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Sample records for performing radon mitigation

  1. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prill, R.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  2. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, D.; Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1987, more than 40 schools in Maryland, Virginia, Tennessee and North Carolina were visited by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). School characteristics that potentially influence radon entry and impact mitigation system design and performance were identified. Mitigation systems that had proven successful in house mitigation were then installed in several of these schools. Many of the systems were installed by school personnel with some assistance from EPA and an experienced radon diagnostician. This article presents the diagnostic measurements made in the schools and it discusses in detail the specific mitigation systems that were installed in four Maryland schools by the EPA

  3. Radon mitigation in schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Saum, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on radon mitigation in school buildings. Subslab depressurization (SSD) has been the most successful and widely used radon reduction method in houses. Thus far, it has also substantially reduced radon levels in a number of schools. Schools often have interior footings or thickened slabs that may create barriers for subslab air flow if a SSD system is the mitigation option. Review of foundation plans and subslab air flow testing will help to determine the presence and effect of such barriers. HVAC systems in schools vary considerable and tend to have a greater influence on pressure differentials (and consequently radon levels) than do heating and air-conditioning systems encountered in the radon mitigation of houses. As part of any radon mitigation method, ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 should be consulted to determine if the installed HVAC system is designed and operated to achieve minimum ventilation standards for indoor air quality

  4. How well do radon mitigation strategies work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, N.

    1992-01-01

    Naturally occurring radon in homes can't be completely avoided, but it can be minimized. Indoor air quality researchers compared results of six popular ways to mitigate radon in houses in the Spokane River Valley and New Jersey. Over the course of the past decade, Americans have become aware of the health hazards from radon, a naturally occurring gas that can enter a home through a variety of pathways from the surrounding terrain. Recent research carried out at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and elsewhere suggests that radon mitigation is feasible but requires long-term monitoring to ensure lasting effectiveness. These studies compare the selection, installation, and performance evaluations of several common radon mitigation strategies

  5. An investigation of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanger, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that Radon mitigation contractors were contacted to obtain information on the progress of radon mitigation in Pennsylvania. Information was obtained on the beginning and ending radon concentrations, the cost of the job, the mitigation method used, and the location by zip code. Most radon mitigations achieved reductions below 90 percent, and most achieved 4 pCi/1. 65 percent achieved 2 pCi/1. There was little relationship between the cost of the job and either the percent reduction or the beginning radon. Percent reduction was strongly related to beginning radon, with lower percent reductions associated with low starting radon

  6. Fluid-based radon mitigation technology development for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.V.; Gabor, J.D.; Holtz, R.E.; Gross, K.C.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the radon mitigation technology development effort is to develop an efficient and economical radon gas removal technology based on a fluid absorption process. The technology must be capable of cleaning up a wide range of radon gas stream concentrations to a level that meets EPA gas emission standards for residential and industrial applications. Argonne has recently identified a phenomenon that offers the possibility of radon recovery from the atmosphere with high efficiency at room temperature, and radon release at slightly elevated temperatures (50-60 degrees C.) such a device would offer numerous substantial advantages over conventional cryogenic charcoal systems for the removal of radon. Controlled sources of radon in Argonne's radon research facility are being used to quantitatively assess the performance of a selected class of absorbing fluids over a range of radon concentrations. This paper will discuss the design of laboratory- and engineering-scale radon absorption units and present some preliminary experimental test results

  7. FOLLOW-UP RADON MEASUREMENTS IN 14 MITIGATED SCHOOLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a determination of the long-term performance of radon mitigation systems installed in U. S. EPA research schools: radon measurements were conducted in 14 schools that had been mitigated between 1988 and 1991. The measurements were made between Februar...

  8. Cost effectiveness of radon mitigation in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letourneau, E.G.; Krewski, D.; Zielinski, J.M.; McGregor, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the cost effectiveness of comprehensive strategies for reducing exposure to radon gas in indoor air in Canadian homes. The analysis is conducted within the context of a general framework for risk management programme evaluation which includes well-known evaluation techniques such as cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses as special cases. Based on this analysis, it is clear that any comprehensive programme to reduce exposure to environmental radon will be extremely expensive, and may not be justifiable in terms of health impact, particularly when considered in relation to other public health programmes. Testing of homes at the point of sale and installing sub-slab suction equipment to reduce exposure to indoor radon where necessary appears to be a relatively cost-effective radon mitigation strategy. In general, radon mitigation was found to be most cost effective in cities with relatively high levels of radon. (author)

  9. From insulation contracting to radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    As the definition of house doctor has evolved over the past ten years and the field of energy services has grown more sophisticated, many contractors have expanded the services they offer their clients. This paper presents the story of one insulation contractor who has found a niche in radon testing and mitigation. The EPA now has a national program for the radon mitigator called the Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. The requirements include attending the Radon Technology for Mitigators course, passing an exam, and taking continuing education. In the Midwest, the most popular mitigation technique is the subslab depressurization system. To draw suction from under the slab, the system can take advantage of an existing sump crock or can penetrate the slab. Interior drain tiles collect water to empty into the crock, providing an excellent pathway to draw from. This mitigation process is explained

  10. Radon mitigation experience in difficult-to-mitigate schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    Initial radon mitigation experience in schools has shown sub-slab depressurization (SSD) to be generally effective in reducing elevated levels of radon in schools that have a continuous layer of clean, coarse aggregate underneath the slab. However, mitigation experience is limited in schools without sub-slab aggregate and in schools with characteristics such as return-air ductwork underneath the slab or unducted return-air plenums in the drop ceiling that are open to the sub-slab area (via open tops of block walls). Mitigation of schools with utility tunnels and of schools constructed over crawl spaces is also limited. Three Maryland schools exhibiting some of the above characteristics are being researched to help understand the mechanisms that control radon entry and mitigation in schools where standard SSD systems are not effective. This paper discusses specific characteristics of potentially difficult-to-mitigate schools and, where applicable, details examples from the three Maryland schools

  11. Radon mitigation choices in the United States: A comparison of private- and public-sector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witter, K.A.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares private- and public-sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public-information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government-sponsored research and development of radon-mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the application of mitigation techniques to various substructure types, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that subslab ventilation is the most common technique in both public- and private-sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government-sponsored mitigation

  12. Radon mitigation choices in the United States - a comparison of private and public sector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    The paper compares private and public sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the US. In response to elevated levels of radon in many houses throughout the U.S., the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public information efforts resulting in a range of radon reduction installations in the U.S. Government sponsored research and development of radon mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that sub-slab ventilation is the most common technique in both public and private sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government sponsored mitigation. (author)

  13. Occupational and environmental exposures to radon: A perspective for mitigators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.C.; Messing, M.; Saum, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper compares normal environmental and occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products for the occupational group, including radon mitigators and diagnosticians. Occupational exposures to radon and radon decay products and the associated high incidence of radiation-induced lung cancer form the basis for current concern for limiting exposures to radon. While it is now known that radon is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and estimates exist as to what this means in terms of cancer risk to the general population, similar estimates are not available for radon mitigators and diagnosticians

  14. Follow-up durability measurements and mitigation-performance improvement tests in 38 Eastern Pennsylvania houses having indoor radon-reduction systems. Final report, Oct 89-Feb 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlay, W.O.; Robertson, A.; Scott, A.G.

    1991-03-01

    The report gives results of follow-up tests in 38 difficult-to-mitigate Pennsylvania houses where indoor radon reduction systems had been installed 2 to 4 years earlier. Objectives were to assess system durability, methods for improving performance, and methods for reducing installation and operating costs. The durability tests indicated that the 38 systems have not experienced any significant degradation in indoor radon levels or in system flows/suctions, except in 6 houses where system fans failed, and in houses where homeowners turned off the systems. Tests to improve performance indicated that nearly all of the elevated residual radon levels are due to re-entrainment back into the house of very-high-radon exhaust gas from the soil depressurization systems, and to radon release from well water. Tests to reduce system costs showed that premitigation sub-slab suction field measurements can help prevent installation of too many suction pipes when communication is good, but suggest a need for too many pipes when communication is poor. Soil depressurization fans could not be turned down to the extent expected in some systems that were over-designed. Between 6 and 42% of the exhausted air was withdrawn from the house

  15. Radon in your dwellings - problems and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The problem of radon in dwellings gained importance in 1984 after the Stanely Watra's house incidence in Pennsylvania USA. Since then several radon measuring techniques have been identified and instrumentations developed. National survey programs were started for monitoring radon levels in dwellings by Government authorities in all developed and developing countries including India. Successively, the measurement of thoron levels was also found desirable especially in high radiation background areas. A lot of work has been done since then by scientists and university researches and thousands of publications have been made in this field. Several developed countries have given guide lines for initiating action to reduce radon levels in dwellings if it is beyond 200-400 Bq/m 2 . The recommended 'action level' is found to depend upon the authorities making the recommendations. This talk is aimed to produce public awareness about the health hazard posed by concentration of naturally occurring radon gas in our dwellings, the sources of its production and mitigation of radon problem. The matter will be discussed in a general way using ppt presentation. (author)

  16. Find a Radon Test Kit or Measurement and Mitigation Professional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find a qualified radon service professional to fix or mitigate your home. If you have questions about a radon, you should contact your state radon contact and/or contact one or both of the two privately-run National Radon Proficiency Programs

  17. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: CASE STUDIES OF RADON MITIGATION SYSTEMS INSTALLED BY EPA IN FOUR MARYLAND SCHOOLS ARE PRESENTED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning -- HVAC-- system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  18. Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jin; Meisenberg, Oliver; Chen Yongheng; Karg, Erwin; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) decay products is the most important source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the human respiratory tract. Decreasing ventilation rates due to energy saving reasons in new buildings suggest additional active mitigation techniques to reduce the exposure in homes with high radon and thoron concentrations but poor ventilation. Filtration techniques with HEPA filters and simple surgical mask material have been tested for their potential to reduce the indoor exposure in terms of the total effective dose for mixed radon and thoron indoor atmospheres. The tests were performed inside an experimental room providing stable conditions. Filtration (at filtration rates of 0.2 h -1 and larger) removes attached radon and thoron decay products effectively but indoor aerosol as well. Therefore the concentration of unattached decay products (which have a higher dose coefficient) may increase. The decrease of the attached decay product concentrations could be theoretically described by a slowly decreasing exponential process. For attached radon decay products, it exhibited a faster but weaker removal process compared to attached thoron decay products (- 70% for attached radon decay products and - 80% for attached thoron decay products at a filtration rate of 0.5 h -1 with an HEPA filter). The concentration of unattached thoron decay products increased distinctly during the filtration process (+ 300%) while that of unattached radon decay products rose only slightly though at a much higher level (+ 17%). In the theoretical description these observed differences could be attributed to the different half-lives of the nuclides. Considering both effects, reduced attached and increased unattached decay product concentrations, filtration could significantly decrease the total effective dose from thoron whereas the overall effect on radon dose is small. A permanent filtration is recommended because of the slow decrease of the

  19. Radon-mitigation choices in the United States: a comparison of private- and public-sector developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witter, K.A.; Sanchez, D.C.; Craig, A.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper compares private- and public-sector developments relating to radon mitigation in the U.S. In response to elevated radon levels in many U.S. houses, the Federal and State governments and the private sector have undertaken many varied mitigation and public-information efforts resulting in a range of radon-reduction installations in the U.S. Government-sponsored research and development of radon-mitigation techniques in single-family detached houses is compared with radon mitigation approaches undertaken by the private sector. An attempt is also made to compare premitigation diagnostics, the application of mitigation techniques to various substructure types, the performance of mitigation installations, and the cost of the installations. The information collected indicates that subslab ventilation is the most common technique in both public and private sector radon mitigation; however, air-to-air heat exchangers and sealing are employed more frequently in the private sector than in government-sponsored mitigation

  20. Systematic effects in radon mitigation by sump/pump remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Woolridge, A.C.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Crockett, R.G.M.; Tornberg, R.

    2006-01-01

    Sump/Pump remediation is widely used in the United Kingdom to mitigate indoor radon gas levels in residential properties. To quantify the effectiveness of this technology, a study was made of radon concentration data from a set of 173 homes situated in radon Affected Areas in and around Northamptonshire, U.K., re-mediated using conventional sump/pump technology. This approach is characterised by a high incidence of satisfactory mitigation outcomes, with more than 75% of the sample exhibiting mitigation factors (defined as the ratio of radon concentrations following and prior to remediation) of 0.2 or better. There is evidence of a systematic trend, where houses with higher initial radon concentrations have higher mitigation factors, suggesting that the total indoor radon concentration within a dwelling can be represented by two components, one susceptible to mitigation by sump/pump remediation, the other remaining essentially unaffected by these remediation strategies. The first component can be identified with ground-radon emanating from the subsoil and bedrock geologies, percolating through the foundations of the dwelling as a component of the soil-gas, potentially capable of being attenuated by sump/pump or radon-barrier remediation. The second contribution is attributed to radon emanating from materials used in the construction of the dwelling, principally concrete and gypsum plaster-board, with a further small contribution from the natural background level, and is essentially unaffected by ground-level remediation strategies. Modelling of such a two-component radon dependency using realistic ground-radon attenuation factors in conjunction with typical structural-radon levels yields behaviour in good agreement with the observed inverse-power dependence of mitigation factor on initial radon concentration. (authors)

  1. Studies of radon mitigation in well water by aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mafra, Karina Cristina; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Barbosa, Laercio

    2011-01-01

    The 222 Rn concentration in natural water in different countries usually is about few Bq/L and is the subject of the National legislation as well as International norms and recommendations. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) established a limit of 11.1 Bq/L for the radon level in drinking water and this limit is considered as guideline in Canada and many countries of the European Union. This work presents the results of study of radon ( 222 Rn) concentration reduction in well water using the aeration process developed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR). The water samples were collected from a well at Pinheirinho region of Curitiba in 2011. Experimental setup was based on the Radon Monitor (AlphaGUARD). The 222 Rn concentration was analyzed using the software DataEXPERT by Genitron Instruments, taking into account the volume of water sample, its temperature, atmospheric pressure and the total volume of the air in the vessels. Initial concentration of radon in water samples was 28,67 Bq/L which is bigger than maximum concentration recommended by USEPA. The mitigation was performed by means of diffusion aeration of water samples of 15L during the time interval of 24 hours following a period of 4 days. The efficiency of aeration mitigation was controlled by comparing the activity of radon in aerated water with reference water samples that were not aerated. Obtained results show very satisfactory decrease of 222 Rn activity in water samples even after few hours of intense aeration. (author)

  2. DESIGN AND TESTING OF SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION FOR RADON MITIGATION IN NORTH FLORIDA HOUSES - PART I. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY - VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a demonstration/research project to evaluate sub-slab depressurization (SSD) techniques for radon mitigation in North Florida where the housing stock is primarily slab-on-grade and the sub-slab medium typically consists of native soil and sand. Objecti...

  3. DESIGN AND TESTING OF SUB-SLAB DEPRESSURIZATION FOR RADON MITIGATION IN NORTH FLORIDA HOUSES - PART I. PERFORMANCE AND DURABILITY - VOLUME 2. DATA APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a demonstration/research project to evaluate sub-slab depressurization (SSD) techniques for radon mitigation in North Florida where the housing stock is primarily slab-on-grade and the sub-slab medium typically consists of native soil and sand. Objecti...

  4. Human perception of radon risk and radon mitigation: Some remarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Neznal, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Radon program in the Czech Republic has a relatively long and rich history. Procedures, which enable to evaluate the risk of radon penetration from the ground, to protect new buildings, to find existing buildings with elevated indoor radon levels and to realise remedial measures in such buildings, have been developed, published and tested. In some cases, the whole system may fail due to psychological or sociological reasons. Three types of problems (conflicts) will be presented: human behaviour affecting measurement results, conflict between individual and 'all-society' points of view, interpretation of radon risk itself. (authors)

  5. Radon mitigation in crawl-space houses in Nashville, Tennessee. Report for October 1987-July 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyle, B.E.; Williamson, A.D.; Fowler, C.S.; Belzer, F.E.; Osborne, M.C.

    1988-05-01

    Approximately 15% of existing U.S. houses are built over dirt crawl spaces, and little or no data exist relative to radon mitigation techniques for this style of house construction. This paper discusses and Environmental Protection Agency radon mitigation demonstration. A variety of techniques were evaluated to determine the most-effective and least-costly method of radon mitigation

  6. Radon mitigation in schools utilising heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, G.; Ligman, B.; Brennan, T.; Shaughnessy, R.; Turk, B.H.; Snead, B.

    1994-01-01

    As part of a continuing radon in schools technology development effort, EPA's School Evaluation Team has performed radon mitigation in schools by the method of ventilation/pressurisation control technology. Ventilation rates were increased, at a minimum, to meet the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) standard, Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (ASHRAE 62-1989). This paper presents the results and the preliminary evaluations which led to the team's decision to implement this technology. Factors considered include energy penalties, comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ), building shell tightness, and equipment costs. Cost benefit of heat recovery ventilation was also considered. Earlier results of the SEP team's efforts have indicated a severe ventilation problem within the schools of the United States. Two case studies are presented where HVAC technology was implemented for controlling radon concentrations. One involved the installation of a heat recovery ventilator to depressurise a crawl space and provide ventilation to the classrooms which previously had no mechanical ventilation. The other involved the restoration of a variable air volume system in a two-storey building. The HVAC system's controls were restored and modified to provide a constant building pressure differential to control the entry of radon. Pre-mitigation and post-mitigation indoor air pollutant measurements were taken, including radon, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), particulates, and bio-aerosols. Long-term monitoring of radon, CO 2 , building pressure differentials, and indoor/outdoor temperature and relative humidity is presented. (author)

  7. Navy radon assessment and mitigation program: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This final report encompasses the events from the beginning of the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program to the closure of the program on October 31, 1994. Included in the report are discussions of the phases of the program including screening, assessment, mitigation, and post-mitigation. The primary discussion involves screening and assessment. The report addresses recommendations made to the Naval Facilities Engineering Command by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., and the final decisions that were made. Special emphasis is placed on quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC), since QA/QC was given top priority during the implementation of this program. Included in the discussion on QA/QC are ana overview of the measurement process, positive and negative controls, replicated measurements, and application of chamber exposures to data calibration. The report concludes with a discussion of testing considerations for naval facilities and radon mitigation considerations for the Department of the Navy

  8. Costs of radon diagnostics and mitigation in school building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Rector, H.; Nagda, N.

    1992-01-01

    To determine the costs of radon diagnostics and active soil depressurization (ASD) system installation in schools, seven radon mitigators with extensive experience in school buildings were surveyed. The cost data were determined by providing the mitigators with two scenarios of open-quotes typicalclose quotes school buildings with elevated radon levels. The questionnaire in schools: (1) Review Construction Plans, (2) Conduct Diagnostic Measurements, (3) Design Mitigation System, (4) Purchase ASD Material, and (5) Install and Checkout ASD System. Based on the results of this survey, it is estimated that the average cost of ASD diagnostics and mitigation in a typical school would be roughly $0.50 per ft 2 . However, these costs would be higher in schools with extensive subslab walls, very poor PFE, and lower in simple schools with very good PFE and no subslab barriers to communication. The variations in costs provided by the mitigators are primarily due to the influences of (1) experience and practices of the mitigation companies, (2) ASD system requirements as perceived by the respondents, and (3) the degree of involvement by the school system in the process

  9. Radon progeny mitigation using unipolar ion generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapra, B.K.; Arun Kumar; Khan, Arshad; Kothalkar, P.S.; Mayya, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    Unipolar ion generators are often used for reduction of particulate levels in indoor environments. This paper explores the feasibility of their use in reducing radon progeny concentrations in a confined environment. Experiments have been carried out in a 10 m 3 test vessel in which ionizers are suspended in airspace and 226 Ra planchettes are placed as sources of radon. The radon, progeny and aerosol concentrations were estimated prior to and post-ioniser operation in the vessel using standard instruments and techniques. Results showed that the progeny concentrations decreased by a factor of about 10 with a mean life of about 35 min after ioniser was switched on. A mathematical model involving progeny, particle, ion space charge and electric field interaction processes been developed for estimating the various fractions of the progeny concentrations in the presence of the ionizer. The results of the model compared well with the experimental results. This study has a possible application for reducing progeny concentrations in U mines at local scales and specific working areas. (author)

  10. Airflow measurement techniques applied to radon mitigation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrje, D.T.; Gadsby, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    During the past decade a multitude of diagnostic procedures associated with the evaluation of air infiltration and air leakage sites have been developed. The spirit of international cooperation and exchange of ideas within the AIC-AIVC conferences has greatly facilitated the adoption and use of these measurement techniques in the countries participating in Annex V. But wide application of such diagnostic methods are not limited to air infiltration alone. The subject of this paper concerns the ways to evaluate and improve radon reduction in buildings using diagnostic methods directly related to developments familiar to the AIVC. Radon problems are certainly not unique to the United States, and the methods described here have to a degree been applied by researchers of other countries faced with similar problems. The radon problem involves more than a harmful pollutant of the living spaces of our buildings -- it also involves energy to operate radon removal equipment and the loss of interior conditioned air as a direct result. The techniques used for air infiltration evaluation will be shown to be very useful in dealing with the radon mitigation challenge. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  11. Mitigation of houses with extremely high indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiranek, M.; Neznal, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The paper reports on the experience of the Czech Technical University in dealing with mitigation of houses in which unusually high indoor radon concentrations were found. The whole process of remediation is illustrated by example of an old single-family house that was built in the area formed by highly permeable soils with high radon content in the soil air. T he house has a small cellar located under 1/5 of the ground floor area. Two types of floors, i.e. timber floors and cracked concrete slabs were found in the house. As a result of extremely high radon concentration in the sub-floor region (up to 600 kBq/m 3 ) and leaky structures in contact with soil, radon concentrations around 100 kBq/m 3 in the cellar and up to 60 kBq/m 3 in the living rooms on the ground floor were measured prior to mitigation. Mitigation measures that were carried out in the house consist of reconstruction of timber floors and installation of active soil depressurization. Timber floors were replaced with concrete slab fitted with damp proof membrane, thermal insulation and floor covering. The soil depressurization system was made up of two sections. The first section is composed of the network of perforated pipes inserted in the drainage layer placed under the new floors and four perforated tubes drilled under the existing floors. The soil air from this section is extracted by means of a roof fan installed at the top of the vertical exhaust pipe running inside the living space and terminating above the roof. The second section was designed to withdraw by means of a small fan radon-laden air from the filling in the floor above the cellar and from perforated tubes drilled into the sub-floor region under the rooms adjacent to the cellar. It serves also for the active ventilation of the cellar. Pressure, temperature and radon concentration sensors were installed into the drainage layer during the reconstruction of floors to record variations in these

  12. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics.

  13. U.S. Postal Service radon assessment and mitigation program. Progress report, September 1993--November 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez, L.E.; Petty, J.L. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, the US Postal Service (USPS) entered into an Interagency Agreement with the Department of Energy (DOE) whereby DOE would provide technical assistance in support of the USPS Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program. To aid in this effort, DOE tasked the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP), which is managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., for DOE under contract AC05-84OR21400. Since that time, HAZWRAP has developed and finalized the sampling protocol, mitigation diagnostic protocol, and the quality assurance and quality control procedures. These procedures were validated during the Protocol Validation (1992-1993) and Pilot Study (1993-1994) phases of the program. To date, HAZWRAP has performed approximately 16,000 radon measurements in 250 USPS buildings. Mitigation diagnostics have been performed in 27 buildings. Thus far, 13% of the measurements have been above the Environmental Protection Agency action level of 4 pCi/L. This report summarizes the pilot program radon testing data and mitigation diagnostic data for 22 sites and contains recommendations for mitigation diagnostics

  14. Energy recovery ventilation as a radon mitigation method for Navy family housing in Guam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    Energy recovery ventilation involves the exchange of contaminated indoor air with fresh, uncontaminated outdoor air with recovery of energy. During radon mitigation diagnostics, air change measurements were performed within three typical Navy family houses, and some were found to be well below recommended minimum standards. The only practical way to solve the indoor air quality problem was to increase the ventilation rate. Options were evaluated, and it was decided to install energy recovery ventilation (ERV) systems. An ERV system is a packaged unit complete with blower fans, controls, and air-to-air heat exchanger. However, because of economical limits on the quantity of conditioned air that can be exchanged, ERV has a finite range of application in radon abatement. In Guam, ERV has potential applications in up to 370 units and in an additional 154 units if the mechanical systems are moved indoors. The performance of ERV systems were evaluated during a demonstration program to determine the removal efficiency of radon

  15. Mitigation of indoor radon using balanced mechanical ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellford, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    Previous research has shown that, for a given source strength, the concentration of Rn 222 in the home is inversely proportional to the ventilation rate. Further reductions in the concentration of the decay products of radon can be achieved due to the decrease in residence time of the parent gas as well as increased plate-out of the progeny. Natural and mechanical ventilation can affect the distribution of pressure across the building envelope potentially increasing the flow of radon bearing soil gas into the home gas into the home and/or promoting mixing of areas of higher and lower concentration. Balanced heat recovery ventilation systems were installed in ten homes in the Boyertown, Pennsylvania area. Ventilation was restricted initially to the basement area. Five installations were later modified to introduce supply air to upstairs living spaces while continuing to exhaust from the basement. An independent contractor measured Rn 222 concentrations and decay product activity in the basement and first floor living area before and after installation or modification of the heat recovery ventilation system. Additional experiments to evaluate the effect of house tightening techniques and positive pressurization of the basement were conducted. With balanced ventilation of the basement only, the mean reduction in Working Level was 92.8% with a high of 98% and a low of 76%. Mean reduction of radon gas concentration was 79.1%. When modified to supply air upstairs, mean reduction in Working Level in the living area was 90%. House tightening measures to reduce stack effect were observed to reduce radon concentration. Results indicate that balanced ventilation is an effective strategy for radon mitigation and can be expected to achieve recommended levels in a majority of homes. 9 references, 2 figures, 2 tables

  16. RADON MITIGATION IN SCHOOLS: HVAC SYTEMS IN SCHOOLS TEND TO HAVE A GREATER IMPACT ON RADON LEVELS THAN HVAC SYSTEMS IN HOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first part of this two-part paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., heating, ventilation, and air conditioing -- HVAC-- system design and operationg) that influence radon entry and mitigation system ...

  17. Update on radon-mitigation research in schools. Rept. for 1988-Aug 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.; Craig, A.B.; Harris, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    The paper is an overview of research by EPA's Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL) on radon mitigation in 47 schools since 1988. The structural and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system characteristics of the research schools are presented, along with the mitigation techniques implemented in the schools. Research discussed includes recent and on-going projects in Colorado, Maine, Maryland, Ohio, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Virginia. Initial research focussed on the application of active subslab depressurization (ASD) to school buildings, and recent research has emphasized the ability and limitations of using HVAC systems to reduce radon levels in schools. A goal of future projects is to compare the effectiveness of the two techniques in the same building. Slab-on-grade is the most prevalent substructure in AEERL's research schools and, depending on pressure field extension, ASD systems have been recommended for radon control in many of them. In schools where they have been installed, ASD systems have performed well and are currently being evaluated for long-term performance. The distribution of HVAC system types in these schools is about a third central air handling systems, a third unit ventilators, and a third that do not supply conditioned outdoor air (i.e., fan coil units or radiant heat)

  18. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m −3 . This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m −3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m −3

  19. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D.

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ˜0.2 Bq m-3. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m-3 to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m-3.

  20. Construction and measurements of an improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon-mitigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J., E-mail: joseph.street@mines.sdsmt.edu; Bunker, R.; Dunagan, C.; Loose, X.; Schnee, R. W.; Stark, M.; Sundarnath, K.; Tronstad, D. [Department of Physics, South Dakota School of Mines & Technology, Rapid City, SD 57701 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    In order to reduce backgrounds from radon-daughter plate-out onto detector surfaces, an ultra-low-radon cleanroom is being commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology. An improved vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system and cleanroom build upon a previous design implemented at Syracuse University that achieved radon levels of ∼0.2 Bq m{sup −3}. This improved system will employ a better pump and larger carbon beds feeding a redesigned cleanroom with an internal HVAC unit and aged water for humidification. With the rebuilt (original) radon mitigation system, the new low-radon cleanroom has already achieved a > 300× reduction from an input activity of 58.6 ± 0.7 Bq m{sup −3} to a cleanroom activity of 0.13 ± 0.06 Bq m{sup −3}.

  1. Radon mitigation for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, J.; Bunker, R.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Snyder, S.; So, J.

    2018-01-01

    A potential background for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB dark matter experiment is from radon daughters that have plated out onto detector surfaces. To reach desired backgrounds, understanding plate-out rates during detector fabrication as well as mitigating radon in surrounding air is critical. A radon mitigated cleanroom planned at SNOLAB builds upon a system commissioned at the South Dakota School of Mines & Technology (SD Mines). The ultra-low radon cleanroom at SD Mines has air supplied by a vacuum-swing-adsorption radon mitigation system that has achieved >1000× reduction for a cleanroom activity consistent with zero and <0.067 Bq m-3 at 90% confidence. Our simulation of this system, validated against calibration data, provides opportunity for increased understanding and optimization for this and future systems.

  2. Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

    1990-07-01

    Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Expert systems: A new approach to radon mitigation training and quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambley, M.R.; Hanlon, R.L.; Parker, G.B.

    1990-07-01

    Training radon mitigators and ensuring that they provide high-quality work on the scale necessary to reduce radon to acceptable levels in the large number of homes and schools requiring some mitigation is a challenging problem. The US Environmental Protection Agency and several states have made commendable efforts to train mitigators and ensure that they provide quality services to the public. Expert systems could be used to extend and improve the effectiveness of these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the radon community to this promising new technology. The paper includes a description of a prototype system developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory that illustrates several of the capabilities that expert systems can provide, a brief explanation of how the prototype works, and a discussion of the potential roles and benefits of fully-developed expert systems for radon mitigation. 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Evaluation of strategies for promoting effective radon mitigation. Risk communication and economic research series. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, J.K.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Locke, P.A.; Elliott, S.R.

    1990-03-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has estimated that as many as 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year in the United States can be attributed to exposure to radon gas. The report evaluates alternative strategies for motivating people to test for radon gas in their homes and to mitigate if necessary. Specifically, two separate radon information and awareness programs were evaluated, one targeted to the general population in the Washington, D.C. area and the other to home buyers in the Boulder, Colorado area. The results suggest that a home buyer program is likely to be far more effective in terms of effective remediation to reduce home radon levels than a program aimed at the general population. The report discusses the empirical findings and develops a recommendation for increasing the effectiveness of radon awareness and mitigation programs

  5. EPA program to demonstrate mitigation measures for indoor radon: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschel, D.B.; Scott, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    EPA has installed radon mitigation techniques in 18 concrete block basement homes in the Reading Prong region of eastern Pennsylvania. Three alternative active soil ventilation approaches were tested: suction on the void network within the concrete block basement walls; suction on the footing drain tile system; and suction on the aggregate underneath the concrete slab. The initial 18 mitigation installations were designed to demonstrate techniques which would have low to moderate installation and operating costs. Where effective closure of major openings in the block walls is possible, suction on the wall voids has proved to be extremely effective, able to reduce homes having very high radon Working Levels (up to 7 WL) to 0.02 WL and less. However, where inaccessible major openings are concealed within the wall, it is more difficult and/or more expensive to develop adequate suction on the void network, and performance is reduced. Testing is continuing to demonstrate the steps required to achieve high performance with wall suction in homes with such difficult-to close walls. Drain tile suction can be very effective where the drain tiles completely surround the home; drain tile suction is the least expensive and most aesthetic of the active soil ventilation approaches, but appears susceptible to spikes in radon levels when the basement is depressurized. Sub-slab suction as tested in this study - with one or two individual suction points in the slab - does not appear adequate to ensure sustained high levels of reduction on block wall basement homes; it appears to effectively treat slab-related soil gas entry routes so long as a uniform layer of aggregate is present, but it does not appear to effectively treat the wall-related entry routes. Closure of major openings might have improved sub-slab suction performance. 5 figures, 3 tables

  6. Indoor radon pollution: Control and mitigation. June 1978-December 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for June 1978-December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the control and mitigation of radon pollution in homes and commercial buildings. Citations cover radon transport studies in buildings and soils, remedial action proposals on contaminated buildings, soil venting, building ventilation, sealants, filtration systems, water degassing, reduction of radon sources in building materials, and evaluation of existing radon mitigation programs including their cost effectiveness. Analysis and detection of radon and radon toxicity are covered in separate published bibliographies. (Contains 129 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  7. Radon detection system, design, test and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Chavez, A.; Pina-Villalpando, G.; Navarrete, M.

    1999-01-01

    A portable radon detection system (α-Inin) has been designed and constructed for using it in adverse environmental conditions where humidity, temperature and chemical vaporous are present. The minimum integration time is in periods of 15 min during 41 days. A 12 V battery and a photovoltaic module allow the α-Inin autonomy in field measurements. Data is collected by means of a laptop computer where data processing and α-Inin programming are carried out. α-Inin performance was simultaneously tested in a controlled radon chamber, together with a commercial α-Meter

  8. A Laboratory for studying radon mitigation methods in high-rise office buildings in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Hung, L.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.

    1996-01-01

    A territory-wide survey of indoor radon level in 1993 showed that 17% of offices Hong Kong have radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 compared with 4% for dwellings. Consequently, the Radioisotope Unit Radon Analysis Laboratory (RURAL) is being built for studying radon mitigation methods applicable to high-rise office buildings. The laboratory consists of three rooms; the main exposure room is built of concrete and is surrounded by the buffer room; and all controls and operations are done inside the control room. The exposure room can, with the aid of the buffer room, simulate any environmental conditions that can be faced by a real building. The pressure, temperature and humidity can be adjusted to any meteorological conditions that can be found in Hong Kong. Pressure differential and temperature differential can be adjusted to simulate the arrival of fronts, troughs or typhoons. Aerosol concentration and distribution inside the exposure room are controllable as well as the ventilation conditions. Various mitigation methods will be tested under different conditions. Passive methods include application of radon barriers to building structures and active methods include the use of air cleaners; techniques to increase radon daughters plateout or reduce their attachment to aerosols; and various modifications to the ventilation systems. Mitigation techniques involving modifications to the building strictures and building services will also be developed with the help of the RURAL. (author)

  9. Natural-basement ventilation as a radon-mitigation technique. Final report Jun 89-Feb 91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.

    1992-04-01

    The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. (NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. It has generally been assumed to be a very inefficient mitigation strategy since it was believed that dilution was the mechanism by which radon levels were reduced.) Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, and radon levels have been monitored; it can be concluded that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels two ways: (1) by simple dilution, and (2) although less obvious, by providing a pressure break that reduces basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the house. Thus, basement ventilation can be a much more effective mitigation strategy than was previously believed. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 10 pCi/L) or those with low levels that cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology

  10. Radon diagnostics and mitigation in two public schools in Nashville, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.W.; Harris, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on diagnostic measurements and mitigation studies that were carried out in two schools in Nashville, Tennessee, as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPAs) School Radon Mitigation Development/Demonstration Program. Diagnostic studies included architectural plans and building examination, sub-slab radon concentrations, sub-slab communications measurements, and detailed classroom radon measurements using 2-day charcoal canisters, electret ion chambers, and continuous monitors. Although sub-slab communications varied significantly between the two schools, both were amenable to mitigation using sub-slab suction. Average premitigation levels of 39.5 and 29.7 picocuries per liter (pCi/L) were reduced to 0.78 and 1.7 pCi/L in the two schools

  11. Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program: Work/quality assurance project plan screening phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    In 1987, the military services of the United States were tasked to take appropriate action to establish an indoor radon assessment and mitigation program. As a result, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) was assigned the responsibility of identifying potential hazards to personnel from exposure to naturally occurring radon gas and prioritizing corrective actions and to coordinating these actions with the major claimants. NAVRAMP is based upon current US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. The program has been separated into four phases. The screening phase will concentrate on evaluating radon levels, based on statistical samples, in those buildings that have been determined to be at most at risk to elevated levels of radon, such as base housing, schools, day-care centers, hospitals, brigs, Base Officer Quarters, and Base Enlisted Quarters. During the assessment phase, every building that contains personnel for over 4 h/day will be evaluated. Mitigation work will be accomplished by Navy or Navy-contracted personnel. HAZWRAP services during the mitigation phase will consist of determining the extent of reduction in radon levels after the mitigation effort. 7 refs., 11 figs

  12. Residents in a high radon potential geographic area: Their risk perception and attitude toward testing and mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferng, S.F.; Lawson, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    Boone County, Indiana was identified by the EPA as one of the high radon potential geographic areas. Health education campaigns are needed to prevent resident's unnecessary radon exposure. In order to design suitable programs, a questionnaire mail survey was conducted to measure socio-demographic characteristics of County resident's knowledge about radon, attitude toward radon testing and mitigation, support of education campaigns, and the best media to deliver radon education campaigns. A stratified random sampling method was applied for a total of 400 samples. The number of samples from each township/city was a proportion of their taxable parcels. The survey return rate was 39.8%. The data were analyzed by Epi Info and SPSS. The statistical significant level was set at α = 0.05. The results showed that resident's knowledge about radon was at a relatively superficial level. There was no association identified between the knowledge of radon and gender, age, family income, or education, except that females more frequently believed in false effects caused by radon. A significant correlation between radon knowledge and home radon tests was observed. Also found in this study was that respondents with better knowledge about diseases caused by radon had more confidence in radon mitigation actions. Newspaper was chosen by respondents as the most favorite media to deliver radon health education campaigns. Health education campaigns for the residents of Boone County might be conducted by local governments and/or other organizations

  13. A review of radon mitigation in large buildings in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency of the US carried out its initial research on radon mitigation in houses, both existing and new. A review of this work is presented in another paper at this workshop. Four years ago, this work was expanded to include the study of radon in schools, both new and existing, and now includes studies in other large buildings, as well. Factors affecting ease of mitigation of existing schools using active soil depressurisation (ASD) have been identified and quantified. Examination of the building and architectural plans makes it possible to predict the ease of mitigation of a specific building. Many schools can be easily and inexpensively mitigated using ASD. However, examination of a fairly large number of schools has shown that a significant percentage of existing schools will be hard to mitigate with ASD. In some cases, the heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) system can be used to pressurise the building and retard radon entry. However, in some cases no central HVAC system exists and the school is difficult and/or expensive to mitigate by any technique. Prevention of radon entry is relatively easy and inexpensive to accomplish during construction of schools and other large buildings. It is also possible to control radon to near ambient levels in new construction, a goal which is much more difficult to approach in existing large buildings. The preferred method of radon prevention in the construction of large buildings is to design the HVAC system for building pressurisation, install a simple ASD system, and seal all entry routes between the sub-slab and the building interior. (author)

  14. A discussion of radon and the mitigation strategy at the Henderson Mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loring, D.M.; Meisburger, E.P. IV

    2010-01-01

    The geology at the Henderson molybdenum mine near Denver, Colorado makes radon a ventilation challenge. Unforeseen events can occur due to the dynamic nature of caving mining. As such, the Climax Molybdenum Company has adopted proper ventilation, monitoring and control strategies at the mine to mitigate concerns regarding radon. Due to the granitic ore and presence of trace uranium mineralization, radon daughters are generated and make their way through the caved orebody to drawpoints on the production level. This paper described historical geological events which involved reaction by the ventilation group to mitigate higher-than-normal radon concentrations, with particular reference to the causes, responses and planning to avoid similar issues in the future. The radon control strategy involves 3 items, notably negative pressure on the cave through regulators or fans connecting the broken ore of the cave to an isolated main exhaust drift; isolation of the cave through bulkheading of all intake air sources to the caved ore; and positive pressurization of the undercut level through forcing fans in the drill drifts so that pressure can be maintained in the cave, thus preventing radon daughters from leaking into the work area. 7 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  15. Environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.K.; Schmalz, R.F.; Miller, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This book covers many aspects of environmental radon, including: historical perspectives; occurrence and properties; detection, measurement, and mitigation, radon and health; and political, economic, and legislative impacts

  16. NATURAL BASEMENT VENTILATION AS A RADON MITIGATION TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a study of natural basement ventilation in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. NOTE: Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a way to reduce radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy...

  17. Radon prevention coating in hot and humid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yushan; Dong Faqin; Deng Yuequan; Qu Ruixue

    2013-01-01

    The radon prevention performance of a new self-made radon prevention coating was researched in the radon contamination provided by the releasing radon modules. With coating thickness of 0.8 mm, the radon mitigation efficiency in 1 # radon module concentration is optimal when the addition of defoaming agent is 0.3% (mass fraction). The radon mitigation efficiency increases with the coating thickness when the defoaming agent of 0.3% is added, but the radon mitigation efficiency tends to be stable as the coating thickness is more than 2.0 mm. The radon mitigation efficiency of radon prevention coating appended precipitated barium sulphate decreases obviously, and the addition of ash calcium, white cement and gesso don't decrease radon mitigation efficiency. The addition of white cement and gesso addition affects the radon prevention stability, while radon mitigation efficiency of radon prevention coating with ash calcium keeps a good performance. Under the hot and humid environment, the radon prevention coating still has good radon mitigation efficiency in 2 # radon module concentration. (authors)

  18. Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... radon-resistant features. These features include gravel and plastic sheeting below the foundation, along with proper sealing ... lower the radon level. Detailed information about radon reduction in your home or building can be found ...

  19. An assessment of the health benefits of radon mitigation of buildings in radon affected areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.

    1999-06-01

    Excessive concentrations of radon are known to cause lung cancers in miners, but it is only recently that evidence has accumulated that raised radon levels in the built environment may also be a risk. It is possible to reduce such levels, and so efforts have continued to locate affected areas both in the United Kingdom, and elsewhere. Northamptonshire was declared a Radon Affected Area in 1992. As Radiation Protection Adviser, 1 initiated routine radon surveys of all National Health Services (NHS) premises in Northamptonshire. It was clear from the literature that no major workplace study had been published. This started a programme of published research, which forms the basis of this Ph.D. submission. The research remains the only body of published results of actual remediation programmes. The research programme first estimated doses to occupants in affected rooms, and showed that individual doses were higher, and the number of staff affected greater, than staff exposure during the clinical use of X-Rays in the same hospitals. The costs of remediation of each affected room, together with measurements of radon levels afterwards, were recorded, permitting the first analysis of the costs and benefits of an actual remediation programme. Only predicted costs of proposed domestic remediation programmes had been published, and it was shown that remediation in the NHS workplace was more costly than these predictions, but still comparable with the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) initiative to reduce patient dose from dental X-Rays. The work was then extended to remediation programmes in schools and houses in Northamptonshire, permitting the first published comparison of such programmes. It proved most cost effective to remediate schools, and almost as cost-effective to remediate houses, but only if all house-holders could be encouraged to remediate their houses, once raised radon levels were found. To date only 10 % had done so. The research has made a major

  20. Retrofit and preoccupancy radon mitigation program for homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibach, M.T.; Gallagher, J.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A requirement was levied on a Maryland builder by the FHA to demonstrate acceptable radon levels in his homes before they would be approved for loans. This paper describes the use of products shown by appropriate tests to be effective radon barriers to meet this requirement. The sheet goods can be used in exterior and interior applications on foundation walls. The other is applied to the interior floors and/or walls of the basement area. Product installation procedures are straightforward and relatively simple. Problems encountered were routine and concerned primarily the complete sealing of floor and wall penetrations, window openings, sealing the top of the wall under the sill plate, and the location and mounting of permanent fixtures on walls and floors. Also discussed are methods of repairing ruptures of the seal, warranties to protect the homeowner, support systems and costs. Conclusions are that effective reductions in radon levels can be achieved by the application of sealants during the construction of new homes or as a retrofit to existing structures

  1. Radon mitigation in private dwellings. Summary of measures under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway 1999-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanestad, K.; Strand, T.; Hoegmo, T.; Skjennem, M.; Jensen, C. L.; Hoelsbrekken, S.

    2006-01-01

    The report summarizes the remedial measurements carried out under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway in the period 1999-2003.The cost effectiveness of the state subsidized remedial measures against radon is evaluated. Other measurements under the National Action Plan against Cancer have also been evaluated, such as measurements of radon in 38.000 dwellings in 158 municipalities, information measures, and actions to increase radon mitigation competence in the building construction industry and in the municipalities. (Author)

  2. Mitigation effects of radon decay products by air cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazuki Iwaoka; Tetsuo Ishikawa; Hidenori Yonehara; Shinji Tokonami

    2013-01-01

    One of the most effective methods for reducing exposure is the use of air cleaners. In this study, a dose mitigation of a commonly-used Japanese air cleaner under conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied was investigated. Although the values of the EERC during an operation of air cleaner decreased, values of the f p increased with the use of air cleaner. An effective dose was calculated on the basis of our experimental results, resulting in the dose mitigation of about 40 % by the air cleaner. Air cleaners can be regarded as an effective tool for the dose mitigation under with conditions in which aerosols are continuously supplied. (author)

  3. Mitigating component performance variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Sylvester, Steve S.; Eastep, Jonathan M.; Nagappan, Ramkumar; Cantalupo, Christopher M.

    2018-01-09

    Apparatus and methods may provide for characterizing a plurality of similar components of a distributed computing system based on a maximum safe operation level associated with each component and storing characterization data in a database and allocating non-uniform power to each similar component based at least in part on the characterization data in the database to substantially equalize performance of the components.

  4. The health benefits and cost effectiveness of the radon mitigation programme in NHS properties in Northamptonshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Parkinson, S.; Barker, S.P.; Phillips, P.

    1997-01-01

    A comprehensive radon remediation programme in Nahs properties in Northamptonshire, where 11 100 staff are employed working on 83 separate sites, has been in progress since 1992, and has resulted in many locations with raised radon levels being identified and re mediated. This paper considers the dose saving achieved and costs of the remediation to derive a value for the cost-effectiveness of the programme. A value of 84 000 per Man-Sievert of annual dose reduction was obtained, which is around half the figure calculated by the NRPB in its recent initiative to reduce patient doses from dental x-rays in the UK, based on cost-benefit analysis. Thus similar comprehensive radon remediation programmes in any workplace in Radon Affected Areas can be justified. The cost of this workplace programme is, however, a factor of about 4 times more expensive than the theoretical estimates for domestic radon mitigation programmes found in the literature, and the reasons for this difference are considered. (author)

  5. Statistical aspects of autoregressive-moving average models in the assessment of radon mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.E.; Henschel, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Radon values, as reflected by hourly scintillation counts, seem dominated by major, pseudo-periodic, random fluctuations. This methodological paper reports a moderate degree of success in modeling these data using relatively simple autoregressive-moving average models to assess the effectiveness of radon mitigation techniques in existing housing. While accounting for the natural correlation of successive observations, familiar summary statistics such as steady state estimates, standard errors, confidence limits, and tests of hypothesis are produced. The Box-Jenkins approach is used throughout. In particular, intervention analysis provides an objective means of assessing the effectiveness of an active mitigation measure, such as a fan off/on cycle. Occasionally, failure to declare a significant intervention has suggested a means of remedial action in the data collection procedure

  6. Radon in water aeration system operational performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamarre, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    North East Environmental Products, Inc. is a manufacturer of residential scale aeration systems for removal of radon and volatile organic chemicals from private water supplies. This paper is a review of the operational history of residential scale point of entry (POE) radon aeration systems. Emphasis is placed on the difficulties and solutions encountered in actual installations caused by both mechanical difficulties and water quality parameters. A summary of radon reduction efficiency is presented for wells with radon concentrations from 21,000 to 2,600,000 pCi/L. A discussion of customer concerns and attitudes is presented along with other areas for further technical improvement. Training techniques for dealers and installers are also discussed. An update of the current status of the radon in water industry includes current sales volumes as compared to the potential market and an update on the radon in water MCL standard setting process from an industry perspective

  7. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This leaflet in the At-a-Glance Series, describes what radon is, where it is found, why it presents a risk to health, the official advice, and the remedies that are available to reduce radon levels. (author)

  8. Radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigel, F [Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Anorganische Chemie

    1978-09-01

    The noble gas radon, formerly called emanation, was discovered a few years after radium. /sup 222/Rn, the longest-lived isotope, has a half-life of 3,82 days. This half life is so short that the experimental techniques available at present (1978) are not sufficient for a characterization of defined radon compounds, even though there are definite indications for the existence of such compounds, and one may expect such radon compounds to be even more stable than the numerous known xenon compounds. - The radon isotopes /sup 219/Rn (Actinon), /sup 220/Rn (Thoron), and /sup 222/Rn (Radon) occur in nature despite their rather short half-lives, because they are continously generated from their mothers /sup 223/Ra, /sup 224/Ra, and /sup 226/Ra, which are in secular equilibrium with long-lived isotopes /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, and are in turn continously formed from these long-lived isotopes. Since the radon isotopes are gases, they enter the atmosphere and are carried for long distances with air currents. - Because radon is so short-lived, its practical applications are rather limited. For medical applications, small sealed glass tubes filled with radon are used as radiation sources after the radon has decayed, because the whole series of Po-, Bi-, and Pb-isotopes of the radium decay chain are formed, whose penetrating radiation is useful for therapy. When solids are spiked with Ra isotopes, radon is evolved at a constant rate. On heating such solids, phase transitions show up by sudden increased radon evolution (Hahn's emanation method). - On the basis of nuclear theoretical calculations, there is hardly a chance for the discovery of a long-lived radon species. Therefore, major progress in radon chemistry is hardly to be expected in the near future.

  9. Review of selected state-of-the-art applications of diagnostic measurements for radon-mitigation planning. Report for April 1986-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, L.M.; Harrje, D.T.; Gadsby, K.J.; Sanchez, D.C.; Turk, B.H.

    1987-09-01

    Since late-1984, EPA's AEERL has supported a program to develop and demonstrate radon-mitigation techniques for single-family detached dwellings. As part of the program, projects have been started, directed at developing and demonstrating the use of diagnostic measurements in all phases of the radon-mitigation process. Diagnostic measurements are used to assess: (1) the radon sources strengths, variability, and locations; and, (2) radon transport to the house and its entry and distribution in the house as influenced by environmental, house characteristics, and occupancy factors. The diagnostic measurements reported include: (1) soil-gas grab sampling; (2) communication (air flow or pressure-field extension) tests; (3) whole house infiltration; (4) differential pressure, (5) gamma radiation; and, (6) radon flux. The paper concludes that the above selected diagnostic measurements were especially useful in characterizing houses with indoor radon problems attributable to soil-gas-borne radon that may be amenable to mitigation through the use of subslab ventilation

  10. Radon mitigation in a typical underground car park in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.-Y.W.; Ho, C.W.; Hung, L.C.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the equivalent dose to the lung (lung dose) due to radon in an underground car park with four levels. Size distribution of aerosols and activity size distribution of radon progeny loaded aerosols from 9 nm to 10 μm were measured and their relations to car movement and emission were investigated. Unattached fraction, equilibrium factor and PAEC of radon progeny were monitored and were used to predict the lung dose by adopting the ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model. The mean annual (i.e. 2000 h) lung doses at the four levels, B1, B2, B3 and B4 during daytime were 1.5 , 2.4, 2.0 and 2.8 mSv respectively. The lung dose for each car park level at night were 2 times higher. Mitigation methods were investigated and it was found that increasing the ventilation rate only resulted in a few per cent reduction in the lung dose rate during daytime though a larger reduction in PAEC (50% at B1 and 38% at B4) was observed at night. Cleaning the fresh air filters and washing the car park floor with water also resulted in a 21% and 12% reduction in the lung dose rate respectively during daytime. (Author)

  11. Investigation of radon entry and effectiveness of mitigation measures in seven houses in New Jersey: Midproject report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, T.G.; Dudney, C.S.; Monar, K.P.; Landguth, D.C.; Wilson, D.L.; Hawthorne, A.R.; Hubbard, L.M.; Gadsby, K.J.; Bohac, D.L.; Decker, C.A.

    1987-12-01

    A detailed radon mitigation study is in progress in 14 homes in the New Jersey Piedmont area. The principal goals are the refinement of diagnostic measurements for selection and implementation of mitigation systems, and the reduction of radon concentrations to acceptable levels inside the study houses. Monitoring stations were installed in each home in October, 1986. Instrumented measurements included: basement and upstairs radon; differential pressures across the basement/subslag, basement/upstairs and basement/outdoor interfaces; temperatures at basement, upstairs and outdoor locations; and central air handler usage. A weather station was located at one house, monitoring wind speed and direction; barometric pressure; precipitation; soil temperature; and outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A time-averaged value of all of the above parameters was recorded every 30 min. Several additional parameters were monitored on an intermittent basis in all or selected homes. These include multizone air infiltration rates which have been measured in all homes using passive perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and in two homes using a constant concentration tracer gas system (CCTG). Total radon progeny, soil gas radon concentration and permeability characteristics, and gamma radiation levels were also monitored periodically in all study homes. 10 refs., 53 figs.

  12. Investigation of radon entry and effectiveness of mitigation measures in seven houses in New Jersey: Midproject report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, T.G.; Dudney, C.S.; Monar, K.P.

    1987-12-01

    A detailed radon mitigation study is in progress in 14 homes in the New Jersey Piedmont area. The principal goals are the refinement of diagnostic measurements for selection and implementation of mitigation systems, and the reduction of radon concentrations to acceptable levels inside the study houses. Monitoring stations were installed in each home in October, 1986. Instrumented measurements included: basement and upstairs radon; differential pressures across the basement/subslag, basement/upstairs and basement/outdoor interfaces; temperatures at basement, upstairs and outdoor locations; and central air handler usage. A weather station was located at one house, monitoring wind speed and direction; barometric pressure; precipitation; soil temperature; and outdoor temperature and relative humidity. A time-averaged value of all of the above parameters was recorded every 30 min. Several additional parameters were monitored on an intermittent basis in all or selected homes. These include multizone air infiltration rates which have been measured in all homes using passive perfluorocarbon tracers (PFT) and in two homes using a constant concentration tracer gas system (CCTG). Total radon progeny, soil gas radon concentration and permeability characteristics, and gamma radiation levels were also monitored periodically in all study homes. 10 refs., 53 figs

  13. Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmen, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery that radon enters into residential and commercial structures and produces adverse health consequences to occupants thereof has raised issues for the real estate profession in connection with transactions involving affected structures. The legal responsibilities of real estate professionals in relation to such structures have not yet been clearly defined. Moreover, consistent and reliable testing methods and results, clear identification of circumstances where testing is necessary, and consensus as to health risks suggested by various radon levels have yet to be achieved. When these legal and technical questions are clarified, real estate buyer and sellers as well as agents and brokers will be greatly benefited

  14. Interactive house investigation and radon diagnostics computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the interactive computer program called Dungeons and Radon which was developed as part of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program's Radon Technology for Mitigators (RTM) course which is currently being offered in the Regional Radon Training Centers (RRTCs). The program was designed by Terry Brennan to be used in training radon mitigation contractors. The Macintosh based program consists of a series of animated, sound and voice enhanced house scenes. The participants choose where and what to investigate and where to perform diagnostic tests in order to gather enough information to design a successful mitigation system

  15. Mitigation of the effective dose of radon decay products through the use of an air cleaner in a dwelling in Okinawa, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, Chutima; Tokonami, Shinji; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Janik, Miroslaw; Shingaki, Reina; Furukawa, Masahide; Chanyotha, Supitcha; Chankow, Nares

    2009-01-01

    Field measurements were conducted to assess the effects of an air cleaner on radon mitigation in a dwelling with a high radon concentration in Okinawa, Japan. The measurements included indoor radon concentration, individual radon progeny concentration, equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon (EECRn), unattached fraction, and size distribution of aerosol-attached radon progeny. These measurements were conducted in a 74 m 3 room with/without the use of an air cleaner. The results showed that the mean radon concentration during the measurement was quite high (301 Bq m -3 ). The operation of air cleaner decreased the radon progeny activity concentration, EECRn and equilibrium factor by 33%, 57% and 71%, respectively, whereas the unattached fraction increased by 174%. In addition, the activity concentration of attached radon progeny in the accumulation mode (50-2000 nm) was obviously deceased by 42%, when the air cleaner was operated. According to dosimetric calculations, the operation of air cleaner reduced the effective dose due to radon progeny by about 50%.

  16. A radon survey performed in caves in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, P.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of radon and radon decay product concentrations in several caves in a limestone region in Slovenia was initiated in 1986. In the period from 1989 to 1998, monthly surveys were undertaken in several caves which are open to tourists or used for speleotherapy purposes. The reason for carrying out these surveys, were dose estimates obtained for the guides and medical staff working in the caves. Daily average radon gas concentration determined ranged from several 100 Bq/m 3 up to 27 kBq/m 3 . Higher values were measured in the summer period. The equilibrium factors derived ranged from 0.05 to 0.89, with the higher values being measured in the winter period in vertical caves. In horizontal caves (with two entrances located opposite one another) these values ranged between 0.55 and 0.89. Annual doses estimated on the basis of various lung models ranged from 10 mSv to 85 mSv per year and per 2000 working hours. A significant difference was observed between the doses estimated by means of dosimetric models, and those estimated on the basis of the epidemiological model presented in ICRP 65. The value for the unattached fraction indicated in ICRP 65 is about 3%, but our measurements performed in the caves yielded higher values of up to 15%, with this highest value being determined in the Postojna cave. In the coming years, we will perform measurements to obtain the values for concentrations of unattached particles of radon daughters and values for particle-size distribution in the 3 different caves with the highest occupancy times for visitors. There are no regulations in force in Slovenia affecting exposures to elevated radon and radon daughter concentrations among underground workers. The health inspectorate can impose radiation monitoring measures for the purposes of performing dose calculations for underground workers. The results from such monitoring measures will contribute to the establishment of an ordinance regulating the performance of measurements at low

  17. Mitigating SDN controller performance bottlenecks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2015-01-01

    The centralization of the control plane decision logic in Software Defined Networking (SDN) has raised concerns regarding the performance of the SDN Controller (SDNC) when the network scales up. A number of solutions have been proposed in the literature to address these concerns. This paper...... proposes a new approach for addressing the performance bottlenecks that arise from limited computational resources at the SDNC. The proposed approach is based on optimally configuring the operating parameters of the components residing inside the SDNC (network control functions such as monitoring, routing...

  18. Performance of the first Japanese large-scale facility for radon inhalation experiments with small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimori, Y.; Mitsunobu, F.; Yamaoka, K.; Tanaka, H.; Kataoka, T.; Sakoda, A.

    2011-01-01

    A radon test facility for small animals was developed in order to increase the statistical validity of differences of the biological response in various radon environments. This paper illustrates the performances of that facility, the first large-scale facility of its kind in Japan. The facility has a capability to conduct approximately 150 mouse-scale tests at the same time. The apparatus for exposing small animals to radon has six animal chamber groups with five independent cages each. Different radon concentrations in each animal chamber group are available. Because the first target of this study is to examine the in vivo behaviour of radon and its effects, the major functions to control radon and to eliminate thoron were examined experimentally. Additionally, radon progeny concentrations and their particle size distributions in the cages were also examined experimentally to be considered in future projects. (authors)

  19. THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS RADON DANGER MAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Chunikhin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radon is the major contributor to the background exposure of the population. In the world practice, the radon risk or radon potential mapping are used for the radon dose assessment.The aim of this work was a radon danger mapping of the Republic of Belarus to assess the radiation situation and determine the radon hazard critical areas.Materials and methods: The mapping is based on measured values of radon volume activity in the living rooms of different buildings on the territory of the six regions of the Republic of Belarus. We have performed more than 4000 measurements. Integral track radon radiometers based on the polymer Kodak LR-115 film were used to evaluate radon volume activity. Exposure time ranged from 90 to 120 days. The cartogram was built with using the MAPINFO software package.Results: The low levels of radon concentrations were determined in the Brest and Gomel regions, as well as in the southern districts of Minsk and south-western districts of the Mogilev region. The high levels radon concentrations were determined in some districts of the Vitebsk and Grodno regions, as well as in the north-eastern districts of the Mogilev region. About 2–5 times nonuniformity of radon distribution in settlements of the Republic was observed. The radon hazard critical areas with radon concentrations in the range of 200–400 Bq/m3 were found in some districts of the Vitebsk, Grodno and Mogilev regions.Conclusions: The radon risk map of the Republic of Belarus gives the possibility to estimate the existing radiation risk. Taking into account the low efficiency of countermeasures long after the Chernobyl accident, it is necessary to increase the level of radiation protection through the radon mitigation activities or to change the radon normative documents.

  20. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.

    2008-12-01

    the questionnaire 37 - 60% had taken remedial measures. New buildings should be designed and constructed so that the indoor radon concentration is below 200 Bq / m 3 . In the campaign regions this limit has been exceeded in 0 - 77% of houses, and in 36% of all measurements. The results confirm that the present authority orders and regulations given on radon prevention in new buildings should be followed in the whole country. Radon mitigation training for construction companies is one part of the campaign programme. Since 2003 already nine one-day training courses have been organised with a total of 360 participants from companies and municipalities. Training courses have also increased the supply of radon mitigation services. STUK has collected information on house construction, remedial measures and radon prevention in new buildings through the questionnaire sent to house owners together with the radon detector. The results show that using radon prevention practices in new buildings has become more common in the 2000s. Sealing of the gaps in slab-on-grade foundation has been performed in 28% of the houses, according to the house owners replies. In 69% of the houses, a preparatory radon piping has been installed beneath the floor slab. This piping can be activated in case the indoor radon concentration exceeds 200 Bq / m 3 . The results also show that indoor radon concentrations are lower in houses built in the 2000s than in houses built in 1990s. The decrease has been observed in the regions where radon concentrations have been higher than the average level in the country. (orig.)

  1. Performance tests for instruments measuring radon activity concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.; Buchroeder, H.; Schmidt, V.

    2009-01-01

    Performance tests of electronic instruments measuring the activity concentration of 222 Rn have been carried out with respect to the standard IEC 61577-2. In total, 9 types of instrument operating with ionization chambers or electrostatic collection have been tested for the influence of different climatic and radiological factors on the measurement characteristics. It is concluded that all types of instrument, which are commercially available, are suitable for indoor radon measurements. Because of the dependence on climatic conditions, the outdoor use is partly limited.

  2. Radon remedial measures in cold climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birovljev, A.

    2004-01-01

    A view is taken that mitigation of an indoor radon problem is often more complex than usually assumed, and that additional factors should be considered to avoid situations in which after mitigation the radon problem may be solved, but other problems have been created. Emphasis is put on how the choice and design of radon remedial measures are influenced not only by effectiveness in reducing radon levels indoors, but also by climatic factors, energy-saving aspects, as well as economic and psycho-social factors. Climatic conditions give rise to several concerns when attempting to mitigate a radon problem in areas with large seasonal temperature variations. Problems with humidity, energy consumption and durability of sealing materials are probably the most prominent issues. Commonly used radon remedial measures and their effectiveness in Norway is reviewed. Discussion is focused on principles and technical solutions which produce good results, and those which don't perform so well in cold Norwegian climate. Innovative technical solutions which successfully resolve some of the main conflicting issues are discussed. Results of some preliminary tests showing performance of such solutions in reduction of radon levels are presented. Other aspects of mitigation systems, such as need and cost of maintenance, longevity, noise levels, 'additional benefits', etc., are briefly mentioned. Homeowners' perceptions and willingness to implement various mitigation solutions are briefly reviewed. Based on discussion, several guiding principles which may be adopted in search for optimal solutions are suggested. (author)

  3. Radon mitigation experience in houses with basements and adjoining crawl spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messing, M.; Henschel, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    Active soil depressurization systems were installed in four basement houses with adjoining crawl spaces in Maryland. In addition, existing soil depressurization systems were modified in two additional basement-plus-crawl-space houses. These six houses were selected to include both good and poor communication beneath the basement slab, and different degrees of importance of the crawl space as a source of the indoor radon. The radon reduction effectiveness was compared for: depressurization only under the basement slab; depressurization only under a polyethylene liner over the unpaved crawl-space floor; and simultaneous depressurization under both the basement slab and the crawl-space liner. The objective of this paper is to identify under what conditions treatment of the basement alone might provide sufficient radon reductions in houses of this substructure, and what incremental benefits might be achieved by also treating the crawl space

  4. In-situ performance evaluation of radon measurement techniques in Uranium mine exhausts of Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, R.L.; Jha, V.N.; Singh, M.K.; Meena, J.S.; Rajesh Kumar; Srivastava, V.S.; Sethy, N.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Several techniques are used for the measurement of the activity concentration of radon in the work place and the environment. Devices like Scintillation cell, Alpha guard and Low Level Radon Detection System (LLRDS) are widely used for the estimation of radon. Some of the devices like scintillation cell is normally used in high activity concentration, whereas, device like LLRDS is used in low activity concentration range. All these above devices are used in ambient mode in which air sample is either collected in a cell or in a chamber and the alpha counts are recorded after a definite delay. In some device, air is allowed to be diffused through a filter and alpha activity is estimated using proper detection system. Passive radon dosimeters can effectively be used both in low and high activity concentration range. The cumulative radon exposure can be assessed using passive radon dosimeters. For in situ performance evaluation an area is required where both high and low level activity concentration of radon is anticipated. Uranium mines exhaust area is presumed to be an area where both these conditions can be found by mere variation in the placement of the device. Inter comparison exercise can also be done effectively at this location using various devices of radon estimation

  5. Radon mitigation with mechanical supply and exhaust ventilation adjusted by a pressure control unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokotti, H.; Keskikuru, T.; Kalliokoski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Effective ventilation and positive or low negative pressure indoors are suggested to low indoor radon levels. The aim of this study is to develop and to test an equipment, which makes it possible to achieve simultaneously effective ventilation and minimum outdoor-pressure difference. The unit includes mechanical supply and exhaust air fans, a exchanger and a pressure control unit in direct digital control (DDC), which adjusts continuously air exchange based on the pressure difference transmitter information. (orig.). (8 refs., 6 figs.)

  6. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Clavensjoe, B

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m sup 3 in 54 (54) sin...

  7. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil

    2002-06-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local authorities measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m 3 in 54 (54) single-family houses and 7 (7) flats, between 210 Bq/m 3 and 400 Bq/m 3 in 23 (18) single-family houses and 5 (6) flats, and higher than 400 Bq/m 3 in 12 (18) single-family houses and 2 (1) flats. The study 1991 showed also that in about 40 % of the cases the radon concentration had increased by more than 30 % only a few years after reduction actions had been taken. In 19 dwellings the radon concentration was at least doubled. In no fewer than 38 dwellings the radon level has been over 400 Bq/m 3 in at least one of the four measuring occasions. The change in radon concentrations was not specific to any given method but seemed to be evenly distributed over all of them. The investigation results showed the necessity for repeated measuring where counter measures have been taken. The causes for increasing radon levels have been made clear in all except 2-3 cases

  8. Development and operational performance of a single calibration chamber for radon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Bolivar, J.P.; Mas, J.L.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Vargas, A.

    2007-01-01

    This work shows the design, setup and performance of a new single radon detector calibration chamber developed at the University of Huelva (Environmental Radioactivity Group). This system is based on a certified radon source and a traceable reference radon detector, which allows radon concentrations inside the chamber radon to be obtained in steady-state conditions within a range of 400-22 000 Bq m -3 with associated uncertainties in the range of 4%. In addition, the development of a new ad hoc calibration protocol (UHU-RC/01/06 'Rachel'), which is based on the modelling of radon concentration within the chamber, allows it to be used without the reference detector. To do that, a complete characterization and calibration of the different leakage constants and the flow meter reading have been performed. The accuracy and general performance of both working methods for the same chamber (i.e., with and without the reference detector) have been tested by means of their participation in an intercomparison exercise involving five active radon monitors

  9. Evaluation of the performance characteristics of radon and radon-daughter concentration measurement devices under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, M.D.

    1989-04-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC) conducted a study to expose 10 radon and 7 radon-daughter concentration measurement devices in the DOE/GJPO Radon/Radon-Daughter Environmental Chamber for a series of 24 controlled-environment tests. The tests evaluated the devices' response to temperature, relative humidity, dew point, condensation-nuclei concentration, radon-daughter/radon equilibrium ratio, and non-uniform radon and radon-daughter concentration. Devices were evaluated for linear response as a function of concentration. In addition to response to environmental parameters, the evaluation included determining the utility of the devices in providing reasonable assurance of compliance with the radon and radon-daughter concentration standards for DOE remedial action programs. This reasonable assurance criterion is based on a coefficient of variation of 25 percent for devices deployed for year-long measurements and a coefficient of variation of 18 percent for devices deployed for intermittent sampling. 39 refs., 65 figs., 33 tabs

  10. A numerical study on the performance evaluation of ventilation systems for indoor radon reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Park, Hoon Chae; Choi, Hang Seok; Cho, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Tae Young; Roh, Sung Cheoul [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Numerical simulations were conducted using computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the effect of ventilation conditions on radon ({sup 222}Rn) reduction performance in a residential building. The results indicate that at the same ventilation rate, a mechanical ventilation system is more effective in reducing indoor radon than a natural ventilation system. For the same ventilation type, the indoor radon concentration decreases as the ventilation rate increases. When the air change per hour (ACH) was 1, the indoor radon concentration was maintained at less than 100 Bq/m{sup 3}. However, when the ACH was lowered to 0.01, the average indoor radon concentration in several rooms exceeded 148 Bq/ m{sup 3}. The angle of the inflow air was found to affect the indoor air stream and consequently the distribution of the radon concentration. Even when the ACH was 1, the radon concentrations of some areas were higher than 100 Bq/m{sup 3} for inflow air angles of 5 .deg. and 175 .deg.

  11. Training and accreditation for radon professionals in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.; Soederman, A.-L.

    2004-01-01

    Radon training courses and seminars on radon have been arranged in Sweden since the early 1980s. A commercial educational company initiated the first regular training courses in 1987. Up to 1990 about 400 persons had attended courses in radon measurement and radon mitigation methods. In 1991 the training programme was taken over by the Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SSI. Today SSI's Radon Training Programme comprises three different two-day courses, a Basic Radon Course and two continuation courses: Radon Measurements and Radon in Water. Until 2003 SSI also arranged courses about Radon Remedial Measures and Radon Investigation and Risk Map Production. The courses are arranged twice a year. Altogether, about 750 municipal environmental health officers and technicians from private companies have been educated in the SSI training programme between 1991 and 2003. The continuation courses are completed with an examination, consisting of a theoretical test. The names of the persons who pass are being published in a list that is found on the SSI web site. Since no certification system is currently in place for radon professionals in Sweden, this list helps people who need to get in contact with radon counsellors to find one in their area and is used by authorities as well as private house-owners. Since 1991 it has been possible to obtain accreditation for measurements of indoor radon in Sweden and since 1997, also for measurements of radon in water. Although accreditation is voluntary in Sweden, accredited laboratories perform most measurements, both for indoor air and water. Passing the examination in the SSI training courses is a condition for accreditation. The Swedish Board for Accreditation and Conformity Assessment, SWEDAC, is in charge of the accreditation. So far, three major companies have obtained accreditation for measurement of indoor radon and four have been accredited for measurements of radon in water

  12. A performance evaluation study of three types of alpha-track detector radon monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeager, W.M.; Lucas, R.M.; Daum, K.A.; Sensintaffar, E.; Poppell, S.; Feldt, L.; Clarkin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Three models of alpha-track detector (ATD) Rn monitors were exposed in Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Rn chambers to obtain estimates of precision and bias for the National Residential Radon Survey (NRRS). Exposures in this study ranged from 37 to 740 Bq y m-3 (1 to 20 pCi y L-1), plus blanks. These exposures correspond to the range expected in most U.S. residences. All detectors were purchased through a Rn mitigation firm to assure that the vendors did not give special attention to the ATDs used in this study. Ten ATDs of each model were studied at 12 exposures. The mean and standard deviation of the reported values for each model were calculated and compared with the continuously monitored chamber concentrations to determine the bias and precision at each exposure. Results of this analysis were discussed with the vendors, who took corrective actions. Changes in track counting procedures and calibrations improved detector performance. Readings of one detector were adjusted based on a regression of the monitored values on the reported values

  13. Radon in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2000-01-01

    Several projects in Austria deal with the problem of enhanced radon exposure to the public. The Austrian Radon Project is the largest project within this task, with the aim of investigating the radon concentrations in Austrian homes. Another project concerns mitigation methods. According to the EU directive EURATOM 96/29 it is also necessary to check working places for possibly enhanced radon concentrations. These projects are and will be funded by the government. The federal government of Upper Austria sponsored a project to test the indoor air quality in kindergartens including radon measurements. Within an EU research project, the radon concentrations in Austrian springs and groundwater were systematically listed and analyzed. Additional investigations will focus on methods to improve the radon potential maps from the Austrian Radon Project by including geological and other information. (author)

  14. Significance of independent radon entry rate and air exchange rate assessment for the purpose of radon mitigation effectiveness proper evaluation: case studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Froňka, A.; Jílek, K.; Moučka, L.; Brabec, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 145, 2-3 (2011), s. 133-137 ISSN 0144-8420 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : indoor radon * kalman filter * state-space modeling Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.822, year: 2011

  15. Radon removal equipment based on aeration: A literature study of tests performed in Sweden between 1981 and 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mjoenes, L.

    2000-02-01

    In Sweden some principles to reduce the radon concentration in drinking water were tested in the beginning of the 1980s. Spray aeration under atmospheric pressure, diffused bubble aeration, aeration in the pressure tank and different combinations of these principles were studied. Aeration in the drill hole and adsorption on granulated activated char-coal were also tested. The best results, about 70 % reduction, were obtained with aeration in the pressure tank with a spray system combined with diffused air bubbling. The Oerebro project in the beginning of the 1990s included on site testing of five different aeration solutions: Aeration in the drill hole, aeration in the storage tank, ejector aeration, shallow tray aeration and packed column aeration. The radon removal efficiency varied between 20 % and 99 %. In 1994 a study intended to test the radon removal capacity of different water treatment equipment was performed. Six units of radon separators were included but most of the tested equipment was installed for other water treatment purposes. The performed measurements showed that the only types of equipment that reduce the radon concentration efficiently are radon separators and reverse osmosis filters. The radon removal capacity of the radon separators varied between 23 % and 97 %. In 1996 the nine most common radon separators on the Swedish market were tested. The results showed that the tested radon removal equipment worked well, although the technical quality and chosen technical solutions were not always the best. The radon removal capacity of the units participating in this test was in most cases between 96 and 99 %. In some cases the capacity exceeded 99 %. In order to reach this radon removal capacity the water must be recirculated in a storage tank under atmospheric pressure

  16. Radon removal equipment based on aeration: A literature study of tests performed in Sweden between 1981 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mjoenes, L

    2000-02-01

    In Sweden some principles to reduce the radon concentration in drinking water were tested in the beginning of the 1980s. Spray aeration under atmospheric pressure, diffused bubble aeration, aeration in the pressure tank and different combinations of these principles were studied. Aeration in the drill hole and adsorption on granulated activated char-coal were also tested. The best results, about 70 % reduction, were obtained with aeration in the pressure tank with a spray system combined with diffused air bubbling. The Oerebro project in the beginning of the 1990s included on site testing of five different aeration solutions: Aeration in the drill hole, aeration in the storage tank, ejector aeration, shallow tray aeration and packed column aeration. The radon removal efficiency varied between 20 % and 99 %. In 1994 a study intended to test the radon removal capacity of different water treatment equipment was performed. Six units of radon separators were included but most of the tested equipment was installed for other water treatment purposes. The performed measurements showed that the only types of equipment that reduce the radon concentration efficiently are radon separators and reverse osmosis filters. The radon removal capacity of the radon separators varied between 23 % and 97 %. In 1996 the nine most common radon separators on the Swedish market were tested. The results showed that the tested radon removal equipment worked well, although the technical quality and chosen technical solutions were not always the best. The radon removal capacity of the units participating in this test was in most cases between 96 and 99 %. In some cases the capacity exceeded 99 %. In order to reach this radon removal capacity the water must be recirculated in a storage tank under atmospheric pressure.

  17. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  18. Radon campaigns. Status report 2008; Radontalkoot. Tilannekatsaus 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.; Valmari, T.; Reisbacka, H.; Niemelae, H.; Oinas, T.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Laitinen-Sorvari, R.

    2008-12-15

    the questionnaire 37 - 60% had taken remedial measures. New buildings should be designed and constructed so that the indoor radon concentration is below 200 Bq / m3. In the campaign regions this limit has been exceeded in 0 - 77% of houses, and in 36% of all measurements. The results confirm that the present authority orders and regulations given on radon prevention in new buildings should be followed in the whole country. Radon mitigation training for construction companies is one part of the campaign programme. Since 2003 already nine one-day training courses have been organised with a total of 360 participants from companies and municipalities. Training courses have also increased the supply of radon mitigation services. STUK has collected information on house construction, remedial measures and radon prevention in new buildings through the questionnaire sent to house owners together with the radon detector. The results show that using radon prevention practices in new buildings has become more common in the 2000s. Sealing of the gaps in slab-on-grade foundation has been performed in 28% of the houses, according to the house owners replies. In 69% of the houses, a preparatory radon piping has been installed beneath the floor slab. This piping can be activated in case the indoor radon concentration exceeds 200 Bq / m3. The results also show that indoor radon concentrations are lower in houses built in the 2000s than in houses built in 1990s. The decrease has been observed in the regions where radon concentrations have been higher than the average level in the country. (orig.)

  19. Field demonstrations of radon adsorption units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Four radon gas removal units have been installed in homes in the Northeast U.S. These units utilize dynamic adsorption of the radon gas onto activated charcoal to remove the radon from room air. Two beds of charcoal are used so that one bed removes radon while the second bed is regenerated using outdoor air in a unique process. The beds reverse at the end of a predetermined cycle time, providing continuous removal of radon from the room air. The process and units have undergone extensive development work in the laboratory as well as in homes and a summary of this work is discussed. This work showed that the system performs very effectively over a range of operating conditions similar to those found in a home. The field test data that is presented shows that scale up from the laboratory work was without problem and the units are functioning as expected. This unit provides homeowners and mitigation contractors with another option to solve the radon gas problem in homes, particularly in homes that it is difficult to prevent radon from entering

  20. Training and Accreditation for Radon Professionals in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderman, A. L.

    2003-01-01

    Radon training courses and seminars of different kinds have been arranged in Sweden since the early 1980s. A commercial educational company initiated the first regular training courses in 1987. Up to 1990 about 400 persons had attended courses in radon measurement and radon mitigation methods. In 1991 the first in a series of courses focussed on radon from the ground and production of radon risk maps organised. From 1991 it has been possible to obtain accreditation for measurements of indoor radon in Sweden and from 1997 also for measurements of radon in water. Even if accreditation s is voluntary, in Sweden accredited laboratories perform most measurements, both for indoor air and water. A condition for accreditation in to have passed the examination following the training courses at SSI, SO far, three major companies have obtained accreditation for measurement of indoor radon and four have been accredited for measurements of radon in water. Education on radon is also given at universities and institutes of technology. A two-day course is included in the education for environmental health officers. A number of training courses aimed at real state agents have been organised by SSI through the years. During the autumn of 2001 altogether 400 authorised real estate agents attended a series of regional half-day courses. In 1995 SSI arranged an international training course, Radon Indoor Risk and Remedial Actions, in Stockholm for the European commission. About 40 scientists from all over Europe attended the course, which much appreciated by the participants. Today SSI's Radon Training Programme comprises five different courses, a Basic radon Course and four continuation courses: Radon measurements, Radon remedial measures, Radon in water and Radon investigation and risk map production. The courses are arranged twice a year, in spring and autumn, except the Radon risk map production course, which is arranged about every second year. Altogether, between 1991 and 2003

  1. Radon atlas of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Pennanen, M.; Reisbacka, H.; Castren, O.

    1997-11-01

    The most efficient means of reducing indoor radon exposure is to locate and mitigate dwellings with radon concentration exceeding the action level of 400 Bq/m 3 and to build new houses so that radon concentrations do not exceed 200 Bq/m 3 . The maps and tables in this report are useful tools for those who plan and decide what kind of radon mitigation measures are needed in municipalities. STUK (The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority) has an indoor radon database of 52 000 dwellings, for which the indoor radon concentration and construction details are known. The building site soil type of about 38 000 dwellings is known. This atlas is a summary of all indoor radon measurements made by STUK in lowrise dwellings and in first-floor flats. The results are shown as arithmetic means of 5- or 10-km squares on maps of the provinces. Three radon maps have been made for each province. On one map the data consist of all measurements the position coordinates of which are known. On the two other maps the building sites of houses are classified into permeable and low-permeable soil types. The tables show statistics for all indoor radon measurements by municipality and building site soil type. (orig.)

  2. Radon in a Karstic Region School: Concentrations in Soil Gas and Indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.; Kobal, I.; Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The school presented in this paper exceeded instantaneous indoor radon concentration of 1000 Bqm -3 , obtained within the Slovene radon programme. Thus, additional measurements were performed and the radiation doses of teachers and pupils estimated. Radon concentrations between 1000 and 3000 Bqm -3 during teaching hours were found and the yearly effective doses from 0.75 to 1.1 mSv for the pupils and from 1.1 to 4.2 mSv for the teachers were calculated. In the soil gas radon and thoron concentration ranging from 70 to 150 kBqm -3 were obtained. The school was mitigated during summer 1998. (author)

  3. Technostress : negative effect on performance and possible mitigations

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafdar, Monideepa; Pullins, Ellen; Ragu-Nathan, T. S

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of conditions that create technostress, on technology-enabled innovation, technology-enabled performance and overall performance. We further look at the role of technology self-efficacy, organizational mechanisms that inhibit technostress and technology competence as possible mitigations to the effects of technostress creators. Our findings show a negative association between technostress creators and performance. We find that, while traditional effort-based mechanis...

  4. Radon programmes and health marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Rovenska, K.

    2011-01-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. (authors)

  5. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed.

  6. Radon risk communication research: Practical lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. There are now a number of completed studies that have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. This paper summarizes the research results that are most crucial for planning and implementing effective radon risk communication programs. We identify six reasons why people do not respond to radon as a serious threat and provide some remedies suggested by radon studies

  7. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  8. Radon in the Workplace: the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Ionizing Radiation Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert K

    2016-10-01

    On 29 December 1970, the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 established the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). This article on OSHA, Title 29, Part 1910.1096 Ionizing Radiation standard was written to increase awareness of the employer, the workforce, state and federal governments, and those in the radon industry who perform radon testing and radon mitigation of the existence of these regulations, particularly the radon relevant aspect of the regulations. This review paper was also written to try to explain what can sometimes be complicated regulations. As the author works within the Radon Division of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Radiation Protection, the exclusive focus of the article is on radon. The 1910.1096 standard obviously covers many other aspects of radiation and radiation safety in the work place.

  9. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W.

    2015-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  10. Radon Mapping of the Osijek Town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Smit, G.; Culo, D.; Planinic, J.

    1998-01-01

    After ten years investigation of radon seasonal variations at three very different locations, as well as radon concentration measurements in kindergartens and schools, systematical indoor radon measurements were undertaken in dwellings of Osijek. Indoor radon was measured by means of the LR-115 nuclear track detector at 48 town locations that gave the arithmetic mean of 71.6 Bq m -3 , standard deviation of 44.0 Bq m -3 and geometric mean of 60.1 Bq m -3 , for the radon concentration range from 23 to 186 Bq m -3 . The empirical frequency distribution of radon concentrations, with the class width of 20 Bq m -3 , was in accordance with the theoretical log-normal distribution which was shown with χ 2 - test. The radon map pointed out a region of higher radon concentrations (central part of the town) that was ascribed to the geological soil structure. Thus supposition was confirmed by radon measurement in the soil gas using radon emanators with the LR-115 film that showed the positive correlation between radon concentrations in the soil and indoors. Radon measurements in Osijeks primary schools pointed out a school that had the highest radon concentration (300 Bq m -3 ) considering all the former indoor radon measurements. The radon distribution in the school building was investigated afterwards radon mitigation procedures were undertaken. (author)

  11. Performance analysis of a finite radon transform in OFDM system under different channel models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawood, Sameer A.; Anuar, M. S.; Fayadh, Rashid A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) Pauh Putra, 02000 Arau, Parlis (Malaysia); Malek, F.; Abdullah, Farrah Salwani [School of Electrical System Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) Pauh Putra, 02000 Arau, Parlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, a class of discrete Radon transforms namely Finite Radon Transform (FRAT) was proposed as a modulation technique in the realization of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The proposed FRAT operates as a data mapper in the OFDM transceiver instead of the conventional phase shift mapping and quadrature amplitude mapping that are usually used with the standard OFDM based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), by the way that ensure increasing the orthogonality of the system. The Fourier domain approach was found here to be the more suitable way for obtaining the forward and inverse FRAT. This structure resulted in a more suitable realization of conventional FFT- OFDM. It was shown that this application increases the orthogonality significantly in this case due to the use of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) twice, namely, in the data mapping and in the sub-carrier modulation also due to the use of an efficient algorithm in determining the FRAT coefficients called the optimal ordering method. The proposed approach was tested and compared with conventional OFDM, for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, flat fading channel, and multi-path frequency selective fading channel. The obtained results showed that the proposed system has improved the bit error rate (BER) performance by reducing inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI), comparing with conventional OFDM system.

  12. Performance analysis of a finite radon transform in OFDM system under different channel models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawood, Sameer A.; Anuar, M. S.; Fayadh, Rashid A.; Malek, F.; Abdullah, Farrah Salwani

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a class of discrete Radon transforms namely Finite Radon Transform (FRAT) was proposed as a modulation technique in the realization of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM). The proposed FRAT operates as a data mapper in the OFDM transceiver instead of the conventional phase shift mapping and quadrature amplitude mapping that are usually used with the standard OFDM based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), by the way that ensure increasing the orthogonality of the system. The Fourier domain approach was found here to be the more suitable way for obtaining the forward and inverse FRAT. This structure resulted in a more suitable realization of conventional FFT- OFDM. It was shown that this application increases the orthogonality significantly in this case due to the use of Inverse Fast Fourier Transform (IFFT) twice, namely, in the data mapping and in the sub-carrier modulation also due to the use of an efficient algorithm in determining the FRAT coefficients called the optimal ordering method. The proposed approach was tested and compared with conventional OFDM, for additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, flat fading channel, and multi-path frequency selective fading channel. The obtained results showed that the proposed system has improved the bit error rate (BER) performance by reducing inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-carrier interference (ICI), comparing with conventional OFDM system

  13. Radon: A health problem and a communication problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) is making great efforts to alert the American public to the potential health risks of radon in homes. The news media have widely publicized radon as a problem; state and local governments are responding to public alarms; and hundreds of radon open-quotes expertsclose quotes are now offering radon detection and mitigation services. Apparently, USEPA's communication program is working, and the public is becoming increasingly concerned with radon. But are they concerned with radon as a open-quotes healthclose quotes problem in the way USEPA intended? The answer is yes, partly. More and more, however, the concerns are about home resale values. Many homebuyers are now deciding whether to buy on the basis of a single radon screening measurement, comparing it with USEPA's action guide of 4 pCi L -1 . They often conclude that 3.9 is OK, but 4.1 is not. Here is where the communication problems begin. The public largely misunderstands the significance of USEPA's guidelines and the meaning of screening measurements. Seldom does anyone inquire about the quality of the measurements, or the results of USEPA performance testing? Who asks about the uncertainty of lifetime exposure assessments based on a 1-hour, 1-day, 3-day, or even 30-day measurement? Who asks about the uncertainty of USEPA's risk estimates? Fortunately, an increasing number of radiation protection professions are asking such questions. They find that USEPA's risk projections are based on many assumptions which warrant further evaluation, particularly with regard to the combined risks of radon and cigarette-smoking. This is the next communication problem. What are these radiation professions doing to understand the bases for radon health-risk projections? Who is willing to communicate a balanced perspective to the public? Who is willing to communicate the uncertainty and conservatism in radon measurements and risk estimates?

  14. Radon reduction in crawl-space houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, M.C.; Moore, D.G.; Southerlan, R.E.; Brennan, T.; Pyle, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives results of an EPA study of radon-mitigation alternatives for crawl space houses in several houses in Nashville, TN. Application of one of these alternative mitigation options, suction under a polyethylene membrane, has been successful in significantly reducing radon levels in both the crawl space and the house. The large radon concentrations measured under unvented plastic ground covers and the moisture barriers found in many crawl spaces can act as radon-rich reservoirs capable of contaminating a crawl space and house during periods of depressurization. With the exhaust components of the mitigation system in place, radon levels below the plastic decreased by more than 95% under both passive and active suction conditions. Based on the study, the design of a cost-effective subplastic suction passive radon mitigation system for crawl spaces seems promising

  15. A new coating material for reducing indoor radon level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo, W.; Tokonami, S.; Ichitsubo, H.; Yamada, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2002-01-01

    In order to mitigate indoor radon level, a new fast-setting, solvent-free, polyurethane-based coating material was developed. The permeability of radon gas in the new material was estimated with a simple radon permeation test system set up in this study. It was found that the permeation velocity depended on the thickness of the coating material, and a thickness of 2.0 mm of the coating material seems sufficient for preventing radon permeation. The permeability of radon in the coating material was estimated to be (2.2± 0.8)x10 -10 m 2 ·s -1 for a thickness of about 1.0 mm. The value is much lower than those reported for membrane materials and caulking compounds. For its performance test, the coating material was used in an existing room with high radon level. By spraying a thickness of 1.5 mm of the material, the indoor radon level reduced by about 80%

  16. The history, development and the present status of the radon measurement programme in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    The US radon measurement programme began in the late 1950's by the US Public Health Service in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah during the uranium frenzy. After the 1967 Congressional Hearings on the working conditions in uranium mines, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was asked to conduct studies in active uranium mines to assess the exposure of the miners on the Colorado Plateau and in New Mexico. From 1967 to 1972, the Health and Safety Laboratory of the US AEC in New York investigated more than 20 uranium mines for radon and radon decay product concentrations and particle size in 4 large uranium mines in New Mexico. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established and took over some of the AEC radon measurement activities. Between 1975 and 1978, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy conducted the first detailed indoor radon survey in the USA. Later in 1984, the very high concentrations of radon found in Pennsylvania homes set the wheels in motion and gave birth to the US Radon Industry. The US EPA expanded its involvement in radon issues and assumed an active role by establishing the National Radon Proficiency Program to evaluate the effectiveness of radon measurement and mitigation methods. In 1998, due to limited resources EPA privatised the radon programme. This paper presents a personal perspective of past events and current status of the US radon programme. It will present an update on radon health effects, the incidence rate of lung cancer in the USA and the number of radon measurements made from 1988 to 2013 using short-term test methods. More than 23 million measurements were made in the last 25 y and as a result more than 1.24 million homes were mitigated successfully. It is estimated that <2 % of the radon measurements performed in the USA are made using long-term testing devices. The number of homes above the US action level of 148 Bq m -3 (4 pCi l -1 ) may be ∼8.5 million because ∼50

  17. Radon in large buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed. (orig.). (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  18. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina; Denyak, Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ( 238 U and 235 U) and thorium ( 232 Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ( 222 Rn), thoron ( 220 Rn), radium ( 226 Ra), thorium ( 232 Th) and potassium ( 40 K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the 222 Rn and 220 Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The 222 Rn and 220 Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m 3 to 2087±19 Bq/m 3 , which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  19. Radon house doctor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Brennan, T.; Wadach, J.B.; O'Neil, R.

    1986-01-01

    The term house doctor may be generalized to include persons skilled in the use of instruments and procedures necessary to identify, diagnose, and correct indoor air quality problems as well as energy, infiltration, and structural problems in houses. A radon house doctor would then be a specialist in radon house problems. Valuable experience in the skills necessary to be developed by radon house doctors has recently been gained in an extensive radon monitoring and mitigation program in upstate New York sponsored by Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. These skills, to be described in detail in this paper, include: (i) the use of appropriate instruments, (ii) the evaluation of the symptoms of a radon-sick house, (iii) the diagnostic procedures required to characterize radon sources in houses, (iv) the prescription procedures needed to specify treatment of the problem, (v) the supervision of the implementation of the treatment program, (vi) the check-up procedures required to insure the house cured of radon problems. 31 references, 3 tables

  20. Radon analyser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The process claimed includes the steps of transferring radon gas produced by a sample to a charcoal trap, cooled to a temperature whereby the radon is absorbed by the charcoal, heating the charcoal trap to a sufficient temperature to release the radon, and transferring the radon to a counting device where the gas particles are counted

  1. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  2. Radon-technical design methods based on radon classification of the soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, A.V.

    1993-01-01

    Radon-technical classification of the foundation soil divides the foundation soil into four classes: negligible, normal, high and very high. Separate radon-technical designing methods and radon-technical solutions have been developed for each class. On regions of negligible class, no specific radon-technical designing methods are needed. On regions of normal radon class, there is no need for actual radon-technical designing based on calculations, whereas existing radon-technical solutions can be used. On regions of high and very high radon class, a separate radon-technical designing should be performed in each case, where radon-technical solutions are designed so that expected value for indoor radon content is lower than the maximum allowable radon content. (orig.). (3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.)

  3. Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Radon in Schools Related Information Managing Radon in Schools Radon Measurement ... Radon Could Be a Serious Threat to Your School Chances are you've already heard of radon - ...

  4. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, June 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in periodic RCP Proficiency Reports

  5. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) program. Proficiency report, September 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving this objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide this information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under this voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  6. National Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program. Proficiency report, January 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) efforts to address the indoor radon problem is to reduce radon levels in buildings throughout the country. Achieving the objective requires a nationwide supply of capable radon mitigation contractors. In the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988, Congress authorized EPA to establish a program to evaluate radon mitigation contractors and to provide the information to the public in cooperation with the States. The Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program was developed to assist States, EPA Regions, local government officials, and the public in selecting contractors who have demonstrated their proficiency in reducing indoor radon levels. The program is managed by the EPA Office of Radiation Programs' Radon Division. Under the voluntary program, radon contractors demonstrate their proficiency by meeting specific Program requirements. Individual contractors who meet these requirements are then listed in the Report

  7. Cornerstones of the Austrian radon risk communication strategy; Eckpfeiler der oesterreichischen Radonrisikokommunikationsstrategie (OeRRKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunte, A.; Ringer, W. [AGES, Linz (Austria). Oesterreichische Fachstelle fuer Radon

    2015-07-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW), the National Radon Centre of Austria developed the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy. The superior goal is the reduction of the radon exposure of Austrian citizens as well as the reduction of radon-related lung cancer deaths. Austria, like many other countries, follows the approach to raise awareness and to inform the public to achieve this goal. The presented strategy deals with the question of how radon protection issues can be communicated to the public, existing fears can be reduced and affected people can be motivated to take action (perform a radon test, if necessary, mitigate or install preventive measures in new buildings). The cornerstones of the National Radon Risk Communication Strategy can be summarized as follows: - Definition of communication goals - Identification and categorization of target groups - Development of specific key messages for each of the target groups - Determination of communication channels and assessment of their efficiency - Integration of the radon issue in education and training - Cooperation with relevant organizations and platforms. The communication objectives, target groups and communication paths (and their evaluation) will be discussed during the presentation in detail.

  8. Radon in homes: The Alaskan experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    For the past four years, since radon was first found to be a concern in Alaska in 1986, the interest and awareness of radon as a special housing and health concern has continued to grow. This paper will discuss the features of a house in Alaska which would characterize it as at risk for radon, and also those efforts at mitigation which have been most effective in reducing radon under Alaskan conditions. Clearly radon must be able to enter a home in order to be a problem. Riefenstuhl and Kline (personal communication, 1988) have analyzed the conditions for radon transport from soils to home interiors very lucidly through the following scheme: four factors must exist in a house locale for it to be a radon at risk house. Two of the factors are geological in nature: (1) there must be adequate uranium and therefore ample radon to provide a source for transport; (2) there must be enough permeability in the soil to allow rapid soil gas movement to carry radon from its origin to the interior of the home within two half-lives of time (six days) or so. The other two factors are determined by the structure of the house itself and the way in which it is operated: (3) the house must have soil contact and imperfections, holes, cracks, intentional perforations which allow movement of soil gas with radon through the envelope of the basement or crawlspace; (4) there must be a lower pressure inside the house than in the soil so that soil gas flows into the house. All four of these characteristics are required to have radon be a problem. The absence of any single characteristic will eliminate radon (in general). This presents a series of options for mitigation of radon then, since elimination of any of the four characteristics will mitigate radon

  9. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedes, S.; Hadler, J.C.N.; Iunes, P.J.; Navia, L.M.S.; Neman, R.S.; Paulo, S.R.; Rodrigues, V.C.; Souza, W.F.; Tello, C.A.S.; Zuniga, A.

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied

  10. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  11. Radon programme in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.

    2003-01-01

    The framework of the Radon programme in the Czech republic includes both precautionary measures and interventions. The programme informally started in early eighties has been now incorporated in national legislation (Atomic Act, Radiation Protection Decree, etc.). Aim of precautionary measures is to avert construction of building above natural radiation guidance levels (200 Bq/m 3 for indoor radon concentration and 0.5 Sv/h for gamma dose rate) by protection of new buildings against soil radon ingress, by regulation of natural radioactivity in building materials and supplied water. Aim of interventions is to identify buildings affected by enhanced natural radioactivity and help owners to put into effect reasonable remedial measures. Two sets of intervention levels for indoor natural exposure were established: guidance intervention levels 400 Bq/m 3 (indoor radon), 1.0 Sv/h (indoor gamma dose rate) and limit values 4000 Bq/m 3 and 10 Sv/h. The radon programme is based both on governmental and private activities. The governmental activities include representative and targeted indoor radon survey, subsidy for radon mitigation, mitigation test measurements and public information on radon issue. The private activities include radon measurement (radon index of building site, indoor measurements, radon diagnosis) and remedial measures. More than 100 commercial companies were authorised by Radiation Protection Authority (SUJB) to provide these measurements

  12. Using performance indicators to reduce cost uncertainty of China's CO2 mitigation goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Goals on absolute emissions and intensity play key roles in CO 2 mitigation. However, like cap-and-trade policies with price uncertainty, they suffer from significant uncertainty in abatement costs. This article examines whether an indicator could be established to complement CO 2 mitigation goals and help reduce cost uncertainty with a particular focus on China. Performance indicators on CO 2 emissions per unit of energy consumption could satisfy three criteria: compared with the mitigation goals, (i) they are more closely associated with active mitigation efforts and (ii) their baselines have more stable projections from historical trajectories. (iii) Their abatement costs are generally higher than other mitigation methods, particularly energy efficiency and conservation. Performance indicators could be used in the following way: if a CO 2 goal on absolute emissions or intensity is attained, the performance indicator should still reach a lower threshold as a cost floor. If the goal cannot be attained, an upper performance threshold should be achieved as a cost ceiling. The narrower cost uncertainty may encourage wider and greater mitigation efforts. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions per unit of energy consumption could act as performance indicators. ► Performance indicators are more closely related to active mitigation activities. ► Performance indicators have more stable historical trajectories. ► Abatement costs are higher for performance indicators than for other activities. ► Performance thresholds could reduce the cost uncertainty of CO 2 mitigation goals.

  13. Communicating the risk from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; McClelland, G.H.; Schulze, W.D.; Doyle, J.K.

    1991-01-01

    A prominent television station developed a special series of newscasts and public service announcements about radon. This was combined with their advertising of the availability of reduced-price radon test kits in a local supermarket chain. The large number of test kits sold was a success from a marketing perspective, but not from a public health perspective - especially because of the very small share of high readings that were mitigated. In contrast, a study of housing sales showed a much higher testing rate and corresponding mitigation when risk communication accompanied the housing transaction, rather than being directed toward the general public. This paper examined the relative effectiveness of these alternative approaches to radon risk communication, emphasizing the implications for developing and implementing radon programs

  14. The Department of Energy's radon testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, H.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy recently completed an initial survey of indoor radon in its buildings in response to Public Law 100--551, the Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988. Other federal agencies have also conducted radon surveys. This paper presents an overview of the results from radon testing of several thousand buildings ranging from 100 m 2 to over 10,000 M 2 in size. In addition, we have examined results from groups of buildings, classified according to ventilation and usage characteristics. So far, there is no apparent difference among building classes. The paper also discusses our proposal for phased radon surveys. We suggest that first-phase results can be used to identify facilities with radon problems. In the second phase, we suggest measurements be made at a much higher sampling density at facilities with radon problems. The results of the second phase are expected to identify all buildings in need of mitigation

  15. Radon thematic days - Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-03-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the Radon thematic days organized by the French society of radiation protection (SFRP). Twenty five presentations (slides) are compiled in the document and deal with: 1 - General introduction about radon (Sebastien Baechler, IRA); 2 - Survey of epidemiological studies (Dominique Laurier, IRSN); 3 - Dosimetric model (Eric Blanchardon, Estelle Davesne, IRSN); 4 - Radon issue in Franche-Comte: measurement of the domestic exposure and evaluation of the associated health impact (Francois Clinard, InVS); 5 - WHO's (World Health Organization) viewpoint in limiting radon exposure in homes (Ferid Shannoun, OMS); 6 - Radon measurement techniques (Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 7 - Quality of radon measurements (Francois Bochud, IRA); 8 - International recommendations (Jean-Francois Lecomte, IRSN); 9 - Radon management strategy in Switzerland - 1994-2014 (Christophe Murith, OFSP); 10 - 2011-2015 action plan for radon risk management (Jean-Luc Godet, Eric Dechaux, ASN); 11 - Radon at work place in Switzerland (Lisa Pedrazzi, SUVA); 12 - Strategies of radiation protection optimization in radon exposure situations (Cynthia Reaud, CEPN); 13 - Mapping of the radon potential of geologic formations in France (Geraldine Ielsch, IRSN); 14 - Radon database in Switzerland (Martha Gruson, OFSP); 15 - Radon 222 in taps water (Jeanne Loyen, IRSN); 16 - Buildings protection methods (Bernard Collignan, CSTB, Roselyne Ameon, IRSN); 17 - Preventive and sanitation measures in Switzerland (Claudio Valsangiacomo, SUPSI); 18 - Training and support approach for building specialists (Joelle Goyette-Pernot, Fribourg engineers and architects' school); 19 - Status of radon bulk activity measurements performed between 2005-2010 in public areas (Cyril Pineau, ASN); 20 - Neuchatel Canton experiments (Didier Racine, SENE); 21 - Montbeliard region experience in the radon risk management (Isabelle Netillard, Pays de Montbeliard Agglomeration); 22

  16. The radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This booklet is intended to answer briefly the most important questions about the nature and sources of radon, its pathways from environment to organism, as well as the ways to minimize its concentration in the habitat's atmosphere. The radon is a naturally appearing radioactive gas, produced through the decay of uranium and radium present in the terrestrial crust. It can be found everywhere on the planet's surface and it is emitted particularly from the granite and volcanic underground rocks as well as from certain construction materials. It is one of the agents producing pulmonary cancer, although not so dangerous as the tobacco is. The following items are elaborated in this booklet: - the place of radon in the average exposure to ionizing radiations of the French population; - the risk; - the radon in the environment (the meteorological conditions, the nature of the rocks); - radon in dwellings (radon measurements in the French dwellings, the entrance pathways of radon, the dependence of radon concentration on the profession and way of life of the inhabitants); - radon measurements; - how to reduce the radon concentration in dwellings

  17. Radon exhalation from granitic rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flávia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Corrêa, Janine N.; Mazer, Wellington; Narloch, Danielle Cristine; Martin, Aline Cristina [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy, E-mail: flaviadelclaro@gmail.com, E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com, E-mail: denyak@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisa Pelé Pequeno Príncipe (IPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), its decay products and other elements from the radioactive series of uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 235}U) and thorium ({sup 232}Th) are an important source of human exposure to natural radioactivity. The worldwide evaluation of health radiobiological effects and risks from population exposure to natural radionuclides is a growing concern. About 50% of personal radiation annual dose is related to radionuclides such as radon ({sup 222}Rn), thoron ({sup 220}Rn), radium ({sup 226}Ra), thorium ({sup 232}Th) and potassium ({sup 40}K), which are present in modern materials commonly used in construction of dwellings and buildings. The radioactivity of marbles and granites is of big concern since under certain conditions the radioactivity levels of these materials can be hazardous to the population and require the implementation of mitigation procedures. Present survey of the {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn activity concentration liberated in the air was performed using commercialized Brazilian granite rocks at national market as well as exported to other countries. The {sup 222}Rn and {sup 220}Rn measurements were performed using the AlphaGUARD instant monitor and RAD7 detector, respectively. This study was performed at the Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the Federal University of Technology – Paraná (UTFPR). Obtained results of radon concentration activity in air exhaled studied samples of granites varied from 3±1 Bq/m{sup 3} to 2087±19 Bq/m{sup 3}, which shows that some samples of granitic rocks represent rather elevated health risk the population. (author)

  18. Ten practical lessons for an effective radon risk communication program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    Those responsible for state and local radon programs often express frustration about the small share of homes that have been tested for radon, and the small share of those with high readings that have been mitigated. Several recent studies have examined how well alternative ways of communicating about radon's risk have accomplished the goals of motivating appropriate testing and mitigation. Unfortunately, the results of these studies have not reached practitioners. This paper is for them. It summarizes the practical implications that are most crucial for planning and implementing an effective radon risk communication program--a program that will motivate people to test for radon and mitigate when radon levels are high, without unduly alarming those whose radon levels are low

  19. Communicating radon risk effectively: a mid-course evaluation. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.K.; Desvousges, W.H.; Fisher, A.; Johnson, F.R.

    1987-07-01

    A panel of 2300 homeowners was divided into subgroups to test the effectiveness of six alternative ways of explaining the risk from naturally occurring radon gas. The research design focused on two dimensions: qualitative vs. quantitative and directive vs. evaluative. These characteristics led to 4 experimental booklets, which were compared with EPA's Citizen's Guide and a one-page fact sheet. The evaluation examined how much people learned about radon; whether they could form risk perceptions consistent with their home's measured radon level; and whether they felt they had enough information to make a decision about mitigation. The fact sheet did not perform well on any of these evaluation criteria. None of the five booklets clearly was best for all 3 evaluation criteria; the report discusses the implications for designing an effective radon-risk communication program

  20. Indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The radon, a natural radioactive gas, is present almost everywhere on the earth's surface. It can be accumulated at high concentration in confined spaces (buildings, mines, etc). In the last decades many studies conducted in several countries showed that inhaling important amounts of radon rises the risk of lung cancer. Although, the radon is a naturally appearing radioactive source, it may be the subject of a human 'enhancement' of concentration. The increasing radon concentration in professional housing constitutes an example of enhanced natural radioactivity which can induce health risks on workers and public. Besides, the radon is present in the dwelling houses (the domestic radon). On 13 May 1996, the European Union Council issued the new EURATOM Instruction that establishes the basic standards of health protection of population and workers against the ionizing radiation hazards (Instruction 96/29/EURATOM, JOCE L-159 of 29 June 1996). This instruction does not apply to domestic radon but it is taken into consideration by another EURATOM document: the recommendation of the Commission 90/143/EURATOM of 21 February 1990 (JOCE L-80 of 27 March 1990). The present paper aims at establishing in accordance to European Union provisions the guidelines for radon risk management in working places, as well as in dwelling houses, where the implied risk is taken into account. This document does not deal with cases of high radon concentration on sites where fabrication, handling or storage of radium sources take place. These situations must be treated by special studies

  1. Radon in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Planinic, J.

    2004-01-01

    There are ten thermal spas in Croatia and all of them provide health services for patients and visitors. Radon measurements were performed since there is a lack of data concerning natural radioactivity originated from radon and its short-lived progenies in such environments. The thermal water at two different sites (the indoor swimming pool with geothermal water and the spring) in each spa was sampled and radon concentrations were measured by AlphaGUARD radon measuring system. The obtained values were in the range of 0.7 to 19 Bq.dm -3 and 2 to 94 Bq.dm -3 for indoor swimming pools and springs, respectively. Integrated measurements of radon concentration in air were performed by two solid state nuclear track detectors LR-115 II (open and diffusion one) thus enabling estimation of equilibrium factor between radon and its daughters. The annual effective doses received by spa workers were found to be about 1 mSv/y (below the lower limit value of 3 mSv/y recommended by ICRP 65). The doses of patients and visitors were one or two order of magnitude lower than that of the personnel. (author)

  2. Radon in schools. Report for May 1988-September 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The paper discusses radon entry into schools, radon mitigation approaches for schools, and school characteristics (e.g., HVAC system design and operation) that influence radon entry and mitigation system design. It also discusses mitigation systems installed by the U.S. EPA in four schools. The primary source of radon entry into a school with significantly elevated radon levels is normally soil gas that is drawn in by pressure differentials between the soil surrounding the substructure and the building interior. If the building interior is at a lower pressure than the soil surrounding the substructure and radon is present in the soil, the radon can be pulled in through cracks and other openings that are in contact with the soil. The amount of radon in a given classroom depends on the level of radon in the underlying material, the ease with which the radon moves as a component of the soil gas through the soil, the magnitude and direction of the pressure differentials, the number and size of the radon entry routes, and dilution and mixing of the room air. HVAC systems in schools vary considerably and tend to have greater impact on pressure differentials--and consequently radon levels--than do heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems in houses

  3. Radon reduction and radon-resistant construction demonstrations in New York state. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    A survey of radon levels in New York State homes indicates that approximately 4.4 percent of the homes have long-term living area radon concentrations above the U.S. EPA guideline of four pCi/l. The project addressed the effectiveness of techniques to reduce the radon level in existing homes and to prevent the occurrence of high radon concentrations in new homes. The goal of the project was to demonstrate the effectiveness of radon reduction techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations of more than the current EPA guidelines of four pCi/l. At the same time, radon-resistant construction techniques were demonstrated in homes under construction to provide guidelines for houses being built in areas with a danger of high radon levels. The project demonstrated new radon mitigation techniques in homes containing indoor radon concentrations exceeding four pCi/l; assessed the value of previously installed radon reduction procedures, and demonstrated new radon-resistant construction methods

  4. Project radon final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.; Rossby, U.

    1990-01-01

    The main radiation problem in Sweden is due to radon in dwellings. At the Swedish State Power Board, R, D and D about radon has been going on since 1980. The work has concentrated on the important questions: How to find building with enhanced radon levels?; How to accurately decide on measures that will give adequate cleaning-up results, using appropriate measurement procedures; What cleaning-up effect is possible to achieve with an electro-filter?; and What cleaning-up effects are possible to achieve with different types of ventilation systems? The R, D and D-work, has been pursued in cooperation with universities of technology in Denmark and Finland, equipment manufacturers, consultants and authorities concerned. It was decided in December 1986 to give an offer to some SSPB-employees to investigate the radon situation of their dwellings, in order to test methods of measurement and cleaning-up under realistic conditions and to develop the methods to commercial maturity. The investigation was named 'Project Radon' and was carried out in three years with costs amounting to 1 M dollars. During the project less comprehensive radon measurements, named 'trace-measurements' were undertaken in about 1300 dwellings and more elaborate measurements, leading to suggestions of actions to be taken, in about 400 dwellings. Out of the suggestions, about 50 are carried out including control measurement after actions taken. The control measurement have shown that the ability to suggest appropriate actions is very successful - in just one case was a minor additional action necessary. The high reliability is achieved by always doing elaborate measurements before suggested mitigation method is decided on. (authors)

  5. Scopingsreport Radon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauboer RO; Vaas LH; Hesse JM; Slooff W

    1989-01-01

    Dit scopingsrapport vormt een onderdeel van de voorbereiding tot het opstellen van het basisdocument radon. Het doel van dit rapport is het algemene kennisniveau van de deelnemers aan de scopingsbijeenkomst aangaande radon op eenzelfde peil te brengen en discussie- en beslispunten inzake de

  6. Cengklik Reservoir Performance and Its Role for Drought Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovi Hardiyanto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water availability problem is encountered by Cengklik Reservoir due to drought disaster in the current year. It causes irrigation water crisis over 850 hectares crop field which of 350 hectares were not cultivated. The risk that must be faced by farmers is decrease in potential productivity, losses about more than 2.5 billion. Therefore, it needs technical solution to reduce this drought disaster risk. To obtain an alternative solution against water availability problem for drought disaster mitigation, this research used optimization of reservoir standard operating simulation. It applies field area of rice or Palawija at the second and/or the third cultivation season as decision variable, maximum productivity value as objective function, irrigation water demand as parameter depending on specified alternative crop pattern and schedule, and several constraints comprising 100% of reservoir reliability, all field is irrigated at the first and second season in which maximum non-irrigated crop field at the third cultivation season are 300 hectares. The tool used to conduct optimization was Microsoft Excel software. The result showed that crop pattern considered as an alternative solution against water availability problem in Cengklik reservoir is paddy-paddy-maize at the early of November II cultivated over 433 hectares and 1524 hectares. Risk reduction reached 9.33% in term of reservoir reliability, 23.61% in term of irrigated area, and 27.29% in term of vulnerability towards water availability crisis.

  7. Radon problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter examines the health hazards resulting from the release of naturally occurring radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium. It is estimated that random inhalation is now causing about 10,000 fatal lung cancers per year in the US. Radon is constantly being generated in rocks and soils (in which uranium is naturally present) and in materials produced from them (e.g., brick, stone, cement, plaster). It is emphasized that radon levels in buildings are typically 5 times higher than outdoors because radon diffusing up from the ground below or out of bricks, stone, cement, or plaster is trapped inside for a relatively long time

  8. Radon - To mobilise civil society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    As radon is one of the two main sources of exposure of population to ionizing radiations in France, is notably said to be responsible of 1.000 to 3.000 deaths for lung cancer per year, and could be at the origin of other cancers like child leukaemia, this set of articles evokes the different factors which promote radon transfer from soils to buildings, studies performed to better identify geological sources of radon, actions implemented to assess radon presence in dwellings (distribution of 'radon kits' in Brittany), the performance of radiological expertise by the IRSN on the request of public authorities, the project of dwelling inventory and population information. A second article reports examples of intervention by the IRSN to inform local authorities, inhabitants, academics, public utilities, building professions, and even children. Technical solutions adopted in the United Kingdom are briefly evoked

  9. Mitigating the controller performance bottlenecks in Software Defined Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caba, Cosmin Marius; Soler, José

    2016-01-01

    The centralization of the control plane decision logic in Software Defined Networking (SDN) has raised concerns regarding the performance of the SDN Controller (SDNC) when the network scales up. A number of solutions have been proposed in the literature to address these concerns. This paper...

  10. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  11. Study of underground radon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csige, I.; Hakl, J.; Lenart, L.

    1990-01-01

    The soil gas radon content measurements with solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are widely used in geoscience, for instance in uranium exploration and earthquake prediction. In these applications the radon frequently is used as a natural tracer of underground fluid transport processes. Obviously, to get the soil radon measuring method more and more effective the study of these transport processes in deeper part of the Earth is fundamental. The Track Detector Group in the Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in Debrecen has been performing environmental radon activity concentration measurements since 1977 with alpha sensitive SSNTDs. These types of measurements were initiated and widely used by the late head of the group Dr. G. Somogyi, who devoted his life to better understanding of the nature. The measurements in caves, springs and drilled wells proved to be effective to study these underground radon transport processes. We are glad to present some results of our investigations. 7 refs, 7 figs

  12. Recommended HVAC standard of the Florida Radon Research Program. Final report, Mar-Sep 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) section of the 'Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation.' It deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. Its primary intent is to prevent pressure differentials in houses that can increase the transport of radon into houses. Three pathways of compliance are available to meet the requirements of the HVAC portion of the standards. The first is purely prescriptive. The second is a performance and prescriptive approach. The third is a marketplace approach

  13. Indoor radon concentration in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamont-Ciesla, K.; Jagielak, J.; Rosinski, S.W.; Sosinka, A.; Bysiek, M.; Henschke, J.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary survey of Rn concentration indoors by means of track detectors and y-ray dose rate with the use of TLD in almost 500 homes in selected areas of Poland was performed in the late 1980s. It was concluded that radon contributes 1.16 mSv i.e. about 46 per cent of the total natural environment ionizing radiation dose to the Polish population. Comparison of the average radon concentrations in 4 seasons of a year and in 3 groups of buildings: masonry, concrete and wood, revealed that the ground beneath the building structure is likely the dominant source of radon indoors. Since the National Atomic Energy Agency in its regulations of 1988-03-31 set up the permissible limit of the equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon in new buildings (equal 100 Bq/m3), the nation-scale survey project for radon in buildings has been undertaken. These regulations were supposed to take effect in 1995-01-01. The project has 3 objectives: to estimate the radiation exposure due to radon daughters received by Polish population to identify radon-prone areas in Poland to investigate dependence of the indoor radon concentrations on such parameters as: type of construction material, presence (or absence) of cellar under the building, number of floor

  14. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a large-scale survey of radon concentrations in Norwegian dwellings are reported. Measurements of radon have been made in a total of 7500 dwellings. The dwellings were randomly selected and the number in each municipality is proportional to its population. The measurements were performed using etched track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Board in the UK. One detector was placed in the main bedroom in each dwelling for 6 months. The annual average of radon concentration in Norwegian bedrooms is calculated to be 51 Bq.m -3 . The frequency distribution is approximately log-normal with a geometric mean of 26 Bq.m -3 and about 4% of the bedrooms have concentrations above 200 Bq.m -3 . The radon concentrations are found to be about 40% higher for bedrooms in single-family houses than in blocks of flats and other multifamily houses. In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor and the bedrooms on the first floor. An additional factor is that the winters of 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 were much warmer than normal. Taking these factors into account, the average radon concentration in Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55 and 65 Bq.m -3 . (author)

  15. Membrane barriers for radon gas flow restrictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archibald, J.F.

    1984-08-01

    Research was performed to assess the feasibility of barrier membrane substances, for use within mining or associated high risk environments, in restricting the diffusion transport of radon gas quantities. Specific tests were conducted to determine permeability parameters of a variety of membrane materials with reference to radon flow capabilities. Tests were conducted both within laboratory and in-situ emanation environments where concentrations and diffusion flows of radon gas were known to exist. Equilibrium radon gas concentrations were monitored in initially radon-free chambers adjacent to gas sources, but separated by specified membrane substances. Membrane barrier effectiveness was demonstrated to result in reduced emanation concentrations of radon gas within the sampling chamber atmosphere. Minimum gas concentrations were evidenced where the barrier membrane material was shown to exhibit lowest radon permeability characteristics

  16. Interaction of radon progeny with atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawska, Lidia

    1994-01-01

    The radiological health hazard due to the airborne radon progeny depends on three factors (i) radon concentration in the air, (ii) radon progeny concentration, and (iii) active particle size distribution. Conclusions as to the health hazard cannot be drawn without full understanding of the interaction mechanisms between radon progeny and atmospheric aerosols. The aim of this work was to study the interaction mechanisms between radon progeny, natural environmental aerosols and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The experiments were performed under controlled laboratory conditions of radon concentration (1.85 and 3.70 Bq m -3 ), relative humidity (35, 50, 75 and 95%) and ETS generation. The size distribution of radioactivity carrying aerosols was measured using a wire screen diffusion battery system and size distribution of all airborne aerosols using a differential mobility particle sizer. The paper presents and discusses the results of activity size distribution and radon progeny concentration measurements for different environmental conditions. 7 refs., 2 tabs

  17. Radon risk perception and testing: Sociodemographic correlates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, M.T.; Warner, K.E.

    1994-01-01

    While numerous health education campaigns have been carried out to alert the public to radon's potential dangers and to encourage testing and mitigation, there has been little follow-up to determine which segments of the public are now most aware of the possible hazards of radon. Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the authors have examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. They used logistic regression to determine the relationship between these beliefs and actions and age, gender, education, income, minority status, and smoking status. The results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and very little testing, within the survey population. In particular, significantly less knowledge was observed among female and minority respondents, while less testing behavior was seen among older respondents. Lower educational levels and lower family income were associated with both decreased knowledge and testing. Recommendations for future education campaigns are discussed

  18. CoSMOS: Performance of Kurtosis Algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference Detection and Mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misra, Sidharth; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup; Skou, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The performance of a previously developed algorithm for Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) detection and mitigation is experimentally evaluated. Results obtained from CoSMOS, an airborne campaign using a fully polarimetric L-band radiometer are analyzed for this purpose. Data is collected using two...

  19. Effectiveness of ventilation improvements as a protective measure against radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoving, P.; Arvela, H.

    1993-01-01

    Radon reduction rates for ventilation improvement measures vary considerably. In 70% of the cases studied, further mitigation is needed to reach a level of 400 Bq/m 3 . Ventilation measures in crawl spaces and basements have resulted in reduction rates of up to 90%, though more typically 30-70%. Installing new mechanical systems in dwellings has resulted in 20-80% reduction rates. If fan use or fan efficiency is increased, radon levels can be reduced as much as when new systems are installed. Increasing fresh-air supply through vents or window gaps reduces radon concentrations 10-40%. Low ventilation rates, measured after mitigation using the passive per fluorocarbon tracer gas method, seem to be accompanied by also low radon reduction rates. Multiple zone tracer gas measurements were conducted in order to reveal radon entry from the soil and radon transport between zones. (orig.). (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  20. Indoor radon pollution: update. Bibliographic series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, S.A.

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography focuses on indoor radon pollution problems and is organized according to the following major topic areas: I-Overview (covering general areas such as law and policy, popular press, communication and education, indoor air and books); II-Health Effects (epidemiology, risk estimates, and dosimetry); III-Exposure (house construction, geology, source, physical properties, and radon in water); IV-Surveys (national and international case studies); V-Mitigation; and VI-Measurement Techniques. Section VIII-Appendix, lists State Contacts

  1. The Norwegian information campaign on radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thommesen, G.; Strand, T.

    1999-01-01

    The responsibility for providing an overview of 'all factors in the environment which are or may be having a direct or indirect influence on the health - -' rests with the municipal health authorities. In order to enable the municipal staff throughout Norway to accomplish local radon surveys, an information campaign on radon, including printed information material and training courses, was carried out in 1998-99, primarily directed towards municipal civil servants. The two-day training courses comprised of lectures and a compendium covering basic knowledge on ionizing radiation, sources of radon, measurement techniques, health risk, prophylactic and remedial measures, design and accomplishment of survey projects, and information strategy. The printed information material includes booklets providing general information on radon (health risks, measurements, and mitigation), methods for measuring radon in indoor air and construction sites, action levels, and design of municipal radon surveys. Two posters have been issued, one mainly intended for public offices and waiting rooms to motivate the public for radon measurements, the other one intended for municipal personnel and governmental offices, the latter also issued as a collection of fact sheets intended for schools etc. the booklets are displayed on the Internet (www.nrpa.no). The site also contains links to further information on mitigation techniques and economic support to remedial measures. (au)

  2. Uncertainties of estimating average radon and radon decay product concentrations in occupied houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronca-Battista, M.; Magno, P.; Windham, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radon and radon decay product measurements made in up to 68 Butte, Montana homes over a period of 18 months were used to estimate the uncertainty in estimating long-term average radon and radon decay product concentrations from a short-term measurement. This analysis was performed in support of the development of radon and radon decay product measurement protocols by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The results of six measurement methods were analyzed: continuous radon and working level monitors, radon progeny integrating sampling units, alpha-track detectors, and grab radon and radon decay product techniques. Uncertainties were found to decrease with increasing sampling time and to be smaller when measurements were conducted during the winter months. In general, radon measurements had a smaller uncertainty than radon decay product measurements. As a result of this analysis, the EPA measurements protocols specify that all measurements be made under closed-house (winter) conditions, and that sampling times of at least a 24 hour period be used when the measurement will be the basis for a decision about remedial action or long-term health risks. 13 references, 3 tables

  3. Scopingreport radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaauboer, R.O.; Vaas, L.H.; Hesse, J.M.; Slooff, W.

    1989-09-01

    This report contains general information on radon concerning the existing standards, sources and emissions, the exposure levels and effect levels. lt serves as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory melting to be held in November/December 1989, aimed at determining the contents of the Integrated Criteria Document Radon. Attention is focussd on Rn-222 (radon) and Rn-220 (thoron), presently of public interest because of radon gas pollution in private homes. In the Netherlands air quality standards nor product standards for the exhalation rate of building materials have been recommended. The major source of radon in the Netherlands is the soil gas (> 97%), minor sources are phosphate residues and building materials (> 2% in total). Hence, the major concern is the transfer through the inhalation of air, the lung being the most critical organ at risk to develop cancer. Compared to risks for humans, the risks of radon and its daughters for aquatic and terrestric organisms, as well as for agricultural crops and livestock, are assumed to be limited. In the Netherlands the average dose for man due to radon and thoron progeny is appr. 1.2 mSv per year, the estimated dose range being 0.1-3.5 mSv per year. This dose contributes for about 50% to rhe total exposure due to all sources of ionizing radiation. Of this dose respectively 80% is caused by radon and about 90% is received indoor. The estimated dose for the general population corresponds to a risk for inducing fatal cancers of about 15 x 10-6 per year, ranging from 1.2 x 10-6 to 44 x 10-6 which exceeds the risk limit of 1 x 10-6 per year -as defined in the standardization policy in the Netherlands for a single source of ionizing radiation-with a factor 15 (1- 44). Reduction of exposure is only possible in the indoor environment. Several techniques have been described to reduce the indoor dose, resulting from exhalation of the soil and building materials. )aut- hor). 37 refs.; 3 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Radon remediation in irish schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synnott, H.

    2006-01-01

    average an approximate 50% reduction in radon concentrations. Active systems require the use of electric fans for their continued successful long-term operation. The performance of a number of fan assisted sub-slab de pressurization systems and fan assisted under floor ventilation systems were evaluated after a minimum of three years operation. It was found that all systems were still operating satisfactorily. It is recommended however that periodic retesting of rooms where active systems are installed should be carried out to ensure the continued successful long-term operation of these systems. (author)

  5. World Health Organization's International Radon Project 2005-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, Zhanat; Shannoun, Ferid; Zielinski, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies of people exposed to indoor radon have confirmed that radon in homes is a serious health hazard that can be easily mitigated. To address the issue at an international level, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the International Radon Project (IRP). The project was launched in January 2005 with its first meeting attended by 36 experts representing 17 countries. The project's scope and the key objectives were outlined at this meeting and later refined: 1-) To identify effective strategies for reducing the health impact of radon; 2-) To promote sound policy options, prevention and mitigation programs (including monitoring and evaluation of programs; 3-) To raise public, political and economical awareness about the consequences of exposure to radon (including financial institutions as target group); 4-) To estimate the global health impact of exposure to residential radon using available data on radon worldwide. WHO and its member states strive through the WHO-IRP to succeed in putting indoor radon on the environmental health agenda in countries with lower awareness of radon as a health problem and in strengthening local and national radon-related activities in countries with ongoing radon programs. Two subsequent working meetings were held: in March, 2006 in Geneva with 63 participants from 25 countries, along with representatives of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and European Commission (EC); and in March 2007 in Munich with 61 participants from 27 countries. Both meetings reviewed the IRP progress and focused on the two main outputs: 'The WHO Report on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) due to Radon' and 'The WHO Radon Handbook'. The former applies the WHO methodology for GBD assessment and considers ways to graphically map residential radon concentrations

  6. The role of the ventilation industry in addressing indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellford, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that radon mitigation can only be accomplished on a national scale through a cooperative effort of government, industry and an informed public. The Environmental Protection Agency has developed, demonstrated and published acceptable procedures for testing and preventing the entry or radon into occupancies, as well as procedures for removal when it is not possible or economically viable to prevent radon from entering these occupancies. Various states have instituted programs for industry implementation of EPA procedures and public education programs are now underway. Industry effort will be required to mitigate existing housing stock, to insure new radon resistant housing and, equally important, to provide for radon monitoring and servicing of mitigation measures for centuries to come. What the nature of that industry can and should be and how government agencies can encourage the development of such industry is the subject of this paper

  7. Cost and effectiveness of radon-resistant features in new school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, A.B.; Leovic, K.W.; Saum, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent concerns over elevated levels of radon in existing buildings have prompted the design and construction of a number of school buildings that either are radon resistant or incorporate features that facilitate post-construction mitigation if needed. This paper describes initial results of a study of several schools with radon-resistant features that were recently constructed in the northeastern US. These designs are generally based on experience with radon mitigation in existing houses and schools and radon-resistant new house construction. The study was limited to slab-on-grade schools, where the most common radon-resistant school design is active subslab depressurization (ASD). The additional construction costs for eight schools built with ASD ranged from $3 to $11 per square meter of slab area. The radon contractors who designed these systems have tended to overdesign the radon-reduction systems in the absence of specific written guidance to follow to lessen potential liability in the event of system failure. Design features include detailed sealing of all stab cracks, multiple exhaust stacks, and extensive subslab piping. Recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) research on radon mitigation suggests that simpler ASD systems may provide sufficient radon resistance in new large buildings at lower costs. Components of a specification for radon-resistant school construction are discussed, based on comments from radon system designers. Another school being studied was built with a heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) pressurization radon control system, and considerations for this type of system are examined

  8. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  9. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C.; Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author)

  10. Radon in soils: intercomparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Galle, C. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City (Mexico)); Seidel, J.-L.; Monnin, M. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire)

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of experiments were designed to evaluate some of the variations that can be expected from radon in soil concentrations as monitored by closely spaced solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs). Measurements were performed by the Insituto Nacional de Investigations Nucleares in Mexico and the Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire in France. The first experimental design consisted of a series of 15 day exposures of twenty monitoring devices placed inside a single bore hole. Fluctuations obtained in the radon levels at the twenty closely spaced monitoring sites ranged from 9% to 33%. The second experiment was performed with 4 pairs of radon monitoring devices located at 4 different sites at the summit of the Nevado de Toluca volcano. Results show that the SSNTD technique is well suited for radon measurements intended for geophysical studies. (author).

  11. Managing Radon in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA recommends testing all schools for radon. As part of an effective IAQ management program, schools can take simple steps to test for radon and reduce risks to occupants if high radon levels are found.

  12. Indoor radon concentrations in Vushtrri, Kosovo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xhafa, B.; Jonuzaj, A.; ); Bekteshi, S.; Ahmetaj, S.; Kabashi, S.; )

    2009-01-01

    Indoor air radon concentration was measured by exposing trac ketch detectors in the two elementary schools, one high school, a kindergarten and the hospital in the city of Vushtrri. Measurements were performed with the radon monitor PRM-145, which uses alpha scintillation cells and serves to determine the current concentration of radon. The results we obtained are in the range between the average values of radon for the interior spaces, and values that pose a potential risk for lung cancer. Measuring the concentration of radon was done in total of 34 rooms and came up with values which are between 28Bqm -3 and 398Bqm -3 . In order to reduce the concentration of radon, we have built a ventilation pump, then we performed repeated measurements and finally came with results between 130-145Bqm -3 .

  13. Instrumentation for collecting and measuring radon and its daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essling, M.A.; Hengde, W.; Markun, F.; Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Miranda, J.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A new sampling can is described for collecting an air sample for determination of its radon content. Instruments which are employed for the continuous monitoring of radon or its daughters in houses are described and their performances discussed

  14. Combined acoustical and visual performance of noise barriers in mitigating the environmental impact of motorways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Like; Kang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the overall performance of noise barriers in mitigating environmental impact of motorways, taking into consideration their effects on reducing noise and visual intrusions of moving traffic, but also potentially inducing visual impact themselves. A laboratory experiment was carried out, using computer-visualised video scenes and motorway traffic noise recordings to present experimental scenarios covering two traffic levels, two distances of receiver to road, two types of background landscape, and five barrier conditions including motorway only, motorway with tree belt, motorways with 3 m timber barrier, 5m timber barrier, and 5m transparent barrier. Responses from 30 participants of university students were gathered and perceived barrier performance analysed. The results show that noise barriers were always beneficial in mitigating environmental impact of motorways, or made no significant changes in environmental quality when the impact of motorways was low. Overall, barriers only offered similar mitigation effect as compared to tree belt, but showed some potential to be more advantageous when traffic level went high. 5m timber barrier tended to perform better than the 3m one at the distance of 300 m but not at 100 m possibly due to its negative visual effect when getting closer. The transparent barrier did not perform much differently from the timber barriers but tended to be the least effective in most scenarios. Some low positive correlations were found between aesthetic preference for barriers and environmental impact reduction by the barriers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiation exposure due to radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, W.

    1976-01-01

    Underground miners working over long periods of time in mines with a high content of radon and radon daughters belong to that group of occupationally exposed persons who are subject to the greatest somatic risk, with values especially high if the permissible dose limits are exceeded. Follwing an overview of the permissible limits currently in use for radon and radon daughters as well as the results of examinations performed in nationally-owned underground mining of the G.D.R., considerations are presented on the measuring quantities requisite for statistical, control and safety measurements in this field. Finally, conclusions are drawn concerning the measuring procedures and instruments to be employed for practical work. (author)

  16. Radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Green, B.M.R; Lomas, P.R.; Mangnus, K.; Stranden, E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of radon in indoor air have been made in a total of about 7500 randomly selected dwellings in Norway from all parts of the country. The number of selected dwellings in each municipality is about proportional to its population, except for the two largest municipalities, Oslo and Bergen, where somewhat smaller samples were taken due to the higher population density. The measurements were performed by nuclear track detectors from the National Radiological Protection Boards in United Kingdom, and the integration time for the measurements was 6 months. The detectors were spread evenly over all seasons of the year to eliminate influence from seasonal variation in the radon level. One single measurement was performed in each dwelling: in the main bedroom. The results shows that the distribution of radon concentrations in Norwegian bedrooms is log-normal. The aritmetic mean of the measurements, including all categories of dwellings, is calculated to be 51 Bq/m 3 and the corresponding geometric mean to be 26 Bq/m 3 . In a large proportion of single-family houses the living room and the kitchen are located on the ground floor while the bedrooms are located one floor higher. The results of the study shows that the radon level is somewhat higher at the ground floor than on the first floor, and higher in the basement than on the first floor. Taking this into account, and assuming that measurements in bedrooms on the first floor is a representative average for living room and kitchen, the average radon concentration for Norwegian dwellings is estimated to be between 55-65 Bq/m 3 . In this estimate, possible influences of the fact that the winters 87/88 and 88/89 were much warmer than normal and may therefor have lowered the results, has been taken into account. 15 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs

  17. The US radon problem, policy, program and industry: achievements, challenges and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angell, W. J.

    2008-01-01

    US radon research, policy and programs have stalled since their start in the late 1980's and early 1990's. In 2005, more homes had radon above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Reference Level than anytime in history since more homes were added to the housing stock that had indoor radon concentrations exceeding 150 Bq m -3 than had been mitigated. Funding for the US radon program has declined two-thirds from 1997 to 2007. Despite impressive goals for radon reduction, EPA lacks sound progress indicators especially in new construction radon control systems. School radon reduction has been at a standstill since the early 1990's. There has been no significant radon risk reduction in low-income sectors of the population. There is need for effective partnerships between the public and private sectors of the US radon professional communities as well as with the international programs and professionals. (authors)

  18. Indoor radon and earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saghatelyan, E.; Petrosyan, L.; Aghbalyan, Yu.; Baburyan, M.; Araratyan, L.

    2004-01-01

    For the first time on the basis of the Spitak earthquake of December 1988 (Armenia, December 1988) experience it is found out that the earthquake causes intensive and prolonged radon splashes which, rapidly dispersing in the open space of close-to-earth atmosphere, are contrastingly displayed in covered premises (dwellings, schools, kindergartens) even if they are at considerable distance from the earthquake epicenter, and this multiplies the radiation influence on the population. The interval of splashes includes the period from the first fore-shock to the last after-shock, i.e. several months. The area affected by radiation is larger vs. Armenia's territory. The scale of this impact on population is 12 times higher than the number of people injured in Spitak, Leninakan and other settlements (toll of injured - 25 000 people, radiation-induced diseases in people - over 300 000). The influence of radiation directly correlates with the earthquake force. Such a conclusion is underpinned by indoor radon monitoring data for Yerevan since 1987 (120 km from epicenter) 5450 measurements and multivariate analysis with identification of cause-and-effect linkages between geo dynamics of indoor radon under stable and conditions of Earth crust, behavior of radon in different geological mediums during earthquakes, levels of room radon concentrations and effective equivalent dose of radiation impact of radiation dose on health and statistical data on public health provided by the Ministry of Health. The following hitherto unexplained facts can be considered as consequences of prolonged radiation influence on human organism: long-lasting state of apathy and indifference typical of the population of Armenia during the period of more than a year after the earthquake, prevalence of malignant cancer forms in disaster zones, dominating lung cancer and so on. All urban territories of seismically active regions are exposed to the threat of natural earthquake-provoked radiation influence

  19. Mechanisms of radon injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, F.T.

    1988-01-01

    In this new project, they conduct molecular, cellular and whole-animal research relevant to understanding the inhalation toxicology of radon and radon-daughter exposures. The work specifically addresses the exposure-rate effect in radon-daughter carcinogenesis; the induction-promotion relationships associated with exposure to radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures; the role of oncogenes in radon-induced cancers; the effects of radon on DNA as well as on DNA repair processes; and the involvement of growth factors and their receptors in radon-induced carcinogenesis. Preliminary experiments showed that oncogenes are activated in radon-induced lung tumors. They have therefore begun further exposures pertinent to the oncogene and growth-factor studies. An in vitro radon cellular-exposure system was designed, and cell exposures were initiated. Initiation-promotion-initiation studies with radon and cigarette-smoke mixtures have also begun; and they are compiling a radon health-effects bibliography

  20. Installation and testing of indoor radon reduction techniques in 40 eastern Pennsylvania houses. Final report, October 1984-June 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, A.G.; Robertson, A.; Findlay, W.O.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the installation and testing of indoor radon-reduction techniques in 40 houses in eastern Pennsylvania. Early in 1985, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PDER) started a large radon survey in communities in the Reading Prong (a granite formation) in eastern Pennsylvania, following the discovery of a house with extremely high radon concentrations, greater than 1.2 MBq/cu m. Candidate houses for the program, with radon concentrations in excess of 750 Bq/cu m, were selected from this survey. A total of 40 houses with representative substructure types were chosen from this group, and mitigation methods were selected and installed from June 1985 to June 1987. Initial soil-ventilation installations achieved large reductions in radon concentrations at low cost, but these reductions were not always sustained in colder weather, and several systems were modified during the project to improve their performance. Major reductions in radon concentration were realized in all the houses worked on, with most houses with active soil ventilation systems achieving less than 150 Bq/cu m (4 pCi/L) on an annual average basis in the living areas

  1. Radon in dwellings and shelters in Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.; Bauman, A.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1990, radon activity was measured in dwellings of Zagreb. In only small number of dwellings radon activity exceeded 100 Bq.m -3 . Since the inhabitants of Croatia have to stay in the facilities below the ground due to the war against Croatia, the paper gives also data on radon activity measured in the shelters and cellars in 1991. Measurements were performed using Kodak LR-115 detectors, type II. At several locations radon activity was measured with a silicon detector (Radhome). Radon values obtained for the shelters, cellars and dwellings at all locations were compared. With respect to children as most susceptable population group the paper gives data on radon activity for kindergartens and elementary schools (and its shelters) where children usually spend almost one-third to the day. (orig.)

  2. Air pollution. Actions to promote radon testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, Peter F.; Adams, Charles M.; McGee, William F.; Goldsmith, Larry A.; Feldesman, Alice G.; Grissinger, Charles R.; Updegraff, William D.; Langdon, Robin S.; Bartholomew, Philip L.

    1992-12-01

    To promote radon testing, EPA initiated public information and awareness programs and provided grants to states to develop programs aimed at encouraging homeowners to test for radon. Nationwide telephone surveys, according to EPA, indicate that these efforts have raised the public awareness of radon to as high as 78 percent but that about only 9 percent of those surveyed have tested their homes for radon. Concerned about improving risk reduction through its radon program, EPA convened a review panel. The panel not only recommended in May 1992 that the current voluntary approach be continued but also called for program changes to encourage more testing. These changes include targeting public information and other resources to areas where radon levels are predicted to be high and promoting testing and mitigation at the time of real estate transactions. To support state radon efforts, the Congress authorized a grant program for yearly grants of $10 million for 3 years. Funds for this program were recently extended for a fourth year through fiscal year 1993. Information to measure states' success in promoting testing by homeowners was generally not available because (1) much of the grant funding has been used to identify the extent of the radon problem; (2) federally funded public information projects were often directed to large audiences, making it difficult to measure testing rates; and (3) EPA's evaluation process for the grant program did not contain a component to measure increases in testing. We did, however, identify some state projects that have increased radon testing by targeting program efforts to homes in areas with potentially high levels of radon. The results of the state projects would seem to support the EPA review panel's recommendations on promoting radon testing through targeting program resources. In two states we surveyed, the voluntary use of disclosure statements as part of a real estate sales contract was a frequent occurrence, and in one state

  3. BGS Radon Protective Measures GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, D.; Adlam, K.

    2000-01-01

    The British Geological Survey Radon Protective Measures Geographical Information System is described. The following issues are highlighted: Identification of development sites where radon protection is required in new dwellings; Mapping radon potential on the basis of house radon and geology; Radon Protective Measures GIS; Radon site reports; and Follow-up radon protective measures sire reports

  4. The distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania (Romania) - influence of the natural and anthropogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucos Dinu, Alexandra; Baciu, Calin; Dicu, Tiberius; Papp, Botond; Moldovan, Mircea; Bety Burghele, Denissa; Tenter, Ancuta; Szacsvai, Kinga

    2017-04-01

    Exposure to radon in homes and workplaces is now recognized as the most important natural factor in causing lung cancer. Radon activity is usually higher in buildings than in the outside atmosphere, as it may be released from building materials and soil beneath the constructions, and the concentration builds-up indoor, due to the low air renewal rates. Indoor radon levels can vary from one to multiple orders of magnitude over time and space, as it depends on several natural and anthropogenic factors, such us the radon concentration in soil under the construction, the weather conditions, the degree of containment in the areas where individuals are exposed, building materials, outside air, tap water and even city gas, the architecture, equipment (chimney, mechanical ventilation systems, etc.), the environmental parameters of the building (temperature, pressure, etc.), and on the occupants' lifestyle. The study presents the distribution of indoor radon in Transylvania, Romania, together with the measurements of radon in soil and soil water. Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors exposed for 3 months on ground-floor level of dwellings, according to the NRPB Measurement Protocol. Radon concentrations in soil and water were measured using the LUK3C device. A complete map was plotted at the date, based on 3300 indoor radon measurements, covering an area of about 42% of the Romanian territory. The indoor radon concentrations ranged from 5 to 3287 Bq m-3, with an updated preliminary arithmetic mean of 179 Bq m-3, and a geometric mean of 122 Bq m-3. In about 11% of the investigated grid cells the indoor radon concentrations exceed the threshold of 300 Bq m-3. The soil gas radon concentration varies from 0.8 to 169 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 26 kBq m-3. For water samples, the results show radon concentrations within the range of 0.3 - 352.2 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 7.7 Bq L-1. A weak correlation between the three sets of values

  5. Establishment of a radon test chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chingjiang; Liu Chichang; Lin Yuming

    1993-01-01

    A walk-in type radon test chamber of 23 m 3 has been built for testing and calibration of radon measurement instruments. The environmental conditions of the test chamber can be varied within a wide range of values. The design objectives specification, monitoring instruments and testing results of this chamber are discussed. This test chamber is available for domestic radon researchers and its accuracy can be traced to the international standard. A routine intercomparison study will be held annually by using this chamber. Other tests like radon progeny and thoron standard may also be performed in this chamber. (1 fig.)

  6. Nanodosimetry and nanodosimetric-based models of radiation action for radon alpha particles. Final performance technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaider, M.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop theoretical/computational tools for evaluating the risks incurred by populations exposed to radon alpha particles. Topics of concern include the following: compound dual radiation action (general aspects); a mathematical formalism describing the yield of radiation induced single-and double-strand DNA breaks, and its dependence on radiation quality; a study of the excited states in cytosine and guanine stacks in the Hartree-Fock and exciton approximations; nanodosimetry of radon alpha particles; application of the HSEF to assessing radiation risks in the practice of radiation protection; carcinogenic risk coefficients at environmental levels of radon exposures: a microdosimetric approach; and hit-size effectiveness approach in radiation protection

  7. Radon Survey in Hospitals in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaupotic, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Slovenia, several radon studies at workplaces have been carried out in last years, supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Sport, and the Ministry of Health. After radon surveys in kindergartens, schools and homes, within which about 2600 buildings were checked for radon and which provided the level of radon problem in the country, next investigations were focused on the workplaces with potentially higher radon risk. Hence, in the Postojna Cave permanent radon monitoring was introduced in 1995 and comprehensive radon studies were performed: in 5 bigger spas during 1996-1998, in major waterworks and wine cellars in 2001, and in major Slovene hospitals in 2002. This paper reports the results of radon study in 26 major Slovene hospitals, comprising radon concentrations in 201 rooms and dose estimates for 1025 persons working in these rooms. Radon survey in 201 rooms of 26 major hospitals in Slovenia revealed only 7 rooms in which monthly average radon concentration in the indoor air exceeded 400 Bqm -3 . Generally, concentrations in basement were on average for about 30% higher than in ground floor, although exceptionally high values have also been found in the ground floor. For 966 persons (94.2%) of the total of 1025 persons working in the rooms surveyed, the annual effective dose, estimated according to the Basic Safety Standards was below 1 mSv, while for 59 it exceeded 1 mSv. In 7 rooms with more than 400 Bqm -3 in which 16 persons receive between 2.1 and 7.3 mSv per year radon monitoring is continued. (author)

  8. A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjær, A.; Andersen, C.E.; Majborn, B.

    1996-01-01

    A search profile for dwellings with elevated radon levels has been employed to investigate possibly radon-prone areas in Denmark and to find houses suitable for radon mitigation studies. The profile is defined as dwellings which are single-family houses with slab-on-grade foundation or partly...... basement/slab-on-grade foundation built on either fractured granitic basement rocks, or fractured limestone. Clayey till areas were also included in the profile in order to confirm earlier findings. Three areas representing these surface geologies were selected for indoor radon measurements with CR-39...... track detectors, and a total of 200 houses matching the profile underwent radon measurements during the winter 1994-95. The distribution of the measured radon concentrations were found in most cases to comply with log-normal distributions. Measurements in the living rooms of houses in each of the three...

  9. Radon and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chobanova, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Radon is radioactive noble gas that can be found in soil, water, outdoor and indoor air. Since environmental radon on average accounts for about half of all human exposure to radiation from natural sources, increasing attention has been paid to exposure to radon and its associated health risks. Many countries have introduced regulations to protect their population from radon in dwellings and workplaces. In this article are discussed main characteristics of radon, including sources of exposure, variation in radon exposure, how managing risks from radon exposure, how to measure the concentration of radon. There are results of measurements conducted under the 'National radon programme' in Bulgaria also. Key words: radon, sources of exposure, risk, cancer, measure to decrease the concentration [bg

  10. Determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using surface barrier detector for various shapes of passive radon dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, K. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group; Fazal-ur-Rehman [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group; Ali, S. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group; Khan, H.A. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Environ. Radiat. Group

    1997-03-21

    In the field of radon dosimetry, it is customary to measure radon ({sup 222}Rn) concentration while potential health hazard is due to the radon short-lived progeny. When radon is in secular equilibrium, the measured activity of radon equals the activity of radon`s progeny. However, in practical cases an inequilibrium between radon and its progeny exists which is measured in terms of the equilibrium factor. To determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in a closed environment various shapes of passive dosimeters based upon solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are employed. In order to observe the dependence of equilibrium factor upon shapes or effective volumes, experiments have been performed replacing the SSNTDs with a surface barrier detector in Karlsruhe diffusion chamber, pen-type and box-type dosimeters. Using the collected alpha spectra, the equilibrium factor has been determined for a radon-air mixture in a custom designed radon chamber simulating a closed environment of a room. The results show that the radon equilibrium factor is about 0.20 for different shapes of dosimeters studied in this research. It is concluded that the determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny does not depend upon effective volume or shape of the passive dosimeters using alpha spectroscopic data acquired by surface barrier detector. (orig.).

  11. Radon dynamics in underwater thermal radon therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettner, H.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler, R.; Rolle, R.; Foisner, W.

    1998-01-01

    At a facility for underwater thermal radon therapy in Bad Hofgastein, experiments were carried out with the aim of establishing radon in the air exhaled by the treated patients and of radon decay products on the skin of the patients. The time course of radon concentration in the exhaled air shows a maximum a few minutes after entering the bath, then the Rn concentration remains constant over the remaining time spent in the bath. Taking into account several simplifying assumptions, the average dose to the epidermis from radon daughters is about 50 μGy. (A.K.)

  12. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  13. Radon measurements in mines and dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, M.

    1985-01-01

    Radon measurements using a time integrating passive radon dosemeter (MAKROFOL track etch detector) have been performed in Brazilian and German mines and dwellings. The present state of the measurement technique is summarized. The results are presented together with exposure calculations and dose estimations for occupational exposure in open pit and underground mines and for the general public in houses. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Environmental Concentration of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Nuclear Facility in a Decommissioning Stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, M. P.; Correa, E.; Sancho, C.

    1999-01-01

    According to the new European Directive 96/29/EURATOM the radiological risk due to natural radionuclides must be consider and the pertinent periodic control must be realized. During the works performed at CIEMAT an estimation of the effective average doses due to Radon inhalation in work places of the installation have been performed. Radon and Radon progeny concentration has been measured in continuous joint whit the meteorological conditions as temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Two different equipment has been used: Alpha-guard whit ionization chamber detector and Eda-wlm-300 whit a semiconductor detector. A passive Radon detector, E-perm has been simultaneously used in the monitoring system. The results obtained during the measuring of Radon and Radon progeny concentrations indoors and estimation of doses have been analyzed and are presented in the paper. (Author) 11 refs

  15. Radon, a real threat to our health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, T.; Mauna, A.; Ghita, R.

    2005-01-01

    Radon is invisible, odorless and tasteless a radioactive gas that comes from the radioactive decay of naturally occurring uranium and thorium in soil and rock, can concentrate in domestic homes, overground workplaces, and caves. Radon has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancers in the U.S., about 20.000 per year, and is present in millions of homes. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) of USA designated January 2005 as National Radon Action Month (NRAM) and held the second week of October every year as National Radon Action Week (NRAW). The focus of NRAM and NRW is to promote awareness about, testing for and mitigation of indoor radon gas with various events and outreach campaigns. The EPA considering radon exposure as capital problem for the population health decided to have a special dedicated free phone number the similar for every county state of USA taking into account the increase easy call by interested people. Many universities and research centers, including NGO from different countries world wide, following the recommendation of 'United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation' (USNCEAR) and 'International Commission on Radiological Protection ' (ICRP) until 1977, developed their own radon researches in order to clarify the properties, area distribution and concentration, geological production and other needed aspects. This paper compare the radon risk versus radioactive waste gaseous Nuclear Power Plant release in normal or abnormal operation and underlines the needs for Romanian's radiation research laboratories to undertake radon protection programs similar to to those underway in other countries. (authors)

  16. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, G

    1999-07-01

    50-500 Bq/l for public waters and 200-1000 Bq/l for private water supplies. 4 EU member states and 11 non-EU European countries have reference levels for the concentration of radioactive elements in building materials. 8 European countries have guidelines regarding radon at city planning and 13 have mapped the radon risk in their countries. It is essential to the work against radon and to future reduction of radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces that the national states issue recommendations, regulations, directives or laws on radon limits and building practices. In order to have a significant effect on the radon situation, the questionnaire responses show that radon reference levels and regulations must be enforced or very little progress is achieved. Extensive measurement and research programs have been carried out in many in countries. Heretofore, only those countries with enforced regulations have had successful programs, resulting in remedial actions in more than 10,000 buildings. The only exception is USA, which concentrated on extensive information media campaigns on radon and the training of large numbers of contractors to perform measurements and remedial measures.

  17. Radon legislation and national guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, G.

    1999-07-01

    -500 Bq/l for public waters and 200-1000 Bq/l for private water supplies. 4 EU member states and 11 non-EU European countries have reference levels for the concentration of radioactive elements in building materials. 8 European countries have guidelines regarding radon at city planning and 13 have mapped the radon risk in their countries. It is essential to the work against radon and to future reduction of radon concentrations in dwellings and workplaces that the national states issue recommendations, regulations, directives or laws on radon limits and building practices. In order to have a significant effect on the radon situation, the questionnaire responses show that radon reference levels and regulations must be enforced or very little progress is achieved. Extensive measurement and research programs have been carried out in many in countries. Heretofore, only those countries with enforced regulations have had successful programs, resulting in remedial actions in more than 10,000 buildings. The only exception is USA, which concentrated on extensive information media campaigns on radon and the training of large numbers of contractors to perform measurements and remedial measures

  18. Mitigation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, S.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that experience in the remediation of schools and other large buildings has shown the importance of the effects of both the location of geologic sources and HVAC-induced distribution of indoor radon. In general, elevated radon in areas of schools with evenly distributed HVAC pressures are correlated with maximum soil radon emanations. However, strong or unequal HVAC effects can redistribute indoor radon to areas away from the direct source. Effective remediation required a complete understanding of both contributions. In some schools, highest indoor radon levels were located near large return ducts and were attributed to proximity to negative HVAC pressure. Successful sub-slab depressurization systems were installed, however, in rooms with lower indoor but greatest sub-slab radon levels, closest to the source. This shows the inadequacy of using indoor radon levels alone as a basis for remediation. Wings of two other schools with radon problems have equivalent window fan coil units in rooms of equal size and no central HVAC system. Highest indoor radon levels correlated well with highest sub-slab radon levels due to the equivalent effects of the window units. Diagnostic tests in other schools have revealed: blockwall radon transport to upper floors; high blockwall radon adjacent to sub-slab sources; and elevated indoor radon over crawlspace being drawn upward by HVAC-induced negative pressure, determined from indoor to outdoor micromanometer measurements

  19. First year evaluation of EPA's radon contractor proficiency (RCP) program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a voluntary program to evaluate radon reduction contractors and provide this information to the public, as part of activities mandated by the Indoor Radon Abatement Act (IRAA) of 1988. The Radon Contractor Proficiency Program consists of several elements that collectively help to ensure the proficiency of radon mitigators and give the public greater confidence in their capability. Contractors who participate in the program must pass a written examination, adhere to mitigation guidelines, keep records of work, meet continuing education requirements and pass a re-examination every two years. Upon meeting the program's requirements, mitigators are listed in EPA's National RCP Proficiency Report. The first Report released on May 15, 1990 listed 636 contractors. The second Report, to be release in August, will list 895 contractors, representing an increase of 40 per cent

  20. Evaluation of experiences in long-term radon and radon-daughter measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.A.; Jackson, P.O.; Thomas, V.W.

    1982-12-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is performing side-by-side measurements of radon and radon daughter concentrations using several instruments and techniques, and is comparing these measurements with side-by-side measurements made by other investigators at other locations. The standard deviation of the differences between the (natural) logarithms of the Terradex Track Etch radon concentrations and the logarithms of the Radon Progency Integrating Sampling Units (RPISU) radon daughter concentrations (S.D.-ln) measured in 50 buildings in Edgemont, South Dakota, was 0.37. Using this S.D.-ln, it can be calculated that if the Track Etch radon daughter concentration is 0.010 WL there should be only a 14% probability that the RPISU average would be greater than 0.015 WL, and only a 3% probability tht the RPISU average would be greater than 0.020 WL. If buildings had been cleared from remedial action when the Track Etch averages were less than 0.10 WL, then about 61% of the buildings would have been cleared from remedial action, and only a few percent of these buildings would have actually had average RPISU concentrations greater than 0.015 WL. The S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements made by ALARA at Grand Junction, the PERM radon measurements and the MOD-225 radon daughter measurements made by Mound Facility at Canonsburg and Middlesex, and the PERM and Track Etch radon measurements made by Mound Facility at Salt Lake City were similar to the S.D.-ln between the Track Etch radon measurements and the RPISU radon daughter measurements at Edgemont

  1. Radon diagnostics and tracer gas measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jilek, K.; Brabec, M.

    2004-01-01

    An outline is presented of the tracer gas technique, which is used for continuous measurements of air ventilation rate (generally time-varying) and for simultaneous estimation of air ventilation rate and radon entry rate, and some of its limitations are discussed. The performance of this technique in the calculation of the air ventilation rate is demonstrated on real data from routine measurements. The potential for air ventilation rate estimation based on radon measurements only is discussed. A practical application is described of the tracer gas technique to a simultaneous estimation of the air ventilation rate and radon entry rate in a real house where the effectiveness of radon remedy was tested. The following main advantages of the CO tracer gas techniques are stressed: (i) The averaging method continuous determination of the ventilation rate with good accuracy (≤ 20 %). (ii) The newly presented and verified method based on simultaneous measurements of radon concentration and CO gas concentration enables separate continuous measurements of the radon entry rate and ventilation rate. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the inaccuracy in determination of radon entry rate showed acceptable and good agreement up to approximately 10 %. The results of comparative measurements performed with the aim to estimate the mutual commensuration of the method to the determination of the ventilation rate confirmed the expected unreliability the two parametric non-linear regression method, which is the most frequently used method in radon diagnostic in the Czech Republic

  2. Radon programme: presence and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation an overview of radon programme experiences is presented. The paper summarises national radon policy, national programmes, legislation, the role of preventive measures and interventions with respect to existing and future exposure and knowledge of radon risk, problems of remediation strategies, practical protection in dwellings, radon measurements strategies, progress in radon measurement of an individual house (radon diagnosis), radon mapping process and sense of delineation of radon prone areas, natural radioactivity of building materials and radioactivity in public water and their role in the radon programme, public awareness on radon issue and publicity campaign. Some research activities are proposed aiming at effective solutions of radon issues in future

  3. Radon remediation of a two-storey UK dwelling by active sub-slab depressurization: observations on hourly Radon concentration variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radon concentration levels in a two-storey detached single-family dwelling in Northamptonshire, UK, were monitored at hourly intervals throughout a 5-week period during which sub-slab depressurization remediation measures, including an active sump system, were installed. Remediation of the property was accomplished successfully, with the mean radon levels upstairs and downstairs greatly reduced and the prominent diurnal variability in radon levels present prior to remediation almost completely removed. Following remediation, upstairs and downstairs radon concentrations were 32% and 16% of their pre-remediation values respectively. The mean downstairs radon concentration was lower than that upstairs, with pre-and post-remediation values of the upstairs/downstairs concentration ratio, R U/D , of 0.93 and 1.76 respectively. Cross-correlation between upstairs and downstairs radon concentration time-series indicates a time-lag of the order of 1 hour or less, suggesting that diffusion of soil-derived radon from downstairs to upstairs either occurs within that time frame or forms a relatively insignificant contribution to the upstairs radon level. Cross-correlation between radon concentration time-series and the corresponding time-series for local atmospheric parameters demonstrated correlation between radon concentrations and internal/external pressure-difference prior to remediation. This correlation disappears following remediation, confirming the effectiveness of the remediation procedure in mitigating radon ingress from the ground via the stack-effect. Overall, these observations provide further evidence that radon emanation from building materials makes a not insignificant contribution to radon concentration levels within the building. Furthermore, since this component remains essentially unaffected by sub-slab depressurization, its proportional contribution to the total radon levels in the home increases following remediation, leading to the conclusion that where

  4. HPNAIDM: The High-Performance Network Anomaly/Intrusion Detection and Mitigation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan [Northwesten University

    2013-12-05

    Identifying traffic anomalies and attacks rapidly and accurately is critical for large network operators. With the rapid growth of network bandwidth, such as the next generation DOE UltraScience Network, and fast emergence of new attacks/virus/worms, existing network intrusion detection systems (IDS) are insufficient because they: • Are mostly host-based and not scalable to high-performance networks; • Are mostly signature-based and unable to adaptively recognize flow-level unknown attacks; • Cannot differentiate malicious events from the unintentional anomalies. To address these challenges, we proposed and developed a new paradigm called high-performance network anomaly/intrustion detection and mitigation (HPNAIDM) system. The new paradigm is significantly different from existing IDSes with the following features (research thrusts). • Online traffic recording and analysis on high-speed networks; • Online adaptive flow-level anomaly/intrusion detection and mitigation; • Integrated approach for false positive reduction. Our research prototype and evaluation demonstrate that the HPNAIDM system is highly effective and economically feasible. Beyond satisfying the pre-set goals, we even exceed that significantly (see more details in the next section). Overall, our project harvested 23 publications (2 book chapters, 6 journal papers and 15 peer-reviewed conference/workshop papers). Besides, we built a website for technique dissemination, which hosts two system prototype release to the research community. We also filed a patent application and developed strong international and domestic collaborations which span both academia and industry.

  5. Indoor radon epidemiological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, E; Tomasek, L; Mueller, T [National Radiation Protection Institute, Prague (Czech Republic); Placek, V [Inst. for Expertises and Emergencies, Pribram-Kamenna (Czech Republic); Matzner, J; Heribanova, A [State Office for Nuclear Safety, Prague (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    The study is a long-term prospective cohort study of lung cancer and possibility other causes of death. The study population includes inhabitants of the area, who had resided there for at three years and at least one of these between 1.1.1960 and 21.12.1989. A total of 11865 inhabitants satisfied these criteria. The cumulative exposure of each respondent is being assessed on the basis of measurements in dwellings, time spent there and estimation of previous exposure levels by a model accounting for constructional changes in buildings. One year lasting measurements of radon daughter products by integral dosimeters (Kodak film LR 115) were performed in practically all dwellings of the specified area. Radon measurements in houses in term of equilibrium concentration are compared with the results of a pilot study in Petrovice in 1990-91 which gave the stimulus for the epidemiological study. The distribution of death causes and ratio of observed (O) to expected (E) cases among collected death cases in the cohort, generally, somewhat lower ratios than one reflect the non-industrial character of the region, with the exception of lung cancer in man. The differences in the O/E ratios for lung cancer among the separate communities indicate that even in the situation of generally lower mortality, the dependence of lung cancer mortality on radon.

  6. A detailed study of inexpensive radon control techniques in New York state houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, I.A.; Wadach, J.B.; Clarke, W.A.; Traynor, G.W.; Adams, G.P.; Rizzuto, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive indoor air quality and infiltration field study, radon concentrations were measured in 60 houses in upstate New York using passive integrating monitors. Indoor air radon concentrations ranged from 0.2 pCi/l to 50 pCi/l. Four houses with the highest radon levels were then extensively monitored using real-time continuous instruments for the measurement of radon, radon daughters, respirable particles, infiltration, inside-outside pressure difference, and weather parameters. Several inexpensive radon mitigation techniques were tested in these four houses. Their effectiveness ranged widely. Techniques identified as effective were permanently installed in 14 houses having indoor air radon concentration above 2 pCi/l. Finally, the long-term effectiveness of the installed control techniques is being tested using passive integrating radon monitors. (Author)

  7. Studies of Radon and Radon Progeny in Air Conditioned Rooms in Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.; Denman, A.R.; Phillips, P.S.

    1998-01-01

    A series of continuous real-time radon and radon progeny measurements together with passive etched track detector measurements were performed in hospital premises during 1996. In one small room, detailed measurements over several weeks showed that both the radon concentration and the Equilibrium Factor depended on the intermittent operation of a filtered positive pressure displacement air-conditioning system, which was designed to conform to operating theatre standards. The average radon level measured while the air-conditioning was off was almost four times higher than that recorded whilst it was on. The progeny level was over five times higher than that whilst it was on. Thus, the Equilibrium Factor (F), was significantly lower when the air-conditioning was on. Measurements in similar rooms in two hospitals, confirmed that the reduction in radon level was a general finding. Thus staff working in such environments receive significantly lower radiation dose from radon than staff working in nearby normally ventilated rooms. (author)

  8. Development of a portable radon progeny monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Important nuclides in the radon family contributing to the effective dose are the members of the radon short-life progeny, 218 Po and 214 Po and direct measurement of these progenies is suitable for dosimetry. Survey of the radon progeny concentrations in a number of dwellings and offices is very difficult because we have no convenient instrument for the measurement. At present, radon dosimetry is carried out based on the concentration of the parent radon itself. Therefore, for accurate estimation of public or personal effective dose, it is necessary to develop a facile and portable radon progeny monitor. In this study, a portable radon progeny monitor (PRPM) was designed and developed to automatically estimate the individual progeny concentration in the natural environment. The properties of PRPM were investigated. The dimensions of the entire instrument were 65 x 145 x 170 mm and the total weight was 780 g. The portability of PRPM was much superior to the conventional instrument. The PRPM can operate automatically to estimate individual progeny concentration. All component materials of the monitor were selected based on the data of specified performance, cost performance and availability bon the market. The concentration of individual radon progeny was estimated by the build-up decay. It was concluded that PRPM is much suitable for outdoor study and personal dose estimation, as well as indoor measurement. In the field survey, especially in mines and caverns, PRPM is found as a valuable and convenient instrument. (M.N.)

  9. Developmental toxicology of radon exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikov, M.R.; Cross, F.T.; Mast, T.J.; Palmer, H.E.; James, A.C.; Thrall, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Concerns about hazards associated with radon exposure in dwellings may be especially relevant to pregnant women, many of whom spend substantial amounts of time in their homes. There are few data concerning the placental transfer and fetoplacental distribution of inhaled radon and decay products or their effects on the conceptus. We performed a study in rats to determine if prenatal effects could be produced by prolonged inhalation exposures to high concentrations of radon throughout gestation. A group of 43 pregnant rats was exposed 18 h d -1 , at a rate of 124 working level months (WLM) per day, from 6 to 19 days of gestation (dg), of radon and daughters adsorbed onto ore dust. A group of 26 pregnant rats from the same shipment was exposed to a filtered-air atmosphere as controls. At 20 dg, the rats were removed from the chambers, killed, and necropsied. The fetuses were evaluated for the presence of toxic effects, which included detailed teratology protocols. These exposures did not produce detectable reproductive toxicity nor teratogenic change. Two other rats were removed from the radon chambers during the last day of exposure, and their tissues were analyzed to determine the distribution of radioactivity and for dosimetry. Samples from these rats suggested that the dose rates to the placenta were roughly threefold those to the fetus but were similar to those to the liver and femur of the pregnant rats. These data indicate that the dose to the conceptus from the decay of placentally transferred radon and its progeny is more important than the contribution of translocated decay products. Translocated radon decay products are an important source of radiation doses to placental structures, however, and may have most of the radioactivity content at birth

  10. Assessment of indoor radon gas concentration change of college

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Jeong, Eui Hwan; Kim, Hak Jae; Lyu, Kang Yeul [Dept. of of Radiological Technology, Shingu College, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Songho College, Hoengseong (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact by comparing the concentration of indoor radon and look for ways to lower the concentration of indoor radon gas measurements of three variables, the year of completion, volume of the building and ventilation. Measurement target is six classrooms on the sixth floor of building that was constructed in 1973 and was extended in 2011. Selected classroom's volume is different. Four classrooms were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the year of completion, Classrooms that is same year of completion were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the volume, six classroom was performed closure and ventilation to compare radon concentration according to ventilation. Radon concentrations in accordance with the year of building completion showed a high concentration of radon in a building recently built. Also, Radon concentration in volume is high the smaller the volume. Radon concentration change according to ventilation showed a reduction of about 80% when the ventilation than during closing. Especially, The radon concentrations were high detected while the recently year of building completion and the smaller volume. Ventilation of the three variables is considered that can be expected to exposure reduction effect by radon affecting the greatest radon concentration reduction.

  11. Assessment of indoor radon gas concentration change of college

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon Hee; Jeong, Eui Hwan; Kim, Hak Jae; Lyu, Kang Yeul; Lee, Ju Young

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact by comparing the concentration of indoor radon and look for ways to lower the concentration of indoor radon gas measurements of three variables, the year of completion, volume of the building and ventilation. Measurement target is six classrooms on the sixth floor of building that was constructed in 1973 and was extended in 2011. Selected classroom's volume is different. Four classrooms were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the year of completion, Classrooms that is same year of completion were selected to compare the radon concentration in accordance with the volume, six classroom was performed closure and ventilation to compare radon concentration according to ventilation. Radon concentrations in accordance with the year of building completion showed a high concentration of radon in a building recently built. Also, Radon concentration in volume is high the smaller the volume. Radon concentration change according to ventilation showed a reduction of about 80% when the ventilation than during closing. Especially, The radon concentrations were high detected while the recently year of building completion and the smaller volume. Ventilation of the three variables is considered that can be expected to exposure reduction effect by radon affecting the greatest radon concentration reduction

  12. Independent Review of Mitigating System Performance Indicator Reporting in the EPIX Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wierman, Thomas Edward [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2009-05-01

    This report summarizes work done to verify the component, failure mode, and method of detection information provided in the Equipment Performance Information Exchange (EPIX) to support implementation of Mitigating Systems Performance Indices. This task is to select reports from EPIX and determine if their categorization as MSPI or non-MSPI failures is consistent with the development of unreliability baseline failure rates, and whether this significantly affects estimates of plant risk. This review is of all MSPI devices in EPIX that were reported as failures. The components include emergency generators; motor-driven, turbine-driven, and enginedriven pumps; and air and motor-operated valves. The date range for this report includes all MSPI device reported failures from 2003 to the most current EPIX data at the INL (up to the 3rd quarter 2008).

  13. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  14. Methods of radon remediation in Finnish dwellings; Asuntojen radonkorjauksen menetelmaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-12-01

    A study was made of remedial measures taken in dwellings with high indoor radon concentrations and the results obtained. The data regarding the remedial measures taken in 400 dwellings was obtained from a questionnaire study. The mean annual average indoor radon concentration before the remedies was 1.500 Bq/m{sup 3}, the concentration exceeding in nearly every house the action level of 400 Bq/m{sup 3}. After the measures were taken the mean indoor radon concentration was 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The resulting indoor radon concentration was less than 400 Bq/m{sup 3} in 60 percent of the dwellings. The best results were achieved using sub-slab-suction and radon well. These methods effectively decrease both the flow of radon bearing air from soil into dwellings and the radon concentration of leakage air. Typical reduction rates in radon concentration were 70-95 percent. The action level was achieved in more than 70 percent of the houses. Sealing the entry routes and improvement of the ventilation resulted typically in reduction rates of 10-50 percent. The goal of the report is to give useful information for the house owners, the do-it-yourself-mitigators, the mitigation firms and the local authorities. The report includes practical guidance, price information and examples of remedial measures. (13 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.).

  15. Radon reduction in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raff, O.; Haberer, K.; Wilken, R.D.; Funk, H.; Stueber, J.; Wanitschek, J.; Akkermann-Kubillus, A.; Stauder, S.

    2000-01-01

    The removal of radon from water using water aeration is one of the most effective methods for reducing radon in waterworks. Therefore, this report describes investigations on packed tower columns and shallow aeration devices and a method for mathematical modelling of gas exchange processes for dimensioning packed tower columns for radon removal. Moreover, possibilities for removing radon using active carbon filtration under waterworks typical conditions and for reducing indoor radon levels in waterworks are discussed. Finally, conclusions on the necessity of radon removal in German waterworks are drawn. (orig.) [de

  16. Psychosocial aspects of Czech Radon Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fojtikova, I.; Neznal, M.; Hrdy, L.

    2004-01-01

    In November 1999 a radon awareness survey was conducted among Czech republic residents to evaluate their general awareness and the factual knowledge about radon, radon measurements and radon mitigation. This survey, however, did not provide any detailed information on whether the respondents' knowledge is deep and structured or it is just a chaotic mixture of impressions. Therefore, a new survey was conducted from May to November 2001. About 20 respondents, in whose houses the long term testing for radon levels had just been finished, were interviewed. The in-depth interviews had several main aims: a) to obtain a more detailed understanding of their general awareness and factual knowledge about radon; b) to learn more about the sources of their knowledge and of their perception of the radon risk; c) to get information as to whether householders accept radon remediation, and to identify any personal, attitudinal or other variables that can influence the householder's decision; and d) to experience the direct risk communication and conceive its effectiveness. The interviews confirmed some results of the former quantitative study, e.g. increasing knowledge correlating with increasing education level. They showed that the public, overloaded with information, is not disposed to search actively for other information sources (e.g. on the Internet). People perceive their knowledge as adequate and sufficient. Their approach to gathering information is very passive. Therefore, to enhance public understanding of radiation phenomena it is necessary to make efforts, including the use of public media, otherwise radioactivity will remain shrouded in myths. These myths often lead to underestimation of the radon risk. A typical example of such underestimation is a contention that there exist long-aged healthy people who live in extreme radon concentrations. Together with the interviews, a questionnaire describing 11 presumably risky situations or practices was used. Among other

  17. Radon programme in Czech Republic. Results, experience and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulka, J.; Thomas, J.; Fojtikova, I.; Vlcek, J.; Moucka, L.; Fronka, A.; Jilek, K.; Heribanova, A.; Slovak, J.; Barnet, I.; Burian, I.; Jiranek, M.; Cechak, T.

    2004-01-01

    , identified with the help of geological radon prediction maps and results of representative indoor radon surveys. It is expected that some 60000-70000 family houses will be above the intervention level of 400 Bq/m 3 . A total of 130000 such houses have been examined so far, and 20000 of them were above the intervention level. Building owners can apply for governmental radon mitigation subsidy. Prior to remedial measures, radon diagnosis is carried out to objectify the radon concentrations, identify radon sources and prepare the radon mitigation design. Since a survey of the long-term effectiveness of remedial measures has shown that 25 % of them failed in some years, long-term after-mitigation test measurements are of importance. A Radon Bulletin and special leaflets are published periodically to improve public awareness of the radon issue. A quantitative survey gave evidence that the level of awareness among the Czech population is 75 %

  18. Determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny using surface barrier detector for various shapes of passive radon dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, K.; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Ali, S.; Khan, H.A.

    1997-01-01

    In the field of radon dosimetry, it is customary to measure radon ( 222 Rn) concentration while potential health hazard is due to the radon short-lived progeny. When radon is in secular equilibrium, the measured activity of radon equals the activity of radon's progeny. However, in practical cases an inequilibrium between radon and its progeny exists which is measured in terms of the equilibrium factor. To determine the equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny in a closed environment various shapes of passive dosimeters based upon solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) are employed. In order to observe the dependence of equilibrium factor upon shapes or effective volumes, experiments have been performed replacing the SSNTDs with a surface barrier detector in Karlsruhe diffusion chamber, pen-type and box-type dosimeters. Using the collected alpha spectra, the equilibrium factor has been determined for a radon-air mixture in a custom designed radon chamber simulating a closed environment of a room. The results show that the radon equilibrium factor is about 0.20 for different shapes of dosimeters studied in this research. It is concluded that the determination of equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny does not depend upon effective volume or shape of the passive dosimeters using alpha spectroscopic data acquired by surface barrier detector. (orig.)

  19. Review of official measuring methods and official interpretations of measuring results used in the radon programme of the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.; Hulka, J.; Fojtikova, I.

    2004-01-01

    Attention is centered on the following topics: 1. Preventive measures (Monitoring the radioactivity in building materials; Monitoring the radioactivity in drinking water; Monitoring the evaluating building sites; Evaluating finished unoccupied new buildings; Survey of occupied new buildings); 2. Measuring methods in the intervention programme (Identification of houses with elevated radon risk; Testing the effectiveness of mitigation; Searching for radon sources - radon diagnosis); 3. Metrological assurance of the Czech Radon Programme. (P.A.)

  20. Radon hazard map in Bas-Rhin, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of radon (geochemical properties, origin, emanation and transfer to surface, related health hazard, exposure factor, modalities for the struggle against radon), of the study context, framework and objective, and of the Bas-Rhin geological context, this report presents the exploited data: definition of the geological uranium potential, direct measurements and geochemical analysis, indicators (lithologic characterization, surface radioactivity, drifting alluvial deposits), factors promoting inhalation, measurements in buildings. It presents and comments maps of the radon geological potential and of radon hazard. It proposes an assessment of radon potential hazard for different areas of the district, and reports measurements performed in Strasbourg, Eckbolsheim, Bischeim and Haguenau

  1. Continuous measurements of soil radon under regular field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Font, LL

    1999-01-01

    Continuous soil radon measurements were performed in the frame of an European Community-radon network using the Clipperton II detector. It has been found that in some periods, soil radon levels obtained with one Clipperton II probe are very different from those obtained with another probe placed at the same depth but a short distance apart. It has been also found that the response of the probes to a sudden change of radon concentration is controlled by the diffusion process along the bottom tube of the probe. Therefore, this study shows that the experimental data can be attributed to the natural behaviour of soil radon

  2. National survey of indoor radon levels in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Katic, M.; Faj, Z.; Lukacevic, I.; Planinic, J.; Suveljak, B.; Faj, D.; Lukic, M.

    2006-01-01

    National survey of indoor radon was performed by a random sampling of thousand (782 realized) dwellings in Croatia. Radon concentrations were measured for one year with LR-115 SSNT detectors and arithmetic and geometric means of 68 and 50 Bq/m 3 were obtained, respectively. The arithmetic means of radon concentrations on 20 counties were from 33 to 198 Bq/m 3 . The percentage of dwellings with radon concentrations above 200 and 400 Bq/m 3 was 5.4% and 1.8%, respectively. The average annual effective dose of the indoor radon was estimated as 2.2 mSv. (author)

  3. Radon in houses and soil of Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Miklavcic, I.; Planinic, J. [Osijek Univ., Dept. of Physics (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements in thousand Croatian homes, randomly selected, were performed by the LR-115 track etch detectors during a year 2003/2004. The obtained values of arithmetic means of radon concentrations in 20 Croatian counties were in range from 33 to 198 Bq/m{sup 3}, while the arithmetic and geometric means for Croatia were 68 and 50 Bq/m{sup 3}, respectively. Indoor radon concentrations follow log-normal distribution and the percentage of dwellings with concentrations above 400 Bq/m{sup 3} was 1.8 %. Radon concentrations in soil gas, at depth of 0.8 m, were measured by 'Alphaguard' measuring system. Association between levels of indoor and soil radon was investigated. (authors)

  4. Radon in geological medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hricko, J [GEOCOMPLEX, a.s., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a{sub v} has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km{sup 2}. The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a{sub v} > 50 kBq/m{sup 3}). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  5. Radon in geological medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hricko, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper presented deals with behavior of the radon in geological medium and with some results of the radon survey in Bratislava and Kosice regions. 1) The a v has been detected in the holes 0.80 m deep. The density of observations - 3 reference areas (one represents 20 stations) per 1 km 2 . The radon risk maps in 1:25000 and 1:50000 scales have been compiled. The 56.8% of the project area lies in low radon risk, 37.6% in medium radon risk and 5.6% in high radon risk. Follow-up monitoring of the equivalent volume radon activity (EVRA) at the flats, located in the areas with high radon risk of the surface layer, has showed values several times higher than Slovak limits (Marianka, Raca, Vajnory). The evidence that neotectonic is excellent medium for rising up emanation to the subsurface layer, is shown on the map. The tectonic zone of Liscie udolie in Bratislava-Karlova Ves area has been clearly detected by profile radon survey (a v > 50 kBq/m 3 ). 2) At present, northern half of the area of Kosice in question was covered by radon survey. The low and medium radon risks have been observed here, while localities with high radon risk are small in extent. The part of radon risk and soil permeability map from northern Kosice area is shown. (J.K.) 3 figs., 2 refs

  6. Radon sump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeham, C.J.R.

    1992-01-01

    A radon sump which can be installed easily by unskilled labour and which is cheap to produce comprises a unit in the form of a box-like housing having one or more walls, a floor and a roof, and is preferably made from a synthetic plastics material, optionally reinforced with glass fibre or other reinforcing material, the housing having a plurality of inlets in its wall or walls and at least one outlet leading to a pipe spigot which is made in one piece with the housing. Alternatively, the housing is made in concrete, in 3 pieces (floor, wall, roof) with a knock-out portion which can be removed for insertion of an outlet pipe. (Author)

  7. Draft of „National Radon Programme” 2013-2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanova, K.; Badulin, V.; Georgieva, R.

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization defines radon as the second most important causal factor for lung cancer after smoking and the number one factor for people who have never smoked. The draft of the new European Directive takes accounts the latest ICRP Recommendations for reducing radon exposure in buildings. The Directive requires Member States to bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions. The main goal of „National Radon Programme” is establishment and implementation of long-term policy to reduce and prevent risks of public health resulting from exposure to high concentrations of indoor radon in buildings. To achieve this are required: – to establish an appropriate system; – to carry out national survey and mapping of areas with radon background; – to establish radon prevention strategies in newly constructed buildings and radon mitigation strategies in existing buildings; – to improve public awareness; – to lay down a system for protection against radon in workplaces. The implementation of the program will contribute to reducing the public exposure due to indoors due to radon. Along with the reduction of smoking, it will directly and indirectly improve the prevention of lung cancer risks. (author)

  8. RADON AND CARCINOGENIC RISK IN MOSCOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Golovanev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: comparative evaluation of carcinogenic risk inMoscowfrom radon in indoor and atmospheric pollutants.Materials and methods: the lung cancer incidence in Moscow; radiation-hygienic passport of the territory; .U.S. EPA estimated average age at all and radon induced deaths, years of life lost; Report of UNSCEAR 2006 and WHO handbook on indoor radon, 2009. Trend analysis of incidence; evaluation of the excess relative risk; assessment of ratio radon-induced population risk and published values оf total population carcinogenic risk from chemical carcinogens.Results: it is shown that the 304 cases of lung cancer per year (1. 85 10-3 on average from 2006 to 2011 (21280diseases for 70 years in addition to background level induced by radon; the differences in average trends of all lungcancer incidence in the districts can exceed 25%.Conclusion. The potential of risk reduction by measures of mitigation radon concentration exceeds 5 times the cost efficiency to reduce emissions from vehicles and can reduce cancer incidence, on average 236 cases per year; population risk 16520 cases over 70 years or save not less than 2832 person-years of life per year. The annual effect of reducing losses from not-survival of 12 years as a result of radon-induced lung cancer deaths exceeds 14160000 dollars. The evaluating of the carcinogenic risk from radon in accordance with the definition of population risk increases the predictive evaluation of the effectiveness of preventive measures more than twice.

  9. Sequestration Coating Performance Requirements for Mitigation of Contamination from a Radiological Dispersion Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.

    2009-01-01

    Immediate action would be necessary to minimize the effects of a radiological 'dirty bomb' detonation in a major city. After a dirty bomb has been detonated, vehicular and pedestrian traffic, as well as weather effects, would increase the spread of loose contamination, making control and recovery more difficult and costly. While contaminant migration and chemical binding into surface materials can be relatively rapid, the immediate treatment of surfaces with large quantities of an appropriate compound could alleviate much of the difficulty in decontamination. The EPA's National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC), in collaboration with ASTM International, is currently developing performance standards for materials which could be applied to exterior surfaces contaminated by an RDD to mitigate the spread and migration of radioactive contamination. These performance standards are being promulgated via an ASTM Standard Specification to be published by ASTM International. Test methods will be developed to determine if candidate coatings meet the performance requirements stipulated in the ASTM performance standard. These test methods will be adapted from existing standard methods, or will be devised through laboratory research. The final set of test methods will be codified in an ASTM or other standard test method. The principal market for products described in the ASTM performance standard would be federal, state and local government emergency responders and response planners, decontamination service providers and those whose interests include protection and recovery of real estate potentially at risk from radiological terrorism. (authors)

  10. Measurements of radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Schelin, Hugo R.; Barbosa, Laercio; Sadula, Tatyana; Matsuzaki, Cristiana A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: After the decades of systematic and numerous studies performed at different countries of the World, it has been concluded that radon as well as its progeny is the main cause of lung cancer. It is well known that more than 50% of the effective annual radiation dose received by a human being is related to the radon and its progenies. Among the principle mechanisms that bring the radon inside the dwelling is the soil exhalation as well as exhalation and release from the water. Radon concentration in the soil and its transport (emanation, diffusion, advection and adsorption) to the surface depends on different physical, geological and ambient parameters such as the geology of the area, geochemical composition of the soil, its porosity and permeability, grain size, soil humidity, bottom sediments and inputs from streams, temperature, atmospheric pressure, etc. Since the main part of indoor radon originates in the soil, the measurements of radon concentration in soil gas have to be considered as an important tool and indicator of probable high levels of radon inside the dwellings. Present work describes the radon in soil gas measurements performed during the last two years in cooperation between the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology (UTFPR), the Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) and the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD) from the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Following previously concluded measurements of radon concentration in dwellings and the measurements of 222 Rn activity in drinking water collected at artesian bores of Curitiba urban area, present step of activities has been dedicated to measurements of radon concentration in soil gas. Experimental setup was based on the Professional Radon Monitor (ALPHA GUARD) connected to specially developed for such measurements Soil Gas Probe through the air pump and filter system. The equipment was adjusted with air flow of 0

  11. Radon: A health problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, J.; Gaston, S.

    1990-01-01

    Nurses can and should function as effective teachers about the potential hazards to health of radon contamination in the home as well as become activists in the development of health care policy on radon

  12. Radon survey techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The report reviews radon measurement surveys in soils and in water. Special applications, and advantages and limitations of the radon measurement techniques are considered. The working group also gives some directions for further research in this field

  13. Intercomparison of radon gas detectors 1999 and 2000 at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Christoph; Butterweck, Gernot

    2000-10-01

    This report describes the results of two radon intercomparison exercises performed by the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut from Sep 9th to Oct 6th, 1999, and from March 21st to 28th, 2000. Radon gas detectors and instruments were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in reference atmospheres to 1060 kBqhm -3 radon gas exposure at an average radon gas concentration of 6400 Bqm -3 and to 2050 kBqhm -3 radon gas exposure at an average radon gas concentration of 12500 Bqm -3 , respectively. These intercomparison exercises determined the performance of electret ionisation chambers, track etch detectors and measuring instruments at high humidity (1999 Intercomparison Exercise) and at a high radon gas exposure (2000 Intercomparison Exercise). In the 1999 Intercomparison Exercise, electret ionisation chambers revealed an influence on high humidity. This effect may be due to impurities on a microscopic scale on the electrets of these detectors. With few exceptions, in both the 1999 and the 2000 Radon Intercomparison Exercise the deviations of the measurement results to the reference radon gas concentration values were less than 15% (traceability criterion) and the standard deviation of the results of five detectors less than 15% (reproducibility criterion). (author) [de

  14. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  15. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  16. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connell, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, householders and other building owners about the radon problem and to help in deciding if there is need to take any action to reduce radon levels in their homes or other buildings.It explains what radon is, how it enters buildings and what effect it may have on health. Reference is made to some of the usual ways of reducing the level of radon and guidance is given on some sources of assistance

  17. Performance of water cooled nuclear power reactor fuels in India – Defects, failures and their mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, Chaitanyamoy

    2015-01-01

    Water cooled and moderated nuclear power reactors account for more than 95% of the operating reactors in the world today. Light water reactors (LWRs) consisting of pressurized water reactor (PWR), their Russian counterpart namely VVER and boiling water reactor (BWR) will continue to dominate the nuclear power market. Pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR), also known as CANDU, is the backbone of the nuclear power program in India. Updates on LWR and PHWR fuel performance are being periodically published by IAEA, OECD-NEA and the World Nuclear Association (WNA), highlighting fuel failure rate and the mitigation of fuel defects and failures. These reports clearly indicate that there has been significant improvement in in – pile fuel performance over the years and the present focus is to achieve zero fuel failure in high burn up and high performance fuels. The present paper summarizes the status of PHWR and LWR fuel performance in India, highlighting the manufacturing and the related quality control and inspection steps that are being followed at the PHWR fuel fabrication plant in order to achieve zero manufacturing defect which could contribute to achieving zero in – pile failure rate in operating and upcoming PHWR units in India. (author)

  18. Mitigation Technique for Receiver Performance Variation of Multi-Color Channels in Visible Light Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeong Min Jang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available “Green” and energy-efficient wireless communication schemes have recently experienced rapid development and garnered much interest. One such scheme is visible light communication (VLC which is being touted as one of the next generation wireless communication systems. VLC allows communication using multi-color channels that provide high data rates and illumination simultaneously. Even though VLC has many advantageous features compared with RF technologies, including visibility, ubiquitousness, high speed, high security, harmlessness for the human body and freedom of RF interference, it suffers from some problems on the receiver side, one of them being photo sensitivity dissimilarity of the receiver. The photo sensitivity characteristics of a VLC receiver such as Si photo-detector depend on the wavelength variation. The performance of the VLC receiver is not uniform towards all channel colors, but it is desirable for receivers to have the same performance on each color channel. In this paper, we propose a mitigation technique for reducing the performance variation of the receiver on multi-color channels. We show received power, SNR, BER, output current, and outage probability in our simulation for different color channels. Simulation results show that, the proposed scheme can reduce the performance variation of the VLC receiver on multi-color channels.

  19. GAC as a method for radon abatement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.D.; Smith, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most mysterious abatement procedures is that of the remediation of waterborne radon contamination in residential structures. Many mitigators have been led to believe that the use of GAC as an abatement technique is in appropriate due to the potential creation of a hazardous waste disposal problem. This paper sheds light on the use of GAC as a true alternative to costly aeration mitigation techniques, and can be used as a resource tool for mitigators who need to understand the limits of activity surrounding GAC, and what, if any, shielding may be needed for the protection of residential occupants

  20. Indoor radon survey in dwellings of some regions in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khayrat, A.H. E-mail: akhayrat@yahoo.com; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Fazal-ur-Rehman, X.; Abu-Jarad, F

    2003-06-01

    Indoor radon survey in a total of 241 dwellings, distributed in some regions of Yemen was performed, using CR-39 based radon monitors. The objective of this radon survey is to get representative indoor radon data of three regions, namely Dhamar, Taiz and Hodeidah, situated at different altitudes above sea level. The radon concentrations varied from 3 to 270 Bq m{sup -3} with an average of 42 Bq m{sup -3}. It was found that the average radon concentration in the surveyed areas increases with altitudes. The highest average radon concentration of 59 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Dhamar city while the lowest average concentration of 8 Bq m{sup -3} was found in Hodeidah city.

  1. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  2. Radon study in underground buildings in Chongqing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wen; Jiang Rende; Liu Yigang

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentration measurements using a scintillation detector were conducted in 51 large underground buildings, which have been used as hotels, entertainment halls, restaurants, shops and factories, etc, in Chongqing, China. The results showed that the radon concentrations in these underground buildings ranged from 3.2 to 616.2 Bqm -3 . The arithmetic mean was 57.6 Bqm -3 , which was about 4 times as much as the mean radon concentration in ground buildings in Chongqing. The underground buildings with the highest radon concentrations were correlated with the high content of radium-226 in building materials, mechanical ventilation through interior circulatory ducts, underground depth of the building, and particularly, fissures in the walls. Measures of radon mitigation in underground buildings were recommended. (orig.). (3 refs., 5 tabs.)

  3. The effect of severe accident mitigation design on the containment performance for Korean ALWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. H.; Lee, J. S.; Lim, H. K.; Kim, J. K.

    2001-01-01

    The containment performance analysis for Korean ALWR standard design has been performed to confirm the safety goal and to identify the design features vulnerable to severe accidents for the on-going design. The results in terms of conditional containment failure probability show Korean ALWR design does not have any particular vulnerability given core damage sequences. It shows the conditional containment failure probability for pull power internal event is less than that of design goal. The late containment failure is much less than 4% for given core damages and that of containment bypass is about 2%. New design features of the Korean ALWR such as bydrogen mitigation system (IIMS), cavity flooding system (CFS), and emergency containment spray bakcup system (ECSBS), external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC), etc. are reflected in Korean ALWR design and is reviewed in this paper to give an insight for the design vulnerabilities and input to the development of accident management. These Korean ALWR specific design features showed the containment performance is significantly enhanced compared with the other PWR plants

  4. Use of natural basement ventilation to control radon in single family dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.; Gadsby, K.; Reddy, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    Natural basement ventilation has always been recommended as a means of reducing radon levels in houses. However, its efficacy has never been documented. In these experiments, natural ventilation has for the first time been studied systematically in two research houses during both the summer cooling season and the winter heating season. Ventilation rates, environmental and house operating parameters, as well as radon levels, have been monitored. It can be definitely concluded from radon entry rate calculations that natural ventilation can reduce radon levels in two ways. The first is by simple dilution. The second is by reducing basement depressurization and thus the amount of radon-contaminated soil gas drawn into the structure. Therefore, basement ventilation can be an effective mitigation strategy under some circumstances. It might be especially useful in houses with low radon concentrations (of the order of 370 Bq m -1 ) or those with low levels and which cannot be mitigated cost-effectively with conventional technology. (Author)

  5. Radon: Detection and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loken, S.; Loken, T.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last few years, natural radon exposure in non-industrial settings, primarily homes, has become a health concern. Research has demonstrated that many homes throughout the United States have radon concentrations much higher than the legal federal limits set for miners. Thousands of unsuspecting people are being exposed to high levels of radiation. It is estimated that up to 15 percent of lung cancers are caused from radon. This is a significant health risk. With basic knowledge of the current information on radon, a primary health care provider can address patients' radon concerns and make appropriate referrals

  6. Community-based radon education programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laquatra, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that in the United States, educational programs about radon gas have been developed and implemented by federal and state government entities and other organizations, including the Cooperative Extension Service and affiliated land grant universities. Approaches have included the production of brochures, pamphlets, workshops for targeted audiences, and consumer telephone hotlines. In a free market for radon mitigation products and services, these efforts can be appropriate for their credibility, lack of bias, and individualized approaches. The purpose of this paper is to report on an educational program about radon undertaken by Cornell Cooperative Extension, including county-based workshops targeted to homeowners, housing professionals, high school teachers, and others. An analysis of survey data from program participants forms the basis for a discussion of the effectiveness of the Cooperative Extension Service in reaching the public about this topic

  7. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  8. Radon emanation from soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H.

    1992-01-01

    The results of gamma spectrometric sample measurements of radon ( 222 Rn) emanation coefficients and radium concentrations ( 226 Ra) from about 800 Finnish soil samples are presented. The radon emanation rate was measured in about 400 soil samples, using radon-tight cans and Lucas cells. The effects of water content and temperature on radon emanation were investigated, using various samples of different soil types. Radon emanation and the effect of water content on radon emanation were investigated separately for different grain sizes (samples of till). The results provide some information on radon emanation in different soil types and relate emanation in laboratory conditions to conditions in ground soil. In routine measurements of radon emanation from soil samples, use of a 5% water content was considered advisable. The correction coefficients of radon emanation varied between 0.3 and 1.5, depending on the water content and soil type. At 5% water content, hardly any difference was found between radon emanation at temperatures of 20 and 1 o C. Radon emanation was found to be an inverse function of grain sizes larger than 0.5 mm in diameter. (author)

  9. Domestic radon in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, Michele V.; Omrane, Latifa; Mtimet, Sadok; Hammou, Azza

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine level of natural radioactivity and to eventually identify areas where radon concentrations are elevated, measurements of indoor air radon concentrations were carried out in Tunisian houses since 1999. Passive alpha-track open Kodalpha dosimeters have been placed in one or two rooms by dwellings at 1 m to 1.50 m from soil. The first campaign controlled the capital, Tunis, and lasted 14 months by two months periods. The annual median was 30 Bq m -3 . In the 120 surveyed houses, a seasonal variation has been found with the highest concentrations unregistered in winter. The second campaign was conducted in 1,151 houses situated in all the inhabited areas of Tunisia during two winter months. The median was 36 Bq m -3 with a maximum of 512 Bq m -3 . The majority of results were lower than 100 Bq m -3 . Only 5.5% of results were comprised between 100 and 200 Bq m -3 and 0.7% between 200 and 400 Bq m -3 . The third campaign was performed in an area where inhabitants used to live in underground homes. Sixty modern and sixty underground houses were controlled during one year by three months periods. The results were significantly different with a median at 46.5 Bq m -3 in the modern houses and 305 Bq m -3 in the underground caves with a maximum at 1,563 Bq m -3 . 54% of results were under 100 Bq m -3 , 32% between 100 and 400, 13% between 400 and 1,000 Bq m -3 . Only 1% (two underground houses) were higher than 1,000 Bq m -3 . A careful enquiry showed that most of these underground houses are no more inhabited and are rarely opened. In these dwellings, the highest concentrations were found during summer. Most of the indoor radon concentration levels found in Tunisia were under international recommended levels. (author)

  10. Indoor Radon Exposure in Italian Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Azara

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to assess radon concentration in schoolrooms in a city located in the midwest of Italy. Methods: A two-phase environmental study was carried out in 19 school buildings of 16 primary, secondary, and tertiary schools. Results: Median (interquartile range—IQR indoor radon concentration in schoolrooms was 91.6 (45.0–140.3 Bq/m3. The highest (median 952.8 Bq/m3 radon concentration was found in one (3.6% classroom, located in a building of a primary school whose median concentration was 185 Bq/m3. Radon concentration was significantly correlated with the number of students and teachers, foundation wall construction material, and with the absence of underground floors. A geopedological survey was performed close to the building with highest radon level, showing the presence of granite and tonalithic granodiorite in the soil. Conclusions: Radon levels should be routinely assessed where individuals live or work. Schools are susceptible targets, because of childhood stay and the long daily stay of occupants. Low-cost interventions, such as implementation of natural air ventilation and school maintenance, can reduce radon levels, limiting individual exposure.

  11. The radon transform. Theory and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, P.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D. thesis is the mathematical Radon transform, which is well suited for curve detection in digital images, and for reconstruction of tomography images. The thesis is divided into two main parts. Part I describes the Radon- and the Hough-transform and especially their discrete approximations with respect to curve parameter detection in digital images. The sampling relationships of the Radon transform is reviewed from a digital signal processing point of view. The discrete Radon transform is investigated for detection of curves, and aspects regarding the performance of the Radon transform assuming various types of noise is covered. Furthermore, a new fast scheme for estimating curve parameters is presented. Part II of the thesis describes the inverse Radon transform in 2D and 3D with focus on reconstruction of tomography images. Some of the direct reconstruction schemes are analyzed, including their discrete implementation. Furthermore, several iterative reconstruction schemes based on linear algebra are reviewed and applied for reconstruction of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images. A new and very fast implementation of 2D iterative reconstruction methods is devised. In a more practical oriented chapter, the noise in PET images is modelled from a very large number of measurements. Several packagers for Radon- and Hough-transform based curve detection and direct/iterative 2D and 3D reconstruction have been developed and provided for free. (au) 140 refs

  12. Establishing the level of exposure to radon gas in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karupa, Jackson Uakaningirua

    2016-04-01

    The main source of natural internal irradiation of man is radon and its decay products. In this study, the radon concentration levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia will be estimated using passive or active radon detector. The primary objective of the study is to measure and establish radon levels in selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund of Namibia. Measurements will be carried out for the period of twelve months and after three months period the detectors will be exchanged for laboratory analysis. The results obtained from the study will reveal the concentration of radon in most of the selected dwellings in Erongo region, Swakopmund, Namibia. Once Radon level is measured or identified, the results with data from work done in other environments in Africa and elsewhere will be compared. In case of high radon concentrations in dwelling, the occupants will be advised to ensure good ventilation practices as cost effective means of mitigation of indoor radon gas level in the area. (au)

  13. Procedure for the characterization of radon potential in existing dwellings and to assess the annual average indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collignan, Bernard; Powaga, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment due to radon exposure indoors is based on annual average indoor radon activity concentration. To assess the radon exposure in a building, measurement is generally performed during at least two months during heating period in order to be representative of the annual average value. This is because radon presence indoors could be very variable during time. This measurement protocol is fairly reliable but may be a limiting in the radon risk management, particularly during a real estate transaction due to the duration of the measurement and the limitation of the measurement period. A previous field study defined a rapid methodology to characterize radon entry in dwellings. The objective of this study was at first, to test this methodology in various dwellings to assess its relevance with a daily test. At second, a ventilation model was used to assess numerically the air renewal of a building, the indoor air quality all along the year and the annual average indoor radon activity concentration, based on local meteorological conditions, some building characteristics and in-situ characterization of indoor pollutant emission laws. Experimental results obtained on thirteen individual dwellings showed that it is generally possible to obtain a representative characterization of radon entry into homes. It was also possible to refine the methodology defined in the previous study. In addition, numerical assessments of annual average indoor radon activity concentration showed generally a good agreement with measured values. These results are encouraging to allow a procedure with a short measurement time to be used to characterize long-term radon potential in dwellings. - Highlights: • Test of a daily procedure to characterize radon potential in dwellings. • Numerical assessment of the annual radon concentration. • Procedure applied on thirteen dwellings, characterization generally satisfactory. • Procedure useful to manage radon risk in dwellings, for real

  14. EPA'S strategy to reduce risk of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Indoor Radon Abatement Act of 1988 (IRAA) directed EPA to undertake a variety of activities to address the growing public concern over dangers posed by exposure to indoor radon. Among other requirements, the law directed the Agency to study radon levels, evaluate mitigation methods, establish proficiency programs, assist states with program development, develop training centers, and provide public information. EPA has developed and implemented programs to address each of the key provisions of this statute. This paper presents EPA's broad national strategy to reduce radon risks. It combines and reinforces EPA's basic foundation, including its guiding policies and cooperative partnerships, with an overall management approach and focus for the future. The paper starts with an overview that introduces the strategy's four key elements: underlying policies and scientific principles, a decentralized system of states and other partners for targeting the public, multiple strategies for achieving radon risk reduction, and a strong focus on five key program priorities. This paper then discusses each of these elements in more detail and describes how they interact to guide future efforts and directions of the Agency

  15. Overview of current radon and radon daughter research at LBL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a brief summary of radon and radon daughter research at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The radon and radon daughter research program has two broad goals: (1) the study of sources of radon and its subsequent transport into houses, and (2) research on the behavior of radon daughters in indoor environments. Additional research effort is directed to several auxiliary areas, including development of instrumentation and monitoring techniques, studies of indoor air movement, and measurement and control of indoor particulate concentrations

  16. Acceleration-based methodology to assess the blast mitigation performance of explosive ordnance disposal helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, J. P.; Levine, J.; Makris, A.

    2018-01-01

    To design the next generation of blast mitigation helmets that offer increasing levels of protection against explosive devices, manufacturers must be able to rely on appropriate test methodologies and human surrogates that will differentiate the performance level of various helmet solutions and ensure user safety. Ideally, such test methodologies and associated injury thresholds should be based on widely accepted injury criteria relevant within the context of blast. Unfortunately, even though significant research has taken place over the last decade in the area of blast neurotrauma, there currently exists no agreement in terms of injury mechanisms for blast-induced traumatic brain injury. In absence of such widely accepted test methods and injury criteria, the current study presents a specific blast test methodology focusing on explosive ordnance disposal protective equipment, involving the readily available Hybrid III mannequin, initially developed for the automotive industry. The unlikely applicability of the associated brain injury criteria (based on both linear and rotational head acceleration) is discussed in the context of blast. Test results encompassing a large number of blast configurations and personal protective equipment are presented, emphasizing the possibility to develop useful correlations between blast parameters, such as the scaled distance, and mannequin engineering measurements (head acceleration). Suggestions are put forward for a practical standardized blast testing methodology taking into account limitations in the applicability of acceleration-based injury criteria as well as the inherent variability in blast testing results.

  17. Redundancy in electronic health record corpora: analysis, impact on text mining performance and mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Raphael; Elhadad, Michael; Elhadad, Noémie

    2013-01-16

    The increasing availability of Electronic Health Record (EHR) data and specifically free-text patient notes presents opportunities for phenotype extraction. Text-mining methods in particular can help disease modeling by mapping named-entities mentions to terminologies and clustering semantically related terms. EHR corpora, however, exhibit specific statistical and linguistic characteristics when compared with corpora in the biomedical literature domain. We focus on copy-and-paste redundancy: clinicians typically copy and paste information from previous notes when documenting a current patient encounter. Thus, within a longitudinal patient record, one expects to observe heavy redundancy. In this paper, we ask three research questions: (i) How can redundancy be quantified in large-scale text corpora? (ii) Conventional wisdom is that larger corpora yield better results in text mining. But how does the observed EHR redundancy affect text mining? Does such redundancy introduce a bias that distorts learned models? Or does the redundancy introduce benefits by highlighting stable and important subsets of the corpus? (iii) How can one mitigate the impact of redundancy on text mining? We analyze a large-scale EHR corpus and quantify redundancy both in terms of word and semantic concept repetition. We observe redundancy levels of about 30% and non-standard distribution of both words and concepts. We measure the impact of redundancy on two standard text-mining applications: collocation identification and topic modeling. We compare the results of these methods on synthetic data with controlled levels of redundancy and observe significant performance variation. Finally, we compare two mitigation strategies to avoid redundancy-induced bias: (i) a baseline strategy, keeping only the last note for each patient in the corpus; (ii) removing redundant notes with an efficient fingerprinting-based algorithm. (a)For text mining, preprocessing the EHR corpus with fingerprinting yields

  18. The 2010 calibration campaign for radon gas measuring instruments at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Mayer, S.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty radon measurement services or the respective analytical laboratories participated in the 2010 Radon Intercomparison Exercise performed at the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) from August 27 th to August 31 st , 2010 on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH). Twelve of these laboratories were approved by the FOPH and their participation in the intercomparison exercise was a requirement to warrant quality of measurement. Radon gas dosemeters (track-etch, electronic and electret) and instruments (ionisation chambers) were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in a reference atmosphere with an average radon gas concentration of 595 Bq m -3 leading to a radon gas exposure of 57 kBq h m -3 . The exposure of 57 kBq h m -3 was close to the lower value of the measuring range defined in the Radon Measurement Ordinance ('Radon-Messmittelverordnung'). (authors)

  19. Outdoor radon variation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simion, Elena; Simion, Florin

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The results of a long-term survey (1992 - 2006) of the variations of outdoor radon concentrations in semi-natural location from Romania are reported in the present paper. Measurements, covering between two and four sessions of the day (morning, afternoon, evening and night), were performed on a daily bases by 37 Environmental Radioactivity Monitoring Stations from National Environmental Radioactivity Survey Network. The method used was based on indirect determination of outdoor radon from aerosol samples collected on glass micro-fibre filters by drawing the air through the filters. The sampling was performed in a fixed place at a height of 2 m above the ground surface. Total beta counting of aerosol samples collected was performed immediately and after 20 hours. Values recorded during the years of continuous measurement indicated the presence of several patterns in the long-term variation of outdoor radon concentration: diurnal, seasonal and annual variation. For diurnal variation, outdoor radon concentration shows a maximum values in the night (early hours) and minimum values by day (in the afternoon). On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. Late autumn - beginning of winter maximum and an early spring minimum are characteristic for seasonal patterns. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.33 in winter compared with 3.0 in the summer months. The variations of outdoor radon levels showed little correlation with the uranium concentration of the ground and were attributed to changes in soil moisture content. In dry seasons, because of the low precipitation, the soil was drying out in the summer allowing fractures to develop and radon to migrate easily through the ground. Depending on micro-climatic and geological conditions, outdoor radon average concentrations in different regions of Romania are from 1200 mBq/mc to 13065 mBq/mc. The smallest

  20. Instrumentation for radon measurement and diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, N.; Ellacott, K.; Brabant, L.

    1990-01-01

    Knowledge of existing protocols and guidelines, coupled with equipment acumen can make for a successful endeavor in the radon field. But where do you collect a users perspective on radon equipment? Obtaining a first hand understanding of how radon detection equipment may be applied can be a lengthy and expensive process. In this paper first principals of progeny collection, and counting, are covered. Use of Thomson and Nielsen equipment to screen, and diagnose radon will e presented. Equipment performance in a wide variety of field applications and in calibration chambers will be brought to light. The distinctive nature and versatility of the equipment will e outlined with applications information, system performance, and unique configurations

  1. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    caused by radon if you have lived in a house for 30 years, compared to if you lived in the same house (with the same radon levels) for 3 years. The above relationships are especially important when considering which mitigation measures should be implemented. All reduction of radon concentration and exposure time will have a favourable impact on health. Taking the population as a whole, the health benefit will be appreciable, even if the exposure reduction that is achieved from the measures is modest - so long as the reduction applies to a large number of buildings. The risk of radon induced lung cancer increases with exposure and is proportional to the indoor radon concentration and the exposure time. Moreover, there is no lowest threshold radon concentration where no risk occurs. The risk is greatest for smokers and ex-smokers, though never-smokers can also develop lung cancer as a result of radon exposure. In recent years, three important large-scale international pooled analyses of available reliable data have confirmed earlier risk estimates. (Author)

  2. Strategy for the reduction of radon exposure in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    caused by radon if you have lived in a house for 30 years, compared to if you lived in the same house (with the same radon levels) for 3 years. The above relationships are especially important when considering which mitigation measures should be implemented. All reduction of radon concentration and exposure time will have a favourable impact on health. Taking the population as a whole, the health benefit will be appreciable, even if the exposure reduction that is achieved from the measures is modest - so long as the reduction applies to a large number of buildings. The risk of radon induced lung cancer increases with exposure and is proportional to the indoor radon concentration and the exposure time. Moreover, there is no lowest threshold radon concentration where no risk occurs. The risk is greatest for smokers and ex-smokers, though never-smokers can also develop lung cancer as a result of radon exposure. In recent years, three important large-scale international pooled analyses of available reliable data have confirmed earlier risk estimates. (Author)

  3. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Labs and Research Centers Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  4. Radon in buildings: instrumentation of an experimental house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ameon, R.; Diez, O.; Dupuis, M.; Merle-Szeremeta, A.

    2004-01-01

    IRSN decided to develop a code called RADON 2 for conducting simple and methodical studies of indoor radon concentrations. Since a validity check must be performed of the phenomenological model on which the code is based, an experimental program was initiated in 2002, within which a house in Brittany, located on a well-characterized uranium-bearing geological formation, was fitted with special instruments. After characterizing the soil underlying the house, the instrumentation implemented on site continuously monitors a number of parameters to characterize: the radon source term in the building (exhalation rate of 222 Rn at the ground/building interface and at soil surface, radon concentration in the soil and in outdoor air); radon penetration by advection (differential pressure in the house basement); the driving mechanisms for natural ventilation in the house (weather conditions, indoor temperature and relative humidity); radon distribution throughout the house by air flow and radon diffusion (indoor radon concentration at each floor of the house). Using the experimental data acquired over the past two years, the phenomena governing radon penetration inside the house (wind and stack effect) and radon extraction (fresh air supply rate) have been characterized to lay down the bases for validating the newly developed code

  5. Radon and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This publication proposes an overview on what is known about the carcinogenic effect of radon. It recalls the origin of radon, its presence in the environment, and its radioactivity. It comments data on the relationship between exposure to radon and lung cancer, and with other forms of cancer. It discusses the role of the exposure level, and the cases of professional and domestic exposure with respect to these risks. It indicates the hazardous areas in France which are well identified, outlines that smokers are more likely victims of risks related to radon, that this risk is still underrated and underestimated (notably by the public). It gives an overview of existing regulations regarding exposure to radon, of public health policies and national plans concerning radon, and recalls some WHO recommendations

  6. Leukaemia risks and radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    A correlation has been established between domestic radon exposure and mutation in peripheral T lymphocytes. Some caution must be exercised, however, in interpreting this result as evidence that levels of domestically encountered radon are sufficient to cause leukaemogenic chromosomal alterations. Radon may simply be acting as a surrogate for some other mutagenic factor. Correlations with Local Authority statistics collected in the United Kingdom 1981 Census appear to show that lower domestic radon levels reflect relatively greater socioeconomic deprivation whereas higher levels reflect greater prosperity. The relative risk of lymphoproliferative disease correlates with the same factors that determine domestic radon levels at the county level. Putative relationships between domestic radon exposure and cancer thus need to be controlled for socioeconomic status and associated factors, at least at the county level. (The correlations may not apply to smaller areas.) Similarly, the causative factors underlying the relationships between higher regional socioeconomic status and leukaemia require closer examination. (author)

  7. A self-calibrating radon monitor with statistical discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcov, N.; Purghel, L.

    2002-01-01

    A radon monitor, able to perform the measurement of the radon and its progeny volumic activity, in a gamma-ray or natural radiation background field, was developed. The instrument consists of a 10 l ionization chamber, a high voltage source, an integrating preamplifier, a data acquisition system and a personal computer. A new method for self-calibration of Radon volumic activity measurements, based on the alpha counting with an ionization chamber is also presented

  8. Intercomparison of active and passive instruments for radon and radon progeny in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Tu, Keng-Wu; Knutson, E.O.

    1995-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise for radon and radon progeny instruments and methods was held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) from April 22--May 2, 1994. The exercise was conducted in the new EML radon test and calibration facility in which conditions of exposure are very well controlled. The detection systems of the intercompared instruments consisted of. (1) pulse ionization chambers, (2) electret ionization chambers, (3) scintillation detectors, (4) alpha particle spectrometers with silicon diodes, surface barrier or diffused junction detectors, (5) registration of nuclear tracks in solid-state materials, and (6) activated carbon collectors counted by gamma-ray spectrometry or by alpha- and beta-liquid scintillation counting. 23 private firms, government laboratories and universities participated with a 165 passive integrating devices consisting of: Activated carbon collectors, nuclear alpha track detectors and electret ionization chambers, and 11 active and passive continuous radon monitors. Five portable integrating and continuous instruments were intercompared for radon progeny. Forty grab samples for radon progeny were taken by five groups that participated in person to test and evaluate their primary instruments and methods that measure individual radon progeny and the potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC) in indoor air. Results indicate that more than 80% of the measurements for radon performed with a variety of instruments, are within ±10% of actual value. The majority of the instruments that measure individual radon progeny and the PAEC gave results that are in good agreement with the EML reference value. Radon progeny measurements made with continuous and integrating instruments are satisfactory with room for improvement

  9. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  10. Radon-Instrumentation; Radon-Instrumentacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno y Moreno, A. [Departamento de Apoyo en Ciencias Aplicadas, Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104, Centro Historico 72000 Puebla (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  11. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, B.E.; Boman, C.A.; Nyblom, L.; Swedjemark, G.A.

    1980-06-01

    The report presents the function of the ventilation by natural draught in three-storey houses. In some cases also the measurement of gamma radiation, radon and radon daughters was made. The investigation took place in Uppsala. The houses were built of light weight concrete made of alum-shale. The measurements showed that the contents of radon daughters were far below the provisional limits. (G.B.)

  12. Radon in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, N.M.; Finn, M.

    1995-01-01

    This guide is intended to inform designers, contractors, householders and other building owners about radon in buildings and to provide guidance where it has been decided to take action to reduce radon levels. It gives some pointers to good practice insofar as it relates to non complex buildings of normal design and construction. Reference is made to the usual ways of reducing l;levels of radon and guidance is given on sources of further information. I

  13. Real estate transaction radon test tampering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    A thousand-house study, over the past two years showed 35% of the houses were tampered with. This paper offers statistical charts representing the different methods of tampering; A slide presentation showing houses and the non-tamper controls used to monitor EPA closed-house conditions, movement of detectors and covering of detectors. A strong message must be conveyed now, that tampering will not be tolerated by radon technicians, when performing radon tests in the field. A message that incorporates non-tamper controls that are cost effective and provide for reasonably priced testing; A message that will lend credibility to our Radon industry by means of separating the professional test from a do-it-yourself homeowner test. This paper will address that message and offer a program for the prevention of tampering in a house during a PROFESSIONALLY done Radon test

  14. Radon measurements in Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, M.H.; Amaral, E.C.S.; Sachett, I.

    2002-01-01

    Few data are available on the dynamic of radon in the air for tropical climate conditions. The strong influence of the climatological characteristics on the transport of gases and particulates in air makes not adequate the use of data obtained at regions with different climate. Outdoor and indoor measurements of radon equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) have been done for one-year period in Rio de Janeiro. Continuous measurements were performed using a radon monitor with an alpha spectrometry detector. Pluviometric index, temperature and humidity were registered. The paper presents the long term behaviour of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration results, their correlation with temperature and the influence of the pluviometric index. Maximum values were obtained during winter and minimum in summer, strongly influenced by the rain. A strong inverse correlation with temperature was found. (author)

  15. Soil radon response around an active volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Valdes, C.; Pena, P.; Mena, M.; Tamez, E.

    2001-01-01

    Soil radon behavior related to the volcanic eruptive period 1997-1999 of Popocatepetl volcano has been studied as a function of the volcanic activity. Since the volcano is located 60 km from Mexico City, the risk associated with an explosive eruptive phase is high and an intense surveillance program has been implemented. Previous studies in this particular volcano showed soil radon pulses preceding the initial phase of the eruption. The radon survey was performed with LR-115 track detectors at a shallow depth and the effect of the soil moisture during the rainy season has been observed on the detectors response. In the present state of the volcanic activity the soil radon behavior has shown more stability than in previous eruptive stages

  16. Radon in Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.; Rusov, V.D.; Pavlovych, V.N.; Vaschenko, V.M.; Hanzic, L.; Bondarchuk, Y.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reviews results of radon measurements obtained in Antarctic research stations in the last 40 years by both active and passive radon monitors. A brief description of the radon laboratory set-up in the Ukrainian Academician Vernadsky station on the Antarctic Peninsula (W 64 o 16 ' , S 65 o 15 ' ), where radon is measured by two types of etched track Rn dosimeter and 4 types of continuous radon monitoring devices is presented. Some selected results of research work are described related to: (i) analysis of radon storms, defined as an abrupt increase of 222 Rn during the occurrence of a cyclone, and its applicability for the study of the transport of air masses of continental origin to Antarctica; (ii) a study of the correlation of changes of radon concentration and geomagnetic field induced by tectonic activity and its application to predicting tectonomagnetic anomalies, and (iii) verification of a newly developed theoretical model based on noise analysis of the measured radon signal for earthquake prediction. Suggestions for future utilization of radon for basic research in Antarctica (and not only in Antarctica) conclude the contribution. conclude the contribution

  17. The Pennsylvania radon story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerusky, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    In December 1984, the Pennsylvania Bureau of Radiation Protection found itself confronted with the discovery of a home in eastern Pennsylvania having the highest level of radon daughters ever reported. The Bureau responded with a massive radon monitoring, educational, and remediation effort. As of November, 1986, over 18,000 homes had been screen for radon daughters, of which approximately 59% were found to have levels in excess of the 0.020 Working Level guideline. Pennsylvania's response to the indoor radon problem is detailed in this article

  18. Radon dose and aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Radolic, V.; Faj, Z.; Vukovic, B.

    2000-01-01

    The equilibrium factor value (F) was measured in the NRPB radon chamber and the corresponding track density ratio (r = D/D 0 ) of bare (D) and diffusion (D 0 ) LR-115 nuclear track detectors was determined, as well as the regression equation F(r). Experiments with LR-115 nuclear track detectors and aerosol sources (burning candle and cigarette) were carried out in the Osijek University radon chamber and afterwards an empirical relationship between the equilibrium factor and aerosol concentration was derived. For the purpose of radon dose equivalent assessment, procedures for determining the unattached fraction of radon progeny were introduced using two nuclear track detectors. (author)

  19. Public perceptions of radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainous, A.G. III; Hagen, M.D.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1984, a significant amount of media attention has focused on health threats from radon gas exposure. Using a probability telephone survey of adults (n = 685), we studied public perceptions of risk from radon exposure versus other environmental health risks. The results indicated that 92% of those individuals who had heard of radon believe radon to be a health risk, although only 4% believe they are currently exposed to high levels of radon gas. Perception of risk from radon was positively related to other perceptions of environmental risks. Younger and less educated individuals were more likely to perceive radon as a health risk. Women were three-and-one-half times as likely as men to perceive risk from radon. However, there was no significant relationship between perceived risk from radon and cigarette smoking. Media attention has apparently led to public awareness of radon hazards, but further attention is needed to improve smokers' awareness of their special risks from radon

  20. Alpha radioactivity monitoring related to Radon-222 in water from wells in metropolitan area of Curitiba (PR), Brazil; Monitoramento da radioatividade alfa relacionada ao radonio-222 em aguas de pocos da regiao metropolitana de Curitiba (PR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Kappke, Jaqueline; Claro, Flavia Del; Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: janine_nicolosi@hotmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Denyak, Valeriy; Schelin, Hugo Reuters [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe (IPPPP), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita Oliveira [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    This research objective was to assess the level of randon-222 concentration in well water of the metropolitan region of Curitiba, Parana. Current work presents the results of indoor {sup 222}Rn activity ground water samples from artesian wells from aquifers of the region. The studies of radon activity in water were performed using the radon detector AlphaGUARD. The calculations of initial radon activity in water were done considering the {sup 222}Rn decay correction as well as equilibrium level of {sup 222}Rn and {sup 226}Ra observed after 30 days of measurements. Obtained results show that about 70% of measured activity levels of {sup 222}Rn are higher than the recommended value of 11.1 Bq.L{sup -1}, which represent the risk for the human health associated with this radionuclide. The case study showed that previous measurements of radon are recommended for a construction project is implemented. In this case, it is observed that the radon concentrations decrease about 56% in the first water tank and 83% in the second water tank over the well. This fact shows that the actions for mitigation of radon are viable and do not require major modifications to the usual systems of construction. (author)

  1. Indoor radon problem in energy efficient multi-storey buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I V; Vasilyev, A V; Onishchenko, A D; Kiselev, S M; Zhukovsky, M V

    2014-07-01

    Modern energy-efficient architectural solutions and building construction technologies such as monolithic concrete structures in combination with effective insulation reduce air permeability of building envelope. As a result, air exchange rate is significantly reduced and conditions for increased radon accumulation in indoor air are created. Based on radon survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, remarkable increase in indoor radon concentration level in energy-efficient multi-storey buildings was found in comparison with similar buildings constructed before the-energy-saving era. To investigate the problem of indoor radon in energy-efficient multi-storey buildings, the measurements of radon concentration have been performed in seven modern buildings using radon monitoring method. Values of air exchange rate and other parameters of indoor climate in energy-efficient buildings have been estimated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Intercomparison of radon gas detectors 1997 at PSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, Christoph; Butterweck-Dempewolf, Gernot

    1998-05-01

    Between Nov 14 and Nov 20, 1997, the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut performed the 1997 Radon Intercomparison Exercise. Radon gas detectors and instruments were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber during seven days in a reference atmosphere with an average radon gas concentration of 3860 Bqm -3 . The majority of the participants at this intercomparison were Swiss Radon Gas Measurement Laboratories acknowledged by the Swiss Federal Office for Health. Criteria for this acknowledgement are a deviation of the measurement results to the reference value below 15% (traceability criterion) and a standard deviation of the mean of five detector measurement results below 15% (reproducibility criterion). With the exception of three participants, the results of electret ionisation chambers, track etch detectors and measuring instruments fulfilled the demanded traceability and reproducibility criteria. (author)

  3. Geological Structure and Radon Hazards in Lublin Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Gazda

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to show the relationship between the geological structure of the Lublin region (eastern Poland and radon concentrations in the ground air, and therefore, in the indoor environment of buildings located in that area. The study was based on the information pertaining to the geological structure of Lublin region available in the literature. The radon concentrations in buildings, caves, wells, as well as coal, phosphate and chalk mines were measured with both passive and active methods. Elemental analyses and uranium and lead isotope analyses of ground rocks were also performed. The conducted studies indicated that the sources of radon in Lublin region constitute Paleogene and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks rich in radionuclides. Application of radon remediation methods is recommended in the existing buildings located in the vicinity of these rocks, which are characterized by relatively high radon exhalations. On the other hand, the designed buildings should employ the measures protecting against harmful effects of radon presence.

  4. Effectiveness of radon control techniques in fifteen homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Sextro, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Radon control systems were installed and evaluated in fourteen homes in the Spokane River Valley/Rathdrum Prairie and in one home in Vancouver, Washington. Because of local soil conditions, subsurface ventilation (SSV) by pressurization was always more effective in these houses than SSV by depressurization in reducing indoor radon levels to below guidelines. Basement overpressurization was successfully applied in five houses with airtight basements where practical-sized fans could develop an overpressure of 1 to 3 Pascals. Crawlspace ventilation was more effective than crawlspace isolation in reducing radon entry from the crawlspace, but had to be used in conjunction with other mitigation techniques, from the crawlspace, but had to be used in conjunction with other mitigation techniques, since the houses also had basements. Indoor radon concentrations in two houses with air-to-air heat exchangers (AAHX) were reduced to levels inversely dependent on the new total ventilation rates and were lowered even further in one house where the air distribution system was modified. Sealing penetrations in the below-grade surfaces of substructures was relatively ineffective in controlling radon. Operation of the radon control systems (except for the AAHX's) made no measurable change in ventilation rates or indoor concentrations of other measured pollutants. Installation costs ranged from approximately $4/m 2 for sealing to $28/m 2 for the AAHXs. Annual operating costs for the active systems were estimated to be approximately $60 to $170

  5. Radon in large buildings: The development of a protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.L.; Dudney, C.S.; Gammage, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past several years, considerable research has been devoted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and others to develop radon sampling protocols for single family residences and schools. However, very little research has been performed on measuring radon in the work place. To evaluate possible sampling protocols, 833 buildings throughout the United States were selected for extensive radon testing. The buildings tested (warehouses, production plants and office buildings) were representative of commercial buildings across the country both in design, size and use. Based on the results, preliminary radon sampling protocols for the work place have been developed

  6. Nonlinear Radon Transform Using Zernike Moment for Shape Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend the linear Radon transform to a nonlinear space and propose a method by applying the nonlinear Radon transform to Zernike moments to extract shape descriptors. These descriptors are obtained by computing Zernike moment on the radial and angular coordinates of the pattern image's nonlinear Radon matrix. Theoretical and experimental results validate the effectiveness and the robustness of the method. The experimental results show the performance of the proposed method in the case of nonlinear space equals or outperforms that in the case of linear Radon.

  7. [The methods of assessment of health risk from exposure to radon and radon daughters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demin, V F; Zhukovskiy, M V; Kiselev, S M

    2014-01-01

    The critical analysis of existing models of the relationship dose-effect (RDE) for radon exposure on human health has been performed. Conclusion about the necessity and possibility of improving these models has been made. A new improved version ofthe RDE has been developed. A technique for assessing the human health risk of exposure to radon, including the method for estimating of exposure doses of radon, an improved model of RDE, proper methodology risk assessment has been described. Methodology is proposed for the use in the territory of Russia.

  8. Summary of EPA's radon-reduction research in schools during 1989-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leovic, K.W.

    1990-10-01

    The report details radon mitigation research in schools conducted by EPA during 1989 and part of 1990. The major objective was to evaluate the potential of active subslab depressurization (ASD) in various geologic and climatic regions. The different geographic regions also presented a variety of construction types and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system designs that are encountered in radon mitigation of school buildings. A secondary objective was to initiate research in difficult-to-mitigate schools. The research led to the following major conclusions on radon diagnostics and mitigation in schools: (1) Schools have many physical characteristics that typically make their mitigation more complex than house mitigation, including building size and substructure, subslab barriers, HVAC systems, and locations of utility lines. (2) Important school diagnostic procedures and measurements include review of radon measurements and building plans, investigation of the building to assess potential radon entry routes and confirm information in the building plans, analysis of the HVAC system and its influence on pressure differentials and radon levels, and subslab pressure field extension measurements to determine the potential applicability of ASD. (3) ASD can be applied successfully in schools where subslab communication barriers are limited

  9. Exposure to radon/radon decay products in waterworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, J.; Nickels, R.M.; Fritsche, R.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1989 survey measurements at workplaces possibly burdened by radon and its decay products have been performed in the Federal Republic of Germany. Referring to the basic standards for radiation protection issued by Euratom and the recommendations of the German Advisory Committee on Radiological Protection (SSK), workplaces were first examined in underground facilities, i.e. in production and visitors mines and show caves, by in situ measurements and date recordings. Subsequently, all balneotherapeutic facilities in the Federal Republic of Germany were measured. Currently, we are finishing a survey of drinking water supply systems in the southwest of Germany. Some 100 drinking water supply systems with more than 1200 operating stations such as well houses, conditioning plants, reservoirs, pumping station etc. were measured with instant working level meters, passive dosemeters and for gamma exposure. Various aspects were considered in selecting the facilities, e.g. the number of employees, size of services area, hydrogeological conditions and a uniform distribution over the state area was schieved. A very important part in the investigation was the inquiry into the time spent by employees at each work station. In these 100 water works, some 750 persons are employed and the average yearly working time at the operating stations was approx. 180 hours. The statistical interpretation based on these measurements allows a reliable extrapolation to the expected numbers of workplaces in water supply which exceed the recommended 'normal' limit of 2,000 h x 0.1 WL. At a mean residence time at the operating stations of about one month per year, the upper limit of the 'normal range' is equal to 1 WL. Approx. 15% of the operating stations were found to have higher values. Combining complex water works out of their operating stations, statistically speaking, 10% of the water works exceed the 1 WL limit. Thus, in our case, some 80 employees are found in the group of radiation

  10. Radon measurement in the spa of Bizovac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.; Planinic, J.

    1996-01-01

    The spa of Bizovac is located 20 km on the west of Osijek in east Croatia. Radon concentrations in the air and water of the Bizovac spa were measured by the Radhome silicon detector and the average values were obtained as 70 Bq/m 3 in the indoor pool, 40 Bq/m 3 in the hotel room and 135 Bq/m 3 in the closed therapeutic bathroom. A special experiment was performed in a closed therapeutic bathroom by three bathtubes filled up with geothermal water as well as normal (potable) one from water-supply. Using measured radon concentrations in air by Radhome detector under the mentioned conditions in the closed bathroom, radon concentrations were assessed for the geothermal water as 25.3 Bq/m 3 and 2.7 Bq/m 3 for potable water. Radon in potable water, measured by the sampling glass ampoule and scintillation cell, had the concentration of 3.5 Bq/m 3 . The radon transfer factor from water to air in the indoor pool and therapeutic bathroom was 10 and 40 times higher than for normal dwelling factor (10 -4 ), respectively. The effective dose equivalent of inhaled radon for permanent personnel under the worst conditions in the spa (closed therapeutic bathroom) was 5.4 mSv/y, but visitors spending two weeks in the Bizovac spa could receive the dose of 77 μSv. (author)

  11. Cost-benefit of ventilation and averted radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katona, T.; Kanyar, B.

    2003-01-01

    To assess an economically optimal ventilation rate we have introduced a cost-benefit analysis taking into account the cost of heating and benefit of averted dose due to ventilation. The cost of heating due to the elevated ventilation for mitigation of radon content in dwellings can be compensated by the monetary benefit of the averted dose, in case of higher (annually 3-10 mSv) exposure. During the heating season the economically optimal ventilation takes 0.1-0.5 h -1 , meanwhile the radon concentration in the indoor air decreases to 200-800 Bq/m 3 , depending on the exhalation of radon, number of persons living in the dwellings and other local parameters. Our results from the optimal planning correspond to the radon concentrations recommended by the international organizations as action levels. In general, the periodic ventilation in daytime provides a higher averted dose than the constant one in case of the same heating cost. (authors)

  12. Modeling of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on models for radon, which are developed not only to describe the behavior of radon and daughters since the moment that radon is created in natural sources by the alpha decay of 226 Ra up to the point that doses to humans are estimated based on the inhalation of radon and its progeny. The objective of a model should be determinant in defining the model structure and boundaries. Modeling indoors radon is particularly useful when the 226 Ra concentration in building materials and soils can be known before a house will be built with such 226 Ra bearing materials and over 226 Ra rich soils. The reported concentrations of 226 Ra in building materials range from 0.3 Bq · kg -1 in wood to about 2.6 x 10 3 Bq · kg -1 in aerated concrete based on alum shale. 30 In addition, when a house is built on a soil containing a high 226 Ra concentration, radon exhalation from the soil contributes to increase radon concentration indoors. The reported radon exhalation from soils range from 3.4 Bq · m -2 · s -1 in latosolic soil from Osaka, Japan to about 53 mBq · m -2 · s -1 in chernozemic soil from Illinois

  13. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  14. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  15. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  16. Radon: Not so Noble

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Radon in the Environment and Associated Health Problems ... is presently working on emission of ... Radon isotope 222 has a half-life of 3.8 days, long enough to ..... 222Rn concentration of one WL for 170 working hours in one month.

  17. Background concentrations of radon and radon daughters in Canadian homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, R.G.; Vasudev, P.; Letourneau, E.G.; McCullough, R.S.; Prantl, F.A.; Taniguchi, H.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of radon and radon daughters were carried out in 14 Canadian cities on a total of 9999 homes selected in a statistically random manner. The geometric means of the different cities varied from 0.14 to 0.88 pCi/l. for radon and 0.0009 to 0.0036 Working Levels for radon daughters. The radon originates from natural radioactivity in the soil surrounding the homes. (author)

  18. Study of the effects of atmospheric parameters on ground radon concentration by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidjani, Adams

    1988-01-01

    Radon emanation was continuously monitored for 24 months, accompanied by measurements of atmospheric parameters. Integrated measurments of radon concentrations have been performed with LR-115 cellulose nitrate track detectors. The monitoring was conducted at 16 sites distributed around the Dakar University area. Observed changes in radon concentration are interpreted as being caused by changes in meteorological conditions and ocean tides. (author)

  19. Preliminary results regarding the first map of residential radon in some regions in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosma, C.; Cucos Dinu, A.; Dicu, T.

    2013-01-01

    Radon represents the most important contribution of population exposure to natural ionising radiation. This article presents the first indoor radon map in some regions of Romania based on 883 surveyed buildings in the Stei-Baita radon-prone region and 864 in other regions of Romania. Indoor radon measurements were performed in the last 10 y by using CR-39 nuclear track detectors exposed for 3-12 months on ground floor levels of dwellings. Excluding the Stei-Baita radon-prone region, an average indoor radon concentration of 126 Bq m -3 was calculated for Romanian houses. In the Stei-Baita radon-prone area, the average indoor concentration was 292 Bq m -3 . About 21 % of the investigated dwellings in the Stei-Baita radon-prone region exceed the threshold of 400 Bq m -3 , while 5 % of the dwellings in other areas of Romania exceed the same threshold. As expected, indoor radon concentration is not uniformly distributed throughout Romania. The map shows a high variability among surveyed regions, mainly due to the differences in geology. The radon emanation rate is substantially influenced by the soil characteristics, such as the soil permeability and soil gas radon concentration. Since higher permeability enables the increased migration of soil gas and radon from the soil into the building, elevated levels of indoor radon can be expected in more permeable soil environments. (authors)

  20. Multidimensional simulation of radon diffusion through earthen covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, D.W.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document applications of the RADMD model used at PNL to perform analyses of radon diffusion through uranium mill tailings cover systems. The accuracy of the numerical formulation of the RADMD model was demonstrated through a comparison with a two-dimensional analytic solution to the radon diffusion equation. Excellent agreement was obtained between two-dimensional radon concentration profiles predicted by RADMD and those obtained with the analytic solution. A simulation was made of radon diffusion into a test canister using the two dimensional capabilities of RADMD. The radon flux profile was computed and illustrates the effects of the canister on the surface radon flux. The influence of the canister on the radon flux was shown to be significant under certain circumstances. Defects in earthen cover systems were evaluated using the three dimensional capabilities of RADMD. The results support the expectation that defective covers can increase the surface flux from a covered talings pile. Compared to a cover with no defects, radon flux could be elevated by as much as a factor of three when 20% of the radon control layer area contained pockets of reduced moisture. The effects of temporal and spatial variations in moisture content have been modeled by coupling RADMD with a variable saturated flow model. Two dimensional simulations were made of the time dependence of radon flux from a tailings site before and after cover placement. The results demonstrated the expected flux reduction produced by a thick earthen cover. Time dependence of the radon flux after cover placement was attributed to slight changes in moisture content of the cover material with time. The particular cover studied had a compacted clay layer that effectively attenuated the radon

  1. Risks from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The best estimate of risk to which everyone is exposed from natural radon in buildings is now obtained by extrapolation from observations on men exposed to radon in mines. The relationship between dose and effect derived by the US National Research Council implies that about 6% of the current life-time risk of developing the disease in the UK is attributable to radon, but for residents of some houses it will be much greater. This estimate is dependent on many assumptions, some of which are certainly wrong, and reliable estimates can be obtained only by direct observations on people living in different houses. It is possible that radon may also cause some risk of other cancers, notably leukaemia, but such risks, if real, are certainly small. Studies in progress should provide reliable estimates of all radon induced risks within a few years. (author)

  2. Radon in Syrian houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Hushari, M.; Raja, G.; Alsawaf, A.

    1996-01-01

    A nationwide investigation of radon levels in Syrian houses was carried out during the period 1991-1993. Passive radon diffusion dosemeters using polycarbonate detectors were distributed in houses all over Syria. Detectors were subjected to electrochemical etching to reveal latent tracks of alpha particles. The mean radon concentration in Syrian houses was found to be 45 Bq m -3 with some values several times higher. This investigation indicated that there were a few houses in Syria that require remedial action. Most houses that have high levels of radon were found in the southern area, especially in the Damascus governorate. The study also indicated that radon concentrations were higher in old houses built from mud with no tiling. (author)

  3. Lessons from radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, M.

    1993-01-01

    At EPA there is a public outreach program that the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) has developed for radon. To meet the difficult challenge radon presented, OAR's Radon Division developed working relationships with national nonprofit groups who share a mission. These groups have well-established communication networks with their memberships for advancing their goals. Such diverse groups as the American Lung Association, the Advertising Council, the National Association of Counties (NACo), the Consumer Federation of America, the National Association of Homebuilders, and the National Safety Council have joined with EPA to reduce radon health risks. Through this alliance, EPA has been able to take advantage of communication channels that it could never replicate on tis own. Every group working with EPA disseminates the radon message through its own established channels to reach its constituency. These partners wield authority in their fields and are ideal for addressing the concerns of their audiences

  4. Chemical properties of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein, L.

    1986-01-01

    Radon is frequently regarded as a totally inert element. It is, however, a ''metalloid'' - an element which lies on the diagonal of the Periodic Table between the true metals and nonmetals and which exhibits some of the characteristics of both. It reacts with fluorine, halogen fluorides, dioxygenyl salts, fluoro-nitrogen salts, and halogen fluoride-metal fluoride complexes to form ionic compounds. Several of the solid reagents can be used to collect radon from air but must be protected from moisture, since they hydrolyze readily. Recently, solutions of nonvolatile, cationic radon have been produced in nonaqueous solvents. Ion-exchange studies have shown that the radon can be quantitatively collected on columns packed with either Nafion resins or complex salts. In its ionic state, radon is able to displace H + , Na + , K + , Cs + , Ca 2+ , and Ba 2+ ions from a number of solid materials. 27 refs., 6 figs

  5. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.; Oksanen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.) [de

  7. Health effects of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of people to radon has taken on increased interest during the last decade because of the understanding that buildings can serve to trap radon and its daughters, and thereby build up undesirable concentrations of these radioactive elements. Numerous studies of underground miners (often uranium miners) have shown an increased risk of lung cancer in comparison with nonexposed populations. Laboratory animals exposed to radon daughters also develop lung cancer. The abundant epidemiological and experimental data have established the carcinogenicity of radon progeny. Those observations are of considerable importance, because uranium, from which radon and its progeny arise, is ubiquitous in the earth's crust, including coal mines. Risk estimates of the health effects of long-term exposures at relatively low levels require continued development, especially to address the potential health effects of radon and radon daughters in homes and occupational settings where the exposure levels are less than levels in underground uranium and other metal mines that have been the subject of epidemiological studies. Two approaches can be used to characterize the lung-cancer risks associated with radon-daughter exposure: mathematical representations of the respiratory tract that model radiation doses to target cells and epidemiological investigation of exposed populations, mainly underground uranium miners. The mathematically-based dosimetric approach provides an estimate of lung cancer risk related to radon-daughter exposure based specifically on modeling of the dose to target cells. The various dosimetric models all require assumptions, some of which are not subject to direct verification, as to breathing rates; the deposition of radon daughters in the respiratory tract; and the type, nature, and location of the target cells for cancer induction. The most recent large committee effort drawn together to evaluate this issue was sponsored by the National Research Council

  8. Performance Evaluation of Three Different Inverter Configurations of DVR for Mitigation of Voltage Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miska Prasad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The voltage events namely voltage sags and voltage swells represent the most common, frequent and important power quality events in today’s power system. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR is one of the key components used to mitigate the supply voltage quality disturbances in terms of voltage sags and swells in the distribution system. It consists of an energy storage unit, a voltage source inverter, a filter, a coupling transformer and the control system. This paper presents three different inverter configurations of dynamic voltage restorer (DVR for mitigation of voltage events such as voltage sags and swells with sudden addition or removal of the nonlinear load. These three configurations are voltage source inverter based DVR (VSI-DVR, current source inverter based DVR (CSI-DVR and impedance or Z-source inverter based DVR (ZSI-DVR. The d-q control technique is used to control the operation of the DVR. The response of ZSI-DVR for mitigation of voltage sags and swells are investigated and compared with VSI-DVR and CSI-DVR using MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

  9. Radon levels in underground workplaces: a map of the Italian regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossetti, Marta; Esposito, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The indoor radon exposition is a widely recognised health hazard, so specific laws and regulations have been produced in many countries and so-called radon-risk maps have consequently been produced. In Italy the regulation applies to general workplaces and a national survey was carried out in the 1990's to evaluate the exposure to radon in dwellings. Failing a national coordinated mapping programme, some Italian regions performed a survey to identify radon-prone areas, nevertheless with different methodologies. In this work a national map of the average annual radon concentration levels in underground workplaces, obtained from the results of 8695 annual indoor radon measurements carried out by U-Series laboratory between 2003 and 2010, was presented. Due to underground locations, the mean radon concentration is higher than that from previous map elaborated for dwellings and a significant radon concentration was also found in Regions traditionally considered as low-risk areas. (authors)

  10. Radon as geological tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Valladares, D.L.; Rizzotto, M.; Velasco, H.; Ayub, J. Juri [Universidad Nacional de San Luis (Argentina). Inst. de Matematica Aplicada San Luis (IMASL); Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of {sup 222}Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of {sup 40}K, {sup 232}Th and {sup 23}'8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using {sup 222}Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m{sup -3} recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  11. Radon as geological tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, T.; Anjos, R.M.; Silva, A.A.R. da; Yoshimura, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: This work presents measurements of 222 Rn levels performed in La Carolina gold mine and Los Condores tungsten mine at the province of San Luis, Argentina, today used for tourist visitation, and can evaluate the potential use of such radioactive noble gas as tracer or marker for geological processes in underground environments. By concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th and 23 '8U were also measured in the walls of tunnels were determined the rocks mineral composition, what indicated that the mines have the same composition. In this sense, we used nuclear trace plastic detectors CR-39, gamma spectrometry of rock samples and Geiger-Muller (GM) monitors The patterns of radon gas transportation processes revealed that La Carolina could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a single entrance tube, with constant cross section and air velocity. Los Condores, which has a second main entrance, could be interpreted through a model based on a radioactive gas confined into a two entrance tube, allowing a chimney effect for air circulation. The results showed the high potential of using 222 Rn as a geological tracer. In what concerns the occupational hazard, in summer (time of more intense tourist activity in the mine) La Carolina presented a mean concentration of the radioactive noble gas that exceeds in four times the action level of 1,5 kBq m -3 recommended by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP). The chimney effect shows the low mean concentration of radon in Los Condores. (author)

  12. Radon in Africa: South African Lessons Learnt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simanga, A.T.

    2010-01-01

    Processing (MIMP) facilities Workers are exposed in mining to:- Radon and its progeny External Exposure (gamma) Radioactive dust Water ingestion (inadvertently) Radon: Technical Considerations Monitoring is performed to detect, quantify and compare with goals. It must be fit for purpose and monitoring plan must be developed, implemented and evaluated. Monitoring Plan A radon monitoring plan is site specific, but the basic steps are common. Basic Steps in the Plan Purpose of monitoring Monitoring strategy Survey Data Handling Quality control Concluding Remarks In radiological protection- NORM industries in particular Mining and Mineral Processing Facilities- Rn is a major contributor to exposure In Africa as more regulatory infrastructure gets set up- Radon will become a prominent issue- because mining is major. Challenge is how do we ensure that the decisions we make are: - Based on credible data to enable incredible impact - Based on credible legislative framework - Made by technically competent people

  13. RECOMMENDED HVAC STANDARD OF THE FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report contains the recommended language for the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) section of the "Florida Code for Radon-resistant Construction and Mitigation." t deals with elements of construction that relate to the HVAC of houses. ts primary intent is to p...

  14. The HAZWRAP/Navy Radon Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otten, J.A.; Wilson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFACENGCOM) was assigned the responsibility of identifying potential hazards from exposure to naturally occurring indoor radon to personnel in Naval facilities and prioritizing corrective actions. In response to this request, NAVFACENGCOM established the Navy Radon Assessment and Mitigation Program (NAVRAMP), which evaluates problems associated with radon levels above current Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-guidelines (EPA-520/1-86-04) of 4pCi/L. NAVRAMP consists of four phases: screening, assessment, mitigation, and postmitigation. Approximately 300,000 alpha track detectors (ATDs) will be used during the screening and assessment phases. Several unique approaches were developed to verify the quality of the information collected during this large program. To guarantee chain-of-custody, a computerized data management system was developed to track each ATD from initial purchase through field implementation to final analysis and was also used to track and identify quality control (QC) problems related to the manufacture and analysis of ATDs. The QC program addressed potential problems that could occur using ATDs. The potential errors associated with the use of ATDs included (1) lot-to-lot variation, (2) chemical process variation, (3) pouch leakage, and (4) background. The data management and QC programs ensured the quality and integrity of the samples, the accuracy and precision of the analyses, the representatives of the results, and the completeness of the information

  15. A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU's and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers

  16. Radon in public buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, H.; Flesch, K.; Hermann, E.; Loebner, W.; Leissring, B.

    2009-01-01

    From the Free State of Saxony, a study was commissioned to survey how reliable measurements to characterize the radon situation in public buildings at a reasonable financial and human effort can be carried out to reduce radiation exposure in public buildings. The study approach was for 6 objects. To characterize the radon situation the time evolution measurement of radon concentrations of more than 1 to 2 weeks turned out to be sufficient. A novel data analysis enables the identification of a ''typical daily alteration of the radon concentration'' depending on the ventilation conditions and the daily use of the offices or class rooms. The identification of typical diurnal radon variations for the working time and weekends or holidays is of fundamental importance for assessing the exposure situation in public buildings. It was shown that the radon concentration during working time are in general much lower than in the times when the buildings (offices) are unused. It turned out that the long-term radon measurements with nuclear track detectors within distinct time regimes (day / night, working hours / leisure time) by utilizing switch modules are very efficient to estimate the actual exposure. (orig.)

  17. Indoor Radon Concentration Related to Different Radon Areas and Indoor Radon Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Indoor radon has been observed in the buildings at areas with different radon risk potential. Preventive measures are based on control of main potential radon sources (soil gas, building material and supplied water) to avoid building of new houses above recommended indoor radon level 200 Bq/m3. Radon risk (index) estimation of individual building site bedrock in case of new house siting and building protection according technical building code are obligatory. Remedial actions in buildings built at high radon risk areas were carried out principally by unforced ventilation and anti-radon insulation. Significant differences were found in the level of radon concentration between rooms where radon reduction techniques were designed and those where it was not designed. The mathematical model based on radon exhalation from soil has been developed to describe the physical processes determining indoor radon concentration. The model is focused on combined radon diffusion through the slab and advection through the gap from sub-slab soil. In this model, radon emanated from building materials is considered not having a significant contribution to indoor radon concentration. Dimensional analysis and Gauss-Newton nonlinear least squares parametric regression were used to simplify the problem, identify essential input variables and find parameter values. The presented verification case study is introduced for real buildings with respect to various underground construction types. Presented paper gives picture of possible mathematical approach to indoor radon concentration prediction.

  18. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakerblom, Gustav (Aakerblom och Aakerblom HP, Skaerholmen (Sweden)); German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir (Research Inst. of Radiation Hygiene, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    2009-02-15

    concrete footing. The floor is usually made of wooden planks with quite large visible gaps between them, which makes it easy for radon to penetrate into the air of the living space. A 20-30 centimeter high non-ventilated crawl space is quite usual. Ventilation is provided by the gaps around the windows and doors and the natural draught through the holes. The heating stoves are usually placed in the middle of the houses; coal, wood, sheep and cow dung are used as fuel. The gamma radiation from the building materials is approximately 0.1 muSv/h which indicates that they do not contribute to the radon in the indoor air. The water is stored in cisterns outdoors and this means that it can also be excluded as a source of radon in the indoor air. The measurements showed very few extreme radon values, but the mean value is relatively high. In order to prevent high radon levels indoors, the radon risks should always be taken into account when constructing a building and to prevent the penetration of radon gas by laying a sheet of plastic over the ground in the crawl space or by sealing the openings and cracks in the floor. It is important that the local authorities are aware of the radon problems so that they can advise on the health risks and their mitigation

  19. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Sánchez, A.; Torre Pérez, J. de la; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.; Naranjo Correa, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. - Highlights: ► More than 200 measurements were performed in about 130 working places. ► Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. ► The exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. ► Geological characteristics of the soil influence the indoor radon levels.

  20. Radon concentration of waters in Greece and Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, D.; Vogiannis, E.; Louizi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Alpha Guard are connected via plastic radon proof tubes. Forced degassing of radon gas is performed by circulating the air in the set up with the use of a pump. Water sampling (to avoid radon escape) was driven by a strict protocol. Water taps were opened for 10 minutes before drawing the sample. Glass storage vessels of 200 to 1000 ml, with adjustment glass stoppers with standard NS 29/32 grounding, as well as sealing rings and granted security clamps for taper grounding, were completely filled slowly and immediately closed (to avoid the formation of air bubbles). Similar procedure (except tap opening) was followed for underground and surface waters. Laboratory measurements were performed at least one hour after drawing the sample in order to assure the full decay of any thoron content and to the minimum achievable time interval, so as the radon content to be the highest possible to allow higher precision. For the measurement the glass stopper was removed and immediately exchanged with the degassing cap. Afterwards water quantity was reduced to about half and measured. From the measurements, the mean annual equivalent dose rate (aEDr) delivered to stomach due to ingestion and the contribution to aEDr due to inhalation of radon in drinking water were calculated as using the EURATOM 2001 dose conversion factor (0.00144 mSv/Bq). Radon concentrations in drinking waters ranged between (1.1+/-0.5) Bq/L and (15+/4) Bq/L. Only three samples collected from the radon prone area of Arnea Chalkidikis presented high radon concentrations (120+/20 Bq/L, 320+/-40 Bq/L, 410+/-50 Bq/L). Radon concentrations in underground waters ranged between (1.2+/-0.7) Bq/L and (14.7+/-1.1) Bq/L. The corresponding concentration range in surface waters was (2.7+/-0.8) Bq/L and (24+/-6) Bq/L. The radon concentrations in thermal waters (some of which are used for drinking) were quite higher (in the range of (220+/-20) to (340+/-40) Bq/L). In both countries, no correlation of radon in underground waters

  1. Caffeine administration at night during extended wakefulness effectively mitigates performance impairment but not subjective assessments of fatigue and sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paech, Gemma M; Banks, Siobhan; Pajcin, Maja; Grant, Crystal; Johnson, Kayla; Kamimori, Gary H; Vedova, Chris B Della

    2016-06-01

    The current study investigated the effects of repeated caffeine administration on performance and subjective reports of sleepiness and fatigue during 50h extended wakefulness. Twenty-four, non-smokers aged 22.5±2.9y (mean±SD) remained awake for two nights (50h) in a controlled laboratory environment. During this period, 200mg of caffeine or placebo gum was administered at 01:00, 03:00, 05:00 and 07:00 on both nights (total of 800mg/night). Neurobehavioral performance and subjective reports were assessed throughout the wake period. Caffeine improved performance compared to placebo, but did not affect overall ratings of subjective sleepiness and fatigue. Performance and sleepiness worsened with increasing time awake for both conditions. However, caffeine slowed performance impairments such that after 50h of wakefulness performance was better following caffeine administration compared to placebo. Caffeine also slowed the increase in subjective sleepiness and performance ratings, but only during the first night of wakefulness. After two nights of sleep deprivation, there was no difference in sleepiness ratings between the two conditions. These results demonstrate that strategic administration of caffeine effectively mitigates performance impairments associated with 50h wakefulness but does not improve overall subjective assessments of sleepiness, fatigue and performance. Results indicate that while performance impairment is alleviated, individuals may continue to report feelings of sleepiness. Individuals who use caffeine as a countermeasure in sustained operations may feel as though caffeine is not effective despite impairments in objective performance being largely mitigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Riddle of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.

    1996-01-01

    Why is the most significant source of human exposure to ionising radiation - and one that is so easy to reduce - not accorded the attention it deserves from those engaged in radiological protection nor the action it requires from those affected by it at work or at home? There are, after all, clear indications that high levels of radon exist and firm strands of evidence that radon causes cancer. Some national and international authorities have even developed regulations and recommendations to limit exposures. But radon still lies in the penumbra of protection because proponents of intervention lack conviction and opponents are full of passionate intensity. Little wonder that citizens are confused! (Author)

  3. Radon affected areas: Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Green, B.M.R.; Lomas, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Board advice on radon in homes issued in 1990 specifies that areas of the UK where 1% or more of homes exceed the Action Level of 200 becquerels per cubic metre of air should be regarded as Affected Areas. Results of radon measurements in homes in the districts of Kincardine and Deeside and Gordon in Grampian Region and Caithness and Sutherland in Highland Region are mapped and used to delineate Affected Areas in these areas where required. The Scottish Office is advised to consider the desirability of developing guidance on precautions against radon in future homes. (author)

  4. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  5. ELM mitigation with pellet ELM triggering and implications for PFCs and plasma performance in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, Larry R. [ORNL; Lang, P. [EURATOM / UKAEA, Abingdon, UK; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Lasnier, C. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Meitner, Steven J. [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Commaux, Nicolas JC [ORNL; Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Jernigan, Thomas C. [ORNL

    2015-08-01

    The triggering of rapid small edge localized modes (ELMs) by high frequency pellet injection has been proposed as a method to prevent large naturally occurring ELMs that can erode the ITER plasma facing components (PFCs). Deuterium pellet injection has been used to successfully demonstrate the on-demand triggering of edge localized modes (ELMs) at much higher rates and with much smaller intensity than natural ELMs. The proposed hypothesis for the triggering mechanism of ELMs by pellets is the local pressure perturbation resulting from reheating of the pellet cloud that can exceed the local high-n ballooning mode threshold where the pellet is injected. Nonlinear MHD simulations of the pellet ELM triggering show destabilization of high-n ballooning modes by such a local pressure perturbation.A review of the recent pellet ELM triggering results from ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), DIII-D, and JET reveals that a number of uncertainties about this ELM mitigation technique still remain. These include the heat flux impact pattern on the divertor and wall from pellet triggered and natural ELMs, the necessary pellet size and injection location to reliably trigger ELMs, and the level of fueling to be expected from ELM triggering pellets and synergy with larger fueling pellets. The implications of these issues for pellet ELM mitigation in ITER and its impact on the PFCs are presented along with the design features of the pellet injection system for ITER.

  6. Radon monitoring for the prediction of mine outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebecka, J.; Wysocka, M.; Chalupnik, S.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of changes of concentrations of radon in gases occurring in coal seams prone to instantaneous outbursts of coal and gas have been performed. Gas samples have been taken from specially drilled boreholes. In coal seams prone to outbursts strong variations of radon concentration have been found, while in seams where no outbursts occurred radon concentration was much more stable. In all cases outbursts were always preceded by very low concentrations of radon, which raised again afterwards. Similar observations are performed in coal mines where a strong hazard of shocks accompanied by rock bursts occur which is caused by mining activity. Obtained results indicate the possibility of using radon as supporting indicator for prediction of instantaneous outbursts and rock bursts and may be worth-while for prevention of these catastrophes. (author). 9 refs, 2 figs

  7. Validation of a Fast-Response Urban Micrometeorological Model to Assess the Performance of Urban Heat Island Mitigation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, D.; Girard, P.; Overby, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Stoll, R., II; Willemsen, P.; Bailey, B.; Parlange, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    Urban heat islands (UHI) are a real threat in many cities worldwide and mitigation measures have become a central component of urban planning strategies. Even within a city, causes of UHI vary from one neighborhood to another, mostly due the spatial variability in surface thermal properties, building geometry, anthropogenic heat flux releases and vegetation cover. As a result, the performance of UHI mitigation measures also varies in space. Hence, there is a need to develop a tool to quantify the efficiency of UHI mitigation measures at the neighborhood scale. The objective of this ongoing study is to validate the fast-response micrometeorological model QUIC EnvSim (QES). This model can provide all information required for UHI studies with a fine spatial resolution (up to 0.5m) and short computation time. QES combines QUIC, a CFD-based wind solver and dispersion model, and EnvSim, composed of a radiation model, a land-surface model and a turbulent transport model. Here, high-resolution (1 m) simulations are run over a subset of the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) campus including complex buildings, various surfaces properties and vegetation. For nearly five months in 2006-07, a dense network of meteorological observations (92 weather stations over 0.1 km2) was deployed over the campus and these unique data are used here as a validation dataset. We present validation results for different test cases (e.g., sunny vs cloudy days, different incoming wind speeds and directions) and explore the effect of a few UHI mitigation strategies on the spatial distribution of near-surface air temperatures. Preliminary results suggest that QES may be a valuable tool in decision-making regarding adaptation of urban planning to UHI.

  8. Soft-Decision-Data Reshuffle to Mitigate Pulsed Radio Frequency Interference Impact on Low-Density-Parity-Check Code Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianjun David

    2011-01-01

    This presentation briefly discusses a research effort on mitigation techniques of pulsed radio frequency interference (RFI) on a Low-Density-Parity-Check (LDPC) code. This problem is of considerable interest in the context of providing reliable communications to the space vehicle which might suffer severe degradation due to pulsed RFI sources such as large radars. The LDPC code is one of modern forward-error-correction (FEC) codes which have the decoding performance to approach the Shannon Limit. The LDPC code studied here is the AR4JA (2048, 1024) code recommended by the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) and it has been chosen for some spacecraft design. Even though this code is designed as a powerful FEC code in the additive white Gaussian noise channel, simulation data and test results show that the performance of this LDPC decoder is severely degraded when exposed to the pulsed RFI specified in the spacecraft s transponder specifications. An analysis work (through modeling and simulation) has been conducted to evaluate the impact of the pulsed RFI and a few implemental techniques have been investigated to mitigate the pulsed RFI impact by reshuffling the soft-decision-data available at the input of the LDPC decoder. The simulation results show that the LDPC decoding performance of codeword error rate (CWER) under pulsed RFI can be improved up to four orders of magnitude through a simple soft-decision-data reshuffle scheme. This study reveals that an error floor of LDPC decoding performance appears around CWER=1E-4 when the proposed technique is applied to mitigate the pulsed RFI impact. The mechanism causing this error floor remains unknown, further investigation is necessary.

  9. Comparison of radon and radon-daughter grab samples obtained during the winter and summer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, K.E.

    1987-08-01

    The Technical Measurements Center (TMC), under the auspices of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) program, is investigating short-term methods for estimating annual average indoor radon-daughter concentrations (RDC). A field study at 40 sample locations in 26 residential structures in Grand Junction, Colorado, was conducted once in the winter and once in the summer. The short-term methods investigated as part of this study include ten-minute radon and radon-daughter grab sampling and hourly RDC measurements. The results of the field study indicate that ten-minute radon grab samples from basement locations are reproducible over different seasons during controlled sampling conditions. Nonbasement radon and RDC grab samples are highly variable even when the use of the location by the occupant is controlled and the ventilation rate is restricted. The grab sampling was performed under controlled occupied conditions. These results confirm that a short-term radon or RDC measurement in a nonbasement location in a house is not a standardized measurement that can be used to infer an annual average concentration. The hourly RDC measurements were performed under three sets of conditions over a 72-hour period. The three sets of conditions were uncontrolled occupied, controlled occupied, and controlled unoccupied. These results indicate that it is not necessary to relocate the occupants during the time of grab sampling. 8 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs

  10. Radon in Dwellings in the Republic of Kalmykia. Results from the National Radon Survey 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakerblom, Gustav; German, Olga; Soederman, Ann-Louise; Stamat, Ivan; Venkov, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    concrete footing. The floor is usually made of wooden planks with quite large visible gaps between them, which makes it easy for radon to penetrate into the air of the living space. A 20-30 centimeter high non-ventilated crawl space is quite usual. Ventilation is provided by the gaps around the windows and doors and the natural draught through the holes. The heating stoves are usually placed in the middle of the houses; coal, wood, sheep and cow dung are used as fuel. The gamma radiation from the building materials is approximately 0.1 μSv/h which indicates that they do not contribute to the radon in the indoor air. The water is stored in cisterns outdoors and this means that it can also be excluded as a source of radon in the indoor air. The measurements showed very few extreme radon values, but the mean value is relatively high. In order to prevent high radon levels indoors, the radon risks should always be taken into account when constructing a building and to prevent the penetration of radon gas by laying a sheet of plastic over the ground in the crawl space or by sealing the openings and cracks in the floor. It is important that the local authorities are aware of the radon problems so that they can advise on the health risks and their mitigation

  11. Environmental radon monitoring in Khartoum dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, I. S.

    1992-03-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is released into the surrounding environment. Existence of this gas indoors ( house and dwelling ) mainly depends on its source in the building materials, the soil beneath the buildings and the ventilation of the rooms. In this study the technique of ground activated charcoal and gamma spectrometry system are used for Radon measurement. This technique has been calibrated and optimized. The main reason for radon determination in house comes from the fact that Radon and its daughters are directly responsible of lung cancer and some kidney diseases. The measurements, in this study, have been performed for Khartoum indoors. 644 rooms have been measured. These rooms were sorted out into groups according to their building material as well as the ventilation of each room. The measurements covered the whole year ( the three main seasons ) to see the variation of Radon level, since its emanation is affected by the temperature. Also monthly outdoor measurements have been performed in different locations in Khartoum. On the basis of the results obtained, the radiation dose received by the public due to the inhalation of this gas has been calculated. The average annual effective dose was found to be 1.2 m Sv. (author). 33 refs., 17 tabs., 24 figs

  12. Radon Concentration in Caves of Croatia - Assesing Effective Radon Doses for Occupational Workers and Visitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Miklavcic, I.; Poje, M.; Stanic, D.; Vukovic, B.; Paar, D.

    2011-01-01

    Radon monitoring at potentially highly radioactive location such as caves is important to assess the radiological hazards to occupational workers and occasional visitors. In its Publication 65 the ICRP has produced recommendations dealing with exposure to elevated background radiation, in particular, the risk associated with the inhalation of radon and radon progeny. Recommended annual effective dose from radon 222Rn and its short-lived progeny for workers should not exceed 20 mSv and for occasional users (visitors) the same recommendation is 1 mSv. Measurements were performed with series of track etched detectors (LR115 - type II) in several caves in Croatia. The obtained values for the radon concentration ranged from ambient values up to several thousand Bq m -3 . Radon concentration was measured in about 20 caves of Velebit and Zumberak mountains and the highest radon concentration was in Lubuska jama (3.8 kBq m -3 ) and cave Dolaca (21.8 kBq m -3 ), respectively. Djurovica cave is especially interesting because of its huge tourist potential due to its location bellow Dubrovnik airport. Its mean annual radon concentration of 17.6 kBq m -3 classifies Djurovica cave among caves with high radon concentration. A visitor during half an hour visit at summer time would receive an effective dose of 30.6 μSv. Calculated mean dose rate of 44 μSv/h means that workers (mainly tourist guides) should limit their time inside cave to 454 hours per year. Manita pec is the only cave open for tourists on the territory of Paklenica National Park. The preliminary radon measurements performed during summer 2010, gave an average radon concentration of 1.1 kBq m -3 . An exposure to average dose rate of 3.7 μSv/h means that the tourist guides would receive an effective dose of 0.42 mSv during summer period according to their working schedule. A visitor during half an hour visits would receive an effective dose of 1.86 μSv. (author)

  13. Cost and effectiveness of radon-resistant features in new school buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, A.B.; Leovie, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recent concerns over elevated levels of radon in existing buildings have prompted the design and construction of a number of school buildings that either are radon resistant or incorporate features that facilitate post-construction mitigation if needed. This paper described initial results of a study of several schools with radon-resistant features that were recently constructed in the northeastern U.S. These designs are generally based on experience with radon mitigation in existing houses and schools and radon-resistant new house construction. The study was limited to slab-on-grade schools, where the most common radon-resistant school design is active subslab depressurization (ASD). The additional construction costs for eight schools built with ASD ranged from $3 to $11 per square meter of slab area. The radon contractors who designed these systems have tended to overdesign the radon-reduction systems in the absence of specific written guidance to follow to lessen potential liability in the event of system failure. Design features include detailed sealing of all slab cracks, multiple exhaust stacks, and extensive subslab piping

  14. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testa, M., E-mail: marianna.testa@lnf.infn.it

    2016-07-11

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton–proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run 1 required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. The methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, shapes and multiplicity with the ATLAS detector are presented here. They include energy correction techniques based on estimates of the average pile-up energy density and jet-to-vertex association techniques. Extensions of these methods to reduce the impact of pile-up on jet shapes use both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC are also shown.

  15. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2016-01-01

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton–proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run 1 required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. The methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, shapes and multiplicity with the ATLAS detector are presented here. They include energy correction techniques based on estimates of the average pile-up energy density and jet-to-vertex association techniques. Extensions of these methods to reduce the impact of pile-up on jet shapes use both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC are also shown.

  16. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton-proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run I required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. This presentation shows the methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, jet shapes, and even spurious additional jets. Energy correction techniques that incorporate sophisticated estimates of the average pile-up energy density and tracking information are described in detail. Jet-to-vertex association techniques are also presented. We also describe the extension of these techniques to ameliorate the effect of pile-up on jet shapes using both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC will be also discussed.

  17. Performance of pile-up mitigation techniques for jets in pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Testa, Marianna; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The large rate of multiple simultaneous proton-proton interactions, or pile-up, generated by the Large Hadron Collider in Run I required the development of many new techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of these conditions. The methods employed to correct for the impact of pile-up on jet energy, shapes and multiplicity with the ATLAS detector are here presented. They include energy correction techniques based on estimates of the average pile-up energy density and jet-to-vertex association techniques. Extensions of these methods to reduce the impact of pile-up on jet shapes use both subtraction and grooming procedures. Prospects for pile-up suppression at the HL-LHC are also shown.

  18. Passive radon daughter dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElroy, R.G.C.; Johnson, J.R.

    1986-03-01

    On the basis of an extensive review of the recent literature concerning passive radon daughter dosimeters, we have reached the following conclusions: 1) Passive dosimeters for measuring radon are available and reliable. 2) There does not presently exist an acceptable passive dosimeter for radon daughters. There is little if any hope for the development of such a device in the foreseeable future. 3) We are pessimistic about the potential of 'semi-passive dosimeters' but are less firm about stating categorically that these devices cannot be developed into a useful radon daughter dosimeter. This report documents and justifies these conclusions. It does not address the question of the worker's acceptance of these devices because at the present time, no device is sufficiently advanced for this question to be meaningful. 118 refs

  19. The matter of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.; O'Riordan, C.N.

    1992-01-01

    By comparison with the radiation doses from radon, the doses to individual members of the public and to the general community from nuclear activities are quite trivial. Doses from radon in some British homes exceed the statutory dose limit for nuclear workers;the collective dose from radon is two thousand times the value for nuclear discharges. And yet, too little attention - legal or otherwise - is paid to this radioactive pollutant. An attempt is made in this paper to compensate for the neglect. The origins, properties and harmful effects of radon are described. Measurements in homes and places of work are summarised. Voluntary and regulatory controls on exposure are elucidated. Questions of public administration, confidentiality of information and sale of property are discussed. Prospects for progress are assessed. (author)

  20. Radon - natural health threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrixon, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Natural sources of radiation attract little attention, yet a survey has found radon gas in buildings at levels which put the occupants at some risk. The author wants safety standards set without undue delay. (author)

  1. Radon i danske lejeboliger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Skytte Clausen, Louise

    I denne undersøgelse kortlægges radonindholdet i indeluften og det undersøges, hvordan indholdet af radon i indeluften er fordelt og spredes i en ejendom, og om det er muligt at pege på en bygningsdel eller en bygningskomponent som en spredningsvej for radon i boliger. Boligerne er lejeboliger og...... ligger i etageejendomme, kæde- og rækkehuse tilhørende bygningstyper opført fra 1850 og frem. De udvalgte ejendomme ligger i områder af landet, hvor der ved tidligere undersøgelser har vist sig at være en stor andel af huse med et højt indhold af radon i indeluften. Koncentrationen af radon er målt over...

  2. ROE Radon Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The polygon dataset represents predicted indoor radon screening levels in counties across the United States. These data were provided by EPA’s Office of Radiation...

  3. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  4. High indoor radon variations and the thermal behavior of eskers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Voutilainen, A.; Honkamaa, T.; Rosenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of indoor radon concentrations in houses built on the Pispala esker in the city of Tampere were taken. The objective was to find connections between indoor radon concentrations, esker topography, and meteorological factors. The results show that not only the permeable soil but also subterranean air-flows in the esker strongly affect the indoor radon concentrations. The difference in temperature between the soil air inside the esker and the outdoor air compels the subterranean air to stream between the upper and lower esker areas. In winter, the radon concentrations are amplified in the upper esker areas where air flows out from the esker. In summer, concentrations are amplified in certain slope zones. In addition, wind direction affects the soil air and indoor radon concentrations when hitting the slopes at right angles. Winter-summer concentration ratios are typically in the range of 3-20 in areas with amplified winter concentration, and 0.1-0.5 in areas with amplified summer concentrations. A combination of winter and summer measurements provides the best basis for making mitigation decisions. On eskers special attention must be paid to building technology because of radon. 9 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  5. Anomalous radon concentration in a nuclear research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P.

    2014-08-01

    Radon monitoring in more than 60 selected points were part of surveillance radiation activities in the nuclear center of Mexico; three major facilities were inspected, the TRIGA Mark III research reactor, the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator and the Pelletron electron Accelerator. During a major maintenance activities in the research reactor, the air extraction system was not functioning for more than a month causing of a radon build up exhaled from the massive concrete of the building, reaching concentrations in some places up to 2.1 kb m -3 . The irradiation room at the Tandem Accelerator presented high radon concentrations up to nearly 5 kb m -3 , manly in the trenches were pipes and electric wires are located, the radon source was identified as originated from small caves under the floor. Low radon concentrations were found inside a similar building where a Pelletron accelerator is located. The reasons for the abnormal radon concentrations and the mitigation actions to remove any risk for the worker are discussed in detail in this paper. (author)

  6. Anomalous radon concentration in a nuclear research facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, M.; Pena, P., E-mail: miguel.balcazar@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Radon monitoring in more than 60 selected points were part of surveillance radiation activities in the nuclear center of Mexico; three major facilities were inspected, the TRIGA Mark III research reactor, the Tandem Van de Graaff Accelerator and the Pelletron electron Accelerator. During a major maintenance activities in the research reactor, the air extraction system was not functioning for more than a month causing of a radon build up exhaled from the massive concrete of the building, reaching concentrations in some places up to 2.1 kb m{sup -3}. The irradiation room at the Tandem Accelerator presented high radon concentrations up to nearly 5 kb m{sup -3}, manly in the trenches were pipes and electric wires are located, the radon source was identified as originated from small caves under the floor. Low radon concentrations were found inside a similar building where a Pelletron accelerator is located. The reasons for the abnormal radon concentrations and the mitigation actions to remove any risk for the worker are discussed in detail in this paper. (author)

  7. Radon-Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno y Moreno, A.

    2003-01-01

    The presentation of the active and passive methods for radon, their identification and measure, instrumentation and characteristics are the objectives of this work. Active detectors: Active Alpha Cam Continuous Air Monitor, Model 758 of Victoreen, Model CMR-510 Continuous Radon Monitor of the Signature Femto-Tech. Passive detectors: SSNTD track detectors in solids Measurement Using Charcoal Canisters, disk of activated coal deposited in a metallic box Electrets Methodology. (Author)

  8. Personal radon daughter dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocker, H.

    1979-12-01

    The conventional means of radon daughter exposure estimatikn for uranium miners in Canada is by grab sampling and time weighting. Personal dosimetry is a possible alternative method with its own advantages and limitations. The author poses basic questions with regard to two methods of radon daughter detection, thermoluminescent chips and track-etch film. An historical review of previous and current research and development programs in Canada and in other countries is presented, as are brief results and conclusions of each dosimeter evaluation

  9. Radon in housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-04-01

    The enclosed material deals with the substantial efforts made until now to control the levels of radon in Sweden dwellings. It is meant as a source material for the several publications which have emerged from the National Institute of Radiation Protection in Stockholm during 1983 and 1984. The first document is a translation of chapter 16, the deliberations of the Swedish Radon Commission, appointed by the government in 1979. Comments on the report of the commission were solicited before 1 October, 1983. (author)

  10. Monitoring of radon isotopes and affiliated disintegration products (ADP) in soil air and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anshakov, O. M.; Bogacheva, E. S.; Bouchawach, Fauzi Hadji; Chudakov, V. A.

    2009-01-01

    The subject of research is a physic and mathematical model of the process of radon determining in soil air and water by the way of its sampling for absorbent, preparation of a sample to measurement taking, ADP radiometry: Pb- 214, Bi-214 in a sample, calculation of radon activity concentration in an initial medium. The target of research is experimental determining of assignment parameters of devices, used for radon sampling and measurement of its ADP activity in relation to the methods being developed with estimation of their expected metrological performance, analysis of radon and ADP content for ecological research in relation to objectives of radon and ADP monitoring in environmental objects. (author)

  11. Indoor and soil radon measurements in the Hyblean Foreland (South-East Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alessandro

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor radon behavior in two sites of SE Sicily was studied as a function of the soil radon concentration. The chosen locations were Ragusa and Modica towns, placed in the Hyblean Plateau (northern margin of the African Plate. Soil samples were analysed by gamma spectrometry to determine the amount of radionuclides. Indoor air and soil gas radon measurements were simultaneously performed in both sites using active detectors. Radon in soil was measured one meter deep. A positive correlation was obtained between indoor radon concentration and the soil gas concentration.

  12. Soil radon monitoring in the NE flank of Mt. Etna (Sicily)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at a fixed location on the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, a high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the recent volcanic activity on soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements have been performed since July 2001. While comparison between the trend in in-soil radon concentration and the acquired meteorological series (temperature, humidity and pressure) appear to confirm a general seasonal correlation, nevertheless particular anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics

  13. Evidence of soil radon as tracer of magma uprising in Mt. Etna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morelli, D.; Martino, S. Di; Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon has been monitored at one fixed site located in the northeastern flank of Mt. Etna, high-risk volcano in Sicily. The aim of this study was the evaluation of a possible link between magma uprising and soil radon concentration. Continuous radon measurements were performed since July 2001. Comparison between the in-soil radon trend and the acquired meteorological series (Temperature, Humidity and Pressure) seems to confirm a general seasonal correlation; nevertheless some anomalies suggest a possible dependence of the radon concentration on volcanic dynamics, as confirmed by the volcanic tremor and strain-release analysis

  14. A survey on radon reduction efficiency of zeolite and bentonite in a chamber with artificially elevated radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective: Zeolite which is made of a special crystalline structure is a naturally occurring mineral group and can be used in radioactive waste management for site remediation /decontamination. There are a wide variety of naturally occurring and synthetic zeolites, each with a unique structure. The cations in zeolite are highly mobile and can be exchanged for other cationic species. On the other hand, bentonite forms from weathering of volcanic ash. This material may be used as an engineering barrier to enclose nuclear waste. In this study, radon reducing properties of zeolite and bentonite have been investigated. Methods: Using radioactive lantern mantle, a radon prone area with radon levels reaching the EPA's action level (200 Bq/m 3 ) was designed. Two sets of identical chambers (cylindrical chambers, diameter 10 cm, height 16 cm) were used in this study. No zeolite/bentonite was used in the 1 st set of the chambers. A thin layer of either zeolite or bentonite powder was applied to the base of the first set of chambers. An unburned radioactive lantern mantle (activity 800 Bq) was placed in all chambers (both sets) to artificially increase the radon level inside the chamber and simulate the condition of a radon prone area. Radon level monitoring was performed by using a PRASSI portable radon gas survey meter. Results: After placing the cap on its place, the radon levels inside the 1 st set of the chambers were 871.9, 770.3, 769.2 and 635.7 Bq/m 3 after 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively. Zeolite significantly decreased the radon concentration inside the chambers and radon levels were 367.9, 435.4, 399.0 and 435.4 Bq/m 3 after 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. The observed reduction in the radon level was statistically significant. As the radon concentrations in identical chambers with Bentonite were 550.7, 526.5, 536.2 and 479.8 Bq/m 3 after 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes respectively, it is evident that zeolite is more efficient in

  15. Radon og boligen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    Radon er en radioaktiv og sundhedsskadelig luftart, som ved indånding øger risikoen for lungekræft. Der er ingen dokumenteret nedre grænse for, hvornår radon er ufarligt. Derfor anbefales det, at man tilstræber et så lavt radonindhold i indeluften som muligt. Man kan hverken lugte, se, høre eller...... smage radon, så vil du vide, om du har radon i din bolig, må du måle radonindholdet i indeluften. Radon forekommer naturligt i jorden og kan suges ind sammen med jordluft, hvis der inde er et undertryk, og hvis konstruktionerne mod jord er utætte. Jordluft trænger ind gennem revner og utætte samlinger......, fx omkring rør til kloak, vand og varmeforsyning. Koncentrationen af radon i jorden varierer meget fra sted til sted, også lokalt og gennem året. Tidligere undersøgelser har vist, at der kan forekomme høje koncentrationer i Sydgrønland, specielt i området syd for Narsalik ved Paamiut, 61°30’N....

  16. Development of a radon chamber and measurement of the radon solubility in tissues; Entwicklung einer Radonkammer und Messung der Radonloeslichkeit in Gewebe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Andreas

    2015-04-22

    Every year thousands of patients with inflammatory diseases of the musculoskeletal system undergo radon therapy, but the molecular mechanism and the risk of this therapy are not understood. To study the effects of radon exposure in vitro and in vivo we constructed a radon exposure chamber in the framework of the GREWIS project. With this device we are able to expose samples under controlled and reproducible conditions including the radon galleries in Austria and Germany. Adjustable parameters are radon activity-concentration, temperature, humidity and exposure time. These parameters are permanently monitored and controlled. During experiments with cell cultures it is also possible to adjust the CO{sub 2}-concentration. In addition, experiments with mice can be performed with this setup. To measure the radon kinetics in different types of tissue we exposed tissue samples like fat or muscle and mice in the radonchamber. Afterwards we measured the -spectra of the short living radon decay products lead-214 and bismuth-214 in the exposed samples with a HPGe-Detector. We recorded the spectra at different time points after exposure and calculated the initial amount of radon at the end of the exposure period in the sample and investigated the diffusion of the radon out of it. We compared the results from different types of tissue but also activated coal. In an activated coal sample the radon is bound to it via Van-der-Waals-force and the decay spectra are governed by the life time of the bound radon (3,8 days). In contrast in the biological samples the primary radon diffuses out of the samples in less than 20 minutes and the spectra follow the kinetics of the decay of the daughter products. These measurements where performed for the first time under therapy conditions like in radon galleries and also with higher radon concentration. In our experiments we could see an enhanced accumulation of radon and its decay products in fatty tissue compared to muscle tissue. Also in

  17. Radon and radon daughter monitoring (including thoron daughter monitoring)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.; Grealy, G.; Gan, W.

    1982-01-01

    Radon/radon daughter and thoron daughter measurement techniques are outlined. The necessary precautions and critical assessments of each method are also presented with a view to providing a better understanding of the various measurement methods

  18. The effect of humidity on the detection of radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Money, M.; Heaton, B.

    1976-01-01

    As part of the investigation into the performance of a radon monitoring system the effect of altering the humidity on the levels of radon detected by the system whilst attempting to keep other factors constant, has been investigated. The variations in the levels of radon detected in four experiments, as the humidity of the surrounding atmosphere was artificially raised, are shown graphically together with the variations in temperature and water vapour pressure, as calculated from the relative humidity and saturation vapour pressure. In each case a general rise and fall in radon detected follows a similar rise and fall in humidity, but temperature rise has only a small effect on the radon emanation rate. As the levels of humidity do not alter the rate of emanation it is assumed that the efficiency of collection is altered in some way. Mechanisms are discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sesana, Lucia; Polla, Giancarla; Facchini, Ugo; De Capitani, Luisa

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground

  20. Radon-prone areas in the Lombard plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sesana, Lucia [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail: lucia.sesana@unimi.it; Polla, Giancarla [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); Facchini, Ugo [Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria, 16 - 20133 Milan (Italy); De Capitani, Luisa [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Milano, Via Botticelli, 23 - 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    This paper reports the results of indoor radon measurements carried out in the Lombard plain. The aim of this study, which is based on the geological context, was to identify radon high-risk areas. The underlying geology has been established by means of the available stratigraphies giving a schematic representation of the sites in which either occurrence of gravel or silt and clay predominate with depths ranging from 0 to 50 m. Radon measurements were performed in a sample of 411 one-family houses in seven villages located in the southern area of Bergamo and Brescia. The findings indicate that when the substrate is dominated by clay, radon concentration for dwellings on the ground floor are low, whereas a strong predominance of underlying gravel mixed up in sand gives in winter months high radon flux from underground.

  1. Intercomparison of different instruments for measuring radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Iida, Takao

    1990-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap method, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting method), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integration radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq·m -3 (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq·m -3 (in indoor air). The results obtained by these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling method was about 52% of radon concentration. (author)

  2. Intercomparison of different instruments that measure radon concentration in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, M.; Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.

    1987-01-01

    An intercomparison of different instruments for measurement of radon concentration was carried out. The instruments include an ionization chamber, the charcoal-trap technique, a flow-type ionization chamber (pulse-counting technique), a two-filter method, an electrostatic collection method and a passive integrating radon monitor. All instruments except for the passive radon monitor have been calibrated independently. Measurements were performed over a concentration range from about 3.5 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in outdoor air) to 110 Bq/m/sup 3/ (in indoor air). The results obtained from these techniques, except the two-filter technique, are comparable. Radon daughter concentration measured using a filter-sampling technique was about 52% of radon concentrations

  3. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings of Garhwal Himalaya, Northern India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of indoor radon and daughters concentration were performed in several houses in Garhwal Himalaya during 1993-95 with solid state nuclear track detector films (LR-115 Type II). The detector films were exposed for a period of three month to one year. The films basically measured total airborne alpha activity but may be calibrated in unite of EEC RN (equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon with equilibrium factor F=0.45) in an environment with known radon and daughters concentrations. A numbers of dwelling in the area exhibited radon daughters concentrations (EEC RN ) exceeding the recommended level. The abnormal values are due to typical house construction (mud house) in the area. The houses are constructed with soil and local stone with a thin paste of mud. Behaviour and abnormality of radon in mud houses are discussed in details the corresponding annual effective dose has been calculated. (author)

  4. Molecular dynamics simulations of radon accumulation in water and oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pafong, Elvira; Drossel, Barbara [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Radon is a radioactive gas that can enter the human body from air or from ground water. Radon can accumulate to levels that considerably rise the risk of lung cancer while it is also known as a a treatment of various ailments, most notably rheumatoid arthritis. The accumulation of radon differs between tissues, with particularly high concentrations in fatty cells. In order to understand the mechanisms responsible for the different solubility of radon in water and fat, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of radon gas at ambient conditions in contact with a bulk material consisting either of water or oil. We evaluate the diffusion coefficient of radon in both media as well as the equilibrium concentration. The crucial point here is to understand the hydrophobic interaction between water and radon as compared to the dispersive interaction between radon and oil. Therefore, we artificially vary the water charges (i.e., the hydrophobicity) as well as the parameters of the van-der-Waals interaction.

  5. Intercomparison 2003 for Radon measurement services at PSI

    CERN Document Server

    Butterweck, G

    2003-01-01

    Twelve radon measurement services participated in the 2003 Radon Intercomparison Exercise performed at the Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Activity Concentration Measurements at Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) during March 13th to 24th, 2003. Ten of these laboratories were approved by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health and their participation in the intercomparison exercise was a requirement to warrant quality of measurement. Radon gas detectors (etched-track and electret ionisation chambers) and instruments (ionisation chambers and electrostatic precipitation) were exposed in the PSI Radon Chamber in a reference atmosphere with an average radon gas concentration of 1950 Bqm sup - sup 3 leading to a radon gas exposure of 517 kBqhm sup - sup 3. Additional five electret-detectors of an approved measuring service were purchased by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health for a spot check. Two of these were exposed as described above, two had an exposure of 247 kBqhm sup - sup 3 at an average radon concen...

  6. The Spanish indoor radon mapping strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz-Fernandez, C.; Fernandez-Villar, A.; Fuente-Merino, I.; Gutierrez-Villanueva, J.L.; Casal-Ordas, S.; Quindos-Poncela, L.S.; Martin-Matarranz, J.L.; Garcia-Talavera, M.

    2014-01-01

    Indoor radon mapping still represents a valuable tool for drawing the picture of the exposure of general public due to radon and radon progeny inhalation in a residential context. The information provided by means of a map is useful not only as awareness and strategic element for authorities and policy-makers, but also as a scientific start-up point in the design of epidemiological and other specific studies on exposure to natural radiation. The requirements for a good mapping are related to harmonisation criteria coming from European recommendations, as well as to national/local characteristics and necessities. Around 12 000 indoor radon measurements have been made since the Spanish national radon programme began at the end of the 1980's. A significant proportion of them resulted from the last campaign performed from 2009 to 12. This campaign completed the first version of a map based on a grid 10 x 10 km 2 . In this paper, the authors present the main results of a new map together with the criteria adopted to improve the number of measurements and the statistical significance of them. (authors)

  7. Predicting radon/radon daughter concentrations in underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, V.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed description of a computer programme is outlined for the calculation of radon/radon daughter concentrations in air. This computer model is used to predict the radon/radon daughter concentrations in Working Level (WL) at the workplace and at the various junctions at either end of the branches in a typical ventilation network proposed for the Jabiluka mine in the Northern Territory

  8. Exposure to Radon in Dwellings in the Area of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Petroci, Lj.; Sokolovic, E.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Until the 1970s radon and its progeny were regarded as radiation health hazards encountered only in the mining and processing of uranium ore. This notion has dramatically changed as a result of increasing efforts made by many countries to measure radon in dwellings. Since it has been assessed that radon constitutes on average about 53% of the human exposure to natural radiation (UNSCEAR 1993), attention to the problem of exposure to radon and associated health risk has been growing in both developed and developing countries. This paper deals with the investigations of indoor radon activity concentrations at selected dwellings in the area of Zagreb. The fact that concentration of indoor radon depends strongly on radium sources in the soil pointed to the possibility that increased radon levels could be measured in the ground floor dwellings. The measurements of indoor radon performed by Honeywell professional radon monitor in the 30 ground floor dwellings, and at same location in 10 dwellings on higher floors. In order to obtain average daily values, radon activity concentrations were measured throughout 24 hours at each dwelling, over the seasons spring-summer and autumn-winter. In the season spring-summer radon activity concentrations in the ground floor dwellings ranged from 22±5 to 133±12 Bqm -3 (mean value 56±31 Bqm -3 ) and in the season autumn-winter ranged from 22±5 to 311±18 Bqm -3 (mean value 94±64 Bqm -3 ). In the dwellings on higher floors radon activity concentrations in the season spring-summer ranged from 11±3 to 78±9 Bqm -3 (mean value 32±21 Bqm -3 ), and in the season autumn-winter ranged from 30±5 to 137±12 Bqm -3 (mean value 60±32 Bqm -3 ). Average annual radon activity concentration for the 30 investigated ground floor dwellings were 75±45 Bqm -3 , and 46±26 Bqm -3 for the 10 dwellings on higher floors. Investigations performed in the dwellings in the area of Zagreb revealed significant differences in radon levels between the ground

  9. Results of indoor radon measurements in the republic of macedonia: - a review -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovska, Zdenka; Boev, Blazho; Boev, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Radon and its short lived decay products accumulated in indoor environment are the main source of public exposure to natural radiations. The health effects as well as a great number of natural and artificial factors affecting the radon accumulation in indoor environments are some of the motives for the scientific interest in radon issue. Following this global trend, many studies of indoor radon in the Balkan region, including the Republic of Macedonia have been conducted in the last decade. This paper is an overview of the published papers regarding indoor radon concentration measurements with nuclear track detectors in the Republic of Macedonia. It gives basic information about the spatial and temporal variability of indoor radon over the territory of the country, following by a description of the some factors which affect its variations. This review attempts: to organize available indoor radon results in order to show clear picture of the so far conducted surveys; to highlight the need for continuation of more extensive radon investigation in workplaces; to motivate the building professionals to create as much as possible mitigation methods for indoor radon reduction, to motivate the health professionals for epidemiological studies etc. (author)

  10. Control of indoor radon and radon progeny concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sextro, R.G.

    1985-05-01

    There are three general categories of techniques for the control of radon and radon progeny concentrations in indoor air - restriction of radon entry, reduction of indoor radon concentrations by ventilation or air cleaning, and removal of airborne radon progeny. The predominant radon entry process in most residences appears to be pressure driven flow of soil gas through cracks or other openings in the basement, slab, or subfloor. Sealing these openings or ventilation of the subslab or subfloor space are methods of reducing radon entry rates. Indoor radon concentrations may be reduced by increased ventilation. The use of charcoal filters for removal of radon gas in the indoor air by adsorption has also been proposed. Concentrations of radon progeny, which are responsible for most of the health risks associated with radon exposures, can be controlled by use of electrostatic or mechanical filtration. Air circulation can also reduce radon progeny concentrations in certain cases. This paper reviews the application and limitations of each of these control measures and discusses recent experimental results

  11. National Radon Contractor Proficiency Program. Proficiency report, October 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The report lists those individual contractors in the United States who have met the requirements of the Radon Contractor Proficiency (RCP) Program as of August 18, 1990. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who design and supervise the installation of radon mitigation systems in buildings. (Some States have more stringent requirements as part of their radon certification programs. The States should be consulted directly for details on their programs; see Section 5 for a list of State radon contacts). The RCP Program measures the proficiency of an individual contractor, not their company. Therefore, users of the report who select a mitigation firm should ensure that the services are provided by the listed contractor. The National RCP Program does not accredit mitigation contractors, nor does it certify, recommend, or endorse participating companies. Only the listed contractor, not their company of affilation, are deemed proficient. The inclusion of a contractor in the report should not be interpreted as a certification or accreditation of the individual or affiliated company

  12. Performance improvement of switched-based interference mitigation for channel assignment in over-loaded small-cell networks

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2013-05-01

    This paper proposes adequate methods to improve the interference mitigation capability of a recently investigated switched-based interference reduction scheme for single downlink channel assignment in over-loaded small-cell networks. The model assumes that the available orthogonal channels for small cells are distributed among access points in close vicinity, where each access point knows its allocated channels a priori. Each cell has a single antenna, employs the open access strategy, and can reuse its allocated channels simultaneously, while scheduling concurrent service requests. Moreover, the access points can not coordinate their transmissions, and can receive limited feedback from active users. The paper presents low-complexity schemes to identify a suitable channel to serve the scheduled user by maintaining the interference power level within a tolerable range. They attempt to either complement the switched-based scheme by minimum interference channel selection or adopt different interference thresholds on available channels, while reducing the channel examination load. The optimal thresholds for interference mitigation at the desired receive station are quantified for various performance criteria. The performance and processing load of the proposed schemes are obtained analytically, and then compared to those of the single-threshold scheme via numerical and simulation results. © 2002-2012 IEEE.

  13. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, N. S.; Putrik, A. B.; Linke, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Kuprianov, I. B.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Ivanov, B. V.; Sergeecheva, Ya. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Kovalenko, D. V.; Barsuk, V. A.; Danilina, N. A.; Bazylev, B. N.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2015-08-01

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic-martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, "corrugated" surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2-2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  14. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, N.S., E-mail: klimov@triniti.ru [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Putrik, A.B. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Kuprianov, I.B. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Spitsyn, A.V. [NRC «Kurchatov Institute», Akademika Kurchatova pl., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, B.V.; Sergeecheva, Ya.V.; Lesina, I.G. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Danilina, N.A. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Bazylev, B.N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Giniyatulin, R.N. [Efremov Institute, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld., Metallostroy, Saint-Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic–martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, “corrugated” surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2–2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  15. Radon as a hydrological indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komae, Takami [National Research Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The radon concentration in water is measured by a liquid scintillation method. After the radioactive equilibrium between radon and the daughter nuclides was attained, the radon concentration was determined by the liquid scintillation analyzer. {alpha}-ray from radon, then two {beta}- and two {alpha}-ray from the daughter nuclei group were released, so that 500% of the apparent counting efficiency was obtained. The detector limit is about 0.03 Bq/l, the low value, which corresponds to about 5.4x10{sup -15} ppm. By determining the radon concentration in groundwater, behavior of radon in hydrological process, the groundwater exchange caused by pumping and exchange between river water and groundwater were investigated. The water circulation analysis by means of radon indicator in the environment was shown. By using the large difference of radon concentration between in river water and in groundwater, arrival of injected water to the sampling point of groundwater was detected. (S.Y.)

  16. Influence of indoor air conditions on radon concentration in a detached house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari, Keramatollah; Mahmoudi, Jafar; Ghanbari, Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Radon is released from soil and building materials and can accumulate in residential buildings. Breathing radon and radon progeny for extended periods hazardous to health and can lead to lung cancer. Indoor air conditions and ventilation systems strongly influence indoor radon concentrations. This paper focuses on effects of air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity on indoor radon concentrations in a one family detached house in Stockholm, Sweden. In this study a heat recovery ventilation system unit was used to control the ventilation rate and a continuous radon monitor (CRM) was used to measure radon levels. FLUENT, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package was used to simulate radon entry into the building and air change rate, indoor temperature and relative humidity effects using a numerical approach. The results from analytical solution, measurements and numerical simulations showed that air change rate, indoor temperature and moisture had significant effects on indoor radon concentration. Increasing air change rate reduces radon level and for a specific air change rate (in this work Ach = 0.5) there was a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimized radon levels. In this case study minimum radon levels were obtained at temperatures between 20 and 22 °C and a relative humidity of 50–60%. - Highlights: ► We use CFD to simulate indoor radon concentration and distribution. ► The effects of ventilation rate, temperature and moisture are investigated. ► Model validation is performed through analytical solution and measurement results. ► Results show that ventilation rate is inversely proportional to radon level. ► There is a range of temperature and relative humidity that minimize radon level.

  17. Reduction of radon concentration in a basement workplace: study of the problem and characterization of the main parameters affecting the radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaberto, E.M.; Magnoni, M.; Righino, F.; Costa Laia, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work is described the method used for the mitigation of high radon concentrations found in a basement workplace, the ARPA laboratory used for the metrology of EMF. In this lab was in fact measured a radon concentration up to 1900 Bq/m 3 , a value largely exceeding the Italian limit for workplaces (500 Bq/m 3 ). The basement workplace affected by radon is a room of around 500 m 3 with no windows and only one door, during work usually close, and therefore with a very low ventilation rate. In this workplace, usually two persons spent about 6 hour per day. Therefore their exposure to the radon and its decay products can attain a considerable value. For this people, accordingly to the accepted dosimetric models, an effective dose of several mSv per year could be estimated (ICRP Publication n. 65, 1993). It is thus important to reduce the radon concentration to acceptable levels, i.e. at least lower than 500 Bq/m 3 . This paper deals not only with the simple method used for the remedial action, but also to the investigation of the relevant parameters affecting the radon concentration. In particular, the monitoring of the radon concentration before and after the remedial action, allowed the calculation of the radon entry rates (Bq/s) and the ventilation rates (s-1) in the different experimental condition

  18. Radon emanometry in active volcanoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, J.L.; Monnin, M. (CNRS, IN2P3, BP45/F63170 Aubiere (France)); Cejudo, J. (Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico City)

    1984-01-01

    Radon emission measurements from active volcanoes has, since 1981, been continuously measured at monitoring stations in Mexico and in Costa Rica. Counting of etched alpha tracks on cellulose nitrate LR-115 detectors give varying results at the several stations. Radon emanation at Chichon, where an explosive eruption occurred in 1982, fell down. Radon detection at the active volcano in Colima shows a pattern of very low emission. At the Costa Rica stations located at Poas, Arenal and Irazu, the radon emanation shows regularity.

  19. Radon risk in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niewiadomski, T.

    1996-01-01

    The author discusses the risk related to the inhalation of radon decay products. This products are the cause of almost the half of the doses absorbed by the people. The concentration of radon in buildings is much higher than in the open areas and its country average in Poland is 50 Bq/m 3 . It is difficult to predict the concentration of radon in the building without measurement. Author concludes that there are technical means to decrease radon concentration in buildings

  20. Effect of spray on performance of the hydrogen mitigation system during LB-LOCA for CPR1000 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.G.; Yang, Y.H.; Cheng, X.; Al-Hawshabi, N.H.A.; Casey, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper presents the spray effect on HMS during LB-LOCA by using GASFLOW. → The positive and negative effects of spray are summarized. → And the combination of DIS and PAR system is suggested as reasonable countermeasures. → This research is an important work aimed at the study of spray and hydrogen mitigation. → The contents of this paper should become a required part of the safety analysis of Chinese NPPs. - Abstract: During the course of the hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) in a nuclear power plant (NPP), hydrogen is generated by a reaction between steam and the fuel-cladding inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). It is then ejected from the break into the containment along with a large amount of steam. Management of hydrogen safety and prevention of over-pressurization could be implemented through a hydrogen mitigation system (HMS) and spray system in CPR1000 NPP. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code GASFLOW is utilized in this study to analyze the spray effect on the performance of HMS during LB-LOCA. Results show that as a kind of HMS, deliberate igniter system (DIS) could initiate hydrogen combustion immediately after the flammability limit of the gas mixture has been reached. However, it will increase the temperature and pressure drastically. Operating the DIS under spray condition could result in hydrogen combustion being suppressed by suspended droplets inside the containment. Furthermore, the droplets could also mitigate local the temperature rise. Operation of a PAR system, another kind of HMS, consumes hydrogen steadily with a lower recombination rate which is not affected noticeably by the spray system. Numerical results indicate that the dual concept, namely the integrated application of DIS and PAR systems, is a constructive improvement for hydrogen safety under spray condition during LB-LOCA.

  1. Exposure to radon in dwellings: risk assessment and management. Health and Society Collection nr 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Denis; Jouan, Michel; Lochard, Jacques; Festy, Bernard; Piechowski, Jean; Sauvalle, Bertrand; Tymen, Georges; Masse, Roland; Monchaux, Georges; Tirmarche, Margot; Boice, John D.; Cohen, Bernard L.; Hubert, Philippe; Pirard, Philippe; Zmirou, Denis; Lefaure, Christian; Poffijn, Andre; Van Nuffelen, Dominique; Chayapathi, Laksmhi; Thevissen, Frank; Eggermont, Gilbert; Massuelle, Marie-Helene; Robe, Marie-Christine; Grassin, Delphine; Collignan, Bernard; Millet, Jean-Robert; Cochet, Christian; Mansotte, Francois; Dab, William; Gilbert, Claude; Richert, Philippe; Charreyron, Bruno; Kalifa, Gabriel; Chartier, Philippe; FReMAUX, ELIANE; Jean-Louis Decossas; Andru, M.; Bernard, Sylvain; Bonnefoy, Xavier

    2000-04-01

    The contributions of this colloquium propose reports issues related to radon and on practices of neighbouring countries in radon risk assessment and management, on the management of the environmental risk and of public information at the district level in France, on situations involving not only radon but also some other potentially toxic agents (problems of indoor air quality), and on problems other than health problems which could emerge while implementing prevention or mitigating measures related to radon. After a general presentation of radon (Georges Tymen), a first set of contributions addresses the identification of hazards: Carcinogenesis and ionizing radiations put in question again (Roland Masse); Data from animal experimentation on radon (Georges Monchaux); Epidemiology of the radon risk in France (Margot Timarche); Joint analysis of underground miners and risks of radon-induced lung cancer (John D. Boice); Studies of the geographic correlation of radon risk (Bernard L. Cohen). The second set of contributions addresses the building up of an exposure-risk relationship: Why and how to build up dose-effect relationship? Approaches by international institutions (Philippe Hubert); Extrapolation of the dose-response relationship for public health evaluation (John D. Boice). A contribution addressed Exposures and risk assessment in France (Philippe Pirard). A synthesis on stakes in then proposes (Denis Zmirou). The last set of contributions addressed the analysis of management options: Management of the radon-related radiological risk in dwellings (Christian Lefaure); Reflections on the perception and communication of the radon risk (Gilbert Eggermont); Exposure boundary values? Alternatives and practical information (Marie-Helene Massuelle); Practical ways of action in present housing and costs (Marie-Christine Robe, Jean-Robert Millet); Management of the radon problem within a global perspective of indoor air quality (Christian Cochet); Risk management and

  2. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  3. Experimental determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny from respiratory tract to blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterweck, G.; Schuler, Ch.; Vessl, G.; Mueller, R.; Marsh, J.W.; Thrift, S.; Birchall, A.

    2002-01-01

    An exposure methodology was developed for the determination of the absorption rate of unattached radon progeny deposited in the human respiratory tract to blood. Twenty-one volunteers were exposed in a radon chamber during well-controlled aerosol and radon progeny conditions, with predominantly unattached radon daughters. Special efforts were made to restrict the dose to the volunteers to an absolute maximum of 0.08 mSv. Measurements of radon gas and radon progeny in blood samples of these volunteers indicated absorption half times of 20 min to 60 min. Former determinations, mainly performed with much larger aerosol particles of diameters between 100 nm and 1000 nm, implied absorption half times around 10 h. This indicates that the absorption of radon decay products from ciliated airways into blood is dependent upon particle size and particle composition. (author)

  4. Radon levels in drinking water of Fatehabad district of Haryana, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, Vikas; Sharma, Samriti; Mehra, Rohit

    2017-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in 59 groundwater samples collected from Fatehabad district of Haryana, India. The measurements were performed by RAD7 an electronic radon detector manufactured by Durridge Company Inc. The measured radon concentration ranged from 1.4 to 22.6 Bq l −1 . 14% of the groundwater samples were above the United States Environmental Protection Agency recommended value for radon in water. The annual effective dose for ingestion and inhalation was also evaluated in this research. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation of radon in drinking water varied from 14.1 to 221.8 µSv y −1 . - Highlights: • We report the radon concentration in 59 groundwater samples from Haryana. • The water samples were characterized by RAD7 radon detector. • A 14% of the groundwater samples were above the USEPA recommended value. • Total annual effective dose from 12 locations was above EU Council recommendations.

  5. A Realistic Human Exposure Assessment of Indoor Radon released from Groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Dong Han; Han, Moon Hee

    2002-01-01

    The work presents a realistic human exposure assessment of indoor radon released from groundwater in a house. At first, a two-compartment model is developed to describe the generation and transfer of radon in indoor air from groundwater. The model is used to estimate radon concentrations profile of indoor air in a house using by showering, washing clothes, and flushing toilets. Then, the study performs an uncertainty analysis of model input parameters to quantify the uncertainty in radon concentration profile. In order to estimate a daily internal dose of a specific tissue group in an adult through the inhalation of such indoor radon, a PBPK(Physiologically-Based Pharmaco-Kinetic) model is developed. Combining indoor radon profile and PBPK model is used to a realistic human assessment for such exposure. The results obtained from this study would be used to the evaluation of human risk by inhalation associated with the indoor radon released from groundwater

  6. Measurement of concentration and size distribution of radon decay products in homes using air cleaners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montassier, N.; Hopke, P.K.; Shi, Y.; McCallum, B.

    1992-01-01

    By removing particles, air cleaners can also eliminate radon decay products. However, by removing the particles, the open-quotes unattachedclose quotes fraction of the radon progeny is increased leading to a higher dose per unit exposure. Thus, both the concentration and size distributions of the radon decay products are needed to evaluate air cleaners. Three types of room air cleaners, NO-RAD Radon Removal System, Electronic Air Cleaner and PUREFLOW Air Treatment System were tested in a single family home in Arnprior, Ontario (Canada). Semi-continuous measurements of radon gas concentration and radon decay product activity weighted size distribution were performed in the kitchen/dining room under real living conditions. The effects of air cleaners on both the concentration and size distribution of the radon decay products were measured, and their impact on the dose of radiation given to the lung tissue were examined

  7. Daily variation of the radon concentration indoors and outdoors and the influence of meteorological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porstendoerfer, J.; Butterweck, G.; Reineking, A.

    1994-01-01

    Series of continuous radon measurements in the open atmosphere and in a dwelling, including the parallel measurement of meteorological parameters, were performed over a period of several weeks. The radon concentration in indoor and outdoor air depends on meteorological conditions. In the open atmosphere the radon concentration varies between 1 and 100 Bq m -3 , depending on weather conditions and time of day. During time periods of low turbulent air exchange (high pressure weather with clear night sky), especially in the night and early morning hours (night inversion layer), the diurnal variation of the radon concentration showed a pronounced maximum. Cloudy and windy weather conditions yield a small diurnal variation of the radon concentration. Indoors, the average level and the diurnal variation of the indoor radon concentration is also influenced by meteorological conditions. The measurements are consistent with a dependence of indoor radon concentrations on indoor-outdoor pressure differences. 11 refs., 4 figs

  8. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of R and D on radon in the indoor environment at SCK-CEN is to (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions; to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps. Progress and main achievements in 1997 are reported on

  9. Radon in the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.

    1998-01-01

    A precise retrospective assessment of long-term radon exposures in dwellings is essential for estimating lung-cancer risks. The objectives of this research are (1) to investigate the deposition of radon progeny in the human respiratory tract by means of direct measurements as a function of aerosol conditions, (2) to assess the radon concentrations in buildings retrospectively with volume traps

  10. Emission of radon from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlberg, P.; Lindmark, A.; Rosen, B.

    1980-03-01

    The report deals with the measurement of radon daughters in the soil Radon migrates readily through the limestone which is superpositioned the alum shale. The level of gamma radiation is normal. Measurements have been made by the track etch technique and with Kodak film. The contents of radon daughters are shown to be due to the measuring depth. (G.B.)

  11. Response of Radon in a seismic calibration explosion, Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrir, H.; Steinitz, G.; Malik, U.; Haquin, G.; Gazit-Yaari, N.

    2009-01-01

    Radon measurements were performed at shallow levels during an in-land 20-ton seismic calibration explosion experiment, simulating a 2.6-M L earthquake, to investigate the influence of the explosive blast and the transitory seismic wave fields on the Radon transport in the country rock, adjacent to the focus of the explosion. The experiment was conducted in a basalt quarry in the northern margin of the Beit Shean valley (Israel). Five gamma-ray sensors were placed, at a depth of about 2 m, along a line located 17-150 m from the edge of the explosion zone. Measurements commenced 4 days before and continued for 9 days after the explosion with 15 min integrations. A 10-s sampling was used in the interval of several hours before and after the explosion itself. Diurnal variations of Radon, reflecting the typical variation pattern of Radon in the shallow environment, were registered before and after the explosion. No significant change in the overall Radon concentration was observed as a consequence of the main explosion as well as three smaller experimental shots (0.5-2 tons) in the 2 h prior to the calibration blast. The seismological data indicate that the transient excess pressure at the farthest Radon sensor was above 5 bar m -1 during 0.2-0.4 s, and evidently much higher at the nearest sensors, but none of the sensors responded by recording any exceptional change in the Radon concentration. Moreover the hypothesis that additional Radon may emanate from solid grains as a result of the excess local pressure exerted by the blast is also not observed. In contrast to a real earthquake event an explosion experiment has neither eventual preceding nor following geodynamic activity. Therefore the absence of significant Radon anomalies during or after the blast does not contradict assumptions, observations or conclusions as the occurrence of Radon anomalies prior or after an earthquake event due to associated long-term geodynamic processes.

  12. Risk of Lung Cancer and Indoor Radon Exposure in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysson, H.; Tirmarche, M.; Tymen, G.; Ducloy, F.; Laurier, D.

    2004-01-01

    It is well established that radon exposure increases risks of lung cancer among underground miners. to estimate the lung cancer risk linked to indoor radon exposure, a hospital based case-control study was carried out in France, With a focus on precise reconstruction of past indoor radon exposure over the 30 years preceding the lung cancer diagnosis. The investigation rook place from 1992 to 1998 in four regions of France: Auvergne, Brittany, Languedoc and Limousin. During face-to-face interviews a standardized questionnaire was used to ascertain demographic characteristics, information on active and passive smoking, occupational exposure, medical history as well as extensive details on residential history. Radon concentrations were measured in the dwellings where subjects had lived at least one year during the 5-30 year period before interview. Measurements of radon concentrations were performed during a 6-month period, using two Kodalpha LR 115 detectors, one in the living room and one in the bedroom. The time-weighted average (TWA) radon concentration for a subject during the 5-30 year period before interview was based on radon concentrations over all addresses occupied by the subject weighted by the number of years spent at each address. For the time intervals without available measurements, we imputed the region-specific arithmetic average of radon concentrations for measured addresses of control subjects. Lung cancer risk was examined in relation to indoor radon exposure after adjustment for age, sex, region, cigarette smoking and occupational exposure. The estimated relative a risk per 100 Bq/m''3 was 1.04, at the borderline of statistical significance (95 percent Confidence Interval: 0.99, 1..1). These results are in agreement with results from other indoor radon case-control studies and with extrapolations from underground miners studies. (Author) 31 refs

  13. Response to Dr Yu's paper: A survey of radon properties in underground railway stations in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frommer, G.

    1996-01-01

    This letter criticizes the results of a radon survey performed in underground railway stations in Hong Kong. The authors of the survey concluded that the radon dose received by the night time maintenance worker is not insignificant. However, it is the opinion of the Mass Transit Railway Corporation that this radon dose value is at best a crude estimate based on a limited number of non-representative short-term radon measurements. (UK)

  14. Radon -- an environmental hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faheem, M.; Rahman, R.; Rahman, S.; Matiullah

    2005-01-01

    Humans have always been exposed throughout its period of experience to naturally occurring sources of ionizing radiation or natural background radiation, It is an established fact that even these low background doses are harmful to man and cause increased cancer risk. About half of our radiation comes from radon, a radioactive gas coming from normal materials in the ground. Several building materials such as granite, bricks, sand, cement etc., contain uranium in various amounts. The radioactive gas /sup 222/Rn produced in these materials due to decay of 226Ra is transported to indoor air through diffusion and convective flow. It seeps out of soil and rocks, well water, building materials and other sources at a varied rate. Amongst the naturally occurring radioisotopes, radon is the most harmful one that can be a cause of lung cancer. Radon isotopes are born by the decay of radium and radium production in turns comes from uranium or thorium decay. For humans the greatest importance among Radon isotopes is attributed to /sup 222/Rn because it is the longest lived of the three naturally produced isotopes. Drinking water also poses a threat. Radon gas is dissolved in water and is released into the air via water faucets, showerheads, etc. the lack of understanding has so far lead to speculative estimates of pollutant related health hazards. (author)

  15. Measurements of indoor radon and radon progeny in Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Rodriguez, G.P.

    1996-01-01

    Indoor radon has been a public concern associated with increased lung cancer risks. Radon decay products interact with indoor aerosols to form progeny with different size distributions, which may influence the lung dosimetry when the progeny are inhaled. Air pollution in Mexico City is a serious problems with high particulate concentrations, but there are few reports of indoor radon measurement. The purposes of this study were to measure the aerosol concentration, radon concentration, and radon activity size distribution in the living area of three houses in Mexico City. The radon concentration was monitored by a RGM-3 radon gas monitor (Eberline, Inc., Santa Fe, NM). A graded diffusion battery was used to determine the progeny concentration and activity size distribution. The concentration and size distribution of the indoor aerosols were monitored by a quartz, crystal microbalance cascade impactor. Our measurements showed high concentrations of indoor aerosols (20-180 gg m -3 ). However, the radon concentrations-were low ( -1 ), but showed a clear diurnal pattern with peak concentrations from 2-10 AM. The activity size distributions of radon progeny were trimodal, with peaks of 0.6 nm, 4-5 nm, and 100 rim. Most activities were associated with large particle sizes. Our results indicated that indoor radon concentration was not high, due in part to a relatively high air exchange with outdoor air. The high aerosol concentration may also play an important part in the activity size distribution of radon progeny

  16. Intercomparison of active, passive and continuous instruments for radon and radon progeny measurements in the EML chamber and test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpitta, S.C.; Tu, K.W.; Fisenne, I.M.; Cavallo, A.; Perry, P.

    1996-10-01

    Results are presented from the Fifth Intercomparison of Active, Passive and Continuous Instruments for Radon and Radon Progeny Measurements conducted in the EML radon exposure and test facility in May 1996. In total, thirty-four government, private and academic facilities participated in the exercise with over 170 passive and electronic devices exposed in the EML test chamber. During the first week of the exercise, passive and continuous measuring devices were exposed (usually in quadruplicate) to about 1,280 Bq m -3 222 Rn for 1--7 days. Radon progeny measurements were made during the second week of the exercise. The results indicate that all of the tested devices that measure radon gas performed well and fulfill their intended purpose. The grand mean (GM) ratio of the participants' reported values to the EML values, for all four radon device categories, was 0.99 ± 0.08. Eighty-five percent of all the radon measuring devices that were exposed in the EML radon test chamber were within ±1 standard deviation (SD) of the EML reference values. For the most part, radon progeny measurements were also quite good as compared to the EML values. The GM ratio for the 10 continuous PAEC instruments was 0.90 ± 0.12 with 75% of the devices within 1 SD of the EML reference values. Most of the continuous and integrating electronic instruments used for measuring the PAEC underestimated the EML values by about 10--15% probably because the concentration of particles onto which the radon progeny were attached was low (1,200--3,800 particles cm -3 ). The equilibrium factor at that particle concentration level was 0.10--0.22

  17. Multi-resolution inversion algorithm for the attenuated radon transform

    KAUST Repository

    Barbano, Paolo Emilio; Fokas, Athanasios S.

    2011-01-01

    We present a FAST implementation of the Inverse Attenuated Radon Transform which incorporates accurate collimator response, as well as artifact rejection due to statistical noise and data corruption. This new reconstruction procedure is performed

  18. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fior, L.; Nicolosi Correa, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Paschuk, S.A., E-mail: spaschuk@gmail.com [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Denyak, V.V. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Schelin, H.R. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil); Pele Pequeno Principe Research Institute, Av. Silva Jardim, 1632, Curitiba, PR 80250-200 (Brazil); Soreanu Pecequilo, B.R. [Institute of Nuclear and Energetic Researches, IPEN, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242-/05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Kappke, J. [Federal University of Technology - Parana, UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165, Curitiba, PR 80230-901 (Brazil)

    2012-07-15

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 Multiplication-Sign 60 cm{sup 3} were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), and external hazard index (H{sub ext}) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radon activity in air related to building materials was measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The index of activity concentration of building materials was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The radium equivalent activity of

  19. Radon - from knowledge to action: an all-around cleared issue of radiation protection?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maringer, F.J. [Vienna Univ. of Natural Resources and Applied Life Science, BEV - Federal Office of Metrology and Surveying (Austria); Vienna Univ. of Technology, Low-Level Counting Laboratory Arsenal, Wien (Austria)

    2006-07-01

    The knowledge about radon is well established in the radiation protection world. After many decades of research work done worldwide by many radiation protection scientists and research teams, the sources and origin, the transport through the soil and into the buildings, and the radiobiological effects of radon progenies in the human respiratory tract are well known. When typing 'radon' in web search engines e.g. www.google.at about 5.1 Million hits are appearing. A countless number of papers have been published in the field of radon research and the ICRP has established radiation protection principles for radon exposure at home and at workplaces. So far, the radon issue seemed well ticked off in the scientific world of radiation protection and the scientists could give more attention to other and more newsworthy problems and questions. But this is only half the truth. The implementation of radon mitigation and precaution standards needs continuously scientific attendance and research networking on an international level. Otherwise the radon issue could degrade easily to a simplified technical and economical exercise without sustainable results in public health. In this paper the radon investigations in Austria which have been carried out in the last 20 years and the applied methods and derived standards for mitigation and precaution in the home and workplace sectors are given. The future strategy and scientific and social necessities in the radon issue are outlined comprehensively. The agreed and proposed research objectives and cooperation which seems necessary are discussed in consideration of the medium-term European radiation protection context. (authors)

  20. Radon - from knowledge to action: an all-around cleared issue of radiation protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maringer, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge about radon is well established in the radiation protection world. After many decades of research work done worldwide by many radiation protection scientists and research teams, the sources and origin, the transport through the soil and into the buildings, and the radiobiological effects of radon progenies in the human respiratory tract are well known. When typing 'radon' in web search engines e.g. www.google.at about 5.1 Million hits are appearing. A countless number of papers have been published in the field of radon research and the ICRP has established radiation protection principles for radon exposure at home and at workplaces. So far, the radon issue seemed well ticked off in the scientific world of radiation protection and the scientists could give more attention to other and more newsworthy problems and questions. But this is only half the truth. The implementation of radon mitigation and precaution standards needs continuously scientific attendance and research networking on an international level. Otherwise the radon issue could degrade easily to a simplified technical and economical exercise without sustainable results in public health. In this paper the radon investigations in Austria which have been carried out in the last 20 years and the applied methods and derived standards for mitigation and precaution in the home and workplace sectors are given. The future strategy and scientific and social necessities in the radon issue are outlined comprehensively. The agreed and proposed research objectives and cooperation which seems necessary are discussed in consideration of the medium-term European radiation protection context. (authors)

  1. What did we learn from the Austrian radon project?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 40000 measurements of indoor radon concentrations were performed in randomly selected homes during the Austrian Radon Project. These measurements were carried out by using long-term measuring devices (SSNTD and Electret detectors) and short-term charcoal detectors with liquid scintillation counting as the method of analysis. In addition to the equilibrium factor, soil gas measurements and quasi-continuous indoor measurements, parallel-measurements with different detector systems in randomly selected homes were also performed. Very different results were occasionally obtained for one and the same room at the same time. This was so not only when comparing the long-term and short-term measuring devices; actually, different long-term detector systems also often showed significant discrepancies in results, although all detector systems had been carefully calibrated and tested in laboratories. The essential conclusion was that during a longer exposure in randomly selected homes, the detectors may be moved, opened, or handled in other unfavourable ways which introduce additional uncertainties in the measuring results. The aim of the Austrian Radon Project was to estimate the radon risk for geographic areas (municipalities). This task is different from the evaluation of the mean radon concentration in a single home. Generally, while long-term measurements (a year or even longer) are necessary to get reliable results for a particular house, this is not so where only the mean indoor radon concentrations for an area are of interest. Observed indoor radon concentrations give information about the actual radon exposures of the inhabitants but not about the radon risk from the ground. The house type, the way the house is constructed, the storey where people live, and some living patterns (ventilation rate etc.) modify the geological risk significantly, although it is the geological situation that has to be primarily taken into account when planning and constructing

  2. Cost-benefit considerations in the development of policies and procedures for controlling indoor exposure to radon and its decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puskin, J.S.; Guimond, R.J.; Napolitano, S.; Nelson, C.B.

    1989-01-01

    The applicability of ALARA to the problem of controlling residential radon levels is limited. Cost-benefit considerations can nevertheless be useful in guiding policy in this area. From a societal perspective, the cost-benefit balance for mitigating radon in homes to the EPA action level of 4 pCi/L, or lower, is generally better than for most programs aimed at reducing environmental risks. Reduction of radon levels in new homes tends to be less costly; moreover, reduced radon levels in new construction may be achievable with a net cost savings to the homeowner due to concomitant decreases in energy expenses. Since programs to reduced radon exposure rely on voluntary actions by homeowners, the societal cost-benefit balance cannot dictate the extent of radon mitigation efforts. However, both economic incentives and governmental guidance can influence these efforts. Cost-benefit analysis can be an important tool in formulating such guidance

  3. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  4. Radon surveys and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.C.H.; Cliff, K.D.; Dixon, D.W.; Green, B.M.R.; Strong, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the UK, as in other countries, radon daughter inhalation is the most significant cause of human exposure to ionising radiation either at home or at work whether one considers the mean or the maximum dose. Substantial studies of radon are under way in the UK, and the importance of radon is recognised in several spheres. NRPB investigations of the radon levels in buildings and mines are reported, the distributions of doses presented and risk factors calculated. The bases of radon limitation for workers and members of the public are given and the means of compliance discussed. (author)

  5. Social marketing and the reduction of indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bierma, T.J.; Swartzman, D.

    1990-01-01

    Indoor radon monitoring and mitigation has apparently been conducted by only a small percentage of private homeowners despite extensive media coverage of the radon issue and public information programs at the federal, state, and local levels. Whether public education programs should be informative or persuasive is an ethical decision. Arguments on each side of the issue are presented. A framework for the development of a persuasive campaign is then presented, suing the concepts of social marketing and the limited empirical evidence available on radon-related behavior. In this paper a four-step process is proposed: identify problem dimensions using focus groups and other methods, confirm dimension for market segmentation using probability samples and factor analysis, implement program and evaluate and revise

  6. Radon in soil gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, H.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a technology review conducted to identify and organize the range of options for measuring radon in soil gas as a means to evaluate radon exposure potential in buildings. The main focus of the review includes identifying the following: Measurement of objectives - the specific parameter(s) that each technology is designed to measure( e.g., soil gas concentration, flux density, etc.); Equipment needs -commercial availability of systems and/or components, specifications for fabricated components; Procedural information - documented elements of field and laboratory methodology and quality assurance; Underlying assumptions - conceptual and mathematical models utilized to convert analytical outcomes to estimators of radon. Basic technologies and field data were examined from a generic perspective (e.g., the common denominators of passive detectors, hollow sampling probes, flux monitors)( as well as specific configurations developed by individual investigators (e.g., sample volume, depth) to develop the basis for separating analytical uncertainties form sampling uncertainties

  7. Radon: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given

  8. Radon: a bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepman, S.R.; Boegel, M.L.; Hollowell, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, with the support of the Department of Energy, has developed a computerized database to manage research information in the area of building ventilation and indoor air quality. This literature survey contains references pertaining to the physical properties of radon and its daughters, instrumentation for their measurement, health effects, surveys and measurements, and regulatory information. The references in the bibliography are sequenced in alphabetical order and abstracts are included when supplied by the author. The objective of this report is to disseminate the bibliographic references compiled at the laboratory relating to radon research portion of the program. Interested database users are encouraged to contact the laboratory to receive instructions for direct database acess. A flyer describing the database is supplied at the end of the bibliography and a brief overview of the Radon Research porgram is given.

  9. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  10. Radon depth migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, S.T.; Carroll, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A depth migration method is presented that used Radon-transformed common-source seismograms as input. It is shown that the Radon depth migration method can be extended to spatially varying velocity depth models by using asymptotic ray theory (ART) to construct wavefield continuation operators. These operators downward continue an incident receiver-array plane wave and an assumed point-source wavefield into the subsurface. The migration velocity model is constrain to have longer characteristic wavelengths than the dominant source wavelength such that the ART approximations for the continuation operators are valid. This method is used successfully to migrate two synthetic data examples: (1) a point diffractor, and (2) a dipping layer and syncline interface model. It is shown that the Radon migration method has a computational advantage over the standard Kirchhoff migration method in that fewer rays are computed in a main memory implementation

  11. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    This patent describes a portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as in uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout displays the result in terms of working level-hours

  12. Radon daughter dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, J.

    1977-01-01

    A portable radon daughter dosimeter unit used to measure Radon gas alpha daughters in ambient air is described. These measurements can then be related to preselected preestablished standards contained in a remote central readout unit. The dosimeter unit is adapted to be worn by an operator in areas having alpha particle radiation such as uranium mines. Within the dosimeter is a detector head housing having a filter head and a solid state surface barrier radiation detector; an air pump to get air to the detector head; a self contained portable power supply for the unit; and electronic circuitry to process detected charged electrons from the detector head to convert and count their pulses representatives of two alpha radon emitter daughters. These counted pulses are in binary form and are sent to a readout unit where a numerical readout diplays the result in terms of working level-hours

  13. Water radon anomaly fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, H.

    1980-01-01

    A striking aspect of water radon levels in relation to earthquakes is that before the Tangshan quake there was a remarkable synchronicity of behavior of many wells within 200 km of Tangshan. However, for many wells anomalous values persisted after the earthquake, particularly outside the immediate region of the quake. It is clear that radon may be produced by various processes; some candidates are pressure, shear, vibration, temperature and pressure, mixing of water-bearing strata, breakdown of mineral crystal structure, and the like, although it is not clear which of these are primary. It seems that a possible explanation of the persistence of the anomaly in the case of Tangshan may be that the earthquake released strain in the vicinity of Tangshan but increased it further along the geological structures involved, thus producing a continued radon buildup.

  14. Dry radon gas generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandrish, G.

    1979-10-01

    A radon gas standard with a source strength of 120037 pCi capable of delivering 121 pCi of radon gas successively to a large number of cells has been developed. The absolute source strength has been calibrated against two radium solution standards and is accurate to 4 percent. A large number of cells (approxiiately 50) may be calibrated conveniently on a daily basis with appropriate corrections for sequential changes in the amount of gas delivered, and a correction for the growth of radon in the standard on successive days. Daily calibration of ten cells or less does not require these corrections. The standard is suitable for field use and the source emanation rate is stable over extreme temperatue and pressure ranges and over six months

  15. Radon: an environmental pollutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiological concerns with the disposal and use of mining and milling residues have heightened to the point that federal agencies are asking or being asked to formulate new regulactions for controlling radon daughters from a variety of sources - radioactivity previously considered to be part of our natural environment. Based on information derived from epidemiologic studies of underground miners, particularly uranium miners, the health impact on the general public is being projected. Depending on the assumptions made, these projections vary widely. Because of these variations in health risks, decisions on control measures have even wider implications on economic and social considerations. Thus the question: is radon an environmental pollutant. While not fully answering the question, recognizing the uncertainties in assessing and controlling radon daughters can put the question in better perspective

  16. Radon Research Program, FY 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny as well as to provide information useful in radon control strategies. Results generated under the Program were highlighted in a National Research Council report on radon dosimetry. The study concluded that the risk of radon exposure is 30% less in homes than in mines. This program summary of book describes the OHER FY-1991 Radon Research Program. It is the fifth in an annual series of program books designed to provide scientific and research information to the public and to other government agencies on the DOE Radon Research Program

  17. The history, development and the present status of the radon measurement programme in the United States of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A C

    2015-11-01

    The US radon measurement programme began in the late 1950s by the US Public Health Service in Colorado, New Mexico and Utah during the uranium frenzy. After the 1967 Congressional Hearings on the working conditions in uranium mines, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was asked to conduct studies in active uranium mines to assess the exposure of the miners on the Colorado Plateau and in New Mexico. From 1967 to 1972, the Health and Safety Laboratory of the US AEC in New York investigated more than 20 uranium mines for radon and radon decay product concentrations and particle size in 4 large uranium mines in New Mexico. In 1970, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established and took over some of the AEC radon measurement activities. Between 1975 and 1978, the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy conducted the first detailed indoor radon survey in the USA. Later in 1984, the very high concentrations of radon found in Pennsylvania homes set the wheels in motion and gave birth to the US Radon Industry. The US EPA expanded its involvement in radon issues and assumed an active role by establishing the National Radon Proficiency Program to evaluate the effectiveness of radon measurement and mitigation methods. In 1998, due to limited resources EPA privatised the radon programme. This paper presents a personal perspective of past events and current status of the US radon programme. It will present an update on radon health effects, the incidence rate of lung cancer in the USA and the number of radon measurements made from 1988 to 2013 using short-term test methods. More than 23 million measurements were made in the last 25 y and as a result more than 1.24 million homes were mitigated successfully. It is estimated that USA are made using long-term testing devices. The number of homes above the US action level of 148 Bq m(-3) (4 pCi l(-1)) may be ∼8.5 million because ∼50 million homes were added since 1990 to the home

  18. Radon diffusion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.; Boerner, E.; Lehmann, R.; Sarenio, O.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to the detection of radioactive gases emitting alpha particles like radon, thoron and their alpha-decaying daughters by means of a diffusion chamber with a passive detector, preferably with a solid state track detector. In the chamber above and towards the detector there is a single metallized electret with negative polarity. The distance between electret and detector corresponds to the range of the alpha particles of radon daughters in air at the most. The electret collects the positively charged daughters and functions as surface source. The electret increases the sensitivity by the factor 4

  19. Radon assay for SNO+

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumleskie, Janet [Laurentian University, Greater Sudbury, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  20. Radon measurements in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiou, E.; Ntalles, K.; Molfetas, M.; Athanassiadis, A.; Proukakis, C.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of radon concentration in greek spas, in a cave, in constituents of the greek cement, in building materials in Greece and in greek mines have been published. Some preliminary studies of radon concentration in greek dwellings have been published. In order to get an idea of the problem in Greece we decided to carry out a national survey. Two different sites were selected: Athens, where domicile about 40% of the greek population and Domatia, a small village in northern Greece 600Km from Athens, located in an area known to have soil with increased uranium concentrations

  1. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainz, Carlos; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Radon ( 222 Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ( 226 Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m 3 respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  2. Description of the behavior of an aquifer by using continuous radon monitoring in a thermal spa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainz, Carlos, E-mail: sainzc@unican.es; Rábago, Daniel; Fuente, Ismael; Celaya, Santiago; Quindós, Luis Santiago

    2016-02-01

    Radon ({sup 222}Rn) levels in air and water have been analyzed continuously for almost a year in Las Caldas de Besaya thermal spa, north Spain. Radon is a naturally occurring noble gas from the decay of radium ({sup 226}Ra) both constituents of radioactive uranium 238 series. It has been recognized as a lung carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Furthermore the Royal Decree R.D 1439/2010 of November, 2010 establishes the obligation to study occupational activities where workers and, where appropriate, members of the public are exposed to inhalation of radon in workplaces such as spas. Together with radon measures several physico-chemical parameters were obtained such as pH, redox potential, electrical conductivity and air and water temperature. The devices used for the study of the temporal evolution of radon concentration have been the RTM 2100, the Radon Scout and gamma spectrometry was complementarily used to determine the transfer factor of the silicone tubes in the experimental device. Radon concentrations obtained in water and air of the spa are high, with an average of 660 Bq/l and 2900 Bq/m{sup 3} respectively, where water is the main source of radon in the air. Radiation dose for workers and public was estimated from these levels of radon. The data showed that the thermal processes can control the behavior of radon which can be also influenced by various physical and chemical parameters such as pH and redox potential. - Highlights: • Radon in water is the major source of indoor air radon concentration in thermal facilities. • Radon in water has been used to characterize the origin of water used for treatments in a spa. • Preliminary dose assessment from radon exposure has been performed.

  3. Effect of weatherization on radon levels in Maine dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Hill, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A study of radon concentration in the air of 30 Maine dwellings was performed before and after weatherization during November 1982-May 1983. The average radon (.75 pCi/1) was lower than a group of houses in a previous study in October 1980-May 1981 (3.1 pCi/1). The after-weatherization levels show an increase over the before-weatherization levels. Trailers were found to have lower radon concentrations than houses. The maximum value measured was 3.2 pCi/1 before and 6.2 pCi/1 after correction for season of exposure. 13 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  4. A brief overview on radon measurements in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbágy, Viktor; Altzitzoglou, Timotheos; Malo, Petya; Tanner, Vesa; Hult, Mikael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present information about currently used standard and routine methods for radon analysis in drinking waters. An overview is given about the current situation and the performance of different measurement methods based on literature data. The following parameters are compared and discussed: initial sample volume and sample preparation, detection systems, minimum detectable activity, counting efficiency, interferences, measurement uncertainty, sample capacity and overall turnaround time. Moreover, the parametric levels for radon in drinking water from the different legislations and directives/guidelines on radon are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Radon in houses due to radon in potable water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Korsah, J.K.; Einloth, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Radon concentration in the air of 10 houses has been measured as a function of water use and meterological parameters such as barometric pressure, wind velocity and direction, indoor and outdoor temperature, and rainfall. Results of calibrations and data collected in winter, spring, fall, and summer are given for selected houses. Average values of radon concentration in air are from 0.80 to 77 rhoCi/1. Water use average ranges from 70 to 240 gal/day. Average potential alpha energy concentrations in these houses range from 0.02 to 1.6 working levels. The radon level due to water use ranges from 0 to 36% of the house radon from soil and water combined. The radon level change due to use of a filter on the water supply shows a 60% reduction in radon in the house. Conclusions are that water radon can be a major fraction of the radon in houses. The ratio of airborne radon concentration due to water use to the radon concentration in water is 4.5 x 10/sup -5/ - 13 x 10/sup -5/

  6. A Risk Management Strategy for Radon: The US Experience (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boschi, N.

    1998-01-01

    In the United States (US) the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) has played a leading role on radon policy. EPA estimates that indoor radon in the US causes approximately 14,000 lung cancer deaths per year with an uncertainty range of 7,000 to 30,000. In 1988, EPA and the Center for Disease Control issued an advisory urging that most houses in the US be tested for radon. The risk assessments have indicated a problem of substantial magnitude. Nonetheless, risk of radon has been assumed to follow a non-threshold model and risk management strategies have been based on the concept that exposures at levels ≥148 Bq.m -3 (4 pCi.1 -1 ). EPA's approach has been to call for voluntary testing, since the Agency does not have direct regulatory authority, and to follow an action guideline of 148 Bq.m -3 . This paper provides an overview of EPA's risk management strategy to control exposure to indoor radon. The first part reviews EPA's approach to radon testing and radon measurement protocols while introducing the option of encouraging homes to be tested and, if necessary, mitigated at the time of any real estate transaction. The second part introduces EPA's voluntary guidelines for construction techniques on how to minimise radon in new homes and addresses how these guidelines could be adopted by the States, local governments, and private sector homebuilders. The third part presents EPA's programme to educate the public on indoor radon risk. The paper concludes by outlining a Congressional directed approach to radon protection based on a multi-media risk management model for radon in air and water. (author)

  7. Soil-gas radon as seismotectonic indicator in Garhwal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R.C.; Prasad, Yogesh; Prasad, Ganesh; Kumar, Sushil; Choubey, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Research on earthquake-related radon monitoring has received enormous attention recently. Anomalous behaviour of radon in soil and groundwater can be used as a reliable precursor for an impending earthquake. While earthquake prediction may not yet be possible, earthquake prediction research has greatly increased our understanding of earthquake source mechanisms, the structural complexities of fault zones, and the earthquake recurrence interval, expected at a given location. This paper presents some results of continuous monitoring of radon in soil-gas in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Daily soil-gas radon monitoring with seismic activity and meteorological parameters were performed in the same laboratory system, located at H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Tehri Garhwal, India. Radon anomalies along with meteorological parameters were found to be statistically significant for the seismic events within the magnitudes M2.0-M6.0 and epicentral distances of 16-250 km from the monitoring station. The frequent positive and negative anomalies with constant environmental perturbation indicate the opening and closing of micro cracks within the volume of dilatancy by strain energy. The spike-like and sharp peak anomalies were recorded before, during and after earthquakes occurred in the area. The variations in radon concentrations in soil-gas are found to be correlated with seismic activities in the Garhwal Himalaya. The correlation between radon level and meteorological parameters is also discussed

  8. Indoor radon levels in schools of South-East Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trevisi, Rosabianca; Leonardi, Federica; Simeoni, Carla; Tonnarini, Sabrina; Veschetti, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate average levels of indoor radon and gamma doses in all educational buildings (506 schools) located in South-East Italy (the Salento peninsula, province of Lecce). In this paper the final findings relating to measurements performed with SSNTD dosemeters in 438 schools (86% of the sample) are reported. The average annual activity concentration of radon in schools located in the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . Radon values actually ranged from 21 Bq/m 3 to 1608 Bq/m 3 . About 7% of schools showed radon concentration values above 500 Bq/m 3 , the Italian action level for workplaces. - Highlights: ► The annual radon concentration in schools of the province of Lecce is 209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 . ► Schools radon values (209 ± 9 Bq/m 3 ) are higher than the regional average (52 ± 2 Bq/m 3 ). ► Nursery schools showed higher radon values. ► Nursery schools had the highest percentage of schools (12%) over 500 Bq/m 3 .

  9. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, A.

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs

  10. Radon transport in fractured soil. Laboratory experiments and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, A

    1997-10-01

    Radon (Rn-222) transport in fractured soil has been investigated by laboratory experiments and by modelling. Radon transport experiments have been performed with two sand columns (homogeneous and inhomogeneous) and one undisturbed clayey till column containing a net of preferential flow paths (root holes). A numerical model (the finite-element model FRACTRAN) and an analytic model (a pinhole model) have been applied in simulations if soil gas and radon transport in fractured soil. Experiments and model calculations are included in a discussion of radon entry rates into houses placed on fractured soil. The main conclusion is, that fractures does not in general alter transport of internally generated radon out of soil, when the pressure and flow conditions in the soil is comparable to the conditions prevailing under a house. This indicates the important result, that fractures in soil have no impact on radon entry into a house beyond that of an increased gas permeability, but a more thorough investigation of this subject is needed. Only in the case where the soil is exposed to large pressure gradients, relative to gradients induced by a house, may it be possible to observe effects of radon exchange between fractures and matrix. (au) 52 tabs., 60 ill., 5 refs.

  11. Contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.; Samet, J.M.; Cross, F.T.; Hess, T.; Muller, J.; Thomas, D.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews studies on the contribution of radon and radon daughters to respiratory cancer and proposes recommendations for further research, particularly a national radon survey. The steady-state outdoor radon concentration averages 200 pCi/m3, and indoor levels are about 4 times higher. The primary source of radon in homes is the underlying soil; entry depends on multiple variables and reduced ventilation for energy conservation increases indoor radon levels. Occupational exposures are expressed in units of radon daughter potential energy concentration or working level (WL). Cumulative exposure is the product of the working level and the time exposed. The unit for cumulative exposure is the working level month (WLM). The occupational standard for radon exposure is 4 WLM/year, and 2 WLM/year has been suggested as a guideline for remedial action in homes. Epidemiologic studies show that miners with cumulative radon daughter exposures somewhat below 100 WLM have excess lung cancer mortality. Some 3% to 8% of miners studied have developed lung cancer attributable to radon daughters. All of the underground mining studies show an increased risk of lung cancer with radon daughter exposure. All cell types of lung cancer increased with radon exposure. If radon and smoking act in a multiplicative manner, then the risk for smokers could be 10 times that for nonsmokers. The potential risk of lung cancer appears to be between 1 and 2 per 10,000/WLM, which yields a significant number of lung cancers as some 220 million persons in the United States are exposed on average to 10 to 20 WLM/lifetime

  12. Rapid determination of radon daughter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1990-08-01

    A technical evaluation of four radon 222 progeny measuring instruments has been conducted. The evaluation has been carried out under laboratory controlled conditions and at several locations in an underground uranium mine. The laboratory evaluation consisted of a thorough study of the behaviour and performance of the instruments under a wide variety of environmental conditions such as radon 222 gas concentration, radon 222 progeny concentration, temperature, relative humidity, aerosol concentration, and gamma-field exposure. The four instruments tested were: the Pylon WL-1000C, the MDA IWLM-811, the MIMIL IIM, and the EDA WLM-30. The readings of the instruments were compared with a widely accepted radon 222 progeny concentration measuring method, namely, the Thomas-Tsivoglou method. Two variables affected two instruments significantly, namely, under high aerosol concentration conditions, one of the instruments (EDA WLM-30) ceased to operate because of filter loading. The other variable was gamma-field exposure which affected another instrument (MDA-811) adversely. The instruments were rated according to several criteria. The overall best performer was the MIMIL IIM, although other instruments also fared quite well under a variety of experimental conditions

  13. Perception of radon risk in typical non-uranium mines in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yinhua; Sun Quanfu; Du Weixia; Lei Suwen; Lei Shujie; Wang Haijun; Qian Yekan; Li Xiaoyin; Su Xu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perception of risk flora occupational exposure to radon among the non-uranium miners in China, and to explore its major influence factors. Methods: 2836 workers from 24 mines in 9 provinces/regions were interviewed. Logit regress analysis was used to identify the major influence factors. Results: Among the interviewed mine workers, 13.3% of them had heard of radon, 29.0% of those miners who had heard of radon had some knowledge of the source of radon. Only 1.8% of the investigated mine workers had correct perception of health risk resulted from exposure to radon. The major factors to influence the radon risk perception included education degree and type of employment, perception was lower in those miners with low education or temporally employed. Perception level differed by province/regions and mines. Sex, age, and working length of the current job were not the main factors to influence the risk perception. Conclusions: The perception of radon risk resulted from occupational exposure among the Chinese non-uranium mine workers is low. More works are needed to effectively implement notification of occupational health hazards, which is stipulated by Chinese law on prevention and control of occupational disease, and one of the important factors in radon mitigation in mines. (authors)

  14. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R., E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured {sup 222}Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m{sup 3} and 320.82 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m{sup 3}. Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m{sup 3} and 67.50 Bq/m{sup 3} resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m{sup 3}. Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m{sup 3} taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  15. Indoor radon measurements in dwellings and workplaces of Curitiba urban area, Parana state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Claro, Flavia; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Kappke, Jaqueline; Perna, Allan F.N.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O.

    2011-01-01

    Considering that radon and its progeny exposure is proved to be the main cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers and occupation-time at some commercial establishments and workplaces is equal or even bigger then at domiciles and dwelling, present study has been spread to the constructed closed environment and workplaces of commerce and productive sector. The measurements were performed by the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of UTFPR in 2009 - 2011 when 120 detectors were installed at domiciles and workplaces of Curitiba, Parana St., Brazil. Experimental setup was based at CR-39 detectors that were installed in diffusion chambers protected with filters. In collaboration with CDTN/CNEN it was performed the calibration of CR-39 detectors at the NIRS in Japan. The exposure time was set to be of 100 days. Alpha particle track development was performed using 6.25M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution and ethanol (2%) during 14 hours at 70 deg C. The counting was conducted using an optical microscope. Measured 222 Rn activity levels in dwellings varied between 4.37 Bq/m 3 and 320.82 Bq/m 3 resulting at an average of 46.94 Bq/m 3 . Indoor measurements at workplaces presented the variation of radon activity concentration between 3.08 Bq/m 3 and 67.50 Bq/m 3 resulting at the average of 34.51 Bq/m 3 . Considering the recommendations of the World Health Organization, UNSCEAR and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) concerning the radon-in-air concentration inside the dwellings that can reach 200 Bq/m 3 taking into account the occupation-time of 7000 hours/year, obtained results are within normal limits and no mitigation measures have to be performed. (author)

  16. Performance of Carbon Coatings for Mitigation of Electron Cloud in the SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Yin Vallgren, C; Costa Pinto, P; Neupert, H; Rumolo, G; Shaposhnikova, E; Taborelli, M; Kato, S

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous carbon (a-C) coatings have been tested in electron cloud monitors (ECM) in the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and have shown for LHC type beams a reduction of the electron cloud current by a factor 104 compared to stainless steel (StSt). This performance has been maintained for more than 3 years under SPS operation conditions. Secondary electron yield (SEY) laboratory data confirm that after more than 1 year of SPS operation, the coating maintains a SEY below 1.0. The compatibility of coexisting StSt and a-C surfaces has been studied in an ECM having coated and uncoated areas. The results show no degradation of the properties of the a-C areas. The performance of diamond like carbon (DLC) coating has also been studied. DLC shows a less effective reduction of the EC current than a-C, but conditioning is faster than for StSt. Three a-C coated dipoles were inserted in the SPS. However, even with no EC detected, the dynamic pressure rise is similar to the one observed in the StSt reference dipoles. Measu...

  17. Influence of magnetic window for mitigating on antenna performance in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Xiaojun; Zhao Qing; Zheng Ling; Tang Jianming; Chen Yuxu; Liu Shuzhang

    2013-01-01

    The communication blackout caused by the plasma sheath around a hypersonic vehicle flying in atmosphere is a problem to aerospace vehicles. When a vehicle enters the communication blackout phase, it loses all communication including GPS signals, data telemetry, and voice communication. The communication blackout becomes an even more critical issue with development of re-entry vehicles missions. During such missions, the communication loss caused by radio blackout introduces significant problems related to the vehicle's safety. This paper analyzes the interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma in an external magnetic field in theory. The external magnetic field can improve the transmission of electromagnetic waves in plasma from the theoretical analysis. The magnetic window antenna which is designed by integrating the permanent magnet and the helical antenna is proposed. The performance of the helical antenna and magnetic window antenna in plasma is studied. The simulation results show that using the magnetic window antenna can weaken the influence on the antenna performance in plasma. The magnetic window antenna makes it possible for electromagnetic waves to spread in plasma. This provides another way to solve the problem of spacecraft re-entry blackout. (authors)

  18. Improving Asphalt Mixtures Performance by Mitigating Oxidation Using Anti-Oxidants Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessouky, Samer; Diaz, Manuel

    Polymer modified additives are typically used to improve rheological properties of asphalt binder as well as mechanical properties of asphalt concrete mix. In this study, polymer-modified binder PG70-22 is mixing with two co-polymers enhanced with anti-oxidant agents namely; Solution Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SSBR) and Solution Ethylene-Butylene/Styrene (SEBS). The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of those additives into the rheological properties of the asphalt binder using temperature sweep test and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes. The aging index is determined to evaluate the role of additives to reduce brittleness after aging of the binder. The performance of asphalt mixes were characterized by Hamburg Wheel Tracking Test for moisture damage, Beam Fatigue Test for fatigue properties and Flow Number Test for rutting performance. It is found that the asphalt mixes with enhanced binders are improving its rutting and moisture resistance but decreased its fatigue life compared to the control mix.

  19. Real-time distributed fiber optic sensor for security systems: Performance, event classification and nuisance mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim

    2012-09-01

    The success of any perimeter intrusion detection system depends on three important performance parameters: the probability of detection (POD), the nuisance alarm rate (NAR), and the false alarm rate (FAR). The most fundamental parameter, POD, is normally related to a number of factors such as the event of interest, the sensitivity of the sensor, the installation quality of the system, and the reliability of the sensing equipment. The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fiber optic intrusion detection systems is key to maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and eliminate nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. In this paper, a robust event classification system using supervised neural networks together with a level crossings (LCs) based feature extraction algorithm is presented for the detection and recognition of intrusion and non-intrusion events in a fence-based fiber-optic intrusion detection system. A level crossings algorithm is also used with a dynamic threshold to suppress torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fence system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr with the simultaneous detection of intrusion events. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented for a buried pipeline fiber optic intrusion detection system for the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of intrusion events. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer.

  20. Detection of radon products in atmosphere and its concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Naemi, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The climate of the State of Qatar is very warm during the summer and also for considerable parts of the spring and autumn. Energy-tight houses and buildings with air conditioning working day and night for several months are very common. Consequently, the problem of accumulation of indoor radon may exist. No measurements of radon concentration in Qatar have been performed before. The aim of the present work is to implement a suitable technique to measure radon concentration in Qatari houses and buildings. As a first stage, it was found reasonable to start with a technique to evaluate the short-term average indoor radon concentration. The activated charcoal method was chosen to perform this evaluation

  1. Monitoring of the radon exposure in workplaces: Regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenhuber, E.

    2002-01-01

    Germany has a reference level of 2 10 6 Bqh/m 3 for radon in workplaces, corresponding to an annual dose of 6 mSv and a limit of 6 10 6 Bqh/m 3 , corresponding to 10 mSv/y. If the reference level is exceeded remedial action has to be taken and a new radon measurement should be carried out. If it is not possible to reduce the radon concentration below the reference level the competent authority has to be notified and monitoring of the radon concentrations performed. Germany has performed a study to investigate the exposure by natural radionuclides in workplaces in a large number of industrial activities, with a dose assessment of the workers under normal circumstances. They made a categorization of NORM activities in dose ranges of 20 mSv/y. Most of the NORM activities fall in the category <1 mSv/y when normal occupational hygiene measures are taken

  2. Publications about Radon

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no known safe level of exposure to radon. EPA strongly recommends that you fix your home if your test shows 4 picocuries (pCi/L) or more. These publications and resources will provide you with the information you need to fix your home.

  3. Radon investigation in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burian, I.

    1992-01-01

    After a short description of the history of radon measurements in mines, the results of bare track detector application in dwellings are commented on. Many related methods and problems are discussed. Most experiences are similar to the published ones, but details are specific for Central Europe (absence of air-conditioning, etc.). (author)

  4. Radon in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report gives a review of the present situation in Sweden concerning the knowledge and research on radon in dwellings.The responsibilities and need for actions in this field are examined. Costs and possibilities for financial help to install radonreducing equipment are also treated. (L.E.)

  5. Development of in-situ radon sensor using plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shitashima, Kiminori

    2009-01-01

    Underwater in-situ radon measurement is important scientific priority for oceanography, especially for survey and monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge (SDG). The high sensitivity and lightweight underwater in-situ radon sensor using NaI(Tl) doped plastic scintillator was developed for application to SDG research. Because NaI(Tl) doped plastic scintillator contacts seawater directly, the plastic scintillator can expect high sensitivity in comparison with NaI(Tl) crystal sealed in a container. In order to improve condensation efficiency of scintillation, the plastic scintillator was processed in funnel form and coated by light-resistant paint. This sensor consists of plastic scintillator, photomultiplier tube, preamplifier unit, high-voltage power supply, data logger and lithium-ion battery, and all parts are stored in a pressure housing (200φx300L). The newly developed underwater in-situ radon sensor was tested at hydrothermal area (underwater hot springs) that the hydrothermal fluid containing high concentration of radon is discharged into seawater. The sensor was operated by a diver, and sensitivity tests and mapping survey for estimation of radon diffusion were carried out. The signals of the radon sensor ranged from 20 to 65 mV, and these signals corresponded with radon concentration of 2 to 12 becquerels per liter. The sensor was able to detect radon to 20 m above the hydrothermal point (seafloor). Since the sensor is small and light-weight, measurement, monitoring and mapping can perform automatically by installing the sensor to an AUV (autonomous underwater vehicle). Furthermore, underwater in-situ radon sensor is expected an application to earthquake prediction and volcanic activity monitoring as well as oceanography and hydrology. (author)

  6. EML indoor radon workshop, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Lowder, W.; Fisenne, I.; Knutson, E.O.; Hinchliffe, L.

    1983-07-01

    A workshop on indoor radon, held at the Environmental Measurements Laboratory (EML) on November 30 and December 1, 1982, covered recent developments in radon daughter research and development. Thirty papers were presented dealing with standardization and quality assurance measurement methods, surveys, measurements strategy, physical mechanisms of radon and radon daughter transport and development of guidance standards for indoor exposures. The workshop concluded with a planning session that identified the following needs: (1) national and international intercomparisons of techniques for measuring radon and radon daughter concentrations, working level and radon exhalation flux density; (2) development and refinement of practical measurement techniques for thoron and its daughter products; (3) quantitative definition of the sources of indoor radon and the mechanisms of transport into structures; (4) better knowledge of the physical properties of radon daughters; (5) more complete and accurate data on the population exposure to radon, which can only be met by broadly based surveys; and (6) more international cooperation and information exchange among countries with major research programs

  7. Concentration variation of radon in the room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaruzaman Mohd Noor; Haziman Hassan; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    The study was carried out to determine the variation of radon concentration in the room. Radon detector used was solid nuclear tracks detector (SSNTD) LR-115. From this result, suitable points to make radon measurement was determined

  8. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. If the subject moved to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon, the result would be an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend of the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. The author reports a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. 8 figures.

  9. Radon and its daughters in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rundo, J

    1984-05-01

    Prolonged exposure to radon should build up a reservoir of radon in body fat and fluids. Movement of the subject to an environment with a lower radon concentration from an environment with a higher level of radon would result in an exhalation of radon, and the initial exhalation rate of radon should depend on the radon concentration inhaled. This paper describes the behavior of radon and its daughters in vivo and a relationship between the radon exhalation rate and the time after a meal. A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon was observed. We report a similar effect in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium. It should be noted that the possibility exists that a large amount of radon daughters in the chest may interfere in the investigation of possible internal contamination with plutonium or other actinides by external counting. (author).

  10. Physiological Implications, Performance Assessment and Risk Mitigation Strategies of Women in Combat-Centric Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeves, Julie P

    2015-11-01

    Women have historically featured in military conflicts, but were not formally integrated into the military until the 20th century; occupations were mainly restricted to clerical or support roles. An increasing number of occupations have been opened to women and the higher physical demands of combat roles present new challenges. Inherent biological differences between sexes require women to work harder when undertaking the same tasks as men. This is reflected, in part, by the greater risk of musculoskeletal injuries of women observed notably during integrated military training. Gender "neutral" occupational standards, based on the physical requirements of the role, will ensure that women are suitably selected to cope with the demands of military tasks with a minimal risk of injury and to operational effectiveness. Initiatives such as reduced running mileage and single-sex training have contributed to a reduction in lower-limb musculoskeletal injuries, but the risk of injury remains higher in women. Nevertheless, women experience substantial gains in aerobic power and strength with appropriate and targeted training, narrowing the gap in physical performance between the sexes. Evidence-based occupational standards and optimal training programs provide short-term solutions for integrating women in support combat, and indeed direct combat roles.

  11. Calibration of CR-39 plastic detectors in various modes and radon measurement in the north-western region of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, G.S.; Islam, M.A.; Haque, A.K.F.

    1998-04-01

    Solid State track detectors have been extensively used for the measurement of time integrated radon levels in dwellings under different conditions. The CR-39 plastic detectors were calibrated for bare as well as cup with membrane mode, along with a mono dispersal aerosol 0.2μm in size in an exposure chamber, to find the relationship between track densities and the radon concentration as well as potential alpha energy concentration (WL) of radon. Measurement of the indoor radon and radon daughter concentrations were performed in houses in the north-western region of Bangladesh. In total 163 detectors were placed for measurement of indoor radon activities and 230 detectors for measurement of radon daughter concentrations. To study the underground radon activity, 114 CR-39 detectors in cylinders were used. The indoor radon activity in Naogaon was, in general, found to be higher than that in Rajshahi. The working levels in the mud-built houses were greater than that in brick-built houses. The underground radon activity of Naogaon was found to be 6 times higher than that of Rajshahi. No direct correlation was observed between the underground and indoor radon activity. The average values of radon activity and the working level for the north-western zone of Bangladesh are found to be 91 Bq. m -3 and 16 mWL respectively. (author)

  12. Let us take action against radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignaud, Pierre; Mercat, Francois

    2015-01-01

    The Limousin region, because of its geological characteristics, is one of the most concerned by the presence of radon. A first article evokes actions undertaken in two local communities of this region to detect radon presence in dwellings with notably a free distribution of thousand measurement kits. A second article presents this radioactive gas, explains why it is such a matter of concern, and what risks for health are. The third article describes how the measurement kit is used to perform a complete diagnosis: it comprises three dose measurement devices, an information document, and a questionnaire. The presidents of the both involved local communities explain their commitment. A map indicates places where people can get the measurement kits. The next article presents what will be done after the measurement programme. An article briefly evokes the radon issue and actions undertaken in Canada. In an interview two experts indicate how they will support inhabitants in their remediation actions. An article briefly describes what to do in case of a strong presence of radon in a house

  13. Radon mapping - Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1990, the Department of Conservation''s Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) has provided geologic information and conducted several research projects on geology and radon for the California Department of Health Services (DHS) Radon Program. This article provides a brief overview of radon''s occurrence and impact on human health, and summarizes a recent DMG project for DHS that used geologic, geochemical, and indoor radon measurement data to produce detailed radon potential zone maps for Santa Barbara and Ventura counties

  14. Construction of radon/radon daughter calibraton chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.; Gan, T.H.; Leach, V.A.; Saddlier, J.; Solomon, S.B.; Tam, K.K.; Travis, E.; Wykes, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radon/radon daughter test chamber is a copper lined room 1.65x1.75x2.75m with an effective volume of 8000 litres. The air residence time is controlled by circulating the air in the chamber through absolute filters which remove 99.9% of particulates. Radon is drawn into the chamber from a 17 μCi 226 RaCl source using the pressure differential across the blowers (<3 psi)

  15. Characterization of radon entry rates and indoor concentrations in underground structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Fraley, L.; Gadd, M.S.; Ibrahim, S.A.; Monette, F.A.; Morris, R.; Ward, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental facility has been designed to comprehensively determine the influence of soil and meterological conditions on the transport of radon into underground structures. Two identical basements are equipped to continuously monitor pressure differentials, temperatures, soil moisture, precipitation, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, natural ventiliation rates, and radon concentrations. A computerized data acquisition system accumulates and processes data at the rate of 6000 points per day. The experimental design is based on performing experiments in one structure, with the other used as a control. Indoor radon concentrations have temporal variations ranging from 150 to 1400 Bq m -3 . The corresponding entry rate of radon ranges from 300 to 10,000 Bq h -1 . When the radon entry rate is high, the indoor radon concentration decreases, whereas elevated radon concentrations seem to be associated with slow but persistent radon entry rates. This inverse relationship is partially due to compensation from enhanced natural ventilation during periods when the radon entry rate is high. Correlations between measured variables in the soil and indoor-outdoor atmospheres are used to interpret these data. This laboratory has the capability to generate essential data required for developing and testing radon transport models

  16. Soil radon concentration and volcanic activity of Mt. Etna before and after the 2002 eruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imme, G.; La Delfa, S.; Lo Nigro, S.; Morelli, D.; Patane, G.

    2006-01-01

    Soil radon investigation, using a continuous measurement device, has been performed on Mt. Etna in order to observe possible anomalies due to seismic and/or volcanic activity. In October 2002 an eruptive event occurred. Measurements, performed on the NE flank, have shown a possible correlation between eruptive activity of the volcano and soil radon concentration anomaly. The study of the seismic activity recorded in the same flank has, also, allowed to characterize the volcano dynamics and to correlate it with the variations of radon. The obtained results seem to indicate a possible dependence on volcanic activity of the radon concentration

  17. Compact detector for radon and radon daughter products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alter, H.W.; Oswald, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    This invention provides an improved compact track registration detector for radon gas. The detector comprises a housing having an open mouth, a bottom, and side walls; track registration means, supported inside the housing, which forms damage tracks along paths traversed by alpha particles; a microporous filter positioned across the mouth of the housing to prevent entry of radon daughters and particulate matter; and a cap that may be placed on the mouth of the housing to retain the filter. The housing has internal wall surfaces dimensioned to optimize the registration of alpha particles from radon and radon daughters present in the housing

  18. Radon and radiation biology of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crameri, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The main papers presented at the meeting dealt with the behaviour of radon and the indoor environment, radiation biology of the lung, lung dosis and the possible cancer risk caused by radon in homes, contamination of the room air. A series of special papers treated the radon problem in detail: sources and transport mechanisms of radon, geological aspects of the radon radiation burden in Switzerland, radon in homes, search for radon sources, and the Swiss radon-programme RAPROS. 67 figs., 13 tabs., 75 refs

  19. The use of mapped geology as a predictor of radon potential in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robin J; Smethurst, Mark A; Ganerød, Guri V; Finne, Ingvild; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2017-01-01

    but suffers from low sensitivities for radon affected areas. We investigate an alternative classification method based on a Naïve Bayes classifier which results in similar overall performance. The work forms part of an ongoing study which will eventually incorporate airborne equivalent uranium data, as and when new airborne data become available. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiation doses due to natural radon gas releases from the final disposal facility of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesterbacka, K.; Arvela, H.

    1998-03-01

    Building an underground repository for the spent nuclear fuel increases releases of natural radon gas. In the report the radon releases, the resulting doses as well as the radon concentration in the repository air are investigated. There are four optional building locations for the underground repository and three different strategies of construction. Optional sites are Olkiluoto of Eurajoki, Romuvaara of Kuhmo, Haestholmen of Loviisa and Kivetty of Aeaenekoski. The most significant radon sources in the underground repository are the rockwalls and the groundwater leaking to the repository. High groundwater radon concentrations can increase significantly radon concentration in the repository air despite the groundwater leak rate is low. The radon source strength from the rockwalls, groundwater and macadam spreaded on the floor of the repository is estimated in this report. Using these results the radon concentration in the repository is calculated for several air exchange rates. Data from petrological studies performed at the optional building sites as well as the measurement data of the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority has been utilized. Rough approximations were needed when estimating the radon source strength. The estimated total radon source strength varies between 1 - 600 MBq/h depending on the repository construction strategy. Repository indoor air radon concentration with no air exchange varies between 0,7 - 120 kBq/m 3 . Using the most probable estimates on radon source strength, the allowed indoor radon concentration of 400 Bq/m 3 at workplaces is achieved by using the air exchange rate of 0,5 l/h in every optional repository. Repository exhaust air and the pile of macadam increases the radon levels in the environment. The radiation dose to the critical person depends on the open volume of the repository. The annual radiation dose calculated from the most probable radon source strength at the distance of 500 metres is below 0,005 mSv at all sites

  1. Legal issues in radon affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massuelle, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of experts and the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise

  2. Radon exposure and lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planinic, J.; Vukovic, B.; Faj, Z.; Radolic, V.; Suveljak, B.

    2003-01-01

    Although studies of radon exposure have established that Rn decay products are a cause of lung cancer among miners, the lung cancer risk to the general population from indoor radon remains unclear and controversial. Our epidemiological investigation of indoor radon influence on lung cancer incidence was carried out for 201 patients from the Osijek town. Ecological method was applied by using the town map with square fields of 1 km 2 and the town was divided into 24 fields. Multiple regression study for the lung cancer rate on field, average indoor radon exposure and smoking showed a positive linear double regression for the mentioned variables. Case-control study showed that patients, diseased of lung cancer, dwelt in homes with significantly higher radon concentrations, by comparison to the average indoor radon level of control sample. (author)

  3. Legal issues in radon affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massuelle, M.H. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    1999-12-01

    In France, it was only recently that cases related to high radon concentrations in dwellings received substantial publicity. This irruption of radon as a public health issue came with the general progress of scientific knowledge and the availability of a research capacity in France able to develop expertise. We are interested here in the legal implications of issues that arise from the lag between the activity of expertsand the regulatory activity in the domain of radon. We use the term expertise very broadly, to cover the practical application of research findings, the relation of the researchers with the community, and finally the acts by which experts provide their knowledge to the community. We first examine the course by which science developed the radon issue and the way they organized to move from research to expertise; here we try to characterize the various needs for radon expertise. We then discuss the legal difficulties associated with radon expertise.

  4. Radon activities in natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajo, B.L.; Palfalvi, J.

    1995-01-01

    Radon activities have been measured in gas samples used for residential heading, in Venezuela and in Hungary. Gas bottles were selected randomly in different regions, and radon activities were monitored with ionization clambers and solid stoke track detections. Radon concentrations in household natural gas are presented for regions in Venezuela and in Budapest, Hungary. The latter was found to be in the range of 88-135 Bq/m 3 . (R.P.)

  5. Radon exposures in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Public and occupational health protection against radon is provided in the UK. Protection is advised where geological conditions cause high concentrations in domestic and commercial buildings. These circumstances are described and the resulting exposures reviewed. An account is given of the limitation scheme for radon in the home and the regulatory scheme for radon at work, the manner in which they are implemented, and the degree to which they are successful. (author)

  6. Measuring radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance for testing for radon in homes and interim guidance for testing in schools. Information on testing for radon in the workplace is the next initiative and this paper describes the current status of this effort. The results of measurements made in several buildings in the Washington, DC area are discussed. In this paper a discussion of preliminary guidance on radon survey design that has been offered to Federal agencies is presented

  7. Property transfer assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most environmental assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures and affect single family, multifamily, and commercial properties. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for protection from long term legal liabilities in the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more banks and state governments following this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and environmental assessments to protect the parties involved from any long term legal liabilities

  8. Environmental site assessments should include radon gas testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    There are two emerging influences that will require radon gas testing as part of many property transfers and most site assessments. These requirements come from lending regulators and state legislatures. Fannie Mae and others have developed environmental investigation guidelines for the purchase of environmentally contaminated real estate. These guidelines include radon gas testing for many properties. Several states have enacted laws that require environmental disclosure forms be prepared to ensure that the parties involved in certain real estate transactions are aware of the environmental liabilities that may come with the transfer of property. Indiana has recently enacted legislation that would require the disclosure of the presence of radon gas on many commercial real estate transactions. With more lenders and state governments likely to follow this trend, radon gas testing should be performed during all property transfers and site assessment to protect the parties involved from any legal liabilities

  9. Seismic Shear Energy Reflection By Radon-Fourier Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Umairia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismic waves split in an anisotropic medium, instead of rotating horizontal component to principal direction, Radon-Fourier is derived to observe the signature of shear wave reflection. Synthetic model with fracture is built and discretized using finite difference scheme for spatial and time domain. Common depth point (CDP with single shot gives traces and automatic gain is preprocessed before Radon Transform (RT, a filtering technique gives radon domain. It makes easier to observe fractures at specific incidence and improves its quality in some way by removing the noise. A comparison of synthetic data and BF-data is performed on the basis of root means square error (RMS values. The RMS error is minimum at the 10th trace in radon domain.

  10. Measurements of Radon Concentration in Yemen Using Spark Counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, W.; Abou-Leila, M.; Hafiz, M.E.; Al-Glal, N.

    2011-01-01

    Spark counter has been designed and realized and the optimum applied voltage was found to be 600 V. Excellent consistent agreements was observed between counted number of tracks by spark counter and reading by optical microscope. Radon concentration in some houses in Sana'a and Hodeidah cities in Yemen had been performed using LR-115 SSNTD and spark counter system. The average radon concentration in both cities was far lower the alert value. The results showed that radon concentration in the metropolitan area Sana'a was higher than that in Hodeidah city. Also, it was observed that old residential houses had higher levels of radon concentrations have compared to newly built houses in the metropolitan area Sana'a

  11. Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program methods and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Hoornbeek, J.; Jalbert, P.; Sensintaffar, E.; Hopper, R.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA developed the voluntary Radon Measurement Proficiency Program in 1986 in response to a Federal and State need for measurement services firms to demonstrate their proficiency with radon measurement methods and devices. Since that time, the program has set basic standards for the radon measurement industry. The program has grown dramatically since its inception. In 1986, fewer than 50 companies participated in the program. By 1989, more than 5,000 companies were participating. Participants represent firms with an analytical capability as well as firms that rely upon another firm for analysis service. Since the beginning of the RMP Program, the Agency has learned a great deal about radon measurement methods and devices. This paper reviews the measurement devices used in the program and what the EPA has learned about them since the program's inception. Performance data from the RMP Program are used to highlight relevant findings

  12. Outdoor radon monitoring plan for the UMTRA Project sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    This document describes the monitoring schedules and methods used to measure ambient radon concentrations around Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites. Radon monitoring at both processing sites and disposal sites is performed primarily for two reasons. The first, and foremost, of these is to provide a means to keep the off-site radon concentrations during the construction activities As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). The second purpose is to provide a basis for comparison with the EPA standards developed for the UMTRA Project. Radon monitoring data are also used to demonstrate compliance with ambient concentration standards and for public information due to concern about potential radiation releases during construction. 1 fig., 1 tab

  13. Radon Research Program, FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy, Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER) is the principal federal agency conducting basic research related to indoor radon. The scientific information being sought in this program encompasses research designed to determine radon availability and transport outdoors, modeling transport into and within buildings, physics and chemistry of radon and radon progeny, dose response relationships, lung cancer risk, and mechanisms of radon carcinogenesis. There still remains a significant number of uncertainties in the currently available knowledge that is used to estimate lung cancer risk from exposure to environmental levels of radon and its progeny. The main goal of the DOE/OHER Radon Research Program is to develop information to reduce these uncertainties and thereby provide an improved health risk estimate of exposure to radon and its progeny and to identify and understand biological mechanisms of lung cancer development and required copollutants at low levels of exposure. Information useful in radon control strategies is also provided by the basic science undertaken in this program

  14. ERRICCA radon model intercomparison exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.E.; Albarracín, D.; Csige, I.

    1999-01-01

    -state diffusive radon profiles in dry and wet soils, (2) steady-state entry of soil gas and radon into a house, (3) time-dependent radon exhalation from abuilding-material sample. These cases cover features such as: soil heterogeneity, anisotropy, 3D-effects, time dependency, combined advective and diffusive......, still remain. All in all, it seems that the exercise has served its purpose and stimulated improvements relating to the quality of numerical modelling of radon transport. To maintain a high quality of modelling, it is recommendedthat additional exercises are carried out....

  15. Radon Research Program, FY-1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER) has established a Radon Research Program with the primary objectives of acquiring knowledge necessary to improve estimates of health risks associated with radon exposure and also to improve radon control. Through the Radon Research Program, OHER supports and coordinates the research activities of investigators at facilities all across the nation. From this research, significant advances are being made in our understanding of the health effects of radon. OHER publishes this annual report to provide information to interested researchers and the public about its research activities. This edition of the report summarizes the activities of program researchers during FY90. Chapter 2 of this report describes how risks associated with radon exposure are estimated, what assumptions are made in estimating radon risks for the general public, and how the uncertainties in these assumptions affect the risk estimates. Chapter 3 examines how OHER, through the Radon Research Program, is working to gather information for reducing the uncertainties and improving the risk estimates. Chapter 4 highlights some of the major findings of investigators participating in the Radon Research Program in the past year. And, finally, Chapter 5 discusses the direction in which the program is headed in the future. 20 figs

  16. Radon levels in Croatian spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radolic, V.; Vukovic, B.; Stanic, D.; Planinic, J.

    2005-01-01

    Average radon concentrations in the air and geothermal water of spa pools in Croatia were 40.3 Bq/m 3 and 4.5 kBq/m 3 , respectively. Substantial difference between radon concentrations in pool and spring water is explained by the mixing normal and geothermal water in the pool and with radon decay. The estimated annual effective dose received by the personnel in the spa of Stubicke toplice, Croatia was 0.7 mSv. At the same location, the calculated transfer factor of radon for the air and thermal water in the pool was 4.9x10 -3 .(author)

  17. Radon studies in Indian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.J.

    2000-01-01

    The indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentration has been measured by Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs) in large number of Indian dwellings. Radon concentrations were measured in different parts of the country. In the first study, radon concentrations were measured in 143 dwellings of Udaipur, Bikaner and Banswara towns of Rajasthan province. The distributions of the time-averaged indoor radon concentration in these three towns of the Rajasthan fit an approximately log normal distribution. The geometric mean (GM) values of radon concentrations in these three places were found to be 74 Bq m -3 , 46 Bq m -3 and 66 Bq m -3 with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.2, 2.2 and 2.5 respectively. In another study, radon concentrations were measured in about 150 dwellings of hilly regions of the country. The measurements were carried out in Kohima (Nagaland), Baijnath and Palampur (Himachal Pradesh). The distribution of radon concentration in Kohima dwellings was found to be approximately log normal, however, the radon distribution in Baijnath and Palampur dwellings seems to be bimodal. The GM values of the radon concentrations for 65 dwellings in Kohima and 43 dwellings in Baijnath and Palampur were 88 Bq m -3 and 134 Bq m -3 with GSD of 1.7 and 2.5 respectively. The results are discussed in detail. (author)

  18. Activity measurements of radon from construction materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fior, L; Nicolosi Corrêa, J; Paschuk, S A; Denyak, V V; Schelin, H R; Soreanu Pecequilo, B R; Kappke, J

    2012-07-01

    This work presents the results of radon concentration measurements of construction materials used in the Brazilian industry, such as clay (red) bricks and concrete blocks. The measurements focused on the detection of indoor radon activity during different construction stages and the analysis of radionuclides present in the construction materials. For this purpose, sealed chambers with internal dimensions of approximately 60×60×60 cm3 were built within a protected and isolated laboratory environment, and stable air humidity and temperature levels were maintained. These chambers were also used for radon emanation reduction tests. The chambers were built in four major stages: (1) assembly of the walls using clay (red) bricks, concrete blocks, and mortar; (2) installation of plaster; (3) finishing of wall surface using lime; and (4) insulation of wall surface and finishing using paint. Radon measurements were performed using polycarbonate etched track detectors. By comparing the three layers applied to the masonry walls, it was concluded that only the last step (wall painting using acrylic varnish) reduced the radon emanation, by a factor of approximately 2. Samples of the construction materials (clay bricks and concrete blocks) were ground, homogenized, and subjected to gamma-ray spectrometry analysis to evaluate the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K. The values for the index of the activity concentration (I), radium equivalent activity (Raeq), and external hazard index (Hext) showed that these construction materials could be used without restrictions or concern about the equivalent dose limit (1 mSv/year). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The current objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence will be studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions will be investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains which differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. This report discusses progress incurred from 4/1/1988--10/1/1990. 5 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs

  20. Radon and radon daughters in South African underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.

    1980-01-01

    Radon and the radon daughters are the radionuclides which primarily determine the level of the radiation hazard in underground uranium mines and to a smaller extent in non-uranium mines. Radon is a gas, and its daughters adsorb on aerosol particles which are of respirable size. The hazard thus arises from the alpha decay of radon and its daughters in contact with lung tissue. Radon is itself part of the uranium decay chain. The major radionuclide, 238 U, decays successively through thirteen shorter-lived radionuclides to 206 Pb. Radon is the only gaseous decay product at room temperature; the other twelve are solids. The main hazard presented by the uranium decay chain is normally determined by the radon concentration because gaseous transport can bring alpha emitters close to sensitive tissue. There is no such transport route for the other alpha emitters, and the level of beta and gamma radiation caused by the uranium decay chain generally presents a far lower external radiation hazard. Radon itself is the heaviest of the noble gases, which are He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. Its chemical reactions are of no concern in regard to its potential hazard in mines as it may be considered inert. It does, however, have a solubility ten times higher than oxygen in water, and this can play a significant part in assisting the movement of the gas from the rock into airways. Radon continuously emanates into mine workings from uranium ores and from the uranium present at low concentrations in practically any rock. It has been found that the control of the exposure level is most effectively achieved by sound ventilation practices. In South African mines the standard of ventilation is generally high and exposure to radon and radon daughters is at acceptably low levels

  1. Is radon 222 an appropriate tracer for the study of seismic precursors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richon, P.; Heritier, T.; Sebe, O.; Maffat, I.; Holtzappfel, T.; Le Hesran, E.; Geber, O.; Ulziibat, M.; Demberel, S.; Oyun-Erdene, M.; Bilguun, M.

    2015-01-01

    Radon 222 is a natural radionuclide that can be measured in air, water, and soil in very, very small quantities. Experiments performed in laboratories have shown that a local strain on a rock has an impact on the mobility of the radon gas and as local strains increase with the approach of an earthquake, it is considered that radon abnormal measurements may help predicting earthquakes. The first stage to extrapolate laboratory results to large-scale application is to master the metrology of the radon gas. A campaign of measurements achieved in Mongolia on the Emeelt site has allowed an optimization of radon metrology and of the positioning of the probes. Preliminary results have shown that abnormal values of radon concentrations that are not correlated with local meteorology, appear a few days before local seismic activity resumes

  2. Calibration of radon-222 detectors using closed circuit radium-226 sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perna, Allan Felipe Nunes; Paschuk, Sergei Anatolyevich; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Del Claro, Flavia

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the calibration of the Radon-222 detectors used by the Laboratories specializing in measuring natural radiation from this gas. The research was conducted in collaboration between UTFPR, CDTN/CNEN, UFRN and IRD/CNEN. During the calibration the detectors were exposed in isolated chambers with radioactive calibrated sources. The calibration procedure was supported with four instant radon monitors AlphaGUARD (SAPHYMO Co.) responsible for radon activity measurements in the experimental chamber. The calibration procedure resulted an equation that relates the number of tracks found in solid-state detector CR-39 (Track-Etch detector) with the concentration of radon in the atmosphere. Obtained results are compatible with previously performed calibration at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS, Japan) using high activity levels of radon in air. Present results of calibration give the possibility to expand the calibration curve of CR-39 for medium and low activity levels of radon. (author)

  3. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, G.; Lenart, L.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''.

  4. Time-integrated radon measurements in spring and well waters by track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-01-01

    The radon content dissolved in natural waters seems to be a very sensitive indicator of potential uranium deposits. We have developed different track methods to perform time-integrated, ''in-situ'' measurements of radon in different natural waters (spring, lake, well) and their neighbouring soil gas. One of our main purposes was to study the seasonal variation of radon content and its possible correlation with certain water (yield, flow rate) and environmental (depth, temperature) parameters. Simultaneous radon measurements have been carried out in lake and spring waters in a cave, in thermal and cold water springs of a public bath and in a deep drilled well. The radon profiles obtained in the deep well lend support to the idea that the environmental radon can travel large distances in microbubbles of a ''carrier geogas''. (author)

  5. Radon in workplaces - application of new Slovak legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futas, M.; Gombala, E.

    1998-01-01

    To carry out the categorization of underground workplaces the work-group comprising workers of State Health Institute of the Slovak Republic in Bratislava and in Banska Bystrica was created. During 1997 this group took the set of radon concentration measurements in four ore mines (Hodrusa Hamre, gold; Talcum - Magnezit Hnusta, talc, magnesite; Zelba Rudnany, barytes, polymetallic ores; Zelba -Siderit Nizna Slana, siderit) and twelve show caves (Belianska, Bystrianska, Demanovska j.Slobody, Demenovska ladova, Dobsinska ladova, Domica, Driny, Gombasecka, Harmanecka, Jasovska, Ochtinska aragonite, Vazecka).The highest radon activity concentration 24470 ± 118 Bq/m 3 in Vazecka cave (location Galeria) was measured According to averaged radon levels the following conclusions were made for show caves: all show caves except two ice caves shall be declared as workplaces with ionizing radiation sources for radon levels high above 1000 Bq/m 3 (the chosen action level 1000 Bq/m 3 corresponds to the annual effective dose 6 mSv providing 2000 working hours spent in such workplace) were detected and no technical mitigation is possible because of preservation of cave decoration. Situation in ore mines ii a bit different. Measured radon levels were found varying in a wide range depending on the position in the mine, work practices and season. The increase of radon gas concentration in summer months was observed as it was expected. In every ore mine workplaces with radon concentration high above the action level were found. Powerful ventilation system is a basic prerequisite and can reduce concentration below the action level. High radon concentration (up to 4200 Bq/m 3 ) in Hodrusa Hereditary Drift (haulage-way from Hodrusa gold mine) were successfully reduced to 200 Bq/m 3 by walling up mouths of the old mine works. In other three mines the current ventilation conditions are not sufficient to ensure radon concentrations below the action level for the time being. This is the

  6. The application of air pressure difference in reducing indoor radon concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.

    2000-01-01

    In densely populated tropical cities like Hong Kong, people usually live and work inside high-rise buildings. And because of the hot and humid climate, air conditioning systems are used throughout the year, particularly in commercial buildings. Previous territory-wide surveys have shown that over 10% of commercial buildings in Hong Kong have indoor radon concentrations above 200 Bq m -3 . Since the major source of indoor radon in high-rise buildings is the building materials, increasing ventilation and applying radon barriers on wall surfaces seem to be the only ways to reduce the indoor radon concentration. But it was noted that the ventilation rate the many commercial buildings are not efficient enough to remove the radon because of various reasons such as energy saving, lack of maintenance, etc. In this study, radon mitigation was achieved by reducing the rate of radon exhaled from the building materials. A special laboratory, which has the capability of simulating any meteorological conditions that could be faced by high-rise buildings in Hong Kong, was built. The reduction of radon exhalation rate by applying pressure difference and temperature difference across walls was studied in the laboratory. This paper summarizes the results and tactics for applying pressure difference in existing commercial buildings. A new technique of reducing radon exhalation rate in new buildings by depressurizing the interior of walls was also developed. Tunnels can be embedded in the concrete walls of new buildings during construction. By using simple vacuum pumps, radon exhalation rate from the walls can be reduced significantly by depressurizing the tunnels. The feasibility and applicability of the technique is presented in this paper. (author)

  7. The National Radon Archive as a useful tool for developing and updating the National Radon Action Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochicchio, F.; Antignani, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Ampollini, M.; Caccia, B.; Pozzi, S.; Venoso, G.

    2017-01-01

    International recommendations and regulations require developing of National Radon Action Plans (NRAPs) to effectively manage the protection of workers and population from radon exposure. In Italy, a NRAP was published in 2002 and several activities have been carried out in this framework. Information and data regarding these and previous activities have been collected in a National Radon Archive (NRA). Activities carried out by institutionally involved institutes and agencies include several national and regional surveys, involving more than 50 000 indoor environments (dwellings, schools and workplaces), and remedial actions performed in ∼350 buildings, largely in schools. Data collected in the NRA allowed also to estimate that lung cancer deaths attributable to radon exposure in Italy are ∼3400 per year. On-going developments of the Italian NRA finalized to effectively use it as tool for developing, monitoring and updating the NRAP are also described. (authors)

  8. Environmental radon and radon daughter dosimetry in the respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, R.B.

    1979-04-01

    This report describes work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's program to determine safety and costs related to decommissioning nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Individual dose factors for the inhalation of radon and its daughter products are calculated for use in environmental dose assessments. The calculated committed dose equivalent factors for 222 Rn and its daughters are tabulated for lungs, bronchi tract and other organs. An activity median aerodynamic diameter of 0.1 μm was used. The dose to an individual is calculated by multiplying the estimated intake from inhalation for a particular radionuclide by the corresponding dose factor. A working level month-to-dose conversion factor is calculated to be 1 rad/WLM to the epithelial tissue of the T-B region, assuming 100% daughter equilibrium and 10% free 218 Po ions. This value is in reasonable agreement with recently reported values

  9. Radon anomalies: When are they possible to be detected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarelli, Luigi; Woith, Heiko; Seyis, Cemil; Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Donner, Reik

    2017-04-01

    Records of the Radon noble gas in different environments like soil, air, groundwater, rock, caves, and tunnels, typically display cyclic variations including diurnal (S1), semidiurnal (S2) and seasonal components. But there are also cases where theses cycles are absent. Interestingly, radon emission can also be affected by transient processes, which inhibit or enhance the radon carrying process at the surface. This results in transient changes in the radon emission rate, which are superimposed on the low and high frequency cycles. The complexity in the spectral contents of the radon time-series makes any statistical analysis aiming at understanding the physical driving processes a challenging task. In the past decades there have been several attempts to relate changes in radon emission rate with physical triggering processes such as earthquake occurrence. One of the problems in this type of investigation is to objectively detect anomalies in the radon time-series. In the present work, we propose a simple and objective statistical method for detecting changes in the radon emission rate time-series. The method uses non-parametric statistical tests (e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov) to compare empirical distributions of radon emission rate by sequentially applying various time window to the time-series. The statistical test indicates whether two empirical distributions of data originate from the same distribution at a desired significance level. We test the algorithm on synthetic data in order to explore the sensitivity of the statistical test to the sample size. We successively apply the test to six radon emission rate recordings from stations located around the Marmara Sea obtained within the MARsite project (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417). We conclude that the test performs relatively well on identify transient changes in the radon emission

  10. A personal radon dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-03-01

    In the last decade the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Animal studies as well as epidemiological studies showed an increased lung cancer risk. A new personal radon-dosemeter on the basis of a CR-39 (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate) track-etch detector has been developed. The read-out of the detectors is based on the image- processing technique. The actual efficiency of the new dosemeter, obtained with a semi-automatic personal-computer based image-analysis system, is 1.43 +/- 0.15 tracks/cm 2 /(kBq/m 3 h), which is about three times that of the widely used Karlsruhe-type detector based on polycarbonate detectors

  11. Radon measurements indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements of Radon concentrations have been made using photographic film detectors in the communities of Uppsala, Soedertaelje and Tyresoe. The result from 6700 filmexposures in both one-family and apartment houses are reported. The fraction of dwellings with radon daughter concentrations exceeding 200 Bq/m 3 is between 3 and 14 percent for one-family houses and 0 to 5 percent for apartment buildings. 8 to 68 percent of the one-family houses and 57 to 83 percent of the apartment buildings had concentrations lower than 70 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variations were recorded in one-family houses in Uppsala. In houses with low concentrations, the winter values were higher than the summer values. For houses with high concentrations the reversed variation was recorded. (Author)

  12. EPA's radon study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Last winter, in cooperation with agencies in 10 states and two metropolitan area counties, EPA measured the indoor air radon concentrations of 14,000 houses, some chosen statistically at random and some by request of the homeowner. Passive measurement methodologies were used, such as exposing a charcoal canister to the air for a few days and allowing the air to migrate in to the charcoal naturally. To reduce dilution of radon by the outside air, the protocol required that the house be shut up; therefore, the study was conducted during winter. The measuring device was placed in the lowest livable area (usually the basement) of each house to maximize potential concentration. It should be noted that these procedures are generally considered to be screening tests because they result in a worst-case measurement rather than a best value. The results of these findings are presented

  13. Indoor radon II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the growing interest in and public concern about indoor radon, APCA, in April 1987, sponsored the Second International Specialty Conference on Indoor Radon. This book is the proceedings of this conference and includes discussions on: A current assessment of the nature of the problem; Issues related to health effects and risk assessment; The development of public and private sector initiatives; Research into methods of control and prevention; International perspectives; and Measurement methods and programs. The material is intended for the technically oriented and for those responsible for developing programs and initiatives to address this important public health issue. Contributors include federal, state, and provincial program officials and members of the academic and private sectors

  14. Exposure to radon in dwellings below the ground level in the area of Zagreb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokobauer, N.; Franic, Z.; Sokolovic, E.; Petroci, L.; Sencar, J.; Lokner, V.

    1998-01-01

    Radon measurements were carried out in 44 dwellings at 22 locations in the area of Zagreb with the aim of establishing possible differences in radon levels between dwellings located below ground level, and those on higher floors. The measurements were performed using a Honeywell professional radon monitor both during the spring/summer and the autumn/winter seasons. Significant differences were found: for dwellings below ground level, the average annual radon activity concentration was 57±20 Bqm -3 ; for those on higher floors the value was 35±15 Bqm -3 . (A.K.)

  15. Radon concentrations profiles over the brazilian Amazon basin during wet season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.; Dias, P.L.S.; Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric radon measurements were performed airborne in the Brazilian Amazon Basin during the wet season ABLE-2B experiment. The vertical profiles of radon showed a small decrease of concentration with increasing altitude at a rate varying from 6.5 to 11 x 10 - 2 Bq m - 3 km - 1. The calculation of the flux balance of radon in the troposphere above the Amazon Basin indicated a residual flux at the upper boundary of the measurement domain (6 km) of 0.14 atom cm - 2 s - 1. This residue may be associated with the turbulent transport of radon due to cloud activity. (author)

  16. Indoor air radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cothern, C.R.

    1990-01-01

    This review concerns primarily the health effects that result from indoor air exposure to radon gas and its progeny. Radon enters homes mainly from the soil through cracks in the foundation and other holes to the geologic deposits beneath these structures. Once inside the home the gas decays (half-life 3.8 d) and the ionized atoms adsorb to dust particles and are inhaled. These particles lodge in the lung and can cause lung cancer. The introduction to this review gives some background properties of radon and its progeny that are important to understanding this public health problem as well as a discussion of the units used to describe its concentrations. The data describing the health effects of inhaled radon and its progeny come both from epidemiological and animal studies. The estimates of risk from these two data bases are consistent within a factor of two. The epidemiological studies are primarily for hard rock miners, although some data exist for environmental exposures. The most complete studies are those of the US, Canadian, and Czechoslovakian uranium miners. Although all studies have some deficiencies, those of major importance include uranium miners in Saskatchewan, Canada, Swedish iron miners, and Newfoundland fluorspar miners. These six studies provide varying degrees of detail in the form of dose-response curves. Other epidemiological studies that do not provide quantitative dose-response information, but are useful in describing the health effects, include coal, iron ore and tin miners in the UK, iron ore miners in the Grangesburg and Kiruna, Sweden, metal miners in the US, Navajo uranium miners in the US, Norwegian niobian and magnitite miners, South African gold and uranium miners, French uranium miners, zinc-lead miners in Sweden and a variety of small studies of environmental exposure. An analysis of the epidemiological studies reveals a variety of interpretation problem areas.172 references

  17. Radon - The management of the risk related to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet briefly explains what radon is, where it comes from, and what it becomes. It indicates and briefly comments its concentrations in French departments, describes how radon can affect our health (lung cancer), describes how the risk can be reduced in buildings, and indicates the existing regulatory provisions

  18. Mitigation of {sup 222}Rn induced background in the XENON1T dark matter experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruenner, Stefan A.

    2017-07-05

    {sup 222}Rn is a major source of background in many rare-event experiments such as the XENON1T dark matter search. The noble gas radon is created by radioactive decay inside all detector materials and emanates into the sensitive liquid xenon target disabling any detector shielding. Subsequent beta-decays of radon progenies are the dominant source of background in the XENON1T experiment. In order to mitigate radon induced background the detector's construction materials have been selected according to dedicated {sup 222}Rn emanation measurements. In the first part of this thesis, we summarize the results of the XENON1T radon screening campaign and present the measurement of the integral radon emanation rate of the fully assembled detector. The development of a radon removal system which continuously purifies the liquid xenon target from the emanated radon is the topic of the second part of this thesis. In order to demonstrate the suitability of cryogenic distillation as a technique to separate radon from xenon, we developed an experimental setup to measure the depletion of radon in xenon boil-off gas after a single distillation step. In the last part of the thesis, we demonstrate the operation of a radon removal system for the XENON100 experiment. For this first test employing a running dark matter detector, we integrated a multiple stage, cryogenic distillation column in the XENON100 gas purification loop. From the evolution of the radon concentration in XENON100, we investigate the distillation column's radon removal capability and discuss the design and application of a radon removal system for XENON1T and the upcoming XENONnT experiment.

  19. Effects of pain mitigation and method of castration on behavior and feedlot performance in cull beef bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repenning, P E; Ahola, J K; Callan, R J; Fox, J T; French, J T; Giles, R L; Peel, R K; Whittier, J C; Engle, T E

    2013-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of castration method (banding vs. surgical) and use of analgesia on behavior and feedlot performance in cull bulls. Angus, Hereford, and Angus-crossbred bulls (n = 20; initial BW = 384 ± 59.3 kg; 336 ± 20.1 d old) were housed in feedlot pens equipped with the ability to measure individual daily feed intake. A balanced randomized block design using a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used. A multimodal analgesia (MMA) protocol was used and consisted of sutcutaneous ketamine stun containing butorphanol (0.01 mg/kg BW), xylazine (0.02 mg/kg BW), ketamine (0.04 mg/kg BW), and a local 2% lidocaine hydrochloride anesthetic block of the spermatic cords (10 mL/cord) and scrotum (10 mL) on d 0. Flunixin meglumine (1.2 mg/kg) was administered intravenously on d 0, 1, 2, and 3 to MMA cattle. Cattle were stratified to treatments based on breed, BW, age, and a temperament score. Treatments included 1) band castration without analgesia (BND), 2) band castration with analgesia (BND-MMA), 3) surgical castration without analgesia (SURG), and 4) surgical castration with analgesia (SURG-MMA). All castrations were performed on d 0. Chute exit velocity (EV) and time in chute (TIC) were collected on d -9, 0, 1, 2, and 13. Willingness-to-enter-chute (WTE) score, rectal temperature (TEMP), heart rate (HR), and respiration (RESP) were collected on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 13. Cattle were weighed on d -9 and 13 while feeding behaviors were collected continuously for 57 d precastration and 28 d postcastration. There was a tendency (P cattle receiving analgesia. Both SURG treatments exhibited elevated TEMP on d 1 (P castrates during the first week postcastration. Results suggest that pain mitigation reduces the impact of castration on ADG and DMI.

  20. Participatory assessment of soil erosion severity and performance of mitigation measures using stakeholder workshops in Koga catchment, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemberu, Walle; Baartman, Jantiene E M; Fleskens, Luuk; Ritsema, Coen J

    2018-02-01

    Farmers possess a wealth of knowledge regarding soil erosion and soil and water conservation (SWC), and there is a great demand to access it. However, there has been little effort to systematically document farmers' experiences and perceptions of SWC measures. Sustainable Land Management (SLM) has largely evolved through local traditional practices rather than adoption based on scientific evidence. This research aimed to assess soil erosion and performance of different SWC measures from the farmers' perspective by documenting their perceptions and experiences in Koga catchment, Ethiopia. To this aim, workshops were organised in three sub-catchments differing in slopes and SWC measures. Workshops included group discussions and field monitoring of erosion indicators and systematically describing the status of soil erosion, soil fertility and yield to assess the performance of SWC measures. Results show that farmers are aware of the harmful effects of ongoing soil erosion and of the impacts of mitigation measures on their farms. Sheet erosion was found to be the most widespread form of erosion while rill damage was critical on plots cultivated to cereals on steep slopes. The average rill erosion rates were 24.2 and 47.3 t/ha/y in treated and untreated farmlands, respectively. SWC reduced rill erosion on average by more than 48%. However, the impacts of SWC measures varied significantly between sub-watersheds, and farmers believed that SWC measures did not prevent erosion completely. Comparatively, graded stone-faced soil bunds revealed maximum desired impacts and were most appreciated by farmers, whereas level bunds caused water logging. Most traditional ditches were highly graded and begun incising and affected production of cereals. Despite the semi-quantitative nature of the methodology, using farmers' perceptions and experiences to document land degradation and the impacts of SWC measures is crucial as they are the daily users of the land and therefore directly