated with physical performance and physical function in older overweight military veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Katherine S.; Beckham, Jean C.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Sloane, Richard; Pieper, Carl F.; Morey, Miriam C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on function and physical performance in older overweight military Veterans with comorbid conditions. This is a secondary data analysis of older Veterans (mean age = 62.9 yr) participating in a physical activity counseling trial. Study participants with PTSD (n = 67) and without PTSD (n = 235) were identified. Self-reported physical function (36-item Short Form Health Survey) and directly measured physical performance (mobi...

  7. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  8. Effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function among older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray-Yau Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Previous studies showed that multicomponent exercise enhanced physical and cognitive functions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a multicomponent exercise on dual-task performance and executive function and to demonstrate the relationship between improvement in dual-task performance and enhancement in executive function among the elderly. Methods: A total of 27 people completed the intervention, with 16 in the experimental group and 11 in the control group. The 12-week multicomponent exercise lasted 1 h per day and 3 days per week. Participants' gait performance was assessed in dual-task conditions and executive function was examined at both pre- and post-intervention. Results: Results showed significant interaction effects of time x group on all selected gait parameters in both dual-task conditions and the Executive Interview. Compared with the control group, the experimental group showed greater improvements in most measures following intervention. Improved dual-task performance was correlated with enhanced executive function (r = 0.46–0.75. Conclusion: Our results suggested that a multicomponent exercise positively affects dual-task performance and executive function in the elderly. Keywords: Dual-task, Executive function, Exercise, Gait, Older adults

  9. Contractual Alliance Governance: Impact of Different Contract Functions on Alliance Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faems, D.L.M.; Alberink, Rutger; Groen, Arend J.; Klein Woolthuis, Rosalinde

    2010-01-01

    Recent research on alliance governance has emphasized that contracts can have both a control and coordination function. In this paper, we test the impact of these different contract functions on alliance performance. Conducting structural equation analyses on a sample of 270 Dutch technology

  10. The Interaction of Functional and Dysfunctional Emotions during Balance Beam Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottyn, Jorge; De Clercq, Dirk; Crombez, Geert; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between functional and dysfunctional emotions, as one of the major tenets of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) model (Hanin, 2000), was studied in a sport specific setting. Fourteen female gymnasts performed three attempts of a compulsory balance beam routine at three different heights. Heart rate and self-report…

  11. Validity of the German Version of the Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Härdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Continuous-Scale Physical Functional Performance 10 Test (CS-PFP 10 quantitatively assesses physical functional performance in older adults who have a broad range of physical functional ability. This study assessed the validity and reliability of the CS-PFP 10 German version. Methods. Forward-translations and backtranslations as well as cultural adaptions of the test were conducted. Participants were German-speaking Swiss community-dwelling adults aged 64 and older. Concurrent validity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients between CS-PFP 10 and gait velocity, Timed Up and Go Test, hand grip strength, SF-36 physical function domain, and Freiburger Physical Activity Questionnaire. Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach’s alpha. Results. Backtranslation and cultural adaptions were accepted by the CS-PFP 10 developer. CS-PFP 10 total score and subscores (upper body strength, upper body flexibility, lower body strength, balance and coordination, and endurance correlated significantly with all measures of physical function tested. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach’s alpha 0.95–0.98. Conclusion. The CS-PFP 10 German version is valid and reliable for measuring physical functional performance in German-speaking Swiss community-dwelling older adults. Quantifying physical function is essential for clinical practice and research and provides meaningful insight into physical functional performance of older adults. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01539200.

  12. Conflict Detection Performance Analysis for Function Allocation Using Time-Shifted Recorded Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hagen, George E.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the conflict detection function in a separation assurance system is dependent on the content and quality of the data available to perform that function. Specifically, data quality and data content available to the conflict detection function have a direct impact on the accuracy of the prediction of an aircraft's future state or trajectory, which, in turn, impacts the ability to successfully anticipate potential losses of separation (detect future conflicts). Consequently, other separation assurance functions that rely on the conflict detection function - namely, conflict resolution - are prone to negative performance impacts. The many possible allocations and implementations of the conflict detection function between centralized and distributed systems drive the need to understand the key relationships that impact conflict detection performance, with respect to differences in data available. This paper presents the preliminary results of an analysis technique developed to investigate the impacts of data quality and data content on conflict detection performance. Flight track data recorded from a day of the National Airspace System is time-shifted to create conflicts not present in the un-shifted data. A methodology is used to smooth and filter the recorded data to eliminate sensor fusion noise, data drop-outs and other anomalies in the data. The metrics used to characterize conflict detection performance are presented and a set of preliminary results is discussed.

  13. Static, dynamic balance and functional performance in subjects with and without plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiseane Aguiar Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Plantar fasciitis (PF is characterized by non-inflammatory degeneration and pain under the heel, and is one of the most common foot complaints. The compensations and adjustments made to decrease the discomfort caused by the disease are clinical findings and can be a factor that contributes to impaired balance and decreased functional performance. Objective: To compare functional performance as well as static and dynamic balance among subjects with and without PF. Methods: The sample consisted of 124 subjects of both sexes aged 20-60 years. Participants were divided into two groups: a bilateral PF group (PFG; n = 62 and a control group (CG, n = 62. The following outcomes were analyzed: static and dynamic balance (using functional tests and functional performance (using a questionnaire. We used Student’s t test for independent samples to compare variables between the groups. The alpha error was set at 0.05. Results: Subjects with PF showed greater impairment in their overall dynamic balance performance (p < 0.001 than the control group, except for left posteromedial movement (p = 0.19. The CG showed showed better functional performance (p < 0.001 than the PF group. There was no difference between groups for the variable static balance on stable (p = 0.160 and unstable surfaces (p = 0.085. Conclusion: Subjects with PF displayed smaller reach distances in the overall Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT, demonstrating a deficit in dynamic balance and functional performance when compared with healthy subjects.

  14. Relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartolahti, Eeva; Häkkinen, Arja; Lönnroos, Eija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Sulkava, Raimo; Hartikainen, Sirpa

    2013-10-01

    Vision is an important prerequisite for balance control and mobility. The role of objectively measured visual functions has been previously studied but less is known about associations of functional vision, that refers to self-perceived vision-based ability to perform daily activities. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between functional vision and balance and mobility performance in a community-based sample of older adults. This study is part of a Geriatric Multidisciplinary Strategy for the Good Care of the Elderly project (GeMS). Participants (576) aged 76-100 years (mean age 81 years, 70 % women) were interviewed using a seven-item functional vision questionnaire (VF-7). Balance and mobility were measured by the Berg balance scale (BBS), timed up and go (TUG), chair stand test, and maximal walking speed. In addition, self-reported fear of falling, depressive symptoms (15-item Geriatric Depression Scale), cognition (Mini-Mental State Examination) and physical activity (Grimby) were assessed. In the analysis, participants were classified into poor, moderate, or good functional vision groups. The poor functional vision group (n = 95) had more comorbidities, depressed mood, cognition decline, fear of falling, and reduced physical activity compared to participants with moderate (n = 222) or good functional vision (n = 259). Participants with poor functional vision performed worse on all balance and mobility tests. After adjusting for gender, age, chronic conditions, and cognition, the linearity remained statistically significant between functional vision and BBS (p = 0.013), TUG (p = 0.010), and maximal walking speed (p = 0.008), but not between functional vision and chair stand (p = 0.069). Poor functional vision is related to weaker balance and mobility performance in community-dwelling older adults. This highlights the importance of widespread assessment of health, including functional vision, to prevent balance impairment and maintain

  15. Performance of Multi-chaotic PSO on a shifted benchmark functions set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluhacek, Michal; Senkerik, Roman; Zelinka, Ivan [Tomas Bata University in Zlín, Faculty of Applied Informatics Department of Informatics and Artificial Intelligence nám. T.G. Masaryka 5555, 760 01 Zlín (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    In this paper the performance of Multi-chaotic PSO algorithm is investigated using two shifted benchmark functions. The purpose of shifted benchmark functions is to simulate the time-variant real-world problems. The results of chaotic PSO are compared with canonical version of the algorithm. It is concluded that using the multi-chaotic approach can lead to better results in optimization of shifted functions.

  16. Structure-function relationships in elderly resting-state-networks : influence of age and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jockwitz, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the structure-function relationship in cognitive resting state networks in a large population-based elderly sample. The first study characterized the functional connectivity in four cognitive resting state networks with respect to age, gender and cognitive performance: Default Mode Network (DMN), executive, and left and right frontoparietal resting state networks. The second study assessed the structural correlates of the functional reorganization of th...

  17. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P.; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P.; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T.; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C.; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina del Mar; Vieta i Pascual, Eduard, 1963-; Kapczinski, Flávio; Rosa, Adriane R.; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychologic...

  18. Performance of Multi-chaotic PSO on a shifted benchmark functions set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluhacek, Michal; Senkerik, Roman; Zelinka, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the performance of Multi-chaotic PSO algorithm is investigated using two shifted benchmark functions. The purpose of shifted benchmark functions is to simulate the time-variant real-world problems. The results of chaotic PSO are compared with canonical version of the algorithm. It is concluded that using the multi-chaotic approach can lead to better results in optimization of shifted functions

  19. The effect of caffeine ingestion on functional performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, M J; Clarke, N D; Tallis, J; Guimarães-Ferreira, L; Leddington Wright, S

    2014-12-01

    Caffeine is a widely used nutritional supplement which has been shown to enhance both physical and cognitive performance in younger adults. However, few studies have assessed the effect of caffeine ingestion on performance, particularly functional performance in older adults. The present study aims to assess the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in older adults. 19 apparently healthy, volunteers (10 females and 9 males aged 61-79; 66 ± 2 years) performed tests of functional fitness and manual dexterity post ingestion of caffeine (3mg*kg-1) or placebo in a randomised order. Pre and 60 minutes post ingestion, participants also completed measures of readiness to invest physical (RTIPE) and mental (RTIME) effort. A series of repeated measures ANOVAS indicated enhanced performance in the following functional fitness tests; arm curls (P = .04), 8 foot up and go (P = .007), six minute walk (P = .016). Manual dexterity was also improved in the presence of caffeine (P = .001). RTIME increased (P = .015) pre to post ingestion in the caffeine condition but not in the placebo condition. There were no significant main effects or interactions for RTIPE or gender in any analysis (all P > .05). The results of this study suggest that acute caffeine ingestion positively enhances functional performance, manual dexterity and readiness to invest effort in apparently healthy older adults.

  20. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulles, Wiesje L J A; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2011-12-01

      In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined.   Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive function. Pain intensity was measured with three visual analog scales and the Pain Rating Index of the McGill Pain Questionnaire. A grip strength test, the 6-minute walk test, the Unipedal Stance Test and the Lifting Low Test were administered in order to obtain a performance-based measure of physical capacity. Self-reported physical ability was assessed with the Disability Rating Index and the Short Form-36 Physical Functioning, and Role Physical scales. Psychosocial function was examined using the Mental Health and Role Emotional subscales of the Short Form-36.   The study was set in two outpatient physical therapy clinics in The Netherlands.   The analysis showed that a lower mental processing speed was related to a higher level of pain, as well as to a lower performance-based and self-reported physical functioning. In addition, both performance-based and self-reported physical function revealed an inverse correlation with pain intensity. Psychosocial function turned out to be an important mediator of the relationship between pain and self-reported, but not performance-based, physical function. Mental processing speed, on the other hand, was found to mediate the relationship between pain and performance-based physical functioning.   The results suggest that in chronic pain patients, mental processing speed mediates the relationship between pain and physical function. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Personality Factors in Elementary School Children: Contributions to Academic Performance over and above Executive Functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patrizia; Rothlisberger, Marianne; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2013-01-01

    Unique contributions of Big Five personality factors to academic performance in young elementary school children were explored. Extraversion and Openness (labeled "Culture" in our study) uniquely contributed to academic performance, over and above the contribution of executive functions in first and second grade children (N = 446). Well…

  2. Analysis of Skeletal Muscle Metrics as Predictors of Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Redd, Elizabeth; Scott-Pandorf, Melissa; Hackney, Kyle J.; Fiedler, James; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The ability to predict task performance using physiological performance metrics is vital to ensure that astronauts can execute their jobs safely and effectively. This investigation used a weighted suit to evaluate task performance at various ratios of strength, power, and endurance to body weight. METHODS: Twenty subjects completed muscle performance tests and functional tasks representative of those that would be required of astronauts during planetary exploration (see table for specific tests/tasks). Subjects performed functional tasks while wearing a weighted suit with additional loads ranging from 0-120% of initial body weight. Performance metrics were time to completion for all tasks except hatch opening, which consisted of total work. Task performance metrics were plotted against muscle metrics normalized to "body weight" (subject weight + external load; BW) for each trial. Fractional polynomial regression was used to model the relationship between muscle and task performance. CONCLUSION: LPMIF/BW is the best predictor of performance for predominantly lower-body tasks that are ambulatory and of short duration. LPMIF/BW is a very practical predictor of occupational task performance as it is quick and relatively safe to perform. Accordingly, bench press work best predicts hatch-opening work performance.

  3. Availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters based on vector-universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qi; Shang Yanlong; Chen Lisheng; Zhao Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Vector-universal generating function was presented to analyze the availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters. Vector-universal generating function of component's performance was defined, the arithmetic model based on vector-universal generating function was derived for the thermodynamic system, and the calculation method was given for state probability of multi-state component. With the stochastic simulation of the degeneration trend of the multiple factors, the system availability with multiple performance parameters was obtained under composite factors. It is shown by an example that the results of the availability obtained by the binary availability analysis method are somewhat conservative, and the results considering parameter failure based on vector-universal generating function reflect the operation characteristics of the thermodynamic system better. (authors)

  4. Predictors of physical performance and functional ability in people 50+ with and without fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C Jessie; Rutledge, Dana N; Aquino, Jordan

    2010-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether people with and without fibromyalgia (FM) age 50 yr and above showed differences in physical performance and perceived functional ability and to determine whether age, gender, depression, and physical activity level altered the impact of FM status on these factors. Dependent variables included perceived function and 6 performance measures (multidimensional balance, aerobic endurance, overall functional mobility, lower body strength, and gait velocity-normal or fast). Independent (predictor) variables were FM status, age, gender, depression, and physical activity level. Results indicated significant differences between adults with and without FM on all physical-performance measures and perceived function. Linear-regression models showed that the contribution of significant predictors was in expected directions. All regression models were significant, accounting for 16-65% of variance in the dependent variables.

  5. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... investigating measurement properties of performance measures, including responsiveness and interpretability in people with hip and/or knee OA, is needed. Consensus on which combination of measures will best assess physical function in people with hip/and or knee OA is urgently required....

  6. Microvascular endothelial function and cognitive performance: The ELSA-Brasil cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brant, Luisa; Bos, Daniel; Araujo, Larissa Fortunato; Ikram, M Arfan; Ribeiro, Antonio Lp; Barreto, Sandhi M

    2018-06-01

    Impaired microvascular endothelial function may be implicated in the etiology of cognitive decline. Yet, current data on this association are inconsistent. Our objective is to investigate the relation of microvascular endothelial function to cognitive performance in the ELSA-Brasil cohort study. A total of 1521 participants from ELSA-Brasil free of dementia underwent peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) to quantify microvascular endothelial function (PAT-ratio and mean baseline pulse amplitude (BPA)) and cognitive tests that covered the domains of memory, verbal fluency, and executive function at baseline. Cognitive tests in participants aged 55 years old and above were repeated during the second examination (mean follow-up: 3.5 (0.3) years). Linear regression and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the association between endothelial function, global cognitive performance, and performance on specific cognitive domains. In unadjusted cross-sectional analyses, we found that BPA and PAT-ratio were associated with worse global cognitive performance (mean difference for BPA: -0.07, 95% CI: -0.11; -0.03, p<0.01; mean difference for PAT-ratio: 0.11, 95% CI: 0.01; 0.20, p=0.02), worse performance on learning, recall, and word recognition tests (BPA: -0.87, 95% CI: -1.21; -0.52, p<0.01; PAT-ratio: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.80; 2.36, p<0.01), and only BPA was associated with worse performance in verbal fluency tests (-0.70, 95% CI: -1.19; -0.21, p<0.01). Adjustments for age, sex, and level of education rendered the associations statistically non-significant. Longitudinally, there was no association between microvascular endothelial and cognitive functions. The associations between microvascular endothelial function and cognition are explained by age, sex, and educational level. Measures of microvascular endothelial function may be of limited value with regard to preclinical cognitive deficits.

  7. Power probability density function control and performance assessment of a nuclear research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abharian, Amir Esmaeili; Fadaei, Amir Hosein

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In this paper, the performance assessment of static PDF control system is discussed. • The reactor PDF model is set up based on the B-spline functions. • Acquaints of Nu, and Th-h. equations solve concurrently by reformed Hansen’s method. • A principle of performance assessment is put forward for the PDF of the NR control. - Abstract: One of the main issues in controlling a system is to keep track of the conditions of the system function. The performance condition of the system should be inspected continuously, to keep the system in reliable working condition. In this study, the nuclear reactor is considered as a complicated system and a principle of performance assessment is used for analyzing the performance of the power probability density function (PDF) of the nuclear research reactor control. First, the model of the power PDF is set up, then the controller is designed to make the power PDF for tracing the given shape, that make the reactor to be a closed-loop system. The operating data of the closed-loop reactor are used to assess the control performance with the performance assessment criteria. The modeling, controller design and the performance assessment of the power PDF are all applied to the control of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) power in a nuclear process. In this paper, the performance assessment of the static PDF control system is discussed, the efficacy and efficiency of the proposed method are investigated, and finally its reliability is proven

  8. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  9. An ecologically valid performance-based social functioning assessment battery for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuan; He, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Yu, Xin; Chan, Raymond C K

    2013-12-30

    Psychiatrists pay more attention to the social functioning outcome of schizophrenia nowadays. How to evaluate the real world function among schizophrenia is a challenging task due to culture difference, there is no such kind of instrument in terms of the Chinese setting. This study aimed to report the validation of an ecologically valid performance-based everyday functioning assessment for schizophrenia, namely the Beijing Performance-based Functional Ecological Test (BJ-PERFECT). Fifty community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Fifteen of the healthy controls were re-tested one week later. All participants were administered the University of California, San Diego, Performance-based Skill Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B) and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The finalized assessment included three subdomains: transportation, financial management and work ability. The test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were good. The total score significantly correlated with the UPSA-B. The performance of individuals with schizophrenia was significantly more impaired than healthy controls, especially in the domain of work ability. Among individuals with schizophrenia, functional outcome was influenced by premorbid functioning, negative symptoms and neurocognition such as processing speed, visual learning and attention/vigilance. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus; Lolk, Annette; Gottrup, Hanne; Høgh, Peter; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Beyer, Nina

    2016-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes a gradual decline in cognition, limitations of dual-tasking and physical function leading to total dependence. Hence, information about the interaction between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition may lead to new treatment strategies with the purpose of preserving function and quality of life. The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in community-dwelling patients with mild AD. Baseline results from 185 participants (50-90 years old) in the single blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50 or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while the other physical function tests only randomly correlated with tests of cognition. Results in the dual-task counting backwards correlated significantly with results in all tests of cognition (r = .259-.388), which accounted for 7%-15% of the variation indicating that a faster time to complete dual-task performance was associated with better cognitive performance. The evidence of the associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition is important when creating new rehabilitation interventions to patients with mild AD.

  11. Quality assurance procedure for functional performance of industrial gamma radiography exposure devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Yadav, R.K.; Rajoo Kumar; Bhatt, B.C.; Sivaraman, G.; Nandkumar, A.N.

    2003-05-01

    An Industrial Gamma Radiography Exposure Device (IGRED) consists of various moving parts and accessories and wear and tear take place often. This may increase the possibility of radiation incidents and result in avoidable radiation exposure. Quality assurance tests of the equipment for functional performance plays a major role in ensuring that the exposure device and its accessories perform their intended functions and satisfy radiation safety requirements to avert potential exposures to operators. Therefore, in India it is practiced as mandatory requirement that each IGRED is tested for its functional performance and only after ascertaining that features of operational safety are satisfactory, loading of the source into the radiography exposure device can be permitted. This procedure which is being. practiced since the late 1970s, has contributed significantly towards the safe use of IGREDs and minimising the occurrence of radiation accidents. The purpose of this document is to highlight the importance of periodic functional performance check of each IGRED as per the checklist for the testing procedures. It is also proposed to entrust this activity to accredited laboratories, which have the necessary infrastructure to carry out this activity. The prerequisites for accreditation of such laboratories to carry out this activity and the testing procedures to be adopted for checking the functional performance of various models of IGREDs used in this country are given in this report. (author)

  12. Functional relations and cognitive psychology: Lessons from human performance and animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert W; Urcuioli, Peter J

    2016-02-01

    We consider requirements for effective interdisciplinary communication and explore alternative interpretations of "building bridges between functional and cognitive psychology." If the bridges are intended to connect radical behaviourism and cognitive psychology, or functional contextualism and cognitive psychology, the efforts are unlikely to be successful. But if the bridges are intended to connect functional relationships and cognitive theory, no construction is needed because the bridges already exist within cognitive psychology. We use human performance and animal research to illustrate the latter point and to counter the claim that the functional approach is unique in offering a close relationship between science and practice. Effective communication will be enhanced and, indeed, may only occur if the goal of functional contextualism extends beyond just "the advancement of functional contextual cognitive and behavioral science and practice" to "the advancement of cognitive and behavioral science and practice" without restriction. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Functional capacity evaluation of work performance among individuals with pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzon, Navah Z; Ari Shevil, Eynat Ben; Froom, Paul; Friedman, Sharon; Amit, Yehuda

    2013-01-01

    Pelvic injuries following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) cause disability and affect work capabilities. This study evaluated functional, self-report, and medical-based factors that could predict work capacity as was reflected in a functional capacity evaluation (FCE) among persons who sustained a pelvic injury. It was hypothesized that self-reported functional status and bio-demographic variables would predict work capacity. Sixty-one community-dwelling adults previously hospitalized following a MVA induced pelvic injury. FCE for work performance was conducted using the Physical Work Performance Evaluation (PWPE). Additional data was collected through a demographics questionnaire and the Functional Status Questionnaire. All participants underwent an orthopedic medical examination of the hip and lower extremities. Most participants self-reported that their work capacity post-injury were lower than their job required. PWPE scores indicated below-range functional performance. Regression models predicted 23% to 51% of PWPE subtests. Participants' self-report of functioning (instrumental activities of daily living and work) and bio-demographic variables (gender and age) were better predictors of PWPE scores than factors originating from the medical examination. Results support the inclusion of FCE, in addition to self-report of functioning and medical examination, to evaluate work capacity among individuals' post-pelvic injury and interventions and discharge planning.

  14. Is functional integration of resting state brain networks an unspecific biomarker for working memory performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavash, Mohsen; Doebler, Philipp; Holling, Heinz; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2015-03-01

    Is there one optimal topology of functional brain networks at rest from which our cognitive performance would profit? Previous studies suggest that functional integration of resting state brain networks is an important biomarker for cognitive performance. However, it is still unknown whether higher network integration is an unspecific predictor for good cognitive performance or, alternatively, whether specific network organization during rest predicts only specific cognitive abilities. Here, we investigated the relationship between network integration at rest and cognitive performance using two tasks that measured different aspects of working memory; one task assessed visual-spatial and the other numerical working memory. Network clustering, modularity and efficiency were computed to capture network integration on different levels of network organization, and to statistically compare their correlations with the performance in each working memory test. The results revealed that each working memory aspect profits from a different resting state topology, and the tests showed significantly different correlations with each of the measures of network integration. While higher global network integration and modularity predicted significantly better performance in visual-spatial working memory, both measures showed no significant correlation with numerical working memory performance. In contrast, numerical working memory was superior in subjects with highly clustered brain networks, predominantly in the intraparietal sulcus, a core brain region of the working memory network. Our findings suggest that a specific balance between local and global functional integration of resting state brain networks facilitates special aspects of cognitive performance. In the context of working memory, while visual-spatial performance is facilitated by globally integrated functional resting state brain networks, numerical working memory profits from increased capacities for local processing

  15. Performance of the dot product function in radiative transfer code SORD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey; Lyapustin, Alexei; Sinyuk, Aliaksandr; Holben, Brent

    2016-10-01

    The successive orders of scattering radiative transfer (RT) codes frequently call the scalar (dot) product function. In this paper, we study performance of some implementations of the dot product in the RT code SORD using 50 scenarios for light scattering in the atmosphere-surface system. In the dot product function, we use the unrolled loops technique with different unrolling factor. We also considered the intrinsic Fortran functions. We show results for two machines: ifort compiler under Windows, and pgf90 under Linux. Intrinsic DOT_PRODUCT function showed best performance for the ifort. For the pgf90, the dot product implemented with unrolling factor 4 was the fastest. The RT code SORD together with the interface that runs all the mentioned tests are publicly available from ftp://maiac.gsfc.nasa.gov/pub/skorkin/SORD_IP_16B (current release) or by email request from the corresponding (first) author.

  16. Association between vestibular function and motor performance in hearing-impaired children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Leen; De Kegel, Alexandra; Van Waelvelde, Hilde; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2014-12-01

    The clinical balance performance of normal-hearing (NH) children was compared with the balance performance of hearing-impaired (HI) children with and without vestibular dysfunction to identify an association between vestibular function and motor performance. Prospective study. Tertiary referral center. Thirty-six children (mean age, 7 yr 5 mo; range, 3 yr 8 mo-12 yr 11 mo) divided into three groups: NH children with normal vestibular responses, HI children with normal vestibular responses, and HI children with abnormal vestibular function. A vestibular test protocol (rotatory and collic vestibular evoked myogenic potential testing) in combination with three clinical balance tests (balance beam walking, one-leg hopping, one-leg stance). Clinical balance performance. HI children with abnormal vestibular test results obtained the lowest quotients of motor performance, which were significantly lower compared with the NH group (p beam walking and one-leg stance; p = 0.003 for one-leg hopping). The balance performance of the HI group with normal vestibular responses was better in comparison with the vestibular impaired group but still significantly lower compared with the NH group (p = 0.020 for balance beam walking; p = 0.001 for one-leg stance; not significant for one-leg hopping). These results indicate an association between vestibular function and motor performance in HI children, with a more distinct motor deterioration if a vestibular impairment is superimposed to the auditory dysfunction.

  17. The immediate effects of foot orthoses on functional performance in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C J; Menz, H B; Crossley, K M

    2011-03-01

    Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) often results in reduced functional performance. There is growing evidence for the use of foot orthoses to treat this multifactorial condition. In this study, the immediate effects of foot orthoses on functional performance and the association of foot posture and footwear with improvements in function were evaluated. Fifty-two individuals with PFPS (18-35 years) were prescribed prefabricated foot orthoses (Vasyli Pro; Vasyli International, Labrador, Australia). Functional outcome measures evaluated included the change in (1) pain and (2) ease of a single-leg squat on a five-point Likert scale, and change in the number of (3) pain-free step downs and (4) single-leg rises from sitting. The association of foot posture using the Foot Posture Index, navicular drop and calcaneal angle relative to subtalar joint neutral; and the footwear motion control properties scale score with improved function were evaluated using Spearman's ρ statistics. Prefabricated foot orthoses produced significant improvements (psquat and improvements in the number of pain-free single-leg rises from sitting when wearing foot orthoses. In addition, a more pronated foot type was also found to be associated with improved ease of completing a single-leg squat when wearing foot orthoses. Prefabricated foot orthoses provide immediate improvements in functional performance, and these improvements are associated with a more pronated foot type and poorer footwear motion control properties.

  18. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  19. Effect of football or strength training on functional ability and physical performance in untrained old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard Andersen, Thomas; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 16 weeks of football or strength training on performance and functional ability were investigated in 26 (68.2 ± 3.2 years) untrained men randomized into a football (FG; n = 9), a strength training (ST; n = 9), or a control group (CO; n = 8). FG and ST trained 1.6 ± 0.1 and 1.5 ± 0......% lower (P training for old men improves functional ability and physiological response to submaximal exercise, while football...... additionally elevates maximal aerobic fitness and exhaustive exercise performance....

  20. PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC≤0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC≤0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

  1. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jinze; Seo, Arnold Y; Vorobyeva, Darya A; Carter, Christy S; Anton, Stephen D; Lezza, Angela M S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2010-05-11

    Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance. In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn) mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10) (Q-ter), creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+) retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age. These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months). The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months) was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  2. Beneficial effects of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture on functional performance, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinze Xu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.

  3. The influences of obesity and age on functional performance during intermittent upper extremity tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoto, Lora A; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the main and interactive effects of obesity and age on functional performance were assessed during intermittent exertions involving the upper extremity. The prevalence of obesity has doubled over the past 30 years and this increase is associated with higher health care costs, rates of workplace injury, and lost workdays. Obesity and aging can modify job demands and affect worker capacity in terms of muscular and psychomotor function. However, there is a lack of empirical studies quantifying the work-relevant (or ergonomic) impacts related to task demands, capacities, and their potential imbalance. Eight obese and eight non-obese participants from each of two age groups (18-25 and 50-65 years) completed three endurance tasks involving fixed levels of task demands: hand grip, shoulder flexion, and a simulated assembly task using the upper extremity. Measures of functional performance including endurance, discomfort, motor control, and task performance were recorded for each of the task conditions. Endurance times were ∼60% longer for the non-obese group, and older participants had longer endurance times; however there was no evidence of interactive effects of obesity and age. Obesity also impaired functional performance, as indicated by higher rates of strength loss, increases in discomfort, and declines in task performance. These observed impairments may reflect underlying physiological differences among individuals who are obese, but that are independent of age. Obesity-related impairments may have implications for the design of work duration and demand level to prevent fatigue development for workers who are obese.

  4. Effects of strength and neuromuscular training on functional performance in athletes after partial medial meniscectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Hu, Min; Lou, Zhen; Liao, Bagen

    2017-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine an effective knee function rehabilitation program for athletes undergoing partial medial meniscectomy. Participants were randomly assigned to neuromuscular training (NT) or strength training (ST) group and subjected to functional assessments before surgery and again at 4, and 8 weeks post hoc . Functional knee assessment, such as Lysholm knee scoring, star excursion balance, and BTE PrimusRS isokinetic performance tests were evaluated in each group. All postoperational symptoms were significantly improved after 4 and 8 weeks of NT and ST. Both NT and ST programs showed effective knee function recovery seen as an increase in muscular strength and endurance. However, the NT program showed the most significant functional improvement of dynamic balance and coordination.

  5. Sensitivity functions for uncertainty analysis: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactor performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter presents the mathematical basis for sensitivity functions, discusses their physical meaning and information they contain, and clarifies a number of issues concerning their application, including the definition of group sensitivities, the selection of sensitivity functions to be included in the analysis, and limitations of sensitivity theory. Examines the theoretical foundation; criticality reset sensitivities; group sensitivities and uncertainties; selection of sensitivities included in the analysis; and other uses and limitations of sensitivity functions. Gives the theoretical formulation of sensitivity functions pertaining to ''as-built'' designs for performance parameters of the form of ratios of linear flux functionals (such as reaction-rate ratios), linear adjoint functionals, bilinear functions (such as reactivity worth ratios), and for reactor reactivity. Offers a consistent procedure for reducing energy-dependent or fine-group sensitivities and uncertainties to broad group sensitivities and uncertainties. Provides illustrations of sensitivity functions as well as references to available compilations of such functions and of total sensitivities. Indicates limitations of sensitivity theory originating from the fact that this theory is based on a first-order perturbation theory

  6. Comparing performance level estimation of safety functions in three distributed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietikko, Marita; Malm, Timo; Saha, Heikki

    2015-01-01

    The capability of a machine control system to perform a safety function is expressed using performance levels (PL). This paper presents the results of a study where PL estimation was carried out for a safety function implemented using three different distributed control system structures. Challenges relating to the process of estimating PLs for safety related distributed machine control functions are highlighted. One of these examines the use of different cabling schemes in the implementation of a safety function and its effect on the PL evaluation. The safety function used as a generic example in PL calculations relates to a mobile work machine. It is a safety stop function where different technologies (electrical, hydraulic and pneumatic) can be utilized. It was detected that by replacing analogue cables with digital communication the system structure becomes simpler with less number of failing components, which can better the PL of the safety function. - Highlights: • Integration in distributed systems enables systems with less components. • It offers high reliability and diagnostic properties. • Analogue signals create uncertainty in signal reliability and difficult diagnostics

  7. Improved functional capacity evaluation performance predicts successful return to work one year after completing a functional restoration rehabilitation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fore, Lisa; Perez, Yoheli; Neblett, Randy; Asih, Sali; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate whether functional capacity evaluation (FCE) scores are responsive to functional restoration treatment, and to assess the ability of FCEs at program discharge to predict work outcomes. An interdisciplinary cohort study of prospectively collected data. A functional restoration center. A consecutive sample of 354 patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs) completed a functional restoration program consisting of quantitatively directed exercise progression and multi-modal disability management with interdisciplinary medical supervision. Each patient participated in an FCE at admission and discharge from treatment. The results of each FCE yielded the physical demand level (PDL) at which patients were functioning. Patients were initially divided into 5 PDL groups, based on job-of-injury lifting, carrying, and pushing/pulling requirements, for the pre- to posttreatment responsiveness analyses. Patients were subsequently divided into 5 PDL groups, based on their performance on the FCE upon program completion. Outcome measures included admission-to-discharge changes in PDLs and 2 specific FCE lifting tasks: isokinetic lifting; and the Progressive Isoinertial Lifting Evaluation (PILE). Socioeconomic outcomes were also evaluated, including post-discharge work return and work retention 1-year after treatment completion. Overall, 96% of the patients demonstrated improvement in their PDLs from admission to discharge. A majority of patients (56%) were able to achieve a discharge PDL that was comparable to their estimated job-of-injury lifting requirement or higher (P work return (P work retention (P work return after treatment completion and work retention 1 year later. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenBackground: The purpose of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a test of fast alternating forearm movements and its relationship with measures of lower extremity function in older women with dementia.Methods: Fast alternating movements was studied in 26 female patients (mean age 81.7 ± 5.9 years with dementia and 34 controls (mean age 87.5 ± 4.7 years. Subgroup analyses for those aged 80–89 years were performed due to significant differences in the mean ages of the study groups. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was studied in 11 patients (mean age 80.3 ± 6.7 years and 10 controls (mean age 87.4 ± 1.6 years. Pulses generated were transformed to an analog signal shown on a modified electrocardiogram. Numbers of cycles at 10 and 15 seconds were calculated for the right and left hand. Walking 2 × 15 m and the Get-Up-and Go (GUG test were performed at self-selected and maximal speed. Associations between tests of upper and lower extremity function were sought in eight patients (mean age 85 ± 2.7 years and 16 controls (mean age 85.1 ± 2.8 years and also according to types of dementia in nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 10 patients with other types of dementia.Results: Patients with dementia could perform the test and had significantly fewer cycles (P = 0.02–0.006 at both 10 and 15 seconds compared with controls after age adjustment. A higher number of cycles was associated with higher self-selected walking speeds in patients (r = -0.79. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was high for both patients (intraclass correlation 0.88–0.94 and controls (intraclass correlation 0.74–0.94.Conclusion: Alternating forearm movements at fast speed can be used as a reliable test in both

  9. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Victoria; Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. The results of the present study did not indicate any significant differences in balance and functional performance

  10. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirui Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n=30. Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35. Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers’ motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  11. Cerebral palsy: Influence of TheraTogs ® on gait, posture and in functional performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Ehlert

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: For children with cerebral palsy, orthoses take an important role in improving posture, gait, functional performance and preventing secondary musculoskeletal disorders. Objective: To evaluate the influence of TheraTogs® on the posture, distribution of plantar pressure during gait and functional performance of a child with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy. Methods: A quantitative evaluation was carried out on a case study in which an 11-year-old child diagnosed with diplegic cerebral palsy underwent postural assessment through the Postural Assessment Software (PAS, plantar pressure distribution assessment during barefoot gait through the Emed-X system, before and after the intervention period of 8 weeks and functional assessment (Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory - PEDI, with and without TheraTogs®. Results: In posture, TheraTogs® had greater influence on hip extension and this change was greater during its use. In the plantar pressure distribution assessment, an increase in posteriorization of plantar pressure occurred in the initial contact, the performance of the push-off phase and initial swing phase improved. In functionality, the child showed improvements in mobility, however, their self-care ability with TheraTogs® was reduced. Conclusion: Although improvements in posture, gait and functionality were verified with the use of TheraTogs®, the excessive heat, difficulties in toileting and self-care were disadvantages in wearing TheraTogs®.

  12. Performance of a computer-based assessment of cognitive function measures in two cohorts of seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool f...

  13. Design and Validation of a Model of a Human's Functional State and Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Both, F.; Hoogendoorn, M.; Jaffry, S.W.; van Lambalgen, R.M.; Oorburg, R.; Sharpanskykh, A.; Treur, J.; de Vos, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computational model of the dynamics of a human's functional state in relation to task performance and environment. It can be used in intelligent systems that support humans in demanding circumstances. The model takes task demand and situational aspects as input and calculates

  14. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Sean P

    2004-01-01

    .... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The overarching objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  15. The Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep on Cognitive Performance and Brain Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillin, J

    2003-01-01

    ..... Even less is known about the cerebral effects of recovery sleep. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 2 full nights of sleep loss and 2 full nights of recovery sleep on cognitive performance and brain function...

  16. Executive Functions in Older Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder : Objective Performance and Subjective Complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davids, Roeliena C. D.; Groen, Yvonne; Berg, Ina J.; Tucha, Oliver M.; van Balkom, Ingrid D. C.

    Although deficits in Executive Functioning (EF) are reported frequently in young individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they remain relatively unexplored later in life (> 50 years). We studied objective performance on EF measures (Tower of London, Zoo map, phonetic/semantic fluency) as

  17. Same-Sex Attraction, Social Relationships, Psychosocial Functioning, and School Performance in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Henny M. W.; Sandfort, Theo G. M.; de Bruyn, Eddy H.; Hakvoort, Esther M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined whether 13- to 15-year-old adolescents who experience feelings of same-sex attraction (SSA) differ from those without such feelings in the quality of relationships with parents, peers, and class mentors and in psychosocial functioning (health status and school performance). The authors also assessed whether differences in …

  18. Using Differential Item Functioning Procedures to Explore Sources of Item Difficulty and Group Performance Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuneman, Janice Dowd; Gerritz, Kalle

    1990-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) methodology for revealing sources of item difficulty and performance characteristics of different groups was explored. A total of 150 Scholastic Aptitude Test items and 132 Graduate Record Examination general test items were analyzed. DIF was evaluated for males and females and Blacks and Whites. (SLD)

  19. Resting right ventricular function is associated with exercise performance in PAH, but not in CTEPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Michaela Beatrice; Howard, Luke S; Christiaens, Luc P; Gill, Dipender; Gibbs, J Simon R; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-02-01

    To assess whether resting right ventricular (RV) function assessed by Global RV longitudinal strain (RVLS) and RV fractional area change (FAC) is associated with exercise performance in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively recruited 46 consecutive patients with PAH and 42 patients with CTEPH who were referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and transthoracic echocardiography. Resting RV systolic function was assessed with RVLS and FAC. CPET parameters analyzed were percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2). Spearman correlation was performed between echocardiographic measurements and CPET measurements. In PAH, spearman correlation found an association between RVLS and VE/VCO2 (coefficient = 0.556, P PAH, resting RV function as assessed by FAC or RVLS is associated with exercise performance and could therefore make a significant contribution to non-invasive assessment in PAH patients. This association is not found in CTEPH, suggesting a disconnection between resting RV function and exercise performance, with implications for the use of exercise measurements as a prognostic marker and clinical/research endpoint in CTEPH. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Motor Performance of Children with Mild Intellectual Disability and Borderline Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and healthy lifestyles. The present study compares…

  1. Performance of various density functionals for the hydrogen bonds in DNA base pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wijst, T.; Fonseca Guerra, C.; Swart, M.; Bickelhaupt, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the performance of seven popular density functionals (B3LYP, BLYP, BP86, mPW, OPBE, PBE, PW91) for describing the geometry and stability of the hydrogen bonds in DNA base pairs. For the gas-phase situation, the hydrogen-bond lengths and strengths in the DNA pairs have been

  2. Monitoring the Performance of the Pedestrian Transfer Function of Train Stations Using Automatic Fare Collection Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Heuvel, J.P.A.; Hoogenraad, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years all train stations in The Netherlands have been equipped with automatic fare collection gates and/or validators. All public transport passengers use a smart card to pay their fare. In this paper we present a monitor for the performance of the pedestrian function of train stations

  3. Motor performance of children with mild intellectual disability and borderline intellectual functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuijk, P. J.; Hartman, E.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is a relatively small body of research on the motor performance of children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID) and borderline intellectual functioning (BIF). Adequate levels of motor skills may contribute to lifelong enjoyment of physical activity, participation in sports and

  4. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Organizational Climate and the Performance of Counselor Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Harold F.; And Others

    The study was designed to determine if a significant relationship existed between the organizational climate of the high school and the functions counselors performed in nine selected high schools in Pinellas County, Florida. Two instruments were used: (1) The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire (OCDQ) dealing with eight…

  5. Role of Marketing Intelligence by Strategic Function in Organizational Performance: Evidence from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arslan Ayub

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is multifaceted; firstly, it aims to explore the extent to which marketing intelligence is utilized within corporate sector in Pakistan. Secondly, this paper measures the role of marketing intelligence by strategic function on organizational performance. Research on marketing intelligence has consequently increased and grabbed the attention of researchers and marketers to leverage marketing intelligence resulting in increased organizational performance for the last decade. The study uses exploratory approach, sample of the study consisted of 145 professionals from 30 companies related to different sectors operating in Islamabad and Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Structural Equation Model (SEM Technique was used to test the hypotheses. The study found a strong positive relationship between marketing intelligence by strategic function and organizational performance. The study also found that majority of corporate sector of Pakistan have incorporated and utilized marketing intelligence system. This piece of writing has thrown light on the significance of marketing intelligence and its usefulness as a marketing strategy which not only contributes in the existing body of knowledge but also has many managerial implications. The study endorsed the importance of marketing intelligence by strategic function to heading on this fast-paced competition. As for marketing managers in order to formulate policies; marketing intelligence by strategic function provides a leapfrogging approach to outer perform in the market place.

  6. From Chi-t to mCRL : combining performance and functional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijs, A.J.; Fokkink, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the authors first gave short overviews of the modelling languages timed chi( chit) and muCRL. Then a general translation scheme was presented to translate chit specifications to muCRL specifications. As chit targets performance analysis and muCRL targets functional analysis of systems,

  7. Executive and Attentional Functions in Chronic Pain: Does Performance Decrease with Increasing Task Load?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joukje M Oosterman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diminished executive function and attentional control has been reported in chronic pain patients. However, the precise pattern of impairment in these aspects of cognition in chronic pain remains unclear. Moreover, a decline in psychomotor speed could potentially influence executive and attentional control performance in pain patients.

  8. 77 FR 43039 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Contractors Performing Private Security Functions Outside the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... expatriate security company (the source is 32 CFR 159.3, section (3) of the definition of ``covered contract.... Such firms are, by definition, not small businesses because they are not U.S. firms. In the small... unpredictable high-threat environment where personnel performing security functions may be called upon to use...

  9. Changes in the Muscle strength and functional performance of healthy women with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghayeh Mousavikhatir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Lower limbs antigravity muscles weakness and decreased functional ability have significant role in falling. The aim of this study was to find the effects of aging on muscle strength and functional ability, determining the range of decreasing strength and functional ability and relationship between them in healthy women. Methods: Across-section study was performed on 101 healthy women aged 21-80 years. The participants were divided into six age groups. The maximum isometric strength of four muscle groups was measured using a hand-held dynamometer bilaterally. The functional ability was measured with functional reach (FR, timed get up and go (TGUG, single leg stance (SLS, and stairs walking (SW tests. Results: Muscle strength changes were not significant between 21-40 years of age, but decreased significantly thereafter. Also, there was a significant relationship between muscle strength and functional ability in age groups. Conclusion: Both muscle strength and functional ability is reduced as a result of aging, but the decrease in functional ability can be detected earlier.

  10. Predictors of improved functioning in patients with psychosis: The role of amotivation and defeatist performance beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillny, Matthias; Lincoln, Tania M

    2016-10-30

    Defeatist performance beliefs (DPBs) are associated with the severe impairments in functioning of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. This association has been found to be mediated by amotivation, a core aspect of negative symptoms. Although causality is assumed, longitudinal evidence for this is lacking. The current study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between DPBs, motivational impairments and functioning in a sample of patients with psychotic disorders (N=58). We hypothesized, that DPBs would be related to functioning in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses and that this link would be mediated by motivational impairments. Data was assessed at baseline and post-treatment in a trial on the effects of cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis. At baseline, amotivation mediated the association between DPBs and functioning. From baseline to post-treatment, reduction of amotivation was associated with improvement of functioning significantly, whereas reduction of DPBs was unrelated to improvements in functioning or amotivation. The findings suggest that improvement in amotivation accounts for favorable treatment outcomes in regard to functioning but question the causal role of DPBs in negative symptoms and functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selecting Tasks for Evaluating Human Performance as a Function of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    A challenge in understanding human performance as a function of gravity is determining which tasks to research. Initial studies began with treadmill walking, which was easy to quantify and control. However, with the development of pressurized rovers, it is less important to optimize human performance for ambulation as pressurized rovers will likely perform gross translation for them. Future crews are likely to spend much of their extravehicular activity (EVA) performing geology, construction,a nd maintenance type tasks. With these types of tasks, people have different performance strategies, and it is often difficult to quantify the task and measure steady-state metabolic rates or perform biomechanical analysis. For many of these types of tasks, subjective feedback may be the only data that can be collected. However, subjective data may not fully support a rigorous scientific comparison of human performance across different gravity levels and suit factors. NASA would benefit from having a wide variety of quantifiable tasks that allow human performance comparison across different conditions. In order to determine which tasks will effectively support scientific studies, many different tasks and data analysis techniques will need to be employed. Many of these tasks and techniques will not be effective, but some will produce quantifiable results that are sensitive enough to show performance differences. One of the primary concerns related to EVA performance is metabolic rate. The higher the metabolic rate, the faster the astronaut will exhaust consumables. The focus of this poster will be on how different tasks affect metabolic rate across different gravity levels.

  12. Effect of the sequence data deluge on the performance of methods for detecting protein functional residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Martín, Diego; Pazos, Florencio

    2018-02-27

    The exponential accumulation of new sequences in public databases is expected to improve the performance of all the approaches for predicting protein structural and functional features. Nevertheless, this was never assessed or quantified for some widely used methodologies, such as those aimed at detecting functional sites and functional subfamilies in protein multiple sequence alignments. Using raw protein sequences as only input, these approaches can detect fully conserved positions, as well as those with a family-dependent conservation pattern. Both types of residues are routinely used as predictors of functional sites and, consequently, understanding how the sequence content of the databases affects them is relevant and timely. In this work we evaluate how the growth and change with time in the content of sequence databases affect five sequence-based approaches for detecting functional sites and subfamilies. We do that by recreating historical versions of the multiple sequence alignments that would have been obtained in the past based on the database contents at different time points, covering a period of 20 years. Applying the methods to these historical alignments allows quantifying the temporal variation in their performance. Our results show that the number of families to which these methods can be applied sharply increases with time, while their ability to detect potentially functional residues remains almost constant. These results are informative for the methods' developers and final users, and may have implications in the design of new sequencing initiatives.

  13. Performance-based functional impairment and readmission and death: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Carole E; Folly, Antoine; Mancinetti, Marco; Hayoz, Daniel; Donzé, Jacques D

    2017-06-08

    Readmission and death are frequent after a hospitalisation and difficult to predict. While many predictors have been identified, few studies have focused on functional status. We assessed whether performance-based functional impairment at discharge is associated with readmission and death after an acute medical hospitalisation. We prospectively included patients aged ≥50 years admitted to the Department of General Internal Medicine of a large community hospital. Functional status was assessed shortly before discharge using the Timed Up and Go test performed twice in a standard way by trained physiotherapists and was defined as a test duration ≥15 s. Sensitivity analyses using a cut-off at >10 and >20 s were performed. The primary and secondary outcome measures were unplanned readmission and death, respectively, within 6 months after discharge. Within 6 months after discharge, 107/338 (31.7%) patients had an unplanned readmission and 31/338 (9.2%) died. Functional impairment was associated with higher risk of death (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.15 to 5.18), but not with unplanned readmission (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.15). No significant association was found between functional impairment and the total number of unplanned readmissions (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.67). Functional impairment at discharge of an acute medical hospitalisation was associated with higher risk of death, but not of unplanned readmission within 6 months after discharge. Simple performance-based assessment may represent a better prognostic measure for mortality than for readmission. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Relationship between physical performance and self-reported function in healthy individuals across the lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Jennifer N; McKay, Marnee J; Hiller, Claire E; Moloney, Niamh; Nightingale, Elizabeth J; Burns, Joshua

    2017-08-01

    Functional outcome measures in clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions need to be meaningful to individuals. To investigate the relationship between physical performance and self/proxy-reported function in 1000 healthy children and adults. Cross-sectional observational study (1000 Norms Project). One thousand males and females aged 3-101 years, healthy by self-report and without major physical disability, were recruited. Twelve performance-based tests were analysed: vertical and long jump, two hand dexterity tests, four balance tests, stepping reaction time, 30-second chair stand, timed up-and-down stairs, and six-minute walk. Self/proxy-reported function was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Quality of Life questionnaire, Child Health Questionnaire, Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-6D Adolescent, AQoL-8D, International Physical Activity Questionnaire and work ability question. Bivariate and multivariate correlational analyses were constructed for infants (3-4y), children (5-10y), adolescents (11-17y), adults (18-59y) and older adults (60+). Socio-demographic characteristics were similar to the Australian population. Among infants/children, greater jump and sit-to-stand performance correlated with higher proxy-reported function (p  0.05). Greater jump, dexterity, balance, reaction time, sit-to-stand, stair-climbing and six-minute walk performance correlated with higher self-reported function in adults (r = -0.097 to.231; p physical measures which could form the basis of age-appropriate functional scales for clinical trials of musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Psychological and psychobiological stress in the relationship between basic cognitive function and school performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Fernández-Martín

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the role played by daily stress, assessed through self-report and at the psychobiological level, in relation to basic cognitive function when predicting school performance. The sample comprised 100 schoolchildren (55 girls and 45 boys, age range 8 to 11 years from a state school in the city of Malaga (Spain. Daily stress was assessed through the Children's Daily Stress Inventory (IIEC m Spanish; Tnanes et al., 2009. Psychobiological stress was measured through the cortisol/DHEAS ratio, derived from saliva samples taken in the morning on two consecutive days. Basic cognitive skills were assessed by means of the Computerized Cognitive Assessment System (CDR battery; Wesnes et al., 2003, 2000. Finally, the measure of school performance was the mean value of the final grades recorded in the child's school report. In addition to descriptive and correlational statistical analyses, multiple regression analyses were conducted in order to assess the model. The results show that children's daily stress self-reported contributes to predict school performance, and has proven to be more influential than basic cognitive function when it comes to predict school performance. Therefore, in order to achieve good school performance, a pupil not only requires good basic cognitive function, but must also present low levels of self-reported daily stress. These findings suggest a new way of explaining and predicting school failure.

  16. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on respiratory function and repetitive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosey-Tolfrey, V; Foden, E; Perret, C; Degens, H

    2010-07-01

    There is considerable evidence that respiratory muscle training improves pulmonary function, quality of life and exercise performance in healthy athletic populations. The benefits for wheelchair athletes are less well understood. Therefore, in the present study, influence of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory function and repetitive propulsive sprint performance in wheelchair basketball players was examined. Using a placebo-controlled design, 16 wheelchair athletes were divided to an experimental (IMT; n=8) or placebo (sham-IMT; n=8) group based on selective grouping criteria. 30 dynamic breaths were performed by the IMT group twice daily at a resistance equivalent to 50% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), and 60 slow breaths were performed by the sham-IMT group once a day at 15% MIP for a period of 6 weeks. In the IMT group, both MIP and maximum expiratory pressure (17% and 23%, respectively; ptraining device suggested "less breathlessness" and "less tightness in the chest during the training". Although there was no improvement in sprint performance, an improved respiratory muscle function and quality of life were reported by participants in both the IMT and sham-IMT groups.

  17. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Correlates of First-Episode Psychoses during Attentional and Memory Task Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Rapinesi, Chiara; Sorice, Serena; Girardi, Nicoletta; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The nature of the alteration of the response to cognitive tasks in first-episode psychosis (FEP) still awaits clarification. We used activation likelihood estimation, an increasingly used method in evaluating normal and pathological brain function, to identify activation changes in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of FEP during attentional and memory tasks. We included 11 peer-reviewed fMRI studies assessing FEP patients versus healthy controls (HCs) during performance of attentional and memory tasks. Our database comprised 290 patients with FEP, matched with 316 HCs. Between-group analyses showed that HCs, compared to FEP patients, exhibited hyperactivation of the right middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area, BA, 9), right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), and right insula (BA 13) during attentional task performances and hyperactivation of the left insula (BA 13) during memory task performances. Right frontal, parietal, and insular dysfunction during attentional task performance and left insular dysfunction during memory task performance are significant neural functional FEP correlates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance.

  19. Motor network structure and function are associated with motor performance in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Hans-Peter; Gorges, Martin; Grön, Georg; Kassubek, Jan; Landwehrmeyer, G Bernhard; Süßmuth, Sigurd D; Wolf, Robert Christian; Orth, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In Huntington's disease, the relationship of brain structure, brain function and clinical measures remains incompletely understood. We asked how sensory-motor network brain structure and neural activity relate to each other and to motor performance. Thirty-four early stage HD and 32 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor, and intrinsic functional connectivity MRI. Diffusivity patterns were assessed in the cortico-spinal tract and the thalamus-somatosensory cortex tract. For the motor network connectivity analyses the dominant M1 motor cortex region and for the basal ganglia-thalamic network the thalamus were used as seeds. Region to region structural and functional connectivity was examined between thalamus and somatosensory cortex. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was higher in HD than controls in the basal ganglia, and lower in the external and internal capsule, in the thalamus, and in subcortical white matter. Between-group axial and radial diffusivity differences were more prominent than differences in FA, and correlated with motor performance. Within the motor network, the insula was less connected in HD than in controls, with the degree of connection correlating with motor scores. The basal ganglia-thalamic network's connectivity differed in the insula and basal ganglia. Tract specific white matter diffusivity and functional connectivity were not correlated. In HD sensory-motor white matter organization and functional connectivity in a motor network were independently associated with motor performance. The lack of tract-specific association of structure and function suggests that functional adaptation to structural loss differs between participants.

  20. The role of executive functioning in memory performance in pediatric focal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Casaletto, Kaitlin Blackstone; Terwilliger, Virginia; Facella-Ervolini, Joy; Sady, Maegan; Mayo, Jessica; Gaillard, William D.; Berl, Madison M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Learning and memory are essential for academic success and everyday functioning, but the pattern of memory skills and its relationship to executive functioning in children with focal epilepsy is not fully delineated. We address a gap in the literature by examining the relationship between memory and executive functioning in a pediatric focal epilepsy population. Methods Seventy children with focal epilepsy and 70 typically developing children matched on age, intellectual functioning, and gender underwent neuropsychological assessment, including measures of intelligence (WASI/DAS), as well as visual (CMS Dot Locations) and verbal episodic memory (WRAML Story Memory and CVLT-C). Executive functioning was measured directly (WISC-IV Digit Span Backward; CELF-IV Recalling Sentences) and by parent report (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF)). Results Children with focal epilepsy had lower delayed free recall scores than controls across visual and verbal memory tasks (p = 0.02; partial η2 = .12). In contrast, recognition memory performance was similar for patients and controls (p = 0.36; partial η2 = .03). Children with focal epilepsy demonstrated difficulties in working memory (p = 0.02; partial η2 = .08) and planning/organization (p = 0.02) compared to controls. Working memory predicted 9–19% of the variance in delayed free recall for verbal and visual memory; organization predicted 9–10% of the variance in verbal memory. Patients with both left and right focal epilepsy demonstrated more difficulty on verbal versus visual tasks (p = 0.002). Memory performance did not differ by location of seizure foci (temporal vs. extra-temporal, frontal vs. extra-frontal). Significance Children with focal epilepsy demonstrated memory ability within age-level expectations, but delayed free recall was inefficient compared to typically developing controls. Memory difficulties were not related to general cognitive impairment or seizure localization

  1. Incorporating Traffic Control and Safety Hardware Performance Functions into Risk-based Highway Safety Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongzhi Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traffic control and safety hardware such as traffic signs, lighting, signals, pavement markings, guardrails, barriers, and crash cushions form an important and inseparable part of highway infrastructure affecting safety performance. Significant progress has been made in recent decades to develop safety performance functions and crash modification factors for site-specific crash predictions. However, the existing models and methods lack rigorous treatments of safety impacts of time-deteriorating conditions of traffic control and safety hardware. This study introduces a refined method for computing the Safety Index (SI as a means of crash predictions for a highway segment that incorporates traffic control and safety hardware performance functions into the analysis. The proposed method is applied in a computation experiment using five-year data on nearly two hundred rural and urban highway segments. The root-mean square error (RMSE, Chi-square, Spearman’s rank correlation, and Mann-Whitney U tests are employed for validation.

  2. Development of measurement standards for verifying functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, A [Life and Industrial Product Development Department Olympus Corporation, 2951 Ishikawa-machi, Hachiouji-shi, Tokyo (Japan); Suzuki, H [Industrial Marketing and Planning Department Olympus Corporation, Shinjyuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjyuku 2-chome, Tokyo (Japan); Yanagi, K, E-mail: a_fujii@ot.olympus.co.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-machi, Nagaoka-shi, Niigata (Japan)

    2011-08-19

    A new measurement standard is proposed for verifying overall functional performance of surface texture measuring instruments. Its surface is composed of sinusoidal surface waveforms of chirp signals along horizontal cross sections of the material measure. One of the notable features is that the amplitude of each cycle in the chirp signal form is geometrically modulated so that the maximum slope is kept constant. The maximum slope of the chirp-like signal is gradually decreased according to movement in the lateral direction. We fabricated the measurement standard by FIB processing, and it was calibrated by AFM. We tried to evaluate the functional performance of Laser Scanning Microscope by this standard in terms of amplitude response with varying slope angles. As a result, it was concluded that the proposed standard can easily evaluate the performance of surface texture measuring instruments.

  3. Contributions of Motivation, Early Numeracy Skills, and Executive Functioning to Mathematical Performance. A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Jessica; Miranda, Ana; Presentación, M Jesús; Siegenthaler, Rebeca; Rosel, Jesús F

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the power of different variables and its dynamic interactions in predicting mathematical performance. The model proposed in this study includes indicators of motivational constructs (learning motivation and attributions), executive functioning (inhibition and working memory), and early numeracy skills (logical operations, counting, and magnitude comparison abilities), assessed during kindergarten, and mathematical performance in the second year of Primary Education. The sample consisted of 180 subjects assessed in two moments (5-6 and 7-8 years old). The results showed an indirect effect of initial motivation on later mathematical performance. Executive functioning and early numeracy skills mediated the effect of motivation on later mathematic achievement. Practical implications of these findings for mathematics education are discussed.

  4. Contributions of Motivation, Early Numeracy Skills, and Executive Functioning to Mathematical Performance. A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mercader

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this longitudinal study is to examine the power of different variables and its dynamic interactions in predicting mathematical performance. The model proposed in this study includes indicators of motivational constructs (learning motivation and attributions, executive functioning (inhibition and working memory, and early numeracy skills (logical operations, counting, and magnitude comparison abilities, assessed during kindergarten, and mathematical performance in the second year of Primary Education. The sample consisted of 180 subjects assessed in two moments (5–6 and 7–8 years old. The results showed an indirect effect of initial motivation on later mathematical performance. Executive functioning and early numeracy skills mediated the effect of motivation on later mathematic achievement. Practical implications of these findings for mathematics education are discussed.

  5. The performance of the backpropagation algorithm with varying slope of the activation function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanping; Zhang Haixia; Hao Yilong

    2009-01-01

    Some adaptations are proposed to the basic BP algorithm in order to provide an efficient method to non-linear data learning and prediction. In this paper, an adopted BP algorithm with varying slope of activation function and different learning rates is put forward. The results of experiment indicated that this algorithm can get very good performance of training. We also test the prediction performance of our adopted BP algorithm on 16 instances. We compared the test results to the ones of the BP algorithm with gradient descent momentum and an adaptive learning rate. The results indicate this adopted BP algorithm gives best performance (100%) for test example, which conclude this adopted BP algorithm produces a smoothed reconstruction that learns better to new prediction function values than the BP algorithm improved with momentum.

  6. Relationship Between the Functional Status Scale and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category Scales FREE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Murray M.; Holubkov, Richard; Funai, Tomohiko; Clark, Amy; Moler, Frank; Shanley, Thomas; Meert, Kathy; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Carcillo, Joseph; Berger, John T.; Doctor, Allan; Berg, Robert A.; Dalton, Heidi; Wessel, David L.; Harrison, Rick E.; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Functional status assessment methods are important as outcome measures for pediatric critical care studies. Objective To investigate the relationships between the 2 functional status assessment methods appropriate for large-sample studies, the Functional Status Scale (FSS) and the Pediatric Overall Performance Category and Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (POPC/PCPC) scales. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective cohort study with random patient selection at 7 sites and 8 children’s hospitals with general/medical and cardiac/cardiovascular pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network. Participants included all PICU patients younger than 18 years. Main Outcomes and Measures Functional Status Scale and POPC/PCPC scores determined at PICU admission (baseline) and PICU discharge. We investigated the association between the baseline and PICU discharge POPC/PCPC scores and the baseline and PICU discharge FSS scores, the dispersion of FSS scores within each of the POPC/PCPC ratings, and the relationship between the FSS neurologic components (FSS-CNS) and the PCPC. Results We included 5017 patients. We found a significant (P < .001) difference between FSS scores in each POPC or PCPC interval, with an FSS score increase with each worsening POPC/PCPC rating. The FSS scores for the good and mild disability POPC/PCPC ratings were similar and increased by 2 to 3 points for the POPC/PCPC change from mild to moderate disability, 5 to 6 points for moderate to severe disability, and 8 to 9 points for severe disability to vegetative state or coma. The dispersion of FSS scores within each POPC and PCPC rating was substantial and increased with worsening POPC and PCPC scores. We also found a significant (P < .001) difference between the FSS-CNS scores between each of the PCPC ratings with increases in the FSS-CNS score for each higher PCPC rating. Conclusions and Relevance The FSS and POPC/PCPC system

  7. Desempenho funcional de crianças com mielomeningocele Functional performance of children with myelomeningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanda André Collange

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visou analisar o impacto dos níveis de lesão, deambulação e alterações neurológicas associadas ao quadro clínico da mielomeningocele sobre o desempenho funcional de seus portadores. Neste estudo transversal prospectivo foram examinadas 40 crianças com mielomeningocele, avaliando-se nível de lesão, deambulação, malformação de Arnold-Chiari, hidrocefalia, hidromielia, medula ancorada e incontinência esfincteriana. O desempenho funcional foi avaliado pelo Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI, para um registro quantitativo da capacidade funcional e autonomia nas atividades cotidianas, nas áreas de autocuidado, mobilidade e função social. Os dados coletados foram analisados estatisticamente, estabelecendo-se o nível de significância em pThis study aimed at analysing the impact of level of lesion, locomotion, and neurological changes associated to meningomyelocele clinical framework concerning functional performance. For this prospective cross-sectional study 40 children with meningomyelocele were assessed as to level of lesion, ambulatory ability, Arnold-Chiari malformation, hydrocephalus, hydromyelia, tethered cord, and sphincter incontinence. Functional performance was evaluated by the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI which quantitatively assesses functional performance and independence in daily activities in the areas of self-care, mobility, and social functioning. Collected data were statistically analysed and the significance level set at p<0.05. Lesion levels and ambulatory ability had a significant (p<0.01 impact on scores of all three PEDI areas. Limitation degree was found to be directly proportional to level of lesion. Functional performance was more severely affected in self-care and mobility activities, and the best functional scores being obtained in social functioning. In patients with thoracic lesion level, symptomatic hydromyelia proved to be a significant factor for

  8. AGE DIFFERENCES IN MEASURES OF FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT AND PERFORMANCE IN HIGHLY YOUTH BASKETBALL PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Serna, Jorge; Rhea, Matthew R; Marín, Pedro J

    2017-10-01

    There is a lack of information about the influence of age on functional movement tests (FMT) and performance tests as well as in their relationships in young basketball players. The purpose of the present study was to determine the variations in FMT and jump and/or sprint performance scores between age groups (U-14 vs. U-16) in Highly-trained young basketball players. The second purpose was to investigate the relationship between FMT for lower body and jump and/or sprint performance in highly-trained young (U-14 and U-16) male basketball players. Descriptive study. Thirty elite young (U-14 to U-16) male basketball players performed several FMT (weight-bearing dorsiflexion test [WB-DF] and a modified Star Excursion Balance test [SEBT]) and performance including unilateral and bilateral countermovement jumps, unilateral horizontal jumping, linear sprinting and performance tests. All anthropometric and performance tests showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump with left leg (p=0.127). Five out of the eight FMT performed showed a statistically significant advantage (pjump and/or sprint performance test between age groups (U-16 vs U-14). The findings of this study support the idea that the age of the player should be considered when interpreting FMT scores, which could have implications when implementing the FMT for injury risk prediction. 2b.

  9. Functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder: the 2-year PERFORM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer-Helmich, Lene; Haro, Josep Maria; Jönsson, Bengt; Tanguy Melac, Audrey; Di Nicola, Sylvie; Chollet, Julien; Milea, Dominique; Rive, Benoît; Saragoussi, Delphine

    2018-01-01

    The Prospective Epidemiological Research on Functioning Outcomes Related to Major depressive disorder (PERFORM) study describes the course of depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment over 2 years in outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and investigates the patient-related factors associated with functional impairment. This was a 2-year observational study in 1,159 outpatients with MDD aged 18-65 years who were either initiating antidepressant monotherapy or undergoing their first switch of antidepressant. Functional impairment was assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Patients assessed depression severity using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire and severity of perceived cognitive symptoms using the five-item Perceived Deficit Questionnaire. To investigate which patient-related factors were associated with functional impairment, univariate analyses of variance were performed to identify relevant factors that were then included in multivariate analyses of covariance at baseline, month 2, months 6 and 12 combined, and months 18 and 24 combined. The greatest improvement in depressive symptoms, perceived cognitive symptoms, and functional impairment was seen immediately (within 2 months) following initiation or switch of antidepressant therapy, followed by more gradual improvement and long-term stabilization. Improvement in perceived cognitive symptoms was less marked than improvement in depressive symptoms during the acute treatment phase. Functional impairment in patients with MDD was not only associated with severity of depressive symptoms but also independently associated with severity of perceived cognitive symptoms when adjusted for depression severity throughout the 2 years of follow-up. These findings highlight the burden of functional impairment in MDD and the importance of recognizing and managing cognitive symptoms in daily practice.

  10. Performance Improvement of the Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) by Introducing Optimal Function Sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byung Hee; Kim, Kyung O; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Soon Young

    2012-01-01

    The Core Protection Calculator System (CPCS) is an automated device which is adopted to inspect the safety parameters such as Departure from Nuclear Boiling Ratio (DNBR) and Local Power Density (LPD) during normal operation. One function of the CPCS is to predict the axial power distributions using function sets in cubic spline method. Another function of that is to impose penalty when the estimated distribution by the spline method disagrees with embedded data in CPCS (i.e., over 8%). In conventional CPCS, restricted function sets are used to synthesize axial power shape, whereby it occasionally can draw a disagreement between synthesized data and the embedded data. For this reason, the study on improvement for power distributions synthesis in CPCS has been conducted in many countries. In this study, many function sets (more than 18,000 types) differing from the conventional ones were evaluated in each power shape. Matlab code was used for calculating/arranging the numerous cases of function sets. Their synthesis performance was also evaluated through error between conventional data and consequences calculated by new function sets

  11. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. PMID:26553573

  12. Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Fátima Dornelas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Methods: Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. Results: The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Conclusions: Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems.

  13. [Functional performance of school children diagnosed with developmental delay up to two years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornelas, Lílian de Fátima; Magalhães, Lívia de Castro

    2016-01-01

    To compare the functional performance of students diagnosed with developmental delay (DD) up to two years of age with peers exhibiting typical development. Cross-sectional study with functional performance assessment of children diagnosed with DD up to two years of age compared to those with typical development at seven to eight years of age. Each group consisted of 45 children, selected by non-random sampling, evaluated for motor skills, quality of home environment, school participation and performance. ANOVA and the Binomial test for two proportions were used to assess differences between groups. The group with DD had lower motor skills when compared to the typical group. While 66.7% of children in the typical group showed adequate school participation, receiving aid in cognitive and behavioral tasks similar to that offered to other children at the same level, only 22.2% of children with DD showed the same performance. Although 53.3% of the children with DD achieved an academic performance expected for the school level, there were limitations in some activities. Only two indicators of family environment, diversity and activities with parents at home, showed statistically significant difference between the groups, with advantage being shown for the typical group. Children with DD have persistent difficulties at school age, with motor deficit, restrictions in school activity performance and low participation in the school context, as well as significantly lower functional performance when compared to children without DD. A systematic monitoring of this population is recommended to identify needs and minimize future problems. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. EXPLORING LINKAGES BETWEEN MANUFACTURING FUNCTIONS, OPERATIONS PRIORITIES AND PLANT PERFORMANCE IN MANUFACTURING SMES IN MUMBAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Narkhede

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order for small and medium scale enterprises to excel in performance, it is necessary to have congruency among the manufacturing functions and the operational priorities. In this paper a model is presented to know the relationship between the manufacturing functions, operation priorities and manufacturing performance. Using data collected from small and medium scale manufacturing enterprises in Mumbai and suburban region, this study examines the seven hypothesis based on the relationship between manufacturing functions, priorities and perfomance. The structural equation model is tested using Amos7 software to test the hypothesis. The results show that there exists a positive relation between manufacturing functions and operation priorities as four out of six the dimensions measured such as Process control and implementation, Management of resources, Management of people, and Partnership with supplier are positively related, while two dimensions Training and developing and Teamwork are not positively related. Findings also support strong impact of operation priorities with growth in productivity as a measure of performance.

  15. Factors that impact functional performance of elderly with low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Pereira Guerra

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Low back pain is a common condition among older adults and an important cause of disability. Objective: To evaluate the relationship between functional performance of older adults with low back pain and the following variables: sociodemographic and clinical factors, self-perceived health and back pain beliefs. Methods: A cross-sectional study that used data from the Back Complaints in the Elders international consortium. Information about sociodemographic factors (sex, age, marital status, formal education, clinical factors (intensity and frequency of pain, comorbidities, self-perceived health, back pain beliefs and functional performance (measured by the disability component of the Late Life Function and Disability Instrument - LLFDI were collected through self-report. 191 older adults above 60 years with a new episode of back complaints who did not have any cognitive disorder, visual or hearing impairment, or motor disabilities participated in the study. A bivariate analysis was conducted between each independent variable and each outcome. Associations with p < 0.20 were selected for the multiple linear regression analysis, which was carried out for each LLFDI domain. Results: The multiple regression coefficients of determination were significant despite the modest magnitude. The variables related to functional performance were back beliefs, self-perceived health, formal education, pain frequency and marital status. Conclusion: These results may contribute to the expansion of health professionals’ work in the therapeutic approach of low back pain, broadening its focus beyond clinical aspects in order to value beliefs of older adults and their self-perceived health.

  16. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos-Moreno, Mirela P; Bücker, Joana; Bürke, Kelen P; Czepielewski, Leticia; Santos, Barbara T; Fijtman, Adam; Passos, Ives C; Kunz, Mauricio; Bonnín, Caterina Del Mar; Vieta, Eduard; Kapczinski, Flavio; Rosa, Adriane R; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Subjects were patients with BD (n=36), unaffected siblings (n=35), and healthy controls (n=44). Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21), unaffected siblings (n=14), and healthy controls (n=22) also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35) than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001). Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008). Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  17. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Suma; Sethi, Sumita; Srivastav, Sonia; Chaudhary, Amrita; Arora, Priyanka

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision of children with visual impairment. The LV Prasad-Functional Vision Questionnaire, designed specifically to measure functional performance of visually impaired children of developing countries, was used to assess the level of difficulty in performing various tasks pre and post visual rehabilitation in children with documented visual impairment. Chi-square test was used to assess the impact of rehabilitation intervention on functional vision performance; a P visual acuity prior to the introduction of low vision devices (LVDs) was 0.90 ± 0.05 for distance and for near it was 0.61 ± 0.05. After the intervention, the acuities improved significantly for distance (0.2 ± 0.27; P visual rehabilitation was especially found in those activities related to their studying lifestyle like copying from the blackboard (P visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  18. Impaired exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal BOUITBIR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of carnitine depletion upon exercise performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function remain largely unexplored. We therefore investigated the effect of N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP, a carnitine analogue inhibiting carnitine biosynthesis and renal carnitine reabsorption, on physical performance and skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in rats.Methods: Male Sprague Dawley rats were treated daily with water (control rats; n=12 or with 20 mg/100 g body weight THP (n=12 via oral gavage for 3 weeks. Following treatment, half of the animals of each group performed an exercise test until exhaustion.Results: Distance covered and exercise performance were lower in THP-treated compared to control rats. In the oxidative soleus muscle, carnitine depletion caused atrophy (-24% and impaired function of complex II and IV of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The free radical leak (ROS production relative to oxygen consumption was increased and the cellular glutathione pool decreased. Moreover, mRNA expression of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA were decreased in THP-treated compared to control rats. In comparison, in the glycolytic gastrocnemius muscle, carnitine depletion was associated with impaired function of complex IV and increased free radical leak, whilst muscle weight and cellular glutathione pool were maintained. Markers of mitochondrial proliferation and mitochondrial DNA were unaffected.Conclusions: Carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired exercise capacity in rats treated with THP. THP-induced carnitine deficiency is associated with impaired function of the electron transport chain in oxidative and glycolytic muscle as well as with atrophy and decreased mitochondrial DNA in oxidative muscle.

  19. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Gustavo S. P.; Santos Neto, Gérson S.; Rosset, Sara R. E.; Rogers, Baxter P.; Salmon, Carlos E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus, and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding. PMID:25713528

  20. Analyzing the association between functional connectivity of the brain and intellectual performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Santo Pedro Pamplona

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of functional connectivity support the hypothesis that the brain is composed of distinct networks with anatomically separated nodes but common functionality. A few studies have suggested that intellectual performance may be associated with greater functional connectivity in the fronto-parietal network and enhanced global efficiency. In this fMRI study, we performed an exploratory analysis of the relationship between the brain's functional connectivity and intelligence scores derived from the Portuguese language version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III in a sample of 29 people, born and raised in Brazil. We examined functional connectivity between 82 regions, including graph theoretic properties of the overall network. Some previous findings were extended to the Portuguese-speaking population, specifically the presence of small-world organization of the brain and relationships of intelligence with connectivity of frontal, pre-central, parietal, occipital, fusiform and supramarginal gyrus and caudate nucleus. Verbal comprehension was associated with global network efficiency, a new finding.

  1. Effect of dystocia on subsequent reproductive performance and functional longevity in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dystocia on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in Iranian Holsteins. Data consisted of 1 467 064 lactation records of 581 421 Holstein cows from 3083 herds which were collected by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran from April 1987 to February 2014. Reproduction traits in this study included interval from first to second calving, days open and days from first calving to first service. The generalized linear model was used for the statistical analysis of reproductive traits. Survival analysis was performed using the Weibull proportional hazards models to analyse the impact of dystocia on functional longevity. The incidence of dystocia had an adverse effect on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Therefore, reproductive traits deteriorated along with increase in dystocia score (p dystocia (p 33 months had the greatest risk (p dystocia had important negative effects on the reproductive performance and functional longevity in dairy cows, and it should be avoided as much as possible to provide a good perspective in the scope of economic and animal welfare issues in dairy herds. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Barrier and system performances within a safety case: their functioning and evolution with time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedin, A.; Voinis, S.; Fillion, E.; Keller, S.; Lalieux, Ph.; Nachmilner, L.; Nys, V.; Rodriguez, J.; Sevougian, D.; Wollrath, J.

    2002-01-01

    The following six questions were used as the basis for the discussions in a Working Group: - What is the role of each barrier as a function of time or in the different time frames? What is its contribution to the overall system performance or safety as a function of time? - Which are the main uncertainties on the performance of barriers in the timescales? To what extent should we enhance the robustness of barriers because of the uncertainties of some component behaviour with time? - What is the requested or required performance versus the expected realistic or conservative behaviour with time? How are these safety margins used as arguments in a safety case? - What is the issue associated with the geosphere stability for different geological systems? - How are barriers and system performances, as a function of time, evaluated (presented and communicated) in a safety case? - What kind of measures are used for siting, designing and optimising robust barriers corresponding to situations that can vary with time? Are human actions considered to be relevant? (authors)

  3. Self-reported walking ability predicts functional mobility performance in frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, N B; Guire, K E; Thelen, D G; Ashton-Miller, J A; Schultz, A B; Grunawalt, J C; Giordani, B

    2000-11-01

    To determine how self-reported physical function relates to performance in each of three mobility domains: walking, stance maintenance, and rising from chairs. Cross-sectional analysis of older adults. University-based laboratory and community-based congregate housing facilities. Two hundred twenty-one older adults (mean age, 79.9 years; range, 60-102 years) without clinical evidence of dementia (mean Folstein Mini-Mental State score, 28; range, 24-30). We compared the responses of these older adults on a questionnaire battery used by the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (EPESE) project, to performance on mobility tasks of graded difficulty. Responses to the EPESE battery included: (1) whether assistance was required to perform seven Katz activities of daily living (ADL) items, specifically with walking and transferring; (2) three Rosow-Breslau items, including the ability to walk up stairs and walk a half mile; and (3) five Nagi items, including difficulty stooping, reaching, and lifting objects. The performance measures included the ability to perform, and time taken to perform, tasks in three summary score domains: (1) walking ("Walking," seven tasks, including walking with an assistive device, turning, stair climbing, tandem walking); (2) stance maintenance ("Stance," six tasks, including unipedal, bipedal, tandem, and maximum lean); and (3) chair rise ("Chair Rise," six tasks, including rising from a variety of seat heights with and without the use of hands for assistance). A total score combines scores in each Walking, Stance, and Chair Rise domain. We also analyzed how cognitive/ behavioral factors such as depression and self-efficacy related to the residuals from the self-report and performance-based ANOVA models. Rosow-Breslau items have the strongest relationship with the three performance domains, Walking, Stance, and Chair Rise (eta-squared ranging from 0.21 to 0.44). These three performance domains are as strongly

  4. Integrating Multiple On-line Knowledge Bases for Disease-Lab Test Relation Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaoyun; Soysal, Ergin; Moon, Sungrim; Wang, Jingqi; Tao, Cui; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    A computable knowledge base containing relations between diseases and lab tests would be a great resource for many biomedical informatics applications. This paper describes our initial step towards establishing a comprehensive knowledge base of disease and lab tests relations utilizing three public on-line resources. LabTestsOnline, MedlinePlus and Wikipedia are integrated to create a freely available, computable disease-lab test knowledgebase. Disease and lab test concepts are identified using MetaMap and relations between diseases and lab tests are determined based on source-specific rules. Experimental results demonstrate a high precision for relation extraction, with Wikipedia achieving the highest precision of 87%. Combining the three sources reached a recall of 51.40%, when compared with a subset of disease-lab test relations extracted from a reference book. Moreover, we found additional disease-lab test relations from on-line resources, indicating they are complementary to existing reference books for building a comprehensive disease and lab test relation knowledge base.

  5. Functional MRI mapping of visual function and selective attention for performance assessment and presurgical planning using conjunctive visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jason G; Zalusky, Eric J; Kirbas, Cemil

    2014-03-01

    Accurate mapping of visual function and selective attention using fMRI is important in the study of human performance as well as in presurgical treatment planning of lesions in or near visual centers of the brain. Conjunctive visual search (CVS) is a useful tool for mapping visual function during fMRI because of its greater activation extent compared with high-capacity parallel search processes. The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a CVS that was capable of generating consistent activation in the basic and higher level visual areas of the brain by using a high number of distractors as well as an optimized contrast condition. Images from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed and brain regions of greatest activation and deactivation were determined using a nonbiased decomposition of the results at the hemisphere, lobe, and gyrus levels. The results were quantified in terms of activation and deactivation extent and mean z-statistic. The proposed CVS was found to generate robust activation of the occipital lobe, as well as regions in the middle frontal gyrus associated with coordinating eye movements and in regions of the insula associated with task-level control and focal attention. As expected, the task demonstrated deactivation patterns commonly implicated in the default-mode network. Further deactivation was noted in the posterior region of the cerebellum, most likely associated with the formation of optimal search strategy. We believe the task will be useful in studies of visual and selective attention in the neuroscience community as well as in mapping visual function in clinical fMRI.

  6. MODIFIED FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING AS A PREDICTOR OF TACTICAL PERFORMANCE POTENTIAL IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Stephen M; Ross, Scott E

    2015-10-01

    Failure to meet minimum performance standards is a leading cause of attrition from basic combat training. A standardized assessment such as the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) could help identify movement behaviors relevant to physical performance in tactical occupations. Previous work has demonstrated only marginal association between FMS™ tests and performance outcomes, but adding a load challenge to this movement assessment may help highlight performance-limiting behaviors. The purposes of this investigation were to quantify the effect of load on FMS™ tests and determine the extent to which performance outcomes could be predicted using scores from both loaded and unloaded FMS™ conditions. Crossover Trial. Thirteen female and six male recreationally active college students (21 ± 1.37 years, 168 ± 9.8 cm, 66 ± 12.25 kg) completed the FMS™ under (1) a control condition (FMS™C), and (2) an 18.10kg weight vest condition (FMS™W). Balance was assessed using a force plate in double-legged stance and tactical physical performance was evaluated via completion times in a battery of field tests. For each condition, penalized regression was used to select models from the seven FMS™ component tests to predict balance and performance outcomes. Data were collected during a single session lasting approximately three hours per participant. For balance, significant predictors were identified from both conditions but primarily predicted poorer balance with increasing FMS™ scores. For tactical performance, models were retained almost exclusively from FMS™W and generally predicted better performance with higher item scores. The current results suggest that FMS™ screening with an external load could help predict performance relevant to tactical occupations. Sports medicine and fitness professionals interested in performance outcomes may consider assessing movement behaviors under a load. 3.

  7. Functional Movement Screen Scores and Physical Performance among Youth Elite Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Silva

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study had two main objectives: (1 to determine if differences in Functional Movement Screen (FMS scores exist between two levels of competition; and (2 to analyze the association between FMS individual and overall scores and physical performance variables of lower-limb power (jumps, repeated sprint ability and shot speed. Twenty-two Under 16 (U16 and twenty-six Under 19 (U19 national competitive soccer players participated in this study. All participants were evaluated according to anthropometrics, FMS, jump performance, instep kick speed and anaerobic performance. There were no significant differences in the individual FMS scores between competitive levels. There were significant negative correlations between hurdle step (right and Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST power average ( ρ = −0.293; p = 0.043 and RAST fatigue index (RAST FatIndex ( ρ = −0.340; p = 0.018. The hurdle step (left had a significant negative correlation to squat jump (SJ ( ρ = −0.369; p = 0.012. Rotary stability had a significant negative correlation to RAST fatigue index (Right: ρ = −0.311; p = 0.032. Left: ρ = −0.400; p = 0.005. The results suggest that individual FMS scores may be better discriminants of performance than FMS total score and established minimal association between FMS scores and physical variables. Based on that, FMS may be suitable for the purposes of determining physical function but not for discriminating physical performance.

  8. Sex differences in neuropsychological performance and social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Simonsen, Carmen; Hellvin, Tone; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A

    2011-07-01

    To investigate sex differences in neurocognition and social functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and the possible role of sex as a moderator of this relationship. Participants with schizophrenia (60 women/94 men), bipolar I disorder (55 women/51 men), and healthy controls (158 women/182 men) were assessed with an extensive neuropsychological test battery and a social functioning questionnaire. We found significant main effects of sex for neuropsychological tests (p neuropsychological tests (except attention and working memory). Both clinical groups performed below healthy controls for all neuropsychological tests (except attention). Post hoc comparisons of persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls yielded significant interaction effects (p neuropsychological tests (California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Color-Word Interference, and Interference/Switching), with men with schizophrenia being disproportionally disadvantaged compared with their female counterparts. Regression analyses investigating sex as a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning showed that neurocognition predicted social functioning in schizophrenia, whereas sex predicted social functioning in healthy controls. Sex was not a moderator in any of the three groups. This study is the first to find neurocognitive sex differences for bipolar disorder and replicated previous findings for schizophrenia. The data did not support the hypothesis that sex is a moderator between neurocognition and social functioning. Clinical implications include the use of different cognitive remediation strategies based on sex. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Poor Executive Functions among Children with Moderate-into-Severe Asthma: Evidence from WCST Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Haitham

    2017-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) measures of 27 asthmatic children, with general learning difficulties, were tested by using the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), and were compared to the performances of 30 non-asthmatic children with general learning difficulties. The results revealed that the asthmatic group has poor performance through all the WCST psychometric parameters and especially the perseverative errors one. The results were discussed in light of the postulation that poor EFs could be associated with the learning difficulties of asthmatic children. Neurophysiological framework has been suggested to explain the etiology of poor EFs among children with moderate into severe asthma.

  10. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  11. Neuropsychological predictors of performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2018-04-13

    Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments. Bivariate correlations between neuropsychological performance and UPSA-B and SSPA total scores showed that most neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with each performance-based measure. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were conducted entering education, diagnosis, symptom severity, and neuropsychological performance as predictors of functional capacity and social skills. Diagnosis, working memory, sustained attention, and category and letter fluency emerged as significant predictors of functional capacity, in a model that explained 43% of the variance. Negative symptoms, sustained attention, and letter fluency were significant predictors of social skill performance, in a model explaining 35% of the variance. Functional capacity is positively associated with neuropsychological functioning, but diagnosis remains strongly influential, with mood disorder participants outperforming those with psychosis. Social skill performance appears to be positively associated with sustained attention and verbal fluency regardless of diagnosis; however, negative symptom severity strongly predicts social skills performance. Improving neuropsychological functioning may improve psychosocial functioning in people with SMI. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Preliminary study on functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young In; Kim, Keung Koo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Functional performance of compound type multistage safety injection tanks is studied. • Effects of key design parameters are scrutinized. • Distinctive flow features in compound type safety injection tanks are explored. - Abstract: A parametric study is carried out to evaluate the functional performance of a compound type multistage safety injection tank that would be considered one of the components for the passive safety injection systems in nuclear power plants. The effects of key design parameters such as the initial volume fraction and charging pressure of gas, tank elevation, vertical location of a sparger, resistance coefficient, and operating condition on the injection flow rate are scrutinized along with a discussion of the relevant flow features. The obtained results indicate that the compound type multistage safety injection tank can effectively control the injection flow rate in a passive manner, by switching the driving force for the safety injection from gas pressure to gravity during the refill and reflood phases, respectively

  13. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; hide

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  14. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  15. Myocardial functional responses do not contribute to maximal exercise performance in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Denise L; DeBlois, Jacob P; Wharton, Margaret; Rowland, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Both the extent and means by which maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) is depressed by elevated ambient temperature are uncertain. Particularly, information is currently unavailable regarding the possible influence of alterations in myocardial function on [Formula: see text] and performance during exercise in the heat. This study investigated the effects of environmental heat on [Formula: see text], peak work capacity, and myocardial function during a standard, progressive cycle test to exhaustion. Twelve euhydrated men (aged 20.7 ± 1.7 years) performed a maximal cycle test in an environmental chamber in both heat stress [35°C, 30% relative humidity (RH)] and temperate (20°C, 30% RH) conditions with measurement of standard gas exchange variables, core temperature, and echocardiographic measures of cardiac function. A small but statistically significant reduction of peak work capacity was observed in the heat stress versus temperate conditions (253 ± 30 and 259 ± 30 W, respectively, p = 0.02). Mean [Formula: see text] was not statistically different in the two conditions (p = 0.16) but values were 3.4% lower in the heat, and 9 of 12 participants demonstrated lower values in the heat stress trial. No differences in responses of heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, core temperature, hydration status, or myocardial systolic or diastolic function were observed between the two conditions, but perceived body temperature was higher in the heat. The small, negative impact of heat on exercise performance and [Formula: see text] could not be explained by disturbances in myocardial functional responses to exercise in young adult males.

  16. Motor unit recruitment by size does not provide functional advantages for motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Jakob L; Farina, Dario

    2013-12-15

    It is commonly assumed that the orderly recruitment of motor units by size provides a functional advantage for the performance of movements compared with a random recruitment order. On the other hand, the excitability of a motor neuron depends on its size and this is intrinsically linked to its innervation number. A range of innervation numbers among motor neurons corresponds to a range of sizes and thus to a range of excitabilities ordered by size. Therefore, if the excitation drive is similar among motor neurons, the recruitment by size is inevitably due to the intrinsic properties of motor neurons and may not have arisen to meet functional demands. In this view, we tested the assumption that orderly recruitment is necessarily beneficial by determining if this type of recruitment produces optimal motor output. Using evolutionary algorithms and without any a priori assumptions, the parameters of neuromuscular models were optimized with respect to several criteria for motor performance. Interestingly, the optimized model parameters matched well known neuromuscular properties, but none of the optimization criteria determined a consistent recruitment order by size unless this was imposed by an association between motor neuron size and excitability. Further, when the association between size and excitability was imposed, the resultant model of recruitment did not improve the motor performance with respect to the absence of orderly recruitment. A consistent observation was that optimal solutions for a variety of criteria of motor performance always required a broad range of innervation numbers in the population of motor neurons, skewed towards the small values. These results indicate that orderly recruitment of motor units in itself does not provide substantial functional advantages for motor control. Rather, the reason for its near-universal presence in human movements is that motor functions are optimized by a broad range of innervation numbers.

  17. Performance and complexity of tunable sparse network coding with gradual growing tuning functions over wireless networks

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido Ortiz, Pablo; Sørensen, Chres W.; Lucani Roetter, Daniel Enrique; Agüero Calvo, Ramón

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) has been shown to be a technique with several benefits, in particular when applied over wireless mesh networks, since it provides robustness against packet losses. On the other hand, Tunable Sparse Network Coding (TSNC) is a promising concept, which leverages a trade-off between computational complexity and goodput. An optimal density tuning function has not been found yet, due to the lack of a closed-form expression that links density, performance and comp...

  18. Association between advanced glycation end-products and functional performance in Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse U; Krijnen, Wim P; Bautmans, Ivan; van der Schans, Cees; Hobbelen, Hans

    2017-09-01

    People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience, in addition to the progressive loss of cognitive functions, a decline in functional performance such as mobility impairment and disability in activities of daily living (ADL). Functional decline in dementia is mainly linked to the progressive brain pathology. Peripheral biomechanical changes by advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been suggested but have yet to be thoroughly studied. A multi-center, longitudinal, one-year follow-up cohort study was conducted in 144 people with early stage AD or mixed Alzheimer's/Vascular dementia. Linear mixed model analyses was used to study associations between AGE-levels (AGE reader) and mobility (Timed Up and Go), and ADL (Groningen Activity Restriction Scale and Barthel index), respectively. A significant association between AGE levels and mobility (β = 3.57, 95%CI: 1.43-5.73) was revealed; however, no significant association between AGE levels and ADL was found. Over a one-year time span, mean AGE levels significantly increased, and mobility and ADL performance decreased. Change in AGE levels was not significantly correlated with change in mobility. This study indicates that high AGE levels could be a contributing factor to impaired mobility but lacks evidence for an association with ADL decline in people with early stage AD or mixed dementia. Future research is necessary on the reduction of functional decline in dementia regarding the effectiveness of interventions such as physical activity programs and dietary advice possibly in combination with pharmacologic strategies targeting AGE accumulation.

  19. Dynamic functional reorganizations and relationship with working memory performance in healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser eSala-Llonch

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several theories have been proposed in attempts to identify the neural mechanisms underlying successful cognitive aging. Old subjects show increased neural activity during the performance of tasks, mainly in prefrontal areas, which is interpreted as a compensatory mechanism linked to functional brain efficiency. Moreover, resting-state studies have concluded that elders show disconnection or disruption of large-scale functional networks. We used functional MRI during resting-state and a verbal n-back task with different levels of memory load in a cohort of young and old healthy adults to identify patterns of networks associated with working memory and brain default mode. We found that the disruption of resting-state networks in the elderly coexists with task-related overactivations of certain brain areas and with reorganizations within these functional networks. Moreover, elders who were able to activate additional areas and to recruit a more bilateral frontal pattern within the task-related network achieved successful performance on the task. We concluded that the balanced and plastic reorganization of brain networks underlies successful cognitive aging. This observation allows the integration of several theories that have been proposed to date regarding the aging brain.

  20. Improving the performance of water desalination through ultra-permeable functionalized nanoporous graphene oxide membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Azamat, Jafar; Erfan-Niya, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the water desalination performance of nanoporous graphene oxide (NPGO) membranes. The simulated systems consist of a NPGO as a membrane with a functionalized pore in its center immersed in an aqueous ionic solution and a graphene sheet as a barrier. The considered NPGO membranes are involved four types of pore with different size and chemistry. The results indicated that the NPGO membrane has effective efficiency in salt rejection as well as high performance in water flux. For all types of pore with the radius size of 2.9-4.5 Å, the NPGO shows salt rejection of >89%. Functional groups on the surface and edge of pores have a great effect on water flux. To precisely understand the effect of functional groups on the surface of nanostructured membranes, nanoporous graphene was simulated under the same condition for comparison. Hydrophilic groups on the surface make the NPGO as an ultra-permeable membrane. As a result, the obtained water flux for NPGO was about 77% greater than graphene. Also, it was found that the water flux of NPGO is 2-5 orders of magnitude greater than other existing reverse osmosis membranes. Therefore, the investigated systems can be recommended as a model for the water desalination.

  1. Effects of occupational therapy services on fine motor and functional performance in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case-Smith, J

    2000-01-01

    This study examined how performance components and variables in intervention influenced fine motor and functional outcomes in preschool children. In a sample of 44 preschool-aged children with fine motor delays who received occupational therapy services, eight fine motor and functional performance assessments were administered at the beginning and end of the academic year. Data on the format and intervention activities of each occupational therapy session were recorded for 8 months. The children received a mean of 23 sessions, in both individual and group format. Most of the sessions (81%) used fine motor activities; 29% addressed peer interaction, and 16% addressed play skills. Visual motor outcomes were influenced by the number of intervention sessions and percent of sessions with play goals. Fine motor outcomes were most influenced by the therapists' emphasis on play and peer interaction goals; functional outcomes were influenced by number of sessions and percent of sessions that specifically addressed self-care goals. The influence of play on therapy outcomes suggests that a focus on play in intervention activities can enhance fine motor and visual motor performance.

  2. THE IMMEDIATE AND LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF KINESIOTAPE® ON BALANCE AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter; Fukuroku, Taryn; Kuzniewski, Michael; Dias, Joe; Figueiredo, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background The application of Kinesio Tex® tape (KT) results, in theory, in the improvement of muscle contractibility by supporting weakened muscles. The effect of KT on muscle strength has been investigated by numerous researchers who have theorized that KT facilitates an immediate increase in muscle strength by generating a concentric pull on the fascia. The effect of KT on balance and functional performance has been controversial because of the inconsistencies of tension and direction of pull required during application of KT and whether its use on healthy individuals provides therapeutic benefits. Hypotheses/Purpose The purpose of the present study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of the prescribed application (for facilitation) of KT when applied to the dominant lower extremity of healthy individuals. The hypothesis was that balance and functional performance would improve with the prescribed application of KT versus the sham application. Study Design Pretest-posttest repeated measures control group design. Methods Seventeen healthy subjects (9 males; 8 females) ranging from 18-35 years of age (mean age 23.3 ± 0.72), volunteered to participate in this study. KT was applied to the gastrocnemius of the participant's dominant leg using a prescribed application to facilitate muscle performance for the experimental group versus a sham application for the control group. The Biodex Balance System and four hop tests were utilized to assess balance, proprioception, and functional performance beginning on the first day including pre- and immediately post-KT application measurements. Subsequent measurements were performed 24, 72, and 120 hours after tape application. Repeated measures ANOVA's were performed for each individual dependent variable. Results There were no significant differences for main and interaction effects between KT and sham groups for the balance and four hop tests. Conclusion The results of the present study did not

  3. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...

  4. A Process to Establish the Common Functions Performed by a Multi-Role Vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    25 5.9 EPF – Environmental Protection Functions...Functions WFO Offshore Warfighting Functions EPF Environmental Protection Functions EPF .1 Waste Treatment Functions DSTO-TR-2473 16 HSF...Mission Command Function CFV Vessel Command Function EPF Environmental Protection Functions HSF Hotel Services Functions HVAC HVAC Functions

  5. MS Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance While Disorientad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from spaceflight, a majority of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. No operational countermeasure currently exists to mitigate the risks associated with these sensorimotor disturbances. Stochastic resonance (SR) can be thought of simply as "noise benefit" or an increase in information transfer by a system when in the presence of a non-zero level of noise. We have shown that low levels of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) improve balance and locomotor performance due to SR (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). Additionally, a study in a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) hemi-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease demonstrated improvements in locomotor activity after low-level SVS delivery possibly due to an increase in nigral gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) release in a dopamine independent way (Samoudi et al. 2012). SVS specifically increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. These results suggest that SVS can cause targeted alterations of GABA release to affect performance of functional tasks. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008). Magnusson et al. (2000) supported this finding by showing that the administration of a GABAB agonist caused a reversal of the symptoms that is normally seen after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Thus, GABA could play a significant role in reducing MS and promoting adaptability. We have taken advantage of the SR mechanism as a modulator of neurotransmitters to develop a unique SVS countermeasure system to mitigate MS symptoms and improve functional performance after landing. Healthy

  6. Team Training for Dynamic Cross-Functional Teams in Aviation: Behavioral, Cognitive, and Performance Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlepage, Glenn E; Hein, Michael B; Moffett, Richard G; Craig, Paul A; Georgiou, Andrea M

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a training program designed to improve cross-functional coordination in airline operations. Teamwork across professional specializations is essential for safe and efficient airline operations, but aviation education primarily emphasizes positional knowledge and skill. Although crew resource management training is commonly used to provide some degree of teamwork training, it is generally focused on specific specializations, and little training is provided in coordination across specializations. The current study describes and evaluates a multifaceted training program designed to enhance teamwork and team performance of cross-functional teams within a simulated airline flight operations center. The training included a variety of components: orientation training, position-specific declarative knowledge training, position-specific procedural knowledge training, a series of high-fidelity team simulations, and a series of after-action reviews. Following training, participants demonstrated more effective teamwork, development of transactive memory, and more effective team performance. Multifaceted team training that incorporates positional training and team interaction in complex realistic situations and followed by after-action reviews can facilitate teamwork and team performance. Team training programs, such as the one described here, have potential to improve the training of aviation professionals. These techniques can be applied to other contexts where multidisciplinary teams and multiteam systems work to perform highly interdependent activities. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  7. Associations of Adiposity and Aerobic Fitness with Executive Function and Math Performance in Danish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise; Thorsen, Anne Kær; Froberg, Karsten; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bugge, Anna

    2015-10-01

    To examine the associations of adiposity and aerobic fitness with executive function and math performance in Danish adolescents. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with data on 525 adolescents attending sixth and seventh grades from 14 schools in the 5 main regions of Denmark. A modified Eriksen flanker task was used to assess inhibitory control, a key aspect of executive function. Academic performance was assessed by a customized math test. Aerobic fitness was assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (Andersen test). Body mass index (BMI) was negatively associated with accuracy on incongruent trials during the flanker task (P = .005). A higher BMI was associated with a larger accuracy interference score (P = .01). Similarly, waist circumference (WC) was negatively associated with accuracy on incongruent trials (P = .008). A higher WC was associated with a larger reaction time (RT) interference score (P = .02) and accuracy interference score (P = .009). Higher aerobic fitness was associated with a faster RT on congruent trials (P = .009) and incongruent trials (P = .003). Higher aerobic fitness was associated with a smaller RT interference score (P = .04). Aerobic fitness was positively associated with math score (P math score (P > .05). These results suggest that aerobic fitness is positively associated with both inhibitory control and math performance in adolescents. Adiposity is negatively associated with inhibitory control in adolescents. Adiposity is not associated with math performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of patient functional performance in different knee arthroplasty designs during unconstrained squat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdini, Federica; Zara, Claudio; Leo, Tommaso; Mengarelli, Alessandro; Cardarelli, Stefano; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, squat named by Authors unconstrained because performed without constrains related to feet position, speed, knee maximum angle to be reached, was tested as motor task revealing differences in functional performance after knee arthroplasty. It involves large joints ranges of motion, does not compromise joint safety and requires accurate control strategies to maintain balance. Motion capture techniques were used to study squat on a healthy control group (CTR) and on three groups, each characterised by a specific knee arthroplasty design: a Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), a Mobile Bearing and a Fixed Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (respectively MBUA and FBUA). Squat was analysed during descent, maintenance and ascent phase and described by speed, angular kinematics of lower and upper body, the Center of Pressure (CoP) trajectory and muscle activation timing of quadriceps and biceps femoris. Compared to CTR, for TKA and MBUA knee maximum flexion was lower, vertical speed during descent and ascent reduced and the duration of whole movement was longer. CoP mean distance was higher for all arthroplasty groups during descent as higher was, CoP mean velocity for MBUA and TKA during ascent and descent. Unconstrained squat is able to reveal differences in the functional performance among control and arthroplasty groups and between different arthroplasty designs. Considering the similarity index calculated for the variables showing statistically significance, FBUA performance appears to be closest to that of the CTR group. III a.

  9. Development of a Performance-Based Measure of Executive Functions in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Chi Chiu

    Full Text Available A performance-based measure for assessing executive functions (EF is useful to understand patients' real life performance of EF. This study aimed to develop a performance-based measure of executive functions (PEF based on the Lezak model and to examine psychometric properties (i.e., unidimensionality and reliability of the PEF using Rasch analysis in patients with schizophrenia. We developed the PEF in three phases: (1 designing the preliminary version of PEF; (2 consultation with experts, cognitive interviews with patients, and pilot tests on patients to revise the preliminary PEF; (3 establishment of the final version of the PEF and examination of unidimensionality and Rasch reliability. Two hundred patients were assessed using the revised PEF. After deleting items which did not satisfy the Rasch model's expectations, the final version of the PEF contained 1 practice item and 13 test items for assessing the four domains of EF (i.e., volition, planning, purposive action, and effective performance. For unidimensional and multidimensional Rasch analyses, the 4 domains showed good reliability (i.e., 0.77-0.85 and 0.87-0.90, respectively. Our results showed that the PEF had satisfactory unidimensionality and Rasch reliability. Therefore, clinicians and researchers could use the PEF to assess the four domains of EF in patients with schizophrenia.

  10. Assessment of patient functional performance in different knee arthroplasty designs during unconstrained squat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdini, Federica; Zara, Claudio; Leo, Tommaso; Mengarelli, Alessandro; Cardarelli, Stefano; Innocenti, Bernardo

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background In this paper, squat named by Authors unconstrained because performed without constrains related to feet position, speed, knee maximum angle to be reached, was tested as motor task revealing differences in functional performance after knee arthroplasty. It involves large joints ranges of motion, does not compromise joint safety and requires accurate control strategies to maintain balance. Methods Motion capture techniques were used to study squat on a healthy control group (CTR) and on three groups, each characterised by a specific knee arthroplasty design: a Total Knee Arthroplasty (TKA), a Mobile Bearing and a Fixed Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (respectively MBUA and FBUA). Squat was analysed during descent, maintenance and ascent phase and described by speed, angular kinematics of lower and upper body, the Center of Pressure (CoP) trajectory and muscle activation timing of quadriceps and biceps femoris. Results Compared to CTR, for TKA and MBUA knee maximum flexion was lower, vertical speed during descent and ascent reduced and the duration of whole movement was longer. CoP mean distance was higher for all arthroplasty groups during descent as higher was, CoP mean velocity for MBUA and TKA during ascent and descent. Conclusions Unconstrained squat is able to reveal differences in the functional performance among control and arthroplasty groups and between different arthroplasty designs. Considering the similarity index calculated for the variables showing statistically significance, FBUA performance appears to be closest to that of the CTR group. Level of evidence III a. PMID:29387646

  11. Relating Memory To Functional Performance In Normal Aging to Dementia Using Hierarchical Bayesian Cognitive Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankle, William R.; Pooley, James P.; Steyvers, Mark; Hara, Junko; Mangrola, Tushar; Reisberg, Barry; Lee, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders (ADRD). 280 patients (normal or ADRD) received a total of 1,514 assessments using the Functional Assessment Staging Test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen (MCIS). A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing (HBCP) model was created by embedding a signal detection theory (SDT) model of the MCIS delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The SDT model used latent parameters of discriminability (memory process) and response bias (executive function) to predict, simultaneously, recognition memory performance for each patient and each FAST severity group. The observed recognition memory data did not distinguish the six FAST severity stages, but the latent parameters completely separated them. The latent parameters were also used successfully to transform the ordinal FAST measure into a continuous measure reflecting the underlying continuum of functional severity. HBCP models applied to recognition memory data from clinical practice settings accurately translated a latent measure of cognition to a continuous measure of functional severity for both individuals and FAST groups. Such a translation links two levels of brain information processing, and may enable more accurate correlations with other levels, such as those characterized by biomarkers. PMID:22407225

  12. Reduced functional connectivity between V1 and inferior frontal cortex associated with visuomotor performance in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Michele E; Mizuno, Akiko; Dahl, Branelle C; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2005-04-15

    Some recent evidence has suggested abnormalities of the dorsal stream and possibly the mirror neuron system in autism, which may be responsible for impairments of joint attention, imitation, and secondarily for language delays. The current study investigates functional connectivity along the dorsal stream in autism, examining interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal cross-correlation during visuomotor coordination. Eight high-functioning autistic men and eight handedness and age-matched controls were included. Visually prompted button presses were performed with the preferred hand. For each subject, functional connectivity was computed in terms of BOLD signal correlation with the mean time series in bilateral visual area 17. Our hypothesis of reduced dorsal stream connectivity in autism was only in part confirmed. Functional connectivity with superior parietal areas was not significantly reduced. However, the autism group showed significantly reduced connectivity with bilateral inferior frontal area 44, which is compatible with the hypothesis of mirror neuron defects in autism. More generally, our findings suggest that dorsal stream connectivity in autism may not be fully functional.

  13. Bike Desks in the Office: Physical Health, Cognitive Function, Work Engagement, and Work Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeyns, Tine; de Geus, Bas; Bailey, Stephen; De Pauw, Kevin; Decroix, Lieselot; Van Cutsem, Jeroen; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal effect of implementing bike desks in an office setting on physical health, cognition, and work parameters. Physical health, cognitive function, work engagement, and work performance measured before (T0) and after (T2) the intervention period were compared between office workers who used the bike desk (IG, n = 22) and those who did not (CG, n = 16). The IG cycled approximately 98 minutes/week. The IG showed a significantly lower fat percentage and a trend toward a higher work engagement at T2 relative to T0, while this was not different for the CG. No effects on other parameters of health, cognition, or work performance were found. Providing bike desks in the office positively influences employees' fat percentage and could positively influence work engagement without compromising work performance.

  14. Fault diagnosis and performance evaluation for high current LIA based on radial basis function neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xinglin; Wang Huacen; Chen Nan; Dai Wenhua; Li Jin

    2006-01-01

    High current linear induction accelerator (LIA) is a complicated experimental physics device. It is difficult to evaluate and predict its performance. this paper presents a method which combines wavelet packet transform and radial basis function (RBF) neural network to build fault diagnosis and performance evaluation in order to improve reliability of high current LIA. The signal characteristics vectors which are extracted based on energy parameters of wavelet packet transform can well present the temporal and steady features of pulsed power signal, and reduce data dimensions effectively. The fault diagnosis system for accelerating cell and the trend classification system for the beam current based on RBF networks can perform fault diagnosis and evaluation, and provide predictive information for precise maintenance of high current LIA. (authors)

  15. Mnesic performance and executive functions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Introzzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Episodic Memory (EM and the Executive Functions (EF are cognitive areas that are affected in patients with diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS. Nowadays there exists scarce works destined to explore the infl uence of the EF on measures of mnesic performance in MS. For this reason, we analyze the effect of the EF on the performance in a set of memory measures. We worked with a clinical group (n=36 and with a control group (n=36 compared by age and educational level. The results show that the clinical group obtained significantly low average values in all the mnesic indexes (with exception of recognition and in all the executive measures. All the executive indexes showed significant associations with some of the indexes of mnesic performance. These findings suggest that the problems in the episodic memory in EM patients could be analyzed as the manifestation of a global disorder that could be similar to the one that involves the EF.

  16. Validation of risk-based performance indicators: Safety system function trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccio, J.L.; Vesely, W.E.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.F.; Usher, J.L.; Oden, N.

    1989-10-01

    This report describes and applies a process for validating a model for a risk-based performance indicator. The purpose of the risk-based indicator evaluated, Safety System Function Trend (SSFT), is to monitor the unavailability of selected safety systems. Interim validation of this indicator is based on three aspects: a theoretical basis, an empirical basis relying on statistical correlations, and case studies employing 25 plant years of historical data collected from five plants for a number of safety systems. Results using the SSFT model are encouraging. Application of the model through case studies dealing with the performance of important safety systems shows that statistically significant trends in, and levels of, system performance can be discerned which thereby can provide leading indications of degrading and/or improving performances. Methods for developing system performance tolerance bounds are discussed and applied to aid in the interpretation of the trends in this risk-based indicator. Some additional characteristics of the SSFT indicator, learned through the data-collection efforts and subsequent data analyses performed, are also discussed. The usefulness and practicality of other data sources for validation purposes are explored. Further validation of this indicator is noted. Also, additional research is underway in developing a more detailed estimator of system unavailability. 9 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Development of multi-functional streetscape green infrastructure using a performance index approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwary, A.; Williams, I.D.; Heidrich, O.; Namdeo, A.; Bandaru, V.; Calfapietra, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation framework for streetscape vegetation. A performance index (PI) is conceived using the following seven traits, specific to the street environments – Pollution Flux Potential (PFP), Carbon Sequestration Potential (CSP), Thermal Comfort Potential (TCP), Noise Attenuation Potential (NAP), Biomass Energy Potential (BEP), Environmental Stress Tolerance (EST) and Crown Projection Factor (CPF). Its application is demonstrated through a case study using fifteen street vegetation species from the UK, utilising a combination of direct field measurements and inventoried literature data. Our results indicate greater preference to small-to-medium size trees and evergreen shrubs over larger trees for streetscaping. The proposed PI approach can be potentially applied two-fold: one, for evaluation of the performance of the existing street vegetation, facilitating the prospects for further improving them through management strategies and better species selection; two, for planning new streetscapes and multi-functional biomass as part of extending the green urban infrastructure. - Highlights: • A performance evaluation framework for streetscape vegetation is presented. • Seven traits, relevant to street vegetation, are included in a performance index (PI). • The PI approach is applied to quantify and rank fifteen street vegetation species. • Medium size trees and evergreen shrubs are found more favourable for streetscapes. • The PI offers a metric for developing sustainable streetscape green infrastructure. - A performance index is developed and applied to fifteen vegetation species indicating greater preference to medium size trees and evergreen shrubs for streetscaping.

  18. Performance analysis of hybrid ground-coupled heat pump system with multi-functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Tian; Wang, Baolong; Wu, Wei; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The hybrid GCHP system with multi-functions is proposed. • The system maintains the soil temperature and heating reliability steady. • The multi-functional operation of HCUT can save more energy of the system. - Abstract: Underground thermal imbalance is a significant problem for ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems that serve predominately heated buildings in cold regions, which extract more heat from the ground and inject less heat, especially in buildings requiring domestic hot water (DHW). To solve this problem, a previously developed heat compensation unit with thermosyphon (HCUT) is integrated with a GCHP unit to build a hybrid GCHP system. To improve the energy savings of this hybrid GCHP system, the HCUT unit is set to have multiple functions (heat compensation, direct DHW and direct space heating) in this paper. To analyze the improved system performance, a hotel requiring air-conditioning and DHW is selected and simulated in three typical cold cities using the dynamic software DeST and TRNSYS. The results indicate that the hybrid GCHP system can maintain the underground thermal balance while keeping the indoor air temperature within the design range. Furthermore, the HCUT unit efficiently reduces the energy consumption via its multi-functional operations. Compared to the previous system that only used HCUT for heat compensation, adding the direct DHW function further saves 7.5–11.0% energy in heat compensation (HC) and DHW (i.e., 3.6–4.8% of the whole system). Simultaneously adding the direct DHW and space heating functions to the HCUT can save 9.8–12.9% energy in HC and DHW (i.e., 5.1–6.0% of the whole system). The hybrid GCHP system with a multi-functional HCUT provides more energy savings while maintaining the underground thermal balance in cold regions that demand both air-conditioning and DHW

  19. Sleep Extension before Sleep Loss: Effects on Performance and Neuromuscular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pierrick J; Lapole, Thomas; Erblang, Mégane; Guillard, Mathias; Bourrilhon, Cyprien; Léger, Damien; Chennaoui, Mounir; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of six nights of sleep extension on motor performance and associated neuromuscular function before and after one night of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Twelve healthy men participated in two experimental conditions (randomized crossover design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed six nights of either EXT or HAB at home followed by an assessment of motor performance and neuromuscular function at baseline (D0) and after one night of TSD, i.e., 34-37 h of continuous wakefulness (D1). Maximal voluntary contractions with superimposed femoral nerve electrical and transcranial magnetic stimulations and stimulations on relaxed muscles were investigated before and after submaximal isometric knee extensor exercises performed until task failure. Time to exhaustion was longer in EXT compared with HAB (+3.9% ± 7.7% and +8.1% ± 12.3% at D0 and D1, respectively). Performance at D1 decreased from D0 similarly between conditions (-7.2% ± 5.6% and -3.7% ± 7.3% in HAB and EXT, respectively). At D1, the RPE during exercise was lower in EXT compared with HAB (-7.2% ± 7.5%) with no difference at D0. No difference was observed in voluntary activation between the two conditions. Six nights of sleep extension improved sustained contraction time to exhaustion, and this result cannot be explained by smaller reductions in voluntary activation, measured by both nerve and transcranial magnetic stimulation. The beneficial effect on motor performance in the EXT condition was likely due to reduced RPE after TSD.

  20. Performance of machine-learning scoring functions in structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Ballester, Pedro J; Siedlecki, Pawel

    2017-04-25

    Classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their performance in virtual screening and binding affinity prediction. Recently, machine-learning scoring functions trained on protein-ligand complexes have shown great promise in small tailored studies. They have also raised controversy, specifically concerning model overfitting and applicability to novel targets. Here we provide a new ready-to-use scoring function (RF-Score-VS) trained on 15 426 active and 893 897 inactive molecules docked to a set of 102 targets. We use the full DUD-E data sets along with three docking tools, five classical and three machine-learning scoring functions for model building and performance assessment. Our results show RF-Score-VS can substantially improve virtual screening performance: RF-Score-VS top 1% provides 55.6% hit rate, whereas that of Vina only 16.2% (for smaller percent the difference is even more encouraging: RF-Score-VS top 0.1% achieves 88.6% hit rate for 27.5% using Vina). In addition, RF-Score-VS provides much better prediction of measured binding affinity than Vina (Pearson correlation of 0.56 and -0.18, respectively). Lastly, we test RF-Score-VS on an independent test set from the DEKOIS benchmark and observed comparable results. We provide full data sets to facilitate further research in this area (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs) as well as ready-to-use RF-Score-VS (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs_binary).

  1. Cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela P. Vasconcelos-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess cognitive performance and psychosocial functioning in patients with bipolar disorder (BD, in unaffected siblings, and in healthy controls. Methods: Subjects were patients with BD (n=36, unaffected siblings (n=35, and healthy controls (n=44. Psychosocial functioning was accessed using the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST. A sub-group of patients with BD (n=21, unaffected siblings (n=14, and healthy controls (n=22 also underwent a battery of neuropsychological tests: California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST. Clinical and sociodemographic characteristics were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance or the chi-square test; multivariate analysis of covariance was used to examine differences in neuropsychological variables. Results: Patients with BD showed higher FAST total scores (23.90±11.35 than healthy controls (5.86±5.47; p < 0.001 and siblings (12.60±11.83; p 0.001. Siblings and healthy controls also showed statistically significant differences in FAST total scores (p = 0.008. Patients performed worse than healthy controls on all CVLT sub-tests (p < 0.030 and in the number of correctly completed categories on WCST (p = 0.030. Siblings did not differ from healthy controls in cognitive tests. Conclusion: Unaffected siblings of patients with BD may show poorer functional performance compared to healthy controls. FAST scores may contribute to the development of markers of vulnerability and endophenotypic traits in at-risk populations.

  2. Olfactory evaluation in Mild Cognitive Impairment: correlation with neurocognitive performance and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacci, Alessandro; Bruno, Rosa M; Ghiadoni, Lorenzo; Pratali, Lorenza; Berardi, Nicoletta; Tognoni, Gloria; Cintoli, Simona; Volpi, Leda; Bonuccelli, Ubaldo; Sicari, Rosa; Taddei, Stefano; Maffei, Lamberto; Picano, Eugenio

    2017-05-01

    Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an intermediate condition between normal aging and dementia, associated with an increased risk of progression into the latter within months or years. Olfactory impairment, a well-known biomarker for neurodegeneration, might be present in the condition early, possibly representing a signal for future pathological onset. Our study aimed at evaluating olfactory function in MCI and healthy controls in relation to neurocognitive performance and endothelial function. A total of 85 individuals with MCI and 41 healthy controls, matched for age and gender, were recruited. Olfactory function was assessed by Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test (Burghart, Medizintechnik, GmbH, Wedel, Germany). A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment was performed. Endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery by ultrasound. MCI individuals showed an impaired olfactory function compared to controls. The overall olfactory score is able to predict MCI with a good sensitivity and specificity (70.3 and 77.4% respectively). In MCI, olfactory identification score is correlated with a number of neurocognitive abilities, including overall cognitive status, dementia rating, immediate and delayed memory, visuospatial ability and verbal fluency. FMD was reduced in MCI (2.90 ± 2.15 vs. 3.66 ± 1.96%, P = 0.016) and was positively associated with olfactory identification score (ρ s =0.219, P = 0.025). The association remained significant after controlling for age, gender, and smoking. In conclusion, olfactory evaluation is able to discriminate between MCI and healthy individuals. Systemic vascular dysfunction might be involved, at least indirectly, in olfactory dysfunction in MCI. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An objective measure of physical function of elderly outpatients. The Physical Performance Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuben, D B; Siu, A L

    1990-10-01

    Direct observation of physical function has the advantage of providing an objective, quantifiable measure of functional capabilities. We have developed the Physical Performance Test (PPT), which assesses multiple domains of physical function using observed performance of tasks that simulate activities of daily living of various degrees of difficulty. Two versions are presented: a nine-item scale that includes writing a sentence, simulated eating, turning 360 degrees, putting on and removing a jacket, lifting a book and putting it on a shelf, picking up a penny from the floor, a 50-foot walk test, and climbing stairs (scored as two items); and a seven-item scale that does not include stairs. The PPT can be completed in less than 10 minutes and requires only a few simple props. We then tested the validity of PPT using 183 subjects (mean age, 79 years) in six settings including four clinical practices (one of Parkinson's disease patients), a board-and-care home, and a senior citizens' apartment. The PPT was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 and 0.79, interrater reliability = 0.99 and 0.93 for the nine-item and seven-item tests, respectively) and demonstrated concurrent validity with self-reported measures of physical function. Scores on the PPT for both scales were highly correlated (.50 to .80) with modified Rosow-Breslau, Instrumental and Basic Activities of Daily Living scales, and Tinetti gait score. Scores on the PPT were more moderately correlated with self-reported health status, cognitive status, and mental health (.24 to .47), and negatively with age (-.24 and -.18). Thus, the PPT also demonstrated construct validity. The PPT is a promising objective measurement of physical function, but its clinical and research value for screening, monitoring, and prediction will have to be determined.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FUNCTIONAL LIMITATIONS OF THE LOCOMOTOR SYSTEM AND PERFORMANCE IN JUDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boguszewski Dariusz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The high demands imposed by judo with regard to physical fitness can predispose athletes practising this sport to injury. The aim of the current study was to determine the relationship between the degree of functional limitations and performance outcomes in judo athletes. Material and methods. The study involved 23 judo athletes aged 17-27 years. For the purpose of carrying out comparative analyses, the judokas were divided into two groups according to their level of achievement. The first group consisted of medallists in international tournaments and Polish championships, and the second group was composed of non-medallists. The research tool used was the Functional Movement Screen test battery, which included seven exercise tests whose performance was rated on a scale from 0 to 3. Relationships between variables were assessed using Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients. Inter-group differences were determined by means of the Mann-Whitney U test, and differences between the left and right side of the body in bilateral tests were examined using the Wilcoxon test (statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Results. The total score for the FMS test was significantly higher (p < 0.05 in judo athletes who had a higher level of achievement. Scores below 14 points, which were indicative of high susceptibility to injury, were received by two athletes from the group of medallists and 8 non-medallists. Major asymmetries were not found in the subjects; significant differences were observed only in the shoulder mobility test in senior judokas (p < 0.05 and non-medallists (p < 0.01. Conclusions. Judo athletes who had better performance outcomes in competitions had higher scores in the FMS test. Functional limitations can have an impact on the outcomes of performance in judo; their degree is indicative of the quality of the movement as well as of susceptibility to injury.

  5. Executive Functioning and School Performance Among Pediatric Survivors of Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerstle, Melissa; Beebe, Dean W.; Drotar, Dennis; Cassedy, Amy; Marino, Bradley S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the presence and severity of real-world impairments in executive functioning– responsible for children’s regulatory skills (metacognition, behavioral regulation) – and its potential impact on school performance among pediatric survivors of complex congenital heart disease (CHD). Study design Survivors of complex CHD aged 8–16 years (n=143)and their parents/guardians from a regional CHD survivor registry participated (81% participation rate). Parents completed proxy measures of executive functioning, school competency, and school-related quality of life (QOL). Patients also completed a measure of school QOL and underwent IQ testing. Patients were categorized into two groups based on heart lesion complexity: two-ventricle or single-ventricle. Results Survivors of complex CHD performed significantly worse than norms for executive functioning, IQ, school competency, and school QOL. Metacognition was more severely affected than behavioral regulation, and metacognitive deficits were more often present in older children. Even after taking into account demographic factors, disease severity, and IQ, metacognition uniquely and strongly predicted poorer school performance. In exploratory analyses, patients with single-ventricle lesions were rated as having lower school competency and school QOL, and patients with two-ventricle lesions were rated as having poorer behavioral regulation. Conclusions Survivors of complex CHD experience greater executive functioning difficulties than healthy peers, with metacognition particularly impacted and particularly relevant for day-to-day school performance. Especially in older children, clinicians should watch for metacognitive deficits, such as problems with organization, planning, self-monitoring, and follow-through on tasks. PMID:26875011

  6. Dietary Flavanols: A Review of Select Effects on Vascular Function, Blood Pressure, and Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dashti, Yousef A; Holt, Roberta R; Stebbins, Charles L; Keen, Carl L; Hackman, Robert M

    2018-05-02

    An individual's diet affects numerous physiological functions and can play an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that dietary flavanols can be an important modulator of vascular risk. Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure, especially in prehypertensive and hypertensive individuals. Flavanols may act in part through signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxing and constricting factors. During exercise, flavanols have been reported to modulate metabolism and respiration (e.g., maximal oxygen uptake, O 2 cost of exercise, and energy expenditure), and reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, resulting in increased skeletal muscle efficiency and endurance capacity. Flavanol-induced reductions in blood pressure during exercise may decrease the work of the heart. Collectively, these effects suggest that flavanols can act as an ergogenic aid to help delay the onset of fatigue. More research is needed to better clarify the effects of flavanols on vascular function, blood pressure regulation, and exercise performance and establish safe and effective levels of intake. Flavanol-rich foods and food products can be useful components of a healthy diet and lifestyle program for those seeking to better control their blood pressure or to enhance their physical activity. Key teaching points • Epidemiological and clinical studies indicate that dietary flavanols can reduce the risk of vascular disease. • Diets and plant extracts rich in flavanols have been reported to lower blood pressure and improve exercise performance in humans. • Mechanisms by which flavanols may reduce blood pressure function include alterations in signaling pathways that affect vascular function, nitric oxide availability, and the release of endothelial-derived relaxation and constriction factors.

  7. Using automatic calibration method for optimizing the performance of Pedotransfer functions of saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdelbaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are an easy way to predict saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat without measurements. This study aims to auto calibrate 22 PTFs. The PTFs were divided into three groups according to its input requirements and the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was used in calibration. The results showed great modification in the performance of the functions compared to the original published functions. For group 1 PTFs, the geometric mean error ratio (GMER and the geometric standard deviation of error ratio (GSDER values were modified from range (1.27–6.09, (5.2–7.01 to (0.91–1.15, (4.88–5.85 respectively. For group 2 PTFs, the GMER and the GSDER values were modified from (0.3–1.55, (5.9–12.38 to (1.00–1.03, (5.5–5.9 respectively. For group 3 PTFs, the GMER and the GSDER values were modified from (0.11–2.06, (5.55–16.42 to (0.82–1.01, (5.1–6.17 respectively. The result showed that the automatic calibration is an efficient and accurate method to enhance the performance of the PTFs.

  8. Social Skills Intervention Participation and Associated Improvements in Executive Function Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn E. Christ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social communication. It has been postulated that such difficulties are related to disruptions in underlying cognitive processes such as executive function. The present study examined potential changes in executive function performance associated with participation in the Social Competence Intervention (SCI program, a short-term intervention designed to improve social competence in adolescents with ASD. Laboratory behavioral performance measures were used to separately evaluate potential intervention-related changes in individual executive function component processes (i.e., working memory, inhibitory control, and cognitive flexibility in a sample of 22 adolescents with ASD both before and after intervention. For comparison purposes, a demographically matched sample of 14 individuals without ASD was assessed at identical time intervals. Intervention-related improvements were observed on the working memory task, with gains evident in spatial working memory and, to a slightly lesser degree, verbal working memory. Significant improvements were also found for a working memory-related aspect of the task switching test (i.e., mixing costs. Taken together, these findings provide preliminary support for the hypothesis that participation in the SCI program is accompanied by changes in underlying neurocognitive processes such as working memory.

  9. Executive functioning in Cornelia de Lange syndrome: domain asynchrony and age-related performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donna; Moss, Jo; Nelson, Lisa; Groves, Laura; Oliver, Chris

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to examine executive functioning in adolescents and adults with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) to identify a syndrome and age-related profile of cognitive impairment. Participants were 24 individuals with CdLS aged 13-42 years (M = 22; SD = 8.98), and a comparable contrast group of 21 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) aged 15-33 years (M = 24; SD = 5.82). Measures were selected to test verbal and visual fluency, inhibition, perseverance/flexibility, and working memory and comprised both questionnaire and performance tests. Individuals with CdLS showed significantly greater impairment on tasks requiring flexibility and inhibition (rule switch) and on forwards span capacity. These impairments were also reported in the parent/carer-rated questionnaire measures. Backwards Digit Span was significantly negatively correlated with chronological age in CdLS, indicating increased deficits with age. This was not identified in individuals with DS. The relative deficits in executive functioning task performance are important in understanding the behavioural phenotype of CdLS. Prospective longitudinal follow-up is required to examine further the changes in executive functioning with age and if these map onto observed changes in behaviour in CdLS. Links with recent research indicating heightened responses to oxidative stress in CdLS may also be important.

  10. Optimizing top precision performance measure of content-based image retrieval by learning similarity function

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze

    2017-04-24

    In this paper we study the problem of content-based image retrieval. In this problem, the most popular performance measure is the top precision measure, and the most important component of a retrieval system is the similarity function used to compare a query image against a database image. However, up to now, there is no existing similarity learning method proposed to optimize the top precision measure. To fill this gap, in this paper, we propose a novel similarity learning method to maximize the top precision measure. We model this problem as a minimization problem with an objective function as the combination of the losses of the relevant images ranked behind the top-ranked irrelevant image, and the squared Frobenius norm of the similarity function parameter. This minimization problem is solved as a quadratic programming problem. The experiments over two benchmark data sets show the advantages of the proposed method over other similarity learning methods when the top precision is used as the performance measure.

  11. Optimizing top precision performance measure of content-based image retrieval by learning similarity function

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Ru-Ze; Shi, Lihui; Wang, Haoxiang; Meng, Jiandong; Wang, Jim Jing-Yan; Sun, Qingquan; Gu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of content-based image retrieval. In this problem, the most popular performance measure is the top precision measure, and the most important component of a retrieval system is the similarity function used to compare a query image against a database image. However, up to now, there is no existing similarity learning method proposed to optimize the top precision measure. To fill this gap, in this paper, we propose a novel similarity learning method to maximize the top precision measure. We model this problem as a minimization problem with an objective function as the combination of the losses of the relevant images ranked behind the top-ranked irrelevant image, and the squared Frobenius norm of the similarity function parameter. This minimization problem is solved as a quadratic programming problem. The experiments over two benchmark data sets show the advantages of the proposed method over other similarity learning methods when the top precision is used as the performance measure.

  12. Effect of Cognitive Demand on Functional Visual Field Performance in Senior Drivers with Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswa Gangeddula

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effect of cognitive demand on functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma.Method: This study included 20 drivers with open-angle glaucoma and 13 age- and sex-matched controls. Visual field performance was evaluated under different degrees of cognitive demand: a static visual field condition (C1, dynamic visual field condition (C2, and dynamic visual field condition with active driving (C3 using an interactive, desktop driving simulator. The number of correct responses (accuracy and response times on the visual field task were compared between groups and between conditions using Kruskal–Wallis tests. General linear models were employed to compare cognitive workload, recorded in real-time through pupillometry, between groups and conditions.Results: Adding cognitive demand (C2 and C3 to the static visual field test (C1 adversely affected accuracy and response times, in both groups (p < 0.05. However, drivers with glaucoma performed worse than did control drivers when the static condition changed to a dynamic condition [C2 vs. C1 accuracy; glaucoma: median difference (Q1–Q3 3 (2–6.50 vs. controls: 2 (0.50–2.50; p = 0.05] and to a dynamic condition with active driving [C3 vs. C1 accuracy; glaucoma: 2 (2–6 vs. controls: 1 (0.50–2; p = 0.02]. Overall, drivers with glaucoma exhibited greater cognitive workload than controls (p = 0.02.Conclusion: Cognitive demand disproportionately affects functional visual field performance in drivers with glaucoma. Our results may inform the development of a performance-based visual field test for drivers with glaucoma.

  13. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Hall

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT on handspring vault (HV performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P < 0.05 were found for the PTG for run-up velocity, take-off velocity, hurdle to board distance, board contact time, table contact time and post-flight time and CMJ height. However, there were no significant improvements on pre-flight time, shoulder angle or hip angle on the vault for the PTG. The CG demonstrated no improvement for all HV measures. A sport-specific PT intervention improved handspring vault performance measures and functional power when added to the habitual training of youth female gymnasts. The additional two hours plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  14. Using the Human Activity Profile to Assess Functional Performance in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Samora, Giane Amorim; Pereira, Danielle Aparecida Gomes; Vieira, Otávia Alves; de Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Rodrigues, Roseane Santo; Carvalho, Maria Luiza Vieira; Montemezzo, Dayane; Britto, Raquel Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    To investigate (1) the validity of using the Human Activity Profile (HAP) in patients with heart failure (HF) to estimate functional capacity; (2) the association between the HAP and 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) distance; and (3) the ability of the HAP to differentiate between New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional classes. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 62 clinically stable patients with HF (mean age, 47.98 years; NYHA class I-III). Variables included maximal functional capacity as measured by peak oxygen uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2) using a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 as estimated by the HAP, and exercise capacity as measured by the 6MWT. The difference between the measured (CPET) and estimated (HAP) peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 against the average values showed a bias of 2.18 mL/kg/min (P = .007). No agreement was seen between these measures when applying the Bland-Altman method. Peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 in the HAP showed a moderate association with the 6MWT distance (r = 0.62; P < .0001). Peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 in the HAP was able to statistically differentiate NYHA functional classes I, II, and III (P < .05). The estimated peak (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 using the HAP was not concordant with the gold standard CPET measure. On the contrary, the HAP was able to differentiate NYHA functional class associated with the 6MWT distance; therefore, the HAP is a useful tool for assessing functional performance in patients with HF.

  15. Logistic regression function for detection of suspicious performance during baseline evaluations using concussion vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Benjamin David; Womble, Melissa N; Rohling, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized logistic regression to determine whether performance patterns on Concussion Vital Signs (CVS) could differentiate known groups with either genuine or feigned performance. For the embedded measure development group (n = 174), clinical patients and undergraduate students categorized as feigning obtained significantly lower scores on the overall test battery mean for the CVS, Shipley-2 composite score, and California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition subtests than did genuinely performing individuals. The final full model of 3 predictor variables (Verbal Memory immediate hits, Verbal Memory immediate correct passes, and Stroop Test complex reaction time correct) was significant and correctly classified individuals in their known group 83% of the time (sensitivity = .65; specificity = .97) in a mixed sample of young-adult clinical cases and simulators. The CVS logistic regression function was applied to a separate undergraduate college group (n = 378) that was asked to perform genuinely and identified 5% as having possibly feigned performance indicating a low false-positive rate. The failure rate was 11% and 16% at baseline cognitive testing in samples of high school and college athletes, respectively. These findings have particular relevance given the increasing use of computerized test batteries for baseline cognitive testing and return-to-play decisions after concussion.

  16. Effects of resveratrol on memory performance, hippocampal functional connectivity, and glucose metabolism in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A Veronica; Kerti, Lucia; Margulies, Daniel S; Flöel, Agnes

    2014-06-04

    Dietary habits such as caloric restriction or nutrients that mimic these effects may exert beneficial effects on brain aging. The plant-derived polyphenol resveratrol has been shown to increase memory performance in primates; however, interventional studies in older humans are lacking. Here, we tested whether supplementation of resveratrol would enhance memory performance in older adults and addressed potential mechanisms underlying this effect. Twenty-three healthy overweight older individuals that successfully completed 26 weeks of resveratrol intake (200 mg/d) were pairwise matched to 23 participants that received placebo (total n = 46, 18 females, 50-75 years). Before and after the intervention/control period, subjects underwent memory tasks and neuroimaging to assess volume, microstructure, and functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus, a key region implicated in memory functions. In addition, anthropometry, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation, neurotrophic factors, and vascular parameters were assayed. We observed a significant effect of resveratrol on retention of words over 30 min compared with placebo (p = 0.038). In addition, resveratrol led to significant increases in hippocampal FC, decreases in glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body fat, and increases in leptin compared with placebo (all p memory performance in association with improved glucose metabolism and increased hippocampal FC in older adults. Our findings offer the basis for novel strategies to maintain brain health during aging. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/347862-09$15.00/0.

  17. Work performance evaluation and QoL of adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Noomi; Dejak, Ifat; Gal, Eynat

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest that adults with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD) are reliant on others for support in functioning in everyday life and employment. This study followed a work placement program for people with HFASD over a nine months period. It aimed to measure the trajectory of their work performance and Quality of life on jobs in the open market. Twenty-six participants with HFASD ages 18-40 underwent extensive evaluation and based on it were placed in various jobs on the open market. Participants were followed for nine months at their work place at four different time points. QoL was self-assessed in addition to work performance (WPE) which was assessed both by first-hand and team member's accounts. Team members are health professional who accompany and support the participants in the transition to their jobs. All 26 participants were able to maintain their jobs during the nine months of follow-up. WPE was perceived as high to start with, and its scores slightly improved by both people with HFASD and team members. Self-report suggests a significant change in the quality of life of the participants, specifically in their evaluations of self-competency. This study enhances the importance of providing people with HFASD with work placing programs and following up during actual work performance.

  18. Connectivity Neurofeedback Training Can Differentially Change Functional Connectivity and Cognitive Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Ayumu; Hayasaka, Shunsuke; Kawato, Mitsuo; Imamizu, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    Advances in functional magnetic resonance imaging have made it possible to provide real-time feedback on brain activity. Neurofeedback has been applied to therapeutic interventions for psychiatric disorders. Since many studies have shown that most psychiatric disorders exhibit abnormal brain networks, a novel experimental paradigm named connectivity neurofeedback, which can directly modulate a brain network, has emerged as a promising approach to treat psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in functional connectivity, and the differential change in cognitive performance according to the direction of change in connectivity. We selected the connectivity between the left primary motor cortex and the left lateral parietal cortex as the target. Subjects were divided into 2 groups, in which only the direction of change (an increase or a decrease in correlation) in the experimentally manipulated connectivity differed between the groups. As a result, subjects successfully induced the expected connectivity changes in either of the 2 directions. Furthermore, cognitive performance significantly and differentially changed from preneurofeedback to postneurofeedback training between the 2 groups. These findings indicate that connectivity neurofeedback can induce the aimed direction of change in connectivity and also a differential change in cognitive performance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Performance of Several Density Functional Theory Methods on Describing Hydrogen-Bond Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Ke, Hongwei; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin; Yan, Yijing

    2009-01-13

    We have investigated eleven density functionals, including LDA, PBE, mPWPW91, TPSS, B3LYP, X3LYP, PBE0, O3LYP, B97-1, MPW1K, and TPSSh, for their performances on describing hydrogen bond (HB) interactions. The emphasis has been laid not only on their abilities to calculate the intermolecular hydrogen bonding energies but also on their performances in predicting the relative energies of intermolecular H-bonded complexes and the conformer stabilities due to intramolecular hydrogen bondings. As compared to the best theoretical values, we found that although PBE and PBE0 gave the best estimation of HB strengths, they might fail to predict the correct order of relative HB energies, which might lead to a wrong prediction of the global minimum for different conformers. TPSS and TPSSh did not always improve over PBE and PBE0. B3LYP was found to underestimate the intermolecular HB strengths but was among the best performers in calculating the relative HB energies. We showed here that X3LYP and B97-1 were able to give good values for both absolute HB strengths and relative HB energies, making these functionals good candidates for HB description.

  20. Performance verification of network function virtualization in software defined optical transport networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yongli; Hu, Liyazhou; Wang, Wei; Li, Yajie; Zhang, Jie

    2017-01-01

    With the continuous opening of resource acquisition and application, there are a large variety of network hardware appliances deployed as the communication infrastructure. To lunch a new network application always implies to replace the obsolete devices and needs the related space and power to accommodate it, which will increase the energy and capital investment. Network function virtualization1 (NFV) aims to address these problems by consolidating many network equipment onto industry standard elements such as servers, switches and storage. Many types of IT resources have been deployed to run Virtual Network Functions (vNFs), such as virtual switches and routers. Then how to deploy NFV in optical transport networks is a of great importance problem. This paper focuses on this problem, and gives an implementation architecture of NFV-enabled optical transport networks based on Software Defined Optical Networking (SDON) with the procedure of vNFs call and return. Especially, an implementation solution of NFV-enabled optical transport node is designed, and a parallel processing method for NFV-enabled OTN nodes is proposed. To verify the performance of NFV-enabled SDON, the protocol interaction procedures of control function virtualization and node function virtualization are demonstrated on SDON testbed. Finally, the benefits and challenges of the parallel processing method for NFV-enabled OTN nodes are simulated and analyzed.

  1. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S st , S st , p st ) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S su , S su , p su ) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S st , S st , p st ) and (S su , S su , p su ). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  2. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S st , L st , P st ) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S su , L su , P su ) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S st , L st , P st ) and (S su , L su , P su ). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  3. Multiple victimization experiences of urban elementary school students: associations with psychosocial functioning and academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Melissa K; Finkelhor, David; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    2007-05-01

    This study explored the victimization experiences of urban elementary school students to determine whether subsets of youth emerged with similar victimization profiles (e.g., no victimization, multiple types of victimization). It also evaluated whether multiple victimization was associated with greater psychological distress and lower academic performance. Participants were 689 fifth grade students from an urban, ethnically diverse school district in the Northeast. Youth completed self-report measures in school about bullying victimization, victimization in the home and community, and psychosocial functioning. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of three distinct youth profiles: those with minimal victimization, those victimized primarily by their peers, and those with multiple types of victimizations. As hypothesized, youth with multiple victimizations experienced more psychological distress and earned lower grades than their peers. Findings highlight the heterogeneity of youth victimization experiences and their relations to functioning, and have implications for treatment planning among practitioners working with youth.

  4. Evaluation of Exercise Performance, Cardiac Function, and Quality of Life in Children After Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Kristof; Coomans, Ilse; De Bruyne, Elke; De Groote, Katya; Panzer, Joseph; De Wolf, Daniel; Boone, Jan; De Bruyne, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    In children, after having liver transplantation (LT), it is important to assess the quality of life (QOL). Physical fitness is an important determinant of QOL, and because cardiac function can influence exercise performance, it is the purpose of the present study to assess these factors. Children in stable follow-up for more than 6 months post-LT were invited to participate in a case control study. Patients underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing and echocardiography to assess systolic and diastolic function, and left ventricular wall dimensions. Health-related QOL was evaluated using child- and adolescent-reported PedsQL questionnaire. Twenty-eight of 31 included patients performed a maximal exercise test (15 boys, 11.6 ± 2.9 years, weight, 40.9 ± 13.1 kg; length, 148.6 ± 17.3 cm; body mass index, 17.6 ± 2.3). Liver transplantation patients had lower maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max/kg) (37.5 ± 9.3 mL/kg per minute vs 44.1 ± 8.8 mL/kg per minute), shorter exercise duration (9.3 ± 2.8 minutes vs 13.3 ± 3 minutes) and lower load (71 ± 14 vs 85 ± 20%). They reached the ventilatory anaerobic threshold earlier (81.4 ± 9.5 vs 88.3 ± 11.9%). Echocardiography demonstrated increased interventricular septal wall thickness (interventricular septum in diastole Z value, +0.45 ± 0.49, P exercise testing. Health-related QOL showed lower overall, emotional, psychosocial, and school functioning scores. Children on antihypertensive medication had impaired physical functioning compared with other LT patients. Lower physical fitness level, more deconditioning and lower health-related QOL in children after LT emphasize the importance of exercise stimulation and fitness programs. Patients on antihypertensive medication seem to be the most vulnerable group suffering from decreased physical fitness.

  5. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  6. Inter-functional coordination and entrepreneurial firms’ financial performance: a developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Marjanova Jovanov, Tamara; Sofijanova, Elenica; Davcev, Ljupco; Temjanovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to verify the significance of the internal part of market orientation, i.e. inter-functional coordination (IFC) for the financial performance of the entrepreneurial firms in a developing economy. The objectives are: 1. To measure the level of each of the variables of the scale (IFC 1: Current and future needs of consumers are discussed in all of the concerned departments; IFC 2: When a department discovers something important about the consumers or the compet...

  7. Enhanced gas sensing performance of TiO2 functionalized magneto-optical SPR sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Manera, Maria Grazia; Montagna, G.; Ferreiro-Vila, Elías; González-García, Lola; Sánchez-Valencia, J.R.; González-Elipe, Agustín R.; Cebollada, Alfonso; García-Martín, José Miguel; García-Martín, Antonio; Armelles Reig, Gaspar; Rella, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Porous TiO2 thin films deposited by glancing angle deposition are used as sensing layers to monitor their sensing capabilities towards Volatile Organic Compounds both in a standard Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor and in Magneto-Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (MO-SPR) configuration in order to compare their sensing performances. Here our results on the enhanced sensing capability of these TiO2 functionalized MO-SPR sensors with Au/Co/Au transducers with respect to traditional SPR gas...

  8. "Functional" Inspiratory and Core Muscle Training Enhances Running Performance and Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tomas K; McConnell, Alison K; Lin, Hua; Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Wang, Jiayuan

    2016-10-01

    Tong, TK, McConnell, AK, Lin, H, Nie, J, Zhang, H, and Wang, J. "Functional" inspiratory and core muscle training enhances running performance and economy. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2942-2951, 2016-We compared the effects of two 6-week high-intensity interval training interventions. Under the control condition (CON), only interval training was undertaken, whereas under the intervention condition (ICT), interval training sessions were followed immediately by core training, which was combined with simultaneous inspiratory muscle training (IMT)-"functional" IMT. Sixteen recreational runners were allocated to either ICT or CON groups. Before the intervention phase, both groups undertook a 4-week program of "foundation" IMT to control for the known ergogenic effect of IMT (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets per day, 6 days per week). The subsequent 6-week interval running training phase consisted of 3-4 sessions per week. In addition, the ICT group undertook 4 inspiratory-loaded core exercises (10 repetitions per set, 2 sets per day, inspiratory load set at 50% post-IMT P0) immediately after each interval training session. The CON group received neither core training nor functional IMT. After the intervention phase, global inspiratory and core muscle functions increased in both groups (p ≤ 0.05), as evidenced by P0 and a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT) performance, respectively. Compared with CON, the ICT group showed larger improvements in SEPT, running economy at the speed of the onset of blood lactate accumulation, and 1-hour running performance (3.04% vs. 1.57%, p ≤ 0.05). The changes in these variables were interindividually correlated (r ≥ 0.57, n = 16, p ≤ 0.05). Such findings suggest that the addition of inspiratory-loaded core conditioning into a high-intensity interval training program augments the influence of the interval program on endurance running performance and that this may be

  9. Associations between physical function, dual-task performance and cognition in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobol, Nanna Aue; Hoffmann, Kristine; Vogel, Asmus Mejling

    2016-01-01

    blinded multicenter RCT 'ADEX' (Alzheimer's disease: the effect of physical exercise) were used. Assessments included tests of physical function: 400-m walk test, 10-m walk test, Timed Up and Go test and 30-s chair stand test; dual-task performance, i.e., 10-m walk while counting backwards from 50...... or naming the months backwards; and cognition, i.e., Mini Mental State Examination, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Color and Word Test, and Lexical verbal fluency test. RESULTS: Results in the 30-s chair stand test correlated significantly with all tests of cognition (r = .208-.242) while...

  10. Performance and Complexity of Tunable Sparse Network Coding with Gradual Growing Tuning Functions over Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrido, Pablo; Sørensen, Chres Wiant; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) has been shown to be a technique with several benefits, in particular when applied over wireless mesh networks, since it provides robustness against packet losses. On the other hand, Tunable Sparse Network Coding (TSNC) is a promising concept, which leverages...... a trade-off between computational complexity and goodput. An optimal density tuning function has not been found yet, due to the lack of a closed-form expression that links density, performance and computational cost. In addition, it would be difficult to implement, due to the feedback delay. In this work...

  11. Forward lunge as a functional performance test in ACL deficient subjects: test-retest reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkjaer, Tine; Henriksen, Marius; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    The forward lunge movement may be used as a functional performance test of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and reconstructed subjects. The purposes were 1) to determine the test-retest reliability of a forward lunge in healthy subjects and 2) to determine the required numbers...... of repetitions necessary to yield satisfactory reliability. Nineteen healthy subjects performed four trials of a forward lunge on two different days. The movement time, impulses of the ground reaction forces (IFz, IFy), knee joint kinematics and dynamics during the forward lunge were calculated. The relative...... reliability was determined by calculation of Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC). The IFz, IFy and the positive work of the knee extensors showed excellent reliability (ICC >0.75). All other variables demonstrated acceptable reliability (0.4>ICCreliability increased when more than...

  12. Development and performance assessment of electrically heating gloves with smart temperature control function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nini; Lu, Yehu; Xu, Fanfei; Dai, Hongqin

    2018-03-27

    A pair of lightweight electrically heating gloves (EHG) with smart temperature control function was developed. To evaluate thermoregulation properties of EHG, human trials were conducted in a climate chamber (2.5 °C, 60% RH). The changes in skin temperature of all fingers and opisthenar and the subjective thermal sensation were recorded in 60 min. The effects of two air velocities (i.e., 0.17 m/s and 0.50 m/s) on the cold protective performance of EHG in scenarios of heating and control were also investigated. For heating scenarios, skin temperature and thermal sensation at all fingers and opisthenar were found significantly higher than those in control conditions. Moreover, the air velocity at 0.50 m/s greatly reduced cold protective performance of the gloves. The research findings can be applied to improve thermal comfort and extend working time for persons in cold environments.

  13. Neurocognitive functioning in pediatric craniopharyngioma: performance before treatment with proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier-Goodnight, Ashley S; Ashford, Jason M; Merchant, Thomas E; Boop, Frederick A; Indelicato, Daniel J; Wang, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Conklin, Heather M

    2017-08-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of patient-, disease-, and treatment-related variables upon neurocognitive outcomes in pediatric patients with craniopharyngioma prior to treatment with proton therapy or observation after radical resection. For all participants (N = 104), relevant clinical and demographic variables were attained and neurocognitive evaluations completed prior to irradiation or planned observation. One-sample t-tests were conducted to compare performance to published normative data. Linear models were used to investigate predictors of performance on measures where performance was below normative expectations. Participants showed poorer performance in comparison to the normative group across neurocognitive domains including executive functions (e.g., working memory; Wechsler Digit Span Backward p = 0.03), learning and memory (e.g., California Verbal Learning Test [CVLT] Total T p = 0.00), and fine-motor coordination (e.g., Grooved Pegboard Dominant Hand p = 0.00). Poor performance across areas was predicted by presurgical hypothalamic involvement (e.g., Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Working Memory Index Grade 2 β = -7.68, p = 0.03; CVLT Total T Grade 2 β = 7.94, p = 0.04; Grade 3 β = -9.80, p = 0.00), extent of surgery (e.g., CVLT Total T Resection β = -7.77, p = 0.04; Grooved Pegboard Dominant Hand β = -1.58, p = 0.04), and vision status (e.g., CVLT Total T Reduced vision without impairment β = -10.01, p = 0.02; Grooved Pegboard Dominant Hand Bilateral field defect β = -1.45, p = 0.01; Reduced vision without impairment β = -2.30, p = 0.00). This study demonstrated that patients with craniopharyngioma show weaker neurocognitive performance in comparison to the normative population resulting from tumor, events leading to diagnosis, and early surgical intervention. Systematic investigation of neurocognitive performance before

  14. Child abuse and performance task assessments of executive functions in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, E; Kindlon, D; Earls, F

    2001-11-01

    We examined executive functions using performance tasks in 126 boys aged 6 to 16 years. who attended public schools and therapeutic schools for children with emotional and behavioral problems. Children were further grouped based on the presence or absence of substantiated abuse histories. Based on their abuse histories and schools of origin, children were classified as Therapeutic, Abused (TA, N = 25). Therapeutic, Nonabused (TN, N = 52), and Public School (PS, N = 48). Controlling IQ and medication status, we compared children in the three groups on teacher ratings of behavior, on experimenter observations of behavior during testing, and on performance tasks challenging the capacities to inhibit an act in progress, and to passively avoid responses associated with adverse consequences. We examined mean group differences in symptoms, behaviors, and task performance, as well as differential age-dependent changes in these dimensions. Independent of abuse history, therapeutic school children demonstrated comparable levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and comparable levels of redirections to task during testing-sessions, that were significantly higher than those of the public school children. Both groups of therapeutic school children also showed comparable overall performance on the capacities to inhibit an act in progress, and to passively avoid responses associated with adverse consequences that were poorer than the performance of children from the public school. Children with histories of substantiated abuse showed diminished improvement with increasing age in the capacity to passively avoid responses associated with adverse consequences when compared not only to the public school children, but also to the children from the therapeutic schools without histories of abuse. Our findings complement reports of behavioral observations of abused children, and reports associating child abuse with altered cognitive development in other areas of competence

  15. Measures of Functional Performance and Their Association With Hip and Thigh Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Oñate, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. Objective: To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. Intervention(s): During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r 2. We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. Results: In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r2 = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r2 = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r2 = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r2 = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Conclusions: Hop tests alone did not

  16. 49 CFR 1242.78 - Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees performing clerical and accounting functions, and loss and damage claims processing (accounts XX-55-76 and XX-55-78). 1242.78 Section 1242.78...

  17. Comparison of self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in elderly patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise M.; Kirkegaard, Hans; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of functional ability in elderly patients is often based on self-reported rather than performance-based measures. This study aims to compare self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in a population of elderly patients at an emergency department (ED)...

  18. MTF Database: A Repository of Students' Academic Performance Measurements for the Development of Techniques for Evaluating Team Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiung, Chin-Min; Zheng, Xiang-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    The Measurements for Team Functioning (MTF) database contains a series of student academic performance measurements obtained at a national university in Taiwan. The measurements are acquired from unit tests and homework tests performed during a core mechanical engineering course, and provide an objective means of assessing the functioning of…

  19. OARSI recommended performance-based tests to assess physical function in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    To recommend a consensus-derived set of performance-based tests of physical function for use in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) or following joint replacement.......To recommend a consensus-derived set of performance-based tests of physical function for use in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) or following joint replacement....

  20. Adaptive evolution in locomotor performance: How selective pressures and functional relationships produce diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Jeffrey A; Butler, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    Despite the complexity of nature, most comparative studies of phenotypic evolution consider selective pressures in isolation. When competing pressures operate on the same system, it is commonly expected that trade-offs will occur that will limit the evolution of phenotypic diversity, however, it is possible that interactions among selective pressures may promote diversity instead. We explored the evolution of locomotor performance in lizards in relation to possible selective pressures using the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Here, we show that a combination of selection based on foraging mode and predator escape is required to explain variation in performance phenotypes. Surprisingly, habitat use contributed little explanatory power. We find that it is possible to evolve very different abilities in performance which were previously thought to be tightly correlated, supporting a growing literature that explores the many-to-one mapping of morphological design. Although we generally find the expected trade-off between maximal exertion and speed, this relationship surprisingly disappears when species experience selection for both performance types. We conclude that functional integration need not limit adaptive potential, and that an integrative approach considering multiple major influences on a phenotype allows a more complete understanding of adaptation and the evolution of diversity. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  1. Effect of Plyometric Training on Handspring Vault Performance and Functional Power in Youth Female Gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Emma; Bishop, Daniel C; Gee, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of plyometric training (PT) when added to habitual gymnastic training (HT) on handspring vault (HV) performance variables. Twenty youth female competitive gymnasts (Age: 12.5 ± 1.67 y) volunteered to participate and were randomly assigned to two independent groups. The experimental plyometric training group (PTG) undertook a six-week plyometric program, involving two additional 45 min PT sessions a week, alongside their HT, while the control group (CG) performed regular HT only. Videography was used (120 Hz) in the sagittal plane to record both groups performing three HVs for both the baseline and post-intervention trials. Furthermore, participants completed a countermovement jump test (CMJ) to assess the effect of PT on functional power. Through the use of Quintic biomechanics software, significant improvements (P plyometric training seemingly improved the power generating capacity of movement-specific musculature, which consequently improved aspects of vaulting performance. Future research is required to examine the whether the improvements are as a consequence of the additional volume of sprinting and jumping activities, as a result of the specific PT method or a combination of these factors.

  2. Non-Pharmacological Countermeasure to Decrease Landing Sickness and Improve Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Reschke, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    Upon return from long-duration spaceflight, 100% of crewmembers experience motion sickness (MS) symptoms. The interactions between crewmembers' adaptation to a gravitational transition, the performance decrements resulting from MS and/or use of promethazine (PMZ), and the constraints imposed by mission task demands could significantly challenge and limit an astronaut's ability to perform functional tasks during gravitational transitions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is "noise benefit": adding noise to a system might increase the information (examples to the left and above). Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS), or low levels of noise applied to the vestibular system, improves balance and locomotor performance (Goel et al. 2015, Mulavara et al. 2011, 2015). In hemi-lesioned rat models, Samoudi et al. 2012 found that SVS increased GABA release on the lesioned, but not the intact side. Activation of the GABA pathway is important in modulating MS and promoting adaptability (Cohen 2008) and was seen to reverse MS symptoms in rats after unilateral labyrinthectomy (Magnusson et al. 2000). Thus, SVS could be used to promote GABA pathways to reduce MS and promote adaptability, eliminate the need for PMZ or other performance-inhibiting drugs.

  3. Executive Functions as Predictors of School Performance and Social Relationships: Primary and Secondary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorza, Juan Pablo; Marino, Julián; Acosta Mesas, Alberto

    2016-05-12

    This study examined the relationship between executive functions (EFs) and school performance in primary and secondary school students aged 8 to 13 years (N = 146, M = 10.4, 45.8% girls). EFs were evaluated using the Trail Making Test (TMT), Verbal Fluency (VF), and the Stroop Test. Students' GPAs and teachers' assessment of academic skills were used to measure school performance. To evaluate the students' social behavior, participants were asked to rate all their classmates' prosocial behavior and nominate three students with whom they preferred to do school activities; teachers also provided evaluations of students' social skills. EF measures explained 41% (p = .003, f 2 = .694) of variability in school performance and 29% (p = .005, f 2 = .401) of variance in social behavior in primary school students. The predictive power of EFs was found to be lower for secondary school students, although the TMT showed significant prediction and explained 13% (p = .004, f 2 = .149) of variance in school performance and 15% (p = .008, f 2 = .176) in peer ratings of prosocial behavior. This paper discusses the relevance of EFs in the school environment and their different predictive power in primary and secondary school students.

  4. Development of an Enhanced Payback Function for the Superior Energy Performance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Therkelsen, Peter; Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; Sabouni, Ridah; Sheihing, Paul

    2015-08-03

    The U.S. DOE Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program provides recognition to industrial and commercial facilities that achieve certification to the ISO 50001 energy management system standard and third party verification of energy performance improvements. Over 50 industrial facilities are participating and 28 facilities have been certified in the SEP program. These facilities find value in the robust, data driven energy performance improvement result that the SEP program delivers. Previous analysis of SEP certified facility data demonstrated the cost effectiveness of SEP and identified internal staff time to be the largest cost component related to SEP implementation and certification. This paper analyzes previously reported and newly collected data of costs and benefits associated with the implementation of an ISO 50001 and SEP certification. By disaggregating “sunk energy management system (EnMS) labor costs”, this analysis results in a more accurate and detailed understanding of the costs and benefits of SEP participation. SEP is shown to significantly improve and sustain energy performance and energy cost savings, resulting in a highly attractive return on investment. To illustrate these results, a payback function has been developed and is presented. On average facilities with annual energy spend greater than $2M can expect to implement SEP with a payback of less than 1.5 years. Finally, this paper also observes and details decreasing facility costs associated with implementing ISO 50001 and certifying to the SEP program, as the program has improved from pilot, to demonstration, to full launch.

  5. Role of functionally dominant species in varying environmental regimes: evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langenheder Silke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theory suggests that biodiversity can act as a buffer against disturbances and environmental variability via two major mechanisms: Firstly, a stabilising effect by decreasing the temporal variance in ecosystem functioning due to compensatory processes; and secondly, a performance enhancing effect by raising the level of community response through the selection of better performing species. Empirical evidence for the stabilizing effect of biodiversity is readily available, whereas experimental confirmation of the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity is sparse. Results Here, we test the effect of different environmental regimes (constant versus fluctuating temperature on bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations. We show that positive effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning are enhanced by stronger temperature fluctuations due to the increased performance of individual species. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for the performance enhancing effect and suggest that selection towards functionally dominant species is likely to benefit the maintenance of ecosystem functioning under more variable conditions.

  6. Role of functionally dominant species in varying environmental regimes: evidence for the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheder, Silke; Bulling, Mark T; Prosser, James I; Solan, Martin

    2012-07-30

    Theory suggests that biodiversity can act as a buffer against disturbances and environmental variability via two major mechanisms: Firstly, a stabilising effect by decreasing the temporal variance in ecosystem functioning due to compensatory processes; and secondly, a performance enhancing effect by raising the level of community response through the selection of better performing species. Empirical evidence for the stabilizing effect of biodiversity is readily available, whereas experimental confirmation of the performance-enhancing effect of biodiversity is sparse. Here, we test the effect of different environmental regimes (constant versus fluctuating temperature) on bacterial biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relations. We show that positive effects of species richness on ecosystem functioning are enhanced by stronger temperature fluctuations due to the increased performance of individual species. Our results provide evidence for the performance enhancing effect and suggest that selection towards functionally dominant species is likely to benefit the maintenance of ecosystem functioning under more variable conditions.

  7. Performance-oriented asymptotic tracking control of hydraulic systems with radial basis function network disturbance observer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Uncertainties, including parametric uncertainties and uncertain nonlinearities, always exist in positioning servo systems driven by a hydraulic actuator, which would degrade their tracking accuracy. In this article, an integrated control scheme, which combines adaptive robust control together with radial basis function neural network–based disturbance observer, is proposed for high-accuracy motion control of hydraulic systems. Not only parametric uncertainties but also uncertain nonlinearities (i.e. nonlinear friction, external disturbances, and/or unmodeled dynamics are taken into consideration in the proposed controller. The above uncertainties are compensated, respectively, by adaptive control and radial basis function neural network, which are ultimately integrated together by applying feedforward compensation technique, in which the global stabilization of the controller is ensured via a robust feedback path. A new kind of parameter and weight adaptation law is designed on the basis of Lyapunov stability theory. Furthermore, the proposed controller obtains an expected steady performance even if modeling uncertainties exist, and extensive simulation results in various working conditions have proven the high performance of the proposed control scheme.

  8. PATELLAR REALIGNMENT AND FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE IN PATIENTS WITH PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer Farag Hanafy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellar taping is used for pain relief in patients with patello-femoral pain syndrome (PFPS. Yet, there is lack of knowledge regarding its effect on the functional performance. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of therapeutic patellar taping on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS pain scores, number of bilateral squats, and stair climbing time in patients with PFPS. Methods: 30 female patients with PFPS with mean age 20.3± 1.46 years, weight 66.1± 9.68 kg, height 165.83 ± 3.89 cm and BMI 23.91 ± 3.50kg/m2 participated in the study. The subjects were tested randomly under three taping conditions;namely therapeutic, placebo and no-tape. The tested limb was determined to be the affected limb in patients with unilateral affection, and the symptomatic limb in patients with bilateral affection. Data was collected using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Bilateral Squat Test and Timed Stair Ambulation Test. Results: Repeated measures Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA revealed that the number of bilateral squats increased significantly (p0.05 in between for the number of bilateral squats and stair climbing time. Conclusion: The findings indicated that therapeutic patellar taping is effective in improving functional performance and reducing pain in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS.

  9. Stroop performance in multiple sclerosis: information processing, selective attention, or executive functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, J A B; Davis, C; Ho, M-Y; Bradshaw, C M; Szabadi, E; Constantinescu, C S

    2008-09-01

    Cognitive impairments in information processing speed, attention and executive functioning are widely reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Several studies have identified impaired performance on the Stroop test in people with MS, yet uncertainty remains over the cause of this phenomenon. In this study, 25 patients with MS were assessed with a neuropsychological test battery including a computerized Stroop test and a computerized test of information processing speed, the Graded Conditional Discrimination Tasks (GCDT). The patient group was compared with an individually age, sex and estimated premorbid IQ-matched healthy control group. The patients' reaction times (RTs) were significantly longer than those of the controls on all Stroop test trials and there was a significantly enhanced absolute (RT(incongruent)-RT(neutral)) and relative (100 x [RT(incongruent)-RT(neutral)]/RT(neutral)) Stroop interference effect for the MS group. The linear function relating RT to stimulus complexity in the GCDT was significantly steeper in the patient group, indicating slowed information processing. The results are discussed with reference to the difference engine model, a theory of diversity in speeded cognition. It is concluded that, in the assessment of people with MS, great caution must be used in the interpretation of performance on neuropsychological tests which rely on RT as the primary measure.

  10. Acute effects of ayahuasca on neuropsychological performance: differences in executive function between experienced and occasional users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouso, José Carlos; Fábregas, Josep Maria; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Riba, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    Ayahuasca, a South American psychotropic plant tea containing the psychedelic 5-HT2A receptor agonist N,N-dimethyltryptamine, has been shown to increase regional cerebral blood flow in prefrontal brain regions after acute administration to humans. Despite interactions at this level, neuropsychological studies have not found cognitive deficits in abstinent long-term users. Here, we wished to investigate the effects of acute ayahuasca intake on neuropsychological performance, specifically on working memory and executive function. Twenty-four ayahuasca users (11 long-term experienced users and 13 occasional users) were assessed in their habitual setting using the Stroop, Sternberg, and Tower of London tasks prior to and following ayahuasca intake. Errors in the Sternberg task increased, whereas reaction times in the Stroop task decreased and accuracy was maintained for the whole sample following ayahuasca intake. Interestingly, results in the Tower of London showed significantly increased execution and resolution times and number of movements for the occasional but not the experienced users. Additionally, a correlation analysis including all subjects showed that impaired performance in the Tower of London was inversely correlated with lifetime ayahuasca use. Acute ayahuasca administration impaired working memory but decreased stimulus-response interference. Interestingly, detrimental effects on higher cognition were only observed in the less experienced group. Rather than leading to increased impairment, greater prior exposure to ayahuasca was associated with reduced incapacitation. Compensatory or neuromodulatory effects associated with long-term ayahuasca intake could underlie preserved executive function in experienced users.

  11. Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Loayza, Francis R; Pastor, Maria A

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The relationship between multiple joint flexibility and functional performance in independent and physically active elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joana de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-joint flexibility assessment seems to be more appropriate for analyzing the association between fl exibility and functional fitness, but there is a lack of studies to confi rm this possibility in elderly people. The present study investigated the relationship between a multiple joint fl exibility assessment and the functional performance of 30 independent and physically active elderly women (age=68±1yr. Flexibility was assessed using the Chair Sit-and-Reach Test (CSRT. Functional performance was tested by a combination of three tasks: a Step Length (SL; b Time to Put on Sneakers (TPS; c Climbing Stairs (CS. The association between fl exibility and functional performance was tested by both simple and multiple correlation techniques. Pearson’s correlation was signifi cant for TPS (r = -.37; p ABSTRACT

  13. Children with minimal sensorineural hearing loss: prevalence, educational performance, and functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, F H; Dodd-Murphy, J; Parker, R A

    1998-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the prevalence of minimal sensorineural hearing loss (MSHL) in school-age children and to assess the relationship of MSHL to educational performance and functional status. To determine prevalence, a single-staged sampling frame of all schools in the district was created for 3rd, 6th, and 9th grades. Schools were selected with probability proportional to size in each grade group. The final study sample was 1218 children. To assess the association of MSHL with educational performance, children identified with MSHL were assigned as cases into a subsequent case-control study. Scores of the Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (4th Edition) (CTBS/4) then were compared between children with MSHL and children with normal hearing. School teachers completed the Screening Instrument for Targeting Education Risk (SIFTER) and the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist for a subsample of children with MSHL and their normally hearing counterparts. Finally, data on grade retention for a sample of children with MSHL were obtained from school records and compared with school district norm data. To assess the relationship between MSHL and functional status, test scores of all children with MSHL and all children with normal hearing in grades 6 and 9 were compared on the COOP Adolescent Chart Method (COOP), a screening tool for functional status. MSHL was exhibited by 5.4% of the study sample. The prevalence of all types of hearing impairment was 11.3%. Third grade children with MSHL exhibited significantly lower scores than normally hearing controls on a series of subtests of the CTBS/4; however, no differences were noted at the 6th and 9th grade levels. The SIFTER results revealed that children with MSHL scored poorer on the communication subtest than normal-hearing controls. Thirty-seven percent of the children with MSHL failed at least one grade. Finally, children with MSHL exhibited significantly greater dysfunction than children with normal hearing

  14. Muscle performance, body fat, pain and function in the elderly with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Wagner Teixeira; Rodrigues, Erika de Carvalho; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira

    2014-01-01

    To correlate muscule performance, body composition, pain and joint function in elderly people with gonarthrosis. 21 elderly patients were submitted to bioelectrical impedance analysis, dynamometry associated with electromyographic (EMG) evaluation of isometric knee extension, in addition to pain assessment by the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale and function assessment, by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis (OA) questionnaire. Correlations were checked by the Pearson's correlation coefficient. The sample characteristics were mean age 67.36 ± 4.21 years old, body fat percentage 40.57±6.15%, total WOMAC score 43.27 ± 16.32%, and maximum strength 19.95 ± 6.99 kgF. Pain during movement showed a statistical association with WOMAC physical activity domain (r = 0.47) and its general score (r = 0.51); pain intensity at night presented association with WOMAC stiffness domain (r = 0.55), in addition to the negative correlation with the slope values of the Medium Frequency of the EMG signal (r = - 0.57). pain intensity is correlated to functional incapacity in elderly people with knee OA and to a greater expression of fatigue in EMG signal. Levels of Evidence III, Study of non consecutive patients.

  15. Left Ventricular Myocardial Function in Children With Pulmonary Hypertension: Relation to Right Ventricular Performance and Hemodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Dale A; Slorach, Cameron; Patel, Sonali S; Redington, Andrew N; Ivy, D Dunbar; Mertens, Luc; Younoszai, Adel K; Friedberg, Mark K

    2015-08-01

    Through ventricular interdependence, pulmonary hypertension (PH) induces left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. We hypothesized that LV strain/strain rate, surrogate measures of myocardial contractility, are reduced in pediatric PH and relate to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional measures of PH. At 2 institutions, echocardiography was prospectively performed in 54 pediatric PH patients during cardiac catheterization, and in 54 matched controls. Patients with PH had reduced LV global longitudinal strain (LS; -18.8 [-17.3 to -20.4]% versus -20.2 [-19.0 to -20.9]%; P=0.0046) predominantly because of reduced basal (-12.9 [-10.8 to -16.3]% versus -17.9 [-14.5 to -20.7]%; Pright ventricular free-wall LS (r=0.64; PBrain natriuretic peptide levels correlated moderately with septal LS (r=0.48; P=0.0038). PH functional class correlated moderately with LV free-wall LS (r=-0.48; P=0.0051). The septum, shared between ventricles and affected by septal shift, was the most affected LV region in PH. Pediatric PH patients demonstrate reduced LV strain/strain rate, predominantly within the septum, with relationships to invasive hemodynamics, right ventricular strain, and functional PH measures. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. ABINIT: Plane-Wave-Based Density-Functional Theory on High Performance Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrent, Marc

    2014-03-01

    For several years, a continuous effort has been produced to adapt electronic structure codes based on Density-Functional Theory to the future computing architectures. Among these codes, ABINIT is based on a plane-wave description of the wave functions which allows to treat systems of any kind. Porting such a code on petascale architectures pose difficulties related to the many-body nature of the DFT equations. To improve the performances of ABINIT - especially for what concerns standard LDA/GGA ground-state and response-function calculations - several strategies have been followed: A full multi-level parallelisation MPI scheme has been implemented, exploiting all possible levels and distributing both computation and memory. It allows to increase the number of distributed processes and could not be achieved without a strong restructuring of the code. The core algorithm used to solve the eigen problem (``Locally Optimal Blocked Congugate Gradient''), a Blocked-Davidson-like algorithm, is based on a distribution of processes combining plane-waves and bands. In addition to the distributed memory parallelization, a full hybrid scheme has been implemented, using standard shared-memory directives (openMP/openACC) or porting some comsuming code sections to Graphics Processing Units (GPU). As no simple performance model exists, the complexity of use has been increased; the code efficiency strongly depends on the distribution of processes among the numerous levels. ABINIT is able to predict the performances of several process distributions and automatically choose the most favourable one. On the other hand, a big effort has been carried out to analyse the performances of the code on petascale architectures, showing which sections of codes have to be improved; they all are related to Matrix Algebra (diagonalisation, orthogonalisation). The different strategies employed to improve the code scalability will be described. They are based on an exploration of new diagonalization

  17. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.

    2010-08-20

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due to reactant consumption, water management and the design of fluid-flow plates. It is therefore unlikely that any bulk measurement made on a fuel cell will accurately represent performance at all parts of the cell. The ability to make spatially resolved measurements in a fuel cell provides one of the most useful ways in which to monitor and optimise performance. This Minireview explores a range of in situ techniques being used to study fuel cells and describes the use of novel experimental techniques that the authors have used to develop an \\'experimental functional map\\' of fuel cell performance. These techniques include the mapping of current density, electrochemical impedance, electrolyte conductivity, contact resistance and CO poisoning distribution within working PEFCs, as well as mapping the flow of reactant in gas channels using laser Doppler anemometry (LDA). For the high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), temperature mapping, reference electrode placement and the use of Raman spectroscopy are described along with methods to map the microstructural features of electrodes. The combination of these techniques, applied across a range of fuel cell operating conditions, allows a unique picture of the internal workings of fuel cells to be obtained and have been used to validate both numerical and analytical models. © 2010 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH& Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Do baseline executive functions mediate prospective memory performance under a moderate dose of alcohol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Hugo Smith-Spark

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Prospective memory (PM is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs. To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin, Buckheit & Sherrod, 2010, and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. Prospective memory is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programmes and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness.

  19. Blood metabolite markers of cognitive performance and brain function in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Brittany N; Kim, Min; Chuang, Yi-Fang; Beason-Held, Lori; Kitner-Triolo, Melissa; Kraut, Michael; Lirette, Seth T; Windham, B Gwen; Griswold, Michael E; Legido-Quigley, Cristina; Thambisetty, Madhav

    2016-07-01

    We recently showed that Alzheimer's disease patients have lower plasma concentrations of the phosphatidylcholines (PC16:0/20:5; PC16:0/22:6; and PC18:0/22:6) relative to healthy controls. We now extend these findings by examining associations between plasma concentrations of these PCs with cognition and brain function (measured by regional resting state cerebral blood flow; rCBF) in non-demented older individuals. Within the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging neuroimaging substudy, participants underwent cognitive assessments and brain (15)O-water positron emission tomography. Plasma phosphatidylcholines concentrations (PC16:0/20:5, PC16:0/22:6, and PC18:0/22:6), cognition (California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT), Trail Making Test A&B, the Mini-Mental State Examination, Benton Visual Retention, Card Rotation, and Fluencies-Category and Letter), and rCBF were assessed. Lower plasma phosphatidylcholine concentrations were associated with lower baseline memory performance (CVLT long delay recall task-PC16:0/20:5: -2.17-1.39-0.60 p = 0.001 (β with 95% confidence interval subscripts)) and lower rCBF in several brain regions including those associated with memory performance and higher order cognitive processes. Our findings suggest that lower plasma concentrations of PC16:0/20:5, PC16:0/22:6, and PC18:0/22:6 are associated with poorer memory performance as well as widespread decreases in brain function during aging. Dysregulation of peripheral phosphatidylcholine metabolism may therefore be a common feature of both Alzheimer's disease and age-associated differences in cognition. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Do Baseline Executive Functions Mediate Prospective Memory Performance under a Moderate Dose of Alcohol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Spark, James H; Moss, Antony C; Dyer, Kyle R

    2016-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is memory for delayed intentions. While deleterious effects of acute doses of alcohol on PM have been documented previously using between-subjects comparisons, the current study adopted a single blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design to explore whether the extent to which alcohol-related impairments in PM are mediated by executive functions (EFs). To this end, 52 male social drinkers with no history of substance-related treatment were tested using two parallel versions of a clinical measure of PM (the Memory for Intentions Test; Raskin et al., 2010), and a battery of EF measures. Testing took place on two occasions, with the order of administration of the alcohol and placebo conditions being fully counterbalanced. Overall, PM was worse under alcohol and participants showed deficits on five of the six subscales making up the clinical test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that EFs did not predict PM performance decrements overall but did predict performance when time cues were presented and when verbal responses were required. Phonemic fluency was the strongest of the EF predictors; a greater capacity to gain controlled access to information in long-term memory predicted a smaller difference between placebo- and alcohol-related performance on both the time cue and verbal response scales. PM is crucial to compliance with, and response to, both therapy programs and alcohol harm prevention campaigns. The results indicate that individual differences in cognitive function need to be taken into account when designing such interventions in order to increase their effectiveness.

  1. Cognitive Performance associated to functional outcomes in stable outpatients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Zaragoza Domingo, MA

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Most prevalent impairments were on executive function and processing speed domains; however, working memory showed the strongest relationship to functional disability. Monitoring cognitive function during follow up is critical to understand patient’s everyday functional capacity.

  2. Bite of the cats: relationships between functional integration and mechanical performance as revealed by mandible geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Paolo; Maiorino, Leonardo; Teresi, Luciano; Meloro, Carlo; Lucci, Federico; Kotsakis, Tassos; Raia, Pasquale

    2013-11-01

    Cat-like carnivorous mammals represent a relatively homogeneous group of species whose morphology appears constrained by exclusive adaptations for meat eating. We present the most comprehensive data set of extant and extinct cat-like species to test for evolutionary transformations in size, shape and mechanical performance, that is, von Mises stress and surface traction, of the mandible. Size and shape were both quantified by means of geometric morphometrics, whereas mechanical performance was assessed applying finite element models to 2D geometry of the mandible. Additionally, we present the first almost complete composite phylogeny of cat-like carnivorans for which well-preserved mandibles are known, including representatives of 35 extant and 59 extinct species of Felidae, Nimravidae, and Barbourofelidae. This phylogeny was used to test morphological differentiation, allometry, and covariation of mandible parts within and among clades. After taking phylogeny into account, we found that both allometry and mechanical variables exhibit a significant impact on mandible shape. We also tested whether mechanical performance was linked to morphological integration. Mechanical stress at the coronoid process is higher in sabertoothed cats than in any other clade. This is strongly related to the high degree of covariation within modules of sabertooths mandibles. We found significant correlation between integration at the clade level and per-clade averaged stress values, on both original data and by partialling out interclade allometry from shapes when calculating integration. This suggests a strong interaction between natural selection and the evolution of developmental and functional modules at the clade level.

  3. Visual search performance among persons with schizophrenia as a function of target eccentricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahipanah, Ava; Christensen, Bruce K; Reingold, Eyal M

    2010-03-01

    The current study investigated one possible mechanism of impaired visual attention among patients with schizophrenia: a reduced visual span. Visual span is the region of the visual field from which one can extract information during a single eye fixation. This study hypothesized that schizophrenia-related visual search impairment is mediated, in part, by a smaller visual span. To test this hypothesis, 23 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls completed a visual search task where the target was pseudorandomly presented at different distances from the center of the display. Response times were analyzed as a function of search condition (feature vs. conjunctive), display size, and target eccentricity. Consistent with previous reports, patient search times were more adversely affected as the number of search items increased in the conjunctive search condition. It was important however, that patients' conjunctive search times were also impacted to a greater degree by target eccentricity. Moreover, a significant impairment in patients' visual search performance was only evident when targets were more eccentric and their performance was more similar to healthy controls when the target was located closer to the center of the search display. These results support the hypothesis that a narrower visual span may underlie impaired visual search performance among patients with schizophrenia. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  4. Development of multi-functional streetscape green infrastructure using a performance index approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, A; Williams, I D; Heidrich, O; Namdeo, A; Bandaru, V; Calfapietra, C

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a performance evaluation framework for streetscape vegetation. A performance index (PI) is conceived using the following seven traits, specific to the street environments - Pollution Flux Potential (PFP), Carbon Sequestration Potential (CSP), Thermal Comfort Potential (TCP), Noise Attenuation Potential (NAP), Biomass Energy Potential (BEP), Environmental Stress Tolerance (EST) and Crown Projection Factor (CPF). Its application is demonstrated through a case study using fifteen street vegetation species from the UK, utilising a combination of direct field measurements and inventoried literature data. Our results indicate greater preference to small-to-medium size trees and evergreen shrubs over larger trees for streetscaping. The proposed PI approach can be potentially applied two-fold: one, for evaluation of the performance of the existing street vegetation, facilitating the prospects for further improving them through management strategies and better species selection; two, for planning new streetscapes and multi-functional biomass as part of extending the green urban infrastructure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Classifying human operator functional state based on electrophysiological and performance measures and fuzzy clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Peng, Xiao-Di; Liu, Hua; Raisch, Jörg; Wang, Ru-Bin

    2013-12-01

    The human operator's ability to perform their tasks can fluctuate over time. Because the cognitive demands of the task can also vary it is possible that the capabilities of the operator are not sufficient to satisfy the job demands. This can lead to serious errors when the operator is overwhelmed by the task demands. Psychophysiological measures, such as heart rate and brain activity, can be used to monitor operator cognitive workload. In this paper, the most influential psychophysiological measures are extracted to characterize Operator Functional State (OFS) in automated tasks under a complex form of human-automation interaction. The fuzzy c-mean (FCM) algorithm is used and tested for its OFS classification performance. The results obtained have shown the feasibility and effectiveness of the FCM algorithm as well as the utility of the selected input features for OFS classification. Besides being able to cope with nonlinearity and fuzzy uncertainty in the psychophysiological data it can provide information about the relative importance of the input features as well as the confidence estimate of the classification results. The OFS pattern classification method developed can be incorporated into an adaptive aiding system in order to enhance the overall performance of a large class of safety-critical human-machine cooperative systems.

  6. The influence of unilateral saccular impairment on functional balance performance and self-report dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Grantham, Sarah L; Piker, Erin G; Verghese, Susha

    2011-09-01

    Postural stability in humans is largely maintained by vestibular, visual, and somatosensory inputs to the central nervous system. Recent clinical advances in the assessment of otolith function (e.g., cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials [cVEMPs and oVEMPs], subjective visual vertical [SVV] during eccentric rotation) have enabled investigators to identify patients with unilateral otolith impairments. This research has suggested that patients with unilateral otolith impairments perform worse than normal healthy controls on measures of postural stability. It is not yet known if patients with unilateral impairments of the saccule and/or inferior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilaterally abnormal cVEMP) perform differently on measures of postural stability than patients with unilateral impairments of the horizontal SCC (semicircular canal) and/or superior vestibular nerve (i.e., unilateral caloric weakness). Further, it is not known what relationship exists, if any, between otolith system impairment and self-report dizziness handicap. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which saccular impairments (defined by a unilaterally absent cVEMP) and impairments of the horizontal semicircular canal (as measured by the results of caloric testing) affect vestibulospinal function as measured through the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) of the computerized dynamic posturography (CDP). A secondary objective of this investigation was to measure the effects, if any, that saccular impairment has on a modality-specific measure of health-related quality of life. A retrospective cohort study. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups based on results from balance function testing: Group 1 (abnormal cVEMP response only), Group 2 (abnormal caloric response only), Group 3 (abnormal cVEMP and abnormal caloric response), and Group 4 (normal control group). Subjects were 92 adult patients: 62 were seen for balance function testing due to complaints

  7. Effects of alprazolam on driving ability, memory functioning and psychomotor performance: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Volkerts, Edmund R; Verbaten, Marinus N

    2002-08-01

    Alprazolam is prescribed for the treatment of anxiety and panic disorder. Most users are presumably involved in daily activities such as driving. However, the effects of alprazolam on driving ability have never been investigated. This study was conducted to determine the effects of alprazolam (1 mg) on driving ability, memory and psychomotor performance. Twenty healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. One hour after oral administration, subjects performed a standardized driving test on a primary highway during normal traffic. They were instructed to drive with a constant speed (90 km/h) while maintaining a steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Primary performance measures were the Standard Deviation of Lateral Position (SDLP) and the Standard Deviation of Speed (SDS). After the driving test, subjective driving quality, mental effort, and mental activation during driving were assessed. A laboratory test battery was performed 2.5 h after treatment administration, comprising the Sternberg Memory Scanning Test, a Continuous Tracking Test, and a Divided Attention Test. Relative to placebo, alprazolam caused serious driving impairment, as expressed by a significantly increased SDLP (F(1,19) = 97.3, p driving quality (F(1,19) = 16.4, p driving (F(1,19) = 26.4, p drive an automobile or operate potentially dangerous machinery.

  8. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE AND MUSCLE POWER 4-TO-6 MONTHS AFTER ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrine Souissi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 8-week retraining programs, with either two or three training sessions per week, on measures of functional performance and muscular power in athletes with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR. Sixteen male athletes were randomly assigned to two groups after ACLR: a functional training group (FTG, n = 8 training 2 intense sessions per week (4hrs/week, and a control group (CG, n = 8 training 3 sessions per week with moderate intensity (6hrs/week. The two groups were assessed at four and six months post-ACLR and the effects of retraining were measured using the following assessments: the functional and the muscular power tests, and the agility T-test. After retraining, the FTG had improved more than the CG in the operated leg in the single leg hop test (+34.64% vs. +10.92%; large effect, the five jump test (+8.87% vs. +5.03%; medium effect, and single leg triple jump (+32.15% vs. +16.05%; medium effect. For the agility T-test, the FTG had larger improvements (+17.26% vs. +13.03%, medium effect as compared to the CG. For the bilateral power tests, no significant training effects were shown for the two groups in the squat jump (SJ, the counter movement jump (CMJ and the free arms CMJ (Arm CMJ. On the other hand, the unilateral CMJ test with the injured and the uninjured legs showed a significant increase for the FTG with respect to CG (p < 0.05. The present study introduces a new training modality in rehabilitation after ACLR that results in good recovery of the operated limb along with the contra-lateral leg. This may allow the athletes to reach good functional and strength performance with only two physical training sessions per week, better preparing them for a return to sport activity at 6 months post- ACLR and eventually sparing time for a possible progressive introduction of the sport specific technical training

  9. Functionality and Performance Visualization of the Distributed High Quality Volume Renderer (HVR)

    KAUST Repository

    Shaheen, Sara

    2012-07-01

    Volume rendering systems are designed to provide means to enable scientists and a variety of experts to interactively explore volume data through 3D views of the volume. However, volume rendering techniques are computationally intensive tasks. Moreover, parallel distributed volume rendering systems and multi-threading architectures were suggested as natural solutions to provide an acceptable volume rendering performance for very large volume data sizes, such as Electron Microscopy data (EM). This in turn adds another level of complexity when developing and manipulating volume rendering systems. Given that distributed parallel volume rendering systems are among the most complex systems to develop, trace and debug, it is obvious that traditional debugging tools do not provide enough support. As a consequence, there is a great demand to provide tools that are able to facilitate the manipulation of such systems. This can be achieved by utilizing the power of compute graphics in designing visual representations that reflect how the system works and that visualize the current performance state of the system.The work presented is categorized within the field of software Visualization, where Visualization is used to serve visualizing and understanding various software. In this thesis, a number of visual representations that reflect a number of functionality and performance aspects of the distributed HVR, a high quality volume renderer system that uses various techniques to visualize large volume sizes interactively. This work is provided to visualize different stages of the parallel volume rendering pipeline of HVR. This is along with means of performance analysis through a number of flexible and dynamic visualizations that reflect the current state of the system and enables manipulation of them at runtime. Those visualization are aimed to facilitate debugging, understanding and analyzing the distributed HVR.

  10. Cognitive function predicts listening effort performance during complex tasks in normally aging adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennine Harvey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study examines whether cognitive function, as measured by the subtests of the Woodcock–Johnson III (WCJ-III assessment, predicts listening-effort performance during dual tasks across the adults of varying ages. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of 14 listeners (number of females = 11 who were 41–61 years old [mean = 53.18; standard deviation (SD = 5.97]. Group 2 consisted of 15 listeners (number of females = 9 who were 63–81 years old (mean = 72.07; SD = 5.11. Participants were administered the WCJ-III Memory for Words, Auditory Working Memory, Visual Matching, and Decision Speed subtests. All participants were tested in each of the following three dual-task experimental conditions, which were varying in complexity: (1 auditory word recognition + visual processing, (2 auditory working memory (word + visual processing, and (3 auditory working memory (sentence + visual processing in noise. Results: A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that task complexity significantly affected the performance measures of auditory accuracy, visual accuracy, and processing speed. Linear regression revealed that the cognitive subtests of the WCJ-III test significantly predicted performance across dependent variable measures. Conclusion: Listening effort is significantly affected by task complexity, regardless of age. Performance on the WCJ-III test may predict listening effort in adults and may assist speech-language pathologist (SLPs to understand challenges faced by participants when subjected to noise.

  11. Review: Exogenous butyrate: implications for the functional development of ruminal epithelium and calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwińska, B; Hanczakowska, E; Arciszewski, M B; Klebaniuk, R

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0.3% of diet dry matter is accompanied by an increase to 35% in butyrate concentration in the rumen of 33-day-old calves. Mutual reliance between an enhanced ruminal concentration of butyrate and the activities of transcription factors, genes and proteins involved in cell proliferation, ketogenesis and the maintenance of cell pH homeostasis in the ruminal epithelial cells has been clearly confirmed in many experiments. Second, the review presents results related to the effects of the introduction of butyrate salts in the diet on calf performance. Of 11 studies a positive effect was found in six; five of these were obtained from the calves that started receiving butyrate supplement at a level of about 0.3% diet dry matter from the age of 3 to 5 days. Results indicate that when a supplement is given to calves soon after birth the functional development of ruminal epithelium in cooperation with the endocrine and digestion systems is transferred into improving the efficiency of rearing. There have been no studies on the effects of greater amounts of butyrate salts in milk replacer; butyrate constitutes about 1.2% of the whole cow's milk dry matter. In older calves, when butyrate administration is provided as a component of a starter concentrate at the increasing inclusion rate from 0.3% to 3.0%, the practical effect in calf performance relates to the risk of depression of rumen pH below 5.5 and accompanying disruption of the

  12. High performance flexible pH sensor based on carboxyl-functionalized and DEP aligned SWNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu; Shao, Jinyou; Li, Xiangming; Zhao, Qiang; Nie, Bangbang; Xu, Chuan; Ding, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on two-terminal microsensors eliminating the need for a reference electrode, is simple in structure and can be fabricated on a variety of substrates such as PET, PI and PVC. • SWNTs as an ideal one dimensional material are carboxyl-functionalized to make the pH sensor show high sensitivity and outstanding flexibility for practical applications. • DEP technique is used to manipulate and position SWNTs into appropriate locations and desired formations to improve the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of pH value, resulting in better overall device performance. • Mechanical bendability of the pH sensor, which arises from the combination of flexible PET substrates and SWNTs, offer a significant improvement for applications that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional sensors on rigid substrates. - Abstract: The detection and control of the pH is very important in many biomedical and chemical reaction processes. A miniaturized flexible pH sensor that is light weight, robust, and conformable is very important in many applications, such as multifunctional lab-on-a-chip systems or wearable biomedical devices. In this work, we demonstrate a flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) aligned carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Decorated carboxyl groups can react with hydrogen (H"+) and hydroxide (OH"−) ions, enabling the sensor to be capable of sensing the pH. DEP is used to deposit well-organized and highly aligned SWNTs in desired locations, which improves the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of the pH, resulting in better overall device performance. When pH buffer solutions are dropped onto such SWNTs, the H"+ and OH"− ions caninteract with the carboxyl groups and affect the generation of holes and electrons in the SWNTs, leading to resistance variations in the SWNTs. The results shows that the

  13. High performance flexible pH sensor based on carboxyl-functionalized and DEP aligned SWNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lu; Shao, Jinyou, E-mail: jyshao@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Xiangming; Zhao, Qiang; Nie, Bangbang; Xu, Chuan; Ding, Haitao

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on two-terminal microsensors eliminating the need for a reference electrode, is simple in structure and can be fabricated on a variety of substrates such as PET, PI and PVC. • SWNTs as an ideal one dimensional material are carboxyl-functionalized to make the pH sensor show high sensitivity and outstanding flexibility for practical applications. • DEP technique is used to manipulate and position SWNTs into appropriate locations and desired formations to improve the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of pH value, resulting in better overall device performance. • Mechanical bendability of the pH sensor, which arises from the combination of flexible PET substrates and SWNTs, offer a significant improvement for applications that are difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional sensors on rigid substrates. - Abstract: The detection and control of the pH is very important in many biomedical and chemical reaction processes. A miniaturized flexible pH sensor that is light weight, robust, and conformable is very important in many applications, such as multifunctional lab-on-a-chip systems or wearable biomedical devices. In this work, we demonstrate a flexible chemiresistive pH sensor based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) aligned carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Decorated carboxyl groups can react with hydrogen (H{sup +}) and hydroxide (OH{sup −}) ions, enabling the sensor to be capable of sensing the pH. DEP is used to deposit well-organized and highly aligned SWNTs in desired locations, which improves the metal-nanotube interface and highly rapid detection of the pH, resulting in better overall device performance. When pH buffer solutions are dropped onto such SWNTs, the H{sup +} and OH{sup −} ions caninteract with the carboxyl groups and affect the generation of holes and electrons in the SWNTs, leading to resistance variations in the SWNTs. The results

  14. Initial Sensorimotor and Cardiovascular Data Acquired from Soyuz Landings: Establishing a Functional Performance Recovery Time Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kofman, I. S.; Tomilovskaya, E. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Stenger, M. B.; Platts, S. H.; Rukavishnikov, I. V.; Fomina, E. V.; hide

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Testing of crew responses following long-duration flights has not been previously possible until a minimum of more than 24 hours after landing. As a result, it has not been possible to determine the trend of the early recovery process, nor has it been possible to accurately assess the full impact of the decrements associated with long-duration flight. To overcome these limitations, both the Russian and U.S. programs have implemented joint testing at the Soyuz landing site. This International Space Station research effort has been identified as the functional Field Test, and represents data collect on NASA, Russian, European Space Agency, and Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency crews. RESEARCH The primary goal of this research is to determine functional abilities associated with long-duration space flight crews beginning as soon after landing as possible on the day of landing (typically within 1 to 1.5 hours). This goal has both sensorimotor and cardiovascular elements. To date, a total of 15 subjects have participated in a 'pilot' version of the full 'field test'. The full version of the 'field test' will assess functional sensorimotor measurements included hand/eye coordination, standing from a seated position (sit-to-stand), walking normally without falling, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, discriminating different forces generated with the hands (both strength and ability to judge just noticeable differences of force), standing from a prone position, coordinated walking involving tandem heel-to-toe placement (tested with eyes both closed and open), walking normally while avoiding obstacles of differing heights, and determining postural ataxia while standing (measurement of quiet stance). Sensorimotor performance has been obtained using video records, and data from body worn inertial sensors. The cardiovascular portion of the investigation has measured blood pressure and heart rate during a timed stand test in conjunction with postural ataxia

  15. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite....... To evaluate the performance of hemp-lime, it is compared to models with common external walls, upon defined parameters. The article also determines the variation of thermal conductivity for hemp-lime commercial plaster and wall mix, as a function of moisture content. The most promising binder composition...

  16. Density Functional Theory Study of Leaching Performance of Different Acids on Pyrochlore (100) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuli; Fang, Qing; Ouyang, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Pyrochlore leaching using hydrofluoric, sulfuric, and hydrochloric acids has been studied via experimental methods for years, but the interactions between niobium atoms on the pyrochlore surface and different acids have not been investigated. In this work, first-principles calculations based on density functional theory were used to elucidate the leaching performance of these three acids from the viewpoint of geometrical and electronic structures. The calculation results indicate that sulfate, chloride, and fluoride anions influence the geometric structure of pyrochlore (100) to different extents, decreasing in the order: sulfate, fluoride, chloride. Orbitals of O1 and O2 atoms of sulfate hybridized with those of surface niobium atom. Fluorine orbitals hybridized with those of surface niobium atoms. However, no obvious overlap exists between any orbitals of chlorine and surface niobium, revealing that chlorine does not interact chemically with surface niobium atoms.

  17. Functionally graded hardmetals and cermets: preparation, performance and production scale up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreyer, K.; Kassel, D.; Daub, H.-W.; Berg, H. van den; Lengauer, W.; Garcia, J.; Ucakar, V.

    2001-01-01

    Sintering experiments were carried out to establish graded microstructures in hardmetals and cermets. The formation of these microstructural features was investigated as a function of nitrogen pressure, sintering temperature, sintering period and sintering profile. The nitrogen pressure influences the formation of carbonitride layers at the surface. Decreasing sintering temperature yields similar results as increasing nitrogen pressure. Upon prolonged sintering time a small growth of the outer carbonitride layer can only be obtained if a substantial WC grain growth is accepted. Variation of the sintering profile after dense sintering does not principally change the type of the graded microstructure. The laboratory experiments were scaled up in an industrial sinter/HIP furnace and showing good correspondence with each other. First turning cutting tests with different alloys show excellent performance in comparison to ungraded materials. (author)

  18. Disembedding performance in children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaland, Nils; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Smith, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the findings, reported in earlier studies, that individuals with autism spectrum disorders process visuo-spatial tasks faster than typically developing control persons. The participants in the present study were children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) (N = 13), and a matched group of typically developing children and adolescents (N = 13). The results showed that the participants in the clinical group performed marginally less well than those in the control group on both the Block Design Test and the Embedded Figures Test, but the differences were not statistically significant. Thus, earlier findings suggesting that individuals with autism spectrum disorders solve non-social cognitive tasks faster than typically developing control persons were not replicated. The results are discussed with special reference to the hypothesis of weak central coherence.

  19. Genome Regions Associated with Functional Performance of Soybean Stem Fibers in Polypropylene Thermoplastic Composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarmilla Reinprecht

    Full Text Available Plant fibers can be used to produce composite materials for automobile parts, thus reducing plastic used in their manufacture, overall vehicle weight and fuel consumption when they replace mineral fillers and glass fibers. Soybean stem residues are, potentially, significant sources of inexpensive, renewable and biodegradable natural fibers, but are not curretly used for biocomposite production due to the functional properties of their fibers in composites being unknown. The current study was initiated to investigate the effects of plant genotype on the performance characteristics of soybean stem fibers when incorporated into a polypropylene (PP matrix using a selective phenotyping approach. Fibers from 50 lines of a recombinant inbred line population (169 RILs grown in different environments were incorporated into PP at 20% (wt/wt by extrusion. Test samples were injection molded and characterized for their mechanical properties. The performance of stem fibers in the composites was significantly affected by genotype and environment. Fibers from different genotypes had significantly different chemical compositions, thus composites prepared with these fibers displayed different physical properties. This study demonstrates that thermoplastic composites with soybean stem-derived fibers have mechanical properties that are equivalent or better than wheat straw fiber composites currently being used for manufacturing interior automotive parts. The addition of soybean stem residues improved flexural, tensile and impact properties of the composites. Furthermore, by linkage and in silico mapping we identified genomic regions to which quantitative trait loci (QTL for compositional and functional properties of soybean stem fibers in thermoplastic composites, as well as genes for cell wall synthesis, were co-localized. These results may lead to the development of high value uses for soybean stem residue.

  20. The Relationship of Core Strength and Activation and Performance on Three Functional Movement Screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Caleb D; Whitehead, Paul N; Pletcher, Erin R; Faherty, Mallory S; Lovalekar, Mita T; Eagle, Shawn R; Keenan, Karen A

    2018-04-01

    Johnson, CD, Whitehead, PN, Pletcher, ER, Faherty, MS, Lovalekar, MT, Eagle, SR, and Keenan, KA. The relationship of core strength and activation and performance on three functional movement screens. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1166-1173, 2018-Current measures of core stability used by clinicians and researchers suffer from several shortcomings. Three functional movement screens appear, at face-value, to be dependent on the ability to activate and control core musculature. These 3 screens may present a viable alternative to current measures of core stability. Thirty-nine subjects completed a deep squat, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability screen. Scores on the 3 screens were summed to calculate a composite score (COMP). During the screens, muscle activity was collected to determine the length of time that the bilateral erector spinae, rectus abdominis, external oblique, and gluteus medius muscles were active. Strength was assessed for core muscles (trunk flexion and extension, trunk rotation, and hip abduction and adduction) and accessory muscles (knee flexion and extension and pectoralis major). Two ordinal logistic regression equations were calculated with COMP as the outcome variable, and: (a) core strength and accessory strength, (b) only core strength. The first model was significant in predicting COMP (p = 0.004) (Pearson's Chi-Square = 149.132, p = 0.435; Nagelkerke's R-Squared = 0.369). The second model was significant in predicting COMP (p = 0.001) (Pearson's Chi-Square = 148.837, p = 0.488; Nagelkerke's R-Squared = 0.362). The core muscles were found to be active for most screens, with percentages of "time active" for each muscle ranging from 54-86%. In conclusion, performance on the 3 screens is predicted by core strength, even when accounting for "accessory" strength variables. Furthermore, it seems the screens elicit wide-ranging activation of core muscles. Although more investigation is needed, these screens, collectively, seem to be a good

  1. Cardiopulmonary Performance During Maximal Exercise in Soccer Players with Alterations in Renal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Anderson Pontes; Sampaio-Jorge, Felipe; da Cruz Rangel, Luiz Felipe; de Souza Menezes, Jackson; Leite, Tiago Costa; Ribeiro, Beatriz Gonçalves

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the curves of cardiorespiratory variables during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in soccer players who had acute alterations in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after performing the pre-season training protocol. Sixteen male professional soccer players (25 ± 3 years; 179 ± 2 cm; and 77 ± 6 kg) were evaluated for oxygen uptake (VO 2 ), heart rate (HR) and pulse relative oxygen (relative O 2 Pulse) curves with intervals corresponding to 10% of the total duration of CPET. Athletes were grouped according to the GFR and classified as decreased GFR (dGFR; n = 8) and normal GFR (nGFR; n = 8). Athletes from the dGFR group exhibited lower VO 2 values (p values (p values (p < 0.05) when 70% (dGFR 25.6 ± 8.4 vs. nGFR 27.9 ± 9.7 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ), 80% (dGFR 26.6 ± 8.8 vs. nGFR 29.1 ± 10.0 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ), 90% (dGFR 27.1 ± 9.0 vs. nGFR 30.8 ± 10.6 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ) and 100% (dGFR 28 ± 9.2 vs. nGFR 31.8 ± 10.9 ml·beat -1 ·kg -1 ) of the test was complete. A correlation was found (r = -0.66, R 2 = 0.44, p = 0.00) between lower VO 2 peak and elevated levels of urinary protein excretion. In conclusion, soccer players with reduced kidney function after performing the pre-season training protocol also presented alterations in cardiopulmonary variables. We suggest that monitoring of renal function may be used to identify less conditioned soccer players.

  2. Neurobehavioral Performance Impairment in Insomnia: Relationships with Self-Reported Sleep and Daytime Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J.; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A.; Burke, Liza M.; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M.; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Design: Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Setting: Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Patients: Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. Conclusions: We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency. Citation: Shekleton JA; Flynn-Evans EE; Miller B; Epstein LJ; Kirsch D; Brogna LA; Burke LM; Cremer E; Murray JM; Gehrman P; Lockley SW; Rajaratnam SMW

  3. Effects of zinc-methionine on growth performance, intestinal flora and immune function in pigeon squabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yi, L; Zhao, M L; Wu, J Q; Wang, M Y; Cheng, X C

    2014-01-01

    1. Different concentrations of zinc-methionine (Zn-Met) were given to pigeon squabs, and the resulting effects on growth, immune functions and intestinal microflora were investigated from hatching to 28 d of age. A total of 180 artificially hatched pigeon squabs were randomly allotted to each of three treatments with three replicates of 20 squabs. The three treatments given were either one ml (2 mg/ml) Zn-Met, one ml (10 mg/ml) Zn-Met or one ml 0.9% NaCl solution. 2. The results showed that Zn-Met improved the growth performance of squabs. The average daily and average weekly weight gain was significantly greater in squabs treated with Zn-Met than in the control group. 3. The group given 2 and 10 mg supplemental Zn-Met had heavier thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius than the control group at d 28. 4. Maternal antibody titres against Newcastle disease haemagglutination inhibition and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase were significantly higher in squabs treated with supplemental 2 and 10 mg Zn-Met compared to the control group at d 14 and d 28. 5. Additionally, the squabs given supplemental 2 mg Zn-Met exhibited significantly higher Bacillaceae, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations at d 14 and d 28, but lower Escherichia coli populations at d 28 compared to the control group. On the contrary, Lactobacillus, Enterococcus and Bifidobacterium populations were significantly decreased with 10 mg Zn-Met at d 28. 6. This study indicates that supplementation with Zn-Met has a positive effect on growth performance, immune function and regulation of intestinal flora in pigeons. An inclusion level of 2 mg seems to be better than 10 mg Zn-Met per day per bird.

  4. A computational approach for functional mapping of quantitative trait loci that regulate thermal performance curves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stephen Yap

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether and how thermal reaction norm is under genetic control is fundamental to understand the mechanistic basis of adaptation to novel thermal environments. However, the genetic study of thermal reaction norm is difficult because it is often expressed as a continuous function or curve. Here we derive a statistical model for dissecting thermal performance curves into individual quantitative trait loci (QTL with the aid of a genetic linkage map. The model is constructed within the maximum likelihood context and implemented with the EM algorithm. It integrates the biological principle of responses to temperature into a framework for genetic mapping through rigorous mathematical functions established to describe the pattern and shape of thermal reaction norms. The biological advantages of the model lie in the decomposition of the genetic causes for thermal reaction norm into its biologically interpretable modes, such as hotter-colder, faster-slower and generalist-specialist, as well as the formulation of a series of hypotheses at the interface between genetic actions/interactions and temperature-dependent sensitivity. The model is also meritorious in statistics because the precision of parameter estimation and power of QTLdetection can be increased by modeling the mean-covariance structure with a small set of parameters. The results from simulation studies suggest that the model displays favorable statistical properties and can be robust in practical genetic applications. The model provides a conceptual platform for testing many ecologically relevant hypotheses regarding organismic adaptation within the Eco-Devo paradigm.

  5. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  6. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  7. Hybrid local piezoelectric and conductive functions for high performance airborne sound absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimabady, Mojtaba; Statharas, Eleftherios Christos; Yao, Kui; Sharifzadeh Mirshekarloo, Meysam; Chen, Shuting; Tay, Francis Eng Hock

    2017-12-01

    A concept of hybrid local piezoelectric and electrical conductive functions for improving airborne sound absorption is proposed and demonstrated in composite foam made of porous polar polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) mixed with conductive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT). According to our hybrid material function design, the local piezoelectric effect in the PVDF matrix with the polar structure and the electrical resistive loss of SWCNT enhanced sound energy conversion to electrical energy and subsequently to thermal energy, respectively, in addition to the other known sound absorption mechanisms in a porous material. It is found that the overall energy conversion and hence the sound absorption performance are maximized when the concentration of the SWCNT is around the conductivity percolation threshold. For the optimal composition of PVDF/5 wt. % SWCNT, a sound reduction coefficient of larger than 0.58 has been obtained, with a high sound absorption coefficient higher than 50% at 600 Hz, showing their great values for passive noise mitigation even at a low frequency.

  8. Associations between treatment, scoliosis, pulmonary function, and physical performance in long-term survivors of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interiano, Rodrigo B; Kaste, Sue C; Li, Chenghong; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Rao, Bhaskar N; Warner, William C; Green, Daniel M; Krasin, Matthew J; Robison, Leslie L; Davidoff, Andrew M; Hudson, Melissa M; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Ness, Kirsten K

    2017-10-01

    Longer survival for children with sarcoma has led to the recognition of chronic health conditions related to prior therapy. We sought to study the association of sarcoma therapy with the development of scoliosis. We reviewed patient demographics, treatment exposures, and functional outcomes for patients surviving >10 years after treatment for sarcoma between 1964 and 2002 at our institution. The diagnosis of scoliosis was determined by imaging. Functional performance and standardized questionnaires were completed in a long-term follow-up clinic. We identified 367 patients, with median age at follow-up of 33.1 years. Scoliosis was identified in 100 (27.2%) patients. Chest radiation (relative risk (RR), 1.88 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-2.92), p sarcoma are at risk of developing scoliosis when treatment regimens include chest radiation or rib resection. Identification of these risk factors may allow for early intervention designed to prevent adverse long-term outcomes. Cancer survivors at risk of developing scoliosis may benefit from monitoring of pulmonary status and early physical therapy.

  9. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernerey, Franck J.; Barthelat, Francois

    2014-08-01

    Natural and man-made structural materials perform similar functions such as structural support or protection. Therefore they rely on the same types of properties: strength, robustness, lightweight. Nature can therefore provide a significant source of inspiration for new and alternative engineering designs. We report here some results regarding a very common, yet largely unknown, type of biological material: fish skin. Within a thin, flexible and lightweight layer, fish skins display a variety of strain stiffening and stabilizing mechanisms which promote multiple functions such as protection, robustness and swimming efficiency. We particularly discuss four important features pertaining to scaled skins: (a) a strongly elastic tensile behavior that is independent from the presence of rigid scales, (b) a compressive response that prevents buckling and wrinkling instabilities, which are usually predominant for thin membranes, (c) a bending response that displays nonlinear stiffening mechanisms arising from geometric constraints between neighboring scales and (d) a robust structure that preserves the above characteristics upon the loss or damage of structural elements. These important properties make fish skin an attractive model for the development of very thin and flexible armors and protective layers, especially when combined with the high penetration resistance of individual scales. Scaled structures inspired by fish skin could find applications in ultra-light and flexible armor systems, flexible electronics or the design of smart and adaptive morphing structures for aerospace vehicles.

  10. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isesaki, Gunma (Japan); Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-03-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  11. Functional Performances of CuZnAl Shape Memory Alloy Open-Cell Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffi, C. A.; Casati, R.; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.

    2018-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) with cellular structure offer a unique mixture of thermo-physical-mechanical properties. These characteristics can be tuned by changing the pore size and make the shape memory metallic foams very attractive for developing new devices for structural and functional applications. In this work, CuZnAl SMA foams were produced through the liquid infiltration of space holder method. In comparison, a conventional CuZn brass alloy was foamed trough the same method. Functional performances were studied on both bulk and foamed SMA specimens. Calorimetric response shows similar martensitic transformation (MT) below 0 °C. Compressive response of CuZnAl revealed that mechanical behavior is strongly affected by sample morphology and that damping capacity of metallic foam is increased above the MT temperatures. The shape memory effect was detected in the CuZnAl foams. The conventional brass shows a compressive response similar to that of the martensitic CuZnAl, in which plastic deformation accumulation occurs up to the cellular structure densification after few thermal cycles.

  12. Processing environmental stimuli in paranoid schizophrenia: recognizing facial emotions and performing executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao Hua; Zhu, Jun Peng; Xu, You; Zheng, Lei Lei; Chai, Hao; He, Wei; Liu, Wei Bo; Li, Hui Chun; Wang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    To study the contribution of executive function to abnormal recognition of facial expressions of emotion in schizophrenia patients. Abnormal recognition of facial expressions of emotion was assayed according to Japanese and Caucasian facial expressions of emotion (JACFEE), Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), positive and negative symptom scale, and Hamilton anxiety and depression scale, respectively, in 88 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 75 healthy volunteers. Patients scored higher on the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and the Hamilton Anxiety and Depression Scales, displayed lower JACFEE recognition accuracies and poorer WCST performances. The JACFEE recognition accuracy of contempt and disgust was negatively correlated with the negative symptom scale score while the recognition accuracy of fear was positively with the positive symptom scale score and the recognition accuracy of surprise was negatively with the general psychopathology score in patients. Moreover, the WCST could predict the JACFEE recognition accuracy of contempt, disgust, and sadness in patients, and the perseverative errors negatively predicted the recognition accuracy of sadness in healthy volunteers. The JACFEE recognition accuracy of sadness could predict the WCST categories in paranoid schizophrenia patients. Recognition accuracy of social-/moral emotions, such as contempt, disgust and sadness is related to the executive function in paranoid schizophrenia patients, especially when regarding sadness. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dual-Functional Ultrafiltration Membrane for Simultaneous Removal of Multiple Pollutants with High Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shunlong; Li, Jiansheng; Noonan, Owen; Fang, Xiaofeng; Wan, Gaojie; Yu, Chengzhong; Wang, Lianjun

    2017-05-02

    Simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants from aqueous solution with less energy consumption is crucial in water purification. Here, a novel concept of dual-functional ultrafiltration (DFUF) membrane is demonstrated by entrapment of nanostructured adsorbents into the finger-like pores of ultrafiltration (UF) membrane rather than in the membrane matrix in previous reports of blend membranes, resulting in an exceptionally high active content and simultaneous removal of multiple pollutants from water due to the dual functions of rejection and adsorption. As a demonstration, hollow porous Zr(OH) x nanospheres (HPZNs) were immobilized in poly(ether sulfone) (PES) UF membranes through polydopamine coating with a high content of 68.9 wt %. The decontamination capacity of DFUF membranes toward multiple model pollutants (colloidal gold, polyethylene glycol (PEG), Pb(II)) was evaluated against a blend membrane. Compared to the blend membrane, the DFUF membranes showed 2.1-fold increase in the effective treatment volume for the treatment of Pb(II) contaminated water from 100 ppb to below 10 ppb (WHO drinking water standard). Simultaneously, the DFUF membranes effectively removed the colloidal gold and PEG below instrument detection limit, however the blend membrane only achieved 97.6% and 96.8% rejection for colloidal gold and PEG, respectively. Moreover, the DFUF membranes showed negligible leakage of nanoadsorbents during testing; and the membrane can be easily regenerated and reused. This study sheds new light on the design of high performance multifunction membranes for drinking water purification.

  14. Enhanced Hydrothermal Stability and Catalytic Performance of HKUST-1 by Incorporating Carboxyl-Functionalized Attapulgite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Yin, Xiao-Qian; Liu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xing-Yang; Sun, Lin-Bing

    2016-06-29

    Much attention has been paid to metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) due to their large surface areas, tunable functionality, and diverse structure. Nevertheless, most reported MOFs show poor hydrothermal stability, which seriously hinders their applications. Here a strategy is adopted to tailor the properties of MOFs by means of incorporating carboxyl-functionalized natural clay attapulgite (ATP) into HKUST-1, a well-known MOF. A new type of hybrid material was thus fabricated from the hybridization of HKUST-1 and ATP. Our results indicated that the hydrothermal stability of the MOFs as well as the catalytic performance was apparently improved. The frameworks of HKUST-1 were severely destroyed after hydrothermal treatment (hot water vapor, 60 °C), while that of the hybrid materials was maintained. For the hybrid materials containing 8.4 wt % of ATP, the surface area reached 1302 m(2)·g(-1) and was even higher than that of pristine HKUST-1 (1245 m(2)·g(-1)). In the ring-opening of styrene oxide, the conversion reached 98.9% at only 20 min under catalysis from the hybrid material, which was obviously higher than that over pristine HKUST-1 (80.9%). Moreover, the hybrid materials showed excellent reusability and the catalytic activity was recoverable without loss after six cycles. Our materials provide promising candidates for heterogeneous catalysis owing to the good catalytic activity and reusability.

  15. Application of desirability function for optimizing the performance characteristics of carbonitrided bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a product is generally characterized by more than one response variable. Hence the management often faces the problem of simultaneous optimization of many response variables. This study was undertaken to simultaneously optimize the surface hardness and case depth of carbonitrided bushes. Even though lots of literature has been published on various methodologies for tackling the multi-response optimization problem, the simultaneous optimization of heat treated properties of carbonitrided bushes are not reported yet. In this research the effect of four factors and two interactions on surface hardness and case depth of carbontirded bushes were studied using design of experiments. Based on the experimental results, the expected values of the heat treated properties of the bushes were estimated for all possible combination of factors. Then the best combination which, simultaneously optimized the response variables, was arrived at using desirability function. The study showed that the optimum combination obtained through desirability function approach not only minimized the variation around the targets of surface hardness and case depth but also was superior to the ones obtained by optimizing the response variables separately. Moreover this study provides a useful and effective approach to design the production process to manufacture bushes with customer specified surface hardness and case depth targets.

  16. Evaluation of Functional Correlation of Task-Specific Muscle Synergies with Motor Performance in Patients Poststroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system produces movements by activating specifically programmed muscle synergies that are also altered with injuries in the brain, such as stroke. In this study, we hypothesize that there exists a positive correlation between task-specific muscle synergy and motor functions at joint and task levels in patients following stroke. The purpose here is to define and evaluate neurophysiological metrics based on task-specific muscle synergy for assessing motor functions in patients. A patient group of 10 subjects suffering from stroke and a control group of nine age-matched healthy subjects were recruited to participate in this study. Electromyography (EMG signals and movement kinematics were recorded in patients and control subjects while performing arm reaching tasks. Muscle synergies of individual patients were extracted off-line from EMG records of each patient, and a baseline pattern of muscle synergy was obtained from the pooled EMG data of all nine control subjects. Peak velocities and movement durations of each reaching movement were computed from measured kinematics. Similarity indices of matching components to those of the baseline synergy were defined by synergy vectors and time profiles, respectively, as well as by a combined similarity of vector and time profile. Results showed that pathological synergies of patients were altered from the characteristics of baseline synergy with missing components, or varied vector patterns and time profiles. The kinematic performance measured by peak velocities and movement durations was significantly poorer for the patient group than the control group. In patients, all three similarity indices were found to correlate significantly to the kinematics of movements for the reaching tasks. The correlation to the Fugl-Meyer score of arm was the highest with the vector index, the lowest with the time profile index, and in between with the combined index. These findings illustrate that the

  17. Virtual Networking Performance in OpenStack Platform for Network Function Virtualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Callegati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging Network Function Virtualization (NFV paradigm, coupled with the highly flexible and programmatic control of network devices offered by Software Defined Networking solutions, enables unprecedented levels of network virtualization that will definitely change the shape of future network architectures, where legacy telco central offices will be replaced by cloud data centers located at the edge. On the one hand, this software-centric evolution of telecommunications will allow network operators to take advantage of the increased flexibility and reduced deployment costs typical of cloud computing. On the other hand, it will pose a number of challenges in terms of virtual network performance and customer isolation. This paper intends to provide some insights on how an open-source cloud computing platform such as OpenStack implements multitenant network virtualization and how it can be used to deploy NFV, focusing in particular on packet forwarding performance issues. To this purpose, a set of experiments is presented that refer to a number of scenarios inspired by the cloud computing and NFV paradigms, considering both single tenant and multitenant scenarios. From the results of the evaluation it is possible to highlight potentials and limitations of running NFV on OpenStack.

  18. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Springer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (. In conclusion, dual-channel FES may enhance gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone.

  19. The effect of additional joint mobilization on neuromuscular performance in individuals with functional ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Fen; Yu, Hsiang-Ting; Chen, Wen-Yin; Liao, Kwong-Kum; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Yang, Yea-Ru

    2018-03-01

    To examine the effects of joint mobilization and exercise training on neuromuscular performance in individuals with functional ankle instability (FAI). A cross-sectional study. Forty five subjects with FAI were randomized into three groups: control (CG, n = 15, 27.9 ± 6.6yr), training (TG, n = 15, 26.9 ± 5.8yr) and mobilization with training group (MTG, n = 15, 26.5 ± 4.8yr). Four weeks of neuromuscular training for TG; neuromuscular training and joint mobilization for MTG. Electromyography of the peroneus longus (PL), tibialis anterior (TA), and soleus (SOL) and the reaching distance of the Y balance test (YBT), dorsiflexion range of motion (DFROM), Cumberland ankle instability tool (CAIT), and global rating scale (GRS). Two-way repeated measures MANOVA were used with the significance level p Joint mobilization resulted in additional benefits on self-reported ankle instability severity, dorsiflexion mobility, and posterolateral balance performance in individuals with FAI, but its effects on general improvement, muscle activation, and other balance tasks remained uncertain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional Activation and Effective Connectivity Differences in Adolescent Marijuana Users Performing a Simulated Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Acheson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, “Wins” and “Losses” were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during “Losses.” Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both “Wins” and “Losses.” However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the “Losses” condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity.

  1. Highly Conductive Aromatic Functionalized Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube for Inkjet Printable High Performance Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev K Ujjain

    Full Text Available We report the functionalization of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT via the 1,3-dipolar [3+2] cycloaddition of aromatic azides, which resulted in a detangled CNT as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Carboxylic moieties (-COOH on aromatic azide result in highly stable aqueous dispersion (max. conc. ~ 10 mg/mL H2O, making the suitable for inkjet printing. Printed patterns on polyethylene terephthalate (PET flexible substrate exhibit low sheet resistivity ~65 Ω. cm, which is attributed to enhanced conductivity. Fabricated Supercapacitors (SC assembled using these printed substrates exhibit good electrochemical performance in organic as well as aqueous electrolytes. High energy and power density (57.8 Wh/kg and 0.85 kW/kg in 1M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed supercapacitor. Capacitive retention varies from ~85-94% with columbic efficiency ~95% after 1000 charge/discharge cycles in different electrolytes, demonstrating the excellent potential of the device for futuristic power applications.

  2. Functional handwriting performance in school-age children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval-White, Cherie J; Jirikowic, Tracy; Rios, Dianne; Deitz, Jean; Olson, Heather Carmichael

    2013-01-01

    Handwriting is a critical skill for school success. Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) often present with fine motor and visual-motor impairments that can affect handwriting performance, yet handwriting skills have not been systematically investigated in this clinical group. This study aimed to comprehensively describe handwriting skills in 20 school-age children with FASD. Children were tested with the Process Assessment of the Learner, 2nd Edition (PAL-II), and the Visuomotor Precision subtest of NEPSY, a developmental neuropsychological assessment. Participants performed below average on PAL-II measures of handwriting legibility and speed and on NEPSY visual-motor precision tasks. In contrast, PAL-II measures of sensorimotor skills were broadly within the average range. Results provide evidence of functional handwriting challenges for children with FASD and suggest diminished visual-motor skills and increased difficulty as task complexity increases. Future research is needed to further describe the prevalence and nature of handwriting challenges in this population. Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. How the choice of safety performance function affects the identification of important crash prediction variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ketong; Simandl, Jenna K; Porter, Michael D; Graettinger, Andrew J; Smith, Randy K

    2016-03-01

    Across the nation, researchers and transportation engineers are developing safety performance functions (SPFs) to predict crash rates and develop crash modification factors to improve traffic safety at roadway segments and intersections. Generalized linear models (GLMs), such as Poisson or negative binomial regression, are most commonly used to develop SPFs with annual average daily traffic as the primary roadway characteristic to predict crashes. However, while more complex to interpret, data mining models such as boosted regression trees have improved upon GLMs crash prediction performance due to their ability to handle more data characteristics, accommodate non-linearities, and include interaction effects between the characteristics. An intersection data inventory of 36 safety relevant parameters for three- and four-legged non-signalized intersections along state routes in Alabama was used to study the importance of intersection characteristics on crash rate and the interaction effects between key characteristics. Four different SPFs were investigated and compared: Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, regularized generalized linear model, and boosted regression trees. The models did not agree on which intersection characteristics were most related to the crash rate. The boosted regression tree model significantly outperformed the other models and identified several intersection characteristics as having strong interaction effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thioether profragrances: parameters influencing the performance of precursor-based fragrance delivery in functional perfumery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Umberto; Trachsel, Alain; Fankhauser, Peter; Berthier, Damien L; Benczédi, Daniel; Wang, Wei; Xi, Xiujuan; Shen, Youqing; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A series of thioether profragrances was prepared by reaction of different sulfanylalkanoates with δ-damascone and tested for their release efficiencies in a fabric-softener and an all-purpose cleaner application. Dynamic headspace analysis on dry cotton and on a ceramic plate revealed that the performance of the different precursors depended on the structure, but also on the particular conditions encountered in different applications. Moreover, profragrances derived from other α,β-unsaturated fragrance aldehydes and ketones were synthesized analogously and evaluated using the same test protocol. Thioethers were found to be suitable precursors to release the corresponding fragrances, but neither the quantity of profragrance deposited from an aqueous environment onto the target surface, nor the amount of fragrance released after deposition could be linearly correlated to the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of the compounds. Different sets of compounds were found to be the best performers for different types of applications. Only one of the compounds evaluated in the present work, namely the thiolactic acid derivative of δ-damascone, efficiently released the corresponding fragrance in both of the tested applications. Profragrance development for functional perfumery thus remains a partially empirical endeavour. More knowledge (and control) of the various application conditions are required for an efficient profragrance design. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  5. Influence of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation on vascular function and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Wong, Alexei; Jaime, Salvador J; Gonzales, Joaquin U

    2017-01-01

    L-Citrulline, either synthetic or in watermelon, may improve vascular function through increased L-arginine bioavailability and nitric oxide synthesis. This article analyses potential vascular benefits of L-citrulline and watermelon supplementation at rest and during exercise. There is clear evidence that acute L-citrulline ingestion increases plasma L-arginine, the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthesis. However, the subsequent acute improvement in nitric oxide production and mediated vasodilation is inconsistent, which likely explains the inability of acute L-citrulline or watermelon to improve exercise tolerance. Recent studies have shown that chronic L-citrulline supplementation increases nitric oxide synthesis, decreases blood pressure, and may increase peripheral blood flow. These changes are paralleled by improvements in skeletal muscle oxygenation and performance during endurance exercise. The antihypertensive effect of L-citrulline/watermelon supplementation is evident in adults with prehypertension or hypertension, but not in normotensives. However, L-citrulline supplementation may attenuate the blood pressure response to exercise in normotensive men. The beneficial vascular effects of L-citrulline/watermelon supplementation may stem from improvements in the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway. Reductions in resting blood pressure with L-citrulline/watermelon supplementation may have major implications for individuals with prehypertension and hypertension. L-Citrulline supplementation, but not acute ingestion, have shown to improve exercise performance in young healthy adults.

  6. Functional and biocompatibility performances of an integrated Maglev pump-oxygenator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Guangming; Koert, Andrew; Zhang, Juntao; Gellman, Barry; Yankey, G Kwame; Satpute, Aditee; Dasse, Kurt A; Gilbert, Richard J; Griffith, Bartley P; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2009-01-01

    To provide respiratory support for patients with lung failure, a novel compact integrated pump-oxygenator is being developed. The functional and biocompatibility performances of this device are presented. The pump-oxygenator is designed by combining a magnetically levitated pump/rotor with a uniquely configured hollow fiber membrane bundle to create an assembly free, ultracompact, all-in-one system. The hemodynamics, gas transfer and biocompatibility performances of this novel device were investigated both in vitro in a circulatory flow loop and in vivo in an ovine animal model. The in vitro results showed that the device was able to pump blood flow from 2 to 8 L/min against a wide range of pressures and to deliver an oxygen transfer rate more than 300 mL/min at a blood flow of 6 L/min. Blood damage tests demonstrated low hemolysis (normalized index of hemolysis [NIH] approximately 0.04) at a flow rate of 5 L/min against a 100-mm Hg afterload. The data from five animal experiments (4 h to 7 days) demonstrated that the device could bring the venous blood to near fully oxygen-saturated condition (98.6% +/- 1.3%). The highest oxygen transfer rate reached 386 mL/min. The gas transfer performance was stable over the study duration for three 7-day animals. There was no indication of blood damage. The plasma free hemoglobin and platelet count were within the normal ranges. No gross thrombus is found on the explanted pump components and fiber surfaces. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrated that the newly developed pump-oxygenator can achieve sufficient blood flow and oxygen transfer with excellent biocompatibility.

  7. Left Ventricular Function and Physiological Performance in Female Ironman Athletes and Female Police Officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischik, Roman; Foshag, Peter; Strauss, Markus; Spelsberg, Norman

    2016-06-01

    Data about physiological performance of female ironman triathletes are rare. However, some studies have reported this endurance sport may cause damage to the right or left ventricles, even in females. The goal of this study was to assess prospectively the right/left ventricular function and physiological performance in female athletes (middle- and long ironman distance) and to compare the findings to female federal police officers. A total of 33 female triathletes and 37 female police officers were examined using spiro-ergometry and echocardiography. Female triathletes achieved VO2max 52.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1), and police officers 35.3 ± 6.5 ml/kg(-1)·min(-1) In athletes, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter was 4.4 ± 0.3 cm and in police officers 4.5 ± 0.4 cm, and the left ventricular muscle mass index was 85.8 g/m(2 )± 18.7 in athletes and in police officers 72.0 g/m(2 )± 9.1. Right ventricular area change among athletes was 49.4 ± 8.5%, and in police officers 46.0 ± 6.9%. The performance date of female triathletes can be used as training prescription for leisure female triathletes, when middle or long distances in triathlon competitions are planned. No right or left ventricular dysfunction was found despite long training and finishing of long distance competitions: non-elite athletes, 5.4 ± 2.8 years of triathlon competitions; elite athletes, 7.6 ± 5.8 years. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. DOE/LLNL verification symposium on technologies for monitoring nuclear tests related to weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, K.K.

    1993-01-01

    The rapidly changing world situation has raised concerns regarding the proliferation of nuclear weapons and the ability to monitor a possible clandestine nuclear testing program. To address these issues, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Treaty Verification Program sponsored a symposium funded by the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Arms Control, Division of Systems and Technology. The DOE/LLNL Symposium on Technologies for Monitoring Nuclear Tests Related to Weapons Proliferation was held at the DOE's Nevada Operations Office in Las Vegas, May 6--7,1992. This volume is a collection of several papers presented at the symposium. Several experts in monitoring technology presented invited talks assessing the status of monitoring technology with emphasis on the deficient areas requiring more attention in the future. In addition, several speakers discussed proliferation monitoring technologies being developed by the DOE's weapons laboratories

  9. Association between central obesity and executive function as assessed by stroop task performance: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhangyan Deng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between executive function (EF and obesity. Studies often adopt body mass index (BMI, which reflects the distribution of subcutaneous fat, as the sole marker of obesity; however, BMI is inappropriate to distinguish central obesity, which indicates the centralized distribution of visceral fat. Visceral fat compared with subcutaneous fat represents greater relative lipid turnover and may increase the risk of cognitive decline in older adults. However, the relationship between EF and central obesity is largely unknown, particularly in young adults. Therefore, we used waist circumference (WC as a marker of central obesity and investigated different sensitivities between BMI and WC in the brain function. A total of 26 healthy young adults (aged 18–25 years; 42% female underwent functional near-infrared spectroscopy assessments. EF was assessed using the Stroop task, which is a classical measurement of EF. A significant Stroop effect was observed in the behavioral and hemodynamic data. In addition, we observed that behavioral interference on the Stroop task varied much more in subjects with higher BMI and WC than those subjects with lower. Elevated BMI and WC were associated with a decreased hemodynamic response during the Stroop task specifically in the prefrontal cortex (PFC. Compared to BMI, WC was more closely connected with inhibitory control and revealed right lateralized PFC activation. Our findings suggest that WC is a reliable indicator of brain function in young adults and propose a relationship between EF and central obesity.

  10. The efficacy of tourniquet assisted total knee arthroplasty on patient-reported and performance-based physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmann-Jensen, Rasmus; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Emmeluth, Claus

    2014-01-01

    surgery. The non-tourniquet assisted TKA group will have surgery performed without application of a tourniquet. The primary aim is to compare tourniquet assisted to non-tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function (KOOS-ADL). The secondary aim is to compare post-surgery pain, function...... in sports and recreation, quality of life, and performance-based physical function. The explorative outcomes include; use of pain medication, single-fiber muscle damage, and changes in mechanical muscle function. The primary endpoint will be at 3-months following surgical treatment, and the time...... randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function supported by a range of performance-based secondary outcome measures. As such it will provide high quality evidence that may help determine whether tourniquet should be used in future TKA...

  11. The Innovative Design and Prototype Verification of Wheelchair with One Degree of Freedom to Perform Lifting and Standing Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Long-Chang; Chen, Tzu-Hsia

    2017-12-01

    Traditionally, the mechanism of wheelchair with lifting and standing functions has 2 degrees of freedom, and used 2 power sources to perform these 2 motion function. The purpose of this paper is to invent new wheelchair with 1 degree of freedom to perform these 2 motion functions. Hence, we can use only 1 power source to drive the mechanism to achieve lifting and standing motion functions. The new design has the advantages of simple operation, more stability, and more safety. For traditional standing wheelchair, its’ centre of gravity moves forward when standing up and it needs 2 auxiliary wheels to prevent dumping. In this paper, by using the checklist method of Osborn, the wheelchair with 1 DOF is invented to perform lifting and standing functions. The centre of gravity of this new wheelchair after standing up still located between the front and rear wheels, no auxiliary wheels needed. Finally, the prototype is manufactured to verify the theoretical results.

  12. Is more always better? An exploration of the differential effects of functional integration on performance in new product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomes, J.F.; Gomes, J.F.S.; de Weerd-Nederhof, Petronella C.; Pearson, A.W.; Cunha, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explore the relationship between performance in new product development (hereinafter NPD) and functional integration under different conditions of project uncertainty. Functional integration is conceived as a two-dimensional concept, encompassing a behavioural —

  13. Carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance in individuals with patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed Hamada, Hamada; Hussein Draz, Amira; Koura, Ghada Mohamed; Saab, Ibtissam M

    2017-08-01

    [Purpose] This study was carried out to investigate the carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance (single legged hop test as functional performance test and Kujala score for functional activities). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 15 patients undergoing hip strengthening exercises for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of knee exercises program then measuring all variables again. Group (B): consisted of 15 patients undergoing knee exercises program for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of hip strengthening exercises then measuring all variables. Functional abilities and knee muscles performance were assessed using Kujala questionnaire and single legged hop test respectively pre and after the completion of the first 4 weeks then after 8 weeks for both groups. [Results] Significantly increase in Kujala questionnaire in group A compared with group B was observed. While, there were significant increase in single legged hop performance test in group B compared with group A. [Conclusion] Starting with hip exercises improve the performance of subjects more than functional activities while starting with knee exercises improve the functional activities of subjects more than performance.

  14. Functioning of Water Users Associations or Pani Panchayat in Orissa: Principle, Procedure, Performance and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Kumar Mahapatra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper deals with an evaluation of water management through community participation and emergence of Pani Panchayat (PP in a case study of the Vir Bajrang Bali Pani Panchayat under Lift Irrigation Project of the Hirakud Command Area (HCA, Orissa state in Eastern India . The broad objective of this paper is to examine the functioning of Water User Association (WUA or Pani Panchayat promoted by the State and the local traditional irrigation institutions in the HCA, Orissa and to evaluate their functioning & characteristics in the context of local water management. The precise objectives are: (1 to analytically review the Orissa Farmers Management of Irrigation Systems Act and study the functioning of the Pani Panchayat, (2 to examine people's participation (3 study the apparatus of water management and control, and the impact of such management on productivity among the members and (4 to recommend policy interventions to make the formal institutions more successful. The paper concludes that the Pani Panchayats performance as regulatory institutions in charge of water distribution on equitable basis has been weak and unsuccessful. Even though the Pani Panchayat has been initiated and endorsed in the State for more than a couple of years, the acceptance of this model have been lethargic and scattered. As Pani Panchayat is a new concept needing experimentation and experience before finalisation of its content in greater detail, the irrigation agency is not in a position to spell out the different components of the programme in concrete terms. A detailed action plan should be prepared by the irrigation authority in consultation with the water users through Participatory Rural Appraisal method. A feasibility study should be under taken by examining the caste/class conflict, groupism, political differences and history of confrontation and conflict, if any. It is necessary to apply a bottom-up approach instead of a top-down one for

  15. Ability Beliefs, Task Value, and Performance as a Function of Race in a Dart-Throwing Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zan; Kosma, Maria; Harrison, Louis, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines differences in self-efficacy, expectancy-related beliefs, task value, and performance in a dart-throwing task as a function of race among diverse college students using the expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory. It also examines the predictive contributions of these beliefs on task performance within each racial…

  16. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobson, F.; Hinman, R.S.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Terwee, C.B.; Roos, E.M.; Bennell, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two reviewers

  17. Effects of Dual-Channel Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Performance in Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Shmuel; Vatine, Jean-Jacques; Lipson, Ronit; Wolf, Alon; Laufer, Yocheved

    2012-01-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied to the peroneal nerve and thigh muscles on gait performance in subjects with hemiparesis. Participants were 45 subjects (age 57.8 ± 14.8 years) with hemiparesis (5.37 ± 5.43 years since diagnosis) demonstrating a foot-drop and impaired knee control. Thigh stimulation was applied either to the quadriceps or hamstrings muscles, depending on the dysfunction most affecting gait. Gait was assessed during a two-minute walk test with/without stimulation and with peroneal stimulation alone. A second assessment was conducted after six weeks of daily use. The addition of thigh muscles stimulation to peroneal stimulation significantly enhanced gait velocity measures at the initial and second evaluation. Gait symmetry was enhanced by the dual-channel stimulation only at the initial evaluation, and single-limb stance percentage only at the second assessment. For example, after six weeks, the two-minute gait speed with peroneal stimulation and with the dual channel was 0.66 ± 0.30 m/sec and 0.70 ± 0.31 m/sec, respectively (P hemiparesis more than peroneal FES alone. PMID:23097635

  18. An Analysis of the Cost and Performance of Photovoltaic Systems as a Function of Module Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horowitz, Kelsey A.W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Woodhouse, Mike [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sun, Xingshu [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Alam, Mohammed A. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2017-04-07

    We investigate the potential effects of module area on the cost and performance of photovoltaic systems. Applying a bottom-up methodology, we analyzed the costs associated with mc-Si and thin-film modules and systems as a function of module area. We calculate a potential for savings of up to $0.04/W, $0.10/W, and $0.13/W in module manufacturing costs for mc-Si, CdTe, and CIGS respectively, with large area modules. We also find that an additional $0.05/W savings in balance-of-systems costs may be achieved. However, these savings are dependent on the ability to maintain efficiency and manufacturing yield as area scales. Lifetime energy yield must also be maintained to realize reductions in the levelized cost of energy. We explore the possible effects of module size on efficiency and energy production, and find that more research is required to understand these issues for each technology. Sensitivity of the $/W cost savings to module efficiency and manufacturing yield is presented. We also discuss non-cost barriers to adoption of large area modules.

  19. Performance Investigation and Structure Optimization of a Flat Dual-Function Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a dual-function solar collector (DFSC that can work as either water heater or air heater depending on seasonal requirement is investigated via both experimental and numerical approaches in this paper. The numerical results are well consistent with the experimental results. Daily efficiency of the thermosiphon system with DFSC is more than 55% in water heating mode and the instantaneous air heating efficiency of the collector reaches 60%. The effects of inner parameters on the thermal efficiency of the collector are analyzed by numerical simulations of the operation of DFSC in two working modes. It is found that the depths of the two air channels in DFSC have an optimal range suitable for both working modes. The thickness of back insulation should be no less than 0.06 m to prevent heat loss via backboard, and the diameter and number of copper tubes show notable effect on the efficiency of DFSC in water heating mode but slight effect in air heating mode.

  20. Executive functioning performance predicts subjective and physiological acute stress reactivity: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Donny; Yamakawa, Kaori; Kimura, Motohiro; Murakami, Hiroki; Ohira, Hideki

    2012-06-01

    Individual differences in baseline executive functioning (EF) capacities have been shown to predict state anxiety during acute stressor exposure. However, no previous studies have clearly demonstrated the relationship between EF and physiological measures of stress. The present study investigated the efficacy of several well-known EF tests (letter fluency, Stroop test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test) in predicting both subjective and physiological stress reactivity during acute psychosocial stress exposure. Our results show that letter fluency served as the best predictor for both types of reactivity. Specifically, the higher the letter fluency score, the lower the acute stress reactivity after controlling for the baseline stress response, as indicated by lower levels of state anxiety, negative mood, salivary cortisol, and skin conductance. Moreover, the predictive power of the letter fluency test remained significant for state anxiety and cortisol indices even after further adjustments for covariates by adding the body mass index (BMI) as a covariate. Thus, good EF performance, as reflected by high letter fluency scores, may dampen acute stress responses, which suggests that EF processes are directly associated with aspects of stress regulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of filler surface functionalization on the performance of Nafion/Titanium oxide composite membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonis, Catia de; Cozzi, Dafne; Mecheri, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Rainer, Alberto; De Porcellinis, Diana; Licoccia, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    The phenylsulfonic functionalized nanometric titania (TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H) was synthesized to be used as filler in Nafion-based composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications. The organic moieties were covalently bound on the surface of TiO 2 nanoparticles and the hybrid product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H showed higher ion exchange capacity (IEC) and proton conductivity values with respect to those of TiO 2 . The incorporation of TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H in Nafion led to a mechanical reinforcement of the membranes and higher conductivity than that obtained with unfilled Nafion. The composite membrane containing 10 wt.% of TiO 2 -PhSO 3 H showed an increased crystallinity and the highest conductivity, reaching 0.11 S cm −1 at 140 °C. DMFC tests were carried out showing that the use of the organic-inorganic hybrid filler leads to a general improvement in the cell performance, in terms of higher current and power density and reduced methanol crossover

  2. Neurobehavioral performance impairment in insomnia: relationships with self-reported sleep and daytime functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekleton, Julia A; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Miller, Belinda; Epstein, Lawrence J; Kirsch, Douglas; Brogna, Lauren A; Burke, Liza M; Bremer, Erin; Murray, Jade M; Gehrman, Philip; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of insomnia, daytime consequences of the disorder are poorly characterized. This study aimed to identify neurobehavioral impairments associated with insomnia, and to investigate relationships between these impairments and subjective ratings of sleep and daytime dysfunction. Cross-sectional, multicenter study. Three sleep laboratories in the USA and Australia. Seventy-six individuals who met the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for Primary Insomnia, Psychophysiological Insomnia, Paradoxical Insomnia, and/or Idiopathic Childhood Insomnia (44F, 35.8 ± 12.0 years [mean ± SD]) and 20 healthy controls (14F, 34.8 ± 12.1 years). N/A. Participants completed a 7-day sleep-wake diary, questionnaires assessing daytime dysfunction, and a neurobehavioral test battery every 60-180 minutes during an afternoon/evening sleep laboratory visit. Included were tasks assessing sustained and switching attention, working memory, subjective sleepiness, and effort. Switching attention and working memory were significantly worse in insomnia patients than controls, while no differences were found for simple or complex sustained attention tasks. Poorer sustained attention in the control, but not the insomnia group, was significantly associated with increased subjective sleepiness. In insomnia patients, poorer sustained attention performance was associated with reduced health-related quality of life and increased insomnia severity. We found that insomnia patients exhibit deficits in higher level neurobehavioral functioning, but not in basic attention. The findings indicate that neurobehavioral deficits in insomnia are due to neurobiological alterations, rather than sleepiness resulting from chronic sleep deficiency.

  3. Medial olivocochlear function in children with poor speech-in-noise performance and language disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Mamede Carvallo, Renata Mota; Schochat, Eliane

    2017-05-01

    Contralateral masking of transient-evoked otoacoustic emissions is a phenomenon that suggests an inhibitory effect of the olivocochlear efferent auditory pathway. Many studies have been inconclusive in demonstrating a clear connection between this system and a behavioral speech-in-noise listening skill. The purpose of this study was to investigate the activation of a medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent in children with poor speech-in-noise (PSIN) performance and children with language impairment and PSIN (SLI + PSIN). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) with and without contralateral white noise were tested in 52 children (between 6 and 12 years). These children were arranged in three groups: typical development (TD) (n = 25), PSIN (n = 14) and SLI + PSI (n = 13). PSIN and SLI + PSI groups presented reduced otoacoustic emission suppression in comparison with the TD group. Our finding suggests differences in MOC function among children with typical development and children with poor SIN and language problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional connectivity pattern during rest within the episodic memory network in association with episodic memory performance in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Reinke, Britta; Matura, Silke; Prvulovic, David; Linden, David E J; van de Ven, Vincent

    2015-02-28

    In this study, we sought to examine the intrinsic functional organization of the episodic memory network during rest in bipolar disorder (BD). The previous work suggests that deficits in intrinsic functional connectivity may account for impaired memory performance. We hypothesized that regions involved in episodic memory processing would reveal aberrant functional connectivity in patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 21 patients with BD and 21 healthy matched controls who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a resting condition. We did a seed-based functional connectivity analysis (SBA), using the regions of the episodic memory network that showed a significantly different activation pattern during task-related fMRI as seeds. The functional connectivity scores (FC) were further correlated with episodic memory task performance. Our results revealed decreased FC scores within frontal areas and between frontal and temporal/hippocampal/limbic regions in BD patients in comparison with controls. We observed higher FC in BD patients compared with controls between frontal and limbic regions. The decrease in fronto-frontal functional connectivity in BD patients showed a significant positive association with episodic memory performance. The association between task-independent dysfunctional frontal-limbic FC and episodic memory performance may be relevant for current pathophysiological models of the disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual-task performance involving hand dexterity and cognitive tasks and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Yi-fang; Chen, I-chen; Tsai, Pei-luen; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Chia-ling

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated separate and concurrent performance on cognitive and hand dexterity tasks and the relationship to daily functioning in 16 people with schizophrenia and 16 healthy control participants. Participants performed the Purdue Pegboard Test and the Serial Seven Subtraction Test under single- and dual-task conditions and completed two daily functioning evaluations. The hand dexterity of all participants declined in the dual-task condition, but the discrepancy between single-task and dual-task hand dexterity was greater in the schizophrenia group than in the control group (p.70, for all). The extent of discrepancy in hand dexterity was negatively correlated with daily functioning in the schizophrenia group (rs=-.3 to -.5, ps=.04-.26). Ability to perform dual tasks may be an indicator of daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Use of dual-task training may be considered as a therapeutic activity with these clients. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  6. The Effects of Cognitive Hardiness on Stress, Health, Performance, and Cardiovascular/Neuroendocrine Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Drummond, Johathan

    1997-01-01

    .... Hardiness has also been thought to exert main effects on health and performance outcomes. In Study 1, relationships between hardiness, perceived stress, depression, and academic performance were investigated...

  7. Assessment of Postflight Locomotor Performance Utilizing a Test of Functional Mobility: Strategic and Adaptive Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L. E.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Ruttley, T. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2006-01-01

    have further analyzed the FMT data to characterize strategic and adaptive components during the postflight readaptation period. Crewmembers walked at a preferred pace through an obstacle course set up on a base of 10 cm thick medium density foam (Sunmate Foam, Dynamic Systems, Inc., Leicester, NC). The 6.0m X 4.0m course consisted of several pylons made of foam; a Styrofoam barrier 46.0cm high that crewmembers stepped over; and a portal constructed of two Styrofoam blocks, each 31cm high, with a horizontal bar covered by foam and suspended from the ceiling which was adjusted to the height of the crewmember s shoulder. The portal required crewmembers to bend at the waist and step over a barrier simultaneously. All obstacles were lightweight, soft and easily knocked over. Crewmembers were instructed to walk through the course as quickly and as safely as possible without touching any of the objects on the course. This task was performed three times in the clockwise direction and three times in the counterclockwise direction that was randomly chosen. The dependent measures for each trial were: time to complete the course (seconds) and the number of obstacles touched or knocked down. For each crewmember, the time to complete each FMT trial from postflight days 1, 2, 4, 7 and 25 were further analyzed. A single logarithmic curve using a least squares calculation was fit through these data to produce a single comprehensive curve (macro). This macro curve composed of data spanning 25 days, illustrates the re-adaptive learning function over the longer time scale term. Additionally, logarithmic curves were fit to the 6 data trials within each individual post flight test day to produce 5 separate daily curves. These micro curves, produced from data obtained over the course of minutes, illustrates the strategic learning function exhibited over a relative shorter time scale. The macro curve for all subjects exhibited adaptive motor learning patterns over the 25 day period. Howev, 9

  8. Effects of the length and timing of nighttime naps on task performance and physiological function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemaro Takeyama

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of the length and timing of nighttime naps on performance and physiological functions, an experimental study was carried out under simulated night shift schedules. METHODS: Six students were recruited for this study that was composed of 5 experiments. Each experiment involved 3 consecutive days with one night shift (22:00-8:00 followed by daytime sleep and night sleep. The experiments had 5 conditions in which the length and timing of naps were manipulated: 0:00-1:00 (E60, 0:00-2:00 (E120, 4:00-5:00 (L60, 4:00-6:00 (L120, and no nap (No-nap. During the night shifts, participants underwent performance tests. A questionnaire on subjective fatigue and a critical flicker fusion frequency test were administered after the performance tests. Heart rate variability and rectal temperature were recorded continuously during the experiments. Polysomnography was also recorded during the nap. RESULTS: Sleep latency was shorter and sleep efficiency was higher in the nap in L60 and L120 than that in E60 and E120. Slow wave sleep in the naps in E120 and L120 was longer than that in E60 and L60. The mean reaction time in L60 became longer after the nap, and faster in E60 and E120. Earlier naps serve to counteract the decrement in performance and physiological functions during night shifts. Performance was somewhat improved by taking a 2-hour nap later in the shift, but deteriorated after a one-hour nap. CONCLUSIONS: Naps in the latter half of the night shift were superior to earlier naps in terms of sleep quality. However performance declined after a 1-hour nap taken later in the night shift due to sleep inertia. This study suggests that appropriate timing of a short nap must be carefully considered, such as a 60-min nap during the night shift.OBJETIVO: Para investigar os efeitos da duração e horário de cochilos noturnos sobre o desempenho e as funções fisiológicas foi realizado um estudo experimental por meio do trabalho

  9. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira NV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Vidal Ferreira,1 Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha,2 Danielle Irigoyen da Costa,3 Fernando dos Santos,1 Fernando Oliveira Costa,1 Fernanda Consolim-Colombo,4 Maria Cláudia Irigoyen1 1Heart Institute, Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Neuroimaging in Psychiatry Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Rio Grande do Sul Cardiology Institute, Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 4Medical School, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP, Brazil Introduction: Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI, is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Executive cognitive function (ECF impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI.Aim: To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI.Method: The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19, and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07. We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF.Results: Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working

  10. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. Methods This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Results Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pperformance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Conclusions The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations. PMID:27560512

  11. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Dahn, Ida Marie; Andersen, Josefine Needham; Krause-Jensen, Matilde; Korup, Vibeke; Nielsen, Claus Malta; Wienecke, Jacob; Ritz, Christian; Krustrup, Peter; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests. This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls). Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C). Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension. Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all Pmotor skills (all Pmotor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the causality of these associations.

  12. Injury history, sex, and performance on the functional movement screen and Y balance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimera, Nicole J; Smith, Craig A; Warren, Meghan

    2015-05-01

    Research is limited regarding the effects of injury or surgery history and sex on the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and Y Balance Test (YBT). To determine if injury or surgery history or sex affected results on the FMS and YBT. Cross-sectional study. Athletic training facilities. A total of 200 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I female (n = 92; age = 20.0 ± 1.4 years, body mass index = 22.8 ± 3.1 kg/m(2)) and male (n = 108; age = 20.0 ± 1.5 years, body mass index = 27.0 ± 4.6 kg/m(2)) athletes were screened; 170 completed the FMS, and 190 completed the YBT. A self-reported questionnaire identified injury or surgery history and sex. The FMS assessed movement during the patterns of deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, impingement-clearing test, straight-leg raise, trunk stability push-up, press-up clearing test, rotary stability, and posterior-rocking clearing test. The YBT assessed balance while participants reached in anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions. The FMS composite score (CS; range, 0-21) and movement pattern score (range, 0-3), the YBT CS (% lower extremity length), and YBT anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral asymmetry (difference between limbs in centimeters). Independent-samples t tests established differences in mean FMS CS, YBT CS, and YBT asymmetry. The Mann-Whitney U test identified differences in FMS movement patterns. We found lower overall FMS CSs for the following injuries or surgeries: hip (injured = 12.7 ± 3.1, uninjured = 14.4 ± 2.3; P = .005), elbow (injured = 12.1 ± 2.8, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.4; P = .02), and hand (injured = 12.3 ± 2.9, uninjured = 14.3 ± 2.3; P = .006) injuries and shoulder surgery (surgery = 12.0 ± 1.0, no surgery = 14.3 ± 2.4; P lunge: P lunge: P = .01). Female athletes performed worse in FMS movement patterns for trunk (P in the lunge (P = .008), shoulder mobility (P < .001), and straight-leg raise (P < .001). Anterior asymmetry was greater

  13. Relative performance of a TGS for the assay of drummed waste as function of collimator opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, S.C.; Croft, S.; McClay, P.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M.F.

    2007-01-01

    , one may wish to widen the repertoire but there is currently little guidance as to the trade-off involved. In this work, we address this weakness by studying the performance of a typical TGS arrangement as a function of collimator opening, scan pattern and scan time for a representative selection of simulated waste forms. Our focus is on assessing the impact on the precision and accuracy of the quantitative assay result but we also report the utility of the imaging information in confirming acceptable knowledge about the packages. (authors)

  14. Performance of high school male athletes on the Functional Movement Screen™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura J; Creps, James R; Bean, Ryan; Rodda, Becky; Alsalaheen, Bara

    2017-09-01

    (1) Describe the performance of the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) by reporting the proportion of adolescents with a score of ≤14 and the frequency of asymmetries in a cross-sectional sample; (2) explore associations between FMS™ to age and body mass, and explore the construct validity of the FMS™ against common postural stability measures; (3) examine the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the FMS™ in adolescents. Cross-sectional. Field-setting. 94 male high-school athletes. The FMS™, Y-Balance Test (YBT) and Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). The median FMS™ composite score was 16 (9-21), 33% of participants scored below the suggested injury risk cutoff composite score of ≤14, and 62.8% had at least one asymmetry. No relationship was observed between the FMS™ to common static/dynamic balance tests. The inter-rater reliability of the FMS™ composite score suggested good reliability (ICC = 0.88, CI 95%:0.77, 0.94) and test-retest reliability for FMS™ composite scores was good with ICC = 0.83 (CI 95%:0.56, 0.95). FMS™ results should be interpreted cautiously with attention to the asymmetries identified during the screen, regardless of composite score. The lack of relationship between the FMS™ and other balance measures supports the notion that multiple screening tests should be used in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the adolescent athlete. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuropsychological test performance and prediction of functional capacities among Spanish-speaking and English-speaking patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, D A; Rubert, M P; Argüelles, T; Duara, R

    1995-03-01

    Neuropsychological measures have been widely used by clinicians to assist them in making judgments regarding a cognitively impaired patient's ability to independently perform important activities of daily living. However, important questions have been raised concerning the degree to which neuropsychological instruments can predict a broad array of specific functional capacities required in the home environment. In the present study, we examined 127 English-speaking and 56 Spanish-speaking patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and determined the extent to which various neuropsychological measures and demographic variables were predictive of performance on functional measures administered within the clinical setting. Among English-speaking AD patients, Block Design and Digit-Span of the WAIS-R, as well as tests of language were among the strongest predictors of functional performance. For Spanish-speakers, Block Design, The Mini-Mental State Evaluation (MMSE) and Digit Span had the optimal predictive power. When stepwise regression was conducted on the entire sample of 183 subjects, ethnicity emerged as a statistically significant predictor variable on one of the seven functional tests (writing a check). Despite the predictive power of several of the neuropsychological measures for both groups, most of the variability in objective functional performance could not be explained in our regression models. As a result, it would appear prudent to include functional measures as part of a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation for dementia.

  16. Preoperative prediction of inpatient recovery of function after total hip arthroplasty using performance-based tests: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Ellen; Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Appelman-de Vries, Suzan A; Swets, Adam; Dronkers, Jaap J; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of conventional factors, the Risk Assessment and Predictor Tool (RAPT) and performance-based functional tests as predictors of delayed recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA). A prospective cohort study in a regional hospital in the Netherlands with 315 patients was attending for THA in 2012. The dependent variable recovery of function was assessed with the Modified Iowa Levels of Assistance scale. Delayed recovery was defined as taking more than 3 days to walk independently. Independent variables were age, sex, BMI, Charnley score, RAPT score and scores for four performance-based tests [2-minute walk test, timed up and go test (TUG), 10-meter walking test (10 mW) and hand grip strength]. Regression analysis with all variables identified older age (>70 years), Charnley score C, slow walking speed (10 mW >10.0 s) and poor functional mobility (TUG >10.5 s) as the best predictors of delayed recovery of function. This model (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) performed better than a model with conventional factors and RAPT scores, and significantly better (p = 0.04) than a model with only conventional factors (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.87). The combination of performance-based tests and conventional factors predicted inpatient functional recovery after THA. Two simple functional performance-based tests have a significant added value to a more conventional screening with age and comorbidities to predict recovery of functioning immediately after total hip surgery. Patients over 70 years old, with comorbidities, with a TUG score >10.5 s and a walking speed >1.0 m/s are at risk for delayed recovery of functioning. Those high risk patients need an accurate discharge plan and could benefit from targeted pre- and postoperative therapeutic exercise programs.

  17. Functional Performances on Admission Predict In-Hospital Falls, Injurious Falls, and Fractures in Older Patients: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hars, Mélany; Audet, Marie-Claude; Herrmann, François; De Chassey, Jean; Rizzoli, René; Reny, Jean-Luc; Gold, Gabriel; Ferrari, Serge; Trombetti, Andrea

    2018-05-01

    Falls are common among older inpatients and remain a great challenge for hospitals. Despite the relevance of physical impairments to falls, the prognostic value of performance-based functional measures for in-hospital falls and injurious falls remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the predictive ability and accuracy of various functional tests administered at or close to admission in a geriatric hospital to identify in-hospital fallers and injurious fallers. In this prospective study, conducted in a geriatric hospital in Geneva, Switzerland, 807 inpatients (mean age 85.0 years) were subjected to a battery of functional tests administered by physiotherapists within 3 days (interquartile range 1 to 6) of admission, including Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), simplified Tinetti, and Timed Up and Go tests. Patients were prospectively followed up for falls and injurious falls until discharge using mandatory standardized incident report forms and electronic patients' records. During a median length of hospital stay of 23 days (interquartile range 14 to 36), 329 falls occurred in 189 (23.4%) patients, including 161 injurious falls of which 24 were serious. In-hospital fallers displayed significantly poorer functional performances at admission on all tests compared with non-fallers (p performances on all functional tests predicted in-hospital falls and injurious falls (p poor functional performances, as assessed by SPPB, are independent predictors of in-hospital falls, injurious falls, and fractures in patients admitted to a geriatric hospital. These findings should help to design preventive strategies for in-hospital falls and support the adoption of objective performance-based functional measures into routine hospital practice. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2018 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Can reactivity to stress and family environment explain memory and executive function performance in early and middle childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Luciane da Rosa; Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli de; Falceto, Olga Garcia; Fernandes, Carmen Luiza; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, children's overall reactivity to stress is associated with their socioeconomic status and family environment. In turn, it has been shown that reactivity to stress is associated with cognitive performance. However, few studies have systematically tested these three constructs together. To investigate the relationship between family environment, salivary cortisol measurements and children's memory and executive function performance. Salivary cortisol levels of 70 children aged 9 or 10 years were measured before and after performing tasks designed to assess memory and executive functions. Questionnaires on socioeconomic issues, family environment and maternal psychopathologies were administered to participants' families during the children's early childhood and again when they reached school age. Data were analyzed by calculating correlations between variables and conducting hierarchical regression. High cortisol levels were associated with poorer working memory and worse performance in tasks involving executive functions, and were also associated with high scores for maternal psychopathology (during early childhood and school age) and family dysfunction. Family environment variables and changes in cortisol levels explain around 20% of the variance in performance of cognitive tasks. Family functioning and maternal psychopathology in early and middle childhood and children's stress levels were associated with children's working memory and executive functioning.

  19. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is a Reliable Quick Decision-Making Test for Skilled Water Polo Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucher Guilherme

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance has only been evaluated in water polo players in a small group of novice athletes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the Functional Test for Agility Performance in skilled water polo players. Forty-two athletes (17.81 ± 3.24 years old with a minimum of 5 years of competitive experience (7.05 ± 2.84 years and playing at the national or international level were evaluated. The Functional Test for Agility Performance is characterized as a specific open decision-making test where a tested player moves as quickly as possible in accordance to a pass made by another player. The time spent in the test was measured by two experienced coaches. Descriptive statistics, repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA, 95% limit of agreement (LOA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurements (SEM were used for data analysis. Athletes completed the Functional Test for Agility Performance in 4.15 0.47 s. The ICC value was 0.87 (95% IC = 0.80-0.92. The SEM varied between 0.24 and 0.38 s. The LOA was 1.20 s and the CV average considering each individual trial was 6%. The Functional Test for Agility Performance was shown to be a reliable quick decision-making test for skilled water polo players.

  20. Associating Physical Activity Levels with Motor Performance and Physical Function in Childhood Survivors of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Stanley H; Rankin, Anne; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Pritchard, Sheila; Fryer, Christopher; Campbell, Kristin L

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional, observational study investigated whether physical activity (PA) levels are associated with motor performance and physical function in children after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Method: Participants aged 8-13 years who had completed treatment for ALL (3-36 months post-treatment) were tested at their oncology long-term follow-up appointment at the British Columbia Children's Hospital. PA level was measured using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Motor performance was measured using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition, Short Form (BOT-2 SF), and physical function was measured using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Results: Thirteen children completed testing. PAQ-C scores were not associated with BOT-2 SF or 6MWT performance. Eleven children (85%) performed below the norm for the 6MWT. Children with elevated body mass index had poorer 6MWT but similar PAQ-C scores. Conclusion: PA was not found to be associated with motor performance and physical function. Participants who were overweight or obese had poorer 6MWT performance, which may indicate the need for closer monitoring of post-treatment weight status and physical function in the oncology follow-up setting.

  1. Longitudinal Study of a Novel, Performance-based Measure of Daily Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    have functional impairments, and healthy age matched controls on the UPSA, as well as measures of cognition (e.g., episodic memory , semantic memory ...controls on the UPSA, as well as measures of cognition (e.g., episodic memory , semantic memory , executive function, speed). We found that patients with...diagnosis have functional impairments, and healthy age matched controls on the UPSA, as well as measures of cognition (e.g., episodic memory , semantic

  2. Cognitive function in the oldest old: women perform better than men

    OpenAIRE

    van Exel, E; Gussekloo, J; de Craen, A J M; d Bootsma-van,; Houx, P; Knook, D; Westendorp, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Limited formal education is associated with poor cognitive function. This could explain sex differences in cognitive function in the oldest old. Whether limited formal education explains differences in cognitive function between elderly women and men was explored.
METHODS—The Leiden 85-plus Study is a population based study investigating all 85 year old inhabitants of Leiden with an overall response rate of 87%. A sample of 599 participants were visited at their...

  3. Motor Skills and Exercise Capacity Are Associated with Objective Measures of Cognitive Functions and Academic Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Sparre Geertsen

    Full Text Available To investigate associations between motor skills, exercise capacity and cognitive functions, and evaluate how they correlate to academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension using standardised, objective tests.This cross-sectional study included 423 Danish children (age: 9.29±0.35 years, 209 girls. Fine and gross motor skills were evaluated in a visuomotor accuracy-tracking task, and a whole-body coordination task, respectively. Exercise capacity was estimated from the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 children's test (YYIR1C. Selected tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between these measures and the relationship with standard tests of academic performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.Both fine and gross motor skills were associated with better performance in all five tested cognitive domains (all P<0.001, whereas exercise capacity was only associated with better sustained attention (P<0.046 and spatial working memory (P<0.038. Fine and gross motor skills (all P<0.001, exercise capacity and cognitive functions such as working memory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading comprehension.The data demonstrate that fine and gross motor skills are positively correlated with several aspects of cognitive functions and with academic performance in both mathematics and reading comprehension. Moreover, exercise capacity was associated with academic performance and performance in some cognitive domains. Future interventions should investigate associations between changes in motor skills, exercise capacity, cognitive functions, and academic performance to elucidate the

  4. Functional Roles of Neural Preparatory Processes in a Cued Stroop Task Revealed by Linking Electrophysiology with Behavioral Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that cuing facilitates behavioral performance and that different aspects of instructional cues evoke specific neural preparatory processes in cued task-switching paradigms. To deduce the functional role of these neural preparatory processes the majority of studies vary aspects of the experimental paradigm and describe how these variations alter markers of neural preparatory processes. Although these studies provide important insights, they also have notable limitations, particularly in terms of understanding the causal or functional relationship of neural markers to cognitive and behavioral processes. In this study, we sought to address these limitations and uncover the functional roles of neural processes by examining how variability in the amplitude of neural preparatory processes predicts behavioral performance to subsequent stimuli. To achieve this objective 16 young adults were recruited to perform a cued Stroop task while their brain activity was measured using high-density electroencephalography. Four temporally overlapping but functionally and topographically distinct cue-triggered event related potentials (ERPs) were identified: 1) A left-frontotemporal negativity (250-700 ms) that was positively associated with word-reading performance; 2) a midline-frontal negativity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with color-naming and incongruent performance; 3) a left-frontal negativity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with switch trial performance; and 4) a centroparietal positivity (450-800 ms) that was positively associated with performance for almost all trial types. These results suggest that at least four dissociable cognitive processes are evoked by instructional cues in the present task, including: 1) domain-specific task facilitation; 2) switch-specific task-set reconfiguration; 3) preparation for response conflict; and 4) proactive attentional control. Examining the relationship between ERPs and behavioral

  5. Functional Roles of Neural Preparatory Processes in a Cued Stroop Task Revealed by Linking Electrophysiology with Behavioral Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    Full Text Available It is well established that cuing facilitates behavioral performance and that different aspects of instructional cues evoke specific neural preparatory processes in cued task-switching paradigms. To deduce the functional role of these neural preparatory processes the majority of studies vary aspects of the experimental paradigm and describe how these variations alter markers of neural preparatory processes. Although these studies provide important insights, they also have notable limitations, particularly in terms of understanding the causal or functional relationship of neural markers to cognitive and behavioral processes. In this study, we sought to address these limitations and uncover the functional roles of neural processes by examining how variability in the amplitude of neural preparatory processes predicts behavioral performance to subsequent stimuli. To achieve this objective 16 young adults were recruited to perform a cued Stroop task while their brain activity was measured using high-density electroencephalography. Four temporally overlapping but functionally and topographically distinct cue-triggered event related potentials (ERPs were identified: 1 A left-frontotemporal negativity (250-700 ms that was positively associated with word-reading performance; 2 a midline-frontal negativity (450-800 ms that was positively associated with color-naming and incongruent performance; 3 a left-frontal negativity (450-800 ms that was positively associated with switch trial performance; and 4 a centroparietal positivity (450-800 ms that was positively associated with performance for almost all trial types. These results suggest that at least four dissociable cognitive processes are evoked by instructional cues in the present task, including: 1 domain-specific task facilitation; 2 switch-specific task-set reconfiguration; 3 preparation for response conflict; and 4 proactive attentional control. Examining the relationship between ERPs and behavioral

  6. Effects of Menstrual Phase on Pulmonary Function and Exercise Performance in Young Active Duty Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hnatiuk, Oleh

    1996-01-01

    ....' However, if the APFT is given to female soldiers during a phase of their menstrual cycle when their ability to perform maximally is reduced, this critical test would not be an accurate reflection of true maximal performance level.

  7. What Happens Inside a Fuel Cell? Developing an Experimental Functional Map of Fuel Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Brett, Daniel J. L.; Kucernak, Anthony R.; Aguiar, Patricia; Atkins, Stephen C.; Brandon, Nigel P.; Clague, Ralph; Cohen, Lesley F.; Hinds, Gareth; Kalyvas, Christos; Offer, Gregory J.; Ladewig, Bradley; Maher, Robert; Marquis, Andrew; Shearing, Paul; Vasileiadis, Nikos; Vesovic, Velisa

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is determined by the complex interplay of mass transport, energy transfer and electrochemical processes. The convolution of these processes leads to spatial heterogeneity in the way that fuel cells perform, particularly due

  8. Performance of Density Functional Theory Procedures for the Calculation of Proton-Exchange Barriers: Unusual Behavior of M06-Type Functionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Bun; Gilbert, Andrew T B; Gill, Peter M W; Radom, Leo

    2014-09-09

    We have examined the performance of a variety of density functional theory procedures for the calculation of complexation energies and proton-exchange barriers, with a focus on the Minnesota-class of functionals that are generally highly robust and generally show good accuracy. A curious observation is that M05-type and M06-type methods show an atypical decrease in calculated barriers with increasing proportion of Hartree-Fock exchange. To obtain a clearer picture of the performance of the underlying components of M05-type and M06-type functionals, we have investigated the combination of MPW-type and PBE-type exchange and B95-type and PBE-type correlation procedures. We find that, for the extensive E3 test set, the general performance of the various hybrid-DFT procedures improves in the following order: PBE1-B95 → PBE1-PBE → MPW1-PBE → PW6-B95. As M05-type and M06-type procedures are related to PBE1-B95, it would be of interest to formulate and examine the general performance of an alternative Minnesota DFT method related to PW6-B95.

  9. Agreement and Reliability of Functional Performance and Muscle Power in Patients with Advanced Osteoarthritis of the Hip or Knee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Roos, Ewa M; Overgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    -time repeated chair stands, and repeated unilateral knee bending). RESULTS: For single-joint and multijoint maximal peak power and functional performance measures, we demonstrated poor (CVws, approximately 25%, single-joint hip extension) and moderate (CVws, approximately 15%, multijoint leg extension press......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the reproducibility and clinical feasibility of three functional performance measures and five single-joint or multijoint muscle power measures. DESIGN: Twenty patients with a mean age of 68.7 ± 7.2 yrs with severe hip or knee osteoarthritis were...... assessed for test-retest reliability and agreement on two occasions 1 wk apart. The outcomes were maximal single-joint muscle power (hip extension/abduction and knee extension/flexion), maximal muscle power during multijoint leg extension press, and functional performance measures (20-m walk, five...

  10. Intra-rater reliability and agreement of muscle strength, power and functional performance measures in patients with hip osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability and agreement of measures of lower extremity muscle strength, power and functional performance in patients with hip osteoarthritis at different time intervals, and to compare these with the same measures in healthy peers. DESIGN: Intra-rater test...... extensor power, and functional performance (8-foot Up & Go, stair climbing, chair stand and 6-min walk) were measured in patients, and quadriceps strength, leg extensor power and functional performance were measured in healthy peers. Systematic error, reliability and agreement were calculated. RESULTS......-retest separated by 1, 2, or 2.5 weeks in patients, and 1 week in healthy peers. SUBJECTS: Patients with hip osteoarthritis (age range 61-83 years) with 1 (n = 37), 2 (n = 35), or 2.5 weeks (n = 15) between tests, and 35 healthy peers (age range 63-82 years). METHODS: Maximal isometric hip and thigh strength, leg...

  11. Dividing attention between tasks : Testing whether explicit payoff functions elicit optimal dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farmer, George D.; Janssen, C.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412781654; Nguyen, Anh T; Brumby, Duncan P.

    2018-01-01

    We test people's ability to optimize performance across two concurrent tasks. Participants performed a number entry task while controlling a randomly moving cursor with a joystick. Participants received explicit feedback on their performance on these tasks in the form of a single combined score.

  12. 30 CFR 227.800 - How will MMS monitor a State's performance of delegated functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... visits and Office of the Inspector General, General Accounting Office, and MMS audits of your performance... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will MMS monitor a State's performance of... THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT DELEGATION TO STATES Performance Review § 227.800 How will...

  13. The necessary and sufficient conditions of the optimality for hyperbolic systems with non-differentiable performance functional

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewski, A.

    1982-11-01

    In this paper an optimal control problem with non-differentiable cost function for distributed parameter system is solved. As an example an optimal control problem for system described by a linear partial differential of hyperbolic type with the Neuman's boundary condition is considered. By use of the Milutin-Dubovicki method, necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality with non-differentiable performance functional and constrained control are derived for Neuman's problem. (author)

  14. THE IMPACT OF VISIONARY LEADERSHIP, LEARNING ORGANIZATION AND INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOR TO PERFORMANCE OF CUSTOMS AND EXCISE FUNCTIONAL

    OpenAIRE

    Anshar, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to determine the impact of visionary leadership, learning organization, and innovative behavior on the performance of Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Main Service Office. The research was conducted at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Service Office using the number of samples of 78 Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors. The sample was selected using simple random sampling technique. Data collection was ...

  15. Alpha band functional connectivity correlates with the performance of brain-machine interfaces to decode real and imagined movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato eSugata

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain signals recorded from the primary motor cortex (M1 are known to serve a significant role in coding the information brain-machine interfaces (BMIs need to perform real and imagined movements, and also to form several functional networks with motor association areas. However, whether functional networks between M1 and other brain regions, such as these motor association areas, are related to performance of BMIs is unclear. To examine the relationship between functional connectivity and performance of BMIs, we analyzed the correlation coefficient between performance of neural decoding and functional connectivity over the whole brain using magnetoencephalography. Ten healthy participants were instructed to execute or imagine three simple right upper limb movements. To decode the movement type, we extracted 40 virtual channels in the left M1 via the beamforming approach, and used them as a decoding feature. In addition, seed-based functional connectivities of activities in the alpha band during real and imagined movements were calculated using imaginary coherence. Seed voxels were set as the same virtual channels in M1. After calculating the imaginary coherence in individuals, the correlation coefficient between decoding accuracy and strength of imaginary coherence was calculated over the whole brain. The significant correlations were distributed mainly to motor association areas for both real and imagined movements. These regions largely overlapped with brain regions that had significant connectivity to M1. Our results suggest that use of the strength of functional connectivity between M1 and motor association areas has the potential to improve the performance of BMIs to perform real and imagined movements.

  16. An Exploration of Factors Affecting Performance of Adults with Aphasia on a Functional Communication Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Luke Marcus

    2013-01-01

    In traditional aphasia testing and treatment, clinicians administer a standardized aphasia test that measures language impairment, followed by a linguistic approach to treatment. Many clinicians have argued the need for emphasis on functional communication, and third party payers desire functional information to determine patient progress. This…

  17. Differential Relationships between RAN Performance, Behaviour Ratings, and Executive Function Measures: Searching for a Double Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Ronald W.; Toplak, Maggie E.; Stanovich, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationships between rapid naming of letters, digits and colours, and reading ability and executive function. We gave fifty-six grade three and four children rapid automatised naming tasks using letters and digits as stimuli, executive function measures including the Stroop task, a working memory task and the…

  18. Ipsilesional upper limb performance in stroke individuals: relationship among outcomes of different tests used to assess hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Pinto Cunha

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Stroke individuals have sensorimotor repercussions on their ipsilesional upper limb. Therefore, it is important to use tests that allow an adequate assessment and follow-up of such deficits. Physical and occupational therapists commonly use maximal grip strength tests to assess the functional condition of stroke individuals. However, one could ask whether a single test is able to characterize the hand function in this population. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship among outcomes of different tests frequently used to describe the function of the hand in the ipsilesional upper limb of stroke individuals. Methods: Twenty-two stroke individuals performed four hand function tests: maximal handgrip strength (HGSMax, maximal pinch grip strength (PGSMax, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test (JTHFT and Nine Hole Peg Test (9-HPT. All tests were performed with the ipsilesional hand. Pearson's correlation analyses were performed. Results: the results indicated a moderate and positive relationship between HGSMax and JTHFT (r = 0.50 and between JTHFT and 9-HPT (r = 0.55. Conclusion: We conclude that the existence of only moderate relationships between test outcomes demonstrates the need to use at least two instruments to better describe the ipsilesional hand function of stroke individuals.

  19. Evaluating the HR function as being a factor of supply chain performance: Case of industrial companies in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmortada Asmaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In an economic environment increasingly complex and competitive, firms are now aware, more than ever, of the importance of controlling the human resources function as a primary factor to the success and performance of their supply chains. Through studying the Moroccan industrial companies, the concern of this article is to highlight the role of human resource function in the supply chain performance, in the light of the company culture and under the effect of a HRM practices influenced by the competitive environment, and the resulting mutations.

  20. Dopamine transporter 3'UTR VNTR genotype is a marker of performance on executive function tasks in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polotskaia Anna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a heterogeneous disorder from both clinical and pathogenic viewpoints. Executive function deficits are considered among the most important pathogenic pathways leading to ADHD and may index part of the heterogeneity in this disorder. Methods To investigate the relationship between the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3 3'-UTR VNTR genotypes and executive function in children with ADHD, 196 children diagnosed with ADHD were sequentially recruited, genotyped, and tested using a battery of three neuropsychological tests aimed at assessing the different aspects of executive functioning. Results Taking into account a correction for multiple comparisons, the main finding of this study is a significant genotype effect on performances on the Tower of London (F = 6.902, p = 0.009 and on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III Freedom From Distractibility Index (F = 7.125, p = 0.008, as well as strong trends on Self Ordered Pointing Task error scores (F = 4,996 p = 0.026 and WISC-III Digit Span performance (F = 6.28, p = 0.023. Children with the 9/10 genotype exhibited, on average, a poorer performance on all four measures compared to children with the 10/10 genotype. No effect of genotype on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measures of performance was detected. Conclusion Results are compatible with the view that SLC6A3 genotype may modulate components of executive function performance in children with ADHD.

  1. Functional performance of the helical coil steam generator, Consolidated Nuclear Steam Generator (CNSG) IV system. Executive summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.B.

    1975-10-01

    The objective of this project was to study the functional performance of the CNSG - IV helical steam generator to demonstrate that the generator meets steady-state and transient thermal-hydraulic performance specifications and that secondary flow instability will not be a problem. Economic success of the CNSG concepts depends to a great extent on minimizing the size of the steam generator and the reactor vessel for ship installation. Also, for marine application the system must meet stringent specifications for operating stability, transient response, and control. The full-size two-tube experimental unit differed from the CNSG only in the number of tubes and the mode of primary flow. In general, the functional performance test demonstrated that the helical steam generator concept will exceed the specified superheat of 35F at 100% load. The experimental measured superheat at comparable operating conditions was 95F. Testing also revealed that available computer codes accurately predict trends and overall performance characteristics

  2. Memory functions in chronic pain: examining contributions of attention and age to test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Derksen, Laura C; van Wijck, Albert J M; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Kessels, Roy P C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain, mediate the decline in memory. Finally, previous studies have focused on middle-aged adults, and a possible detrimental effect of aging on memory performance in chronic pain patients has been commonly disregarded. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the pattern of semantic, working, and visual and verbal episodic memory performance in participants with chronic pain, while testing for possible contributions of attention and age to task performance. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain and 32 pain-free participants completed tests of episodic, semantic, and working memory to assess memory performance and a test of attention. Participants with chronic pain performed worse on tests of working memory and verbal episodic memory. A decline in attention explained some, but not all, group differences in memory performance. Finally, no additional effect of age on the diminished task performance in participants with chronic pain was observed. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic pain significantly affects memory performance. Part of this effect may be caused by underlying attentional dysfunction, although this could not fully explain the observed memory decline. An increase in age in combination with the presence of chronic pain did not additionally affect memory performance.

  3. Practical measures of cognitive function and promotion of their performance in the context of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Gujski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aging of the population generates a number of very interesting research questions in the fields of medicine, psychology, sociology, demography, and many others. One of the issues subject to both intensive research by scientists and exploration by practitioners is associated with cognitive functions. The article presents current knowledge regarding practical actions in the field of promoting cognitive function using diagnostic programmes and training using modern technologies. An important aspect presented in this study is also related to the welfare of the maintenance or improvement of cognitive function. Information and communication technologies will contribute to the dissemination of computerized cognitive training, also personalized.

  4. Performance Analysis of Generating Function Approach for Optimal Reconfiguration of Formation Flying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangwon Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of generating functions for solving optimal rendezvous problems has an advantage in the sense that it does not require one to guess and iterate the initial costate. This paper presents how to apply generating functions to analyze spacecraft optimal reconfiguration between projected circular orbits. The series-based solution obtained by using generating functions demonstrates excellent convergence and approximation to the nonlinear reference solution obtained from a numerical shooting method. These favorable properties are expected to hold for analyzing optimal formation reconfiguration under perturbations and non-circular reference orbits.

  5. Relationship between Grooming Performance and Motor and Cognitive Functions in Stroke Patients with Receiver Operating Characteristic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Takaaki; Sato, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Ohashi, Takuro; Yamane, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Yuichi; Iokawa, Kazuaki; Ohira, Yoko; Otsuki, Koji; Tozato, Fusae

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between grooming performance of stroke patients and various motor and cognitive functions and to examine the cognitive and physical functional standards required for grooming independence. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 96 hospitalized patients with first stroke in a rehabilitation hospital ward. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves were used to investigate the related cognitive and motor functions with grooming performance and to calculate the cutoff values for independence and supervision levels in grooming. For analysis between the independent and supervision-dependent groups, the only item with an area under the curve (AUC) of .9 or higher was the Berg Balance Scale, and the calculated cutoff value was 41/40 (sensitivity, 83.6%; specificity, 87.8%). For analysis between the independent-supervision and dependent groups, the items with an AUC of .9 or higher were the Simple Test for Evaluating Hand Function (STEF) on the nonaffected side, Vitality Index (VI), and FIM ® cognition. The cutoff values were 68/67 for the STEF (sensitivity, 100%; specificity, 72.2%), 9/8 points for the VI (sensitivity, 92.3%; specificity, 88.9%), and 23/22 points for FIM ® cognition (sensitivity, 91.0%; specificity, 88.9%). Our results suggest that upper-extremity functions on the nonaffected side, motivation, and cognitive functions are particularly important to achieve the supervision level and that balance is important to reach the independence level. The effective improvement of grooming performance is possible by performing therapeutic or compensatory intervention on functions that have not achieved these cutoff values. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of right ventricular function by myocardial performance index in diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Ahmed Abdelaziz

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: Myocardial performance index is a useful noninvasive tool for the detection of early right ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction in diabetic patients, regardless of coexisting hypertension.

  7. The role of neuropsychological performance in the relationship between chronic pain and functional physical impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, W.L.J.A.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective.  In this study, the relationship between pain intensity, neuropsychological, and physical function in adult chronic pain patients was examined. Design.  Thirty participants with chronic pain completed neuropsychological tests tapping mental processing speed, memory, and executive

  8. Benefits of Simulation and Role-Playing to Teach Performance of Functional Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trail Ross, Mary Ellen; Otto, Dorothy A; Stewart Helton, Anne

    The use of simulation is an innovative teaching strategy that has proven to be valuable in nursing education. This article describes the benefits of a simulation lab involving faculty role-play to teach baccalaureate nursing students how to properly assess the functional status of older adults. Details about the simulation lab, which involved functional assessments of two elderly community-dwelling residents, are presented, along with student and faculty evaluations of this teaching modality.

  9. Performance of Comorbidity, Risk Adjustment, and Functional Status Measures in Expenditure Prediction for Patients With Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Maciejewski, Matthew L.; Liu, Chuan-Fen; Fihn, Stephan D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE?To compare the ability of generic comorbidity and risk adjustment measures, a diabetes-specific measure, and a self-reported functional status measure to explain variation in health care expenditures for individuals with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS?This study included a retrospective cohort of 3,092 diabetic veterans participating in a multisite trial. Two comorbidity measures, four risk adjusters, a functional status measure, a diabetes complication count, and baseline ex...

  10. Jaw lever analysis of Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes: a simulation study of morphological diversity and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maie, Takashi; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Blob, Richard W

    2009-08-01

    Differences in feeding behavior and performance among the five native Hawaiian gobioid stream fishes (Sicyopterus stimpsoni, Lentipes concolor, Awaous guamensis, Stenogobius hawaiiensis, and Eleotris sandwicensis) have been proposed based on the skeletal anatomy of their jaws and dietary specialization. However, performance of the feeding apparatus likely depends on the proportions and configurations of the jaw muscles and the arrangement of the jaw skeleton. We used a published mathematical model of muscle function to evaluate potential differences in jaw closing performance and their correlations with morphology among these species. For example, high output force calculated for the adductor mandibulae muscles (A2 and A3) of both A. guamensis and E. sandwicensis matched expectations based on the morphology of these species because these muscles are larger than in the other species. In contrast, Stenogobius hawaiiensis exhibited an alternative morphological strategy for achieving high relative output forces of both A2 and A3, in which the placement and configuration of the muscles conveyed high mechanical advantage despite only moderate cross-sectional areas. These differing anatomical pathways to similar functional performance suggest a pattern of many-to-one mapping of morphology to performance. In addition, a functional differentiation between A2 and A3 was evident for all species, in which A2 was better suited for producing forceful jaw closing and A3 for rapid jaw closing. Thus, the diversity of feeding performance of Hawaiian stream gobies seems to reflect a maintenance of functional breadth through the retention of some primitive traits in combination with novel functional capacities in several species. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Effects of Gait Self-Efficacy and Lower-Extremity Physical Function on Dual-Task Performance in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banducci, Sarah E.; Daugherty, Ana M.; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth A.; Porter, Gwenndolyn C.; Burzynska, Agnieszka; Shen, Sa; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Objectives. Despite evidence of self-efficacy and physical function's influences on functional limitations in older adults, few studies have examined relationships in the context of complex, real-world tasks. The present study tested the roles of self-efficacy and physical function in predicting older adults' street-crossing performance in single- and dual-task simulations. Methods. Lower-extremity physical function, gait self-efficacy, and street-crossing success ratio were assessed in 195 older adults (60–79 years old) at baseline of a randomized exercise trial. During the street-crossing task, participants walked on a self-propelled treadmill in a virtual reality environment. Participants crossed the street without distraction (single-task trials) and conversed on a cell phone (dual-task trials). Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized associations independent of demographic and clinical covariates. Results. Street-crossing performance was better on single-task trials when compared with dual-task trials. Direct effects of self-efficacy and physical function on success ratio were observed in dual-task trials only. The total effect of self-efficacy was significant in both conditions. The indirect path through physical function was evident in the dual-task condition only. Conclusion. Physical function can predict older adults' performance on high fidelity simulations of complex, real-world tasks. Perceptions of function (i.e., self-efficacy) may play an even greater role. The trial is registered with United States National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT01472744; Fit & Active Seniors Trial). PMID:28255557

  12. Staff Turnover as a Function of Performance in a Public Residential Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, John G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The relationship between employee turnover and performance was measured for 144 leavers and 144 stayers across 32 positions in a large institution for mentally retarded people. Performance ratings for leavers were significantly lower than for stayers suggesting that the organization is not ejecting its best workers. (Author/DB)

  13. Want a Tip? Service Performance as a Function of Emotion Regulation and Extraversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nai-Wen; Grandey, Alicia A.; Diamond, Jennifer A.; Krimmel, Kathleen Royer

    2011-01-01

    Surface acting and deep acting with customers are strategies for service performance, but evidence for their effectiveness is limited and mixed. We propose that deep acting is an effective strategy for most employees, whereas surface acting's effect on performance effectiveness depends on employee extraversion. In Study 1, restaurant servers who…

  14. Radiation dose, driving performance, and cognitive function in patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuen, Hon K.; Sharma, Anand K.; Logan, William C.; Gillespie, M. Boyd; Day, Terry A.; Brooks, Johnell O.

    2008-01-01

    Seven head and neck cancer patients participated in a driving evaluation in a driving simulator. Radiation dose on the temporal lobes was moderately associated with time to complete a cognitive test and with driving performance. Results indicated that incidental irradiation may contribute to a decrease in cognition and in unsafe driving performance, which seems to be time-dependent

  15. Does cognitive performance map to categorical diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder and bipolar disorder? A discriminant functions analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rheenen, Tamsyn E; Bryce, Shayden; Tan, Eric J; Neill, Erica; Gurvich, Caroline; Louise, Stephanie; Rossell, Susan L

    2016-03-01

    Despite known overlaps in the pattern of cognitive impairments in individuals with bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SZ) and schizoaffective disorder (SZA), few studies have examined the extent to which cognitive performance validates traditional diagnostic boundaries in these groups. Individuals with SZ (n=49), schizoaffective disorder (n=33) and BD (n=35) completed a battery of cognitive tests measuring the domains of processing speed, immediate memory, semantic memory, learning, working memory, executive function and sustained attention. A discriminant functions analysis revealed a significant function comprising semantic memory, immediate memory and processing speed that maximally separated patients with SZ from those with BD. Initial classification scores on the basis of this function showed modest diagnostic accuracy, owing in part to the misclassification of SZA patients as having SZ. When SZA patients were removed from the model, a second cross-validated classifier yielded slightly improved diagnostic accuracy and a single function solution, of which semantic memory loaded most heavily. A cluster of non-executive cognitive processes appears to have some validity in mapping onto traditional nosological boundaries. However, since semantic memory performance was the primary driver of the discrimination between BD and SZ, it is possible that performance differences between the disorders in this cognitive domain in particular, index separate underlying aetiologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Theoretical comparison of performance using transfer functions for reactivity meters based on inverse kinetic method and simple feedback method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro; Tashiro, Shoichi; Tojo, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    The performance of two digital reactivity meters, one based on the conventional inverse kinetic method and the other one based on simple feedback theory, are compared analytically using their respective transfer functions. The latter one is proposed by one of the authors. It has been shown that the performance of the two reactivity meters become almost identical when proper system parameters are selected for each reactivity meter. A new correlation between the system parameters of the two reactivity meters is found. With this correlation, filter designers can easily determine the system parameters for the respective reactivity meters to obtain identical performance. (author)

  17. Motor skills and exercise capacity are associated with objective measures of cognitive functions and academic performance in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Thomas, Richard; Larsen, Malte Nejst

    2016-01-01

    the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess different domains of cognitive functions, including sustained attention, spatial working memory, episodic and semantic memory, and processing speed. Linear mixed-effects models were used to investigate associations between...... sustained attention (Pmemory (Pmemory, episodic memory, sustained attention and processing speed were all associated with better performance in mathematics and reading...

  18. The impact of physical performance and cognitive status on subsequent ADL disability in low-functioning older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J

    Objectives. The purpose of this study was to examine the independent contributions of physical performance and cognitive status to subsequent levels of ADL disability in low-functioning non-institutionalized older adults. Methods. A prospective cohort study included 416 women and 141 men 57 years of

  19. Enhanced MEA Performance for PEMFCs under Low Relative Humidity and Low Oxygen Content Conditions via Catalyst Functionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Le; Yang, Fan; Xie, Jian; Yang, Zhiwei; Kariuki, Nancy N.; Myers, Deborah J.; Peng, Jui-Kun; Wang, Xiaohua; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Yu, Kang; Ferreira, Paulo J.; Bonastre, Alex Martinez; Fongalland, Dash; Sharman, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates that functionalizing annealed-Pt/Ketjen black EC300j (a-Pt/KB) and dealloyed-PtNi/Ketjen black EC300j (d-PtNi/KB) catalysts using p-phenyl sulfonic acid can effectively enhance performance in the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The functionalization increased the size of both Pt and PtNi catalyst particles and resulted in the further leaching of Ni from the PtNi catalyst while promoting the formation of nanoporous PtNi nanoparticles. The size of the SO3H-Pt/KB and SO3H-PtNi/KB carbon-based aggregates decreased dramatically, leading to the formation of catalyst layers with narrower pore size distributions.MEA tests highlighted the benefits of the surface functionalization, in which the cells with SO3H-Pt/KB and SO3H-PtNi/KB cathode catalysts showed superior high current density performance under reduced RH conditions, in comparison with cells containing annealed Pt/KB (a-Pt/KB) and de-alloyed PtNi/KB (d-PtNi/KB) catalysts. The performance improvement was particularly evident when using reactant gases with low relative humidity, indicating that the hydrophilic functional groups on the carbon improved the water retention in the cathode catalyst layer. These results show a new avenue for enhancing catalyst performance for the next generation of catalytic materials for PEMFCs.

  20. To outsource or not to outsource: Examining the effects of outsourcing IT functions on financial performance in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Burkhardt, Jeffrey; Shewchuk, Richard; Burke, Darrell; Brooks, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing of information technology (IT) functions is a popular strategy with both potential benefits and risks for hospitals. Anecdotal evidence, based on case studies, suggests that outsourcing may be associated with significant cost savings. However, no generalizable evidence exists to support such assertions. This study examines whether outsourcing IT functions is related to improved financial performance in hospitals. Primary survey data on IT outsourcing behavior were combined with secondary data on hospital financial performance. Regression analyses examined the relationship between outsourcing and various measures of financial performance while controlling for bed size, average patient acuity, geographic location, and overall IT adoption. Complete data from a total of 83 Florida hospitals were available for analyses. Findings suggest that the decision to outsource IT functions is not related to any of the hospital financial performance measures that were examined. Specifically, outsourcing of IT functions did not correlate with net inpatient revenue, net patient revenue, hospital expenses, total expenses, cash flow ratio, operating margin, or total margin. In most cases, IT outsourcing is not necessarily a cost-lowering strategy, but instead, a cost-neutral manner in which to accomplish an organizational strategy.

  1. The Importance of Trunk Muscle Strength for Balance, Functional Performance, and Fall Prevention in Seniors : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granacher, Urs; Gollhofer, Albert; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Kressig, Reto W.; Muehlbauer, Thomas

    Background The aging process results in a number of functional (e.g., deficits in balance and strength/power performance), neural (e.g., loss of sensory/motor neurons), muscular (e.g., atrophy of type-II muscle fibers in particular), and bone-related (e.g., osteoporosis) deteriorations.

  2. Performance of Popular XC-Functionals for the Description of Excitation Energies in GFP-Like Chromophore Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    this task. We present an evaluation of the performance of commonly used XC-functionals for the prediction of excitation energies of GFP-like chromophores. In particular, we have considered the TD-DFT vertical excitation energies of chromophores displaying different charge states. We compare the quality...

  3. Recovery of lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance in middle-aged patients undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganderup, Tina; Jensen, Carsten; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate lower extremity muscle strength and functional performance before and after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in middle-aged patients with degenerative meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients would experience deficiencies in the affected leg at 3 months post-surgery,...

  4. Task-relevant cognitive and motor functions are prioritized during prolonged speed-accuracy motor task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solianik, Rima; Satas, Andrius; Mickeviciene, Dalia; Cekanauskaite, Agne; Valanciene, Dovile; Majauskiene, Daiva; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect of prolonged speed-accuracy motor task on the indicators of psychological, cognitive, psychomotor and motor function. Ten young men aged 21.1 ± 1.0 years performed a fast- and accurate-reaching movement task and a control task. Both tasks were performed for 2 h. Despite decreased motivation, and increased perception of effort as well as subjective feeling of fatigue, speed-accuracy motor task performance improved during the whole period of task execution. After the motor task, the increased working memory function and prefrontal cortex oxygenation at rest and during conflict detection, and the decreased efficiency of incorrect response inhibition and visuomotor tracking were observed. The speed-accuracy motor task increased the amplitude of motor-evoked potentials, while grip strength was not affected. These findings demonstrate that to sustain the performance of 2-h speed-accuracy task under conditions of self-reported fatigue, task-relevant functions are maintained or even improved, whereas less critical functions are impaired.

  5. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  6. Effect of traditional resistance and power training using rated perceived exertion for enhancement of muscle strength, power, and functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Carlos Leandro; Dias, Caroline Pieta; Radaelli, Regis; Massa, Jéssica Cassales; Bortoluzzi, Rafael; Schoenell, Maira Cristina Wolf; Noll, Matias; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2016-04-01

    The present study compared the effects of 12 weeks of traditional resistance training and power training using rated perceived exertion (RPE) to determine training intensity on improvements in strength, muscle power, and ability to perform functional task in older women. Thirty healthy elderly women (60-75 years) were randomly assigned to traditional resistance training group (TRT; n = 15) or power training group (PT; n = 15). Participants trained twice a week for 12 weeks using six exercises. The training protocol was designed to ascertain that participants exercised at an RPE of 13-18 (on a 6-20 scale). Maximal dynamic strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limb muscles were assessed. Maximal dynamic strength muscle strength leg press (≈58 %) and knee extension (≈20 %) increased significantly (p training. Muscle power also increased with training (≈27 %; p functional performance after training period (≈13 %; p effective in improving maximal strength, muscle power, and functional performance of lower limbs in elderly women.

  7. Effect of a Periodized Power Training Program on the Functional Performances and Contractile Properties of the Quadriceps in Sprinters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Duchateau, Jacques; Stanislovaitiene, Jurate

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effect of a periodized preparation consisting of power endurance training and high-intensity power training on the contractile properties of the quadriceps muscle and functional performances in well trained male sprinters (n = 7). After 4 weeks of high-intensity power training, 60-m sprint running time improved by an…

  8. Prolonged use of Kinesiotaping does not enhance functional performance and joint proprioception in healthy young males : Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magalhães, Igor; Bottaro, Martim; Freitas, João R.; Carmo, Jake; Matheus, João P.C.; Carregaro, Rodrigo Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous (48-hour) use of Kinesiotaping (KT) on functional and proprioceptive performance in healthy, physically active men. Method: Twenty-six healthy, physically active men (21.8±2.2 years old) were randomly allocated into two

  9. Biomechanics on the half shell: functional performance influences patterns of morphological variation in the emydid turtle carapace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayton, C Tristan

    2011-09-01

    This study uses the carapace of emydid turtles to address hypothesized differences between terrestrial and aquatic species. Geometric morphometrics are used to quantify shell shape, and performance is estimated for two shell functions: shell strength and hydrodynamics. Aquatic turtle shells differ in shape from terrestrial turtle shells and are characterized by lower frontal areas and presumably lower drag. Terrestrial turtle shells are stronger than those of aquatic turtles; many-to-one mapping of morphology to function does not entirely mitigate a functional trade-off between mechanical strength and hydrodynamic performance. Furthermore, areas of morphospace characterized by exceptionally poor performance in either of the functions are not occupied by any emydid species. Though aquatic and terrestrial species show no significant differences in the rate of morphological evolution, aquatic species show a higher lineage density, indicative of a greater amount of convergence in their evolutionary history. The techniques employed in this study, including the modeling of theoretical shapes to assess performance in unoccupied areas of morphospace, suggest a framework for future studies of morphological variation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Test-retest reliability of maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe osteoarthritis (OA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Allan; Roos, Ewa M.; Overgaard, Søren

    Abstract : Purpose To evaluate the reliability of single-joint and multi-joint maximal leg muscle power and functional performance measures in patients with severe OA. Background Muscle power, taking both strength and velocity into account, is a more functional measure of lower extremity muscle...... and scheduled for unilateral total hip (n=9) or knee (n=11) replacement. Patients underwent a test battery on two occasions separated by approximately one week (range 7 to 11 days). Muscle power was measured using: 1. A linear encoder, unilateral lower limb isolated single-joint dynamic movement, e.g. knee...... flexion 2. A leg extension press, unilateral multi-joint knee and hip extension Functional performance was measured using: 1. 20 m walk usual pace 2. 20 m walk maximal pace 3. 5 times chair stands 4. Maximal number of knee bends/30sec Pain was measured on a VAS prior to and after conducting the entire...

  11. Impaired financial capacity in late life depression is associated with cognitive performance on measures of executive functioning and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, R Scott; Areán, Patricia A

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the prevalence of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Late life depression (LLD) is a common psychiatric disorder associated with significant disability and cognitive impairment. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the prevalence and cognitive correlates of impairments of financial capacity among individuals with LLD. Participants included 65 LLD individuals and 32 comparison subjects. Assessments included measures of financial capacity, cognitive functioning, and depression symptom severity. Individuals with LLD exhibited a significantly higher rate of impaired financial capacity (22%) than the comparison group (6%). Results of a multiple regression analysis indicated that performance on measures of executive functioning and attention, but not depression severity, were most strongly associated with financial capacity performance in LLD. Our results suggest impairments of financial capacity in LLD are largely explained by cognitive functioning in these domains.

  12. Cognitive function in the oldest old: women perform better than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Exel, E; Gussekloo, J; de Craen, A J; Bootsma-van der Wiel, A; Houx, P; Knook, D L; Westendorp, R G

    2001-07-01

    Limited formal education is associated with poor cognitive function. This could explain sex differences in cognitive function in the oldest old. Whether limited formal education explains differences in cognitive function between elderly women and men was explored. The Leiden 85-plus Study is a population based study investigating all 85 year old inhabitants of Leiden with an overall response rate of 87%. A sample of 599 participants were visited at their place of residence. The mini mental state examination was completed by all participants. Cognitive speed and memory were determined with four neuropsychological tests in participants with a mini mental state examination score higher than 18 points. The proportion of women with limited formal education was significantly higher than that of men (70% v 53%, p=0.001), but women had better scores for cognitive speed and memory than men (pwomen to have a higher cognitive speed than men was 1.7 (95% CI; 1.0 to 2.6), and for them to have a better memory the odds ratio was 1.8 (95%CI; 1.2 to 2.7). Women have a better cognitive function than men, despite their lower level of formal education. Limited formal education alone, therefore, cannot explain the differences in cognitive function in women and men. These findings support the alternative hypothesis that biological differences, such as atherosclerosis, between women and men account for the sex differences in cognitive decline.

  13. The Role of Family Functioning, Peer Attachment and Academic Performance in predicting of Happiness in Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salehzadeh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine the role of family functioning (FF, academic performance (EP and peer attachment (PA in predicting of happiness adolescent girls. Therefore, 344 high school female students in Yazd were selected through multi-stage random sampling and were asked to complete the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire, Family Assessment Device (FAD, and Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment. Students' grade point average was considered as the measure of academic performance.  The results of analysis of regression showed that all the subscales of family functioning and peers attachment and also academic performance have significant correlation with happiness yet only "the roles and relationships" of family performance and peers attachment could predict happiness. Attachment to peers was the strongest factor. However, academic performance did not have a significant role in prediction of student's happiness. In accordance with the findings of developmental psychology, peers and family are the two most important psychological constructs that have the most significant roles in predicting the happiness of adolescent girls. But academic performance did not have a significant role in predicting student's happiness, thereby it can challenge the social common belief in educational systems regarding the strong association between academic performance and well-being and happiness.

  14. Decision-making and cognitive abilities: A review of associations between Iowa Gambling Task performance, executive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toplak, Maggie E; Sorge, Geoff B; Benoit, André; West, Richard F; Stanovich, Keith E

    2010-07-01

    The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been used to study decision-making differences in many different clinical and developmental samples. It has been suggested that IGT performance captures abilities that are separable from cognitive abilities, including executive functions and intelligence. The purpose of the current review was to examine studies that have explicitly examined the relationship between IGT performance and these cognitive abilities. We included 43 studies that reported correlational analyses with IGT performance, including measures of inhibition, working memory, and set-shifting as indices of executive functions, as well as measures of verbal, nonverbal, and full-scale IQ as indices of intelligence. Overall, only a small proportion of the studies reported a statistically significant relationship between IGT performance and these cognitive abilities. The majority of studies reported a non-significant relationship. Of the minority of studies that reported statistically significant effects, effect sizes were, at best, small to modest, and confidence intervals were large, indicating that considerable variability in performance on the IGT is not captured by current measures of executive function and intelligence. These findings highlight the separability between decision-making on the IGT and cognitive abilities, which is consistent with recent conceptualizations that differentiate rationality from intelligence. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Executive functioning in preschool children: performance on A-not-B and other delayed response format tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, K A; Kaufmann, P M; McDiarmid, M D; Glisky, M L

    1999-11-01

    The A-not-B (AB) task has been hypothesized to measure executive/frontal lobe function; however, the developmental and measurement characteristics of this task have not been investigated. Performances on AB and comparison tasks adapted from developmental and neuroscience literature was examined in 117 preschool children (ages 23-66 months). Age significantly predicted performance on AB, Delayed Alternation, Spatial Reversal, Color Reversal, and Self-Control tasks. A four-factor analytic model best fit task performance data. AB task indices loaded on two factors with measures from the Self-Control and Delayed Alternation tasks, respectively. AB indices did not load with those from the reversal tasks despite similarities in task administration and presumed cognitive demand (working memory). These results indicate that AB is sensitive to individual differences in age-related performance in preschool children and suggest that AB performance is related to both working memory and inhibition processes in this age range.

  16. Liver Function Indicators Performed Better to Eliminate Cardioembolic Stroke than to Identify It from Stroke Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ge; Yuan, Ruozhen; Hao, Zilong; Lei, Chunyan; Xiong, Yao; Xu, Mangmang; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Identifying the etiology of ischemic stroke is essential to acute management and secondary prevention. The value of liver function indicators in differentiating stroke subtypes remains to be evaluated. A total of 1333 acute ischemic stroke patients were included. Liver function indicators collected within 24 hours from stroke onset, including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and bilirubin (BILI), were collapsed into quartiles (Q) and also dichotomized by Q1. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to identify the independent association between liver function indicators and cardioembolic stroke (SCE). Area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic analysis was conducted, and sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spe), positive prospective value (PPV), and negative prospective value (NPV) were determined to evaluate the predictive value of liver function indicators for SCE. AST, GGT, and BILI were associated with SCE. After adjustment, only AST was related to SCE independently. The incidence of SCE in the Q1 of AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly in the Q1 of AST, was quite low. The ability of AST, GGT, and BILI to identify SCE was poor, with low AUC, Sen, and PPV. The value of AST, GGT, and BILI in eliminating SCE from stroke subtypes was good, with high Spe and moderate NPV, and was enhanced after combining each liver function indicator. Results of present study demonstrated that AST, GGT, and BILI, particularly AST, had a potential to eliminate SCE from stroke subtypes, and the ability of eliminating SCE would be strengthened after combining each liver function indicator together. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Driving with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: Cognitive Test Performance and Proxy Report of Daily Life Function in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Hogan, Patricia E; Rapp, Stephen R; Dugan, Elizabeth; Marottoli, Richard A; Snively, Beverly M; Shumaker, Sally A; Sink, Kaycee M

    2015-09-01

    To investigate associations between proxy report of cognitive and functional limitations and cognitive performance and current or former driving status in older women with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and all-cause dementia. Cross-sectional data analysis of retrospectively identified older women with adjudicated MCI and all-cause dementia in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study-Epidemiology of Cognitive Health Outcomes (WHIMS-ECHO). Academic medical center. Women (mean age ± standard deviation 83.7 ± 3.5) adjudicated with MCI or dementia during Year 1, 2, 3, or 4 of the WHIMS-ECHO follow-up period (N = 385). The telephone-administered cognitive battery included tests of attention, verbal learning and memory, verbal fluency, executive function, working memory, and global cognitive function plus self-report measures of depressive symptomatology. The Dementia Questionnaire (DQ) was administered to a knowledgeable proxy (family member, friend). Sixty percent of women with MCI and 40% of those with dementia are current drivers. Proxy reports of functional limitations in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) are associated with current driving status in women with MCI, whereas performance-based cognitive tests are not. In women with dementia, proxy reports of functional limitations in IADLs and performance-based cognitive tests are associated with current driving status, as expected. These findings have clinical implications for the importance of evaluating driving concurrently with other instrumental functional abilities in MCI and dementia. Additional work is needed to determine whether proxy report of cognitive and functional impairments should help guide referrals for driving assessment and rehabilitation or counseling for driving transition. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Associations of Adiposity and Aerobic Fitness with Executive Function and Math Performance in Danish Adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Tao; Tarp, Jakob; Domazet, Sidsel Louise

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations of adiposity and aerobic fitness with executive function and math performance in Danish adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses were conducted with data on 525 adolescents attending sixth and seventh grades from 14 schools in the 5 main regions...... of Denmark. A modified Eriksen flanker task was used to assess inhibitory control, a key aspect of executive function. Academic performance was assessed by a customized math test. Aerobic fitness was assessed by an intermittent shuttle-run test (Andersen test). RESULTS: Body mass index (BMI) was negatively......). Aerobic fitness was positively associated with math score (P math score (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that aerobic fitness is positively associated with both inhibitory control and math performance in adolescents. Adiposity is negatively...

  19. An MLS coherence function and its performance in measurements on time-varying systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jiyuan; Jacobsen, Finn

    1999-01-01

    A new MLS coherence function has been developed and tested in various room acoustic measurements. The new measure, which takes values between zero and unity just as the ordinary coherence, can be used only if averaging over several periods of the MLS signal is carried out. It indicates possible...... contamination by extraneous noise in the same manner as the the ordinary coherence function does in measurements with FFT analysers. It is also very sensitive to disturbances such as reflections caused by moving surfaces during the measurement. Very weak time-variance effects caused by a small change...

  20. Lung function and six-minute walk test performance in individuals with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela G. Ohara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle Cell Disease (SCD, which is characterized by a mutation in the gene encoding beta hemoglobin, causes bodily dysfunctions such as impaired pulmonary function and reduced functional capacity. Objective : To assess changes in pulmonary function and functional capacity in patients with SCD and to identify the relationships between these variables. Method: We evaluated sociodemographic, anthropometric, lung function (spirometry, respiratory (manovacuometer, peripheral muscle strength (Handgrip strength - HS and functional capacity (i.e., the six-minute walk test parameters in 21 individuals with SCD (average age of 29±6 years. Shapiro-Wilk, paired Student's, Wilcoxon, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests were used for statistical analyses, and the significance threshold was set at p<0.05. Results : A total of 47.6% of the study subjects exhibited an altered ventilation pattern, 42.8% had a restrictive ventilatory pattern (RVP and 4.8% exhibited a mixed ventilatory pattern (MVP. The observed maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP values were below the predicted values for women (64 cmH2O, and the maximum expiratory pressure (MEP values, HS values and distance walked during the 6MWT were below the predicted values for both men (103 cmH2O, 39 Kgf and 447 m, respectively and women (64 cmH2O; 27 Kgf; 405 m, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV and MEP (r=0.4; p=0.046; MVV and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.003; and between HS and MIP (r=0.7; p=0.001, MEP (r=0.6; p=0.002, MVV (r=0.5; p=0.015, distance walked in the 6MWT (r=0.4; p=0.038 and BMI (r=0.6; p=0.004. Conclusions : SCD promoted changes in lung function and functional capacity, including RVPs and a reduction in the distance walked in the 6MWT when compared to the predictions. In addition, significant correlations between the variables were observed.

  1. Multicriteria performance and sustainability in livestock farming systems: Functional diversity matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tichit, M.; Puillet, L.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural intensification drastically reduces diversity at different scales of livestock farming systems (LFS). This homogenization process leads to environmental degradation and ignores the fact that multiple performance criterions often come in conflict. Taking advantage of diversity at

  2. Comparative VOCs sensing performance for conducting polymer and porphyrin functionalized carbon nanotubes based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Kunal; Rushi, Arti; Ghosh, Prasanta; Shirsat, Mahendra

    2018-05-01

    We report sensors for detection of ethyl alcohol, a prominent volatile organic compound (VOC). Single walled carbon nanotubes were selected as main sensing backbone. As efficiency of sensor is dependent upon the choice of sensing materials, the performances of conducting polymer and porphyrin based sensors were compared. Chemiresistive sensing modality was adopted to observe the performance of sensors. It has been found that porphyrin based sensor shows higher affinity towards ethyl alcohol.

  3. The relationship between dorsolateral prefrontal activation and speech performance-based social anxiety using functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Kuster, Anootnara T; Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Matteucci, Alyssa; Herbert, James D

    2017-06-01

    Functional near-infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy is a promising new technology that has demonstrated utility in the study of normal human cognition. We utilized fNIR spectroscopy to examine the effect of social anxiety and performance on hemodynamic activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Socially phobic participants and non-clinical participants with varying levels of social anxiety completed a public speaking task in front of a small virtual audience while the DLPFC was being monitored by the fNIR device. The relationship between anxiety and both blood volume (BV) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) varied significantly as a function of speech performance, such that individuals with low social anxiety who performed well showed an increase in DLPFC activation relative to those who did not perform well. This result suggests that effortful thinking and/or efficient top-down inhibitory control may have been required to complete an impromptu speech task with good performance. In contrast, good performers who were highly socially anxious showed lower DLPFC activation relative to good performers who were low in social anxiety, suggesting autopilot thinking or less-effortful thinking. In poor performers, slight increases in DLPFC activation were observed from low to highly anxious individuals, which may reflect a shift from effortless thinking to heightened self-focused attention. Heightened self-focused attention, poor inhibitory control resulting in excessive fear or anxiety, or low motivation may lower performance. These results suggest that there can be different underlying mechanisms in the brain that affect the level of speech performance in individuals with varying degrees of social anxiety. This study highlights the utility of the fNIR device in the assessment of changes in DLPFC in response to exposure to realistic phobic stimuli, and further supports the potential utility of this technology in the study of the neurophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  4. Studies of evolutionary temperature adaptation: muscle function and locomotor performance in Antarctic fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, C E

    1998-09-01

    1. Studies of evolutionary temperature adaptation of muscle and locomotor performance in fish are reviewed with a focus on the Antarctic fauna living at subzero temperatures. 2. Only limited data are available to compare the sustained and burst swimming kinematics and performance of Antarctic, temperate and tropical species. Available data indicate that low temperatures limit maximum swimming performance and this is especially evident in fish larvae. 3. In a recent study, muscle performance in the Antarctic rock cod Notothenia coriiceps at 0 degree C was found to be sufficient to produce maximum velocities during burst swimming that were similar to those seen in the sculpin Myoxocephalus scorpius at 10 degrees C, indicating temperature compensation of muscle and locomotor performance in the Antarctic fish. However, at 15 degrees C, sculpin produce maximum swimming velocities greater than N. coriiceps at 0 degree C. 4. It is recommended that strict hypothesis-driven investigations using ecologically relevant measures of performance are undertaken to study temperature adaptation in Antarctic fish. Recent detailed phylogenetic analyses of the Antarctic fish fauna and their temperate relatives will allow a stronger experimental approach by helping to separate what is due to adaptation to the cold and what is due to phylogeny alone.

  5. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  6. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  7. Effects of Differential Item Functioning on Examinees' Test Performance and Reliability of Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Zhang, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Simulations were conducted to examine the effect of differential item functioning (DIF) on measurement consequences such as total scores, item response theory (IRT) ability estimates, and test reliability in terms of the ratio of true-score variance to observed-score variance and the standard error of estimation for the IRT ability parameter. The…

  8. On the relationship between motor performance and executive functioning in children with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Houwen, S.; Scherder, E.; Visscher, C.

    Background It has been suggested that children with intellectual disabilities (ID) have motor problems and higher-order cognitive deficits. The aim of this study was to examine the motor skills and executive functions in school-age children with borderline and mild ID. The second aim was to

  9. Sparse non-linear denoising: Generalization performance and pattern reproducibility in functional MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Trine Julie; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    We investigate sparse non-linear denoising of functional brain images by kernel Principal Component Analysis (kernel PCA). The main challenge is the mapping of denoised feature space points back into input space, also referred to as ”the pre-image problem”. Since the feature space mapping is typi...

  10. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Adame

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon species, hinders the development of species-specific diameter growth models.Area of study: In these analyses, we grouped 82 species from secondary forests distributed across 93 permanent plots on the island of Puerto Rico.Material and Methods: Species were classified according to regeneration strategy and adult height into six functional groups. This classification allowed us to develop a robust diameter growth model using growth data collected from 1980-1990. We used mixed linear model regression to analyze tree diameter growth as a function of individual tree characteristics, stand structure, functional group and site factors.Main results: The proportion of variance in diameter growth explained by the model was 15.1%, ranging from 7.9 to 21.7%. Diameter at breast height, stem density and functional group were the most important predictors of tree growth in Puerto Rican secondary forest. Site factors such as soil and topography failed to predict diameter growth.Keywords: Caribbean forests; growth model; tropical forest succession; Puerto Rico.

  11. Impact of low vision rehabilitation on functional vision performance of children with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suma Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study group, there was a significant improvement in functional vision post visual rehabilitation, especially with those activities which are related to their academic output. It is important for these children to have an early visual rehabilitation to decrease the impairment associated with these decreased visual output and to enhance their learning abilities.

  12. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  13. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab, H.J.T.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, T.J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  14. Sustained attention and executive functioning performance in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Tollenaar, M.S.; Slaats-Willemse, D.I.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Swaab-Barneveld, H.J.T.; Verhulst, F.C.; Polderman, J.C.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to further refine the cognitive phenotype of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), with respect to the ability to sustain attention and executive functioning. Participants were 34 boys with ADHD (combined type) and 28 normal controls. The groups were closely

  15. Maternal Thyroid Function in Early Pregnancy and Neuropsychological Performance of the Child at 5 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Andersen, Stig; Liew, Zeyan; Vestergaard, Peter; Olsen, Jørn

    2018-02-01

    Abnormal maternal thyroid function in pregnancy may impair fetal brain development, but more evidence is needed to refine and corroborate the hypothesis. To estimate the association between maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy and neuropsychological performance of the child at 5 years of age. Follow-up study. A cohort of 1153 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (fT4) were measured in stored biobank sera from early pregnancy. Child neuropsychological test results (Wechsler Intelligence Scale/Test of Everyday Attention), test of motor function (Movement Assessment Battery), and results of parent and teacher reports (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function/Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Altogether 145 children (12.6%) were born to mothers with abnormal thyroid function in the early pregnancy. High maternal TSH and low fT4 were associated with lower child verbal intelligence quotient (adjusted mean difference TSH ≥ 10 mIU/L vs 0.1 to 2.49 mIU/L, -8.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -15 to -2.4]; fT4 function was also associated with adverse motor function and teacher-reported problems of executive function and behavior, and these associations were dominated by exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia. Maternal thyroid hormone abnormalities were associated with adverse neuropsychological function of the child at 5 years of age. For intelligence, marked hypothyroidism was important, whereas for motor function and executive and behavior problems, maternal hypothyroxinemia was predominant. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  16. Prediction of Rowing Ergometer Performance from Functional Anaerobic Power, Strength and Anthropometric Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akça Firat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to develop different regression models to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance with the use of anthropometric, anaerobic and strength variables and to determine how precisely the prediction models constituted by different variables predict performance, when conducted together in the same equation or individually. 38 male collegiate rowers (20.17 ± 1.22 years participated in this study. Anthropometric, strength, 2000 m maximal rowing ergometer and rowing anaerobic power tests were applied. Multiple linear regression procedures were employed in SPSS 16 to constitute five different regression formulas using a different group of variables. The reliability of the regression models was expressed by R2 and the standard error of estimate (SEE. Relationships of all parameters with performance were investigated through Pearson correlation coefficients. The prediction model using a combination of anaerobic, strength and anthropometric variables was found to be the most reliable equation to predict 2000 m rowing ergometer performance (R2 = 0.92, SEE= 3.11 s. Besides, the equation that used rowing anaerobic and strength test results also provided a reliable prediction (R2 = 0.85, SEE= 4.27 s. As a conclusion, it seems clear that physiological determinants which are affected by anaerobic energy pathways should also get involved in the processes and models used for performance prediction and talent identification in rowing.

  17. Identifying patterns of motor performance, executive functioning, and verbal ability in preschool children: A latent profile analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houwen, Suzanne; Kamphorst, Erica; van der Veer, Gerda; Cantell, Marja

    2018-04-30

    A relationship between motor performance and cognitive functioning is increasingly being recognized. Yet, little is known about the precise nature of the relationship between both domains, especially in early childhood. To identify distinct constellations of motor performance, executive functioning (EF), and verbal ability in preschool aged children; and to explore how individual and contextual variables are related to profile membership. The sample consisted of 119 3- to 4-year old children (62 boys; 52%). The home based assessments consisted of a standardized motor test (Movement Assessment Battery for Children - 2), five performance-based EF tasks measuring inhibition and working memory, and the Receptive Vocabulary subtest from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence Third Edition. Parents filled out the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Preschool version. Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to delineate profiles of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Chi-square statistics and multinomial logistic regression analysis were used to examine whether profile membership was predicted by age, gender, risk of motor coordination difficulties, ADHD symptomatology, language problems, and socioeconomic status (SES). LPA yielded three profiles with qualitatively distinct response patterns of motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. Quantitatively, the profiles showed most pronounced differences with regard to parent ratings and performance-based tests of EF, as well as verbal ability. Risk of motor coordination difficulties and ADHD symptomatology were associated with profile membership, whereas age, gender, language problems, and SES were not. Our results indicate that there are distinct subpopulations of children who show differential relations with regard to motor performance, EF, and verbal ability. The fact that we found both quantitative as well as qualitative differences between the three patterns of profiles underscores

  18. Anti-Collision Function Design and Performances of the CNES Formation Flying Experiment on the PRISMA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayeux, P.; Raballand, F.; Borde, J.; Berges, J.-C.; Meyssignac, B.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of a partnership agreement, EADS ASTRIUM has worked since June 2006 for the CNES formation flying experiment on the PRISMA mission. EADS ASTRIUM is responsible for the anti-collision function. This responsibility covers the design and the development of the function as a Matlab/Simulink library, as well as its functional validation and performance assessment. PRISMA is a technology in-orbit testbed mission from the Swedish National Space Board, mainly devoted to formation flying demonstration. PRISMA is made of two micro-satellites that will be launched in 2009 on a quasi-circular SSO at about 700 km of altitude. The CNES FFIORD experiment embedded on PRISMA aims at flight validating an FFRF sensor designed for formation control, and assessing its performances, in preparation to future formation flying missions such as Simbol X; FFIORD aims as well at validating various typical autonomous rendezvous and formation guidance and control algorithms. This paper presents the principles of the collision avoidance function developed by EADS ASTRIUM for FFIORD; three kinds of maneuvers were implemented and are presented in this paper with their performances.

  19. THE IMPACT OF VISIONARY LEADERSHIP, LEARNING ORGANIZATION AND INNOVATIVE BEHAVIOR TO PERFORMANCE OF CUSTOMS AND EXCISE FUNCTIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Anshar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the impact of visionary leadership, learning organization, and innovative behavior on the performance of Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Main Service Office. The research was conducted at Tanjung Priok Customs and Excise Service Office using the number of samples of 78 Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors. The sample was selected using simple random sampling technique. Data collection was done by using questionnaire and data analysis using path analysis. The results showed that 1 visionary leadership, learning organization and innovative behavior have a direct and positive impact on performance, 2 visionary leadership, and learning organization have a direct and positive impact on innovative behavior and 3 visionary leadership have a direct and positive impact on learning organization. The conclusion of this research is to improve the performance of Functional Officer of Customs and Excise Inspectors at TanjungPriok Customs and Excise Main Service Office, it is necessary to increase the aspect of visionary leadership from Head of Main Service Office, learning organization at Main Service Office and innovative behavior at Functional Officers of Customs and Excise Inspectors.

  20. Performance on naturalistic virtual reality tasks depends on global cognitive functioning as assessed via traditional neurocognitive tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jorge; Gamito, Pedro; Alghazzawi, Daniyal M; Fardoun, Habib M; Rosa, Pedro J; Sousa, Tatiana; Picareli, Luís Felipe; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo

    2017-08-14

    This investigation sought to understand whether performance in naturalistic virtual reality tasks for cognitive assessment relates to the cognitive domains that are supposed to be measured. The Shoe Closet Test (SCT) was developed based on a simple visual search task involving attention skills, in which participants have to match each pair of shoes with the colors of the compartments in a virtual shoe closet. The interaction within the virtual environment was made using the Microsoft Kinect. The measures consisted of concurrent paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests for global cognitive functioning, executive functions, attention, psychomotor ability, and the outcomes of the SCT. The results showed that the SCT correlated with global cognitive performance as measured with the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The SCT explained one third of the total variance of this test and revealed good sensitivity and specificity in discriminating scores below one standard deviation in this screening tool. These findings suggest that performance of such functional tasks involves a broad range of cognitive processes that are associated with global cognitive functioning and that may be difficult to isolate through paper-and-pencil neurocognitive tests.

  1. Reorganization of functional brain networks mediates the improvement of cognitive performance following real-time neurofeedback training of working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gaoyan; Yao, Li; Shen, Jiahui; Yang, Yihong; Zhao, Xiaojie

    2015-05-01

    Working memory (WM) is essential for individuals' cognitive functions. Neuroimaging studies indicated that WM fundamentally relied on a frontoparietal working memory network (WMN) and a cinguloparietal default mode network (DMN). Behavioral training studies demonstrated that the two networks can be modulated by WM training. Different from the behavioral training, our recent study used a real-time functional MRI (rtfMRI)-based neurofeedback method to conduct WM training, demonstrating that WM performance can be significantly improved after successfully upregulating the activity of the target region of interest (ROI) in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Zhang et al., [2013]: PloS One 8:e73735); however, the neural substrate of rtfMRI-based WM training remains unclear. In this work, we assessed the intranetwork and internetwork connectivity changes of WMN and DMN during the training, and their correlations with the change of brain activity in the target ROI as well as with the improvement of post-training behavior. Our analysis revealed an "ROI-network-behavior" correlation relationship underlying the rtfMRI training. Further mediation analysis indicated that the reorganization of functional brain networks mediated the effect of self-regulation of the target brain activity on the improvement of cognitive performance following the neurofeedback training. The results of this study enhance our understanding of the neural basis of real-time neurofeedback and suggest a new direction to improve WM performance by regulating the functional connectivity in the WM related networks. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Performance on the Functional Movement Screen Is Related to Hop Performance But Not to Hip and Knee Strength in Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E

    2017-03-01

    To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.

  3. Performance evaluation of photovoltaic cells using functionalized carbon nanotube and polyaniline film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavita, S; Mohan, B; Babu, J Sarat Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The use of polyaniline (PANI) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as photovoltaic materials has been presented in this paper. The promising properties of PANI and CNTs have encouraged utilizing them in photovoltaic devices and studying their performance. The photovoltaic performance of PANI has been studied with and without CNTs. We found that there is a considerable increase in the short circuit current density from 3.49 to 8.86 mA cm"−"2 with the use of CNTs in the device and also an increase in power conversion efficiency. The incorporation of CNTs film had led to an efficient transport of photo-generated holes to the anode and suppressed the recombination of free charges generated, thus increasing the efficiency of the device. The performance of the device shows that the PANI and CNTs can be effectively utilized as photovoltaic materials in a photovoltaic cell. (paper)

  4. The Functional Classification and Field Test Performance in Wheelchair Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Susana María; Yanci, Javier; Otero, Montserrat; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Badiola, Aduna; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina

    2015-06-27

    Wheelchair basketball players are classified in four classes based on the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) system of competition. Thus, the aim of the study was to ascertain if the IWBF classification, the type of injury and the wheelchair experience were related to different performance field-based tests. Thirteen basketball players undertook anthropometric measurements and performance tests (hand dynamometry, 5 m and 20 m sprints, 5 m and 20 m sprints with a ball, a T-test, a Pick-up test, a modified 10 m Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, a maximal pass and a medicine ball throw). The IWBF class was correlated (pstaff and coaches of the teams when assessing performance of wheelchair basketball players.

  5. Can Impairment Interfere with Performance by Women with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome According to International Classification of Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Kavousipor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most prevalent compression neuropathy of upper extremity which, two of the most important risk factors of that are the female sex and manual works. In the model of international classification of function, disability and health, disease is an impairment, results in functional limitation. The goal of this study is to compare hand function of participants between various severities of carpal tunnel syndrome. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, during 6 months period of time, 30 housekeeper women with carpal tunnel syndrome, with the mean age of 47.03 years, were selected through simple sampling. They were assessed for hand function, by Purdue peg board test and Boston questionnaire, after that a professional practitioner had performed Nerve Conductive Velocity (NCV test and identified the severity of their diseases. Then the data were analyzed with SPSS software, by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The mean of Purdue peg board test and Boston questionnaire scores in various clusters of carpal tunnel syndrome severity, were not different (P>0.05. Conclusion: In this research, severity of electrodiagnostic findings of participants, with carpal tunnel syndrome, is not related to their performance and functional limitations.

  6. In-depth performance evaluation of PFP and ESG sequence-based function prediction methods in CAFA 2011 experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitale Meghana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many Automatic Function Prediction (AFP methods were developed to cope with an increasing growth of the number of gene sequences that are available from high throughput sequencing experiments. To support the development of AFP methods, it is essential to have community wide experiments for evaluating performance of existing AFP methods. Critical Assessment of Function Annotation (CAFA is one such community experiment. The meeting of CAFA was held as a Special Interest Group (SIG meeting at the Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB conference in 2011. Here, we perform a detailed analysis of two sequence-based function prediction methods, PFP and ESG, which were developed in our lab, using the predictions submitted to CAFA. Results We evaluate PFP and ESG using four different measures in comparison with BLAST, Prior, and GOtcha. In addition to the predictions submitted to CAFA, we further investigate performance of a different scoring function to rank order predictions by PFP as well as PFP/ESG predictions enriched with Priors that simply adds frequently occurring Gene Ontology terms as a part of predictions. Prediction accuracies of each method were also evaluated separately for different functional categories. Successful and unsuccessful predictions by PFP and ESG are also discussed in comparison with BLAST. Conclusion The in-depth analysis discussed here will complement the overall assessment by the CAFA organizers. Since PFP and ESG are based on sequence database search results, our analyses are not only useful for PFP and ESG users but will also shed light on the relationship of the sequence similarity space and functions that can be inferred from the sequences.

  7. Performance evaluation of the short-time objective intelligibility measure with different band importance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann Andersen, Asger; de Haan, Jan Mark; Tan, Zheng-Hua

    performance measures: root-mean-squared-error, Pearson correlation, and Kendall rank correlation. The results show substantially improved performance when fitting and evaluating on the same dataset. However, this advantage does not necessarily subsist when fitting and evaluating on different datasets. When...... with a filter bank, 2) envelopes are extracted from each band, 3) the temporal correlation between clean and degraded envelopes is computed in short time segments, and 4) the correlation is averaged across time and frequency bands to obtain the final output. An unusual choice in the design of the STOI measure...

  8. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general......, the old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory...

  9. An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Reliability and validity of videotaped functional performance tests in ACL-injured subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Porat, Anette; Holmström, Eva; Roos, Ewa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In clinical practice, visual observation is often used to determine functional impairment and to evaluate treatment following a knee injury. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of observational assessments of knee movement pattern quality......, crossover hop on one leg and one-leg hop. The videos were observed by four physiotherapists, and the knee movement pattern quality, a feature of the loading strategy of the lower extremity, was scored on an 11-point rating scale. To assess the criterion validity, the observational rating was correlated...... obtained between the observers' assessment and knee flexion angle, r = 0.37-0.61. The crossover hop test or one-leg hop test was ranked as the most useful test in 172 of 192 occasions (90%) when assessing knee function. CONCLUSION: The moderate to good inter-observer reliability and the moderate criterion...

  11. Experiments performed with a functional model based on statistical discrimination in mixed nuclear radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcov, N.; Celarel, A.; Purghel, L.

    1999-01-01

    By using the statistical discrimination technique, the components of on ionization current, due to a mixed radiation field, may be simultaneously measured. A functional model, including a serially manufactured gamma-ray ratemeter was developed, as an intermediate step in the design of specialised nuclear instrumentation, in order to check the concept of statistical discrimination method. The obtained results are in good agreement with the estimations of the statistical discrimination method. The main characteristics of the functional model are the following: - dynamic range of measurement: >300: l; - simultaneous measurement of natural radiation background and gamma-ray fields; - accuracy (for equal exposure rates from gamma's and natural radiation background): 17%, for both radiation fields; - minimum detectable exposure rate: 2μR/h. (authors)

  12. Accelerated postoperative recovery programme after colonic resection improves physical performance, pulmonary function and body composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, L; Raskov, H H; Hjort Jakobsen, D

    2002-01-01

    receiving conventional care (group 1) and 14 patients who had multimodal rehabilitation (group 2) were studied before and 8 days after colonic resection. Outcome measures included postoperative mobilization, body composition by whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry, cardiovascular response to treadmill...... exercise, pulmonary function and nocturnal oxygen saturation. RESULTS: Defaecation occurred earlier (median day 1 versus day 4) and hospital stay was shorter (median 2 versus 12 days) in patients who had multimodal treatment. Lean body and fat mass decreased in group 1 but not in group 2. Exercise......-supply (HR/oxygen saturation ratio) increased in group 1 but not in group 2. CONCLUSION: Multimodal rehabilitation prevents reduction in lean body mass, pulmonary function, oxygenation and cardiovascular response to exercise after colonic surgery....

  13. Phosphine-functionalized graphene oxide, a high-performance electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensafi, Ali A.; Golbon Haghighi, Mohsen; Jafari-Asl, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Here, a new approach for the synthesis of phosphine-functionalized graphene oxide (GO-PPh2) was developed. Using a simple method, diphenylphosphine group was linked to the hydroxyl group of OH-functionalized graphene that existing at the graphene surface. The electrochemical activity of GO-PPh2 for electrochemical oxygen reduction was checked. The results demonstrated that the new carbon hybrid material has a powerful potential for electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Moreover, GO-PPh2 as an electrocatalyst for ORR exhibited tolerance for methanol or ethanol as a result of crossover effect. In comparison with commercial Pt/C and Pt/rGO electrocatalysts, results showed that GO-PPh2 has a much higher selectivity, better durability, and much better electrochemical stability towards the ORR. The proposed method based on GO-PPh2 introduce an efficient electrocatalyst for further application in fuel cells.

  14. Thermal Conductivity Performance of Polypropylene Composites Filled with Polydopamine-Functionalized Hexagonal Boron Nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Xu, Hong-Fei; He, Shao-Jian; Du, Yi-Hang; Yu, Nan-Jie; Du, Xiao-Ze; Lin, Jun; Nazarenko, Sergei

    2017-01-01

    Mussel-inspired approach was attempted to non-covalently functionalize the surfaces of boron nitride (BN) with self-polymerized dopamine coatings in order to reduce the interfacial thermal barrier and enhance the thermal conductivity of BN-containing composites. Compared to the polypropylene (PP) composites filled with pristine BN at the same filler content, thermal conductivity was much higher for those filled with both functionalized BN (f-BN) and maleic anhydride grafted PP (PP-g-ma) due to the improved filler dispersion and better interfacial filler-matrix compatibility, which facilitated the development of more thermal paths. Theoretical models were also applied to predict the composite thermal conductivity in which the Nielsen model was found to fit well with the experimental results, and the estimated effective aspect ratio of fillers well corresponded to the degree of filler aggregation as observed in the morphological study.

  15. Performance of a Brazilian sample on the Portuguese translation of the BNI Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigatano, George P; Souza, Lígia M N; Braga, Lucia W

    2018-03-01

    The Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) Screen for Higher Cerebral Functions (BNIS) has been translated into several languages and found useful in evaluating multiple domains of cognitive and affective dysfunction, particularly in neuro-rehabilitation settings. Normative data from countries with high literacy rates have reported strikingly similar mean level of performance scores on this test, with age typically correlating higher with total score performance than education. In the present study, we obtain convenience sample normative data from a native Brazilian population on a Portuguese translation of the BNIS (i.e., BNIS-PT). The BNIS was translated into Portuguese by two native speaking Portuguese neuropsychologists who were also fluent in English. It was then administered to 201 normally functioning native Brazilian individuals who varied considerably in age and formal educational training. The mean BNIS total score was similar to what previous studies reported, but primarily in younger adults with at least 12 years of formal education. In this Brazilian sample, the correlation of educational level and BNIS total score was r = .68, p < .001. The correlation of age and BNIS total score was r = -.36, p < .001. This is the opposite pattern to that observed in previous standardization studies. The strong correlation of education with performance in various subtests was observed in all age groups (ages ranging from 15 to 85 years). This standardization study provides guidelines for calculating expected average performance levels on the BNIS-PT for Brazilian individuals with varying degrees of age and education. Educational level positively correlated with test performance on the BNIS-PT and was repeatedly observed to overshadow the effects of age, suggesting its important role in the development of higher cerebral functions in multiple domains in a Brazilian sample of normally functioning individuals.

  16. Long-term classroom functioning and its association with neuropsychological and academic performance following traumatic brain injury during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treble-Barna, Amery; Schultz, Hanna; Minich, Nori; Taylor, H Gerry; Yeates, Keith Owen; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2017-07-01

    The present study utilized ecobehavioral assessment to examine classroom functioning several years following early childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) or orthopedic injury (OI) and its association with injury factors, neuropsychological abilities, and academic performance. Participants included 39 children with moderate to severe TBI and 51 children with OI sustained between ages 3 and 7 years. At 7.2 (± 1.3) years post injury, ecobehavioral assessment was used to examine classroom functioning. Additional outcomes included neuropsychological tests, parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior, and teacher ratings of academic performance. Groups were compared on measures controlling for demographic characteristics, and associations among outcomes were examined using linear regression. Children with TBI showed lower academic engagement relative to children with OI, as well as more frequent individual teacher attention for children with more severe injuries. For children with TBI, difficulties in classroom functioning were associated with lower cognitive flexibility and higher parent and teacher ratings of dysexecutive behavior. Lower scores on a test of fluid reasoning and a greater frequency of individual teacher attention were also associated with lower academic performance in children with TBI. Difficulties in classroom functioning are evident several years after early childhood TBI and were associated with greater injury severity, neuropsychological weaknesses, and poorer academic performance. Children with impaired cognitive flexibility and fluid reasoning skills were at greatest risk for these difficulties and associated weaknesses in academic performance. Instructional interactions may be a potential target for intervention to promote academic progress in at-risk children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. High-performance intrinsically microporous dihydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimide for natural gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.; Ghanem, Bader; Alghunaimi, Fahd; Pinnau, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    A novel polyimide of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PI) was synthesized from a 9,10-diisopropyl-triptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA) and dihydroxyl-functionalized 4,6-diaminoresorcinol (DAR). The unfunctionalized TPDA-m-phenylenediamine (mPDA) polyimide derivative was made as a reference material to evaluate the effect of the OH group in TPDA-DAR on its gas transport properties. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The BET surface area based on nitrogen adsorption of dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR (308 m2g-1) was 45% lower than that of TPDA-mPDA (565 m2g-1). TPDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 349 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 32. The dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR polyimide exhibited enhanced pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity of 46 with a moderate decrease in CO2 permeability to 215 Barrer. The CO2 permeability of TPDA-DAR was ∼30-fold higher than that of a commercial cellulose triacetate membrane coupled with 39% higher pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity. The TPDA-based dihydroxyl-containing polyimide showed good plasticization resistance and maintained high mixed-gas selectivity of 38 when tested at a typical CO2 natural gas wellhead CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm.

  18. Iowa Gambling Task Performance and Executive Function Predict Low-income Urban Preadolescents’ Risky Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Raver, C. Cybele

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preadolescents’ reports of risk-taking as predicted by two different, but related inhibitory control systems involving sensitivity to reward and loss on the one hand, and higher order processing in the context of cognitive conflict, known as executive functioning (EF), on the other. Importantly, this study examines these processes with a sample of inner-city, low-income preadolescents and as such examines the ways in which these processes may be related to risky behaviors as a function of children's levels of both concurrent and chronic exposure to household poverty. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 382 children (ages 9 -11) provided a self-report of risky behaviors and participated in the Iowa Gambling task, assessing bias for infrequent loss (preference for infrequent, high magnitude versus frequent, low magnitude loss) and the Hearts and Flowers task assessing executive functioning. Results demonstrated that a higher bias for infrequent loss was associated with higher risky behaviors for children who demonstrated lower EF. Furthermore, bias for infrequent loss was most strongly associated with higher risk-taking for children facing highest levels of poverty. Implications for early identification and prevention of risk-taking in inner-city preadolescents are discussed. PMID:26412918

  19. High-performance intrinsically microporous dihydroxyl-functionalized triptycene-based polyimide for natural gas separation

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2016-03-22

    A novel polyimide of intrinsic microporosity (PIM-PI) was synthesized from a 9,10-diisopropyl-triptycene-based dianhydride (TPDA) and dihydroxyl-functionalized 4,6-diaminoresorcinol (DAR). The unfunctionalized TPDA-m-phenylenediamine (mPDA) polyimide derivative was made as a reference material to evaluate the effect of the OH group in TPDA-DAR on its gas transport properties. Pure-gas permeability coefficients of He, H2, N2, O2, CH4, and CO2 were measured at 35 °C and 2 atm. The BET surface area based on nitrogen adsorption of dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR (308 m2g-1) was 45% lower than that of TPDA-mPDA (565 m2g-1). TPDA-mPDA had a pure-gas CO2 permeability of 349 Barrer and CO2/CH4 selectivity of 32. The dihydroxyl-functionalized TPDA-DAR polyimide exhibited enhanced pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity of 46 with a moderate decrease in CO2 permeability to 215 Barrer. The CO2 permeability of TPDA-DAR was ∼30-fold higher than that of a commercial cellulose triacetate membrane coupled with 39% higher pure-gas CO2/CH4 selectivity. The TPDA-based dihydroxyl-containing polyimide showed good plasticization resistance and maintained high mixed-gas selectivity of 38 when tested at a typical CO2 natural gas wellhead CO2 partial pressure of 10 atm.

  20. Effect of multi-micronutrient-fortified rice on cognitive performance depends on premix composition and cognitive function tested

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)