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Sample records for performing organic synthetic

  1. Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Synthetic Organic Pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugaya, Naeko; Takahashi, Mitsuko; Sakurai, Katsumi; Tanaka, Nobuko; Okubo, Ichiro; Kawakami, Tsuyoshi

    2018-04-18

    Though synthetic organic colorants are used in various applications nowadays, there is the concern that impurities by-produced during the manufacturing and degradation products in some of these colorants are persistent organic pollutants and carcinogens. Thus, it is important to identify the synthetic organic colorants in various products, such as commercial paints, ink, cosmetics, food, textile, and plastics. Dyes, which are soluble in water and other solvents, could be analyzed by chromatographic methods. In contrast, it is difficult to analyze synthetic organic pigments by these methods because of their insolubility. This review is an overview of mass spectrometric analysis of synthetic organic pigments by various ionization methods. We highlight a recent study of textile samples by atmospheric pressure solid analysis probe MS. Furthermore, the mass spectral features of synthetic organic pigments and their separation from other components such as paint media and plasticizers are discussed.

  2. Building synthetic cellular organization

    OpenAIRE

    Polka, Jessica K.; Silver, Pamela A.

    2013-01-01

    The elaborate spatial organization of cells enhances, restricts, and regulates protein–protein interactions. However, the biological significance of this organization has been difficult to study without ways of directly perturbing it. We highlight synthetic biology tools for engineering novel cellular organization, describing how they have been, and can be, used to advance cell biology.

  3. Synthetic hardware performance analysis in virtualized cloud environment for healthcare organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chee-Heng; Teh, Ying-Wah

    2013-08-01

    The main obstacles in mass adoption of cloud computing for database operations in healthcare organization are the data security and privacy issues. In this paper, it is shown that IT services particularly in hardware performance evaluation in virtual machine can be accomplished effectively without IT personnel gaining access to actual data for diagnostic and remediation purposes. The proposed mechanisms utilized the hypothetical data from TPC-H benchmark, to achieve 2 objectives. First, the underlying hardware performance and consistency is monitored via a control system, which is constructed using TPC-H queries. Second, the mechanism to construct stress-testing scenario is envisaged in the host, using a single or combination of TPC-H queries, so that the resource threshold point can be verified, if the virtual machine is still capable of serving critical transactions at this constraining juncture. This threshold point uses server run queue size as input parameter, and it serves 2 purposes: It provides the boundary threshold to the control system, so that periodic learning of the synthetic data sets for performance evaluation does not reach the host's constraint level. Secondly, when the host undergoes hardware change, stress-testing scenarios are simulated in the host by loading up to this resource threshold level, for subsequent response time verification from real and critical transactions.

  4. Role of Synthetic and Dimensional Synthetic Organic Chemistry in Block Copolymer Micelle Nanosensor Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Pramod Kumar

    This thesis investigated the role of amphiphilic triblock copolymer micelle nanomaterials in nanosensors, with emphasis on the synthesis of micelle particle sensors. The thesis is focused on the role of synthetic and dimensional synthetic organic chemistry in amphiphilic triblock core-shellcorona...

  5. Application of the Organic Synthetic Designs to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, V. M.

    2009-12-01

    In this paper we propose a synthesis of the heterocyclic compounds and the insoluble materials on the meteorites. Our synthetic scheme involves the reaction of sugars and amino acids, the so-called Maillard reaction. We have developed this scheme based on the combined analysis of the regular and retrosynthetic organic synthetic principles. The merits of these synthetic methods for the prebiotic design are addressed.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of mixed dye: Natural and synthetic organic dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richhariya, Geetam; Kumar, Anil

    2018-05-01

    Mixed dye from hibiscus sabdariffa and eosin Y was employed in the fabrication of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). Nanostructured mesoporous film was prepared from the titanium dioxide (TiO2). The energy conversion efficiency of hibiscus, eosin Y and mixed dye was obtained as 0.41%, 1.53% and 2.02% respectively. Mixed DSSC has shown improvement in the performance of the cell as compared to hibiscus and eosin Y dye due to addition of synthetic organic dye. This illustrates the effect of synthetic organic dyes in performance enhancement of natural dyes. It has been credited to the improved absorption of light mainly in higher energy state (λ = 440-560 nm) when two dyes were employed simultaneously as was obvious from the absorption spectra of dyes adsorbed onto TiO2 electrode. The cell with TiO2 electrode sensitized by mixed dye gives short circuit current density (Jsc) = 4.01 mA/cm2, open circuit voltage (Voc) = 0.67 V, fill factor (FF) = 0.60 and energy conversion efficiency (η) of 2.02%.

  7. Identification of novel synthetic organic compounds with supersonic gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fialkov, Alexander B; Amirav, Aviv

    2004-11-26

    Several novel synthetic organic compounds were successfully analyzed with a unique type of GC-MS titled Supersonic GC-MS following a failure in their analysis with standard GC-MS. Supersonic GC-MS is based on interfacing GC and MS with a supersonic molecular beam (SMB) and on electron ionization of sample compounds as vibrationally cold molecules while in the SMB, or by cluster chemical ionization. The analyses of novel synthetic organic compounds significantly benefited from the extended range of compounds amenable to analyses with the Supersonic GC-MS. The Supersonic GC-MS enabled the analysis of thermally labile compounds that usually degrade in the GC injector, column and/or ion source. Due to the high carrier gas flow rate at the injector liner and column these compounds eluted without degradation at significantly lower elution temperatures and the use of fly-through EI ion source eliminated any sample degradation at the ion source. The cold EI feature of providing trustworthy enhanced molecular ion (M+), complemented by its optional further confirmation with cluster CI was highly valued by the synthetic organic chemists that were served by the Supersonic GC-MS. Furthermore, the provision of extended mass spectral structural, isomer and isotope information combined with short (a few minutes) GC-MS analysis times also proved beneficial for the analysis of unknown synthetic organic compounds. As a result, the synthetic organic chemists were provided with both qualitative and quantitative data on the composition of their synthetic mixture, and could better follow the path of their synthetic chemistry. Ten cases of such analyses are demonstrated in figures and discussed.

  8. Comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Stephanie; O'Brien, Stacey; Szewczak, Angelica; Tremeau-Cayel, Lauriane; Rowe, Walter F; McCord, Bruce; Lurie, Ira S

    2017-09-01

    A comparison of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography for the separation of synthetic cathinones has been conducted. Nine different mixtures of bath salts were analyzed in this study. The three different chromatographic techniques were examined using a general set of controlled synthetic cathinones as well as a variety of other synthetic cathinones that exist as positional isomers. Overall 35 different synthetic cathinones were analyzed. A variety of column types and chromatographic modes were examined for developing each separation. For the ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography separations, analyses were performed using a series of Torus and Trefoil columns with either ammonium formate or ammonium hydroxide as additives, and methanol, ethanol or isopropanol organic solvents as modifiers. Ultra high performance liquid chromatographic separations were performed in both reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatographic modes using SPP C18 and SPP HILIC columns. Gas chromatography separations were performed using an Elite-5MS capillary column. The orthogonality of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography, ultra high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography was examined using principal component analysis. For the best overall separation of synthetic cathinones, the use of ultra high performance supercritical fluid chromatography in combination with gas chromatography is recommended. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. High-Throughput Synthetic Chemistry Enabled by Organic Solvent Disintegrating Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Lei; Xing, Yanjun; Xu, Bo

    2017-01-17

    Synthetic chemistry remains a time- and labor-intensive process of inherent hazardous nature. Our organic solvent disintegrating tablet (O-Tab) technology has shown potential to make industrial/synthetic chemistry more efficient. As is the case with pharmaceutical tablets, our reagent-containing O-Tabs are mechanically strong, but disintegrate rapidly when in contact with reaction media (organic solvents). For O-Tabs containing sensitive chemicals, they can be further coated to insulate them from air and moisture. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Radiocarbon content of synthetic and natural semi-volatile halogenated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, C.M.; Xu Li; Eglinton, T.I.; Boon, J.P.; Faulkner, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    New developments in molecular-level 14 C analysis techniques enable clues about natural versus commercial synthesis of trace organic contaminants. - Some halogenated organic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have been suggested to have natural sources but separating these compounds from their commercially synthesized counterparts is difficult. Molecular-level 14 C analysis may be beneficial since most synthetic compounds are manufactured from petrochemicals ( 14 C-free) and natural compounds should have 'modern' or 'contemporary' 14 C levels. As a baseline study, we measured, for the first time, the 14 C abundance in commercial PCB and PBDE mixtures, a number of organochlorine pesticides, as well as one natural product 2-(3', 5'-dibromo-2'-methoxyphenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole. The latter compound was isolated from a marine sponge and is similar in structure to a PBDE. All of the synthetic compounds were 14 C-free except for the pesticide toxaphene, which had a modern 14 C abundance, as did the brominated natural compound. The result for toxaphene was not surprising since it was commercially synthesized by the chlorination of camphene derived from pine trees. These results suggest that measuring the 14 C content of halogenated organic compounds may be quite useful in establishing whether organic compounds encountered in the environment have natural or synthetic origins (or both) provided that any synthetic counterparts derive from petrochemical feedstock

  11. Lanthanide-Based Metal Organic Frameworks: Synthetic Strategies and Catalytic Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pagis, C.; Ferbinteanu, M.; Rothenberg, G.; Grecea, S.

    2016-01-01

    This short critical review outlines the main synthetic strategies used in the designed synthesis of lanthanide-based metal organic frameworks (Ln-MOFs). It explains the impact of the choice of organic linker on the final network topology, and it highlights the applications of Ln-MOFs in the

  12. Comparison of natural organic acids and synthetic chelates at enhancing phytoextraction of metals from a multi-metal contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clistenes do Nascimento, Williams A.; Amarasiriwardena, Dula; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-01-01

    Chemically assisted phytoremediation has been developing to induce accumulation of metals by high biomass plants. Synthetic chelates have shown high effectiveness to reach such a goal, but they pose serious drawbacks in field application due to the excessive amount of metals solubilized. We compared the performance of synthetic chelates with naturally occurring low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) in enhancing phytoextraction of metals by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) from multi-metal contaminated soils. Gallic and citric acids were able to induce removal of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Ni from soil without increasing the leaching risk. Net removal of these metals caused by LMWOA can be as much as synthetic chelates. A major reason for this is the lower phytotoxicity of LMWOA. Furthermore, supplying appropriate mineral nutrients increased biomass and metal removal. - Organic acids can be as efficient as synthetic chelates for use in phytoextraction of multi-metal contaminated soils

  13. Organic synthetic dye degradation by modified pinhole discharge

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Božic' Lončaric', A.; Koprivanac, N.; Šunka, Pavel; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, suppl.C (2004), C958-C963 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /21st/. Praha, 14.06.2004-17.06.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/02/1026 Keywords : organic synthetic Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  14. Choosing organic pesticides over synthetic pesticides may not effectively mitigate environmental risk in soybeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A Bahlai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selection of pesticides with small ecological footprints is a key factor in developing sustainable agricultural systems. Policy guiding the selection of pesticides often emphasizes natural products and organic-certified pesticides to increase sustainability, because of the prevailing public opinion that natural products are uniformly safer, and thus more environmentally friendly, than synthetic chemicals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the results of a study examining the environmental impact of several new synthetic and certified organic insecticides under consideration as reduced-risk insecticides for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines control, using established and novel methodologies to directly quantify pesticide impact in terms of biocontrol services. We found that in addition to reduced efficacy against aphids compared to novel synthetic insecticides, organic approved insecticides had a similar or even greater negative impact on several natural enemy species in lab studies, were more detrimental to biological control organisms in field experiments, and had higher Environmental Impact Quotients at field use rates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data bring into caution the widely held assumption that organic pesticides are more environmentally benign than synthetic ones. All pesticides must be evaluated using an empirically-based risk assessment, because generalizations based on chemical origin do not hold true in all cases.

  15. Synthetic biology meets tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jamie A; Cachat, Elise

    2016-06-15

    Classical tissue engineering is aimed mainly at producing anatomically and physiologically realistic replacements for normal human tissues. It is done either by encouraging cellular colonization of manufactured matrices or cellular recolonization of decellularized natural extracellular matrices from donor organs, or by allowing cells to self-organize into organs as they do during fetal life. For repair of normal bodies, this will be adequate but there are reasons for making unusual, non-evolved tissues (repair of unusual bodies, interface to electromechanical prostheses, incorporating living cells into life-support machines). Synthetic biology is aimed mainly at engineering cells so that they can perform custom functions: applying synthetic biological approaches to tissue engineering may be one way of engineering custom structures. In this article, we outline the 'embryological cycle' of patterning, differentiation and morphogenesis and review progress that has been made in constructing synthetic biological systems to reproduce these processes in new ways. The state-of-the-art remains a long way from making truly synthetic tissues, but there are now at least foundations for future work. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. 7 CFR 205.603 - Synthetic substances allowed for use in organic livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock production. 205.603 Section 205.603 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... organic livestock production. In accordance with restrictions specified in this section the following synthetic substances may be used in organic livestock production: (a) As disinfectants, sanitizer, and...

  17. Advanced Modified High Performance Synthetic Jet Actuator with Curved Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Bing (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Jiang, Xiaoning (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The advanced modified high performance synthetic jet actuator with optimized curvature shape chamber (ASJA-M) is a synthetic jet actuator (SJA) with a lower volume reservoir or chamber. A curved chamber is used, instead of the conventional cylinder chamber, to reduce the dead volume of the jet chamber and increase the efficiency of the synthetic jet actuator. The shape of the curvature corresponds to the maximum displacement (deformation) profile of the electroactive diaphragm. The jet velocity and mass flow rate for the ASJA-M will be several times higher than conventional piezoelectric actuators.

  18. Characterization of Thermal Stability of Synthetic and Semi-Synthetic Engine Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kumar Tripathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engine oils undergo oxidative degradation and wears out during service. Hence it is important to characterize ageing of engine oils at different simulated conditions to evaluate the performance of existing oils and also design new formulations. This work focuses on characterizing the thermo-oxidative degradation of synthetic and semi-synthetic engine oils aged at 120, 149 and 200 °C. Apparent activation energy of decomposition of aged oils evaluated using the isoconversional Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose technique was used as a thermal stability marker. The temporal variation of stability at different ageing temperatures was corroborated with kinematic viscosity, oxidation, sulfation and nitration indices, total base number, antiwear additive content and molecular structure of the organic species present in the oils. At the lowest temperature employed, synthetic oil underwent higher rate of oxidation, while semi-synthetic oil was stable for longer time periods. At higher temperatures, the initial rate of change of average apparent activation energy of synthetic oil correlated well with a similar variation in oxidation number. A mixture of long chain linear, branched, and cyclic hydrocarbons were observed when semi-synthetic oil was degraded at higher temperatures.

  19. A morphospace for synthetic organs and organoids: the possible and the actual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollé-Vila, Aina; Duran-Nebreda, Salva; Conde-Pueyo, Núria; Montañez, Raúl; Solé, Ricard

    2016-04-18

    Efforts in evolutionary developmental biology have shed light on how organs are developed and why evolution has selected some structures instead of others. These advances in the understanding of organogenesis along with the most recent techniques of organotypic cultures, tissue bioprinting and synthetic biology provide the tools to hack the physical and genetic constraints in organ development, thus opening new avenues for research in the form of completely designed or merely altered settings. Here we propose a unifying framework that connects the concept of morphospace (i.e. the space of possible structures) with synthetic biology and tissue engineering. We aim for a synthesis that incorporates our understanding of both evolutionary and architectural constraints and can be used as a guide for exploring alternative design principles to build artificial organs and organoids. We present a three-dimensional morphospace incorporating three key features associated to organ and organoid complexity. The axes of this space include the degree of complexity introduced by developmental mechanisms required to build the structure, its potential to store and react to information and the underlying physical state. We suggest that a large fraction of this space is empty, and that the void might offer clues for alternative ways of designing and even inventing new organs.

  20. Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.; Mee, Michael T.; Takeuchi, Ryo; Kuznetsov, Gleb; Norville, Julie E.; Gregg, Christopher J.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Church, George M.

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard by spontaneous mutagenesis or horizontal gene transfer, or because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds. Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code (Escherichia coli strain C321.ΔA) to confer metabolic dependence on non-standard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically bypass their biocontainment mechanisms using known environmental compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape through mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by a reliance on synthetic metabolites.

  1. Synthetic organic chemicals in earthworms from agriculture soil amended with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Biosolids resulting from municipal wastewater treatment are known to contain residues of pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) and other synthetic organic compounds. Many of these are contaminants of emerging concern for their potential endocrine disruption of fish and wildli...

  2. Can δ(15)N in lettuce tissues reveal the use of synthetic nitrogen fertiliser in organic production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Martina; Kacjan-Maršić, Nina; Lojen, Sonja

    2011-01-30

    The nitrogen isotopic fingerprint (δ(15)N) is reported to be a promising indicator for differentiating between organically and conventionally grown vegetables. However, the effect on plant δ(15)N of split nitrogen fertilisation, which could enable farmers to cover up the use of synthetic fertiliser, is not well studied. In this study the use of δ(15)N in lettuce as a potential marker for identifying the use of synthetic nitrogen fertiliser was tested on pot-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) treated with synthetic and organic nitrogen fertilisers (single or split application). The effect of combined usage of synthetic and organic fertilisers on δ(15)N was also investigated. The δ(15)N values of whole plants treated with different fertilisers differed significantly when the fertiliser was applied in a single treatment. However, additional fertilisation (with isotopically the same or different fertiliser) did not cause a significant alteration of plant δ(15)N. The findings of the study suggest that the δ(15)N value of lettuce tissues could be used as a rough marker to reveal the history of nitrogen fertilisation, but only in the case of single fertiliser application. However, if the difference in δ(15)N between the applied synthetic and organic nitrogen fertilisers was > 9.1 ‰, the detection of split and combined usage of the fertilisers would have greater discriminatory power. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Experimental study of cooling performance of pneumatic synthetic jet with singular slot rectangular orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Roger Ho Zhen; Ismail, Mohd Azmi bin; Ramdan, Muhammad Iftishah; Mustaffa, Nur Musfirah binti

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic Jet generates turbulence flow in cooling the microelectronic devices. In this paper, the experiment investigation of the cooling performance of pneumatic synthetic jet with single slot rectangular orifices at low frequency motion is presented. The velocity profile at the end of the orifice was measured and used as characteristic performance of synthetic jet in the present study. Frequencies of synthetic jet and the compressed air pressure supplied to the pneumatic cylinder (1bar to 5bar) were the parameters of the flow measurement. The air velocity of the synthetic jet was measured by using anemometer air flow meter. The maximum air velocity was 0.5 m/s and it occurred at frequency motion of 8 Hz. The optimum compressed air supplied pressure of the synthetic jet study was 4 bar. The cooling performance of synthetic jet at several driven frequencies from 0 Hz to 8 Hz and heat dissipation between 2.5W and 9W were also investigate in the present study. The results showed that the Nusselt number increased and thermal resistance decreased with both frequency and Reynolds number. The lowest thermal resistance was 5.25°C/W and the highest Nusselt number was 13.39 at heat dissipation of 9W and driven frequency of 8Hz.

  4. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at National Taipei University of Technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at National Taipei University of Technology. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  5. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at Center for Condensed Matter Sciences. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  6. Organic Synthetic Advanced Materials for Optoelectronic and Energy Applications (at National Sun Yat-sen University) 

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, Hung-Ju [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Chemistry Division

    2016-11-14

    These slides cover Hung-Ju Yen's recent work in the synthesis and structural design of functional materials, which were further used for optoelectronic and energy applications, such as lithium ion battery, solar cell, LED, electrochromic, and fuel cells. This was for a job interview at National Sun Yat-sen University. The following topics are detailed: current challenges for lithium-ion batteries; graphene, graphene oxide and nanographene; nanographenes with various functional groups; fine tune d-spacing through organic synthesis: varying functional group; schematic view of LIBs; nanographenes as LIB anode; rate performance (charging-discharging); electrochromic technology; electrochromic materials; advantages of triphenylamine; requirement of electrochromic materials for practical applications; low driving voltage and long cycle life; increasing the electroactive sites by multi-step synthetic procedures; synthetic route to starburst triarylamine-based polyamide; electrochromism ranging from visible to NIR region; transmissive to black electrochromism; RGB and CMY electrochromism.

  7. Coherent Performance Analysis of the HJ-1-C Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-ying

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a coherent imaging radar. Hence, coherence is critical in SAR imaging. In a coherent system, several sources can degrade performance. Based on the HJ-1-C SAR system implementation and sensor characteristics, this study evaluates the effect of frequency stability and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter on the SAR coherent performance. A stable crystal oscillator with short-term stability of 10×1.0−10 / 5 ms is used to generate the reference frequency by using a direct multiplier and divider. Azimuth ISLR degradation owing to the crystal oscillator phase noise is negligible. The standard deviation of the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of HJ-1-C SAR is lower than 2ns (rms and the azimuth random phase error in the synthetic aperture time slightly degrades the side lobe of the azimuth impulse response. The mathematical expressions and simulation results are presented and suggest that the coherent performance of the HJ-1-C SAR system meets the requirements of synthetic aperture radar imaging.

  8. Brazil nut meal and spray-dried egg powders as alternatives to synthetic methionine in organic laying hen diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, H K; Patterson, P H

    2017-09-01

    The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements. Egg production and quality, body weight (BW), feed intake, and manure nutrients and ammonia were assessed. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS, with Tukey's test used for multiple mean comparisons, and P ≤ 0.05 was deemed statistically significant. Body weight was greatest for the COM diet, and feed conversion improved for hens fed egg-based diets compared to controls. Egg weight and production did not differ between COM and treatment diets. The SDEW diet had greater albumen height and Haugh units compared to ORG and BNPP diets and greater percent albumen compared to COM and BNPP diets. Specific gravity was greatest for BNPP fed hens. Manure DM and potash were highest from COM and BNPP diets, respectively. Both egg-based diets increased ammonia flux relative to the COM diet. The BNPP and egg-based diets were lower in cost for $/metric tonne, $/dozen eggs, and $/kg of eggs compared to the ORG diet. The ingredients assessed herein could, therefore, cost-effectively replace synthetic Met in organic hen diets without negatively impacting egg production. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Integration of Computational and Preparative Techniques to Demonstrate Physical Organic Concepts in Synthetic Organic Chemistry: An Example Using Diels-Alder Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Diels-Alder reaction is used as an example for showing the integration of computational and preparative techniques, which help in demonstrating the physical organic concepts in synthetic organic chemistry. These experiments show that the students should not accept the computational results without questioning them and in many Diels-Alder…

  10. Comparative Study on Performance and Organic Fouling of ZrO2 Ceramic Membranes in Ultrafiltration of Synthetic Water and Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Cen

    2011-07-01

    Adsorption of organic matter on ceramic membrane can lead to hydraulic-irreversible fouling, which decreases the permeate flux and the cost-efficiency of membrane devices. In order to optimize the filtration process, detailed information is necessary about the organic fouling mechanisms on ceramic membranes. In this study, dead-end filtration experiments of both synthetic water and secondary effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were conducted on a ZrO2 ceramic membrane. The experiment results of synthetic water showed that humic acid (HA) was able to be adsorbed by the ZrO2 membrane and cause permeate flux decline; and that HA-tryptophan mixture, at the same DOC level, promoted the filtration flux decline; DOC removal in the case of HA-tryptophan was lower than that of HA alone. It seems that hydrophilic organic matter with low molecular weight have some specific contribution to the organic fouling of the ZrO2 membrane. The results also suggest that tryptophan molecules were preferentially adsorbed on the membrane at the beginning, exposing their hydrophobic sides which might further adsorb HA from the feed water. During the filtration of WWTP effluent, protein-like substances (mainly tryptophan-like) were also preferentially adsorbed on the membrane compared with humic-like ones in the initial few cycles of filtration. More humic-like substances were adsorbed in the following filtration cycles due to the increase of membrane hydrophobicity. A significant rise in hydraulic-irreversible flux decline was obtained by decreasing pH from near pHpzc to below pHpzc of the membrane. It suggests that a positively charged surface is preferred for HA adsorption. Ionic strength increase did not affect the filtration of HA, but it lessened the hydraulic-irreversible flux decline of HA-tryptophan filtration. The adsorption of HA-tryptophan can be attributed to outersphere interaction while HA adsorption is mainly caused by inner-sphere interaction. The results of

  11. Is synthetic biology mechanical biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sune

    2015-12-01

    A widespread and influential characterization of synthetic biology emphasizes that synthetic biology is the application of engineering principles to living systems. Furthermore, there is a strong tendency to express the engineering approach to organisms in terms of what seems to be an ontological claim: organisms are machines. In the paper I investigate the ontological and heuristic significance of the machine analogy in synthetic biology. I argue that the use of the machine analogy and the aim of producing rationally designed organisms does not necessarily imply a commitment to mechanical biology. The ideal of applying engineering principles to biology is best understood as expressing recognition of the machine-unlikeness of natural organisms and the limits of human cognition. The paper suggests an interpretation of the identification of organisms with machines in synthetic biology according to which it expresses a strategy for representing, understanding, and constructing living systems that are more machine-like than natural organisms.

  12. Synthetic biology: Novel approaches for microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Vaca, Felipe; Anaya-Velázquez, Fernando; Franco, Bernardo

    2015-06-01

    In the past twenty years, molecular genetics has created powerful tools for genetic manipulation of living organisms. Whole genome sequencing has provided necessary information to assess knowledge on gene function and protein networks. In addition, new tools permit to modify organisms to perform desired tasks. Gene function analysis is speed up by novel approaches that couple both high throughput data generation and mining. Synthetic biology is an emerging field that uses tools for generating novel gene networks, whole genome synthesis and engineering. New applications in biotechnological, pharmaceutical and biomedical research are envisioned for synthetic biology. In recent years these new strategies have opened up the possibilities to study gene and genome editing, creation of novel tools for functional studies in virus, parasites and pathogenic bacteria. There is also the possibility to re-design organisms to generate vaccine subunits or produce new pharmaceuticals to combat multi-drug resistant pathogens. In this review we provide our opinion on the applicability of synthetic biology strategies for functional studies of pathogenic organisms and some applications such as genome editing and gene network studies to further comprehend virulence factors and determinants in pathogenic organisms. We also discuss what we consider important ethical issues for this field of molecular biology, especially for potential misuse of the new technologies. Copyright© by the Spanish Society for Microbiology and Institute for Catalan Studies.

  13. [Research progress of mammalian synthetic biology in biomedical field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linfeng; Yin, Jianli; Wang, Meiyan; Ye, Haifeng

    2017-03-25

    Although still in its infant stage, synthetic biology has achieved remarkable development and progress during the past decade. Synthetic biology applies engineering principles to design and construct gene circuits uploaded into living cells or organisms to perform novel or improved functions, and it has been widely used in many fields. In this review, we describe the recent advances of mammalian synthetic biology for the treatment of diseases. We introduce common tools and design principles of synthetic gene circuits, and then we demonstrate open-loop gene circuits induced by different trigger molecules used in disease diagnosis and close-loop gene circuits used for biomedical applications. Finally, we discuss the perspectives and potential challenges of synthetic biology for clinical applications.

  14. Performance polymeric concrete with synthetic fiber reinforcement against reflective cracking in rigid pavement overlay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.; Khan, B.

    2012-01-01

    Cement concrete pavements are used for heavy traffic loads throughout the world owing to its better and economical performance. Placing of a concrete overlay on the existing pavement is the most prevalent rehabilitating method for such pavements, however, the problem associated with the newly placed overlay is the occurrence of reflective cracking. This paper presents an assessment of the performance of polymeric concrete with synthetic fiber reinforcement against reflective cracking in an overlay system. The performance of polymeric concrete with synthetic fibers as an overlay material is measured in terms of the load-deflection, strain-deflection and load-strain behavior of beams of the polymeric concrete. For this purpose, five types of beams having different number of fiber wires and position are tested for flexure strength. Deflection/strains for each increment of load are recorded. In addition, cubes of plain concrete and of concrete with synthetic fiber needles were tested after 7 and 28 days for compressive strengths. Finite element models in ANSYS software for the beams have also been developed. Beams with greater number of longitudinal fiber wires displayed relatively better performance against deflection whilst beams with synthetic fiber needles showed better performance against strains. Thus, polymeric concrete overlay with fiber reinforcement will serve relatively better against occurrence of reflective cracking. (author)

  15. Supplementing dairy steers and organically managed dairy cows with synthetic vitamin D3 is unnecessary at pasture during exposure to summer sunlight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lindqvist, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    Use of synthetic feed additives, including synthetic vitamin D3 (D3) in the feed for cows and other ruminants, is not consistent with the international principles of organic farming. If dairy farmers wish to produce in accordance with the organic principles, production animals would be left...... with only their endogenous production of D3 from summer sunlight as a source of D3. To examine the impact of supplemental synthetic D3 from the feed on the D3 status of dairy cattle in organic production in Nordic countries, 20 high-yielding dairy cows and 30 dairy steers were divided into two groups: one...... supplemented with synthetic D3 in the feed and one not supplemented with synthetic D3. Vitamin D3 status of the animals was assessed by measuring the concentration of the liver-derived 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3) in plasma. Results showed that 25OHD3 concentration in plasma from dairy cattle as well as from...

  16. Techniques for Modeling Human Performance in Synthetic Environments: A Supplementary Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ritter, Frank E; Shadbolt, Nigel R; Elliman, David; Young, Richard M; Gobet, Fernand; Baxter, Gordon D

    2003-01-01

    Selected recent developments and promising directions for improving the quality of models of human performance in synthetic environments are summarized, beginning with the potential uses and goals for behavioral models...

  17. Techniques for Modeling Human Performance in Synthetic Environments: A Supplementary Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ritter, Frank E; Shadbolt, Nigel R; Elliman, David; Young, Richard M; Gobet, Fernand; Baxter, Gordon D

    2003-01-01

    ... architectures including hybrid architectures, and agent and Belief, Desires and Intentions (BDI) architectures. A list of projects with high payoff for modeling human performance in synthetic environments is provided as a conclusion.

  18. Control theory meets synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Domitilla; Dy, Aaron J; Qian, Yili

    2016-07-01

    The past several years have witnessed an increased presence of control theoretic concepts in synthetic biology. This review presents an organized summary of how these control design concepts have been applied to tackle a variety of problems faced when building synthetic biomolecular circuits in living cells. In particular, we describe success stories that demonstrate how simple or more elaborate control design methods can be used to make the behaviour of synthetic genetic circuits within a single cell or across a cell population more reliable, predictable and robust to perturbations. The description especially highlights technical challenges that uniquely arise from the need to implement control designs within a new hardware setting, along with implemented or proposed solutions. Some engineering solutions employing complex feedback control schemes are also described, which, however, still require a deeper theoretical analysis of stability, performance and robustness properties. Overall, this paper should help synthetic biologists become familiar with feedback control concepts as they can be used in their application area. At the same time, it should provide some domain knowledge to control theorists who wish to enter the rising and exciting field of synthetic biology. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of HUPA organic substances: natural and synthetic humic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, N.; Mercier-Bion, F.; Reiller, P.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results on the characterisation of the HUPA organic materials, i.e. natural humic substances ''GOHY 573'' (fulvic acid FA and humic acid HA) extracted from the Gorleben ground waters, and synthetic humic acids ''M1'' and ''M42'' obtained from a standard melanoidin preparation from FZ Rossendorf, are presented in this paper. XPS investigations were focused on the determination of the chemical environment of the major elements as carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur, and on the identification of trace metals trapped by these organic compounds. (orig.)

  20. Generation of synthetic influent data for performing (micro) pollutant wastewater treatment modelling studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snip, L. J. P.; Aymerich, I.; Flores-Alsina, X.

    2015-01-01

    The use of Activated Sludge Models (ASM) (Henze et al., 2000) is constantly growing and both industry and academia are increasingly applying these tools when performing wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) engineering studies. Besides describing the behaviour of traditional pollutants such as organic...... carbon (C), nitrogen(N) and phosphorus(P), ASM models have been successfully upgraded to predict the fate of different types of micro-pollutants (Benedetti et al., 2013). Indeed, the potential adverse effects of micro-pollutants in aquatic environments have been an object of intensive research during...... (Gernaey et al., 2011). This is an important point since realistic data representing the influent wastewater dynamics are crucial to accomplish any WWTP modelling project (Rieger et al., 2012). For this reason, model-based influent generators/synthetic data are an alternative that has recently gained...

  1. The identification of synthetic organic pigments in modern paints and modern paintings using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Joanna; Singer, Brian W; Perry, Justin J; Bacon, Anne

    2011-05-01

    A collection of more than 70 synthetic organic pigments were analysed using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS). We report on the analysis of diketo-pyrrolo-pyrrole, isoindolinone and perylene pigments which are classes not previously reported as being analysed by this technique. We also report on a number of azo pigments (2-naphthol, naphthol AS, arylide, diarylide, benzimidazolone and disazo condensation pigments) and phthalocyanine pigments, the Py-GC-MS analysis of which has not been previously reported. The members of each class were found to fragment in a consistent way and the pyrolysis products are reported. The technique was successfully applied to the analysis of paints used by the artist Francis Bacon (1909-1992), to simultaneously identify synthetic organic pigments and synthetic binding media in two samples of paint taken from Bacon's studio and micro-samples taken from three of his paintings and one painting attributed to him.

  2. Self-organization, layered structure, and aggregation enhance persistence of a synthetic biofilm consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Brenner

    Full Text Available Microbial consortia constitute a majority of the earth's biomass, but little is known about how these cooperating communities persist despite competition among community members. Theory suggests that non-random spatial structures contribute to the persistence of mixed communities; when particular structures form, they may provide associated community members with a growth advantage over unassociated members. If true, this has implications for the rise and persistence of multi-cellular organisms. However, this theory is difficult to study because we rarely observe initial instances of non-random physical structure in natural populations. Using two engineered strains of Escherichia coli that constitute a synthetic symbiotic microbial consortium, we fortuitously observed such spatial self-organization. This consortium forms a biofilm and, after several days, adopts a defined layered structure that is associated with two unexpected, measurable growth advantages. First, the consortium cannot successfully colonize a new, downstream environment until it self-organizes in the initial environment; in other words, the structure enhances the ability of the consortium to survive environmental disruptions. Second, when the layered structure forms in downstream environments the consortium accumulates significantly more biomass than it did in the initial environment; in other words, the structure enhances the global productivity of the consortium. We also observed that the layered structure only assembles in downstream environments that are colonized by aggregates from a previous, structured community. These results demonstrate roles for self-organization and aggregation in persistence of multi-cellular communities, and also illustrate a role for the techniques of synthetic biology in elucidating fundamental biological principles.

  3. Performance evaluation of an side-stream anaerobic membrane bioreactor: Synthetic and alcoholic beverage industry wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurdan BÜYÜKKAMACI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The treatment performance of a laboratory-scale anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR using high strength wastewater was evaluated. The AnMBR model system consisted of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB and an ultrafiltration (UF membrane. Its performance was first examined using molasses based synthetic wastewater at different hydraulic retention times (1-3 days and organic loading rates (5-15 kg COD/m3.day. As a result of the experimental studies, maximum treatment efficiency with respect to COD reduction (95% was achieved at 7.5 kg COD/m3.day OLR (CODinfluent=15.000 mg/L, HRT=2 days applications. When OLR was increased to 15 kg COD/m3.day, system performance decreased sharply. Similarly, methane gas production decreased by increasing OLR. After then, feed was changed to real wastewater, which was alcoholic beverage industry effluent. At this study, maximum COD removal efficiency of the system and maximum methane gas production was 88% and 74%, respectively.

  4. Synthetic lubrication oil influences on performance and emission characteristic of coated diesel engine fuelled by biodiesel blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Musthafa, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Synthetic lubricant provides the maximum performance benefits. • Synthetic lubricant is capable of retaining satisfactory viscosity. • Synthetic lubricant is to increase the life of the engine. • Improvement in efficiency of the coated engine with synthetic lubrication. • No significant changes in the coated engine emission with synthetic lubricants. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of using synthetic lubricating oil on the performance and exhaust emissions in a low heat rejection diesel engine running on Pongamia methyl ester blends and diesel have been investigated experimentally compared to those obtained from a conventional diesel engine with SAE 40 lubrication oil fuelled by diesel. For this purpose, direct injection diesel engine was converted to Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coated engine. The results showed 5–9% increase in engine efficiency and 8–17% decrease in specific fuel consumption, as well as significant improvements in exhaust gas emissions (except NO_X) for all tested fuels (pure diesel, B10 and B20) used in coated engine with synthetic lubricants compared to that of the uncoated engine with SAE 40 lubricant running on diesel fuel.

  5. Synthetic organic compounds and their transformation products in groundwater: occurrence, fate and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postigo, Cristina; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Groundwater constitutes the main source of public drinking water supply in many regions. Thus, the contamination of groundwater resources by organic chemicals is a matter of growing concern because of its potential effects on public health. The present manuscript compiles the most recent works related to the study of synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) in groundwater, with special focus on the occurrence of contaminants not or barely covered by previously published reviews, e.g., pesticide and pharmaceutical transformation products, lifestyle products, and industrial chemicals such as corrosion inhibitors, brominated and organophosphate flame retardants, plasticizers, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Moreover, the main challenges in managed aquifer recharge, i.e., reclaimed water injection and infiltration, and riverbank filtration, regarding natural attenuation of organic micropollutants are discussed, and insights into the future chemical quality of groundwater are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Seafloor monitoring for synthetic-based mud discharged in the Western Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candler, J.E.; Hoskin, S.; Churan, M.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic-based muds have been used to simultaneously improve drilling and environmental performance. The fate and effects of synthetic-based mud discharges in the marine environment have been issues of concern with the drilling industry and governmental agencies. Most of the environmental data on synthetic-based muds have been generated under laboratory conditions. This study uses field-collected data to investigate, the fate and effects of a polyalphaolefin synthetic-based drilling fluid. The first well drilled in the Gulf of Mexico using synthetic-based mud was completed in June 1992. Approximately 441 bbl of cuttings and 354 bbl of synthetic-based mud were discharged over a 9-day period. Three sampling trips have been made to the discharge location to collect sediment samples for chemical and biological analysis over a 2-year period. The sediment samples were analyzed for content of organic compounds and barium. On the third trip, infaunal samples were also taken. Information collected from the chemical and biological analysis is documented and compared to similar field studies performed on oil-based and water-based muds. Sampling techniques and analytical protocols are described to facilitate future studies. Two years after discharges of synthetic-based cuttings were completed, an area within 50 m of the discharge point continued to exhibit alterations in the benthic community not normally associated with water-based mud discharges. However, the study indicates that polyalphaolefin synthetic-based mud exhibits significant improvements over oil-based mud in terms of removal of organic contamination and minimization of adverse effects on the benthic community

  7. Visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity in fed and fasted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrin, D.G.; Britton, R.A.; Ferrell, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    Forty-two male rats (avg wt. = 320 g) were used to assess the effect of severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) on visceral organ mass and hepatic protein synthetic capacity as measured by in vitro incorporation of U- 14 -C-VALINE ( 14 C-VAL) into isolated hepatocytes. Organ weights expressed as a percent of empty body weight for fed vs. fasted rats were; liver (5.21 +/- .54 vs 3.82 +/- .46), kidney (.87 +/- 0.6 vs .89 +/- .05), stomach (.60 +/- .06 vs .61 +/- .06), intestines (3.70 +/- .44 vs 3.41 +/- .37). No differences were observed in in vitro oxygen consumption (15.7 +/- 3.1 vs 16.1 +/- 3.3, umole min -1 g -1 dry tissue) or 14 -C VAL incorporation (4.93 +/- 1.28 vs 4.31 +/- 1.48, dpm min -1 mg -1 dry tissue) for hepatocytes from fed vs. fasted rats. Analysis of perfused liver tissue indicated fed rats had higher protein (152.1 +/- 16.3 vs 136.6 +/- 29.6, mg/g tissue) and RNA (8.81 +/- 1.66 vs 5.97 +/- 1.87, mg/g tissue) with lower DNA (2.19 +/- .31 vs 3.19 +/- .54, mg/g tissue) compared to fasted rats. Protein-nucleic acid ratios suggest liver tissue from fed rats had a greater capacity for protein synthesis compared to fasted rats, however, this was not evident from in vitro hepatocyte 14 -C VAL incorporation estimates. These data indicate that severe nutrient restriction (72 h fast) affects visceral organ mass largely by reduced liver and gut size as well as decreased hepatic protein synthetic capacity

  8. Performance limits for maritime Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The performance of an Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. In this report we specifically examine ISAR as applied to maritime targets (e.g. ships). It is often difficult to get your arms around the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall ISAR system. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the seek time.

  9. Simultaneous determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuangjiao; Liu, Liangliang; Wang, Yanqin; Zhou, Dayun; Kuang, Meng; Fang, Dan; Yang, Weihua; Wei, Shoujun; Xiao, Aiping; Ma, Lei

    2016-08-01

    A simple, rapid, organic-solvent- and sample-saving pretreatment technique, called dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, was developed for the determination of six synthetic phenolic antioxidants from edible oils before high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The entire procedure was composed of a two-step microextraction and a centrifugal process and could be finished in about 5 min, only consuming only 25 mg of sample and 1 mL of the organic solvent for each extraction. The influences of several important parameters on the microextraction efficiency were thoroughly investigated. Recovery assays for oil samples were spiked at three concentration levels, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, and provided recoveries in the 86.3-102.5% range with a relative standard deviation below 3.5%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions for the analysis were less than 3.8%. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in different oil samples, and satisfactory results were obtained. Thus, the developed method represents a viable alternative for the quality control of synthetic phenolic antioxidant concentrations in edible oils. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Programming languages for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, P; Naveen, F; Rao, Chanchala Uma Maheswara; Nair, Achuthsankar S

    2010-12-01

    In the backdrop of accelerated efforts for creating synthetic organisms, the nature and scope of an ideal programming language for scripting synthetic organism in-silico has been receiving increasing attention. A few programming languages for synthetic biology capable of defining, constructing, networking, editing and delivering genome scale models of cellular processes have been recently attempted. All these represent important points in a spectrum of possibilities. This paper introduces Kera, a state of the art programming language for synthetic biology which is arguably ahead of similar languages or tools such as GEC, Antimony and GenoCAD. Kera is a full-fledged object oriented programming language which is tempered by biopart rule library named Samhita which captures the knowledge regarding the interaction of genome components and catalytic molecules. Prominent feature of the language are demonstrated through a toy example and the road map for the future development of Kera is also presented.

  11. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  12. Synthetic alienation of microbial organisms by using genetic code engineering: Why and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubyshkin, Vladimir; Budisa, Nediljko

    2017-08-01

    The main goal of synthetic biology (SB) is the creation of biodiversity applicable for biotechnological needs, while xenobiology (XB) aims to expand the framework of natural chemistries with the non-natural building blocks in living cells to accomplish artificial biodiversity. Protein and proteome engineering, which overcome limitation of the canonical amino acid repertoire of 20 (+2) prescribed by the genetic code by using non-canonic amino acids (ncAAs), is one of the main focuses of XB research. Ideally, estranging the genetic code from its current form via systematic introduction of ncAAs should enable the development of bio-containment mechanisms in synthetic cells potentially endowing them with a "genetic firewall" i.e. orthogonality which prevents genetic information transfer to natural systems. Despite rapid progress over the past two decades, it is not yet possible to completely alienate an organism that would use and maintain different genetic code associations permanently. In order to engineer robust bio-contained life forms, the chemical logic behind the amino acid repertoire establishment should be considered. Starting from recent proposal of Hartman and Smith about the genetic code establishment in the RNA world, here the authors mapped possible biotechnological invasion points for engineering of bio-contained synthetic cells equipped with non-canonical functionalities. Copyright © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  14. Status of vitamins E and A and β-carotene and health in organic dairy cows fed a diet without synthetic vitamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, B; Persson Waller, K; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2014-01-01

    are mainly found in pasture and in grass and legume silages, but the concentrations are highly variable. This study compared the vitamin status and health of cows without synthetic vitamin supplementation (NSV group) with control cows (CON group) fed synthetic vitamins according to Swedish recommendations......Synthetic vitamin supplementation is not consistent with organic production, so it is important to investigate whether dairy cows can maintain their health and production without synthetic vitamins being added to their diet. In basic dairy cow diets, provitamin A (β-carotene) and vitamin E...... (600 IU of vitamin E and 80,000 IU of vitamin A per cow per day) to investigate whether dairy cows can fulfill their requirements of vitamins A and E without supplementation with synthetic vitamins. Vitamin concentrations in blood plasma and milk, health, fertility, milk yield, and milk composition...

  15. Two H-mixed Synthetic Indices for the Assessment of Research Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Y. Ye.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes two h-mixed synthetic indices, S=100×1g(h×CPP and T=100×1g(R×h×CPP, for the assessment of research performance, where CPP stands for citations per publication, h for h-index, and R for R-index, the square root of total number of citations in the Hirsch core (Ch. Like their components that respectively measure average citations of all publications, publication output and impact, and total number of citations in the Hirsch core, the h-mixed synthetic indices S and T use readily accessible data to produce a holistic measurement of academic achievement. Higher values correspond to greater academic achievement. The S and T indices are stratified by values of 100 to indicate varying degrees of achievement, where S<100 or T<100 indicates poor levels.

  16. Effect of organic synthetic food colours on mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, F G; Valim, M F; Vercesi, A E

    1996-01-01

    Eleven organic synthetic dyes, currently or formerly used as food colours in Brazil, were tested to determine their effect on mitochondrial respiration in mitochondria isolated from rat liver and kidney. The compounds tested were: Erythrosine, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, Sunset yellow, Tartrazine, Amaranth, Brilliant Blue, Blue, Fast Red E, Orange GGN and Scarlet GN. All food colours tested inhibited mitochondrial respiration (State III respiration, uncoupled) supported either by alpha-ketoglutarate or succinate. This inhibition varied largely, e.g. from 100% to 16% for Erythrosine and Tartrazine respectively, at a concentration of 0.1 mg food colour per mitochondrial protein. Both rat liver and kidney mitochondria showed similar patterns of inhibition among the food colours tested. This effect was dose related and the concentration to give 50% inhibition was determined for some of the dyes. The xanthene dye Erythrosine, which showed the strongest effect, was selected for further investigation on mitochondria in vivo.

  17. Parameterization experiments performed via synthetic mass movements prototypes generated by 3D slope stability simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Antonio C.

    2010-05-01

    The central purpose of this work is to perform a reverse procedure in the mass movement conventional parameterization approach. The idea is to generate a number of synthetic mass movements by means of the "slope stability simulator" (Colangelo, 2007), and compeer their morphological and physical properties with "real" conditions of effective mass movements. This device is an integrated part of "relief unity emulator" (rue), that permits generate synthetic mass movements in a synthetic slope environment. The "rue" was build upon fundamental geomorphological concepts. These devices operate with an integrated set of mechanical, geomorphic and hydrological models. The "slope stability simulator" device (sss) permits to perform a detailed slope stability analysis in a theoretical three dimensional space, by means of evaluation the spatial behavior of critical depths, gradients and saturation levels in the "potential rupture surfaces" inferred along a set of slope profiles, that compounds a synthetic slope unity. It's a meta-stable 4-dimensional object generated by means of "rue", that represents a sequence evolution of a generator profile applied here, was adapted the infinite slope model for slope. Any slope profiles were sliced by means of finite element solution like in Bishop method. For the synthetic slope systems generated, we assume that the potential rupture surface occurs at soil-regolith or soil-rock boundary in slope material. Sixteen variables were included in the "rue-sss" device that operates in an integrated manner. For each cell, the factor of safety was calculated considering the value of shear strength (cohesion and friction) of material, soil-regolith boundary depth, soil moisture level content, potential rupture surface gradient, slope surface gradient, top of subsurface flow gradient, apparent soil bulk density and vegetation surcharge. The slope soil was considered as cohesive material. The 16 variables incorporated in the models were analyzed for

  18. Confirmation of synthetic glucocorticoids with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry: Organization and results of an international interlaboratory comparison test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauwe, O. van den; Campbell, K.; Crooks, S.R.H.; Schilt, R.; Peteghem, C.H. van

    2005-01-01

    Within the framework of a European Union (EU) research project entitled "Food Safety Screening: Synthetic Glucocorticoids (QLK1-1999-00122)," an international interlaboratory ring test was organized to compare and evaluate different liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) confirmatory

  19. Synthetic biology analysed tools for discussion and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a dynamic, young, ambitious, attractive, and heterogeneous scientific discipline. It is constantly developing and changing, which makes societal evaluation of this emerging new science a challenging task, prone to misunderstandings. Synthetic biology is difficult to capture, and confusion arises not only regarding which part of synthetic biology the discussion is about, but also with respect to the underlying concepts in use. This book offers a useful toolbox to approach this complex and fragmented field. It provides a biological access to the discussion using a 'layer' model that describes the connectivity of synthetic or semisynthetic organisms and cells to the realm of natural organisms derived by evolution. Instead of directly reviewing the field as a whole, firstly our book addresses the characteristic features of synthetic biology that are relevant to the societal discussion. Some of these features apply only to parts of synthetic biology, whereas others are relevant to synthetic bi...

  20. Nitrogen and COD removal from domestic and synthetic wastewater in subsurface-flow constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collison, R S; Grismer, M E

    2013-09-01

    Comparisons of the performance of constructed-wetland systems (CWs) for treating domestic wastewater in the laboratory and field may use pathogen-free synthetic wastewater to avoid regulatory health concerns. However, little to no data are available describing the relative treatment efficiencies of CWs to both actual and synthetic domestic wastewaters so as to enable such comparison. To fill this gap, treatment performances with respect to organics (chemical organic demand; COD) and nitrogen (ammonium and nitrate) removal from domestic (septic tank) and a similar-strength synthetic wastewater under planted and non-planted subsurface-flow CWs are determined. One pair of CWs was planted with cattails in May 2008, whereas the adjacent system was non-planted. Collected septic tank or synthesized wastewater was allowed to gravity feed each CWs, and effluent samples were collected and tested for COD and nitrogen species regularly during four different periods over six months. Overall, statistically significant greater removal of COD (-12%) and nitrogen (-5%) occurred from the synthetic as compared with the domestic wastewater from the planted and non-planted CWs. Effluent BOD5/COD ratios from the synthetic wastewater CWs averaged nearly twice that from the domestic wastewater CWs (0.17 vs 0.10), reflecting greater concentrations of readily degraded compounds. That removal fractions were consistent across the mid-range loading rates to the CWs suggests that the synthetic wastewater can be used in testing laboratory CWs with reasonable success in application of their results to the field.

  1. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems. (review)

  2. Creating biological nanomaterials using synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, MaryJoe K; Ruder, Warren C

    2014-02-01

    Synthetic biology is a new discipline that combines science and engineering approaches to precisely control biological networks. These signaling networks are especially important in fields such as biomedicine and biochemical engineering. Additionally, biological networks can also be critical to the production of naturally occurring biological nanomaterials, and as a result, synthetic biology holds tremendous potential in creating new materials. This review introduces the field of synthetic biology, discusses how biological systems naturally produce materials, and then presents examples and strategies for incorporating synthetic biology approaches in the development of new materials. In particular, strategies for using synthetic biology to produce both organic and inorganic nanomaterials are discussed. Ultimately, synthetic biology holds the potential to dramatically impact biological materials science with significant potential applications in medical systems.

  3. Evaluation of safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends in a Cessna Citation II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, T.A.; Melkert, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to being used in aviation, alternative fuels have to be tested thoroughly to ensure safe operation. At Delft University of Technology, a test programme was performed to evaluate the safety, performance and emissions of synthetic fuel blends. During test preparations, compatibility of the

  4. SATL Based Lesson for Teaching Grignard Reagents in Synthetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesizing new products from raw materials has been very popular aspects of research in organic chemistry. Traditionally, Grignard reagent has been very vital component of such synthetic procedures. Hence learning of various issues concerning with applications of Grignard reactions in synthetic organic chemistry is ...

  5. Synthetic Control of Exciton Behavior in Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Chaodan; Qin, Haiyan; Gao, Yuan; Zhou, Jianhai; Wang, Peng; Peng, Xiaogang

    2017-03-08

    Colloidal quantum dots are promising optical and optoelectronic materials for various applications, whose performance is dominated by their excited-state properties. This article illustrates synthetic control of their excited states. Description of the excited states of quantum-dot emitters can be centered around exciton. We shall discuss that, different from conventional molecular emitters, ground-state structures of quantum dots are not necessarily correlated with their excited states. Synthetic control of exciton behavior heavily relies on convenient and affordable monitoring tools. For synthetic development of ideal optical and optoelectronic emitters, the key process is decay of band-edge excitons, which renders transient photoluminescence as important monitoring tool. On the basis of extensive synthetic developments in the past 20-30 years, synthetic control of exciton behavior implies surface engineering of quantum dots, including surface cation/anion stoichiometry, organic ligands, inorganic epitaxial shells, etc. For phosphors based on quantum dots doped with transition metal ions, concentration and location of the dopant ions within a nanocrystal lattice are found to be as important as control of the surface states in order to obtain bright dopant emission with monoexponential yet tunable photoluminescence decay dynamics.

  6. [Simultaneous determination of 15 industrial synthetic dyes in condiment by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Li, Xiaolin; Bie, Wei; Wang, Minglin; Feng, Qian

    2011-02-01

    A new method was established for the determination of 15 industrial synthetic dyes in condiment by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC). The samples were extracted by methanol-water (1:1, v/v) and purified by a solid phase extraction column. Then, the chromatographic separation was achieved on a Luna C18 column by linear gradient elution. The mobile phase was 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile (containing 1% acetic acid). The results showed that the 15 industrial synthetic dyes can be separated efficiently. The recoveries of the 15 industrial synthetic dyes spiked in condiment were between 84.6% and 114.2% with the relative standard deviations of 0.9% - 10.3%. The limits of detection of this method was 0.05 - 0.18 mg/kg for the 15 industrial synthetic dyes. The method is simple, sensitive, accurate, repeatable and can be used for simultaneous determination of the 15 illegally added industrial synthetic dyes.

  7. Approaches to mitigate the impact of dissolved organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic contaminants by porous carbonaceous sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanping Guo; Abhishek Yadav; Tanju Karanfil [Clemson University, Anderson, SC (United States). Department of Environmental Engineering and Earth Sciences

    2007-11-15

    Adsorption of trichloroethylene (TCE) and atrazine, two synthetic organic contaminants (SOCs) having different optimum adsorption pore regions, by four activated carbons and an activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. Adsorbents included two coconut-shell based granular activated carbons (GACs), two coal-based GACs (F400 and HD4000) and a phenol formaldehyde-based activated carbon fiber. The selected adsorbents had a wide range of pore size distributions but similar surface acidity and hydrophobicity. Single solute and preloading (with a dissolved organic matter (DOM)) isotherms were performed. Single solute adsorption results showed that (i) the adsorbents having higher amounts of pores with sizes about the dimensions of the adsorbate molecules exhibited higher uptakes, (ii) there were some pore structure characteristics, which were not completely captured by pore size distribution analysis, that also affected the adsorption, and (iii) the BET surface area and total pore volume were not the primary factors controlling the adsorption of SOCs. The preloading isotherm results showed that for TCE adsorbing primarily in pores <10 {angstrom}, the highly microporous ACF and GACs, acting like molecular sieves, exhibited the highest uptakes. For atrazine with an optimum adsorption pore region of 10-20 {angstrom}, which overlaps with the adsorption region of some DOM components, the GACs with a broad pore size distribution and high pore volumes in the 10-20 {angstrom} region had the least impact of DOM on the adsorption. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Synthetic biology: a challenge to mechanical explanations in biology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2012-01-01

    In their plans to modify organisms, synthetic biologists have contrasted engineering and tinkering. By drawing this contrast between their endeavors and what has happened during the evolution of organisms by natural selection, they underline the novelty of their projects and justify their ambitions. Synthetic biologists are at odds with a long tradition that has considered organisms as "perfect machines." This tradition had already been questioned by Stephen Jay Gould in the 1970s and received a major blow with the comparison made by François Jacob between organisms and the results of "bricolage" (tinkering). These contrasts between engineering and tinkering, synthetic biology and evolution, have no raison d'être. Machines built by humans are increasingly inspired by observations made on organisms. This is not a simple reversal of the previous trend-the mechanical conception of organisms-in which the characteristics of the latter were explained by comparison with human-built machines. Relations between organisms and machines have always been complex and ambiguous.

  9. Performance of titanium salts compared to conventional FeCl 3 for the removal of algal organic matter (AOM) in synthetic seawater: Coagulation performance, organic fraction removal and floc characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.; Corjon, E.; Tabatabai, S. Assiyeh Alizadeh; Naidu, G.; Tamburic, B.; Park, S.H.; Shon, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    During algal bloom periods, operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment processes (e.g. ultrafiltration (UF)) has been hindered due to the high concentration of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM). The present study evaluated for the first time the performance of titanium salts (i.e. titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC)) for the removal of AOM in seawater and results were compared with the conventional FeCl3 coagulant. Previous studies already demonstrated that titanium salts not only provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional coagulants by producing a valuable by-product but also minimise the environmental impact of sludge production. Results from this study showed that both TiCl4 and PTC achieved better performance than FeCl3 in terms of turbidity, UV254 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal at similar coagulant dose. Liquid chromatography – organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) was used to determine the removal of AOM compounds based on their molecular weight (MW). This investigation revealed that both humic substances and low MW organics were preferentially removed (i.e. up to 93% removal) while all three coagulants showed poorer performance for the removal of high MW biopolymers (i.e. less than 50% removal). The detailed characterization of flocs indicated that both titanium coagulants can grow faster, reach larger size and present a more compact structure, which is highly advantageous for the design of smaller and more compact mixing and sedimentation tanks. Both titanium coagulants also presented a higher ability to withstand shear force, which was related to the higher amount of DOC adsorbed with the aggregated flocs. Finally, TiCl4 had a better recovery after breakage suggesting that charge neutralization may be the dominant mechanism for this coagulant, while the lower recovery of both PTC and FeCl3 indicated that sweep flocculation is also a contributing mechanism for the coagulation of AOM.

  10. Performance of titanium salts compared to conventional FeCl3 for the removal of algal organic matter (AOM) in synthetic seawater: Coagulation performance, organic fraction removal and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekli, L; Corjon, E; Tabatabai, S A A; Naidu, G; Tamburic, B; Park, S H; Shon, H K

    2017-10-01

    During algal bloom periods, operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment processes (e.g. ultrafiltration (UF)) has been hindered due to the high concentration of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM). The present study evaluated for the first time the performance of titanium salts (i.e. titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ) and polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC)) for the removal of AOM in seawater and results were compared with the conventional FeCl 3 coagulant. Previous studies already demonstrated that titanium salts not only provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional coagulants by producing a valuable by-product but also minimise the environmental impact of sludge production. Results from this study showed that both TiCl 4 and PTC achieved better performance than FeCl 3 in terms of turbidity, UV 254 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal at similar coagulant dose. Liquid chromatography - organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) was used to determine the removal of AOM compounds based on their molecular weight (MW). This investigation revealed that both humic substances and low MW organics were preferentially removed (i.e. up to 93% removal) while all three coagulants showed poorer performance for the removal of high MW biopolymers (i.e. less than 50% removal). The detailed characterization of flocs indicated that both titanium coagulants can grow faster, reach larger size and present a more compact structure, which is highly advantageous for the design of smaller and more compact mixing and sedimentation tanks. Both titanium coagulants also presented a higher ability to withstand shear force, which was related to the higher amount of DOC adsorbed with the aggregated flocs. Finally, TiCl 4 had a better recovery after breakage suggesting that charge neutralization may be the dominant mechanism for this coagulant, while the lower recovery of both PTC and FeCl 3 indicated that sweep flocculation is also a contributing mechanism for the coagulation

  11. Performance of titanium salts compared to conventional FeCl 3 for the removal of algal organic matter (AOM) in synthetic seawater: Coagulation performance, organic fraction removal and floc characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Chekli, L.

    2017-06-20

    During algal bloom periods, operation of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) pretreatment processes (e.g. ultrafiltration (UF)) has been hindered due to the high concentration of algal cells and algal organic matter (AOM). The present study evaluated for the first time the performance of titanium salts (i.e. titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and polytitanium tetrachloride (PTC)) for the removal of AOM in seawater and results were compared with the conventional FeCl3 coagulant. Previous studies already demonstrated that titanium salts not only provide a cost-effective alternative to conventional coagulants by producing a valuable by-product but also minimise the environmental impact of sludge production. Results from this study showed that both TiCl4 and PTC achieved better performance than FeCl3 in terms of turbidity, UV254 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal at similar coagulant dose. Liquid chromatography – organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) was used to determine the removal of AOM compounds based on their molecular weight (MW). This investigation revealed that both humic substances and low MW organics were preferentially removed (i.e. up to 93% removal) while all three coagulants showed poorer performance for the removal of high MW biopolymers (i.e. less than 50% removal). The detailed characterization of flocs indicated that both titanium coagulants can grow faster, reach larger size and present a more compact structure, which is highly advantageous for the design of smaller and more compact mixing and sedimentation tanks. Both titanium coagulants also presented a higher ability to withstand shear force, which was related to the higher amount of DOC adsorbed with the aggregated flocs. Finally, TiCl4 had a better recovery after breakage suggesting that charge neutralization may be the dominant mechanism for this coagulant, while the lower recovery of both PTC and FeCl3 indicated that sweep flocculation is also a contributing mechanism for the coagulation of AOM.

  12. Assessing the monitoring performance using a synthetic microseismic catalogue for hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel López Comino, José; Kriegerowski, Marius; Cesca, Simone; Dahm, Torsten; Mirek, Janusz; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is considered among the human operations which could induce or trigger seismicity or microseismic activity. The influence of hydraulic fracturing operations is typically expected in terms of weak magnitude events. However, the sensitivity of the rock mass to trigger seismicity varies significantly for different sites and cannot be easily predicted prior to operations. In order to assess the sensitivity of microseismity to hydraulic fracturing operations, we perform a seismic monitoring at a shale gas exploration/exploitation site in the central-western part of the Peribaltic synclise at Pomerania (Poland). The monitoring will be continued before, during and after the termination of hydraulic fracturing operations. The fracking operations are planned in April 2016 at a depth 4000 m. A specific network setup has been installed since summer 2015, including a distributed network of broadband stations and three small-scale arrays. The network covers a region of 60 km2. The aperture of small scale arrays is between 450 and 950 m. So far no fracturing operations have been performed, but seismic data can already be used to assess the seismic noise and background microseismicity, and to investigate and assess the detection performance of our monitoring setup. Here we adopt a recently developed tool to generate a synthetic catalogue and waveform dataset, which realistically account for the expected microseismicity. Synthetic waveforms are generated for a local crustal model, considering a realistic distribution of hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and source durations. Noise free synthetic seismograms are superposed to real noise traces, to reproduce true monitoring conditions at the different station locations. We estimate the detection probability for different magnitudes, source-receiver distances, and noise conditions. This information is used to estimate the magnitude of completeness at the depth of the hydraulic fracturing horizontal wells

  13. Performance in Public Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    of management and performance are classified. The results illustrate how a systematization of the conceptual space of performance in public organizations can help researchers select what to study and what to leave out with greater accuracy while also bringing greater clarity to public debates about performance.......Performance in public organizations is a key concept that requires clarification. Based on a conceptual review of research published in 10 public administration journals, this article proposes six distinctions to describe the systematic differences in performance criteria: From which stakeholder...

  14. Quantitative structure--property relationships for enhancing predictions of synthetic organic chemical removal from drinking water by granular activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Matthew L; Speth, Thomas F

    2005-10-01

    Granular activated carbon is a frequently explored technology for removing synthetic organic contaminants from drinking water sources. The success of this technology relies on a number of factors based not only on the adsorptive properties of the contaminant but also on properties of the water itself, notably the presence of substances in the water which compete for adsorption sites. Because it is impractical to perform field-scale evaluations for all possible contaminants, the pore surface diffusion model (PSDM) has been developed and used to predict activated carbon column performance using single-solute isotherm data as inputs. Many assumptions are built into this model to account for kinetics of adsorption and competition for adsorption sites. This work further evaluates and expands this model, through the use of quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs) to predict the effect of natural organic matter fouling on activated carbon adsorption of specific contaminants. The QSPRs developed are based on a combination of calculated topographical indices and quantum chemical parameters. The QSPRs were evaluated in terms of their statistical predictive ability,the physical significance of the descriptors, and by comparison with field data. The QSPR-enhanced PSDM was judged to give results better than what could previously be obtained.

  15. Synthetic biology expands chemical control of microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tyler J; Silver, Pamela A

    2015-10-01

    The tools of synthetic biology allow researchers to change the ways engineered organisms respond to chemical stimuli. Decades of basic biology research and new efforts in computational protein and RNA design have led to the development of small molecule sensors that can be used to alter organism function. These new functions leap beyond the natural propensities of the engineered organisms. They can range from simple fluorescence or growth reporting to pathogen killing, and can involve metabolic coordination among multiple cells or organisms. Herein, we discuss how synthetic biology alters microorganisms' responses to chemical stimuli resulting in the development of microbes as toxicity sensors, disease treatments, and chemical factories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthetic Biology for Specialty Chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Kelly A; Alper, Hal S

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we address recent advances in the field of synthetic biology and describe how those tools have been applied to produce a wide variety of chemicals in microorganisms. Here we classify the expansion of the synthetic biology toolbox into three different categories based on their primary function in strain engineering-for design, for construction, and for optimization. Next, focusing on recent years, we look at how chemicals have been produced using these new synthetic biology tools. Advances in producing fuels are briefly described, followed by a more thorough treatment of commodity chemicals, specialty chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and nutraceuticals. Throughout this review, an emphasis is placed on how synthetic biology tools are applied to strain engineering. Finally, we discuss organism and host strain diversity and provide a future outlook in the field.

  17. Accessing Synthetically-Challenging Isoindole-Based Materials for Assessment in Organic Photovoltaics via Chemical and Engineering Methodologies =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jeremy

    Isoindoles are a broad class of compounds that comprise a very small space within the domain of established photoactive materials for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). Given this scarcity, combined with the performance appeal of presently and well known isoindole-based compounds such as the phthalocyanines, it is a worthy undertaking to develop new materials in this domain. This thesis aims to bring to light the suitability of five novel, or underexplored, classes of isoindole-based materials for OPVs. These classes are the boron subphthalocyanine (BsubPc) polymers, oxygen-bridged dimers of BsubPcs (mu-oxo-(BsubPc) 2), boron subnaphthalocyanines (BsubNcs), group XIII metal complexes of 1,3-bis(2-pyridylimino)isodinoline (BPI), and the boron tribenzosubporphyrins (BsubPys). The synthesis of these materials was proven to be challenging as evident in their low isolated yields, lengthy synthetic and purification processes, and/or batch-to-batch variations. This outcome was not surprising given their undeveloped chemical nature. The photo- and electro-physical properties were characterized and shown to be desirable for all classes other than the group XIII metal complexes of BPI for OPVs. mu-Oxo-(BsubPc)2 and BsubNcs show promise in this application while BsubPc polymers and BsubPys will be subjects of future exploration. The results from the work herein aid to develop and strengthen the fundamental understanding of the structure-property relationships of isoindole derivatives. On a broader scale, the work demonstrates their versatility as functional materials for OPVs and their possible expansion to other organic electronic technologies like organic light emitting diodes and organic field effect transistors.

  18. Synthetic biological networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archer, Eric; Süel, Gürol M

    2013-01-01

    Despite their obvious relationship and overlap, the field of physics is blessed with many insightful laws, while such laws are sadly absent in biology. Here we aim to discuss how the rise of a more recent field known as synthetic biology may allow us to more directly test hypotheses regarding the possible design principles of natural biological networks and systems. In particular, this review focuses on synthetic gene regulatory networks engineered to perform specific functions or exhibit particular dynamic behaviors. Advances in synthetic biology may set the stage to uncover the relationship of potential biological principles to those developed in physics. (review article)

  19. Performance Enhancement of a Vertical Tail Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathay, Nicholas

    The performance enhancement of a vertical tail using an array of finite span synthetic jet actuators was investigated in wind tunnel experiments on 1/25th, 1/19th, and 1/9 th scale models. The models were sweptback, tapered, and instrumented with multiple synthetic jets placed upstream of the rudder hinge--line with the objective of controlling the separation that commenced over the rudder when it was deflected to high angles. By controlling the separation, the side force generated by the tail was augmented, which may allow for the size of the tail to be decreased. This would reduce the weight, drag, and corresponding fuel costs of an airplane. The synthetic jets augmented the side force coefficient by a maximum of 0.17 (34%). Furthermore, the performance of the vertical tail was dependent on jet strength. It was expected that the increase in side force would continue to grow as the momentum generation capabilities of the jets improved. A primary goal of the research was to determine the effect of multiple synthetic jet parameters on side force enhancement. Experiments were conducted with various jet orifice configurations, which indicated the following: the spacing between adjacent orifice edges and the orifices' aspect ratio were relatively unimportant; in terms of quantifying jet strength, the area--based (3--D) momentum coefficient of the jets was a more dominant parameter than the blowing ratio or the chord--based (2--D) momentum coefficient. Moreover, the most favorable spanwise location of control was, in general, found to be near the mid--span at lower rudder deflections and toward the inboard section of the model at larger deflections. The optimal chordwise location was hypothesized to be on the stabilizer as close as possible to the hinge--line. An investigation into the spanwise spacing of active jets demonstrated that, for some conditions, when the individual strength of the jets was held constant, larger jet spacing was more effective. Also, similar

  20. Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gammelmark, Kim Løkke

    2008-01-01

    A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective is to im......A synthetic aperture focusing (SAF) technique denoted Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamforming (SASB) suitable for 2D and 3D imaging is presented. The technique differ from prior art of SAF in the sense that SAF is performed on pre-beamformed data contrary to channel data. The objective...... is to improve and obtain a more range independent lateral resolution compared to conventional dynamic receive focusing (DRF) without compromising frame rate. SASB is a two-stage procedure using two separate beamformers. First a set of Bmode image lines using a single focal point in both transmit and receive...... is stored. The second stage applies the focused image lines from the first stage as input data. The SASB method has been investigated using simulations in Field II and by off-line processing of data acquired with a commercial scanner. The performance of SASB with a static image object is compared with DRF...

  1. Bringing the science of proteins into the realm of organic chemistry: total chemical synthesis of SEP (synthetic erythropoiesis protein).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephen B H

    2013-11-11

    Erythropoietin, commonly known as EPO, is a glycoprotein hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells. Recombinant EPO has been described as "arguably the most successful drug spawned by the revolution in recombinant DNA technology". Recently, the EPO glycoprotein molecule has re-emerged as a major target of synthetic organic chemistry. In this article I will give an account of an important body of earlier work on the chemical synthesis of a designed EPO analogue that had full biological activity and improved pharmacokinetic properties. The design and synthesis of this "synthetic erythropoiesis protein" was ahead of its time, but has gained new relevance in recent months. Here I will document the story of one of the major accomplishments of synthetic chemistry in a more complete way than is possible in the primary literature, and put the work in its contemporaneous context. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Numerical investigations on coupled heat transfer and synthetical performance of a pressurized volumetric receiver with MCRT–FVM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Z.D.; He, Y.L.; Cui, F.Q.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an axisymmetric steady-state computational fluid dynamics model and further studies on the complex coupled heat transfer combined radiation–convection–conduction in the pressurized volumetric receiver (PVR), by combining the Finite Volume Method (FVM) and the Monte Carlo Ray-Trace (MCRT) method. Based on this, effects of geometric parameters of the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and properties of the porous absorber on synthetical characteristics and performance of the photo-thermal conversion process in the PVR are further analyzed and discussed detailedly. It is found that the solar flux density distributions are always very heterogeneous with large nonuniformities, and the variation trends of the corresponding temperature distributions are very similar to these but with much lower order of magnitude. The CPC shape determined by the CPC exit aperture has much larger effects on synthetical characteristics and performance of the PVR than that of the CPC entry aperture with a constant acceptance angle. And a suitable or optimal thickness of the porous absorber could be determined by examining where the drastic decreasing trends occur at the curves of variations of synthetical characteristics and performance with the porosity. - Highlights: ► An axisymmetric steady-state CFD model of PVR is presented with MCRT–FVM method. ► The complex coupled heat transfer and synthetical performance of the PVR are studied. ► The effects of geometric parameters and porous properties are analyzed and discussed. ► Solar flux and temperature in PVR are very heterogeneous with large nonuniformities. ► An optimal absorber thickness can be determined by examining the effects of porosity.

  3. Design strategy for air-stable organic semiconductors applicable to high-performance field-effect transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Takimiya et al

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic structure of air-stable, high-performance organic field-effect transistor (OFET material, 2,7-dipheneyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene (DPh-BTBT, was discussed based on the molecular orbital calculations. It was suggested that the stability is originated from relatively low-lying HOMO level, despite the fact that the molecule contains highly π-extended aromatic core ([1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene, BTBT with four fused aromatic rings like naphthacene. This is rationalized by the consideration that the BTBT core is not isoelectronic with naphthacene but with chrysene, a cata-condensed phene with four benzene rings. It is well known that the acene-type compound is unstable among its structural isomers with the same number of benzene rings. Therefore, polycyclic aromatic compounds possessing the phene-substructure will be good candidates for stable organic semiconductors. Considering synthetic easiness, we suggest that the BTBT-substructure is the molecular structure of choice for developing air-stable organic semiconductors.

  4. Living GenoChemetics by hyphenating synthetic biology and synthetic chemistry in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sunil V; Tong, Xiaoxue; Pubill-Ulldemolins, Cristina; Cartmell, Christopher; Bogosyan, Emma J A; Rackham, Emma J; Marelli, Enrico; Hamed, Refaat B; Goss, Rebecca J M

    2017-08-09

    Marrying synthetic biology with synthetic chemistry provides a powerful approach toward natural product diversification, combining the best of both worlds: expediency and synthetic capability of biogenic pathways and chemical diversity enabled by organic synthesis. Biosynthetic pathway engineering can be employed to insert a chemically orthogonal tag into a complex natural scaffold affording the possibility of site-selective modification without employing protecting group strategies. Here we show that, by installing a sufficiently reactive handle (e.g., a C-Br bond) and developing compatible mild aqueous chemistries, synchronous biosynthesis of the tagged metabolite and its subsequent chemical modification in living culture can be achieved. This approach can potentially enable many new applications: for example, assay of directed evolution of enzymes catalyzing halo-metabolite biosynthesis in living cells or generating and following the fate of tagged metabolites and biomolecules in living systems. We report synthetic biological access to new-to-nature bromo-metabolites and the concomitant biorthogonal cross-coupling of halo-metabolites in living cultures.Coupling synthetic biology and chemical reactions in cells is a challenging task. The authors engineer bacteria capable of generating bromo-metabolites, develop a mild Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction compatible with cell growth and carry out the cross-coupling chemistry in live cell cultures.

  5. From bricolage to BioBricks™: Synthetic biology and rational design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewens, Tim

    2013-12-01

    Synthetic biology is often described as a project that applies rational design methods to the organic world. Although humans have influenced organic lineages in many ways, it is nonetheless reasonable to place synthetic biology towards one end of a continuum between purely 'blind' processes of organic modification at one extreme, and wholly rational, design-led processes at the other. An example from evolutionary electronics illustrates some of the constraints imposed by the rational design methodology itself. These constraints reinforce the limitations of the synthetic biology ideal, limitations that are often freely acknowledged by synthetic biology's own practitioners. The synthetic biology methodology reflects a series of constraints imposed on finite human designers who wish, as far as is practicable, to communicate with each other and to intervene in nature in reasonably targeted and well-understood ways. This is better understood as indicative of an underlying awareness of human limitations, rather than as expressive of an objectionable impulse to mastery over nature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and construction of "synthetic species".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Moreno

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology is an area of biological research that combines science and engineering. Here, I merge the principles of synthetic biology and regulatory evolution to create a new species with a minimal set of known elements. Using preexisting transgenes and recessive mutations of Drosophila melanogaster, a transgenic population arises with small eyes and a different venation pattern that fulfils the criteria of a new species according to Mayr's Biological Species Concept. The population described here is the first transgenic organism that cannot hybridize with the original wild type population but remains fertile when crossed with other identical transgenic animals. I therefore propose the term "synthetic species" to distinguish it from "natural species", not only because it has been created by genetic manipulation, but also because it may never be able to survive outside the laboratory environment. The use of genetic engineering to design artificial species barriers could help us understand natural speciation and may have practical applications. For instance, the transition from transgenic organisms towards synthetic species could constitute a safety mechanism to avoid the hybridization of genetically modified animals with wild type populations, preserving biodiversity.

  7. Technical Assessment: Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Pfizer, Bausch & Lomb, Coca - Cola , and other Fortune 500 companies 8 Data estimated by the... financial prize for ideas to drive forward the production of a sensor relying on synthetic organisms that can detect exposure to 500 specific chemicals

  8. Synthetic Biology: Putting Synthesis into Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jing; Luo, Yunzi; Zhao, Huimin

    2010-01-01

    The ability to manipulate living organisms is at the heart of a range of emerging technologies that serve to address important and current problems in environment, energy, and health. However, with all its complexity and interconnectivity, biology has for many years been recalcitrant to engineering manipulations. The recent advances in synthesis, analysis, and modeling methods have finally provided the tools necessary to manipulate living systems in meaningful ways, and have led to the coining of a field named synthetic biology. The scope of synthetic biology is as complicated as life itself – encompassing many branches of science, and across many scales of application. New DNA synthesis and assembly techniques have made routine the customization of very large DNA molecules. This in turn has allowed the incorporation of multiple genes and pathways. By coupling these with techniques that allow for the modeling and design of protein functions, scientists have now gained the tools to create completely novel biological machineries. Even the ultimate biological machinery – a self-replicating organism – is being pursued at this moment. It is the purpose of this review to dissect and organize these various components of synthetic biology into a coherent picture. PMID:21064036

  9. Monitoring performance using synthetic data for induced microseismicity by hydrofracking at the Wysin site (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Comino, J. A.; Cesca, S.; Kriegerowski, M.; Heimann, S.; Dahm, T.; Mirek, J.; Lasocki, S.

    2017-07-01

    Ideally, the performance of a dedicated seismic monitoring installation should be assessed prior to the observation of target seismicity. This work is focused on a hydrofracking experiment monitored at Wysin, NE Poland. A microseismic synthetic catalogue is generated to assess the monitoring performance during the pre-operational phase, where seismic information only concerns the noise conditions and the potential background seismicity. Full waveform, accounting for the expected spatial, magnitude and focal mechanism distributions and a realistic local crustal model, are combined with real noise recording to produce either event based or continuous synthetic waveforms. The network detection performance is assessed in terms of the magnitude of completeness (Mc) through two different techniques. First, we use an amplitude threshold, taking into the ratio among the maximal amplitude of synthetic waveforms and station-dependent noise levels, for different values of signal-to-noise ratio. The detection probability at each station is estimated for the whole data set and extrapolated to a broader range of magnitude and distances. We estimate an Mc of about 0.55, when considering the distributed network, and can further decrease Mc to 0.45 using arrays techniques. The second approach, taking advantage on an automatic, coherence-based detection algorithm, can lower Mc to ∼ 0.1, at the cost of an increase of false detections. Mc experiences significant changes during day hours, in consequence of strongly varying noise conditions. Moreover, due to the radiation patterns and network geometry, double-couple like sources are better detected than tensile cracks, which may be induced during fracking.

  10. Synthetic biology approaches for the production of plant metabolites in unicellular organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Tessa; Mehrshahi, Payam; Smith, Alison G; Goossens, Alain

    2017-07-10

    Synthetic biology is the repurposing of biological systems for novel objectives and applications. Through the co-ordinated and balanced expression of genes, both native and those introduced from other organisms, resources within an industrial chassis can be siphoned for the commercial production of high-value commodities. This developing interdisciplinary field has the potential to revolutionize natural product discovery from higher plants, by providing a diverse array of tools, technologies, and strategies for exploring the large chemically complex space of plant natural products using unicellular organisms. In this review, we emphasize the key features that influence the generation of biorefineries and highlight technologies and strategic solutions that can be used to overcome engineering pitfalls with rational design. Also presented is a succinct guide to assist the selection of unicellular chassis most suited for the engineering and subsequent production of the desired natural product, in order to meet the global demand for plant natural products in a safe and sustainable manner. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Synthetic Defects for Vibrothermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Jeremy; Holland, Stephen D.; Thompson, R. Bruce; Eisenmann, David J.

    2010-02-01

    Synthetic defects are an important tool used for characterizing the performance of nondestructive evaluation techniques. Viscous material-filled synthetic defects were developed for use in vibrothermography (also known as sonic IR) as a tool to improve inspection accuracy and reliability. This paper describes how the heat-generation response of these VMF synthetic defects is similar to the response of real defects. It also shows how VMF defects can be applied to improve inspection accuracy for complex industrial parts and presents a study of their application in an aircraft engine stator vane.

  12. Anammox for ammonia removal from pig manure effluents: Effect of organic matter content on process performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; García, M. C.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2009-01-01

    oxidation) diluted with synthetic wastewater. High ammonium removal was achieved, up to 92.1 +/- 4.9% for diluted UASB-post-digested effluent (95 mg COD L-1) and up to 98.5 +/- 0.8% for diluted partially oxidized effluent (121 mg COD L-1). Mass balance clearly showed that an increase in organic loading......The anammox process, under different organic loading rates (COD), was evaluated using a semi-continous UASB reactor at 37 degrees C. Three different substrates were used: initially, synthetic wastewater, and later, two different pig manure effluents (after UASB-post-digestion and after partial...... improved ammonium removal at high organic matter concentration. Up to threshold organic load concentration of 142 mg COD L-1 of UASB-post-digested effluent and 242 mg COD L-1 of partially oxidized effluent, no effect of organic loading on ammonia removal was registered (ammonium removal was above 80...

  13. Comparison of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids in enhancing phytoextraction of heavy metals by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Islam, Ejazul; Li, Tingqiang; Yang, Xiaoe; Jin, Xiaofen; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2008-05-01

    Lab scale and pot experiments were conducted to compare the effects of synthetic chelators and low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) on the phytoextraction of multi-contaminated soils by two ecotypes of Sedum alfredii Hance. Through lab scale experiments, the treatment dosage of 5 and 10 mM for synthetic chelators and LMWOA, respectively, and the treatment time of 10 days were selected for pot experiment. In pot experiment, the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) was found more tolerant to the metal toxicity compared with the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). EDTA for Pb, EDDS for Cu, and DTPA for Cu and Cd were found more effective to enhance heavy metal accumulation in the shoots of S. alfredii Hance. Compared with synthetic chelators, the phytoextraction ability of LMWOA was lesser. Considering the strong post-harvest effects of synthetic chelators, it is suggested that higher dosage of LMWOA could be practiced during phytoextraction, and some additional measures could also be taken to lower the potential environmental risks of synthetic chelators in the future studies.

  14. [The toxic and hygienic characteristics of the new synthetic organic flocculants AES-5, AES-7 and AES-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Nekrasova, L S; Mudryĭ, I V

    2000-03-01

    A toxicological and hygienic characterization is submitted of novel synthetic organic flocculant AEC-5, AEC-7, AEC-10 which are low-toxicity substances and are classified under the fourth class of hazards. They have no skin-resorptive, locally irritative action and are endowed with a weak cumulative activity of functional character. The AEC-5 flocculant exerts a moderately manifest sensitizing effect in the dermal route of entry.

  15. Philosophy of Systems and Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Sara

    2017-01-01

    This entry aims to clarify how systems and synthetic biology contribute to and extend discussions within philosophy of science. Unlike fields such as developmental biology or molecular biology, systems and synthetic biology are not easily demarcated by a focus on a specific subject area or level...... of organization. Rather, they are characterized by the development and application of mathematical, computational, and synthetic modeling strategies in response to complex problems and challenges within the life sciences. Proponents of systems and synthetic biology often stress the necessity of a perspective...... that goes beyond the scope of molecular biology and genetic engineering, respectively. With the emphasis on systems and interaction networks, the approaches explicitly engage in one of the oldest philosophical discussions on the relationship between parts and wholes, or between reductionism and holism...

  16. Performance of sulphate- and selenium-reducing biochemical reactors using different ratios of labile to recalcitrant organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjafari, Parissa; Baldwin, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Successful operation of sulphate-reducing bioreactors using complex organic materials depends on providing a balance between more easily degrading material that achieves reasonable kinetics and low hydraulic retention times, and more slowly decomposing material that sustains performance in the long term. In this study, two organic mixtures containing the same ingredients typical of bioreactors used at mine sites (woodchips, hay and cow manure) but with different ratios of wood (recalcitrant) to hay (labile) were tested in six continuous flow bioreactors treating synthetic mine-affected water containing 600 mg/L of sulphate and 15 μg/L of selenium. The reactors were operated for short (5-6 months) and long (435-450 days) periods of time at the same hydraulic retention time of 15 days. There were no differences in the performance of the bioreactors in terms of sulphate-reduction over the short term, but the wood-rich bioreactors experienced variable and sometimes unreliable sulphate-reduction over the long term. Presence of more hay in the organic mixture was able to better sustain reliable performance. Production of dissolved organic compounds due to biodegradation within the bioreactors was detected for the first 175-230 days, after which their depletion coincided with a crash phase observed in the wood-rich bioreactors only.

  17. Performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic racetrack memory: domain wall versus skyrmion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasello, R; Puliafito, V; Martinez, E; Manchon, A; Ricci, M; Carpentieri, M; Finocchio, G

    2017-01-01

    A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study of the performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetrack memory in terms of velocity and sensitivity to defects by using experimental parameters. We find that, to stabilize a SAF skyrmion, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the top and the bottom ferromagnet should have an opposite sign. The velocity of SAF skyrmions and SAF Néel domain walls are of the same order and can reach values larger than 1200 m s −1 if a spin–orbit torque from the spin-Hall effect with opposite sign is applied to both ferromagnets. The presence of disordered anisotropy in the form of randomly distributed grains introduces a threshold current for both SAF skyrmions and SAF domain walls motions. (paper)

  18. Performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic racetrack memory: domain wall versus skyrmion

    KAUST Repository

    Tomasello, R

    2017-06-20

    A storage scheme based on racetrack memory, where the information can be coded in a domain or a skyrmion, seems to be an alternative to conventional hard disk drive for high density storage. Here, we perform a full micromagnetic study of the performance of synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) racetrack memory in terms of velocity and sensitivity to defects by using experimental parameters. We find that, to stabilize a SAF skyrmion, the Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction in the top and the bottom ferromagnet should have an opposite sign. The velocity of SAF skyrmions and SAF Néel domain walls are of the same order and can reach values larger than 1200 m s−1 if a spin–orbit torque from the spin-Hall effect with opposite sign is applied to both ferromagnets. The presence of disordered anisotropy in the form of randomly distributed grains introduces a threshold current for both SAF skyrmions and SAF domain walls motions.

  19. Performance of Narrowband Signal Detection under Correlated Rayleigh Fading Based on Synthetic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Broumandan

    2009-01-01

    design parameters of probability of detection (Pd and probability of false alarm (Pfa. An optimum detector based on Estimator-Correlator (EC is developed, and its performance is compared with that of suboptimal Equal-Gain (EG combiner in different channel correlation scenarios. It is shown that in moderate channel correlation scenarios the detection performance of EC and EG is identical. The sensitivity of the proposed method to knowledge of motion parameters is also investigated. An extensive set of measurements based on CDMA-2000 pilot signals using the static antenna and synthetic array are used to experimentally verify these theoretical findings.

  20. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 2147. Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 2011-08-04 (LAd34) to 2017-09-27

  1. Preparing Synthetic Biology for the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd H.G. Moe-Behrens

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Biology promises low-cost, exponentially scalable products and global health solutions in the form of self-replicating organisms, or living devices. As these promises are realized, proof-of-concept systems will gradually migrate from tightly regulated laboratory or industrial environments into private spaces as, for instance, probiotic health products, food, and even do-it-yourself bioengineered systems. What additional steps, if any, should be taken before releasing engineered self-replicating organisms into a broader user space? In this review, we explain how studies of genetically modified organisms lay groundwork for the future landscape of biosafety. Early in the design process, biological engineers are anticipating potential hazards and developing innovative tools to mitigate risk. Here, we survey lessons learned, ongoing efforts to engineer intrinsic biocontainment, and how different stakeholders in synthetic biology can act to accomplish best practices for biosafety.

  2. Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria: Unique Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram M Berla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms, and especially cyanobacteria, hold great promise as sources of renewably-produced fuels, bulk and specialty chemicals, and nutritional products. Synthetic biology tools can help unlock cyanobacteria’s potential for these functions, but unfortunately tool development for these organisms has lagged behind that for S. cerevisiae and E. coli. While these organisms may in many cases be more difficult to work with as ‘chassis’ strains for synthetic biology than certain heterotrophs, the unique advantages of autotrophs in biotechnology applications as well as the scientific importance of improved understanding of photosynthesis warrant the development of these systems into something akin to a ‘green E. coli’. In this review, we highlight unique challenges and opportunities for development of synthetic biology approaches in cyanobacteria. We review classical and recently developed methods for constructing targeted mutants in various cyanobacterial strains, and offer perspective on what genetic tools might most greatly expand the ability to engineer new functions in such strains. Similarly, we review what genetic parts are most needed for the development of cyanobacterial synthetic biology. Finally, we highlight recent methods to construct genome-scale models of cyanobacterial metabolism and to use those models to measure properties of autotrophic metabolism. Throughout this paper, we discuss some of the unique challenges of a diurnal, autotrophic lifestyle along with how the development of synthetic biology and biotechnology in cyanobacteria must fit within those constraints.

  3. Monitoring performance for hydraulic fracturing using synthetic microseismic catalogue at the Wysin site (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel López Comino, José; Cesca, Simone; Kriegerowski, Marius; Heimann, Sebastian; Dahm, Torsten; Mirek, Janusz; Lasocky, Stanislaw

    2017-04-01

    Previous analysis to assess the monitoring performance of a dedicated seismic network are always useful to determine its capability of detecting, locating and characterizing target seismicity. This work focuses on a hydrofracking experiment in Poland, which is monitored in the framework of the SHEER (SHale gas Exploration and Exploitation induced Risks) EU project. The seismic installation is located near Wysin (Poland), in the central-western part of the Peribaltic synclise at Pomerania. The network setup includes a distributed network of six broadband stations, three shallow borehole stations and three small-scale arrays. We assess the monitoring performance prior operations, using synthetic seismograms. Realistic full waveform are generated and combined with real noise before fracking operations, to produce either event based or continuous synthetic waveforms. Background seismicity is modelled by double couple (DC) focal mechanisms. Non-DC sources resemble induced tensile fractures opening in the direction of the minimal compressive stress and closing in the same direction after the injection. Microseismic sources are combined with a realistic crustal model, distribution of hypocenters, magnitudes and source durations. The network detection performance is then assessed in terms of Magnitude of Completeness (Mc) through two different techniques: i) using an amplitude threshold approach, taking into account a station dependent noise level and different values of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and ii) through the application of an automatic detection algorithm to the continuous synthetic dataset. In the first case, we compare the maximal amplitude of noise free synthetic waveforms with the different noise levels. Imposing the simultaneous detection at e.g. 4 stations for a robust detection, the Mc is assessed and can be adjusted by empirical relationships for different SNR values. We find that different source mechanisms have different detection threshold. The

  4. Where Synthetic Biology Meets ET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving the biosynthetic pathways of amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids and developing techniques for the recovery of metals from spent electronics on other planetary bodies. And what about the limits for life? Can we create organisms that expand the envelope for life? In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  5. Life by design: Philosophical perspectives on synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensaude Vincent Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines a number of distinctive features of this emerging field in the constellation of bionanotechnologies. It then insists on the variety of research agendas and strategies gathered under the umbrella “synthetic biology”. While redesigning life is the central goal, synthetic biologists do not develop a uniform view of living organisms.

  6. Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) to more..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana SIP: LAC 33:III Ch 21 Subchap J, 2147--Limiting Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Reactor Processes and Distillation Operations in Synthetic Organic Chemical manufacturing Industry (SOCMI); SIP effective 1998-02-02 (LAc74) more...

  7. Organization Features and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Lois Major

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the odds of school organization features predicting schools meeting district or state performance goals. The school organization features were organizational complexity, shared decision making, and leadership behavior. The dependent variable was school performance, operationally defined as a principalâ s yes response or no response to the question, â did your school meet district or state performance goals.â The independent variables representing...

  8. BISRU: Synthetic Microbes for Moon, Mars and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumbers, J.; Rothchild, L.

    2010-04-01

    Synthetic biology and genomics will bring a new range of designer organisms into being and give us new tools for the manipulation and control of these organisms. BISRU or biological in situ resource utilization is the use of such genetically modified organisms in space.

  9. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-03-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  10. Insights into Comparative Antimicrobial Efficacies of Synthetic and Organic Agents: The Case of ZnS Nanoparticles and Zingiber officinale Rosc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obidi, O. F.; Nejo, A. O.; Ayeni, R. A.; Revaprasadu, N.

    2018-06-01

    The differences among the antimicrobial activities of synthetic nanoparticles (NPs), organic agents and conventional antibiotics against human pathogens are little known. We compared the antimicrobial activities of aqueous, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Zingiber officinale rhizomes with ZnS NPs and tetracycline/nystatin using agar-diffusion techniques. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet spectroscopy were used to characterize ZnS NPs. At 100 mg/ml, ethanol and ethyl acetate extract inhibited Acinetobacter baumannii, Salmonella typhimurium, Enterococcus faecium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Candida albicans with zones of inhibition (ZOI) ranging between 0-42 mm and 0-39 mm, respectively. Candida albicans had a remarkable ZOI of 42 mm and 22 mm from ethanol and ZnS NPs compared with 20 mm from conventional nystatin. TEM and FTIR revealed spherically shaped polydispersed NPs with particle size of 12.5 nm and the role of banana peel extracts in ZnS NPs synthesis. Organic and synthetic NPs proved potential alternatives to conventional antimicrobial agents.

  11. Brain imaging with synthetic MR in children: clinical quality assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betts, Aaron M.; Serai, Suraj [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Leach, James L.; Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Synthetic magnetic resonance imaging is a quantitative imaging technique that measures inherent T1-relaxation, T2-relaxation, and proton density. These inherent tissue properties allow synthesis of various imaging sequences from a single acquisition. Clinical use of synthetic MR imaging has been described in adult populations. However, use of synthetic MR imaging has not been previously reported in children. The purpose of this study is to report our assessment of diagnostic image quality using synthetic MR imaging in children. Synthetic MR acquisition was obtained in a sample of children undergoing brain MR imaging. Image quality assessments were performed on conventional and synthetic T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR images. Standardized linear measurements were performed on conventional and synthetic T2 images. Estimates of patient age based upon myelination patterns were also performed. Conventional and synthetic MR images were evaluated on 30 children. Using a 4-point assessment scale, conventional imaging performed better than synthetic imaging for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and FLAIR images. When the assessment was simplified to a dichotomized scale, the conventional and synthetic T1-weighted and T2-weighted images performed similarly. However, the superiority of conventional FLAIR images persisted in the dichotomized assessment. There were no statistically significant differences between linear measurements made on T2-weighted images. Estimates of patient age based upon pattern of myelination were also similar between conventional and synthetic techniques. Synthetic MR imaging may be acceptable for clinical use in children. However, users should be aware of current limitations that could impact clinical utility in the software version used in this study. (orig.)

  12. Synthetic lubricants and high-performance functional fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    1999-01-01

    Offers state-of-the-art information on all the major synthetic fluids, describing established products as well as highly promising experimental fluids with commercial potential. This second edition contains chapters on polyinternalolefins, polymer esters, refrigeration lubes, polyphenyl ethers, highly refined mineral oils, automotive gear oils and industrial gear oils. The book also assesses automotive, industrial, aerospace, environmental, and commercial trends in Europe, Asia, South America, and the US.

  13. Regenesis how synthetic biology will reinvent nature and ourselves

    CERN Document Server

    Church, George M

    2012-01-01

    Imagine a future in which human beings have become immune to all viruses, in which bacteria can custom-produce everyday items, like a drinking cup, or generate enough electricity to end oil dependency. Building a house would entail no more work than planting a seed in the ground. These scenarios may seem far-fetched, but pioneering geneticist George Church and science writer Ed Regis show that synthetic biology is bringing us ever closer to making such visions a reality. In "Regenesis," Church and Regis explorethe possibilities--and perils--of the emerging field of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology, in which living organisms are selectively altered by modifying substantial portions of their genomes, allows for the creation of entirely new species of organisms. Until now, nature has been the exclusive arbiter of life, death, and evolution; with synthetic biology, we now have the potential to write our own biological future. Indeed, as Church and Regis show, it even enables us to revisit crucial points in th...

  14. The effect of natural and synthetic fatty acids on membrane structure, microdomain organization, cellular functions and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarguren, Maitane; López, David J; Escribá, Pablo V

    2014-06-01

    This review deals with the effects of synthetic and natural fatty acids on the biophysical properties of membranes, and on their implication on cell function. Natural fatty acids are constituents of more complex lipids, like triacylglycerides or phospholipids, which are used by cells to store and obtain energy, as well as for structural purposes. Accordingly, natural and synthetic fatty acids may modify the structure of the lipid membrane, altering its microdomain organization and other physical properties, and provoking changes in cell signaling. Therefore, by modulating fatty acids it is possible to regulate the structure of the membrane, influencing the cell processes that are reliant on this structure and potentially reverting pathological cell dysfunctions that may provoke cancer, diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. The so-called Membrane Lipid Therapy offers a strategy to regulate the membrane composition through drug administration, potentially reverting pathological processes by re-adapting cell membrane structure. Certain fatty acids and their synthetic derivatives are described here that may potentially be used in such therapies, where the cell membrane itself can be considered as a target to combat disease. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Structure and Function: Relevance in the Cell's Physiology, Pathology and Therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthetic Biology: Engineering Living Systems from Biophysical Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Bryan A; Kim, Kyung; Medley, J Kyle; Sauro, Herbert M

    2017-03-28

    Synthetic biology was founded as a biophysical discipline that sought explanations for the origins of life from chemical and physical first principles. Modern synthetic biology has been reinvented as an engineering discipline to design new organisms as well as to better understand fundamental biological mechanisms. However, success is still largely limited to the laboratory and transformative applications of synthetic biology are still in their infancy. Here, we review six principles of living systems and how they compare and contrast with engineered systems. We cite specific examples from the synthetic biology literature that illustrate these principles and speculate on their implications for further study. To fully realize the promise of synthetic biology, we must be aware of life's unique properties. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Staff Performance Evaluation in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drumea C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In public Organizations staff performance is difficult to measure in absence of overall quantitative performance indicators. There are also the qualitative indicators that give an overview on staff’s motivation, strive, ability, commitment to values, teamwork. These aspects are even less easy to illustrate, in private and public sectors equally. In both cases, measuring staff performance at work, as well as its input on the global performance of the organization is a difficult task which has in practice different approaches. Subsequently, this paper is discussing the system indicators and performance triggers used in International Organizations UN affiliated, in order to adjust staff classification and benefits to their staff’s performance.

  17. A Synthetic Ecology Perspective: How Well Does Behavior of Model Organisms in the Laboratory Predict Microbial Activities in Natural Habitats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zheng; Krause, Sascha M B; Beck, David A C; Chistoserdova, Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    In this perspective article, we question how well model organisms, the ones that are easy to cultivate in the laboratory and that show robust growth and biomass accumulation, reflect the dynamics and interactions of microbial communities observed in nature. Today's -omics toolbox allows assessing the genomic potential of microbes in natural environments in a high-throughput fashion and at a strain-level resolution. However, understanding of the details of microbial activities and of the mechanistic bases of community function still requires experimental validation in simplified and fully controlled systems such as synthetic communities. We have studied methane utilization in Lake Washington sediment for a few decades and have identified a number of species genetically equipped for this activity. We have also identified co-occurring satellite species that appear to form functional communities together with the methanotrophs. Here, we compare experimental findings from manipulation of natural communities involved in metabolism of methane in this niche with findings from manipulation of synthetic communities assembled in the laboratory of species originating from the same study site, from very simple (two-species) to rather complex (50-species) synthetic communities. We observe some common trends in community dynamics between the two types of communities, toward representation of specific functional guilds. However, we also identify strong discrepancies between the dominant methane oxidizers in synthetic communities compared to natural communities, under similar incubation conditions. These findings highlight the challenges that exist in using the synthetic community approach to modeling dynamics and species interactions in natural communities.

  18. Pulmonary effects of synthetic marijuana: chest radiography and CT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Eugene A; Henry, Travis S; Veeraraghavan, Srihari; Staton, Gerald W; Gal, Anthony A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the first chest radiographic and CT descriptions of organizing pneumonia in response to smoking synthetic marijuana. Chest radiographs showed a diffuse miliary-micronodular pattern. Chest CT images showed diffuse centrilobular nodules and tree-in-bud pattern and a histopathologic pattern of organizing pneumonia with or without patchy acute alveolar damage. This distinct imaging pattern should alert radiologists to include synthetic marijuana abuse in the differential diagnosis.

  19. The validation of synthetic spectra used in the performance evaluation of radionuclide identifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, A.; Boardman, D.; Reinhard, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    This work has evaluated synthetic gamma-ray spectra created by the RASE sampler using experimental data. The RASE sampler resamples experimental data to create large data libraries which are subsequently available for use in evaluation of radionuclide identification algorithms. A statistical evaluation of the synthetic energy bins has shown the variation to follow a Poisson distribution identical to experimental data. The minimum amount of statistics required in each base spectrum to ensure the subsequent use of the base spectrum in the generation of statistically robust synthetic data was determined. A requirement that the simulated acquisition time of the synthetic spectra was not more than 4% of the acquisition time of the base spectrum was also determined. Further validation of RASE was undertaken using two different radionuclide identification algorithms. - Highlights: • A validation of synthetic data created in order to evaluate radionuclide identification systems has been carried out. • Statistical analysis has shown that the data accurately represents experimental data. • A limit to the amount of data which could be created using this method was evaluated. • Analysis of the synthetic gamma spectra show identical results to analysis carried out with experimental data

  20. Synthetic digital radiographs using exposure computer models of Voxels / EGS4 Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenned, Roberto; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Loureiro, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to produce synthetic digital radiographs from synthetic phantoms with the use of a Computational Model of Exposition (MCE). The literature explains a model consisted on a phantom, a Monte Carlo code and an algorithm of a radioactive source. In this work it was used the FAX phantom (Female Adult voXel), besides the EGS4 system code Eletron Shower-range version 4) and an external source, similar to that used in diagnostic radiology. The implementation of MCE creates files with information on external energy deposited in the voxels of fantoma used, here called EnergiaPorVoxel.dat. These files along with the targeted phantom (fax.sgi) worked as data entry for the DIP software (Digital Imaging Processing) to build the synthetic phantoms based on energy and the effective dose. This way you can save each slice that is the stack of pictures of these phantoms synthetics, which have been called synthetic digital radiography. Using this, it is possible to use techniques of emphasis in space to increase the contrast or elineate contours between organs and tissues. The practical use of these images is not only to allow a planning of examinations performed in clinics and hospitals and reducing unnecessary exposure to patients by error of radiographic techniques. (author)

  1. Synthetic biology, inspired by synthetic chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, V; Nallani, M; Meier, W P; Sinner, E K

    2012-07-16

    The topic synthetic biology appears still as an 'empty basket to be filled'. However, there is already plenty of claims and visions, as well as convincing research strategies about the theme of synthetic biology. First of all, synthetic biology seems to be about the engineering of biology - about bottom-up and top-down approaches, compromising complexity versus stability of artificial architectures, relevant in biology. Synthetic biology accounts for heterogeneous approaches towards minimal and even artificial life, the engineering of biochemical pathways on the organismic level, the modelling of molecular processes and finally, the combination of synthetic with nature-derived materials and architectural concepts, such as a cellular membrane. Still, synthetic biology is a discipline, which embraces interdisciplinary attempts in order to have a profound, scientific base to enable the re-design of nature and to compose architectures and processes with man-made matter. We like to give an overview about the developments in the field of synthetic biology, regarding polymer-based analogs of cellular membranes and what questions can be answered by applying synthetic polymer science towards the smallest unit in life, namely a cell. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. LEVELS OF SYNTHETIC MUSKS COMPOUNDS IN AQUATIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic musk compounds are consumer chemicals manufactured as fragrance materials Due to their high worldwide usage and release, they frequently occur in the aquatic and marine environments. The U.S. EPA (ORD, Las Vegas) developed surface-water monitoring methodology and conducted a one-year monthly monitoring of synthetic musks in water and biota from Lake Mead (Nevada) as well as from combined sewage effluent streams feeding Lake Mead. Presented are the overview of the chemistry, the monitoring methodology, and the significance of synthetic musk compounds in the aquatic environment. The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Located In the subtasks are the various research projects being performed in support of this Task and more in-depth coverage of each project. Briefly, each project's objective is stated below.Subtask 1: To integrate state-of-the-art technologies (polar organic chemical integrative samplers, advanced solid-phase extraction methodologies with liquid chromatography/electrospray/mass spectrometry) and apply them to studying the sources and fate of a select list of PPCPs. Application and improvement of analytical methodologies that can detect non-volatile, polar, water-soluble pharmaceuticals in source waters at levels that could be environmentally significant (at concentrations less than p

  3. Performance improvement: the organization's quest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, C O; Parmer, D E; Saint-Amand, R A; Harbin, C B; Roulston, J C; Ellis, R A; Buchanan, J R; Leonard, R B

    1999-01-01

    In today's health care marketplace, quality has become an expectation. Stakeholders are demanding quality clinical outcomes, and accrediting bodies are requiring clinical performance data. The Roosevelt Institute's quest was to define and quantify quality outcomes, develop an organizational culture of performance improvement, and ensure customer satisfaction. Several of the organization's leaders volunteered to work as a team to develop a specific performance improvement approach tailored to the organization. To date, over 200 employees have received an orientation to the model and its philosophy and nine problem action and process improvement teams have been formed.

  4. A Critical Perspective on Synthetic Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Morange

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic biology emerged around 2000 as a new biological discipline. It shares with systems biology the same modular vision of organisms, but is more concerned with applications than with a better understanding of the functioning of organisms. A herald of this new discipline is Craig Venter who aims to create an artificial microorganism with the minimal genome compatible with life and to implement into it different 'functional modules' to generate new micro-organisms adapted to specific task...

  5. Post-synthetic modification of MIL-101(Cr) with pyridine for high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fang; Yang, Cheng-Xiong; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2015-05-01

    Effective separation of tocopherols is challenging and significant due to their structural similarity and important biological role. Here we report the post-synthetic modification of metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr) with pyridine for high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation of tocopherols. Baseline separation of four tocopherols was achieved on a pyridine-grafted MIL-101(Cr) packed column within 10 min using hexane/isopropanol (96:4, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1). The pyridine-grafted MIL-101(Cr) packed column gave high column efficiency (85,000 plates m(-1) for δ-tocopherol) and good precision (0.2-0.3% for retention time, 1.8-3.4% for peak area, 2.6-2.7% for peak height), and also offered much better performance than unmodified MIL-101(Cr) and commercial amino-bonded silica packed column for HPLC separation of tocopherols. The results not only show the promising application of pyridine-grafted MIL-101(Cr) as a novel stationary phase for HPLC separation of tocopherols, but also reveal a facile post-modification of MOFs to expand the application of MOFs in separation sciences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Synthetic Chemicals with Potential for Natural Attenuation (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe examples of other synthetic organic compounds that are known to be biodegradable ...chlorophenols are unusual among the synthetic compounds discussed here in that they can be very toxic to microorganisms . They are often used as biocides...widely distributed. In contract, bacteria able to grow at the expense of chlorinated aliphatic compounds are less common and the

  7. Synthetic Biology: Mapping the Scientific Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Burton, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from Thomson Reuters Web of Science to map and analyse the scientific landscape for synthetic biology. The article draws on recent advances in data visualisation and analytics with the aim of informing upcoming international policy debates on the governance of synthetic biology by the Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA) of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. We use mapping techniques to identify how synthetic biology can best be understood and the range of institutions, researchers and funding agencies involved. Debates under the Convention are likely to focus on a possible moratorium on the field release of synthetic organisms, cells or genomes. Based on the empirical evidence we propose that guidance could be provided to funding agencies to respect the letter and spirit of the Convention on Biological Diversity in making research investments. Building on the recommendations of the United States Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues we demonstrate that it is possible to promote independent and transparent monitoring of developments in synthetic biology using modern information tools. In particular, public and policy understanding and engagement with synthetic biology can be enhanced through the use of online interactive tools. As a step forward in this process we make existing data on the scientific literature on synthetic biology available in an online interactive workbook so that researchers, policy makers and civil society can explore the data and draw conclusions for themselves. PMID:22539946

  8. The Next Generation of Synthetic Biology Chassis: Moving Synthetic Biology from the Laboratory to the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Bryn L

    2016-12-16

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) has played a pivotal role in the development of genetics and molecular biology as scientific fields. It is therefore not surprising that synthetic biology (SB) was built upon E. coli and continues to dominate the field. However, scientific capabilities have advanced from simple gene mutations to the insertion of rationally designed, complex synthetic circuits and creation of entirely synthetic genomes. The point is rapidly approaching where E. coli is no longer an adequate host for the increasingly sophisticated genetic designs of SB. It is time to develop the next generation of SB chassis; robust organisms that can provide the advanced physiology novel synthetic circuits will require to move SB from the laboratory into fieldable technologies. This can be accomplished by developing chassis-specific genetic toolkits that are as extensive as those for E. coli. However, the holy grail of SB would be the development of a universal toolkit that can be ported into any chassis. This viewpoint article underscores the need for new bacterial chassis, as well as discusses some of the important considerations in their selection. It also highlights a few examples of robust, tractable bacterial species that can meet the demands of tomorrow's state-of-the-art in SB. Significant advances have been made in the first 15 years since this field has emerged. However, the advances over the next 15 years will occur not in laboratory organisms, but in fieldable species where the potential of SB can be fully realized in game changing technology.

  9. Synthetic Phage for Tissue Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling structural organization and signaling motif display is of great importance to design the functional tissue regenerating materials. Synthetic phage, genetically engineered M13 bacteriophage has been recently introduced as novel tissue regeneration materials to display a high density of cell-signaling peptides on their major coat proteins for tissue regeneration purposes. Structural advantages of their long-rod shape and monodispersity can be taken together to construct nanofibrous scaffolds which support cell proliferation and differentiation as well as direct orientation of their growth in two or three dimensions. This review demonstrated how functional synthetic phage is designed and subsequently utilized for tissue regeneration that offers potential cell therapy.

  10. Misconceptions of Synthetic Biology: Lessons from an Interdisciplinary Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verseux, Cyprien; Acevedo-Rocha, Carlos G.; Chizzolini, Fabio; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, an international group of scholars from various fields analysed the "societal dimensions" of synthetic biology in an interdisciplinary summer school. Here, we report and discuss the biologists' observations on the general perception of synthetic biology by non-biologists who took part in this event. Most attendees mainly associated synthetic biology with contributions from the best-known public figures of the field, rarely mentioning other scientists. Media extrapolations of those contributions appeared to have created unrealistic expectations and irrelevant fears that were widely disconnected from the current research in synthetic biology. Another observation was that when debating developments in synthetic biology, semantics strongly mattered: depending on the terms used to present an application of synthetic biology, attendees reacted in radically different ways. For example, using the term "GMOs" (genetically modified organisms) rather than the term "genetic engineering" led to very different reactions. Stimulating debates also happened with participants having unanticipated points of view, for instance biocentrist ethicists who argued that engineered microbes should not be used for human purposes. Another communication challenge emerged from the connotations and inaccuracies surrounding the word "life", which impaired constructive debates, thus leading to misconceptions about the abilities of scientists to engineer or even create living organisms. Finally, it appeared that synthetic biologists tend to overestimate the knowledge of non-biologists, further affecting communication. The motivation and ability of synthetic biologists to communicate their work outside their research field needs to be fostered, notably towards policymakers who need a more accurate and technical understanding of the field to make informed decisions. Interdisciplinary events gathering scholars working in and around synthetic biology are an effective tool in addressing those

  11. Synthetic Biology with Cytochromes P450 Using Photosynthetic Chassis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanasekaran, Thiyagarajan

    , this modern field of synthetic biology is completely dependent on the nature of the chassis - the host organisms - for its endeavor. Of all the chassis, photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria and plants gains special attention due to the remarkable amount of sunlight that is striking the Earth...... in cyanobacteria and plant chloroplasts for the purpose of light driven synthesis of bioactive compounds by using synthetic biology approaches. As model pathways, in this thesis, the pathway involved in the synthesis of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin from Sorghum bicolor, and the pathway involved......Synthetic biology is a rapidly growing engineering discipline in biology. It aims at building novel biological systems that do not exist in nature by selecting the interchangeable standardized biological parts that are already available in the nature, and assembling them in a specific order. Today...

  12. Porous organic polymers with anchored aldehydes: A new platform for post-synthetic amine functionalization en route for enhanced CO2 adsorption properties

    KAUST Repository

    Guillerm, Vincent; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Al Kordi, Mohamed; Haja Mohideen, Mohamed Infas; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Cairns, Amy; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A novel porous organic polymer has been synthesized using the molecular building block approach to deliberately encompass aldehyde functionalities amenable to post functionalization. The resultant porous framework allows a facile, one-step quantitative and post-synthetic functionalization by amines, permitting enhanced CO2 sorption properties. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  13. Characterization of high speed synthetic jet actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikcilingis, Lucia

    Over the last 20 years, synthetic jets have been studied as a means for aerodynamic active flow control. Specifically, synthetic jets provide momentum transfer with zero-net mass flux, which has been proven to be effective for controlling flow fields. A synthetic jet is created by the periodic formation of vortex rings at its orifice due to the periodic motion of a piezoelectric disk(s). The present study seeks to optimize the performance of a synthetic jet actuator by utilizing different geometrical parameters such as disk thickness, orifice width and length, cavity height and cavity diameter, and different input parameters such as driving voltage and frequency. Two apparatuses were used with a cavity diameter of either 80 mm or 160 mm. Piezoelectric-based disks were provided by the Mide Corporation. Experiments were conducted using several synthetic jet apparatuses designed for various geometrical parameters utilizing a dual disk configuration. Velocity and temperature measurements were acquired at the center of the synthetic jet orifice using a temperature compensated hotwire and thermocouple probe. The disk(s) displacement was measured at the center of the disk with a laser displacement sensor. It was shown that the synthetic jets, having the 80 mm cavity diameter, are capable of exceeding peak velocities of 200 m/s with a relatively large orifice of dimensions AR = 12, hc* = 3, and hn* = 4. In addition, the conditions at which the disks were manufactured had minimal effect on the performance of the jet, except for the pair with overnight resting time as opposed to less than an hour resting time for the control units. Altering the tab style of the disks, where the tab allows the electrical circuit to be exposed for external power connection, showed that a thin fragile tab versus a tab of the same thickness as the disk has minimal effect on the performance but affects the durability of the disk due to the fragility or robustness of the tab. The synthetic jets

  14. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized.

  16. Paper-based synthetic gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J

    2014-11-06

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides an alternate, versatile venue for synthetic biologists to operate and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile, and abiotic distribution of synthetic-biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research, and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small-molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors.

  17. Paper-based Synthetic Gene Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Keith; Green, Alexander A.; Ferrante, Tom; Cameron, D. Ewen; DaleyKeyser, Ajay; Yin, Peng; Collins, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic gene networks have wide-ranging uses in reprogramming and rewiring organisms. To date, there has not been a way to harness the vast potential of these networks beyond the constraints of a laboratory or in vivo environment. Here, we present an in vitro paper-based platform that provides a new venue for synthetic biologists to operate, and a much-needed medium for the safe deployment of engineered gene circuits beyond the lab. Commercially available cell-free systems are freeze-dried onto paper, enabling the inexpensive, sterile and abiotic distribution of synthetic biology-based technologies for the clinic, global health, industry, research and education. For field use, we create circuits with colorimetric outputs for detection by eye, and fabricate a low-cost, electronic optical interface. We demonstrate this technology with small molecule and RNA actuation of genetic switches, rapid prototyping of complex gene circuits, and programmable in vitro diagnostics, including glucose sensors and strain-specific Ebola virus sensors. PMID:25417167

  18. Geo synthetic-reinforced Pavement systems; Sistemas de pavimentos reforzados con geosinteticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zornberg, J. G.

    2014-02-01

    Geo synthetics have been used as reinforcement inclusions to improve pavement performance. while there are clear field evidence of the benefit of using geo synthetic reinforcements, the specific conditions or mechanisms that govern the reinforcement of pavements are, at best, unclear and have remained largely unmeasured. Significant research has been recently conducted with the objectives of: (i) determining the relevant properties of geo synthetics that contribute to the enhanced performance of pavement systems, (ii) developing appropriate analytical, laboratory and field methods capable of quantifying the pavement performance, and (iii) enabling the prediction of pavement performance as a function of the properties of the various types of geo synthetics. (Author)

  19. satl based lesson for teaching grignard reagents in synthetic organic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    Traditionally, Grignard reagent has been very vital component of such synthetic ... knowledge, the systemic methodology of teaching and learning is the key point. Chemistry is ... chosen in particular to enlighten the students about effectiveness of systemic approach to .... Lectures through Systemic Approach to Teaching and.

  20. High-performance vertical organic transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Hans; Günther, Alrun A; Leo, Karl; Lüssem, Björn

    2013-11-11

    Vertical organic thin-film transistors (VOTFTs) are promising devices to overcome the transconductance and cut-off frequency restrictions of horizontal organic thin-film transistors. The basic physical mechanisms of VOTFT operation, however, are not well understood and VOTFTs often require complex patterning techniques using self-assembly processes which impedes a future large-area production. In this contribution, high-performance vertical organic transistors comprising pentacene for p-type operation and C60 for n-type operation are presented. The static current-voltage behavior as well as the fundamental scaling laws of such transistors are studied, disclosing a remarkable transistor operation with a behavior limited by injection of charge carriers. The transistors are manufactured by photolithography, in contrast to other VOTFT concepts using self-assembled source electrodes. Fluorinated photoresist and solvent compounds allow for photolithographical patterning directly and strongly onto the organic materials, simplifying the fabrication protocol and making VOTFTs a prospective candidate for future high-performance applications of organic transistors. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. A combinatorial approach to synthetic receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David

    1999-01-01

    Antibodies, the workhorses of every living organisms immune system, are characterized by their extraordinarily high binding affinity and selectivity for a particular antigen. Despite numerous efforts to mimic these binding properties in synthetic molecules, chemists have so far not been able to

  2. Cell-free synthetic biology for environmental sensing and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karig, David K

    2017-06-01

    The fields of biosensing and bioremediation leverage the phenomenal array of sensing and metabolic capabilities offered by natural microbes. Synthetic biology provides tools for transforming these fields through complex integration of natural and novel biological components to achieve sophisticated sensing, regulation, and metabolic function. However, the majority of synthetic biology efforts are conducted in living cells, and concerns over releasing genetically modified organisms constitute a key barrier to environmental applications. Cell-free protein expression systems offer a path towards leveraging synthetic biology, while preventing the spread of engineered organisms in nature. Recent efforts in the areas of cell-free approaches for sensing, regulation, and metabolic pathway implementation, as well as for preserving and deploying cell-free expression components, embody key steps towards realizing the potential of cell-free systems for environmental sensing and remediation. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. [Anthropology and synthetic Darwinism in the Third Reich: The Evolution of Organisms (1943)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Junker, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    This essay will analyse early attempts to base anthropology on the theoretical model provided by the emerging synthetic Darwinism of the 1940s. In the first section we will investigate the historical context of the publication of one of the central documents of synthetic Darwinism in Germany: Gerhard Heberer's Die Evolution der Organismen (1943). Anthropology was covered extensively in this book. The second section will give an impression of the live and work of the five anthropologists represented in Heberer's book: Christian von Krogh, Wilhelm Gieseler, Otto Reche, Hans Weinert, and Gerhard Heberer. The third part of our paper will clarify whether these anthropologists shared a common theoretical outlook with the founders of synthetic Darwinism, and to what degree they were committed to the racial ideas of the Third Reich.

  4. Fertilizer performance of liquid fraction of digestate as synthetic nitrogen substitute in silage maize cultivation for three consecutive years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurnjak, I; Vaneeckhaute, C; Michels, E; Ryckaert, B; Ghekiere, G; Tack, F M G; Meers, E

    2017-12-01

    Following changes over recent years in fertilizer legislative framework throughout Europe, phosphorus (P) is taking over the role of being the limiting factor in fertilizer application rate of animal manure. This results in less placement area for spreading animal manure. As a consequence, more expensive and energy demanding synthetic fertilizers are required to meet crop nutrient requirements despite existing manure surpluses. Anaerobic digestion followed by mechanical separation of raw digestate, results in liquid fraction (LF) of digestate, a product poor in P but rich in nitrogen (N) and potassium (K). A 3-year field experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of using the LF of digestate as a (partial) substitute for synthetic N fertilizer. Two different fertilization strategies, the LF of digestate in combination with respectively animal manure and digestate, were compared to the conventional fertilization regime of raw animal manure with synthetic fertilizers. Results from the 3-year trial indicate that the LF of digestate may substitute synthetic N fertilizers without crop yield losses. Through fertilizer use efficiency assessment it was observed that under-fertilization of soils with a high P status could reduce P availability and consequently the potential for P leaching. Under conditions of lower K application, more sodium was taken up by the crop. In arid regions, this effect might reduce the potential risk of salt accumulation that is associated with organic fertilizer application. Finally, economic and ecological benefits were found to be higher when LF of digestate was used as a synthetic N substitute. Future perspectives indicate that nutrient variability in bio-based fertilizers will be one of the greatest challenges to address in the future utilization of these products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthetic biology between technoscience and thing knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfert, Axel

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology presents a challenge to traditional accounts of biology: Whereas traditional biology emphasizes the evolvability, variability, and heterogeneity of living organisms, synthetic biology envisions a future of homogeneous, humanly engineered biological systems that may be combined in modular fashion. The present paper approaches this challenge from the perspective of the epistemology of technoscience. In particular, it is argued that synthetic-biological artifacts lend themselves to an analysis in terms of what has been called 'thing knowledge'. As such, they should neither be regarded as the simple outcome of applying theoretical knowledge and engineering principles to specific technological problems, nor should they be treated as mere sources of new evidence in the general pursuit of scientific understanding. Instead, synthetic-biological artifacts should be viewed as partly autonomous research objects which, qua their material-biological constitution, embody knowledge about the natural world-knowledge that, in turn, can be accessed via continuous experimental interrogation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis and confirmation of synthetic anorexics in adulterated traditional Chinese medicines by high-performance capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Y R; Chang, Y S; Wen, K C; Ho, L K

    1999-07-02

    Six synthetic anorexics, clobenzorex, diethylpropion, fenfluramine, methamphetamine, phenylpropanolamine and phentermine, which can be found as adulterants in traditional Chinese medicines were assayed simultaneously by high-performance capillary electrophoresis. The electrolyte was a buffer solution containing 120 mM phosphate buffer (NaH2PO4/H3PO4, pH 2.0) and 15% acetonitrile. Applied voltage was 16 kV and temperature was 30 degrees C. Fluoren-2,7-diammonium chloride was used as an internal standard and detector set at 200 nm. The recoveries of the synthetic anorexic adulterants in traditional Chinese medicinal formula using C8-SCX mixed solid-phase extraction were studied. Several traditional Chinese medicinal powders obtained from clinics were also studied by the above HPCE method and confirmed by GC-MS. Clobenzorex, diethylpropion and fenfluramine were found and determine in these samples.

  7. Self-Assembling Organic Nanopores as Synthetic Transmembrane Channels with Tunable Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoxi

    A long-standing goal in the area of supramolecular self-assembly involves the development of synthetic ion/water channels capable of mimicking the mass-transport characteristics of biological channels and pores. Few examples of artificial transmembrane channels with large lumen, high conductivity and selectivity are known. A review of pronounced biological transmembrane protein channels and some representative synthetic models have been provided in Chapter 1, followed by our discovery and initial investigation of shape-persistent oligoamide and phenylene ethynylene macrocycles as synthetic ion/water channels. In Chapter 2, the systematic structural modification of oligoamide macrocycles 1, the so-called first-generation of these shape-persistent macrocycles, has led to third-generation macrocycles 3. The third generation was found to exhibit unprecedented, strong intermolecular association in both the solid state and solution via multiple techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and 1H NMR. Fluorescence spectroscopy paired with dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that macrocycles 3 can assemble into a singly dispersed nanotubular structure in solution. The resultant self-assembling pores consisting of 3 were examined by HPTS-LUVs assays and BLM studies (Chapter 3) and found to form cation-selective (PK+/PCl- = 69:1) transmembrane ion channels with large conductance (200 ˜ 2000 pS for alkali cations) and high stability with open times reaching to 103 seconds. Tuning the aggregation state of macrocycles by choosing an appropriate polar solvent mixture (i.e., 3:1, THF:DMF, v/v) and concentration led to the formation of ion channels with well-defined square top behavior. A parallel study using DLS to examine the size of aggregates was used in conjunction with channel activity assays (LUVs/BLM) to reveal the effects of the aggregation state on channel activity. Empirical evidence now clearly indicates that a preassembled state, perhaps that of a

  8. Synthetic biology and molecular genetics in non-conventional yeasts: Current tools and future advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, James M; Alper, Hal S

    2016-04-01

    Coupling the tools of synthetic biology with traditional molecular genetic techniques can enable the rapid prototyping and optimization of yeast strains. While the era of yeast synthetic biology began in the well-characterized model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is swiftly expanding to include non-conventional yeast production systems such as Hansenula polymorpha, Kluyveromyces lactis, Pichia pastoris, and Yarrowia lipolytica. These yeasts already have roles in the manufacture of vaccines, therapeutic proteins, food additives, and biorenewable chemicals, but recent synthetic biology advances have the potential to greatly expand and diversify their impact on biotechnology. In this review, we summarize the development of synthetic biological tools (including promoters and terminators) and enabling molecular genetics approaches that have been applied in these four promising alternative biomanufacturing platforms. An emphasis is placed on synthetic parts and genome editing tools. Finally, we discuss examples of synthetic tools developed in other organisms that can be adapted or optimized for these hosts in the near future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New Synthetic Methods for Hypericum Natural Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Insik [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Organic chemistry has served as a solid foundation for interdisciplinary research areas, such as molecular biology and medicinal chemistry. An understanding of the biological activities and structural elucidations of natural products can lead to the development of clinically valuable therapeutic options. The advancements of modern synthetic methodologies allow for more elaborate and concise natural product syntheses. The theme of this study centers on the synthesis of natural products with particularly challenging structures and interesting biological activities. The synthetic expertise developed here will be applicable to analog syntheses and to other research problems.

  10. Segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech produced by rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J S; Greene, B G; Pisoni, D B

    1989-08-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation that employed the modified rhyme test (MRT) to measure the segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech generated automatically by rule. Synthetic speech produced by ten text-to-speech systems was studied and compared to natural speech. A variation of the standard MRT was also used to study the effects of response set size on perceptual confusions. Results indicated that the segmental intelligibility scores formed a continuum. Several systems displayed very high levels of performance that were close to or equal to scores obtained with natural speech; other systems displayed substantially worse performance compared to natural speech. The overall performance of the best system, DECtalk--Paul, was equivalent to the data obtained with natural speech for consonants in syllable-initial position. The findings from this study are discussed in terms of the use of a set of standardized procedures for measuring intelligibility of synthetic speech under controlled laboratory conditions. Recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions in which greater demands are made on the listener's processing resources is also considered. The wide range of intelligibility scores obtained in the present study demonstrates important differences in perception and suggests that not all synthetic speech is perceptually equivalent to the listener.

  11. Segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech produced by rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John S.; Greene, Beth G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an investigation that employed the modified rhyme test (MRT) to measure the segmental intelligibility of synthetic speech generated automatically by rule. Synthetic speech produced by ten text-to-speech systems was studied and compared to natural speech. A variation of the standard MRT was also used to study the effects of response set size on perceptual confusions. Results indicated that the segmental intelligibility scores formed a continuum. Several systems displayed very high levels of performance that were close to or equal to scores obtained with natural speech; other systems displayed substantially worse performance compared to natural speech. The overall performance of the best system, DECtalk—Paul, was equivalent to the data obtained with natural speech for consonants in syllable-initial position. The findings from this study are discussed in terms of the use of a set of standardized procedures for measuring intelligibility of synthetic speech under controlled laboratory conditions. Recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions in which greater demands are made on the listener’s processing resources is also considered. The wide range of intelligibility scores obtained in the present study demonstrates important differences in perception and suggests that not all synthetic speech is perceptually equivalent to the listener. PMID:2527884

  12. Influence of Pichia pastoris cellular material on polymerase chain reaction performance as a synthetic biology standard for genome monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templar, Alexander; Woodhouse, Stefan; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli; Nesbeth, Darren N

    2016-08-01

    Advances in synthetic genomics are now well underway in yeasts due to the low cost of synthetic DNA. These new capabilities also bring greater need for quantitating the presence, loss and rearrangement of loci within synthetic yeast genomes. Methods for achieving this will ideally; i) be robust to industrial settings, ii) adhere to a global standard and iii) be sufficiently rapid to enable at-line monitoring during cell growth. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) is increasingly used for industrial production of biotherapeutic proteins so we sought to answer the following questions for this particular yeast species. Is time-consuming DNA purification necessary to obtain accurate end-point polymerase chain reaction (e-pPCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data? Can the novel linear regression of efficiency qPCR method (LRE qPCR), which has properties desirable in a synthetic biology standard, match the accuracy of conventional qPCR? Does cell cultivation scale influence PCR performance? To answer these questions we performed e-pPCR and qPCR in the presence and absence of cellular material disrupted by a mild 30s sonication procedure. The e-pPCR limit of detection (LOD) for a genomic target locus was 50pg (4.91×10(3) copies) of purified genomic DNA (gDNA) but the presence of cellular material reduced this sensitivity sixfold to 300pg gDNA (2.95×10(4) copies). LRE qPCR matched the accuracy of a conventional standard curve qPCR method. The presence of material from bioreactor cultivation of up to OD600=80 did not significantly compromise the accuracy of LRE qPCR. We conclude that a simple and rapid cell disruption step is sufficient to render P. pastoris samples of up to OD600=80 amenable to analysis using LRE qPCR which we propose as a synthetic biology standard. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Natural - synthetic - artificial!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter E

    2010-01-01

    The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life.......The terms "natural," "synthetic" and "artificial" are discussed in relation to synthetic and artificial chromosomes and genomes, synthetic and artificial cells and artificial life....

  14. Economic Efficiency of Establishing Domestic Production of Synthetic Liquid Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyzym Mykola O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article notes a stable tendency to increasing the oil dependence of Ukraine, which creates a threat to the national economic security, and proves an expediency of establishing domestic production of synthetic liquid fuel. The technical, organizational and economic features of establishing synthetic liquid fuel production in Ukraine are presented. There proved a hypothesis on the expediency of organizing the production of synthetic liquid fuels based on steam-plasma coal gasification technology. The forecast resource cycle of the country until 2020 under conditions of developing this technology is modeled.

  15. Novel synthetic organic compounds inspired from antifeedant marine alkaloids as potent bacterial biofilm inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rane, Rajesh A; Karpoormath, Rajshekhar; Naphade, Shital S; Bangalore, Pavankumar; Shaikh, Mahamadhanif; Hampannavar, Girish

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we have reported seventeen novel synthetic organic compounds derived from marine bromopyrrole alkaloids, exhibiting potential inhibition of biofilm produced by Gram-positive bacteria. Compound 5f with minimumbiofilm inhibitory concentration(MBIC) of 0.39, 0.78 and 3.125 μg/mL against MSSA, MRSA and SE respectively, emerged as promising anti-biofilm lead compounds. In addition, compounds 5b, 5c, 5d, 5e, 5f, 5h, 5i and 5j revealed equal potency as that of the standard drug Vancomycin (MBIC = 3.125 μg/mL) against Streptococcus epidermidis. Notably, most of the synthesized compounds displayed better potency than Vancomycin indicating their potential as inhibitors of bacterial biofilm. The cell viability assay for the most active hybrid confirms its anti-virulence properties which need to be further researched. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of two anaerobic systems for hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and synthetic wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana M. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Perez-Hernandez, Antonino [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Chihuahua 31109 (Mexico); Eapen, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Chiapas, 29010 Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas (Mexico)

    2007-10-15

    Two laboratory scale anaerobic digestion systems for hydrogen production from organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and synthetic wastewater were compared in this study. One of them was formed by a coupled packed bed reactor (PBR) containing 19.4 L of OFMSW and the other an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) of 3.85 L. The reactors were inoculated with a mixture of non-anaerobic inocula. In the UASB the percentage of hydrogen yield reached 51% v/v and 127NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The concentration of synthetic wastewater in the affluent was 7 g COD/L. For the PBR the percentage yield was 47% v/v and 99NmLH{sub 2}/gvs removed with a mass retention time (MRT) of 50 days and the organic load rate of 16 gvs (Grams Volatile Solids)/(kg-day). The UASB and PBR systems presented maximum hydrogen yields of 30% and 23%, respectively, which correspond to 4molH{sub 2}/mol glucose. These values are similar to those reported in the literature for the hydrogen yield (37%) in mesophilic range. The acetic and butyric acids were present in the effluent as by-products in watery phase. In this work we used non-anaerobic inocula made up of microorganism consortium unlike other works where pure inocula or that from anaerobic sludge was used. (author)

  17. Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a protein source for organic chickens: performance and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Castellini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of transgenic feed and synthetic amino acids in organic chicken diets has made necessary to find protein-rich feedstuffs which do not alter productive performance. The effect of the faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor as a partial substitute for soybean on the performance and carcass traits of slow-growing chickens of both sexes reared under the organic method was assessed. The experiment was carried out in the spring and autumn; one thousand birds per season were split into 8 groups (4 groups of males and 4 groups of females, each duplicated and fed a double phase diet: a common starter diet for 20 days and two different growing-finisher diets containing either soybean (24%; S or faba bean (16%; F till the end of the rearing period (120 d. Average values of final live weight, feed intake and daily weight gain were significantly affected by sex, being higher in males than in females; the diets affected performance only in the 21-60 days of age period when the F group grew less and had poorer feed efficiency compared to the S group. Successively, the compensatory growth eliminated differences in slaughter weight. Regarding carcass traits, the diet affected only the ready- to-cook carcass percentage and the carena length, both of which were higher in S birds. Faba beans could be a valuable protein source in the diet of organic chickens when used after the critical starter period.

  18. Agent-based modelling in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorochowski, Thomas E

    2016-11-30

    Biological systems exhibit complex behaviours that emerge at many different levels of organization. These span the regulation of gene expression within single cells to the use of quorum sensing to co-ordinate the action of entire bacterial colonies. Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology easier, offering an opportunity to control natural systems and develop new synthetic systems with useful prescribed behaviours. However, in many cases, it is not understood how individual cells should be programmed to ensure the emergence of a required collective behaviour. Agent-based modelling aims to tackle this problem, offering a framework in which to simulate such systems and explore cellular design rules. In this article, I review the use of agent-based models in synthetic biology, outline the available computational tools, and provide details on recently engineered biological systems that are amenable to this approach. I further highlight the challenges facing this methodology and some of the potential future directions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Crust growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1992-03-01

    The focus of the work described here is to examine the principal contributing factors leading to slurry growth and gas retention within waste from a particular high-level waste tanks on the Hanford Site. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that the waste retains gases in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles. This attachment phenomenon is related to the presence of organic constituents (HEDTA, EDTA, and citrate) added to the waste matrix. The mechanism for bubble attachment is related to the hydrophobic surface produced by the organic complexant. The formation of a stable gas bubble/solid interaction is believed to be responsible for crust flotation and gas retention in the synthetic waste used here

  20. A parametric study of rate of advance and area coverage rate performance of synthetic aperture radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raynal, Ann Marie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hensley, Jr., William H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burns, Bryan L. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doerry, Armin Walter [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The linear ground distance per unit time and ground area covered per unit time of producing synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery, termed rate of advance (ROA) and area coverage rate (ACR), are important metrics for platform and radar performance in surveillance applications. These metrics depend on many parameters of a SAR system such as wavelength, aircraft velocity, resolution, antenna beamwidth, imaging mode, and geometry. Often the effects of these parameters on rate of advance and area coverage rate are non-linear. This report addresses the impact of different parameter spaces as they relate to rate of advance and area coverage rate performance.

  1. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  2. Hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weidong; Song, Shuyan; Zhang, Hongjie

    2013-07-07

    Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, inorganic semiconducting nanostructures have gradually played a pivotal role in a variety of research fields, including electronics, chemical reactivity, energy conversion, and optics. A major feature of these nanostructures is the quantum confinement effect, which strongly depends on their size, shape, crystal structure and polydispersity. Among all developed synthetic methods, the hydrothermal method based on a water system has attracted more and more attention because of its outstanding advantages, such as high yield, simple manipulation, easy control, uniform products, lower air pollution, low energy consumption and so on. Precise control over the hydrothermal synthetic conditions is a key to the success of the preparation of high-quality inorganic semiconducting nanostructures. In this review, only the representative hydrothermal synthetic strategies of inorganic semiconducting nanostructures are selected and discussed. We will introduce the four types of strategies based on exterior reaction system adjustment, namely organic additive- and template-free hydrothermal synthesis, organic additive-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, template-assisted hydrothermal synthesis and substrate-assisted hydrothermal synthesis. In addition, the two strategies based on exterior reaction environment adjustment, including microwave-assisted and magnetic field-assisted hydrothermal synthesis, will be also described. Finally, we conclude and give the future prospects of this research area.

  3. The Role of Performance Management in Creating and Maintaining a High-Performance Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André A. de Waal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available There is still a good deal of confusion in the literature about how the use of a performance management system affects overall organizational performance. Some researchers find that performance management enhances both the financial and non-financial results of an organization, while others do not find any positive effects or, at most, ambiguous effects. An important step toward getting more clarity in this relationship is to investigate the role performance management plays in creating and maintaining a high-performance organization (HPO. The purpose of this study is to integrate performance management analysis (PMA and high-performance organization (HPO. A questionnaire combining questions on PMA dimensions and HPO factors was administered to two European-based multinational firms. Based on 468 valid questionnaires, a correlation analysis was performed on the PMA dimensions and the HPO factors in order to test the impact of performance management on the factors of high organizational performance. The results show strong and significant correlations between all the PMA dimensions and all the HPO factors, indicating that a performance management system that fosters performance-driven behavior in the organization is of critical importance to strengthen overall financial and non-financial performance.

  4. Accounting for results: how conservation organizations report performance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena R; Smail, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Environmental program performance information is in high demand, but little research suggests why conservation organizations differ in reporting performance information. We compared performance measurement and reporting by four private-land conservation organizations: Partners for Fish and Wildlife in the US Fish and Wildlife Service (national government), Forest Stewardship Council-US (national nonprofit organization), Land and Water Conservation Departments (local government), and land trusts (local nonprofit organization). We asked: (1) How did the pattern of performance reporting relationships vary across organizations? (2) Was political conflict among organizations' principals associated with greater performance information? and (3) Did performance information provide evidence of program effectiveness? Based on our typology of performance information, we found that most organizations reported output measures such as land area or number of contracts, some reported outcome indicators such as adherence to performance standards, but few modeled or measured environmental effects. Local government Land and Water Conservation Departments reported the most types of performance information, while local land trusts reported the fewest. The case studies suggest that governance networks influence the pattern and type of performance reporting, that goal conflict among principles is associated with greater performance information, and that performance information provides unreliable causal evidence of program effectiveness. Challenging simple prescriptions to generate more data as evidence, this analysis suggests (1) complex institutional and political contexts for environmental program performance and (2) the need to supplement performance measures with in-depth evaluations that can provide causal inferences about program effectiveness.

  5. Performance Evaluation of a Synthetic Aperture Real-Time Ultrasound System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stuart, Matthias Bo; Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the signal-to-noise ratio, the time stability, and the phase difference of the sampling in the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS: A synthetic aperture, real-time ultrasound system. SARUS has 1024 independent transmit and receive channels and is capable of handling 2D probes...... arrays (FPGAs) making it very flexible and allowing implementation of other real-time ultrasound processing methods in the future. For conventional B-mode imaging, a penetration depth around 7 cm for a 7 MHz transducer is obtained (signal-tonoise ratio of 0 dB), which is comparable to commercial...... for 3D ultrasound imaging. It samples at 12 bits per sample and has a sampling rate of 70 MHz with the possibility of decimating the sampling frequency at the input. SARUS is capable of advanced real-time computations such as synthetic aperture imaging. The system is built using fieldprogrammable gate...

  6. Slurry growth and gas retention in synthetic Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Scheele, R.D.

    1992-09-01

    This work seeks to establish chemical and physical processes responsible for the generation and retention of gases within waste from a particular high-level waste tank on the Hanford Site, Tank 101-SY, through the use of synthetic wastes on a laboratory scale. The goal of these activities is to support the development of mitigation/remediation strategies for Tank 101-SY. Laboratory studies of aged synthetic waste have shown that gas generation occurs thermally at a significant level at current tank temperatures. Gas compositions include the same gases produced in actual tank waste, primarily N 2 , N 2 O, and H 2 . Gas stoichiometries have been shown to be greatly influenced by several organic and inorganic constituents within the synthetic waste. Retention of gases in the synthetic waste is in the form of bubble attachment to solid particles

  7. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1A. National impacts assessment. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents the results of the national impacts assessment for the proposed rule

  8. Microfluidic Technologies for Synthetic Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Kuk Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Microfluidic technologies have shown powerful abilities for reducing cost, time, and labor, and at the same time, for increasing accuracy, throughput, and performance in the analysis of biological and biochemical samples compared with the conventional, macroscale instruments. Synthetic biology is an emerging field of biology and has drawn much attraction due to its potential to create novel, functional biological parts and systems for special purposes. Since it is believed that the development of synthetic biology can be accelerated through the use of microfluidic technology, in this review work we focus our discussion on the latest microfluidic technologies that can provide unprecedented means in synthetic biology for dynamic profiling of gene expression/regulation with high resolution, highly sensitive on-chip and off-chip detection of metabolites, and whole-cell analysis.

  9. The relationship between family orientation, organization context, organization structure and firm performance

    OpenAIRE

    Joris Meijaard; Lorraine Uhlaner

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of three firm performance indicators, sales growth, innovation performance and profitability, on a sample of small and medium-sized firms in the Netherlands. Predictions from agency theory and the resource based view of organizations lead to alternate hypotheses regarding the direct and indirect effects of family ownership and management on firm performance. Other variables in the analysis include various organization structure variables including standard...

  10. Plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wusheng; Stewart, C Neal

    2015-05-01

    Plant synthetic biology is an emerging field that combines engineering principles with plant biology toward the design and production of new devices. This emerging field should play an important role in future agriculture for traditional crop improvement, but also in enabling novel bioproduction in plants. In this review we discuss the design cycles of synthetic biology as well as key engineering principles, genetic parts, and computational tools that can be utilized in plant synthetic biology. Some pioneering examples are offered as a demonstration of how synthetic biology can be used to modify plants for specific purposes. These include synthetic sensors, synthetic metabolic pathways, and synthetic genomes. We also speculate about the future of synthetic biology of plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors limiting the grain protein content of organic winter wheat in south-eastern France: a mixed-model approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, M.; David, C.; Valantin-Morison, M.; Makowski, D.; Jeuffroy, M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Organic agriculture could achieve the objectives of sustainable agriculture by banning the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. However, organic crops generally show lower performances than conventional ones. In France, organic winter wheat production is characterized by low grain protein

  12. Nanomaterials derived from metal-organic frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Song; Zhu, Qi-Long; Xu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The thermal transformation of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) generates a variety of nanostructured materials, including carbon-based materials, metal oxides, metal chalcogenides, metal phosphides and metal carbides. These derivatives of MOFs have characteristics such as high surface areas, permanent porosities and controllable functionalities that enable their good performance in sensing, gas storage, catalysis and energy-related applications. Although progress has been made to tune the morphologies of MOF-derived structures at the nanometre scale, it remains crucial to further our knowledge of the relationship between morphology and performance. In this Review, we summarize the synthetic strategies and optimized methods that enable control over the size, morphology, composition and structure of the derived nanomaterials. In addition, we compare the performance of materials prepared by the MOF-templated strategy and other synthetic methods. Our aim is to reveal the relationship between the morphology and the physico-chemical properties of MOF-derived nanostructures to optimize their performance for applications such as sensing, catalysis, and energy storage and conversion.

  13. The Impact of a Learning Organization on Performance: Focusing on Knowledge Performance and Financial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungshin; Watkins, Karen E.; Lu, Zhenqiu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among a learning organization, knowledge and financial performance using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire and its abbreviated version. Design/methodology/approach: This study used a secondary data set and performed second-order factor analysis and…

  14. Reconnaissance of Volatile Synthetic Organic Chemicals at Public Water Supply Wells Throughout Puerto Rico, November 1984-May 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rios, Senen; Garcia, Rene; Aviles, Ada

    1987-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Ground water is the principal source of drinking water for about 850,000 people in Puerto Rico (National Water Summary, 1985). Ground-water withdrawals for public supply, agricultural, and industrial water uses in Puerto Rico are about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) (Torres-Sierra and Aviles, 1985). The development of the most accessible surface water supplies will result in an increasing demand for ground water. Recent investigations conducted by the U. S. Geological Survey, WRD (USGS) have shown the presence of toxic synthetic organic chemicals in ground water throughout Puerto Rico (Gomez-Gomez and Guzman-Rios, 1982). Volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOC's) have been detected in water from public water supply wells in concentrations ranging from 1 to 500 micrograms per liter (Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1984 and Guzman-Rios and Quinones-Marquez, 1985). As result of these findings, pumpage was discontinued at 6 wells operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA), the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico agency responsible for public-water supply. Monitoring of 10 additional wells in the vicinity of those wells is being conducted by the USGS in cooperation with PRASA. In 1985, the USGS began a comprehensive islandwide study of VOC's in drinking water. The study was conducted in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Health (PRDOH) and PRASA. Samples were collected from 243 public-water supply wells operated by PRASA (flgure 1). The authors wish to acknowledge the support, assistance and cooperation of the PRASA staff throughout Puerto Rico in the sample collection effort. The authors are especially grateful to Engineer Carlos Garcia-Troche from the PRASA main office in San Juan.

  15. Radical covalent organic frameworks: a general strategy to immobilize open-accessible polyradicals for high-performance capacitive energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Xu, Hong; Chen, Xiong; Wu, Dingcai; Wu, Yang; Liu, Hao; Gu, Cheng; Fu, Ruowen; Jiang, Donglin

    2015-06-01

    Ordered π-columns and open nanochannels found in covalent organic frameworks (COFs) could render them able to store electric energy. However, the synthetic difficulty in achieving redox-active skeletons has thus far restricted their potential for energy storage. A general strategy is presented for converting a conventional COF into an outstanding platform for energy storage through post-synthetic functionalization with organic radicals. The radical frameworks with openly accessible polyradicals immobilized on the pore walls undergo rapid and reversible redox reactions, leading to capacitive energy storage with high capacitance, high-rate kinetics, and robust cycle stability. The results suggest that channel-wall functional engineering with redox-active species will be a facile and versatile strategy to explore COFs for energy storage. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The roots of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    It was concern about the replacement of traditional organic fertilizers by the then new chemical fertilizers that precipitated the early stirrings of disquiet about the prevailing direction of agriculture and which has grown into today’s organic agriculture movement. Unease about the issue of synthetic fertilizers preceded the current era of concerns about manufactured nanomaterials in food and farming, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), antibiotic-fattened farm animals, and synthetic pes...

  17. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  18. Synthetic Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic cannabinoids which is a subgroup of cannabinoids are commonly used for recreational drug use throughout the whole world. Although both marijuana and synthetic cannabinoids stimulate the same receptors, cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1 and cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2, studies have shown that synthetic cannabinoids are much more potent than marijuana. The longer use of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe physical and psychological symptoms that might even result in death, similar to many known illicit drugs. Main treatment options mostly involve symptom management and supportive care. The aim of this article is to discuss clinical and pharmacological properties of the increasingly used synthetic cannabinoids. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2017; 9(3.000: 317-328

  19. PLAN FOR PERFORMANCE ADMINISTRATION IN PYRAMIDAL STRUCTURE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo Alarcón Ortiz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance administration has become a current strategy in evaluating management within organizations, but its implementation often lacks an action plan, resulting from the valuation of climate and leadership styles embedded in the culture of the organization. This paper proposes a model action plan for performance management, which has been implemented, executed and evaluated in pyramidal organizational structure organizations where a diagnosis of the cultural climate and leadership styles recurring in the organization have been previously made.

  20. THE CONCEPT OF PERFORMANCE IN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS – CASE STUDY ON THE EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE IN ROMANIAN BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    COSMIN OCTAVIAN DOBRIN; GHEORGHE N. POPESCU; VERONICA ADRIANA POPESCU; CRISTINA RALUCA POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    The general economic recession generated by the world financial crisis, with direct implications on funding, economic actors’ interactions, economic and social environment, technological progress and knowledge development, imposes the rethinking of the concept of performance in business organizations worldwide. Our study aims to present the importance held by performance at the level of business organizations in terms of a historical and multidisciplinary approach, in order to determine the b...

  1. Dimer self-organization of impurity ytterbium ions in synthetic forsterite single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, V. F.; Sukhanov, A. A.; Dudnikova, V. B.; Zharikov, E. V.; Lis, D. A.; Subbotin, K. A.

    2017-07-01

    Paramagnetic centers formed by impurity Yb3+ ions in synthetic forsterite (Mg2SiO4) grown by the Czochralski technique are studied by X-band CW and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. These centers are single ions substituting magnesium in two different crystallographic positions denoted M1 and M2, and dimer associates formed by two Yb3+ ions in nearby positions M1. It is established that there is a pronounced mechanism favoring self-organization of ytterbium ions in dimer associates during the crystal growth, and the mechanism of the spin-spin coupling between ytterbium ions in the associate has predominantly a dipole-dipole character, which makes it possible to control the energy of the spin-spin interaction by changing the orientation of the external magnetic field. The structural computer simulation of cluster ytterbium centers in forsterite crystals is carried out by the method of interatomic potentials using the GULP 4.0.1 code (General Utility Lattice Program). It is established that the formation of dimer associates in the form of a chain parallel to the crystallographic axis consisting of two ytterbium ions with a magnesium vacancy between them is the most energetically favorable for ytterbium ions substituting magnesium in the position M1.

  2. Indonesian Private University Lecturer Performance Improvement Model to Improve a Sustainable Organization Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryaman

    2018-01-01

    Lecturer performance will affect the quality and carrying capacity of the sustainability of an organization, in this case the university. There are many models developed to measure the performance of teachers, but not much to discuss the influence of faculty performance itself towards sustainability of an organization. This study was conducted in…

  3. Synthetic biology for pharmaceutical drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trosset JY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Yves Trosset,1 Pablo Carbonell2,3 1Bioinformation Research Laboratory, Sup’Biotech, Villejuif, France; 2Faculty of Life Sciences, SYNBIOCHEM Centre, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK; 3Department of Experimental and Health Sciences (DCEXS, Research Programme on Biomedical Informatics (GRIB, Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute (IMIM, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: Synthetic biology (SB is an emerging discipline, which is slowly reorienting the field of drug discovery. For thousands of years, living organisms such as plants were the major source of human medicines. The difficulty in resynthesizing natural products, however, often turned pharmaceutical industries away from this rich source for human medicine. More recently, progress on transformation through genetic manipulation of biosynthetic units in microorganisms has opened the possibility of in-depth exploration of the large chemical space of natural products derivatives. Success of SB in drug synthesis culminated with the bioproduction of artemisinin by microorganisms, a tour de force in protein and metabolic engineering. Today, synthetic cells are not only used as biofactories but also used as cell-based screening platforms for both target-based and phenotypic-based approaches. Engineered genetic circuits in synthetic cells are also used to decipher disease mechanisms or drug mechanism of actions and to study cell–cell communication within bacteria consortia. This review presents latest developments of SB in the field of drug discovery, including some challenging issues such as drug resistance and drug toxicity. Keywords: metabolic engineering, plant synthetic biology, natural products, synthetic quorum sensing, drug resistance

  4. Performance management practices in public sector organizations : Impact on performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeeten, Frank H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The aim of this study is to investigate whether performance management practices affect performance in public sector organizations. Design/methodology/approach - Theoretically, the research project is based on economic as well as behavioral theories. The study distinguishes amongst

  5. [From synthetic biology to synthetic humankind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouvel, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an historical survey of the expression "synthetic biology" in order to identify its main philosophical components. The result of the analysis is then used to investigate the meaning of the notion of "synthetic man". It is shown that both notions share a common philosophical background that can be summed up by the short but meaningful assertion: "biology is technology". The analysis allows us to distinguish two notions that are often confused in transhumanist literature: the notion of synthetic man and the notion of renewed man. The consequences of this crucial distinction are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Selection platforms for directed evolution in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizei, Pedro A G; Csibra, Eszter; Torres, Leticia; Pinheiro, Vitor B

    2016-08-15

    Life on Earth is incredibly diverse. Yet, underneath that diversity, there are a number of constants and highly conserved processes: all life is based on DNA and RNA; the genetic code is universal; biology is limited to a small subset of potential chemistries. A vast amount of knowledge has been accrued through describing and characterizing enzymes, biological processes and organisms. Nevertheless, much remains to be understood about the natural world. One of the goals in Synthetic Biology is to recapitulate biological complexity from simple systems made from biological molecules-gaining a deeper understanding of life in the process. Directed evolution is a powerful tool in Synthetic Biology, able to bypass gaps in knowledge and capable of engineering even the most highly conserved biological processes. It encompasses a range of methodologies to create variation in a population and to select individual variants with the desired function-be it a ligand, enzyme, pathway or even whole organisms. Here, we present some of the basic frameworks that underpin all evolution platforms and review some of the recent contributions from directed evolution to synthetic biology, in particular methods that have been used to engineer the Central Dogma and the genetic code. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Micro flow chemistry : new possibilities for synthetic chemists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noel, T.; Pignataro, B.

    2014-01-01

    The use of microreactor technology for continuous-flow chemistry has received a significant amount of attention in recent years. In this chapter, we discuss the important aspects of this technology and its impact on synthetic organic chemistry. Basic engineering principles, unusual reaction

  8. Doping Polymer Semiconductors by Organic Salts: Toward High-Performance Solution-Processed Organic Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Rengert, Zachary D; McDowell, Caitlin; Ford, Michael J; Wang, Ming; Karki, Akchheta; Lill, Alexander T; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2018-04-24

    Solution-processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) were fabricated with the addition of an organic salt, trityl tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate (TrTPFB), into thin films of donor-acceptor copolymer semiconductors. The performance of OFETs is significantly enhanced after the organic salt is incorporated. TrTPFB is confirmed to p-dope the organic semiconductors used in this study, and the doping efficiency as well as doping physics was investigated. In addition, systematic electrical and structural characterizations reveal how the doping enhances the performance of OFETs. Furthermore, it is shown that this organic salt doping method is feasible for both p- and n-doping by using different organic salts and, thus, can be utilized to achieve high-performance OFETs and organic complementary circuits.

  9. Immobilization of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Compounds: A Synthetic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Lindhorst, Anja C; Groche, Florian J; Kühn, Fritz E

    2017-02-08

    Over the course of the past 15 years the success story of N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) compounds in organic, inorganic, and organometallic chemistry has been extended to another dimension. The immobilization of NHC compounds, undergoing continuous diversification, broadens their range of applications and leads to new solutions for challenges in catalytic and synthetic chemistry. This review intends to present a synthetic toolkit for the immobilization of NHC compounds, giving the reader an overview on synthetic techniques and strategies available in the literature. By individually summarizing and assessing the synthetic steps of the immobilization process, a comprehensive picture of the strategies and methodologies for the immobilization of NHC compounds is presented. Furthermore, the characterization of supported NHC compounds is discussed in detail in order to set up necessary criteria for an in-depth analysis of the immobilized derivatives. Finally, the catalytic applications of immobilized NHC compounds are briefly reviewed to illustrate the practical use of this technique for a broad variety of reaction types.

  10. Nanoporous ionic organic networks: from synthesis to materials applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian-Ke; Antonietti, Markus; Yuan, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid progress in the synthesis of nanoporous organic networks or polymer frameworks for various potential applications. Generally speaking, functionalization of porous networks to add extra properties and enhance materials performance could be achieved either during the pore formation (thus a concurrent approach) or by post-synthetic modification (a sequential approach). Nanoporous organic networks which include ion pairs bound in a covalent manner are of specia...

  11. Performance Management in Healthcare Organizations: Concept and Practicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Panagiotis E

    2017-01-01

    Organizational performance can create and sustain competitive advantages for corporations and even improve their sustainability and future prospects. Health care organizations present a sector where performance management is structured by multiple dimensions. The scope of this study is to analyze the issue of performance management in healthcare organizations and specifically the implementation of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) methodology on organizations providing health services. The study provides a discussion on the BSC development process, the steps that management has to take in order to prepare the implementation of the BSC and finally discusses a practical example of a scorecard with specific strategic goals and performance indicators. Managers of healthcare organizations and specifically those providing services to the elderly and the general population could use the propositions of the study as a roadmap for processing, analyzing, evaluating and implementing the balanced scorecard approach in their organizations' daily operations. BSC methodology can give an advantage in terms of enhanced stakeholder management and preservation within a highly volatile and competitive economic environment.

  12. Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, immune status and organ morphometry in broilers fed Bacillus subtilis -supplemented diet. ... In conclusion, B. subtilis-type probiotics contributed positively to better growth performance, improved immune system and modulated morphology of lymphoid organs and gut mucosa in broilers. Keywords: ...

  13. Flexible Synthetic Semiconductor Applied in Optoelectronic Organic Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre F. S. Guedes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and application of new nanostructured organic materials, for the development of technology based on organic devices, have taken great interest from the scientific community. The greatest interest in studying organic semiconductor materials has been connected to its already known potential applications, such as: batteries, organic solar cells, flexible organic solar cells, organic light emitting diodes, organic sensors and others. Phototherapy makes use of different radiation sources, and the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia the most common therapeutic intervention occurs in the neonatal period. In this work we developed an organic optoelectronic sensor capable of detecting and determining the radiation dose rate emitted by the radiation source of neonatal phototherapy equipment. The sensors were developed using optically transparent substrate with Nanostructured thin film layers of Poly(9-Vinylcarbazole covered by a layer of Poly(P-Phenylene Vinylene. The samples were characterized by UV-Vis Spectroscopy, Electrical Measurements and SEM. With the results obtained from this study can be developed dosimeters organics to the neonatal phototherapy equipment.

  14. Intelligent Entity Behavior Within Synthetic Environments. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, R. V.; Howells, P. B.; Siksik, D. N.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes some elements in the development of realistic performance and behavior in the synthetic entities (players) which support Modeling and Simulation (M&S) applications, particularly military training. Modern human-in-the-loop (virtual) training systems incorporate sophisticated synthetic environments, which provide: 1. The operational environment, including, for example, terrain databases; 2. Physical entity parameters which define performance in engineered systems, such as aircraft aerodynamics; 3. Platform/system characteristics such as acoustic, IR and radar signatures; 4. Behavioral entity parameters which define interactive performance, including knowledge/reasoning about terrain, tactics; and, 5. Doctrine, which combines knowledge and tactics into behavior rule sets. The resolution and fidelity of these model/database elements can vary substantially, but as synthetic environments are designed to be compose able, attributes may easily be added (e.g., adding a new radar to an aircraft) or enhanced (e.g. Amending or replacing missile seeker head/ Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) models to improve the realism of their interaction). To a human in the loop with synthetic entities, their observed veridicality is assessed via engagement responses (e.g. effect of countermeasures upon a closing missile), as seen on systems displays, and visual (image) behavior. The realism of visual models in a simulation (level of detail as well as motion fidelity) remains a challenge in realistic articulation of elements such as vehicle antennae and turrets, or, with human figures; posture, joint articulation, response to uneven ground. Currently the adequacy of visual representation is more dependant upon the quality and resolution of the physical models driving those entities than graphics processing power per Se. Synthetic entities in M&S applications traditionally have represented engineered systems (e.g. aircraft) with human-in-the-loop performance

  15. Rewiring protein synthesis: From natural to synthetic amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yongqiang; Evans, Christopher R; Ling, Jiqiang

    2017-11-01

    The protein synthesis machinery uses 22 natural amino acids as building blocks that faithfully decode the genetic information. Such fidelity is controlled at multiple steps and can be compromised in nature and in the laboratory to rewire protein synthesis with natural and synthetic amino acids. This review summarizes the major quality control mechanisms during protein synthesis, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, elongation factors, and the ribosome. We will discuss evolution and engineering of such components that allow incorporation of natural and synthetic amino acids at positions that deviate from the standard genetic code. The protein synthesis machinery is highly selective, yet not fixed, for the correct amino acids that match the mRNA codons. Ambiguous translation of a codon with multiple amino acids or complete reassignment of a codon with a synthetic amino acid diversifies the proteome. Expanding the genetic code with synthetic amino acids through rewiring protein synthesis has broad applications in synthetic biology and chemical biology. Biochemical, structural, and genetic studies of the translational quality control mechanisms are not only crucial to understand the physiological role of translational fidelity and evolution of the genetic code, but also enable us to better design biological parts to expand the proteomes of synthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. How to Achieve Quality Business Performance in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merima Bekri ć

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available RQ: The research question is the influence of quality management on quality business performance.Purpose: Determine which top management approaches are essential for business excellence and leadership approaches that achieve quality business.Method: Analysis of articles from the Journal Organization from the last 5 years and one article from the Journal of Universal Excellent to obtain data.Results: Characteristics of managers and individual employees influence the quality of an organization's performance and business excellence. This is rudimentary for an organization to perform successfully. The results show the weaknesses that an organization can improve in.Organization: The research study facilitates in improving long-term success of an organization. The results can assist in further decision-making and timely responses to changes in its internal and external environment.Society: Better business performance contributes to the wider environment, as this also ensures stability of an organization.Originality: A different approach in viewing management issuesand searching for improvements. There are not many review articles on this topic.Limitations: The analysis was conducted with only ten articles.

  17. Basic science through engineering? Synthetic modeling and the idea of biology-inspired engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuuttila, Tarja; Loettgers, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their construction is typically combined with experiments on model organisms as well as mathematical modeling and simulation. What is especially interesting about this combinational modeling practice is that, apart from greater integration between these different epistemic activities, it has also led to the questioning of some central assumptions and notions on which synthetic biology is based. As a result synthetic biology is in the process of becoming more "biology inspired." Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of Performance Management in Public and Private Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidman, Ulrik; Andersen, Simon Calmar

    2014-01-01

    of management is less effective in public organizations. A difference-in-differences model based on survey data on management in Danish public and private schools, combined with administrative data of students’ test scores, confirms the hypothesis. The results have important implications for the transfer......Recent theoretical developments suggest that management actions have different impacts on outcomes in public and private organizations. This proposition is important to public organizations’ widespread import of private sector management tools such as performance management. This article examines...... how performance management influences performance outcomes in otherwise similar public and private organizations. Showing that the factors expected to diminish the impact of performance management parallel the organizational characteristics of public organizations, we hypothesize that this type...

  19. METABOLIC MODELLING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF CELL FACTORIES BY SYNTHETIC BIOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Jouhten

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell factories are commonly microbial organisms utilized for bioconversion of renewable resources to bulk or high value chemicals. Introduction of novel production pathways in chassis strains is the core of the development of cell factories by synthetic biology. Synthetic biology aims to create novel biological functions and systems not found in nature by combining biology with engineering. The workflow of the development of novel cell factories with synthetic biology is ideally linear which will be attainable with the quantitative engineering approach, high-quality predictive models, and libraries of well-characterized parts. Different types of metabolic models, mathematical representations of metabolism and its components, enzymes and metabolites, are useful in particular phases of the synthetic biology workflow. In this minireview, the role of metabolic modelling in synthetic biology will be discussed with a review of current status of compatible methods and models for the in silico design and quantitative evaluation of a cell factory.

  20. Recent advances in the molecular design of synthetic vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyn H.

    2015-12-01

    Vaccines have typically been prepared using whole organisms. These are normally either attenuated bacteria or viruses that are live but have been altered to reduce their virulence, or pathogens that have been inactivated and effectively killed through exposure to heat or formaldehyde. However, using whole organisms to elicit an immune response introduces the potential for infections arising from a reversion to a virulent form in live pathogens, unproductive reactions to vaccine components or batch-to-batch variability. Synthetic vaccines, in which a molecular antigen is conjugated to a carrier protein, offer the opportunity to circumvent these problems. This Perspective will highlight the progress that has been achieved in developing synthetic vaccines using a variety of molecular antigens. In particular, the different approaches used to develop conjugate vaccines using peptide/proteins, carbohydrates and other small molecule haptens as antigens are compared.

  1. Adsorption of polar aromatic hydrocarbons on synthetic calcite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lene; Grahl-Madsen, Laila; Grøn, Christian

    1996-01-01

    The wettability of hydrocarbon reservoirs depends on how and to what extent the organic compounds are adsorbed onto the surfaces of calcite, quartz and clay. A model system of synthetic call cite, cyclohexane and the three probe molecules: benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol and benzylamine, have been...

  2. An Alternative to Synthetic Acid Base Indicator-Tagetes Erecta Linn

    OpenAIRE

    *A. Elumalai; M. C. Eswariah; M. K. Chinna; B. A. Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The present work highlights the use of the methanolic extract of the flowers of Tagetes erecta as an acid-base indicator in acid-base titrations. This natural indicator is easy to extract as well as easily available. Indicators used in titration show well marked changes of colour in certain intervals of pH. Most of these indicators are organic dyes and are of synthetic origin. Today synthetic indicators are the choice of acid-base titrations. But due to environmental pollution, availability a...

  3. Synthetic vision display evaluation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regal, David M.; Whittington, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research was to help us understand the display requirements for a synthetic vision system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of different levels of perceptual cue complexity in displays used by pilots in a flare and landing task. Increased levels of texture mapping of terrain and runway produced mixed results, including harder but shorter landings and a lower flare initiation altitude. Under higher workload conditions, increased texture resulted in an improvement in performance. An increase in familiar size cues did not result in improved performance. Only a small difference was found between displays using two patterns of high resolution texture mapping. The effects of increased perceptual cue complexity on performance was not as strong as would be predicted from the pilot's subjective reports or from related literature. A description of the role of a synthetic vision system in the High Speed Civil Transport is provide along with a literature review covering applied research related to perceptual cue usage in aircraft displays.

  4. Probing Framework-Restricted Metal Axial Ligation and Spin State Patterns in a Post-Synthetically Reduced Iron-Porphyrin-Based Metal–Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucheryavy, Pavel; Lahanas, Nicole; Velasco, Ever; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Lockard, Jenny V.

    2016-04-07

    An iron porphyrin-based metal organic framework, PCN-222(Fe) is investigated upon post-synthetic reduction with piperidine. Fe K-edge X-ray absorption and Kβ mainline emission spectroscopy measurements reveal the local coor-dination geometry, oxidation and spin state changes experi-enced by the Fe sites upon reaction with this axially coordi-nating reducing agent. Analysis and fitting of these data con-firm the binding pattern predicted by a space filling model of the structurally constrained pore environments. These results are further support by UV-vis diffuse reflectance, IR and Raman spectroscopy data.

  5. Organic migration forms of radionuclides and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gouqing

    2010-01-01

    Much attention is paid to inorganic migration forms of radionuclides in groundwater during performance assessment before and organic migration forms, are seldom noted. Therefore some question may come into confidence level in performance assessment. This paper mainly discusses the distribution of organic substances in groundwater and their potential effect on performance assessment. The results obtained in recent years show that clay rocks are generally impermeable to water, but in some cases the interstitial water may be observed in them and the concentration of DOC, HA and FA is rather higher than that in granitic groundwater. The concentration of DOC is relatively low in granitic groundwater, but up to now the effect of organic migration forms of radionuclides in granitic groundwater on performance assessment is not finally determined, it is necessary to make further investigations. (authors)

  6. Synthetic operon for (R,R)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rafael R; Nicholson, Wayne L

    2016-01-01

    To reduce dependence on petroleum, an alternative route to production of the chemical feedstock 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from renewable lignocellulosic sources is desirable. In this communication, the genes encoding the pathway from pyruvate to 2,3-BD (alsS, alsD, and bdhA encoding acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and butanediol dehydrogenase, respectively) from Bacillus subtilis were engineered into a single tricistronic operon under control of the isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible Pspac promoter in a shuttle plasmid capable of replication and expression in either B. subtilis or Escherichia coli. We describe the construction and performance of a shuttle plasmid carrying the IPTG-inducible synthetic operon alsSDbdhA coding for 2,3-BD pathway capable of (i) expression in two important representative model microorganisms, the gram-positive B. subtilis and the gram-negative E. coli; (ii) increasing 2,3-BD production in B. subtilis; and (iii) successfully introducing the B. subtilis 2,3-BD pathway into E. coli. The synthetic alsSDbdhA operon constructed using B. subtilis native genes not only increased the 2,3-BD production in its native host but also efficiently expressed the pathway in the heterologous organism E. coli. Construction of an efficient shuttle plasmid will allow investigation of 2,3-BD production performance in related organisms with industrial potential for production of bio-based chemicals.

  7. DNA recognition by synthetic constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Elena; Mosquera, Jesús; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Mascareñas, José L

    2011-09-05

    The interaction of transcription factors with specific DNA sites is key for the regulation of gene expression. Despite the availability of a large body of structural data on protein-DNA complexes, we are still far from fully understanding the molecular and biophysical bases underlying such interactions. Therefore, the development of non-natural agents that can reproduce the DNA-recognition properties of natural transcription factors remains a major and challenging goal in chemical biology. In this review we summarize the basics of double-stranded DNA recognition by transcription factors, and describe recent developments in the design and preparation of synthetic DNA binders. We mainly focus on synthetic peptides that have been designed by following the DNA interaction of natural proteins, and we discuss how the tools of organic synthesis can be used to make artificial constructs equipped with functionalities that introduce additional properties to the recognition process, such as sensing and controllability. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Investigation of PVdF active diaphragms for synthetic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailo, Kelly C.; Brei, Diann E.; Calkins, Frederick T.

    2000-06-01

    Current research has shown that aircraft can gain significant aerodynamic performance benefits by employing active flow control (AFC). One of the enabling technologies of AFC is the synthetic jet. Synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass flux actuators, act as bi-directional pumps injecting high momentum air into the local aerodynamic flow. Previous work has concentrated on high frequency synthetic jets based on piezoelectric active diaphragms such as Thunder actuators. Low frequency synthetic jets present a unique challenge requiring large displacements, which current technology has difficulty meeting. Boeing is investigating novel shaped low frequency synthetic jets that can modify the flow over fixed aircraft wings. This paper present the initial study of two promising active diaphragm concepts: a crescent shape and an opposing bender shape. These active diaphragms were numerically modeled utilizing the general-purpose finite element code ABAQUS. Using the ABAQUS results, the dynamic volume change within each jet was calculated and incorporated into an analytical linear Bernoulli model to predict the velocities and pressures at the nozzle. Simulations were performed to determine trends to assist in selection of prototype configurations. Prototypes of both diaphragm concepts were constructed from polyvinylidene fluoride and experimentally tested at Boeing with promising results.

  9. THE ROLE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL IN THE CONTEXT OF PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria HERMEL-STĂNESCU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Performance management is a complex concept that integrates all business activities and creates a continuous system for improvement. One of the key ingredients in an efficient performance management system is a well-designed performance appraisal that integrates the individual goals with the team and organization goals. When designing a performance appraisal system one has to consider the many existing techniques, tools and sources of error. Also, when defining the expected results and KPI’s for measurement, it is important to know the difference between output and outcome. The present paper aims to synthetize, through a literature review, the main aspects of performance appraisal in the context of performance management, pointing out its advantages and disadvantages.

  10. Computational protein design-the next generation tool to expand synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainza-Cirauqui, Pablo; Correia, Bruno Emanuel

    2018-05-02

    One powerful approach to engineer synthetic biology pathways is the assembly of proteins sourced from one or more natural organisms. However, synthetic pathways often require custom functions or biophysical properties not displayed by natural proteins, limitations that could be overcome through modern protein engineering techniques. Structure-based computational protein design is a powerful tool to engineer new functional capabilities in proteins, and it is beginning to have a profound impact in synthetic biology. Here, we review efforts to increase the capabilities of synthetic biology using computational protein design. We focus primarily on computationally designed proteins not only validated in vitro, but also shown to modulate different activities in living cells. Efforts made to validate computational designs in cells can illustrate both the challenges and opportunities in the intersection of protein design and synthetic biology. We also highlight protein design approaches, which although not validated as conveyors of new cellular function in situ, may have rapid and innovative applications in synthetic biology. We foresee that in the near-future, computational protein design will vastly expand the functional capabilities of synthetic cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Original Research doi:10.4102/http://www.indieskriflig.org.za ids.v48i2.722 An exploration of synthetic biology: A preliminary Christian ethical assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan A.L. Rheeder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available On 20 May 2010, the Venter Institute in America announced that they have fully synthesised the genome of the organism Mycoplasma mycoides whilst in vitro by using a computer connected to a machine that synthesises genes. Thereafter, the genome was placed back into the casing of another organism (Mycoplasma capricolum and it was reported that the synthesised organism and the genome functioned normally. This synthesised organism was reconstructed to function as a minute little factory with the aim of producing and secreting fuel and medicine − something that is not the natural function of this organism. There are certain potential dangers inherent in this kind of technology. Scientists fear that this technology may contaminate or infect humans, animals or the environment, and that it can as such be extremely harmful, or even lead to the destruction of humans. Other scientists are concerned that terrorists can use this technology to kill innocent citizens. Some ethicists are of the opinion that the consequences of synthetic biology is currently unpredictable and that it is therefore risky. In opposition to the potential dangers, one has to mention that synthetic biology indeed can result in far-reaching positive outcomes such as the manufacturing of biofuel and medication. Most scientists and ethicists are of the opinion that the potential dangers involved in synthetic biology should be evaluated in light of the fact that genetic manipulation has not caused any biological devastation over the last 30 years. From a Christian point of departure, the opinion is currently that synthetic biology is not an irresponsible science and technology.

  12. Proceedings of Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) Conference 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, Pamela [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); SEED 2015 Conference Chair; Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers; SEED 2015 Conference Organizer

    2016-10-27

    Synthetic Biology is an emerging discipline that seeks to accelerate the process of engineering biology. As such, the tools are broadly applicable to application areas, including chemicals and biofuels, materials, medicine and agriculture. A characteristic of the field is to look holistically at cellular design, from sensing and genetic circuitry to the manipulation of cellular processes and actuators, to controlling metabolism, to programming multicellular behaviors. Further, the types of cells that are manipulated are broad, from in vitro systems to microbes and fungi to mammalian and plant cells and living animals. Many of the projects in synthetic biology seek to move biochemical functions across organisms. The field is highly interdisciplinary with faculty and students spread across departments that focus on engineering (biological, chemical, electrical, mechanical, civil, computer science) and basic science (biology and systems biology, chemistry, physics). While there have been many one-off workshops and meeting on synthetic biology, the 2014 Synthetic Biology: Engineering, Evolution and Design (SEED) was the first of an annual conference series that serves as a reliable place to pull together the involved disciplines in order to organize and exchange advances in the science and technology in the field. Further, the SEED conferences have a strong focus on industry, with many companies represented and actively participating. A number of these companies have started major efforts in synthetic biology including large companies (e.g., Pfizer, Novartis, Dow, Dupont, BP, Total), smaller companies have recently gone public (e.g., Amyris, Gevo, Intrexon), and many start-ups (e.g., Teslagen, Refactored Materials, Pivot, Genomatica). There are a number of loosely affiliated Synthetic Biology Centers, including ones at MIT, Boston University, UCSD, UCSF, UC-Berkeley, Imperial College, Oxford, and ETH. SEED 2015 will serve as the primary meeting at which international

  13. Field performance assessment of synthetic liners for uranium tailings ponds: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.H.; Spanner, G.E.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a database to support US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing of uranium tailings leachate isolation impoundments. This objective is being accomplished by determining the effectiveness of design, installation, and quality assurance practices associated with uranium mill tailings impoundments with flexible membrane liners. The program includes testing of chemical resistance and physical performance of liners, leak detection systems, and seam inspection techniques. This report presents the status of the program through September 1983. The report addresses impoundment design, installation, and inspection techniques used by the uranium milling industry. To determine the relative successes of these techniques, information has been collected from consultants, mill operators, and the synthetic liner industry. Progress in experimental tasks on chemical resistance of liners, physical properties of liners, and nondestructive examination of seams is reported. 25 references, 9 figures, 13 tables

  14. Organic Solvent Tolerant Lipases and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivika Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipases are a group of enzymes naturally endowed with the property of performing reactions in aqueous as well as organic solvents. The esterification reactions using lipase(s could be performed in water-restricted organic media as organic solvent(s not only improve(s the solubility of substrate and reactant in reaction mixture but also permit(s the reaction in the reverse direction, and often it is easy to recover the product in organic phase in two-phase equilibrium systems. The use of organic solvent tolerant lipase in organic media has exhibited many advantages: increased activity and stability, regiospecificity and stereoselectivity, higher solubility of substrate, ease of products recovery, and ability to shift the reaction equilibrium toward synthetic direction. Therefore the search for organic solvent tolerant enzymes has been an extensive area of research. A variety of fatty acid esters are now being produced commercially using immobilized lipase in nonaqueous solvents. This review describes the organic tolerance and industrial application of lipases. The main emphasis is to study the nature of organic solvent tolerant lipases. Also, the potential industrial applications that make lipases the biocatalysts of choice for the present and future have been presented.

  15. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  16. Computer-aided biochemical programming of synthetic microreactors as diagnostic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, Alexis; Amar, Patrick; Fages, François; Renard, Eric; Molina, Franck

    2018-04-26

    Biological systems have evolved efficient sensing and decision-making mechanisms to maximize fitness in changing molecular environments. Synthetic biologists have exploited these capabilities to engineer control on information and energy processing in living cells. While engineered organisms pose important technological and ethical challenges, de novo assembly of non-living biomolecular devices could offer promising avenues toward various real-world applications. However, assembling biochemical parts into functional information processing systems has remained challenging due to extensive multidimensional parameter spaces that must be sampled comprehensively in order to identify robust, specification compliant molecular implementations. We introduce a systematic methodology based on automated computational design and microfluidics enabling the programming of synthetic cell-like microreactors embedding biochemical logic circuits, or protosensors , to perform accurate biosensing and biocomputing operations in vitro according to temporal logic specifications. We show that proof-of-concept protosensors integrating diagnostic algorithms detect specific patterns of biomarkers in human clinical samples. Protosensors may enable novel approaches to medicine and represent a step toward autonomous micromachines capable of precise interfacing of human physiology or other complex biological environments, ecosystems, or industrial bioprocesses. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  17. Organic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulaevskij, L.N.; Shchegolev, I.F.

    1986-01-01

    Main achievements in creating new organic conducting materials - synthetic metals and superconductors, are considered. The processes of superconductivity occurrence in organic materials are discussed. It is shown that conjugated bonds between C and H atoms in organic molecules play an important role in this case. At present ''crystal direction'' in organic superconductor synthesis is mainly developed. Later on, organic superconductor crystals are supposed to be introduced into usual polymers, e.g. polyethylene

  18. The PLOS ONE Synthetic Biology Collection: Six Years and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccoud, Jean; Isalan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Since it was launched in 2006, PLOS ONE has published over fifty articles illustrating the many facets of the emerging field of synthetic biology. This article reviews these publications by organizing them into broad categories focused on DNA synthesis and assembly techniques, the development of libraries of biological parts, the use of synthetic biology in protein engineering applications, and the engineering of gene regulatory networks and metabolic pathways. Finally, we review articles that describe enabling technologies such as software and modeling, along with new instrumentation. In order to increase the visibility of this body of work, the papers have been assembled into the PLOS ONE Synthetic Biology Collection (www.ploscollections.org/synbio). Many of the innovative features of the PLOS ONE web site will help make this collection a resource that will support a lively dialogue between readers and authors of PLOS ONE synthetic biology papers. The content of the collection will be updated periodically by including relevant articles as they are published by the journal. Thus, we hope that this collection will continue to meet the publishing needs of the synthetic biology community. PMID:22916228

  19. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M; Baies, Radu; Anghel, Elena M; Marinescu, Cornelia A; Tanasescu, Speranta

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400°C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis-TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800°C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rational synthetic pathway refactoring of natural products biosynthesis in actinobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Gao-Yi; Liu, Tiangang

    2017-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) and their derivatives are widely used as frontline treatments for many diseases. Actinobacteria spp. are used to produce most of NP antibiotics and have also been intensively investigated for NP production, derivatization, and discovery. However, due to the complicated transcriptional and metabolic regulation of NP biosynthesis in Actinobacteria, especially in the cases of genome mining and heterologous expression, it is often difficult to rationally and systematically engineer synthetic pathways to maximize biosynthetic efficiency. With the emergence of new tools and methods in metabolic engineering, the synthetic pathways of many chemicals, such as fatty acids and biofuels, in model organisms (e.g. Escherichia coli ), have been refactored to realize precise and flexible control of production. These studies also offer a promising approach for synthetic pathway refactoring in Actinobacteria. In this review, the great potential of Actinobacteria as a microbial cell factory for biosynthesis of NPs is discussed. To this end, recent progress in metabolic engineering of NP synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are summarized and strategies and perspectives to rationally and systematically refactor synthetic pathways in Actinobacteria are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN ECONOMIC ORGANIZATIONS USING INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Mehedintu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Performance management includes activities that ensure that goals are consistently being met inan effective and efficient manner. Performance management can focus on the performance of an organization, adepartment, employee, or even the processes to build a product or service, as well as many other areas.In these days of globalization and intensive use of information technology, the organizations must defineand implement an appropriate strategy that would support their medium-term development, stability andcompetitiveness. This is achieved through a coherent and interrelated set of activities for understanding thecustomer expectations and the level at which the offer of organization add value to customers and satisfy theirneeds, define their internal organization to allow timely response to market demands without losing focus on client,tracking strategy and business model for the accomplishment of the organization mission, aligning the existing ITproject management or under development implementation in organization with the strategic management oforganization etc. Strategic Management determines the improvement of processes, effective use of resources, focuson critical areas in terms of finance, creating opportunities for innovation and technological progress, improvementof the supply mechanism and the duty to promote personal interaction and negotiation at all levels, continuousassessment of organization and its technological trends, analyze the market potential and competence field etc.Strategic management system will not give good results if the strategy is not defined by a set of operationalobjectives clearly at all levels.Business performance is based on a set of analytical processes of business, supported by informationtechnology that defines the strategic goals that can be measured by performance indicators. EnterprisePerformance Management creates a powerful and precise environment, characterized by data consistency,efficiency analysis

  2. Designing synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, Christina M

    2014-03-21

    Synthetic biology is frequently defined as the application of engineering design principles to biology. Such principles are intended to streamline the practice of biological engineering, to shorten the time required to design, build, and test synthetic gene networks. This streamlining of iterative design cycles can facilitate the future construction of biological systems for a range of applications in the production of fuels, foods, materials, and medicines. The promise of these potential applications as well as the emphasis on design has prompted critical reflection on synthetic biology from design theorists and practicing designers from many fields, who can bring valuable perspectives to the discipline. While interdisciplinary connections between biologists and engineers have built synthetic biology via the science and the technology of biology, interdisciplinary collaboration with artists, designers, and social theorists can provide insight on the connections between technology and society. Such collaborations can open up new avenues and new principles for research and design, as well as shed new light on the challenging context-dependence-both biological and social-that face living technologies at many scales. This review is inspired by the session titled "Design and Synthetic Biology: Connecting People and Technology" at Synthetic Biology 6.0 and covers a range of literature on design practice in synthetic biology and beyond. Critical engagement with how design is used to shape the discipline opens up new possibilities for how we might design the future of synthetic biology.

  3. Novel Synthetic, Host-defense Peptide Protects Against Organ Injury/Dysfunction in a Rat Model of Severe Hemorrhagic Shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Noriaki; Martin, Lukas B; Zechendorf, Elisabeth; Purvis, Gareth S D; Chiazza, Fausto; Varrone, Barbara; Collino, Massimo; Shepherd, Joanna; Heinbockel, Lena; Gutsmann, Thomas; Correa, Wilmar; Brandenburg, Klaus; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias; Brohi, Karim; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2017-03-10

    To evaluate (1) levels of the host-defense/antimicrobial peptide LL-37 in patients with trauma and hemorrhagic shock (HS) and (2) the effects of a synthetic host-defense peptide; Pep19-4LF on multiple organ failure (MOF) associated with HS. HS is a common cause of death in severely injured patients. There is no specific therapy that reduces HS-associated MOF. (1) LL-37 was measured in 47 trauma/HS patients admitted to an urban major trauma center. (2) Male Wistar rats were submitted to HS (90 min, target mean arterial pressure: 27-32 mm Hg) or sham operation. Rats were treated with Pep19-4LF [66 (n = 8) or 333 μg/kg · h (n = 8)] or vehicle (n = 12) for 4 hours following resuscitation. Plasma LL-37 was 12-fold higher in patients with trauma/HS compared to healthy volunteers. HS rats treated with Pep19-4LF (high dose) had a higher mean arterial pressure at the end of the 4-hour resuscitation period (79 ± 4 vs 54 ± 5 mm Hg) and less renal dysfunction, liver injury, and lung inflammation than HS rats treated with vehicle. Pep19-4LF enhanced (kidney/liver) the phosphorylation of (1) protein kinase B and (2) endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Pep19-4LF attenuated the HS-induced (1) translocation of p65 from cytosol to nucleus, (2) phosphorylation of IκB kinase on Ser, and (3) phosphorylation of IκBα on Ser resulting in inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B and formation of proinflammatory cytokines. Pep19-4LF prevented the release of tumor necrosis factor alpha caused by heparan sulfate in human mononuclear cells by binding to this damage-associated molecular pattern. Trauma-associated HS results in release of LL-37. The synthetic host-defense/antimicrobial peptide Pep19-4LF attenuates the organ injury/dysfunction associated with HS.

  4. Hybrid Silicon-Based Organic/Inorganic Block Copolymers with Sol-Gel Active Moieties: Synthetic Advances, Self-Assembly and Applications in Biomedicine and Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sebastian; Bertin, Annabelle

    2018-03-07

    Hybrid silicon-based organic/inorganic (multi)block copolymers are promising polymeric precursors to create robust nano-objects and nanomaterials due to their sol-gel active moieties via self-assembly in solution or in bulk. Such nano-objects and nanomaterials have great potential in biomedicine as nanocarriers or scaffolds for bone regeneration as well as in materials science as Pickering emulsifiers, photonic crystals or coatings/films with antibiofouling, antibacterial or water- and oil-repellent properties. Thus, this Review outlines recent synthetic efforts in the preparation of these hybrid inorganic/organic block copolymers, gives an overview of their self-assembled structures and finally presents recent examples of their use in the biomedical field and material science. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Modular organization and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Vera, Antonio

    2007-02-01

    The concept of modularization represents a modern form of organization, which contains the vertical disaggregation of the firm and the use of market mechanisms within hierarchies. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the use of modular structures has a positive effect on hospital performance. The empirical section makes use of multiple regression analyses and leads to the main result that modularization does not have a positive effect on hospital performance. However, the analysis also finds out positive efficiency effects of two central ideas of modularization, namely process orientation and internal market mechanisms.

  6. Synthetic Biology: Knowledge Accessed by Everyone (Open Sources)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Reyes, Patricia Margarita

    2016-01-01

    Using the principles of biology, along with engineering and with the help of computer, scientists manage to copy. DNA sequences from nature and use them to create new organisms. DNA is created through engineering and computer science managing to create life inside a laboratory. We cannot dismiss the role that synthetic biology could lead in…

  7. The Relationship between Learning Organization Dimensions and Library Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Qing Kong

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between learning organization dimensions and academic library performance. It studied whether differences existed in learning organization dimensions given the predictor variables of performance indicators, library resources, and demographics of the academic library. This research…

  8. Cfd modeling of a synthetic jet actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dghim, Marouane; Ben Chiekh, Maher; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi

    2009-01-01

    Synthetic jet actuators show good promise as an enabling technology for innovative boundary layer flow control applied to external surfaces, like airplane wings, and to internal flows, like those occurring in a curved engine inlet. The appealing characteristics of a synthetic jet are zero-net-mass flux operation and an efficient control effect that takes advantages of unsteady fluid phenomena. The formation of a synthetic jet in a quiescent external air flow is only beginning to be understood and a rational understanding of these devices is necessary before they can be applied to the control of flows outside of the laboratory. The synthetic jet flow generated by a planar orifice is investigated here using computational approach. Computations of the 2D synthetic jet are performed with unsteady RANS modeled with the Realizable κ - ε turbulence model available in FLUENT environment. In this present work, the ability of the first order turbulence model, employed in our computations, to model the formation of the counter-rotating-vortex pair (CVP) that appears in the flow-field was investigated. Computational results were in good agreement with experimental measurements. The effectiveness of such control actuator was tested on separated boundary layer. Preliminary investigation were presented and discussed

  9. Programmed coherent coupling in a synthetic DNA-based excitonic circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulais, Étienne; Sawaya, Nicolas P. D.; Veneziano, Rémi; Andreoni, Alessio; Banal, James L.; Kondo, Toru; Mandal, Sarthak; Lin, Su; Schlau-Cohen, Gabriela S.; Woodbury, Neal W.; Yan, Hao; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Bathe, Mark

    2018-02-01

    Natural light-harvesting systems spatially organize densely packed chromophore aggregates using rigid protein scaffolds to achieve highly efficient, directed energy transfer. Here, we report a synthetic strategy using rigid DNA scaffolds to similarly program the spatial organization of densely packed, discrete clusters of cyanine dye aggregates with tunable absorption spectra and strongly coupled exciton dynamics present in natural light-harvesting systems. We first characterize the range of dye-aggregate sizes that can be templated spatially by A-tracts of B-form DNA while retaining coherent energy transfer. We then use structure-based modelling and quantum dynamics to guide the rational design of higher-order synthetic circuits consisting of multiple discrete dye aggregates within a DX-tile. These programmed circuits exhibit excitonic transport properties with prominent circular dichroism, superradiance, and fast delocalized exciton transfer, consistent with our quantum dynamics predictions. This bottom-up strategy offers a versatile approach to the rational design of strongly coupled excitonic circuits using spatially organized dye aggregates for use in coherent nanoscale energy transport, artificial light-harvesting, and nanophotonics.

  10. Synthetic Biology as an Enabling Technology for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth.

  11. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  12. Public management: organizations, governance, and performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Toole, Laurence J; Meier, Kenneth J

    2011-01-01

    ...? Can their separable contributions to performance be estimated? The fate of public policies in today's world lies in the hands of public organizations, which in turn are often intertwined with others in latticed patterns of governance...

  13. Changing Metrics of Organ Procurement Organization Performance in Order to Increase Organ Donation Rates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, D; Kallan, M J; Fu, L; Ciccarone, M; Ramirez, J; Rosenberg, P; Arnold, J; Segal, G; Moritsugu, K P; Nathan, H; Hasz, R; Abt, P L

    2017-12-01

    The shortage of deceased-donor organs is compounded by donation metrics that fail to account for the total pool of possible donors, leading to ambiguous donor statistics. We sought to assess potential metrics of organ procurement organizations (OPOs) utilizing data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009-2012 and State Inpatient Databases (SIDs) from 2008-2014. A possible donor was defined as a ventilated inpatient death ≤75 years of age, without multi-organ system failure, sepsis, or cancer, whose cause of death was consistent with organ donation. These estimates were compared to patient-level data from chart review from two large OPOs. Among 2,907,658 inpatient deaths from 2009-2012, 96,028 (3.3%) were a "possible deceased-organ donor." The two proposed metrics of OPO performance were: (1) donation percentage (percentage of possible deceased-donors who become actual donors; range: 20.0-57.0%); and (2) organs transplanted per possible donor (range: 0.52-1.74). These metrics allow for comparisons of OPO performance and geographic-level donation rates, and identify areas in greatest need of interventions to improve donation rates. We demonstrate that administrative data can be used to identify possible deceased donors in the US and could be a data source for CMS to implement new OPO performance metrics in a standardized fashion. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Removal of a synthetic organic chemical by PAC-UF systems. II: Model application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Y; Colas, F; Yuasa, A

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes several application potentials with a recently developed model for predicting the synthetic organic chemical (SOC) removal by powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorption during ultrafiltration (UF) and discusses the removal mechanism. The model was successfully applied, without any modification, to dead-end mode operation as well as to cross-flow mode operation, validating the assumption of the internal diffusion control mechanism and the continuously-stirred-tank-reactor (CSTR) concept. Even when UF was operated in a cross-flow mode, PAC added was re-circulating in suspension for only a short time. Then, solute uptake took place mostly by PAC immobilized in membrane tubes not only for dead-end operation but also for cross-flow operation. Therefore, cross-flow operation did not have any advantage regarding the SOC mass transfer on PAC in UF loop over dead-end operation. The model simulation implied that pulse PAC addition at the beginning of filtration cycle resulted better SOC removal than continuous PAC addition. However, for the pulse PAC addition mode, the model predicted somewhat lower effluent SOC concentration than the observed values, and the benefit of pulse PAC application in terms of reducing SOC over its continuous dosage was not confirmed. Longer detention time of PAC dosed in a pulse than continuously dosed PAC could possibly further decrease internal diffusivity.

  15. Synthetic Biology: Life, Jim, but Not As We Know It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Jennifer

    Frankenstein, Mary Shelley's classic tale of horror, warns of the perils of hubris: of the terrible fate that awaits when Man plays God and attempts to create life. Molecular biologists are clearly not listening. Not content with merely inserting the occasional gene into the genome of an existing organism. they are developing a whole new field, Synthetic Biology, which aims to engineer from first principles organisms with desirable, controllable qualities.

  16. The relationship between family orientation, organization context, organization structure and firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijaard, J.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on the prediction of three firm performance indicators, sales growth, innovation performance and profitability, on a sample of small and medium-sized firms in the Netherlands. Predictions from agency theory and the resource based view of organizations lead to alternate hypotheses

  17. Optimization of the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of synthetic estrogenic and progestogenic steroids using the multi-criteria decision making method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A. K.; Bruins, C. H.; Doornbos, D. A.; Vink, J.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic separation of a mixture of ethynylestradiol, desogestrel and three related compounds is described. A procedure is used that allows the prediction of the capacity factors of each individual synthetic steroid, depending on

  18. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project

    OpenAIRE

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Mathews, Debra J. H.

    2015-01-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with...

  19. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Beth G; Logan, John S; Pisoni, David B

    1986-03-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered.

  20. Perception of synthetic speech produced automatically by rule: Intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    GREENE, BETH G.; LOGAN, JOHN S.; PISONI, DAVID B.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of studies designed to measure the segmental intelligibility of eight text-to-speech systems and a natural speech control, using the Modified Rhyme Test (MRT). Results indicated that the voices tested could be grouped into four categories: natural speech, high-quality synthetic speech, moderate-quality synthetic speech, and low-quality synthetic speech. The overall performance of the best synthesis system, DECtalk-Paul, was equivalent to natural speech only in terms of performance on initial consonants. The findings are discussed in terms of recent work investigating the perception of synthetic speech under more severe conditions. Suggestions for future research on improving the quality of synthetic speech are also considered. PMID:23225916

  1. Modified signed-digit trinary addition using synthetic wavelet filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftekharuddin, K. M.; Razzaque, M. A.

    2000-09-01

    The modified signed-digit (MSD) number system has been a topic of interest as it allows for parallel carry-free addition of two numbers for digital optical computing. In this paper, harmonic wavelet joint transform (HWJT)-based correlation technique is introduced for optical implementation of MSD trinary adder implementation. The realization of the carry-propagation-free addition of MSD trinary numerals is demonstrated using synthetic HWJT correlator model. It is also shown that the proposed synthetic wavelet filter-based correlator shows high performance in logic processing. Simulation results are presented to validate the performance of the proposed technique.

  2. Synthetic staggered architecture composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Abhishek; Tekalur, Srinivasan Arjun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite design inspired by nature. ► Tuning microstructure via changing ceramic content and aspect ratio. ► Experimental display of structure–property correlationship in synthetic composites. - Abstract: Structural biocomposites (for example, nacre in seashells, bone, etc.) are designed according to the functional role they are delegated for. For instance, bone is primarily designed for withstanding time-dependent loading (for example, withstanding stresses while running, jumping, accidental fall) and hence the microstructure is designed primarily from enhanced toughness and moderate stiffness point of view. On the contrary, seashells (which lie in the abyss of oceans) apart from providing defense to the organism (it is hosting) against predatory attacks, are subjected to static loading (for example, enormous hydrostatic pressure). Hence, emphasis on the shell structure evolution is directed primarily towards providing enhanced stiffness. In order to conform between stiffness and toughness, nature precisely employs a staggered arrangement of inorganic bricks in a biopolymer matrix (at its most elementary level of architecture). Aspect ratio and content of ceramic bricks are meticulously used by nature to synthesize composites having varying degrees of stiffness, strength and toughness. Such an amazing capability of structure–property correlationship has rarely been demonstrated in synthetic composites. Therefore, in order to better understand the mechanical behavior of synthetic staggered composites, the problem becomes two-pronged: (a) synthesize composites with varying brick size and contents and (b) experimental investigation of the material response. In this article, an attempt has been made to synthesize and characterize staggered ceramic–polymer composites having varying aspect ratio and ceramic content using freeze-casting technique. This will in-turn help us in custom-design manufacture of hybrid bio-inspired composite materials

  3. Synthetic addiction extends the productive life time of engineered Escherichia coli populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Peter; Sarup-Lytzen, Kira; Nagy, Mariann

    2018-01-01

    range of genetic variants that disrupt the biosynthetic capacity of the engineered organism. Synthetic product addiction that couples high-yield production of a desired metabolite to expression of nonconditionally essential genes could offer a solution to this problem by selectively favoring cells...... with biosynthetic capacity in the population without constraining the medium. We constructed such synthetic product addiction by controlling the expression of two nonconditionally essential genes with a mevalonic acid biosensor. The product-addicted production organism retained high-yield mevalonic acid production...... through 95 generations of cultivation, corresponding to the number of cell generations required for >200-m3 industrial-scale production, at which time the nonaddicted strain completely abolished production. Using deep DNA sequencing, we find that the product-addicted populations do not accumulate genetic...

  4. Rewiring cells: synthetic biology as a tool to interrogate the organizational principles of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashor, Caleb J; Horwitz, Andrew A; Peisajovich, Sergio G; Lim, Wendell A

    2010-01-01

    The living cell is an incredibly complex entity, and the goal of predictively and quantitatively understanding its function is one of the next great challenges in biology. Much of what we know about the cell concerns its constituent parts, but to a great extent we have yet to decode how these parts are organized to yield complex physiological function. Classically, we have learned about the organization of cellular networks by disrupting them through genetic or chemical means. The emerging discipline of synthetic biology offers an additional, powerful approach to study systems. By rearranging the parts that comprise existing networks, we can gain valuable insight into the hierarchical logic of the networks and identify the modular building blocks that evolution uses to generate innovative function. In addition, by building minimal toy networks, one can systematically explore the relationship between network structure and function. Here, we outline recent work that uses synthetic biology approaches to investigate the organization and function of cellular networks, and describe a vision for a synthetic biology toolkit that could be used to interrogate the design principles of diverse systems.

  5. In-tube electro-membrane extraction with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption as an efficient technique for synthetic food dyes determination in foodstuff samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazregar, Mohammad; Rajabi, Maryam; Yamini, Yadollah; Asghari, Alireza; Abdossalami asl, Yousef

    2015-09-04

    A simple and efficient extraction technique with a sub-microliter organic solvent consumption termed as in-tube electro-membrane extraction (IEME) is introduced. This method is based upon the electro-kinetic migration of ionized compounds by the application of an electrical potential difference. For this purpose, a thin polypropylene (PP) sheet placed inside a tube acts as a support for the membrane solvent, and 30μL of an aqueous acceptor solution is separated by this solvent from 1.2mL of an aqueous donor solution. This method yielded high extraction recoveries (63-81%), and the consumption of the organic solvent used was only 0.5μL. By performing this method, the purification is high, and the utilization of the organic solvent, used as a mediator, is very simple and repeatable. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction of four synthetic food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Allura Red, and Carmoisine) as the model analytes. Optimization of variables affecting the method was carried out in order to achieve the best extraction efficiency. These variables were the type of membrane solvent, applied extraction voltage, extraction time, pH range, and concentration of salt added. Under the optimized conditions, IEME-HPLC-UV provided a good linearity in the range of 1.00-800ngmL(-1), low limits of detection (0.3-1ngmL(-1)), and good extraction repeatabilities (RSDs below 5.2%, n=5). It seems that this design is a proper one for the automation of the method. Also the consumption of the organic solvent in a sub-microliter scale, and its simplicity, high efficiency, and high purification can help one getting closer to the objectives of the green chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Round robin performance testing of organic photovoltaic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Zubillaga, Oihana; de Seoane, José María Vega

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the issue of poor intercomparability of measurements of organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices among different laboratories. We present a round robin performance testing of novel OPV devices among 16 laboratories, organized within the framework of European Research Infrastructure...

  7. The effects of dissolved natural organic matter on the adsorption of synthetic organic chemicals by activated carbons and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Shao, Ting; Karanfil, Tanju

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the influence of natural organic matter (NOM) on synthetic organic contaminant (SOC) adsorption by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is important for assessing the environmental implications of accidental CNT release and spill to natural waters, and their potential use as adsorbents in engineered systems. In this study, adsorption of two SOCs by three single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), one multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT), a microporous activated carbon fiber (ACF) [i.e., ACF10] and a bimodal porous granular activated carbon (GAC) [i.e., HD4000] was compared in the presence and absence of NOM. The NOM effect was found to depend strongly on the pore size distribution of carbons. Minimal NOM effect occurred on the macroporous MWNT, whereas severe NOM effects were observed on the microporous HD4000 and ACF10. Although the single-solute adsorption capacities of the SWNTs were much lower than those of HD4000, in the presence of NOM the SWNTs exhibited adsorption capacities similar to those of HD4000. Therefore, if released into natural waters, SWNTs can behave like an activated carbon, and will be able to adsorb, carry, and transfer SOCs to other systems. However, from an engineering application perspective, CNTs did not exhibit a major advantage, in terms of adsorption capacities, over the GAC and ACF. The NOM effect was also found to depend on molecular properties of SOCs. NOM competition was more severe on the adsorption of 2-phenylphenol, a nonplanar and hydrophilic SOC, than phenanthrene, a planar and hydrophobic SOC, tested in this study. In terms of surface chemistry, both adsorption affinity to SOCs and NOM effect on SOC adsorption were enhanced with increasing hydrophobicity of the SWNTs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synchronous long-term oscillations in a synthetic gene circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin-Trottier, Laurent; Lord, Nathan D; Vinnicombe, Glenn; Paulsson, Johan

    2016-10-27

    Synthetically engineered genetic circuits can perform a wide variety of tasks but are generally less accurate than natural systems. Here we revisit the first synthetic genetic oscillator, the repressilator, and modify it using principles from stochastic chemistry in single cells. Specifically, we sought to reduce error propagation and information losses, not by adding control loops, but by simply removing existing features. We show that this modification created highly regular and robust oscillations. Furthermore, some streamlined circuits kept 14 generation periods over a range of growth conditions and kept phase for hundreds of generations in single cells, allowing cells in flasks and colonies to oscillate synchronously without any coupling between them. Our results suggest that even the simplest synthetic genetic networks can achieve a precision that rivals natural systems, and emphasize the importance of noise analyses for circuit design in synthetic biology.

  9. 3rd congress on applied synthetic biology in Europe (Costa da Caparica, Portugal, February 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Miguel

    2017-03-25

    The third meeting organised by the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) on advances in Applied Synthetic Biotechnology in Europe (ASBE) was held in Costa da Caparica, Portugal, in February 2016. Abundant novel applications in synthetic biology were described in the six sessions of the meeting, which was divided into technology and tools for synthetic biology (I, II and III), bionanoscience, biosynthetic pathways and enzyme synthetic biology, and metabolic engineering and chemical manufacturing. The meeting presented numerous methods for the development of novel synthetic strains, synthetic biological tools and synthetic biology applications. With the aid of synthetic biology, production costs of chemicals, metabolites and food products are expected to decrease, by generating sustainable biochemical production of such resources. Also, such synthetic biological advances could be applied for medical purposes, as in pharmaceuticals and for biosensors. Recurrent, linked themes throughout the meeting were the shortage of resources, the world's transition into a bioeconomy, and how synthetic biology is helping tackle these issues through cutting-edge technologies. While there are still limitations in synthetic biology research, innovation is propelling the development of technology, the standardisation of synthetic biological tools and the use of suitable host organisms. These developments are laying a foundation to providing a future where cutting-edge research could generate potential solutions to society's pressing issues, thus incentivising a transition into a bioeconomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to "make biology easier to engineer," is routinely described as leading to an increase in the "dual-use" threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be "used" for peaceful purposes or "misused" for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the "de-skilling" of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five "myths" that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these "myths" play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a "promissory" field of research and as an "emerging technology" in need of governance.

  11. Trace analysis of 61 natural and synthetic progestins in river water and sewage effluents by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyan; Chang, Hong; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Linxia; Wu, Fengchang

    2018-04-15

    A broad number of natural and synthetic progestins are widely used in human and veterinary therapies. Although progestins exhibit adverse effects in aquatic organisms, information about environmental occurrence and fate have been limited to several compounds, hampering the accuracy of risk assessments of the compounds. In this study, a selective and sensitive analytical method was established to simultaneously determine 19 natural and 42 synthetic progestins in environmental waters, and the synthetic progestins included 19-nortestosterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone and progesterone derivatives. All of the target compounds were effectively separated using an HSS T3 column, and the recoveries for effluent and river samples were 80-115% and 75-105%, respectively. The detection limits for the 61 analytes were in the range of 0.05-0.60 ng/L and 0.03-0.40 ng/L for the effluent and river samples, respectively. The developed method is applied to analyze the target progestogens in sewage effluent and river water samples from Beijing. The detected concentrations of natural progesterone metabolites (3α-hydroxy-5β-tetrahydroprogesterone) were up to 63 times higher than those of the parent compound. Of the three groups of synthetic progestins, the progesterone derivatives were detected for the first time and had the highest concentrations followed by the 19-nortestosterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives. In contrast to previous studies, the predominant derivative compounds of 19-nortestosterone were found to be 19-nortestosterone, gestodene and mifepristone, and those of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone were 6-epi-medroxy progesterone 17-acetate and melengestrol acetate. The toxicities and environmental risk of these emerging progestins deserves more attention in the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Active control of continuous air jet with bifurcated synthetic jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová Petra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic jets (SJs have many significant applications and the number of applications is increasing all the time. In this research the main focus is on the primary flow control which can be used effectively for the heat transfer increasing. This paper deals with the experimental research of the effect of two SJs worked in the bifurcated mode used for control of an axisymmetric air jet. First, the control synthetic jets were measured alone. After an adjustment, the primary axisymmetric jet was added in to the system. For comparison, the primary flow without synthetic jets control was also measured. All experiments were performed using PIV method whereby the synchronization between synthetic jets and PIV system was necessary to do.

  13. Measuring Student Performance in General Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Ara C.; Ben-Daat, Hagit; Zhu, Mary; Atkinson, Robert; Barrows, Nathan; Gould, Ian R.

    2015-01-01

    Student performance in general organic chemistry courses is determined by a wide range of factors including cognitive ability, motivation and cultural capital. Previous work on cognitive factors has tended to focus on specific areas rather than exploring performance across all problem types and cognitive skills. In this study, we have categorized…

  14. Catalysts for synthetic liquid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce, L.A.; Turney, T.W.

    1987-12-01

    Fischer-Tropsch catalysts have been designed, characterized and tested for the selective production of hydrocarbons suitable as synthetic liquid transport fuels from synthesis gas (i.e., by the reduction of carbon monoxide with hydrogen). It was found that hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, or suitable for conversion to that range, could be produced over several of the new catalyst systems. The various catalysts examined included: (1) synthetic cobalt clays, mainly cobalt chlorites; (2) cobalt hydrotalcites; (3) ruthenium metal supported on rare earth oxides of high surface area; and (4) a novel promoted cobalt catalyst. Active and selective catalysts have been obtained, in each category. With the exception of the clays, reproducibility of catalyst performance has been good. Catalysts in groups 2 and 4 have exhibited very high activity, with long lifetimes and easy regeneration.

  15. Effects of synthetic and natural toxicants on livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, L R; Cheeke, P R

    1983-07-01

    Synthetic and natural toxicants are constituents of soil, air, water and foodstuffs. Their impact on animal agriculture has resulted from acute and chronic intoxication and residues transferred into meat, dairy and poultry products. Recent advances in analytical chemistry and the sciences associated with toxicology have allowed better assessment of the hazard of toxicants on animals including man. Historically, natural toxicants (phytotoxins, mycotoxins and minerals) that are associated with many common feedstuffs accounted for toxicity episodes of epidemic proportions. Most synthetic chemicals (pesticides, nonpesticidal organic chemicals and drugs) have been introduced in increasing numbers since the 1940's. In the 1960's and '70's, recognition of the need to control their environmental distribution stimulated the introduction of numerous laws and regulations. In the last decade, several problematic synthetic chemicals have been banned, particularly those found to persist in the environment or those confirmed or suspected as carcinogens in humans. At the farm level, the development of various preventative management strategies has decreased the exposure of livestock to natural toxicants. In the future, the impact of natural toxicants on animal agriculture is expected to lessen as their existence, etiology and toxicology are determined. On the other hand, synthetic chemicals will continue to threaten animal health as greater numbers and quantities are released into the environment. These challenges should stimulate a greater involvement of animal scientists in toxicology.

  16. PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS IN A HUMAN RESOURCE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LOGOFĂTU MONICA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  17. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  18. Freedom and Responsibility in Synthetic Genomics: The Synthetic Yeast Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliva, Anna; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Mathews, Debra J H

    2015-08-01

    First introduced in 2011, the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) PROJECT is a large international synthetic genomics project that will culminate in the first eukaryotic cell (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) with a fully synthetic genome. With collaborators from across the globe and from a range of institutions spanning from do-it-yourself biology (DIYbio) to commercial enterprises, it is important that all scientists working on this project are cognizant of the ethical and policy issues associated with this field of research and operate under a common set of principles. In this commentary, we survey the current ethics and regulatory landscape of synthetic biology and present the Sc2.0 Statement of Ethics and Governance to which all members of the project adhere. This statement focuses on four aspects of the Sc2.0 PROJECT: societal benefit, intellectual property, safety, and self-governance. We propose that such project-level agreements are an important, valuable, and flexible model of self-regulation for similar global, large-scale synthetic biology projects in order to maximize the benefits and minimize potential harms. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Synthetic clay excels in 90Sr removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarneni, Sridhar; Kodama, Tatsuya; Paulus, William J.; Carlson, C.

    2000-01-01

    Tests with actual ground water from Hanford site, and fundamental studies of 2Na + →Sr 2+ exchange equilibria revealed that a synthetic clay is extremely selective for 90 Sr with a high capacity for uptake. Comparative studies with existing Sr selective ion exchangers clearly revealed that the present synthetic clay exhibited the best performance for 90 Sr removal from actual ground water collected from three different locations at Hanford. This novel Sr ion sieve is expected to be useful for the decontamination of the environment after accidental release and contamination with 90 Sr. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  20. Synthetic aperture tissue and flow ultrasound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav

    imaging applied to medical ultrasound. It is divided into two major parts: tissue and blood flow imaging. Tissue imaging using synthetic aperture algorithms has been investigated for about two decades, but has not been implemented in medical scanners yet. Among the other reasons, the conventional scanning...... and beamformation methods are adequate for the imaging modalities in clinical use - the B-mode imaging of tissue structures, and the color mapping of blood flow. The acquisition time, however, is too long, and these methods fail to perform real-time three-dimensional scans. The synthetic transmit aperture......, on the other hand, can create a Bmode image with as little as 2 emissions, thus significantly speeding-up the scan procedure. The first part of the dissertation describes the synthetic aperture tissue imaging. It starts with an overview of the efforts previously made by other research groups. A classification...

  1. Gene interactions in the DNA damage-response pathway identified by genome-wide RNA-interference analysis of synthetic lethality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haaften, Gijs; Vastenhouw, Nadine L; Nollen, Ellen A A; Plasterk, Ronald H A; Tijsterman, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    Here, we describe a systematic search for synthetic gene interactions in a multicellular organism, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We established a high-throughput method to determine synthetic gene interactions by genome-wide RNA interference and identified genes that are required to protect

  2. 2nd Congress on applied synthetic biology in Europe (Málaga, Spain, November 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Beatrice V; Pantidos, Nikolaos; Edmundson, Matthew

    2014-05-25

    The second meeting organised by the EFB on the advances of applied synthetic biology in Europe was held in Málaga, Spain in November 2013. The potential for the broad application of synthetic biology was reflected in the five sessions of this meeting: synthetic biology for healthcare applications, tools and technologies for synthetic biology, production of recombinant proteins, synthetic plant biology, and biofuels and other small molecules. Outcomes from the meeting were that synthetic biology offers methods for rapid development of new strains that will result in decreased production costs, sustainable chemical production and new medical applications. Additionally, it also introduced novel ways to produce sustainable energy and biofuels, to find new alternatives for bioremediation and resource recovery, and environmentally friendly foodstuff production. All the above-mentioned advances could enable biotechnology to solve some of the major problems of Society. However, while there are still limitations in terms of lacking tools, standardisation and suitable host organisms, this meeting has laid a foundation providing cutting-edge concepts and techniques to ultimately convert the potential of synthetic biology into practice. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Metal Nanoparticles Covered with a Metal-Organic Framework: From One-Pot Synthetic Methods to Synergistic Energy Storage and Conversion Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Mitsuka, Yuko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid materials composed of metal nanoparticles and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in many applications, such as enhanced gas storage and catalytic, magnetic, and optical properties, because of the synergetic effects between the metal nanoparticles and MOFs. In this Forum Article, we describe our recent progress on novel synthetic methods to produce metal nanoparticles covered with a MOF (metal@MOF). We first present Pd@copper(II) 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate (HKUST-1) as a novel hydrogen-storage material. The HKUST-1 coating on Pd nanocrystals results in a remarkably enhanced hydrogen-storage capacity and speed in the Pd nanocrystals, originating from charge transfer from Pd nanocrystals to HKUST-1. Another material, Pd-Au@Zn(MeIM)2 (ZIF-8, where HMeIM = 2-methylimidazole), exhibits much different catalytic activity for alcohol oxidation compared with Pd-Au nanoparticles, indicating a design guideline for the development of composite catalysts with high selectivity. A composite material composed of Cu nanoparticles and Cr3F(H2O)2O{C6H3(CO2)3}2 (MIL-100-Cr) demonstrates higher catalytic activity for CO2 reduction into methanol than Cu/γ-Al2O3. We also present novel one-pot synthetic methods to produce composite materials including Pd/ZIF-8 and Ni@Ni2(dhtp) (MOF-74, where H4dhtp = 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid).

  4. Isolation and Identification of Proteins Secreted by Cells Cultured within Synthetic Hydrogel-Based Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Lisa A; Choe, Leila H; Wiley, Katherine L; Lee, Kelvin H; Kloxin, April M

    2018-03-12

    Cells interact with and remodel their microenvironment, degrading large extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins (e.g., fibronectin, collagens) and secreting new ECM proteins and small soluble factors (e.g., growth factors, cytokines). Synthetic mimics of the ECM have been developed as controlled cell culture platforms for use in both fundamental and applied studies. However, how cells broadly remodel these initially well-defined matrices remains poorly understood and difficult to probe. In this work, we have established methods for widely examining both large and small proteins that are secreted by cells within synthetic matrices. Specifically, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), a model primary cell type, were cultured within well-defined poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-peptide hydrogels, and these cell-matrix constructs were decellularized and degraded for subsequent isolation and analysis of deposited proteins. Shotgun proteomics using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry identified a variety of proteins, including the large ECM proteins fibronectin and collagen VI. Immunostaining and confocal imaging confirmed these results and provided visualization of protein organization within the synthetic matrices. Additionally, culture medium was collected from the encapsulated hMSCs, and a Luminex assay was performed to identify secreted soluble factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), interleukin 8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Together, these methods provide a unique approach for studying dynamic reciprocity between cells and synthetic microenvironments and have the potential to provide new biological insights into cell responses during three-dimensional (3D) controlled cell culture.

  5. Robotic thin layer chromatography instrument for synthetic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkan, L.A.; Lindsey, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    One of our long-term goals is to develop robotic workstations for automated synthetic chemistry. Toward that goal we have constructed a 2nd generation instrument for performing TLC analysis. TLC has important advantages (over HPLC and GC) in analysis of crude reaction samples and parallel sample development. The TLC instrument consist of four dedicated stations for (1) plate dispensing, (2) sample application, (3) plate development, and (4) plate densitometry. A robot is used to move plates among stations. The combination of fixed automation and robotics gives high sample throughout (up to 10 samples per hour). A second robot performs reaction chemistry and feeds samples to the TLC instrument, thus enabling TLC analysis at the same time as synthetic reactions proceed on the workstation

  6. Low Density Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Synthetic Antioxidants in Beverages by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çabuk, Hasan; Köktürk, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    A simple and efficient method was established for the determination of synthetic antioxidants in beverages by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Butylated hydroxy toluene, butylated hydroxy anisole, and tert-butylhydroquinone were the antioxidants evaluated. Experimental parameters including extraction solvent, dispersive solvent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration, and extraction time were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 53 to 96%. Good linearity was observed by the square of correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9975 to 0.9997. The relative standard deviations ranged from 1.0 to 5.2% for all of the analytes. Limits of detection ranged from 0.85 to 2.73 ng mL−1. The method was successfully applied for determination of synthetic antioxidants in undiluted beverage samples with satisfactory recoveries. PMID:23853535

  7. Low Density Solvent-Based Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction for the Determination of Synthetic Antioxidants in Beverages by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Çabuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and efficient method was established for the determination of synthetic antioxidants in beverages by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Butylated hydroxy toluene, butylated hydroxy anisole, and tert-butylhydroquinone were the antioxidants evaluated. Experimental parameters including extraction solvent, dispersive solvent, pH of sample solution, salt concentration, and extraction time were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the extraction recoveries ranged from 53 to 96%. Good linearity was observed by the square of correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9975 to 0.9997. The relative standard deviations ranged from 1.0 to 5.2% for all of the analytes. Limits of detection ranged from 0.85 to 2.73 ng mL−1. The method was successfully applied for determination of synthetic antioxidants in undiluted beverage samples with satisfactory recoveries.

  8. Synthetic biology approaches in drug discovery and pharmaceutical biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Heinz; Neumann-Staubitz, Petra

    2010-06-01

    Synthetic biology is the attempt to apply the concepts of engineering to biological systems with the aim to create organisms with new emergent properties. These organisms might have desirable novel biosynthetic capabilities, act as biosensors or help us to understand the intricacies of living systems. This approach has the potential to assist the discovery and production of pharmaceutical compounds at various stages. New sources of bioactive compounds can be created in the form of genetically encoded small molecule libraries. The recombination of individual parts has been employed to design proteins that act as biosensors, which could be used to identify and quantify molecules of interest. New biosynthetic pathways may be designed by stitching together enzymes with desired activities, and genetic code expansion can be used to introduce new functionalities into peptides and proteins to increase their chemical scope and biological stability. This review aims to give an insight into recently developed individual components and modules that might serve as parts in a synthetic biology approach to pharmaceutical biotechnology.

  9. Effect of sialoadenectomy and synthetic human urogastrone on healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Steen Seier; Nexø, Ebba

    1986-01-01

    The effect of extirpation of the submandibular glands, an exocrine organ for epidermal growth factor/urogastrone (EGF/URO), and the effect of oral administration of synthetic human (EGF/URO) on healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats has been investigated. Removal of the submandibular glands...... delayed healing of chronic gastric ulcers when examined after 50, 100, and 200 days. Oral administration of synthetic human EGF/URO stimulated gastric ulcer healing when examined after 25 and 50 days of treatment. The effect of synthetic human EGF/URO was comparable with that of cimetidine. The combined...... administration of synthetic human EGF/URO and cimetidine further increased healing of gastric ulcers compared with administration of each substance. Neither synthetic human EGF/URO, nor removal of the submandibular glands had any influence on gastric acid secretion. This study showed that the submandibular...

  10. Designing synthetic networks in silico: a generalised evolutionary algorithm approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert W; van Sluijs, Bob; Fleck, Christian

    2017-12-02

    Evolution has led to the development of biological networks that are shaped by environmental signals. Elucidating, understanding and then reconstructing important network motifs is one of the principal aims of Systems & Synthetic Biology. Consequently, previous research has focused on finding optimal network structures and reaction rates that respond to pulses or produce stable oscillations. In this work we present a generalised in silico evolutionary algorithm that simultaneously finds network structures and reaction rates (genotypes) that can satisfy multiple defined objectives (phenotypes). The key step to our approach is to translate a schema/binary-based description of biological networks into systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs). The ODEs can then be solved numerically to provide dynamic information about an evolved networks functionality. Initially we benchmark algorithm performance by finding optimal networks that can recapitulate concentration time-series data and perform parameter optimisation on oscillatory dynamics of the Repressilator. We go on to show the utility of our algorithm by finding new designs for robust synthetic oscillators, and by performing multi-objective optimisation to find a set of oscillators and feed-forward loops that are optimal at balancing different system properties. In sum, our results not only confirm and build on previous observations but we also provide new designs of synthetic oscillators for experimental construction. In this work we have presented and tested an evolutionary algorithm that can design a biological network to produce desired output. Given that previous designs of synthetic networks have been limited to subregions of network- and parameter-space, the use of our evolutionary optimisation algorithm will enable Synthetic Biologists to construct new systems with the potential to display a wider range of complex responses.

  11. Isotopic discrimination as a tool for organic farming certification in sweet pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Amor, Francisco M; Navarro, Joaquín; Aparicio, Pedro M

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming is a form of agriculture that excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified organisms. These fertilizers have been traditionally overused in conventional farming to avoid lost revenue, but this often not does not take into account the potential contamination of aquifers and river due to nitrate leaching. Transition to organic farming practices could provide an instrument to reduce contamination and increase potential income. It is difficult to determine to what extent those fertilizers could have been used within a complete traceability of the production process. In this experiment, we evaluated the use of (15)N/(14)N isotopic discrimination in sweet pepper plants to test the hypothesis that synthetic fertilizers significantly reduce (15)N/(14)N compared with exclusively organic practices. Therefore, three common types of organic manures (sheep, hen, or horse) were applied at a rate of 8 kg m(-2) with or without synthetic fertilizer amendments under fully controlled environmental and irrigation conditions. Results indicate that (i) use of synthetic fertilizers significantly reduced (15/14)N(2)vsN(2)atm compared with treatments that only received water; (ii) with respect to the plant organs, old leaves and fruits were more sensitive to the synthetic fertilizer additions with reductions in (15/14)N(2)vsN(2)atm of 24.1 and 27.8%, respectively; and (iii) independently of the organic manure used, no additional fertilization (synthetic or organic) is required before 106 days after transplanting at that dosage because plant fresh weight was not reduced.

  12. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  13. Engineering Therapeutic T Cells: From Synthetic Biology to Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esensten, Jonathan H; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Lim, Wendell A

    2017-01-24

    Engineered T cells are currently in clinical trials to treat patients with cancer, solid organ transplants, and autoimmune diseases. However, the field is still in its infancy. The design, and manufacturing, of T cell therapies is not standardized and is performed mostly in academic settings by competing groups. Reliable methods to define dose and pharmacokinetics of T cell therapies need to be developed. As of mid-2016, there are no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved T cell therapeutics on the market, and FDA regulations are only slowly adapting to the new technologies. Further development of engineered T cell therapies requires advances in immunology, synthetic biology, manufacturing processes, and government regulation. In this review, we outline some of these challenges and discuss the contributions that pathologists can make to this emerging field.

  14. STUDY OF PERFORMANCES OF ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS BY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2011 ... results of analysis of performances of organic solar cells by using what one call the datamining materials. ... Keywords: organic solar cells, gap energie, effiency, PCA. Author Correspondence .... oubli est malencontreux car le type de données disponibles influence toujours la direction de la recherche.

  15. Synthetic and natural antioxidants: food quality protectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela, A.

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of food lipid components, known as oxidative rancidity is one of the major deteriorative and quality-affecting reactions. Oxidative rancidity is initiated by oxygen free-radicals or by the reaction of molecular oxygen with pre-formed organic free-radicals from polyunsaturated fatty acids composing fats and oils. Oxidation may be prevented or delayed by antioxidants, these substances being organic molecules of either synthetic or natural origin which can scavenge the oxygen free-radicals involved in fatty acid oxidation. Synthetic antioxidants are the most popular and widely used antioxidants, however concerns about it safe to both human and animal health is encouraging research on substances from natural origin showing antioxidant properties. Few natural antioxidants have been proved to be effective when compared to synthetic products in the same experimental conditions. This work summarizes the main characteristics of the most important synthetic antioxidants, also discuss the principal characteristics of four natural antioxidants, comparing the advantages and disadvantages of using natural products compared to synthetic ones, and sight the future for natural products with antioxidant activity.

    La oxidación de los componentes lípidos de un alimento, conocida como rancidez oxidativa, es una de las reacciones que deteriora y afecta en forma más importante la calidad de un producto. La rancidez oxidativa es iniciada por radicales libres del oxígeno o por el ataque del oxígeno molecular a radicales libres pre-formados en los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados que forman las grasas y aceites. La oxidación puede ser prevenida o retrasada por los antioxidantes, sustancias orgánicas de origen sintético o natural que actúan como atrapadores de los radicales libres del oxígeno involucrados en la oxidación de los ácidos grasos. Los antioxidantes sintéticos son los más populares y ampliamente utilizados, sin embargo existe

  16. Synthetic Biology and the U.S. Biotechnology Regulatory System: Challenges and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, Sarah R. [J. Craig Venter Inst., Rockville, MD (United States); Rodemeyer, Michael [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Garfinkel, Michele S. [EMBO, Heidelberg (Germany); Friedman, Robert M. [J. Craig Venter Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic Biology and the U.S. Biotechnology Regulatory System: Challenges and Options Sarah R. Carter, Ph.D., J. Craig Venter Institute; Michael Rodemeyer, J.D., University of Virginia; Michele S. Garfinkel, Ph.D., EMBO; Robert M. Friedman, Ph.D., J. Craig Venter Institute In recent years, a range of genetic engineering techniques referred to as “synthetic biology” has significantly expanded the tool kit available to scientists and engineers, providing them with far greater capabilities to engineer organisms than previous techniques allowed. The field of synthetic biology includes the relatively new ability to synthesize long pieces of DNA from chemicals, as well as improved methods for genetic manipulation and design of genetic pathways to achieve more precise control of biological systems. These advances will help usher in a new generation of genetically engineered microbes, plants, and animals. The JCVI Policy Center team, along with researchers at the University of Virginia and EMBO, examined how well the current U.S. regulatory system for genetically engineered products will handle the near-term introduction of organisms engineered using synthetic biology. In particular, the focus was on those organisms intended to be used or grown directly in the environment, outside of a contained facility. The study concludes that the U.S. regulatory agencies have adequate legal authority to address most, but not all, potential environmental, health and safety concerns posed by these organisms. Such near-term products are likely to represent incremental changes rather than a marked departure from previous genetically engineered organisms. However, the study also identified two key challenges for the regulatory system, which are detailed in the report. First, USDA’s authority over genetically engineered plants depends on the use of an older engineering technique that is no longer necessary for many applications. The shift to synthetic biology and other newer genetic

  17. Performance of synthetic jet actuators based on hybrid and double-acting principles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Tesař, Václav; Kordík, Jozef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 3 (2008), s. 221-229 ISSN 1343-8875 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/07/1499; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : synthetic jet * impinging jet * actuator Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 0.943, year: 2008

  18. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chia-Chou

    2013-01-01

    Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i) system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii) system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii) system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv) systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering. PMID:24709875

  19. Systems Biology as an Integrated Platform for Bioinformatics, Systems Synthetic Biology, and Systems Metabolic Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-Sen Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology aims at achieving a system-level understanding of living organisms and applying this knowledge to various fields such as synthetic biology, metabolic engineering, and medicine. System-level understanding of living organisms can be derived from insight into: (i system structure and the mechanism of biological networks such as gene regulation, protein interactions, signaling, and metabolic pathways; (ii system dynamics of biological networks, which provides an understanding of stability, robustness, and transduction ability through system identification, and through system analysis methods; (iii system control methods at different levels of biological networks, which provide an understanding of systematic mechanisms to robustly control system states, minimize malfunctions, and provide potential therapeutic targets in disease treatment; (iv systematic design methods for the modification and construction of biological networks with desired behaviors, which provide system design principles and system simulations for synthetic biology designs and systems metabolic engineering. This review describes current developments in systems biology, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering for engineering and biology researchers. We also discuss challenges and future prospects for systems biology and the concept of systems biology as an integrated platform for bioinformatics, systems synthetic biology, and systems metabolic engineering.

  20. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M.; Baies, Radu; Anghel, Elena M.; Marinescu, Cornelia A.; Tanasescu, Speranta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400 °C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis—TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800 °C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. - Highlights: • Specific surface area of HA powder was reduced from 19.2 to 9.5 m 2 /g by calcination. • Raman spectra indicate the presence of B-type CO 3 group in HA synthetic samples. • The onset temperature of HA densification and dehydroxylation processes correspond. • Calcination of HA influences reactions kinetics with consequences on densification. • Shrinkage of calcined HA sample increases by 10% with respect to uncalcined sample

  1. Thermal and structural characterization of synthetic and natural nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofronia, Ancuta M. [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Baies, Radu [National Research Institute for Electrochemistry and Condensed Matter, 300224 Timisoara (Romania); Anghel, Elena M. [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Marinescu, Cornelia A., E-mail: alcorina@chimfiz.icf.ro [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Tanasescu, Speranta [Ilie Murgulescu Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Romanian Academy, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the thermal stability on heating and to obtain the processing parameters of synthetic and bone-derived hydroxyapatite over temperatures between room temperature and 1400 °C by thermal analysis (thermogravimetry (TG)/differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermo-mechanical analysis—TMA). Structural and surface modifications related to samples origin and calcination temperature were investigated by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET method. FTIR spectra indicated that the organic constituents and carbonate are no longer present in the natural sample calcined at 800 °C. Raman spectra highlighted the decomposition products of the hydroxyapatite. The calcination treatment modifies the processes kinetics of the synthetic samples, being able to isolate lattice water desorption processes of decarbonization and the dehydroxylation processes. Shrinkage of calcined synthetic sample increases by 10% compared to uncalcined synthetic powder. From the TMA correlated with TG analysis and heat capacity data it can be concluded that sintering temperature of the synthetic samples should be chosen in the temperature range of the onset of dehydroxylation and the temperature at which oxyapatite decomposition begins. - Highlights: • Specific surface area of HA powder was reduced from 19.2 to 9.5 m{sup 2}/g by calcination. • Raman spectra indicate the presence of B-type CO{sub 3} group in HA synthetic samples. • The onset temperature of HA densification and dehydroxylation processes correspond. • Calcination of HA influences reactions kinetics with consequences on densification. • Shrinkage of calcined HA sample increases by 10% with respect to uncalcined sample.

  2. Synthetic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukes, George E.; Cain, Joel M.

    1996-02-01

    The Advanced Distributed Simulation (ADS) Synthetic Environments Program seeks to create robust virtual worlds from operational terrain and environmental data sources of sufficient fidelity and currency to interact with the real world. While some applications can be met by direct exploitation of standard digital terrain data, more demanding applications -- particularly those support operations 'close to the ground' -- are well-served by emerging capabilities for 'value-adding' by the user working with controlled imagery. For users to rigorously refine and exploit controlled imagery within functionally different workstations they must have a shared framework to allow interoperability within and between these environments in terms of passing image and object coordinates and other information using a variety of validated sensor models. The Synthetic Environments Program is now being expanded to address rapid construction of virtual worlds with research initiatives in digital mapping, softcopy workstations, and cartographic image understanding. The Synthetic Environments Program is also participating in a joint initiative for a sensor model applications programer's interface (API) to ensure that a common controlled imagery exploitation framework is available to all researchers, developers and users. This presentation provides an introduction to ADS and the associated requirements for synthetic environments to support synthetic theaters of war. It provides a technical rationale for exploring applications of image understanding technology to automated cartography in support of ADS and related programs benefitting from automated analysis of mapping, earth resources and reconnaissance imagery. And it provides an overview and status of the joint initiative for a sensor model API.

  3. Biosynthesis and release of thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in rat pancreatic islets in organ culture. Effects of age, glucose, and streptozotocin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolva, L O; Welinder, B S; Hanssen, K F

    1983-01-01

    Thyrotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity (TRH-IR) was measured in isolated islets and in medium from rat pancreatic islets maintained in organ culture. TRH-IR in methanol extracts of both islets and culture medium was eluted in the same position as synthetic TRH by ion-exchange and gel...... chromatography and exhibited dilution curves parallel with synthetic TRH in radioimmunoassay. [3H]Histidine was incorporated into a component that reacted with TRH antiserum and had the same retention time as synthetic TRH on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. A continuous release of TRH...

  4. A Synthetic Biology Framework for Programming Eukaryotic Transcription Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmad S.; Lu, Timothy K.; Bashor, Caleb J.; Ramirez, Cherie L.; Pyenson, Nora C.; Joung, J. Keith; Collins, James J.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Eukaryotic transcription factors (TFs) perform complex and combinatorial functions within transcriptional networks. Here, we present a synthetic framework for systematically constructing eukaryotic transcription functions using artificial zinc fingers, modular DNA-binding domains found within many eukaryotic TFs. Utilizing this platform, we construct a library of orthogonal synthetic transcription factors (sTFs) and use these to wire synthetic transcriptional circuits in yeast. We engineer complex functions, such as tunable output strength and transcriptional cooperativity, by rationally adjusting a decomposed set of key component properties, e.g., DNA specificity, affinity, promoter design, protein-protein interactions. We show that subtle perturbations to these properties can transform an individual sTF between distinct roles (activator, cooperative factor, inhibitory factor) within a transcriptional complex, thus drastically altering the signal processing behavior of multi-input systems. This platform provides new genetic components for synthetic biology and enables bottom-up approaches to understanding the design principles of eukaryotic transcriptional complexes and networks. PMID:22863014

  5. Monolayer-Mediated Growth of Organic Semiconductor Films with Improved Device Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lizhen; Hu, Xiaorong; Chi, Lifeng

    2015-09-15

    Increased interest in wearable and smart electronics is driving numerous research works on organic electronics. The control of film growth and patterning is of great importance when targeting high-performance organic semiconductor devices. In this Feature Article, we summarize our recent work focusing on the growth, crystallization, and device operation of organic semiconductors intermediated by ultrathin organic films (in most cases, only a monolayer). The site-selective growth, modified crystallization and morphology, and improved device performance of organic semiconductor films are demonstrated with the help of the inducing layers, including patterned and uniform Langmuir-Blodgett monolayers, crystalline ultrathin organic films, and self-assembled polymer brush films. The introduction of the inducing layers could dramatically change the diffusion of the organic semiconductors on the surface and the interactions between the active layer with the inducing layer, leading to improved aggregation/crystallization behavior and device performance.

  6. Strategy revealing phenotypic differences among synthetic oscillator designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomnitz, Jason G; Savageau, Michael A

    2014-09-19

    Considerable progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the component parts of genetic oscillators, which play central roles in all organisms. Nonlinear interaction among components is sufficiently complex that mathematical models are required to elucidate their elusive integrated behavior. Although natural and synthetic oscillators exhibit common architectures, there are numerous differences that are poorly understood. Utilizing synthetic biology to uncover basic principles of simpler circuits is a way to advance understanding of natural circadian clocks and rhythms. Following this strategy, we address the following questions: What are the implications of different architectures and molecular modes of transcriptional control for the phenotypic repertoire of genetic oscillators? Are there designs that are more realizable or robust? We compare synthetic oscillators involving one of three architectures and various combinations of the two modes of transcriptional control using a methodology that provides three innovations: a rigorous definition of phenotype, a procedure for deconstructing complex systems into qualitatively distinct phenotypes, and a graphical representation for illuminating the relationship between genotype, environment, and the qualitatively distinct phenotypes of a system. These methods provide a global perspective on the behavioral repertoire, facilitate comparisons of alternatives, and assist the rational design of synthetic gene circuitry. In particular, the results of their application here reveal distinctive phenotypes for several designs that have been studied experimentally as well as a best design among the alternatives that has yet to be constructed and tested.

  7. Implementation and validation of synthetic inertia support employing series produced electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Martinenas, Sergejus; Zecchino, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The high integration of renewable energy resources (inverter connected) replacing conventional generation reduces the available rotational inertia in the power system. This introduces the need for faster regulation services including synthetic inertia services. These services could potentially...... be provided by electric vehicles due to their fast response capability. This work evaluates and experimentally shows the capability and limits of EVs in providing synthetic inertia services. Three series produced EVs are used during the experiment. The results show the performance of the EVs in providing...... synthetic inertia. It shows also that, on the contrary of synchronous inertia, synthetic inertia might lead to unstable frequency behavior....

  8. Synthetic biology: engineering molecular computers

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    Complicated systems cannot survive the rigors of a chaotic environment, without balancing mechanisms that sense, decide upon and counteract the exerted disturbances. Especially so with living organisms, forced by competition to incredible complexities, escalating also their self-controlling plight. Therefore, they compute. Can we harness biological mechanisms to create artificial computing systems? Biology offers several levels of design abstraction: molecular machines, cells, organisms... ranging from the more easily-defined to the more inherently complex. At the bottom of this stack we find the nucleic acids, RNA and DNA, with their digital structure and relatively precise interactions. They are central enablers of designing artificial biological systems, in the confluence of engineering and biology, that we call Synthetic biology. In the first part, let us follow their trail towards an overview of building computing machines with molecules -- and in the second part, take the case study of iGEM Greece 201...

  9. Central obscuration effects on optical synthetic aperture imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-wen; Luo, Xiao; Zheng, Li-gong; Zhang, Xue-jun

    2014-02-01

    Due to the central obscuration problem exists in most optical synthetic aperture systems, it is necessary to analyze its effects on their image performance. Based on the incoherent diffraction limited imaging theory, a Golay-3 type synthetic aperture system was used to study the central obscuration effects on the point spread function (PSF) and the modulation transfer function (MTF). It was found that the central obscuration does not affect the width of the central peak of the PSF and the cutoff spatial frequency of the MTF, but attenuate the first sidelobe of the PSF and the midfrequency of the MTF. The imaging simulation of a Golay-3 type synthetic aperture system with central obscuration proved this conclusion. At last, a Wiener Filter restoration algorithm was used to restore the image of this system, the images were obviously better.

  10. Knowledge management performance methodology regarding manufacturing organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istrate, C.; Herghiligiu, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    The current business situation is extremely complicated. Business must adapt to the changes in order (a) to survive on the increasingly dynamic markets, (b) to meet customers’ new request for complex, customized and innovative products. In modern manufacturing organizations it can be seen a substantial improvement regarding the management of knowledge. This occurs due to the fact that organizations realized that knowledge and an efficient management of knowledge generates the highest value. Even it could be said that the manufacturing organizations were and are the biggest beneficiary of KM science. Knowledge management performance (KMP) evaluation in manufacturing organizations can be considered as extremely important because without measuring it, they are unable to properly assess (a) what goals, targets and activities must have continuity, (b) what must be improved and (c) what must be completed. Therefore a proper KM will generate multiple competitive advantages for organizations. This paper presents a developed methodological framework regarding the KMP importance regarding manufacturing organizations. This methodological framework was developed using as research methods: bibliographical research and a panel of specialists. The purpose of this paper is to improve the evaluation process of KMP and to provide a viable tool for manufacturing organizations managers.

  11. How Does Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation Drive Performance Culture in Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Arielle

    2017-01-01

    The performance culture of an organization is impacted by the motivation of an organization's employee. Determining whether or not an employee's motivation is intrinsic or extrinsic is helpful for organizations to see what is more of a drive in their performance. The following article reviews literature on the subject of employee motivation to…

  12. A single step methane conversion into synthetic fuels using microplasma reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Okazaki, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of natural gas into synthetic fuels such as methanol attracts keen attention because direct process can reduce capital and operating costs of high temperature, energy intensive, multi-step processes. We report a direct and selective synthesis of organic oxygenates such as methanol,

  13. Maize cultivar performance under diverse organic production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize cultivar performance can vary widely among different production systems. The need for high-performing hybrids for organic systems with wide adaptation to various macroenvironments is becoming increasingly important. The goal of this study was to characterize inbred lines developed by distinc...

  14. Opportunities in plant synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Charis; Martin, Lisa; Bastow, Ruth

    2014-05-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging field uniting scientists from all disciplines with the aim of designing or re-designing biological processes. Initially, synthetic biology breakthroughs came from microbiology, chemistry, physics, computer science, materials science, mathematics, and engineering disciplines. A transition to multicellular systems is the next logical step for synthetic biologists and plants will provide an ideal platform for this new phase of research. This meeting report highlights some of the exciting plant synthetic biology projects, and tools and resources, presented and discussed at the 2013 GARNet workshop on plant synthetic biology.

  15. Synthetic biology approaches to fluorinated polyketides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuronyi, Benjamin W; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2015-03-17

    The catalytic diversity of living systems offers a broad range of opportunities for developing new methods to produce small molecule targets such as fuels, materials, and pharmaceuticals. In addition to providing cost-effective and renewable methods for large-scale commercial processes, the exploration of the unusual chemical phenotypes found in living organisms can also enable the expansion of chemical space for discovery of novel function by combining orthogonal attributes from both synthetic and biological chemistry. In this context, we have focused on the development of new fluorine chemistry using synthetic biology approaches. While fluorine has become an important feature in compounds of synthetic origin, the scope of biological fluorine chemistry in living systems is limited, with fewer than 20 organofluorine natural products identified to date. In order to expand the diversity of biosynthetically accessible organofluorines, we have begun to develop methods for the site-selective introduction of fluorine into complex natural products by engineering biosynthetic machinery to incorporate fluorinated building blocks. To gain insight into how both enzyme active sites and metabolic pathways can be evolved to manage and select for fluorinated compounds, we have studied one of the only characterized natural hosts for organofluorine biosynthesis, the soil microbe Streptomyces cattleya. This information provides a template for designing engineered organofluorine enzymes, pathways, and hosts and has allowed us to initiate construction of enzymatic and cellular pathways for the production of fluorinated polyketides.

  16. The Utility of Synthetic-based Approach of Writing among Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Derakhshandeh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to examine the utility of synthetic-based approach versus traditional approaches of writing among Iranian EFL learners. To achieve this end, ninety students at Upper-Intermediate level were randomly chosen from the English population of Kish and Gooyesh English Institutes. The students were divided into three groups. Group1 was asked to do a writing task based on product-based approach. A writing task based on process-oriented approach was administered to Group2; later on, Group 3 was invited to write a composition to assess their performance based on synthetic-based approach. The result of the t test and two-way ANOVA revealed that the students performed better in writing using synthetic approach rather than traditional approaches to writing.

  17. From noise to synthetic nucleoli: can synthetic biology achieve new insights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciechonska, Marta; Grob, Alice; Isalan, Mark

    2016-04-18

    Synthetic biology aims to re-organise and control biological components to make functional devices. Along the way, the iterative process of designing and testing gene circuits has the potential to yield many insights into the functioning of the underlying chassis of cells. Thus, synthetic biology is converging with disciplines such as systems biology and even classical cell biology, to give a new level of predictability to gene expression, cell metabolism and cellular signalling networks. This review gives an overview of the contributions that synthetic biology has made in understanding gene expression, in terms of cell heterogeneity (noise), the coupling of growth and energy usage to expression, and spatiotemporal considerations. We mainly compare progress in bacterial and mammalian systems, which have some of the most-developed engineering frameworks. Overall, one view of synthetic biology can be neatly summarised as "creating in order to understand."

  18. Improving magnetic properties of MgB_2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of synthetic engine oil treatment on magnetic properties of bulk MgB_2 superconductors has been first time investigated and reported. • Synthetic engine oil used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source obviously has improved the superconducting magnetic properties of MgB_2. • The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range has been better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample. • The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density ( J_c(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density f_p(b) and T_c performances of MgB_2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB_2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB_2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB_2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB_2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The J_c value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 10"3 A/cm"2, whereas for the MgB_2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the J_c is enhanced to 4.8 × 10"3 A/cm"2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (T_c) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was

  19. Time-frequency analysis of submerged synthetic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Saha, Arun K.; Panigrahi, P. K.

    2017-12-01

    The coherent structures transport the finite body of fluid mass through rolling which plays an important role in heat transfer, boundary layer control, mixing, cooling, propulsion and other engineering applications. A synthetic jet in the form of a train of vortex rings having coherent structures of different length scales is expected to be useful in these applications. The propagation and sustainability of these coherent structures (vortex rings) in downstream direction characterize the performance of synthetic jet. In the present study, the velocity signal acquired using the S-type hot-film probe along the synthetic jet centerline has been taken for the spectral analysis. One circular and three rectangular orifices of aspect ratio 1, 2 and 4 actuating at 1, 6 and 18 Hz frequency have been used for creating different synthetic jets. The laser induced fluorescence images are used to study the flow structures qualitatively and help in explaining the velocity signal for detection of coherent structures. The study depicts four regions as vortex rollup and suction region (X/D h ≤ 3), steadily translating region (X/D h ≤ 3-8), vortex breakup region (X/Dh ≤ 4-8) and dissipation of small-scale vortices (X/D h ≤ 8-15). The presence of coherent structures localized in physical and temporal domain is analyzed for the characterization of synthetic jet. Due to pulsatile nature of synthetic jet, analysis of velocity time trace or signal in time, frequency and combined time-frequency domain assist in characterizing the signatures of coherent structures. It has been observed that the maximum energy is in the first harmonic of actuation frequency, which decreases slowly in downstream direction at 6 Hz compared to 1 and 18 Hz of actuation.

  20. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind A. Le Feuvre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials, where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal. Keywords: Synthetic biology, Materials, Biological materials, Biomaterials, Advanced materials

  1. Effect of sewage sludge and synthetic fertilizer on pH, available N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... Key words: Sewage sludge, synthetic fertilizer, pH, N, P, available duration. INTRODUCTION ... nutrient availability of N and P from organic amendments .... likened to 98.8 ton/ha applied in a semi-arid rangeland (Fish, 1995).

  2. Synthetic biology and metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2012-11-16

    Metabolic engineering emerged 20 years ago as the discipline occupied with the directed modification of metabolic pathways for the microbial synthesis of various products. As such, it deals with the engineering (design, construction, and optimization) of native as well as non-natural routes of product synthesis, aided in this task by the availability of synthetic DNA, the core enabling technology of synthetic biology. The two fields, however, only partially overlap in their interest in pathway engineering. While fabrication of biobricks, synthetic cells, genetic circuits, and nonlinear cell dynamics, along with pathway engineering, have occupied researchers in the field of synthetic biology, the sum total of these areas does not constitute a coherent definition of synthetic biology with a distinct intellectual foundation and well-defined areas of application. This paper reviews the origins of the two fields and advances two distinct paradigms for each of them: that of unit operations for metabolic engineering and electronic circuits for synthetic biology. In this context, metabolic engineering is about engineering cell factories for the biological manufacturing of chemical and pharmaceutical products, whereas the main focus of synthetic biology is fundamental biological research facilitated by the use of synthetic DNA and genetic circuits.

  3. Comprehension of synthetic speech and digitized natural speech by adults with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hux, Karen; Knollman-Porter, Kelly; Brown, Jessica; Wallace, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    Using text-to-speech technology to provide simultaneous written and auditory content presentation may help compensate for chronic reading challenges if people with aphasia can understand synthetic speech output; however, inherent auditory comprehension challenges experienced by people with aphasia may make understanding synthetic speech difficult. This study's purpose was to compare the preferences and auditory comprehension accuracy of people with aphasia when listening to sentences generated with digitized natural speech, Alex synthetic speech (i.e., Macintosh platform), or David synthetic speech (i.e., Windows platform). The methodology required each of 20 participants with aphasia to select one of four images corresponding in meaning to each of 60 sentences comprising three stimulus sets. Results revealed significantly better accuracy given digitized natural speech than either synthetic speech option; however, individual participant performance analyses revealed three patterns: (a) comparable accuracy regardless of speech condition for 30% of participants, (b) comparable accuracy between digitized natural speech and one, but not both, synthetic speech option for 45% of participants, and (c) greater accuracy with digitized natural speech than with either synthetic speech option for remaining participants. Ranking and Likert-scale rating data revealed a preference for digitized natural speech and David synthetic speech over Alex synthetic speech. Results suggest many individuals with aphasia can comprehend synthetic speech options available on popular operating systems. Further examination of synthetic speech use to support reading comprehension through text-to-speech technology is thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the ‘myths’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eJefferson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology, a field that aims to ‘make biology easier to engineer’, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the ‘dual use’ threat, i.e. the potential for the same piece of scientific research to be ‘used’ for peaceful purposes or ‘misused’ for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the ‘de-skilling’ of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of DIY biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend towards greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify 5 ‘myths’ that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these ‘myths’ play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a ‘promissory’ field of research and as an ‘emerging technology’ in need of governance.

  5. Synthetic Biology and Biosecurity: Challenging the “Myths”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Catherine; Lentzos, Filippa; Marris, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology, a field that aims to “make biology easier to engineer,” is routinely described as leading to an increase in the “dual-use” threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be “used” for peaceful purposes or “misused” for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the “de-skilling” of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms and the reduction in price for DNA synthesis, will make biology increasingly accessible to people operating outside well-equipped professional research laboratories, including people with malevolent intentions. The emergence of do-it-yourself (DIY) biology communities and of the student iGEM competition has come to epitomize this supposed trend toward greater ease of access and the associated potential threat from rogue actors. In this article, we identify five “myths” that permeate discussions about synthetic biology and biosecurity, and argue that they embody misleading assumptions about both synthetic biology and bioterrorism. We demonstrate how these myths are challenged by more realistic understandings of the scientific research currently being conducted in both professional and DIY laboratories, and by an analysis of historical cases of bioterrorism. We show that the importance of tacit knowledge is commonly overlooked in the dominant narrative: the focus is on access to biological materials and digital information, rather than on human practices and institutional dimensions. As a result, public discourse on synthetic biology and biosecurity tends to portray speculative scenarios about the future as realities in the present or the near future, when this is not warranted. We suggest that these “myths” play an important role in defining synthetic biology as a “promissory” field of research and as an “emerging technology” in need of governance. PMID:25191649

  6. Chemical communication between synthetic and natural cells: a possible experimental design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Leoni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The bottom-up construction of synthetic cells is one of the most intriguing and interesting research arenas in synthetic biology. Synthetic cells are built by encapsulating biomolecules inside lipid vesicles (liposomes, allowing the synthesis of one or more functional proteins. Thanks to the in situ synthesized proteins, synthetic cells become able to perform several biomolecular functions, which can be exploited for a large variety of applications. This paves the way to several advanced uses of synthetic cells in basic science and biotechnology, thanks to their versatility, modularity, biocompatibility, and programmability. In the previous WIVACE (2012 we presented the state-of-the-art of semi-synthetic minimal cell (SSMC technology and introduced, for the first time, the idea of chemical communication between synthetic cells and natural cells. The development of a proper synthetic communication protocol should be seen as a tool for the nascent field of bio/chemical-based Information and Communication Technologies (bio-chem-ICTs and ultimately aimed at building soft-wet-micro-robots. In this contribution (WIVACE, 2013 we present a blueprint for realizing this project, and show some preliminary experimental results. We firstly discuss how our research goal (based on the natural capabilities of biological systems to manipulate chemical signals finds a proper place in the current scientific and technological contexts. Then, we shortly comment on the experimental approaches from the viewpoints of (i synthetic cell construction, and (ii bioengineering of microorganisms, providing up-to-date results from our laboratory. Finally, we shortly discuss how autopoiesis can be used as a theoretical framework for defining synthetic minimal life, minimal cognition, and as bridge between synthetic biology and artificial intelligence.

  7. Ambiguity Of Doppler Centroid In Synthetic-Aperture Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Yung; Curlander, John C.

    1991-01-01

    Paper discusses performances of two algorithms for resolution of ambiguity in estimated Doppler centroid frequency of echoes in synthetic-aperture radar. One based on range-cross-correlation technique, other based on multiple-pulse-repetition-frequency technique.

  8. Organic impurity profiling of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) synthesised from catechol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Erin; Shimmon, Ronald; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2015-03-01

    This work examines the organic impurity profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) that has been synthesised from catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene), a common chemical reagent available in industrial quantities. The synthesis of MDMA from catechol proceeded via the common MDMA precursor safrole. Methylenation of catechol yielded 1,3-benzodioxole, which was brominated and then reacted with magnesium allyl bromide to form safrole. Eight organic impurities were identified in the synthetic safrole. Safrole was then converted to 3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl-2-propanone (MDP2P) using two synthetic methods: Wacker oxidation (Route 1) and an isomerisation/peracid oxidation/acid dehydration method (Route 2). MDMA was then synthesised by reductive amination of MDP2P. Thirteen organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 1 and eleven organic impurities were identified in MDMA synthesised via Route 2. Overall, organic impurities in MDMA prepared from catechol indicated that synthetic safrole was used in the synthesis. The impurities also indicated which of the two synthetic routes was utilised. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance of suspended and attached growth MBR systems in treating high strength synthetic wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal Khan, S; Ilyas, Shazia; Javid, Sadaf; Visvanathan, C; Jegatheesan, V

    2011-05-01

    The performance of laboratory-scale attached growth (AG) and suspended growth (SG) membrane bioreactors (MBRs) was evaluated in treating synthetic wastewater simulating high strength domestic wastewater. This study investigated the influence of sponge suspended carriers in AG-MBR system, occupying 15% reactor volume, on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), and compared it to that of SG-MBR. Results showed that the removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP in AG-MBR were 98%, 89% and 58%, respectively as compared to 98%, 74% and 38%, respectively in SG-MBR. Improved TN removal in AG-MBR systems was primarily based on simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. These results infer that the presence of small bio-particles having higher microbial activity and the growth of complex biomass captured within the suspended sponge carriers resulted in improved TN and TP removal in AG-MBR. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthetic Aziridines in Medicinal Chemistry: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Girija S

    2016-01-01

    Azaheterocyclic compounds are well-known to have diverse types of biological activity. Among them, azacyclopropanes, commonly referred as aziridines, occupy a prominent place in synthetic organic and medicinal chemistry due to its occurrence in natural resources, complexity involved in synthesis due to ring-strain, building blocks in organic synthesis, and its biological properties. Several novel compounds containing aziridine ring have been designed and synthesized recently by medicinal chemists for evaluating their biological profile. A number of compounds are reported as cysteine protease inhibitors, antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antileishmanial, and antimalarial agents. This review article summarizes the biological activity of such compounds. The preparation of such compounds is also described.

  11. A Comparison of Natural (D-α-tocopherol) and Synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol Acetate) Vitamin E Supplementation on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Oxidative Status of Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, K; Niu, Y; Zheng, X C; Zhang, H; Chen, Y P; Zhang, M; Huang, X X; Zhang, L L; Zhou, Y M; Wang, T

    2016-05-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the supplementation of natural (D-α-tocopherol) and synthetic (DL-α-tocopherol acetate) vitamin E on the growth performance, meat quality, muscular antioxidant capacity and genes expression related to oxidative status of broilers. A total of 144 1 day-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 3 groups with 6 replicates of 8 birds each. Birds were given a basal diet (control group), and basal diet supplemented with either 20 IU D-α-tocopherol or DL-α-tocopherol acetate for 42 days, respectively. The results indicated that treatments did not alter growth performance of broilers (p>0.05). Compared with the control group, concentration of α-tocopherol in the breast muscle was increased by the supplementation of vitamin E (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural vitamin E group (pnatural rather than synthetic vitamin E reduced MDA accumulation in the thigh (pnatural nor synthetic vitamin E supplementation altered muscular mRNA abundance of genes related to oxidative stress (p>0.05). It was concluded that vitamin E supplementation, especially the natural vitamin E, can enhance the retention of muscular α-tocopherol, improve meat quality and muscular antioxidant capacity of broilers.

  12. A living foundry for Synthetic Biological Materials: A synthetic biology roadmap to new advanced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Feuvre, Rosalind A; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2018-06-01

    Society is on the cusp of harnessing recent advances in synthetic biology to discover new bio-based products and routes to their affordable and sustainable manufacture. This is no more evident than in the discovery and manufacture of Synthetic Biological Materials , where synthetic biology has the capacity to usher in a new Materials from Biology era that will revolutionise the discovery and manufacture of innovative synthetic biological materials. These will encompass novel, smart, functionalised and hybrid materials for diverse applications whose discovery and routes to bio-production will be stimulated by the fusion of new technologies positioned across physical, digital and biological spheres. This article, which developed from an international workshop held in Manchester, United Kingdom, in 2017 [1], sets out to identify opportunities in the new materials from biology era. It considers requirements, early understanding and foresight of the challenges faced in delivering a Discovery to Manufacturing Pipeline for synthetic biological materials using synthetic biology approaches. This challenge spans the complete production cycle from intelligent and predictive design, fabrication, evaluation and production of synthetic biological materials to new ways of bringing these products to market. Pathway opportunities are identified that will help foster expertise sharing and infrastructure development to accelerate the delivery of a new generation of synthetic biological materials and the leveraging of existing investments in synthetic biology and advanced materials research to achieve this goal.

  13. Comparative analysis of thermodynamic performance and optimization of organic flash cycle (OFC) and organic Rankine cycle (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ho Yong; Park, Sang Hee; Kim, Kyoung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A comparative thermodynamic performance and optimization analysis of basic organic flash cycle (OFCB), organic flash cycle with two-phase expander (OFCT), and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) activated by low-temperature sensible energy is carried out in the subcritical pressure regions. The three substances of R245fa, R123, and o-xylene are considered as the working fluids. Effects of cycle type, working fluid, and evaporation and source temperatures are systemically investigated on the system performance such as net power production, thermal and exergy efficiencies, and exergy destruction ratios at each component of the systems. Results show that the cycle type or working fluid which shows optimum performance depends on the source temperature, and organic flash cycle shows a potential for efficient recovery of low grade energy source.

  14. Nanosheets of Nonlayered Aluminum Metal-Organic Frameworks through a Surfactant-Assisted Method

    KAUST Repository

    Pustovarenko, Alexey

    2018-05-18

    During the last decade, the synthesis and application of metal-organic framework (MOF) nanosheets has received growing interest, showing unique performances for different technological applications. Despite the potential of this type of nanolamellar materials, the synthetic routes developed so far are restricted to MOFs possessing layered structures, limiting further development in this field. Here, a bottom-up surfactant-assisted synthetic approach is presented for the fabrication of nanosheets of various nonlayered MOFs, broadening the scope of MOF nanosheets application. Surfactant-assisted preorganization of the metallic precursor prior to MOF synthesis enables the manufacture of nonlayered Al-containing MOF lamellae. These MOF nanosheets are shown to exhibit a superior performance over other crystal morphologies for both chemical sensing and gas separation. As revealed by electron microscopy and diffraction, this superior performance arises from the shorter diffusion pathway in the MOF nanosheets, whose 1D channels are oriented along the shortest particle dimension.

  15. Transuranium elements leaching from simulated HLW glasses in synthetic interstitial claywater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.

    1992-08-01

    The main objective of this Master Thesis is to measure the steady-state concentrations of Pu, Np, and Am upon the leaching of High-Level Waste Glass in two types of synthetic claywater: humic acid free and humic acid containing synthetic claywater. The synthetic claywater has a composition that is representative for the in-situ interstitial groundwater of the Boom clay formation, a potential geological repository of radioactive waste in Belgium. The steady-state concentrations of transuranium elements were measured by leaching experiments with a typical duration of 400 days. Five main conclusions are drawn from the experimental data. (1) The transuranium elements that are released from simulated High Level Waste Glass are dominantly present in the synthetic claywater solutions as colloids. These colloids are smaller than 2 nm in absence of humic acids. In the presence of humic acids however, the colloids interact with actinides (adsorb or coagulate) and form particles larger than 2 nm. Np and Am are associated with inorganic and organic colloids in the synthetic interstitial claywater solution whereas Pu forms only inorganic colloids. (2) The steady-state concentration of Pu is in good agreement with the solubility of the Pu compound PuO 2 .xH 2 O. It is therefore concluded that PuO 2 .xH 2 O is the solubility controlling phase. (3) The Pu(IV)-species are dominant in the leaching solutions. Carbonate and humic acid complexes are negligible. (4) The steady-state concentrations of Np and Am in leaching solutions were much lower than the values calculated on the basis of known thermodynamic data. This indicates that the solubility controlling phases for Np and Am were not correctly identified or that the measured Np and Am concentrations were not steady-state values. (5) Non-active glass leaching tests have indicated that no organic colloids were formed as a result of glass dissolution. (A.S.)

  16. Prospective Technology Assessment of Synthetic Biology: Fundamental and Propaedeutic Reflections in Order to Enable an Early Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jan Cornelius

    2016-08-01

    Synthetic biology is regarded as one of the key technosciences of the future. The goal of this paper is to present some fundamental considerations to enable procedures of a technology assessment (TA) of synthetic biology. To accomplish such an early "upstream" assessment of a not yet fully developed technology, a special type of TA will be considered: Prospective TA (ProTA). At the center of ProTA are the analysis and the framing of "synthetic biology," including a characterization and assessment of the technological core. The thesis is that if there is any differentia specifica giving substance to the umbrella term "synthetic biology," it is the idea of harnessing self-organization for engineering purposes. To underline that we are likely experiencing an epochal break in the ontology of technoscientific systems, this new type of technology is called "late-modern technology." -I start this paper by analyzing the three most common visions of synthetic biology. Then I argue that one particular vision deserves more attention because it underlies the others: the vision of self-organization. I discuss the inherent limits of this new type of late-modern technology in the attempt to control and monitor possible risk issues. I refer to Hans Jonas' ethics and his early anticipation of the risks of a novel type of technology. I end by drawing conclusions for the approach of ProTA towards an early societal shaping of synthetic biology.

  17. Towards the Development of Synthetic Antibiotics: Designs Inspired by Natural Antimicrobial Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Fazren; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every living organism produces gene-encoded antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that provide an immediate defence against pathogen invasion. Many AMPs have been isolated and used as antibiotics that are effective against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Although encouraging, AMPs have such poor drug-like properties that their application for clinical use is restricted. In turn, this has diverted research to the development of synthetic molecules that retain the therapeutic efficacy of AMPs but are endowed with greater biological stability and safety profiles. Most of the synthetic molecules, either based on a peptidic or non-peptidic scaffold, have been designed to mimic the amphiphilic properties of native AMPs, which are widely believed to be the key determinant of their antibacterial activity. In this review, the structural, chemical and biophysical features that govern the biological activities of various synthetic designs are discussed extensively. Recent innovative approaches from the literature that exhibit novel concepts towards the development of new synthetic antibacterial agents, including the engineered delivery platform incorporated with AMP mimetics, are also emphasised.

  18. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  19. High molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo for synthetic biology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhas, Mario; Ajioka, James W

    2017-05-01

    DNA assembly is the key technology of the emerging interdisciplinary field of synthetic biology. While the assembly of smaller DNA fragments is usually performed in vitro, high molecular weight DNA molecules are assembled in vivo via homologous recombination in the host cell. Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are the main hosts used for DNA assembly in vivo. Progress in DNA assembly over the last few years has paved the way for the construction of whole genomes. This review provides an update on recent synthetic biology advances with particular emphasis on high molecular weight DNA assembly in vivo in E. coli, B. subtilis and S. cerevisiae. Special attention is paid to the assembly of whole genomes, such as those of the first synthetic cell, synthetic yeast and minimal genomes.

  20. Synthetic Biology and Personalized Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology, application of synthetic chemistry to biology, is a broad term that covers the engineering of biological systems with structures and functions not found in nature to process information, manipulate chemicals, produce energy, maintain cell environment and enhance human health. Synthetic biology devices contribute not only to improve our understanding of disease mechanisms, but also provide novel diagnostic tools. Methods based on synthetic biology enable the design of novel strategies for the treatment of cancer, immune diseases metabolic disorders and infectious diseases as well as the production of cheap drugs. The potential of synthetic genome, using an expanded genetic code that is designed for specific drug synthesis as well as delivery and activation of the drug in vivo by a pathological signal, was already pointed out during a lecture delivered at Kuwait University in 2005. Of two approaches to synthetic biology, top-down and bottom-up, the latter is more relevant to the development of personalized medicines as it provides more flexibility in constructing a partially synthetic cell from basic building blocks for a desired task. PMID:22907209

  1. Tracking the emergence of synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, Philip; Kwon, Seokbeom; Youtie, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging domain that combines biological and engineering concepts and which has seen rapid growth in research, innovation, and policy interest in recent years. This paper contributes to efforts to delineate this emerging domain by presenting a newly constructed bibliometric definition of synthetic biology. Our approach is dimensioned from a core set of papers in synthetic biology, using procedures to obtain benchmark synthetic biology publication records, extract keywords from these benchmark records, and refine the keywords, supplemented with articles published in dedicated synthetic biology journals. We compare our search strategy with other recent bibliometric approaches to define synthetic biology, using a common source of publication data for the period from 2000 to 2015. The paper details the rapid growth and international spread of research in synthetic biology in recent years, demonstrates that diverse research disciplines are contributing to the multidisciplinary development of synthetic biology research, and visualizes this by profiling synthetic biology research on the map of science. We further show the roles of a relatively concentrated set of research sponsors in funding the growth and trajectories of synthetic biology. In addition to discussing these analyses, the paper notes limitations and suggests lines for further work.

  2. Workshop Papers: Directions and Marketing of Synthetic Crude Oil and Heavy Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This workshop was organized by the National Centre for Upgrading Technology in an effort to bring together experts from the various sectors of the petroleum industry to outline their views of the directions that the synthetic crude oil market will pursue over the next decade and into the 21. century. The motivation for the Workshop came from the many announcements during 1996 and 1997 by several Canadian oil companies about plans to initiate or expand their heavy oil and synthetic crude production. During the same period, at least one US refiner also announced plans to revamp an existing refinery to allow it to process Canadian heavy oil and synthetic crude. The workshop was organized to review these plans and to discuss such questions as (1) Would the selected technologies be the familiar carbon rejection or hydrogen addition methods, or would there be radical advanced technologies? (2) Would the products be fully or partially upgraded? (3) How would they be processed in the refinery? (4) Would there be a market? This collection of papers or viewgraphs comprise all the formal presentations given at the workshop. The final section also contains the edited notes recorded during the question and answer periods. refs., tabs., figs

  3. Comparison of Nonlinear Model Results Using Modified Recorded and Synthetic Ground Motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, Robert E.; Wilkins, J. Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A study has been performed that compares results of nonlinear model runs using two sets of earthquake ground motion time histories that have been modified to fit the same design response spectra. The time histories include applicable modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories and synthetic ground motion time histories. The modified recorded earthquake ground motion time histories are modified from time history records that are selected based on consistent magnitude and distance. The synthetic ground motion time histories are generated using appropriate Fourier amplitude spectrums, Arias intensity, and drift correction. All of the time history modification is performed using the same algorithm to fit the design response spectra. The study provides data to demonstrate that properly managed synthetic ground motion time histories are reasonable for use in nonlinear seismic analysis.

  4. Printability of Synthetic Papers by Electrophotography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozália Szentgyörgyvölgyi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the printability of synthetic papers by the electrophotography technique. Prints of cmyk colour fields from 20% to 100% raster tone values were printed on three types of synthetic papers (one film synthetic paper and two fiber synthetic papers. The investigation of the appearance included densitometric measurement of the cmyk prints. The results have shown differences in the optical density and optical tone value between cmyk prints made on various synthetic papers. The highest optical density and the increase of the optical tone value were observed on the film synthetic paper, where cmyk prints were more saturated. The highest abrasion resistance of cmyk prints was obtained from the fibre synthetic paper.

  5. Mineralization of Synthetic Polymer Scaffolds: A Bottom-upApproach for the Development of Artificial Bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jie; Viengkham, Malathong; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2004-09-27

    The controlled integration of organic and inorganic components confers natural bone with superior mechanical properties. Bone biogenesis is thought to occur by templated mineralization of hard apatite crystals by an elastic protein scaffold, a process we sought to emulate with synthetic biomimetic hydrogel polymers. Crosslinked polymethacrylamide and polymethacrylate hydrogels were functionalized with mineral-binding ligands and used to template the formation of hydroxyapatite. Strong adhesion between the organic and inorganic materials was achieved for hydrogels functionalized with either carboxylate or hydroxy ligands. The mineral-nucleating potential of hydroxyl groups identified here broadens the design parameters for synthetic bone-like composites and suggests a potential role for hydroxylated collagen proteins in bone mineralization.

  6. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, C.W., E-mail: tccwk@polyu.edu.hk [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Kwong, C.H. [Institute of Textiles and Clothing, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Ng, S.P. [Hong Kong Community College, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment improved surface performance of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane. • XPS and FTIR confirmed the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. • Contact angle increases to 138° after plasma treatment. - Abstract: Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment.

  7. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, C.W.; Kwong, C.H.; Ng, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment improved surface performance of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane. • XPS and FTIR confirmed the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. • Contact angle increases to 138° after plasma treatment. - Abstract: Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment

  8. Human performance improvement in organizations: Potential application for the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This publication is primarily intended for managers and specialists in nuclear facility operating organizations working in the area of human performance improvement. It is intended to provide them with practical information they can use to improve human performance in their organizations. While some of the information provided in this publication is based upon the experience of nuclear facility operating organizations, most of it comes from human performance improvement initiatives in non-nuclear organizations and industries. The nuclear industry has a long tradition of sharing good management practices in order to foster continuous improvement. However, it is not always realized that many of the practices that are now well established initially came from non-nuclear industries and were subsequently adapted for application to nuclear power plant operating organizations. There is, therefore, good reason to periodically review non-nuclear industry practices for ideas that might have direct or indirect application to the nuclear industry in order to potentially gain benefits such as the following: new approaches to certain problem areas, insights into new or impending challenges, improvements in existing practices, benchmarking of opportunities, development of learning organizations and avoidance of collective blind spots. The preparation of this report was an activity of the project on Effective Training to Achieve Excellence in the Performance of NPP Personnel. The objective of this project is to enhance the capability of Member States to utilize proven practices developed and transferred by the IAEA for improving personnel performance. The expected outcome from this project is the increased use by organizations in Members States of proven engineering and management practices and methodologies developed and transferred by the IAEA to improve personnel performance

  9. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  10. Synthetic circuit designs for earth terraformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Ricard V; Montañez, Raúl; Duran-Nebreda, Salva

    2015-07-18

    Mounting evidence indicates that our planet might experience runaway effects associated to rising temperatures and ecosystem overexploitation, leading to catastrophic shifts on short time scales. Remediation scenarios capable of counterbalancing these effects involve geoengineering, sustainable practices and carbon sequestration, among others. None of these scenarios seems powerful enough to achieve the desired restoration of safe boundaries. We hypothesize that synthetic organisms with the appropriate engineering design could be used to safely prevent declines in some stressed ecosystems and help improving carbon sequestration. Such schemes would include engineering mutualistic dependencies preventing undesired evolutionary processes. We hypothesize that some particular design principles introduce unescapable constraints to the engineered organisms that act as effective firewalls. Testing this designed organisms can be achieved by using controlled bioreactor models, with single and heterogeneous populations, and accurate computational models including different scales (from genetic constructs and metabolic pathways to population dynamics). Our hypothesis heads towards a future anthropogenic action that should effectively act as Terraforming processes. It also implies a major challenge in the existing biosafety policies, since we suggest release of modified organisms as potentially necessary strategy for success.

  11. An Ultra-high Resolution Synthetic Precipitation Data for Ungauged Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hong-Joong; Choi, Kyung-Min; Oh, Jai-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Despite the enormous damage caused by record heavy rainfall, the amount of precipitation in areas without observation points cannot be known precisely. One way to overcome these difficulties is to estimate meteorological data at ungauged sites. In this study, we have used observation data over Seoul city to calculate high-resolution (250-meter resolution) synthetic precipitation over a 10-year (2005-2014) period. Furthermore, three cases are analyzed by evaluating the rainfall intensity and performing statistical analysis over the 10-year period. In the case where the typhoon "Meari" passed to the west coast during 28-30 June 2011, the Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.93 for seven validation points, which implies that the temporal correlation between the observed precipitation and synthetic precipitation was very good. It can be confirmed that the time series of observation and synthetic precipitation in the period almost completely matches the observed rainfall. On June 28-29, 2011, the estimation of 10 to 30 mm h-1 of continuous strong precipitation was correct. In addition, it is shown that the synthetic precipitation closely follows the observed precipitation for all three cases. Statistical analysis of 10 years of data reveals a very high correlation coefficient between synthetic precipitation and observed rainfall (0.86). Thus, synthetic precipitation data show good agreement with the observations. Therefore, the 250-m resolution synthetic precipitation amount calculated in this study is useful as basic data in weather applications, such as urban flood detection.

  12. Information privacy in organizations: empowering creative and extrarole performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alge, Bradley J; Ballinger, Gary A; Tangirala, Subrahmaniam; Oakley, James L

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of employee perceptions of information privacy in their work organizations and important psychological and behavioral outcomes. A model is presented in which information privacy predicts psychological empowerment, which in turn predicts discretionary behaviors on the job, including creative performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Results from 2 studies (Study 1: single organization, N=310; Study 2: multiple organizations, N=303) confirm that information privacy entails judgments of information gathering control, information handling control, and legitimacy. Moreover, a model linking information privacy to empowerment and empowerment to creative performance and OCBs was supported. Findings are discussed in light of organizational attempts to control employees through the gathering and handling of their personal information. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. The impact of Knowledge Management Infrastructure on Performance Effectiveness in Jordanian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Mohammad Soud Jaradat, Dr.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the impact of knowledge management infrastructure on the performance effectiveness of the Jordanian organizations that need knowledge to perform their work and tasks. The study sample includes some public and private organizations working in Jordan and dealing with the knowledge subjects. The findings indicated that there was a strong effect for knowledge management infrastructure on the performance effectiveness. Organizations should establish knowledge directorates to discover and transmit knowledge to workers with a view to improve the creativeness and distinctiveness of organizations.

  14. Performance in Public Organizations: Clarifying the Conceptual Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Boesen, Andreas; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2016-01-01

    's perspective is performance being assessed? Are the criteria formal or informal? Are the criteria subjective? Which process focus and product focus do they have, if any? What is the unit of analysis? Based on these distinctions, the performance criteria of existing studies used in an empirical review...... of management and performance are classified. The results illustrate how a systematization of the conceptual space of performance in public organizations can help researchers select what to study and what to leave out with greater accuracy while also bringing greater clarity to public debates about performance....

  15. Performance of Scattering Matrix Decomposition and Color Spaces for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Color Spaces and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Multicolor Imaging. 15 2.3.1 Colorimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.3.2...III. Decomposition Techniques on SAR Polarimetry and Colorimetry applied to SAR Imagery...space polarimetric SAR systems. Colorimetry is also introduced in this chapter, presenting the fundamentals of the RGB and CMY color spaces, defined for

  16. Goodness of Fit of Skills Assessment Approaches: Insights from Patterns of Real vs. Synthetic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Behzad; Desmarais, Michel C.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the issue of the goodness of fit of different skills assessment models using both synthetic and real data. Synthetic data is generated from the different skills assessment models. The results show wide differences of performances between the skills assessment models over synthetic data sets. The set of relative performances…

  17. Synthetic biology and biosecurity: challenging the "myths".

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferson, C; Lentzos, F; Marris, C

    2014-01-01

    15.10.14 KB. Ok to add published version to spiral, OA paper under cc by Synthetic biology, a field that aims to make biology easier to engineer, is routinely described as leading to an increase in the dual-use threat, i.e., the potential for the same scientific research to be used for peaceful purposes or misused for warfare or terrorism. Fears have been expressed that the de-skilling of biology, combined with online access to the genomic DNA sequences of pathogenic organisms an...

  18. Do senior management cultures affect performance? Evidence from Italian public healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenestini, Anna; Lega, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are often characterized by diffuse power, ambiguous goals, and a plurality of actors. In this complex and pluralistic context, senior healthcare managers are expected to provide strategic direction and lead their organizations toward their goals and performance targets. The present work explores the relationship between senior management team culture and performance by investigating Italian public healthcare organizations in the Tuscany region. Our assessment of senior management culture was accomplished through the use of an established framework and a corresponding tool, the competing values framework, which supports the idea that specific aspects of performance are related to a dominant management culture. Organizational performance was assessed using a wide range of measures collected by a multidimensional performance evaluation system, which was developed in Tuscany to measure the performance of its 12 local health authorities (LHAs) and four teaching hospitals (THs). Usable responses were received from 80 senior managers of 11 different healthcare organizations (two THs and nine LHAs). Our findings show that Tuscan healthcare organizations are characterized by various dominant cultures: developmental, clan, rational, and hierarchical. These variations in dominant culture were associated with performance measures. The implications for management theory, professional practice, and public policy are discussed.

  19. Modelling biogas production of solid waste: application of the BGP model to a synthetic landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier; Segura-Sobrino, Francisco

    2013-04-01

    Production of biogas as a result of the decomposition of organic matter included on solid waste landfills is still an issue to be understood. Reports on this matter are rarely included on the engineering construction projects of solid waste landfills despite it can be an issue of critical importance while operating the landfill and after its closure. This paper presents an application of BGP (Bio-Gas-Production) model to a synthetic landfill. The evolution in time of the concentrations of the different chemical compounds of biogas is studied. Results obtained show the impact on the air quality of different management alternatives which are usually performed in real landfills.

  20. Performance and endurance of a PEMFC operated with synthetic reformate fuel feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sishtla, C; Koncar, G; Platon, R [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gamburzev, S; Appleby, A J [Texas Engineering Experimental Station, Texas A and M Univ. System, College Station, TX (United States). Center for Electrochemical Systems and Hydrogen Research; Velev, O A [AeroVironment, Inc., Monrovia, CA (United States)

    1998-03-15

    Widespread implementation of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) powerplants for stationary and vehicular applications will be dependent in the near future on using readily available hydrocarbon fuels as the source of the hydrogen fuel. Methane and propane are ideal fuels for stationary applications, while methanol, gasoline, and diesel fuel are better suited for vehicular applications. Various means of fuel processing are possible to produce a gaseous fuel containing H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CO. CO is a known electrocatalyst poison and must be reduced to low (10`s) ppm levels and CO{sub 2} is said to cause additional polarization effects. Even with no CO in the feed gas a H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O gas mixture will form some CO. Therefore, as a first step of developing a PEMFC that can operate for thousands of hours using a reformed fuel, we used an anode gas feed of 80% H{sub 2} and 20% CO{sub 2} to simulate the reforming of CH{sub 4}. To investigate the effect of reformate on cell performance and endurance, a single cell with an active area of 58 cm{sup 2} was assembled with a membrane electrode assembly (MEA) furnished by Texas A and M University using IGT`s internally manifolded heat exchange (IMHEX{sup TM}) design configuration. The MEA consisted of a Nafion 112 membrane with anode and cathode Pt catalyst loadings of 0.26 and 1.46 mg/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The cell was set to operate on a synthetic reformate - air at 60 C and 1 atm and demonstrated over 5000 h of endurance with a decay rate of less than 1%/1000 h of operation. The cell also underwent four successful thermal cycles with no appreciable loss in performance. The stable performance is attributed to a combination of the IGT IMHEX plate design with its inherent uniform gas flow distribution across the entire active area and MEA quality. The effects of temperature, gas composition, fuel utilization (stoics) and thermal cycle on cell performance are described. (orig.)

  1. Volumetric Synthetic Aperture Imaging with a Piezoelectric 2-D Row-Column Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzari, Hamed; Engholm, Mathias; Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row-column addres......The synthetic aperture (SA) technique can be used for achieving real-time volumetric ultrasound imaging using 2-D row-column addressed transducers. This paper investigates SA volumetric imaging performance of an in-house prototyped 3 MHz λ/2-pitch 62+62 element piezoelectric 2-D row...

  2. Synthetic Cathinones ("Bath Salts")

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens Inhalants Heroin Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Over-the-Counter Medicines Prescription Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/ ...

  3. SU-F-J-109: Generate Synthetic CT From Cone Beam CT for CBCT-Based Dose Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H; Barbee, D; Wang, W; Pennell, R; Hu, K; Osterman, K [Department of Radiation Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The use of CBCT for dose calculation is limited by its HU inaccuracy from increased scatter. This study presents a method to generate synthetic CT images from CBCT data by a probabilistic classification that may be robust to CBCT noise. The feasibility of using the synthetic CT for dose calculation is evaluated in IMRT for unilateral H&N cancer. Methods: In the training phase, a fuzzy c-means classification was performed on HU vectors (CBCT, CT) of planning CT and registered day-1 CBCT image pair. Using the resulting centroid CBCT and CT values for five classified “tissue” types, a synthetic CT for a daily CBCT was created by classifying each CBCT voxel to obtain its probability belonging to each tissue class, then assigning a CT HU with a probability-weighted summation of the classes’ CT centroids. Two synthetic CTs from a CBCT were generated: s-CT using the centroids from classification of individual patient CBCT/CT data; s2-CT using the same centroids for all patients to investigate the applicability of group-based centroids. IMRT dose calculations for five patients were performed on the synthetic CTs and compared with CT-planning doses by dose-volume statistics. Results: DVH curves of PTVs and critical organs calculated on s-CT and s2-CT agree with those from planning-CT within 3%, while doses calculated with heterogeneity off or on raw CBCT show DVH differences up to 15%. The differences in PTV D95% and spinal cord max are 0.6±0.6% and 0.6±0.3% for s-CT, and 1.6±1.7% and 1.9±1.7% for s2-CT. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) shows 97.5±1.6% and 97.6±1.6% pass rates for using s-CTs and s2-CTs compared with CT-based doses, respectively. Conclusion: CBCT-synthesized CTs using individual or group-based centroids resulted in dose calculations that are comparable to CT-planning dose for unilateral H&N cancer. The method may provide a tool for accurate dose calculation based on daily CBCT.

  4. SU-F-J-109: Generate Synthetic CT From Cone Beam CT for CBCT-Based Dose Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H; Barbee, D; Wang, W; Pennell, R; Hu, K; Osterman, K

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The use of CBCT for dose calculation is limited by its HU inaccuracy from increased scatter. This study presents a method to generate synthetic CT images from CBCT data by a probabilistic classification that may be robust to CBCT noise. The feasibility of using the synthetic CT for dose calculation is evaluated in IMRT for unilateral H&N cancer. Methods: In the training phase, a fuzzy c-means classification was performed on HU vectors (CBCT, CT) of planning CT and registered day-1 CBCT image pair. Using the resulting centroid CBCT and CT values for five classified “tissue” types, a synthetic CT for a daily CBCT was created by classifying each CBCT voxel to obtain its probability belonging to each tissue class, then assigning a CT HU with a probability-weighted summation of the classes’ CT centroids. Two synthetic CTs from a CBCT were generated: s-CT using the centroids from classification of individual patient CBCT/CT data; s2-CT using the same centroids for all patients to investigate the applicability of group-based centroids. IMRT dose calculations for five patients were performed on the synthetic CTs and compared with CT-planning doses by dose-volume statistics. Results: DVH curves of PTVs and critical organs calculated on s-CT and s2-CT agree with those from planning-CT within 3%, while doses calculated with heterogeneity off or on raw CBCT show DVH differences up to 15%. The differences in PTV D95% and spinal cord max are 0.6±0.6% and 0.6±0.3% for s-CT, and 1.6±1.7% and 1.9±1.7% for s2-CT. Gamma analysis (2%/2mm) shows 97.5±1.6% and 97.6±1.6% pass rates for using s-CTs and s2-CTs compared with CT-based doses, respectively. Conclusion: CBCT-synthesized CTs using individual or group-based centroids resulted in dose calculations that are comparable to CT-planning dose for unilateral H&N cancer. The method may provide a tool for accurate dose calculation based on daily CBCT.

  5. Experience with synthetic fluorinated fluid lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Peter L.; Bohner, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Since the late 1970's, the wet lubricant of choice for space mechanisms has been one of the family of synthetic perfluoro polyalkylether (PFPE) compounds, namely Fomblin Z-25 (Bray-815Z) or DuPont's Krytox 143xx series. While offering the advantages of extremely low vapor pressures and wide temperature ranges, these oils and derived greases have a complex chemistry compared to the more familiar natural and synthetic hydrocarbons. Many aerospace companies have conducted test programs to characterize the behavior of these compounds in a space environment, resulting in a large body of hard knowledge as well as considerable space lore concerning the suitability of the lubricants for particular applications and techniques for successful application. The facts are summarized and a few myths about the compounds are dispelled, and some performance guidelines for the mechanism design engineer are provided.

  6. Synthetic Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    "Are we alone?" is one of the primary questions of astrobiology, and whose answer defines our significance in the universe. Unfortunately, this quest is hindered by the fact that we have only one confirmed example of life, that of earth. While this is enormously helpful in helping to define the minimum envelope for life, it strains credulity to imagine that life, if it arose multiple times, has not taken other routes. To help fill this gap, our lab has begun using synthetic biology - the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes - as an enabling technology. One theme, the "Hell Cell" project, focuses on creating artificial extremophiles in order to push the limits for Earth life, and to understand how difficult it is for life to evolve into extreme niches. In another project, we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids.

  7. Molecular Imaging in Synthetic Biology, and Synthetic Biology in Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilad, Assaf A; Shapiro, Mikhail G

    2017-06-01

    Biomedical synthetic biology is an emerging field in which cells are engineered at the genetic level to carry out novel functions with relevance to biomedical and industrial applications. This approach promises new treatments, imaging tools, and diagnostics for diseases ranging from gastrointestinal inflammatory syndromes to cancer, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. As these cellular technologies undergo pre-clinical and clinical development, it is becoming essential to monitor their location and function in vivo, necessitating appropriate molecular imaging strategies, and therefore, we have created an interest group within the World Molecular Imaging Society focusing on synthetic biology and reporter gene technologies. Here, we highlight recent advances in biomedical synthetic biology, including bacterial therapy, immunotherapy, and regenerative medicine. We then discuss emerging molecular imaging approaches to facilitate in vivo applications, focusing on reporter genes for noninvasive modalities such as magnetic resonance, ultrasound, photoacoustic imaging, bioluminescence, and radionuclear imaging. Because reporter genes can be incorporated directly into engineered genetic circuits, they are particularly well suited to imaging synthetic biological constructs, and developing them provides opportunities for creative molecular and genetic engineering.

  8. New designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones): review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottencin, Olivier; Rolland, Benjamin; Karila, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    New designer drugs (synthetic cannabinoids and synthetic cathinones) are new "legal highs" that are sold online for recreational public or private use. Synthetic cannabinoids are psychoactive herbal and chemical products that mimic the effects of cannabis when used. These drugs are available on the Internet or in head shops as incense or air fresheners to circumvent the law. Cathinone is a naturally occurring beta-ketone amphetamine analog found in the leaves of the Catha edulis plant. Synthetic cathinones are phenylalkylamine derivatives that may possess amphetamine-like properties. These drugs are sold online as bath salts. Designer drugs are often labeled as "not for human consumption" to circumvent drug abuse legislation. The absence of legal risks, the ease of obtaining these drugs, the moderate cost, and the availability via the Internet are the main features that attract users, but the number of intoxicated people presenting with emergencies is increasing. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may affect recreational and chronic users. The addictive potential of designer drugs is not negligible.

  9. Carbon Nanotube-Based Synthetic Gecko Tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhinojwala, Ali

    2008-03-01

    Wall-climbing geckos have unique ability to attach to different surfaces without the use of any viscoelastic glues. On coming in contact with any surface, the micron-size gecko foot-hairs deform, enabling molecular contact over large areas, thus translating weak van der Waals (vdW) interactions into enormous shear forces. We will present our recent results on the development of synthetic gecko tape using aligned carbon nanotubes to mimic the keratin hairs found on gecko feet. The patterned carbon nanotube-based gecko tape can support a shear stress (36 N/cm^2) nearly four times higher than the gecko foot and sticks to a variety of surfaces, including Teflon. Both the micron-size setae (replicated by nanotube bundles) and nanometer-size spatulas (individual nanotubes) are necessary to achieve macroscopic shear adhesion and to translate the weak vdW interactions into high shear forces. The carbon nanotube based tape offers an excellent synthetic option as a dry conductive reversible adhesive in microelectronics, robotics and space applications. The mechanism behind these large shear forces and self-cleaning properties of these carbon nanotube based synthetic gecko tapes will be discussed. This work was performed in collaboration with graduate students Liehui Ge, and Sunny Sethi, and collaborators from RPI; Lijie Ci and Professor Pulickel Ajayan.

  10. Accounting for External Turbulence of Logistics Organizations via Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of upper management in designing performance measurement systems (PMS) that account for external turbulence of the organization and to show how this PMS design for turbulence impacts organizational resilience and distribution service performance....... Design/methodology/approach: Hypotheses are developed by integrating management accounting and strategic management perspectives into supply chain management and subsequently tested based on data from 431 logistics organizations (i.e. both logistics companies and internal logistics departments...... distribution service performance. Originality/value: This paper is the first to introduce the concept of PMS design for turbulence to the literature and to show that it is relevant for supply chain risk management by fostering the capabilities and the performance of logistics organizations. Further...

  11. Current status of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, K P; Hanna, K; Waring, G O; Gipson, I; Liu, Y; Gailitis, R P; Johnson-Wint, B; Green, K

    1991-01-01

    Many of the deficiencies with human tissue epikeratoplasty might be improved by the use of a suitable synthetic lenticule. Potential biomaterials for epikeratoplasty include collagen (types I, III, or IV), collagen-hydrogel copolymers, bioactive synthetics, and coated hydrogels. The biomaterial must be engineered to achieve strict specifications of optical clarity, support of epithelial migration and adhesion, permeability to solutes, and stability to corneal proteases. Attaching synthetic lenticules to the cornea without cutting Bowman's layer by adhesives, laser welding, or direct adhesion may also improve the efficacy of synthetic epikeratoplasty.

  12. Tissue Harmonic Synthetic Aperture Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Joachim

    The main purpose of this PhD project is to develop an ultrasonic method for tissue harmonic synthetic aperture imaging. The motivation is to advance the field of synthetic aperture imaging in ultrasound, which has shown great potentials in the clinic. Suggestions for synthetic aperture tissue...... system complexity compared to conventional synthetic aperture techniques. In this project, SASB is sought combined with a pulse inversion technique for 2nd harmonic tissue harmonic imaging. The advantages in tissue harmonic imaging (THI) are expected to further improve the image quality of SASB...

  13. Life after the synthetic cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self-replicating ......Nature asked eight synthetic-biology experts about the implications for science and society of the “synthetic cell” made by the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI). The institute's team assembled, modified and implanted a synthesized genome into a DNA-free bacterial shell to make a self...

  14. Clinical evaluation of synthetic aperture harmonic imaging for scanning focal malignant liver lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Andreas Hjelm; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Hansen, Peter Møller

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to perform a clinical comparison of synthetic aperture sequential beamformingtissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) sequences with a conventional imaging technique, dynamic receivefocusing with THI (DRF-THI). Both techniques used pulse inversion and were recorded interlea......The purpose of the study was to perform a clinical comparison of synthetic aperture sequential beamformingtissue harmonic imaging (SASB-THI) sequences with a conventional imaging technique, dynamic receivefocusing with THI (DRF-THI). Both techniques used pulse inversion and were recorded...

  15. Dynamics of problem setting and framing in citizen discussions on synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betten, Afke Wieke; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kupper, Frank

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging scientific field where engineers and biologists design and build biological systems for various applications. Developing synthetic biology responsibly in the public interest necessitates a meaningful societal dialogue. In this article, we argue that facilitating such a dialogue requires an understanding of how people make sense of synthetic biology. We performed qualitative research to unravel the underlying dynamics of problem setting and framing in citizen discussions on synthetic biology. We found that most people are not inherently for or against synthetic biology as a technology or development in itself, but that their perspectives are framed by core values about our relationships with science and technology and that sensemaking is much dependent on the context and general feelings of (dis)content. Given that there are many assumptions focused on a more binary idea of the public's view, we emphasize the need for frame awareness and understanding in a meaningful dialogue.

  16. Programming Morphogenesis through Systems and Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Jeremy J; Su, Emily; Cahan, Patrick; Ebrahimkhani, Mo R

    2018-04-01

    Mammalian tissue development is an intricate, spatiotemporal process of self-organization that emerges from gene regulatory networks of differentiating stem cells. A major goal in stem cell biology is to gain a sufficient understanding of gene regulatory networks and cell-cell interactions to enable the reliable and robust engineering of morphogenesis. Here, we review advances in synthetic biology, single cell genomics, and multiscale modeling, which, when synthesized, provide a framework to achieve the ambitious goal of programming morphogenesis in complex tissues and organoids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Individual Training, Performance Improvement, and the Future for Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Human competence is a vital element for any organization that expects to survive and then thrive. Developing individual performance ability is necessary but not sufficient because trained people alone will not make an organization successful. We must determine what people should deliver and why it should be delivered in order to add measurable…

  18. Engineering synthetic vaccines using cues from natural immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Darrell J.; Swartz, Melody A.; Szeto, Gregory L.

    2013-11-01

    Vaccines aim to protect against or treat diseases through manipulation of the immune response, promoting either immunity or tolerance. In the former case, vaccines generate antibodies and T cells poised to protect against future pathogen encounter or attack diseased cells such as tumours; in the latter case, which is far less developed, vaccines block pathogenic autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies that target self tissue. Enormous challenges remain, however, as a consequence of our incomplete understanding of human immunity. A rapidly growing field of research is the design of vaccines based on synthetic materials to target organs, tissues, cells or intracellular compartments; to co-deliver immunomodulatory signals that control the quality of the immune response; or to act directly as immune regulators. There exists great potential for well-defined materials to further our understanding of immunity. Here we describe recent advances in the design of synthetic materials to direct immune responses, highlighting successes and challenges in prophylactic, therapeutic and tolerance-inducing vaccines.

  19. Modular design of artificial tissue homeostasis: robust control through synthetic cellular heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Miller

    Full Text Available Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of β-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for 'synthetic cellular heterogeneity' that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism, demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a 'phenotypic sensitivity analysis' method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in

  20. Modular design of artificial tissue homeostasis: robust control through synthetic cellular heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Miles; Hafner, Marc; Sontag, Eduardo; Davidsohn, Noah; Subramanian, Sairam; Purnick, Priscilla E M; Lauffenburger, Douglas; Weiss, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology efforts have largely focused on small engineered gene networks, yet understanding how to integrate multiple synthetic modules and interface them with endogenous pathways remains a challenge. Here we present the design, system integration, and analysis of several large scale synthetic gene circuits for artificial tissue homeostasis. Diabetes therapy represents a possible application for engineered homeostasis, where genetically programmed stem cells maintain a steady population of β-cells despite continuous turnover. We develop a new iterative process that incorporates modular design principles with hierarchical performance optimization targeted for environments with uncertainty and incomplete information. We employ theoretical analysis and computational simulations of multicellular reaction/diffusion models to design and understand system behavior, and find that certain features often associated with robustness (e.g., multicellular synchronization and noise attenuation) are actually detrimental for tissue homeostasis. We overcome these problems by engineering a new class of genetic modules for 'synthetic cellular heterogeneity' that function to generate beneficial population diversity. We design two such modules (an asynchronous genetic oscillator and a signaling throttle mechanism), demonstrate their capacity for enhancing robust control, and provide guidance for experimental implementation with various computational techniques. We found that designing modules for synthetic heterogeneity can be complex, and in general requires a framework for non-linear and multifactorial analysis. Consequently, we adapt a 'phenotypic sensitivity analysis' method to determine how functional module behaviors combine to achieve optimal system performance. We ultimately combine this analysis with Bayesian network inference to extract critical, causal relationships between a module's biochemical rate-constants, its high level functional behavior in isolation, and

  1. Fabrication and performance of all-solid-state chloride sensors in synthetic concrete pore solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaojian; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Yingzi; Deng, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    One type of all-solid-state chloride sensor was fabricated using a MnO(2) electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride in synthetic concrete pore solutions was systematically studied, and the polarization performance was also evaluated. The results show a good linear relationship between the potential reading of the sensor and the logarithm of chloride activity (concentration ranges from 0.05 to 5.0 M), and the potential value remains stable with increasing immersion time. The existence of K(+), Ca(2+), Na(+) and SO(4) (2-) ions have little influence on the potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride, but the pH has a significant influence on the potential value of the sensor at low chloride concentration. The potential reading of the sensor increases linearly with the solution temperature over the range from 5 to 45 °C. Meanwhile, an excellent polarization behavior is proven by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic tests. All of the results reveal that the developed sensor has a great potential for monitoring chloride ions in concrete environments.

  2. Fabrication and Performance of All-Solid-State Chloride Sensors in Synthetic Concrete Pore Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Deng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available One type of all-solid-state chloride sensor was fabricated using a MnO2 electrode and a Ag/AgCl electrode. The potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride in synthetic concrete pore solutions was systematically studied, and the polarization performance was also evaluated. The results show a good linear relationship between the potential reading of the sensor and the logarithm of chloride activity (concentration ranges from 0.05 to 5.0 M, and the potential value remains stable with increasing immersion time. The existence of K+, Ca2+, Na+ and SO42− ions have little influence on the potentiometric response of the sensor to chloride, but the pH has a significant influence on the potential value of the sensor at low chloride concentration. The potential reading of the sensor increases linearly with the solution temperature over the range from 5 to 45 °C. Meanwhile, an excellent polarization behavior is proven by galvanostatic and potentiodynamic tests. All of the results reveal that the developed sensor has a great potential for monitoring chloride ions in concrete environments.

  3. Microbial Extremophiles for Earth and Beyond: Pushing the Boundaries with Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2017-01-01

    All organisms live in a multi-dimensional physical and chemical niche space. Discoveries in the 20th century enormously expanded the range of what was considered "habitable." However, the current diversity of life on Earth begs the question of what terrestrial life - or indeed, another life form - would be capable of. With the needs of both modern laboratory science and the burgeoning field of biotechnology, as well as our deeply held desire to answer the question "are we alone in the universe?, we are exploiting the tools of synthetic biology to probe the question of whether we can create "synthetic extremophiles" or, as our lab has dubbed them, "Hell Cells."

  4. In-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction with liquid chromatographic determination of synthetic pyrethroids in surface water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed S. Albaseer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An indigenously fabricated in laboratory glass syringe was used for in-syringe dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (is-DLLME and preconcentration of synthetic pyrethroids (SPs from surface waters suitable for their determination by high performance liquid chromatography. In contrast to classical DLLME, is-DLLME allows the use of lighter-than-water organic solvents and the analysis of environmental contaminants’ samples without prior filtration, which is of great importance due to the high affinity of pyrethroids to adsorb to solid particulates present in environmental samples. The effects of various parameters on the extraction efficiency were evaluated and optimized systemically using one-factor-at-a-time method (OFAT and statistically using full factorial design (24. Three SPs (viz.; cypermethrin, resmethrin and permethrin were analyzed. The method showed good accuracy with RSD% in the range of of 4.8–6.9%. The method detection limits of the three pesticides ranged from 0.14 to 0.16 ng mL-1. The proposed method was applied for the determination of synthetic pyrethroids in lake water

  5. Improving magnetic properties of MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylan Koparan, E., E-mail: etaylan20@gmail.com [Department of Science Education, Eregli Faculty of Education, Bulent Ecevit University, TR-67300, Zonguldak (Turkey); Savaskan, B. [Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Karadeniz Technical University, 61830, Of, Trabzon (Turkey); Yanmaz, E. [Department of Mechatronics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, İstanbul Gelişim University, İstanbul (Turkey)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The effects of synthetic engine oil treatment on magnetic properties of bulk MgB{sub 2} superconductors has been first time investigated and reported. • Synthetic engine oil used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source obviously has improved the superconducting magnetic properties of MgB{sub 2}. • The critical current density of all of MgB{sub 2} samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range has been better than that of the pure MgB{sub 2} sample. • The MgB{sub 2} sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. - Abstract: The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB{sub 2} samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density ( J{sub c}(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density f{sub p}(b) and T{sub c} performances of MgB{sub 2} bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB{sub 2} pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB{sub 2} samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB{sub 2} samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB{sub 2} sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB{sub 2} sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The J{sub c} value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2}, whereas for the MgB{sub 2} sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the J{sub c} is enhanced to 4.8 × 10{sup 3} A/cm{sup 2} at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) did not change

  6. Elastic FWI for VTI media: A synthetic parameterization study

    KAUST Repository

    Kamath, Nishant; Tsvankin, Ilya; Diaz, Esteban

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge for multiparameter full-waveform inversion (FWI) is the inherent trade-offs (or cross-talk) between model parameters. Here, we perform FWI of multicomponent data generated for a synthetic VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical

  7. Scented traces--Dermal exposure of synthetic musk fragrances in personal care products and environmental input assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homem, Vera; Silva, Eduardo; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lúcia

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic musks are organic compounds used as fragrance and fixative additives in several personal care products. Until now, little is known about their occurrence and distribution in these household commodities. However, this information is essential to perform a human dermal exposure assessment. Therefore, this study gives an overview on the levels of 12 synthetic musks in 140 personal care products from 7 different categories (body and hair wash, toilet soaps, shaving products, dentifrice products, deodorants/antiperspirants, moisturizers and perfumes). They were analysed by QuEChERS extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Detection limits were found between 0.01ngg(-1) (galaxolide) and 5.00ngg(-1) (musk xylene). Higher average concentrations of total synthetic musks were detected in perfumes (5245.05μgg(-1)) and shampoos (487.67μgg(-1)) for adults. Galaxolide, exaltolide and cashmeran were the most detected compounds. Combining these results with the daily usage amounts, an average daily dermal exposure of 75.69μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for adults and 15.54μgkgbw(-1)day(-1) for babies/children was achieved. The main contributors for adult and babies/children dermal exposure were perfumes and lotions, respectively. About 40% of the adult daily dermal exposure is related to exaltolide, 30% galaxolide, and 15% tonalide, while for babies/children 96% occurs due to exaltolide. An estimate of the amount of musks discharged "down-the-drain" into the wastewater treatment systems through the use of toiletries was also performed. An average emission per capita of 6.7mgday(-1) was determined and galaxolide and exaltolide were the predominant musks in the effluents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthetic biology: Emerging bioengineering in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhandono, Sony

    2017-05-01

    The development of synthetic biology will shape the new era of science and technology. It is an emerging bioengineering technique involving genetic engineering which can alter the phenotype and behavior of the cell or the new product. Synthetic biology may produce biomaterials, drugs, vaccines, biosensors, and even a recombinant secondary metabolite used in herbal and complementary medicine, such as artemisinin, a malaria drug which is usually extracted from the plant Artemisia annua. The power of synthetic biology has encouraged scientists in Indonesia, and is still in early development. This paper also covers some research from an Indonesian research institute in synthetic biology such as observing the production of bio surfactants and the enhanced production of artemisinin using a transient expression system. Synthetic biology development in Indonesia may also be related to the iGEM competition, a large synthetic biology research competition which was attended by several universities in Indonesia. The application of synthetic biology for drug discovery will be discussed.

  9. [New polymer-drug systems based on natural and synthetic polymers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racoviţă, Stefania; Vasiliu, Silvia; Foia, Liliana

    2010-01-01

    The great versatility of polymers makes them very useful in the biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. The combination of natural and synthetic polymers leads to new materials with tailored functional properties. The aim of this work consists in the preparation of new drug delivery system based on chitosan (natural polymer) and polybetaines (synthetic polymers), by a simple process, well known in the literature as complex coacervation methods. Also, the adsorption and release studies of two antibiotics as well as the preservation of their bactericidal capacities were performed.

  10. Velocity estimation using synthetic aperture imaging [blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    Presented an approach for synthetic aperture blood flow ultrasound imaging. Estimates with a low bias and standard deviation can be obtained with as few as eight emissions. The performance of the new estimator is verified using both simulations and measurements. The results demonstrate that a fully...

  11. The Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL) provides a community standard for communicating designs in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdzicki, Michal; Clancy, Kevin P; Oberortner, Ernst; Pocock, Matthew; Quinn, Jacqueline Y; Rodriguez, Cesar A; Roehner, Nicholas; Wilson, Mandy L; Adam, Laura; Anderson, J Christopher; Bartley, Bryan A; Beal, Jacob; Chandran, Deepak; Chen, Joanna; Densmore, Douglas; Endy, Drew; Grünberg, Raik; Hallinan, Jennifer; Hillson, Nathan J; Johnson, Jeffrey D; Kuchinsky, Allan; Lux, Matthew; Misirli, Goksel; Peccoud, Jean; Plahar, Hector A; Sirin, Evren; Stan, Guy-Bart; Villalobos, Alan; Wipat, Anil; Gennari, John H; Myers, Chris J; Sauro, Herbert M

    2014-06-01

    The re-use of previously validated designs is critical to the evolution of synthetic biology from a research discipline to an engineering practice. Here we describe the Synthetic Biology Open Language (SBOL), a proposed data standard for exchanging designs within the synthetic biology community. SBOL represents synthetic biology designs in a community-driven, formalized format for exchange between software tools, research groups and commercial service providers. The SBOL Developers Group has implemented SBOL as an XML/RDF serialization and provides software libraries and specification documentation to help developers implement SBOL in their own software. We describe early successes, including a demonstration of the utility of SBOL for information exchange between several different software tools and repositories from both academic and industrial partners. As a community-driven standard, SBOL will be updated as synthetic biology evolves to provide specific capabilities for different aspects of the synthetic biology workflow.

  12. Integrative systems and synthetic biology of cell-matrix adhesion sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamir, Eli

    2016-09-02

    The complexity of cell-matrix adhesion convolves its roles in the development and functioning of multicellular organisms and their evolutionary tinkering. Cell-matrix adhesion is mediated by sites along the plasma membrane that anchor the actin cytoskeleton to the matrix via a large number of proteins, collectively called the integrin adhesome. Fundamental challenges for understanding how cell-matrix adhesion sites assemble and function arise from their multi-functionality, rapid dynamics, large number of components and molecular diversity. Systems biology faces these challenges in its strive to understand how the integrin adhesome gives rise to functional adhesion sites. Synthetic biology enables engineering intracellular modules and circuits with properties of interest. In this review I discuss some of the fundamental questions in systems biology of cell-matrix adhesion and how synthetic biology can help addressing them.

  13. Synthetic microfluidic paper: high surface area and high porosity polymer micropillar arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Jonas; Yasuga, Hiroki; Haraldsson, Tommy; van der Wijngaart, Wouter

    2016-01-21

    We introduce Synthetic Microfluidic Paper, a novel porous material for microfluidic applications that consists of an OSTE polymer that is photostructured in a well-controlled geometry of slanted and interlocked micropillars. We demonstrate the distinct benefits of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper over other porous microfluidic materials, such as nitrocellulose, traditional paper and straight micropillar arrays: in contrast to straight micropillar arrays, the geometry of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper was miniaturized without suffering capillary collapse during manufacturing and fluidic operation, resulting in a six-fold increased internal surface area and a three-fold increased porous fraction. Compared to commercial nitrocellulose materials for capillary assays, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper shows a wider range of capillary pumping speed and four times lower device-to-device variation. Compared to the surfaces of the other porous microfluidic materials that are modified by adsorption, Synthetic Microfluidic Paper contains free thiol groups and has been shown to be suitable for covalent surface chemistry, demonstrated here for increasing the material hydrophilicity. These results illustrate the potential of Synthetic Microfluidic Paper as a porous microfluidic material with improved performance characteristics, especially for bioassay applications such as diagnostic tests.

  14. A Canadian refiner's perspective of synthetic crudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halford, T.L.; McIntosh, A.P.; Rasmussen

    1997-01-01

    Some of the factors affecting a refiner's choice of crude oil include refinery hardware, particularly gas oil crackers, products slate and product specifications, crude availability, relative crude price and crude quality. An overview of synthetic crude, the use of synthetic crude combined with other crudes and a comparison of synthetic crude with conventional crude oil was given. The two main users of synthetic crude are basically two groups of refiners, those large groups who use synthetic crude combined with other crudes, and a smaller group who run synthetic crude on specially designed units as a sole feed. The effects of changes in fuel legislation were reviewed. It was predicted that the changes will have a mixed impact on the value of synthetic crude, but low sulphur diesel regulations and gasoline sulphur regulations will make current synthetic crudes attractive. The big future change with a negative impact will be diesel cetane increases to reduce engine emissions. This will reduce synthetic crude attractiveness due to distillate yields and quality and high gas oil yields. Similarly, any legislation limiting aromatics in diesel fuel will also make synthetic crudes less attractive. Problems experienced by refiners with hardware dedicated to synthetic crude (salt, naphthenic acid, fouling, quality variations) were also reviewed. 3 tabs

  15. Cloud-point extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of synthetic phenolic antioxidants in edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao; Xia, Qinghai; Liu, Mousheng; Yang, Yaling

    2011-01-01

    A cloud-point extraction (CPE) method using Triton X-114 (TX-114) nonionic surfactant was developed for the extraction and preconcentration of propyl gallate (PG), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) from edible oils. The optimum conditions of CPE were 2.5% (v/v) TX-114, 0.5% (w/v) NaCl and 40 min equilibration time at 50 °C. The surfactant-rich phase was then analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 280 nm, using a gradient mobile phase consisting of methanol and 1.5% (v/v) acetic acid. Under the studied conditions, 4 synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) were successfully separated within 24 min. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.9 ng mL(-1) for PG, 11 ng mL(-1) for TBHQ, 2.3 ng mL(-1) for BHA, and 5.9 ng mL(-1) for BHT. Recoveries of the SPAs spiked into edible oil were in the range 81% to 88%. The CPE method was shown to be potentially useful for the preconcentration of the target analytes, with a preconcentration factor of 14. Moreover, the method is simple, has high sensitivity, consumes much less solvent than traditional methods, and is environment-friendly. Practical Application: The method established in this article uses less organic solvent to extract SPAs from edible oils; it is simple, highly sensitive and results in no pollution to the environment.

  16. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  17. Effect of organic matter to nitrogen ratio on membrane bioreactor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, L; Liao, B Q

    2015-01-01

    Effect of chemical oxygen demand (COD) to nitrogen (COD:N) ratio in feed on the performance of aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) for treating a synthetic high-strength industrial waste water containing glucose was studied for over 370 days. The widely recommended nutrients ratio (COD:N:P = 100:5:1) is not necessary for aerobic biological industrial waste water treatment. An increased COD:N ratio from 100:5 to 100:2.5 and 100:1.8 had a limited impact on COD removal efficiency and further led to a significant improvement in membrane performance, a reduced sludge yield, and improved effluent quality in terms of residual nutrients. An increased COD:N ratio will benefit the industrial waste water treatment using MBRs by reducing membrane fouling and sludge yield, saving chemical costs, and reducing secondary pollution by nutrients addition. Optimization of nutrients usage should be conducted for specific industrial waste water streams.

  18. Synthetic risks, risk potency, and carcinogen regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscusi, W K; Hakes, J K

    1998-01-01

    This article analyzes a comprehensive sample of over 350 chemicals tested for carcinogenicity to assess the determinants of the probability of regulation. Controlling for differences in the risk potency and noncancer risks, synthetic chemicals have a significantly higher probability of regulation overall: this is due to the greater likelihood of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation. Measures of risk potency increase the probability of regulation by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), have a somewhat weaker positive effect on regulation by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and decrease the likelihood of regulation by the FDA. The overall regulatory pattern is one in which the FDA targets synthetic chemicals and chemicals that pose relatively minor cancer risk. The EPA particularly performed more sensibly than many critics have suggested.

  19. Finding Hope in Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takala, Tuija

    2017-04-01

    For some, synthetic biology represents great hope in offering possible solutions to many of the world's biggest problems, from hunger to sustainable development. Others remain fearful of the harmful uses, such as bioweapons, that synthetic biology can lend itself to, and most hold that issues of biosafety are of utmost importance. In this article, I will evaluate these points of view and conclude that although the biggest promises of synthetic biology are unlikely to become reality, and the probability of accidents is fairly substantial, synthetic biology could still be seen to benefit humanity by enhancing our ethical understanding and by offering a boost to world economy.

  20. Synthesis of liquid crystals derived from nitroazobenzene: a proposed multistep synthesis applied to organic chemistry laboratory classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, Rodrigo; Cabral, Marilia Gabriela B.; Aquino, Rafael B. de; Cristiano, Claudia M.Z.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a synthetic route consisting of five steps from aniline to obtain liquid crystal compounds derived from nitroazobenzene. Syntheses were performed during the second half of the semester in organic chemistry laboratory classes. Students characterized the liquid crystal phase by the standard melting point techniques, differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy. These experiments allow undergraduate students to explore fundamentally important reactions in Organic Chemistry, as well as modern concepts in Chemistry such as self-assembly and self-organization, nanostructured materials and molecular electronics. (author)

  1. The Impact of Post-Synthetic Linker Functionalization of MOFs on Methane Storage: The Role of Defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilágyi, Petra Ágota, E-mail: p.a.szilagyi@greenwich.ac.uk [Department of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Environmental Sciences, University of Greenwich, Chatham (United Kingdom); Serra-Crespo, Pablo [Department of Radiation Science and Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Gascon, Jorge [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Geerlings, Hans [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Shell Technology Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dam, Bernard [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2016-03-29

    Natural gas is increasingly being viewed as one of the most viable alternatives to gasoline. However, its vehicular application will only be widespread if safe and high-capacity methane stores are developed. In this work, we report an over 33% increase in methane uptake on a post-synthetically modified metal–organic framework. The underlying mechanism for this dramatic increase is due to lattice defects formed upon post-synthetic modification. This method may open new approaches to natural gas storage.

  2. The Impact of Post-Synthetic Linker Functionalization of MOFs on Methane Storage: The Role of Defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilágyi, Petra Ágota; Serra-Crespo, Pablo; Gascon, Jorge; Geerlings, Hans; Dam, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas is increasingly being viewed as one of the most viable alternatives to gasoline. However, its vehicular application will only be widespread if safe and high-capacity methane stores are developed. In this work, we report an over 33% increase in methane uptake on a post-synthetically modified metal–organic framework. The underlying mechanism for this dramatic increase is due to lattice defects formed upon post-synthetic modification. This method may open new approaches to natural gas storage.

  3. Synthetic genome engineering forging new frontiers for wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-02-01

    Over the past 15 years, the seismic shifts caused by the convergence of biomolecular, chemical, physical, mathematical, and computational sciences alongside cutting-edge developments in information technology and engineering have erupted into a new field of scientific endeavor dubbed Synthetic Biology. Recent rapid advances in high-throughput DNA sequencing and DNA synthesis techniques are enabling the design and construction of new biological parts (genes), devices (gene networks) and modules (biosynthetic pathways), and the redesign of biological systems (cells and organisms) for useful purposes. In 2014, the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae became the first eukaryotic cell to be equipped with a fully functional synthetic chromosome. This was achieved following the synthesis of the first viral (poliovirus in 2002 and bacteriophage Phi-X174 in 2003) and bacterial (Mycoplasma genitalium in 2008 and Mycoplasma mycoides in 2010) genomes, and less than two decades after revealing the full genome sequence of a laboratory (S288c in 1996) and wine (AWRI1631 in 2008) yeast strain. A large international project - the Synthetic Yeast Genome (Sc2.0) Project - is now underway to synthesize all 16 chromosomes (∼12 Mb carrying ∼6000 genes) of the sequenced S288c laboratory strain by 2018. If successful, S. cerevisiae will become the first eukaryote to cross the horizon of in silico design of complex cells through de novo synthesis, reshuffling, and editing of genomes. In the meantime, yeasts are being used as cell factories for the semi-synthetic production of high-value compounds, such as the potent antimalarial artemisinin, and food ingredients, such as resveratrol, vanillin, stevia, nootkatone, and saffron. As a continuum of previously genetically engineered industrially important yeast strains, precision genome engineering is bound to also impact the study and development of wine yeast strains supercharged with synthetic DNA. The first taste of what the future

  4. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  5. Synthetics, mineral oils, and bio-based lubricants chemistry and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, Leslie R

    2005-01-01

    As the field of tribology has evolved, the lubrication industry is also progressing at an extraordinary rate. Updating the author's bestselling publication, Synthetic Lubricants and High-Performance Functional Fluids, this book features the contributions of over 60 specialists, ten new chapters, and a new title to reflect the evolving nature of the field: Synthetics, Mineral Oils, and Bio-Based Lubricants: Chemistry and Technology. The book contains chapters on all major lubricant fluids used in a wide range of applications. For each type of lubricant, the authors discuss the historical develo

  6. The startup performance and microbial distribution of an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) treating medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Nie, Hong; Ding, Jiangtao; Stinner, Walter; Sun, Kaixuan; Zhou, Hongjun

    2018-01-02

    In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) with seven chambers was applied to treat medium-strength synthetic industrial wastewater (MSIW). The performance of startup and shock test on treating MSIW was investigated. During the acclimation process, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of MSIW gradually increased from 0 to 2,000 mg L -1 , and the COD removal finally reached 90%. At shock test, the feeding COD concentration increased by one-fifth and the reactor adapted very well with a COD removal of 82%. In a stable state, Comamonas, Smithella, Syntrophomonas and Pseudomonas were the main populations of bacteria, while the predominant methanogen was Methanobacterium. The results of chemical and microbiological analysis indicated the significant advantages of ABR, including buffering shocks, separating stages with matching microorganisms and promoting syntrophism. Meanwhile, the strategies for acclimation and operation were of great importance. Further work can test reactor performance in the treatment of actual industrial wastewater.

  7. Factors Affecting the Battery Performance of Anthraquinone-based Organic Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wu; Read, Adam L.; Koech, Phillip K.; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Jie; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Graff, Gordon L.; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang

    2012-02-01

    Two organic cathode materials based on poly(anthraquinonyl sulfide) structure with different substitution positions were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior and battery performances were investigated. The substitution positions on the anthraquinone structure, binders for electrode preparation and electrolyte formulations have been found to have significant effects on the battery performances of such organic cathode materials. The substitution position with less steric stress has higher capacity, longer cycle life and better high-rate capability. Polyvinylidene fluoride binder and ether-based electrolytes are favorable for the high capacity and long cycle life of the quinonyl organic cathodes.

  8. Performance of a novel synthetic Ca-based solid sorbent suitable for desulfurizing flue gases in a fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacciani, R.; Muller, C.R.; Davidson, J.F.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N. [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering & Biotechnology

    2009-08-05

    The extent and mechanism of sulfation and carbonation of limestone, dolomite, and chalk, were compared with a novel, synthetic sorbent (85 wt % CaO and 15 wt % Ca{sub 12}A{sub l14}O{sub 33}), by means of experiments undertaken in a small, electrically heated fluidized bed. The sorbent particles were used either (I) untreated, sieved to two particle sizes and reacted with two different concentrations of SO{sub 2}, or (ii) after being cycled 20 times between carbonation, in 15 vol % CO{sub 2} in N2, and calcination, in pure N2, at 750 degrees C. The uptake of untreated limestone and dolomite was generally low (<0.2 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)), confirming previous results, However, the untreated chalk and the synthetic sorbent were found to be substantially more reactive with SO{sub 2}, and their final uptake was significantly higher (>0.5 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)) and essentially independent of the particle size. Here, comparisons are made on the basis of the sorbents in the calcined state. The capacities for the uptake of SO{sub 2}, on a basis of unit mass of calcined sorbent, were comparable for the chalk and the synthetic sorbent. However, previous work has demonstrated the ability of the synthetic sorbent to retain its capacity for CO{sub 2} over many cycles of carbonation and calcination: much more so than natural sorbents such as chalk and limestone. Accordingly, the advantage of the synthetic sorbent is that it could be used to remove CO{sub 2} from flue gases and, at the end of its life, to remove SO{sub 2} on a once-through basis.

  9. Synthetic mimetics of the endogenous gastrointestinal nanomineral: Silent constructs that trap macromolecules for intracellular delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pele, Laetitia C; Haas, Carolin T; Hewitt, Rachel E; Robertson, Jack; Skepper, Jeremy; Brown, Andy; Hernandez-Garrido, Juan Carlos; Midgley, Paul A; Faria, Nuno; Chappell, Helen; Powell, Jonathan J

    2017-02-01

    Amorphous magnesium-substituted calcium phosphate (AMCP) nanoparticles (75-150nm) form constitutively in large numbers in the mammalian gut. Collective evidence indicates that they trap and deliver luminal macromolecules to mucosal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and facilitate gut immune homeostasis. Here, we report on a synthetic mimetic of the endogenous AMCP and show that it has marked capacity to trap macromolecules during formation. Macromolecular capture into AMCP involved incorporation as shown by STEM tomography of the synthetic AMCP particle with 5nm ultra-fine iron (III) oxohydroxide. In vitro, organic cargo-loaded synthetic AMCP was taken up by APCs and tracked to lysosomal compartments. The AMCP itself did not regulate any gene, or modify any gene regulation by its cargo, based upon whole genome transcriptomic analyses. We conclude that synthetic AMCP can efficiently trap macromolecules and deliver them to APCs in a silent fashion, and may thus represent a new platform for antigen delivery. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrated In Silico Analysis of Pathway Designs for Synthetic Photo-Electro-Autotrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Volpers

    Full Text Available The strong advances in synthetic biology enable the engineering of novel functions and complex biological features in unprecedented ways, such as implementing synthetic autotrophic metabolism into heterotrophic hosts. A key challenge for the sustainable production of fuels and chemicals entails the engineering of synthetic autotrophic organisms that can effectively and efficiently fix carbon dioxide by using sustainable energy sources. This challenge involves the integration of carbon fixation and energy uptake systems. A variety of carbon fixation pathways and several types of photosystems and other energy uptake systems can be chosen and, potentially, modularly combined to design synthetic autotrophic metabolism. Prior to implementation, these designs can be evaluated by the combination of several computational pathway analysis techniques. Here we present a systematic, integrated in silico analysis of photo-electro-autotrophic pathway designs, consisting of natural and synthetic carbon fixation pathways, a proton-pumping rhodopsin photosystem for ATP regeneration and an electron uptake pathway. We integrated Flux Balance Analysis of the heterotrophic chassis Escherichia coli with kinetic pathway analysis and thermodynamic pathway analysis (Max-min Driving Force. The photo-electro-autotrophic designs are predicted to have a limited potential for anaerobic, autotrophic growth of E. coli, given the relatively low ATP regenerating capacity of the proton pumping rhodopsin photosystems and the high ATP maintenance of E. coli. If these factors can be tackled, our analysis indicates the highest growth potential for the natural reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle and the synthetic pyruvate synthase-pyruvate carboxylate -glyoxylate bicycle. Both carbon fixation cycles are very ATP efficient, while maintaining fast kinetics, which also results in relatively low estimated protein costs for these pathways. Furthermore, the synthetic bicycles are highly

  11. Development of high-performance printed organic field-effect transistors and integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Liu, Chuan; Khim, Dongyoon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-10-28

    Organic electronics is regarded as an important branch of future microelectronics especially suited for large-area, flexible, transparent, and green devices, with their low cost being a key benefit. Organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), the primary building blocks of numerous expected applications, have been intensively studied, and considerable progress has recently been made. However, there are still a number of challenges to the realization of high-performance OFETs and integrated circuits (ICs) using printing technologies. Therefore, in this perspective article, we investigate the main issues concerning developing high-performance printed OFETs and ICs and seek strategies for further improvement. Unlike many other studies in the literature that deal with organic semiconductors (OSCs), printing technology, and device physics, our study commences with a detailed examination of OFET performance parameters (e.g., carrier mobility, threshold voltage, and contact resistance) by which the related challenges and potential solutions to performance development are inspected. While keeping this complete understanding of device performance in mind, we check the printed OFETs' components one by one and explore the possibility of performance improvement regarding device physics, material engineering, processing procedure, and printing technology. Finally, we analyze the performance of various organic ICs and discuss ways to optimize OFET characteristics and thus develop high-performance printed ICs for broad practical applications.

  12. Comparison of natural and synthetic diamond X-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansley, S P; Betzel, G T; Metcalfe, P; Reinisch, L; Meyer, J

    2010-12-01

    Diamond detectors are particularly well suited for dosimetry applications in radiotherapy for reasons including near-tissue equivalence and high-spatial resolution resulting from small sensitive volumes. However, these detectors have not become commonplace due to high cost and poor availability arising from the need for high-quality diamond. We have fabricated relatively cheap detectors from commercially-available synthetic diamond fabricated using chemical vapour deposition. Here, we present a comparison of one of these detectors with the only commercially-available diamond-based detector (which uses a natural diamond crystal). Parameters such as the energy dependence and linearity of charge with dose were investigated at orthovoltage energies (50-250 kV), and dose-rate dependence of charge at linear accelerator energy (6 MV). The energy dependence of a synthetic diamond detector was similar to that of the natural diamond detector, albeit with slightly less variation across the energy range. Both detectors displayed a linear response with dose (at 100 kV) over the limited dose range used. The sensitivity of the synthetic diamond detector was 302 nC/Gy, compared to 294 nC/Gy measured for the natural diamond detector; however, this was obtained with a bias of 246.50 V compared to a bias of 61.75 V used for the natural diamond detector. The natural diamond detector exhibited a greater dependency on dose-rate than the synthetic diamond detector. Overall, the synthetic diamond detector performed well in comparison to the natural diamond detector.

  13. Models for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaznessis, Yiannis N

    2007-11-06

    Synthetic biological engineering is emerging from biology as a distinct discipline based on quantification. The technologies propelling synthetic biology are not new, nor is the concept of designing novel biological molecules. What is new is the emphasis on system behavior. The objective is the design and construction of new biological devices and systems to deliver useful applications. Numerous synthetic gene circuits have been created in the past decade, including bistable switches, oscillators, and logic gates, and possible applications abound, including biofuels, detectors for biochemical and chemical weapons, disease diagnosis, and gene therapies. More than fifty years after the discovery of the molecular structure of DNA, molecular biology is mature enough for real quantification that is useful for biological engineering applications, similar to the revolution in modeling in chemistry in the 1950s. With the excitement that synthetic biology is generating, the engineering and biological science communities appear remarkably willing to cross disciplinary boundaries toward a common goal.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL REAGENTS AS FUNCTIONAL FINISHING FOR TEXTILES INTENDED FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS. I. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Zanoaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an overview of some contemporary antimicrobial (biocides and biostatics agents used as functional finishing for textiles intended for biomedical applications. It reviews only synthetic agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, halogenated phenols, polybiguanides, N-halamines, and renewable peroxides, as a part of an extensive study currently in progress.

  15. Performance Against WELCOA's Worksite Health Promotion Benchmarks Across Years Among Selected US Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, GracieLee M; Mendenhall, Brandon N; Hunnicutt, David; Picarella, Ryan; Leffelman, Brittanie; Perko, Michael; Bibeau, Daniel L

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the performance of organizations' worksite health promotion (WHP) activities against the benchmarking criteria included in the Well Workplace Checklist (WWC). The Wellness Council of America (WELCOA) developed a tool to assess WHP with its 100-item WWC, which represents WELCOA's 7 performance benchmarks. Workplaces. This study includes a convenience sample of organizations who completed the checklist from 2008 to 2015. The sample size was 4643 entries from US organizations. The WWC includes demographic questions, general questions about WHP programs, and scales to measure the performance against the WELCOA 7 benchmarks. Descriptive analyses of WWC items were completed separately for each year of the study period. The majority of the organizations represented each year were multisite, multishift, medium- to large-sized companies mostly in the services industry. Despite yearly changes in participating organizations, results across the WELCOA 7 benchmark scores were consistent year to year. Across all years, benchmarks that organizations performed the lowest were senior-level support, data collection, and programming; wellness teams and supportive environments were the highest scoring benchmarks. In an era marked with economic swings and health-care reform, it appears that organizations are staying consistent in their performance across these benchmarks. The WWC could be useful for organizations, practitioners, and researchers in assessing the quality of WHP programs.

  16. CHAPTER 3. High-performance Organic Photovoltaic Donor Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew

    2017-11-08

    The field of organic photovoltaics has advanced a great deal over the last decade, with device efficiencies now exceeding 11%. A large part of this success can be attributed to the development of donor polymer materials, from their humble beginnings as homopolymers to the highly tuned push-pull copolymer and terpolymer materials that are now being reported on a regular basis. Through the careful use of chemical modification, it has been possible to design and synthesize a wide variety of donor polymers, allowing optimization of both the optoelectronic and structural properties of the materials. In doing so, more favourable active layer blends have been achieved and therefore significant improvements in device performance have been observed. Herein we discuss how the chemical design of donor polymers for organic photovoltaics has led to the emergence of high-performance materials.

  17. CHAPTER 3. High-performance Organic Photovoltaic Donor Polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Wadsworth, Andrew; Baran, Derya; Gorman, Jeffrey; McCulloch, Iain

    2017-01-01

    The field of organic photovoltaics has advanced a great deal over the last decade, with device efficiencies now exceeding 11%. A large part of this success can be attributed to the development of donor polymer materials, from their humble beginnings as homopolymers to the highly tuned push-pull copolymer and terpolymer materials that are now being reported on a regular basis. Through the careful use of chemical modification, it has been possible to design and synthesize a wide variety of donor polymers, allowing optimization of both the optoelectronic and structural properties of the materials. In doing so, more favourable active layer blends have been achieved and therefore significant improvements in device performance have been observed. Herein we discuss how the chemical design of donor polymers for organic photovoltaics has led to the emergence of high-performance materials.

  18. An evaluation of multiple annealing and looping based genome amplification using a synthetic bacterial community

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yong; Gao, Zhaoming; Xu, Ying; Li, Guangyu; He, Lisheng; Qian, Peiyuan

    2016-01-01

    -generation-sequencing technology. Using a synthetic bacterial community, the amplification efficiency of the Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC) kit that is originally developed to amplify the single-cell genomic DNA of mammalian organisms

  19. Comparative Study of Ashwagandha and Commercial Synthetic Compound on Performance of Broilers during Hot Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shisodiya

    Full Text Available The trial was conducted for a period of six weeks on 225 day old broiler chicks, uniformly distributed into four groups of 75 chicks in each T1, T2 and T3 group. The chicks were fed with standard starter mash which contained crude protein 22.84% and metabolizable energy 2852.5 Kcal / kg (calculated value up to three weeks of age. For next 3 weeks i.e. from 4 to 6 weeks of age with finisher mash which contained crude protein 20% and metabolizable energy 2966 Kcal / kg (calculated value. Group T1 received standard broiler diet. Group T2 and T3 received standard broiler diet supplemented with Ashwagandha and commercial synthetic compound @ 0.05 % of feed respectively. The experimental birds were reared on deep litter system and rice husk was used as litter material.The supplementation of Aswagandha and commercial synthetic compound recorded significant improvement in all studied growth parameter i.e. live body weights, weekly gain in body weights and feed conversion ratio was observed in all the supplemented groups over the control group. However, feed consumption in control group was significantly higher than supplemented group. The economic returns of supplemented groups are more than the unsupplemented group. The net profit per bird was maximum in the commercial synthetic compound supplemented group followed by Ashwagandha supplemented group and lowest was recorded in control group (T1. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 310-311

  20. Predicting the Performance of Organic Corrosion Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Winkler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of effective but toxic corrosion inhibitors has provided an impetus for the discovery of new, benign organic compounds to fill that role. Concurrently, developments in the high-throughput synthesis of organic compounds, the establishment of large libraries of available chemicals, accelerated corrosion inhibition testing technologies, and the increased capability of machine learning methods have made discovery of new corrosion inhibitors much faster and cheaper than it used to be. We summarize these technical developments in the corrosion inhibition field and describe how data-driven machine learning methods can generate models linking molecular properties to corrosion inhibition that can be used to predict the performance of materials not yet synthesized or tested. We briefly summarize the literature on quantitative structure–property relationships models of small organic molecule corrosion inhibitors. The success of these models provides a paradigm for rapid discovery of novel, effective corrosion inhibitors for a range of metals and alloys in diverse environments.

  1. Presenting a comprehensive market oriented model and evaluating its impact on organization performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taqi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like other innovative strategies, companies have paid more attention to market oriented strategies in recent years. This has been focused by organizations for improved effectiveness and the organization performance accelerated a lot in business competition. In responding to this fact, organizations are trying to formulate many of the issues familiar to large organizations, which have involved with market oriented strategy planning. This paper reviews key elements in market-oriented strategy planning with regard to competitiveness and performance in large organizations and outlines a comprehensive model for strategy planning in profit organizations. These elements include environment, top management, organization structure and market oriented strategy. Professional question of this study has a particularly important role in formulating relations of this model. These elements are well positioned to evaluate the impact of market-oriented strategy planning on organizations and their expected impacts on organization performance. A well-organized questionnaire to help organizations with their planning is proposed in this survey. Based on the proposed questionnaire, data obtained from Tehran food industry experts and analyzed by using SEM method. Results accepted eight hypotheses and rejected one.

  2. Synthetic biology and biomimetic chemistry as converging technologies fostering a new generation of smart biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scognamiglio, Viviana; Antonacci, Amina; Lambreva, Maya D; Litescu, Simona C; Rea, Giuseppina

    2015-12-15

    Biosensors are powerful tunable systems able to switch between an ON/OFF status in response to an external stimulus. This extraordinary property could be engineered by adopting synthetic biology or biomimetic chemistry to obtain tailor-made biosensors having the desired requirements of robustness, sensitivity and detection range. Recent advances in both disciplines, in fact, allow to re-design the configuration of the sensing elements - either by modifying toggle switches and gene networks, or by producing synthetic entities mimicking key properties of natural molecules. The present review considered the role of synthetic biology in sustaining biosensor technology, reporting examples from the literature and reflecting on the features that make it a useful tool for designing and constructing engineered biological systems for sensing application. Besides, a section dedicated to bioinspired synthetic molecules as powerful tools to enhance biosensor potential is reported, and treated as an extension of the concept of biomimetic chemistry, where organic synthesis is used to generate artificial molecules that mimic natural molecules. Thus, the design of synthetic molecules, such as aptamers, biomimetics, molecular imprinting polymers, peptide nucleic acids, and ribozymes were encompassed as "products" of biomimetic chemistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Work-Life Balance At A Glance- A Synthetic Review

    OpenAIRE

    MEHTA, Dr. PALLAVI; KUNDNANI, NEERA

    2015-01-01

    The literature review on Work Life Balance has been done with a view keeping in mind the momentum with which the concept has become pervasive due to changing work-life style and with major aim to bring an insight into various forces surrounding it which hinders its equilibrium and solutions to overcome thisdisequilibrium. The current synthetic review helps in identifying the effects of organization support, work-family conflict, workplace stress and personality on work-life equilibrium. In th...

  4. A new synthetic methodology for the preparation of biocompatible and organo-soluble barbituric- and thiobarbituric acid based chitosan derivatives for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahzad, Sohail [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Shahzadi, Lubna [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Mahmood, Nasir [Department of Allied Health Sciences and Chemical Pathology, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore (Pakistan); Siddiqi, Saadat Anwar [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rauf, Abdul [Department of Chemistry, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur 63100 (Pakistan); Manzoor, Faisal; Chaudhry, Aqif Anwar [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rehman, Ihtesham ur [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Kroto Research Institute, The University of Sheffield, North Campus, Broad Lane, Sheffield, S3 7HQ (United Kingdom); Yar, Muhammad, E-mail: drmyar@ciitlahore.edu.pk [Interdisciplinary Research Center in Biomedical Materials, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2016-09-01

    Chitosan's poor solubility especially in organic solvents limits its use with other organo-soluble polymers; however such combinations are highly required to tailor their properties for specific biomedical applications. This paper describes the development of a new synthetic methodology for the synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan derivatives. These derivatives were synthesized from chitosan (CS), triethyl orthoformate and barbituric or thiobarbituric acid in the presence of 2-butannol. The chemical interactions and new functional motifs in the synthesized CS derivatives were evaluated by FTIR, DSC/TGA, UV/VIS, XRD and {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity investigation for these materials was performed by cell culture method using VERO cell line and all the synthesized derivatives were found to be non-toxic. The solubility analysis showed that these derivatives were readily soluble in organic solvents including DMSO and DMF. Their potential to use with organo-soluble commercially available polymers was exploited by electrospinning; the synthesized derivatives in combination with polycaprolactone delivered nanofibrous membranes. - Highlights: • Development of a new synthetic methodology • Synthesis of organo-soluble chitosan (CS) derivatives • VERO cells proliferation • Nanofibrous membranes from the synthesized chitosan derivatives and polycaprolactone.

  5. The Impact of Post-Synthetic Linker Functionalization of MOFs on Methane Storage: the Role of Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Agota Szilagyi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas is increasingly being viewed as one of the most viable alternatives to gasoline. Its vehicular application however will only be widespread if safe and high-capacity methane stores are developed. In this work report an over 33% increase in methane uptake on a post-synthetically modified metal-organic framework. The underlying mechanism for this dramatic increase is due to lattice defects formed upon post-synthetic modification. This method may open new approaches to natural gas storage.

  6. Changes in gene transcription and whole organism responses in larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following short-term exposure to the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggel, Sebastian; Connon, Richard; Werner, Inge; Geist, Juergen

    2011-09-01

    The combination of molecular and whole-organism endpoints in ecotoxicology provides valuable information about the ecological relevance of sublethal stressor effects in aquatic ecosystems such as those caused by the use of insecticides and translocation of their residues into surface waters. This study contributes knowledge about the sublethal effects of a common use insecticide, the synthetic pyrethroid bifenthrin, on larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Transcriptomic responses, assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, combined with individual effects on swimming performance were used to estimate the ecological relevance of insecticide impacts. Significant transcriptomic responses were observed at 0.07 μg L(-1) bifenthrin (lowest observed effect concentration, LOEC) but mostly followed a biphasic rather than a linear dose-response with increasing concentration. Transcript patterns for genes involved in detoxification, neuromuscular function and energy metabolism were linked to an impairment of swimming performance at ≥0.14 μg L(-1) bifenthrin. With increasing treatment concentration, a significant down-regulation was observed for genes coding for cyp3a, aspartoacylase, and creatine kinase, whereas metallothionein was up-regulated. Additionally, bifenthrin induced endocrine responses as evident from a significant up-regulation of vitellogenin and down-regulation of insuline-like growth factor transcripts. Recovery occurred after 6 days and was dependent on the magnitude of the initial stress. During the recovery period, down-regulation of vitellogenin was observed at lowest exposure concentrations. The data presented here emphasize that links can be made between gene transcription changes and behavioral responses which is of great value for the evaluation and interpretation of biomarker responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. From Extremophiles to Star Trek, The Use of Synthetic Biology in Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Fujishima, Kosuke; Lima, Ivan Paulino; Gentry, Diana; Phan, Samson; Navarette, Jesica; Palmer, Jesse; Burnier, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic biology – the design and construction of new biological parts and systems and the redesign of existing ones for useful purposes – has the potential to transform fields from pharmaceuticals to fuels. Our lab has focused on the potential of synthetic biology to revolutionize all three major parts of astrobiology: Where do we come from? Where are we going? and Are we alone? For the first and third, synthetic biology is allowing us to answer whether the evolutionary narrative that has played out on planet earth is likely to have been unique or universal. For example, in our lab we are re-evolving biotic functions using only the most thermodynamically stable amino acids in order to understand potential capabilities of an early organism with a limited repertoire of amino acids. In the future synthetic biology will play an increasing role in human activities both on earth, in fields as diverse as bio-mining, human health and the industrial production of novel bio-composites. Beyond earth, we will rely increasingly on biologically-provided life support, as we have throughout our evolutionary history. In order to do this, the field will build on two of the great contributions of astrobiology: studies of the origin of life and life in extreme environments.

  8. Organization Tenure as a Moderator of the Job Satisfaction-Job Performance Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Dwight R.; Niebuhr, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    Examined organization tenure as a moderator of the job satisfaction-job performance relationship with technical employees (N=116) in a medium-sized industrial firm. Results provided support for a moderating influence of organization tenure on the relationship between job performance and overall satisfaction, satisfaction with work, and…

  9. Incentives and performance governance of research organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Wollersheim, Jutta; Ringelhan, Stefanie; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    ​This book contributes to the current discussion in society, politics and higher education on innovation capacity and the financial and non-financial incentives for researchers. The expert contributions in the book deal with implementation of incentive systems at higher education institutions in order to foster innovation. On the other hand, the book also discusses the extent to which governance structures from economy can be transferred to universities and how scientific performance can be measured and evaluated. This book is essential for decision-makers in knowledge-intensive organizations and higher-educational institutions dealing with the topic of performance management.

  10. An Overview on the Field of Micro- and Nanotechnologies for Synthetic Peptide-Based Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiala Salvador

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of synthetic peptide-based vaccines has many advantages in comparison with vaccines based on live attenuated organisms, inactivated or killed organism, or toxins. Peptide-based vaccines cannot revert to a virulent form, allow a better conservation, and are produced more easily and safely. However, they generate a weaker immune response than other vaccines, and the inclusion of adjuvants and/or the use of vaccine delivery systems is almost always needed. Among vaccine delivery systems, micro- and nanoparticulated ones are attractive, because their particulate nature can increase cross-presentation of the peptide. In addition, they can be passively or actively targeted to antigen presenting cells. Furthermore, particulate adjuvants are able to directly activate innate immune system in vivo. Here, we summarize micro- and nanoparticulated vaccine delivery systems used in the field of synthetic peptide-based vaccines as well as strategies to increase their immunogenicity.

  11. Integrating biological redesign: where synthetic biology came from and where it needs to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, Jeffrey C; Collins, James J; Keasling, Jay D; Silver, Pamela A

    2014-03-27

    Synthetic biology seeks to extend approaches from engineering and computation to redesign of biology, with goals such as generating new chemicals, improving human health, and addressing environmental issues. Early on, several guiding principles of synthetic biology were articulated, including design according to specification, separation of design from fabrication, use of standardized biological parts and organisms, and abstraction. We review the utility of these principles over the past decade in light of the field's accomplishments in building complex systems based on microbial transcription and metabolism and describe the progress in mammalian cell engineering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcription control engineering and applications in synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Engstrom

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In synthetic biology, researchers assemble biological components in new ways to produce systems with practical applications. One of these practical applications is control of the flow of genetic information (from nucleic acid to protein, a.k.a. gene regulation. Regulation is critical for optimizing protein (and therefore activity levels and the subsequent levels of metabolites and other cellular properties. The central dogma of molecular biology posits that information flow commences with transcription, and accordingly, regulatory tools targeting transcription have received the most attention in synthetic biology. In this mini-review, we highlight many past successes and summarize the lessons learned in developing tools for controlling transcription. In particular, we focus on engineering studies where promoters and transcription terminators (cis-factors were directly engineered and/or isolated from DNA libraries. We also review several well-characterized transcription regulators (trans-factors, giving examples of how cis- and trans-acting factors have been combined to create digital and analogue switches for regulating transcription in response to various signals. Last, we provide examples of how engineered transcription control systems have been used in metabolic engineering and more complicated genetic circuits. While most of our mini-review focuses on the well-characterized bacterium Escherichia coli, we also provide several examples of the use of transcription control engineering in non-model organisms. Similar approaches have been applied outside the bacterial kingdom indicating that the lessons learned from bacterial studies may be generalized for other organisms.

  13. Transcription control engineering and applications in synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Michael D; Pfleger, Brian F

    2017-09-01

    In synthetic biology, researchers assemble biological components in new ways to produce systems with practical applications. One of these practical applications is control of the flow of genetic information (from nucleic acid to protein), a.k.a. gene regulation. Regulation is critical for optimizing protein (and therefore activity) levels and the subsequent levels of metabolites and other cellular properties. The central dogma of molecular biology posits that information flow commences with transcription, and accordingly, regulatory tools targeting transcription have received the most attention in synthetic biology. In this mini-review, we highlight many past successes and summarize the lessons learned in developing tools for controlling transcription. In particular, we focus on engineering studies where promoters and transcription terminators ( cis -factors) were directly engineered and/or isolated from DNA libraries. We also review several well-characterized transcription regulators ( trans- factors), giving examples of how cis- and trans -acting factors have been combined to create digital and analogue switches for regulating transcription in response to various signals. Last, we provide examples of how engineered transcription control systems have been used in metabolic engineering and more complicated genetic circuits. While most of our mini-review focuses on the well-characterized bacterium Escherichia coli , we also provide several examples of the use of transcription control engineering in non-model organisms. Similar approaches have been applied outside the bacterial kingdom indicating that the lessons learned from bacterial studies may be generalized for other organisms.

  14. Robotic thin layer chromatography instrument for synthetic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corkan, L.A.; Haynes, E.; Kline, S.; Lindsey, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    We have constructed a second generation instrument for performing automated thin layer chromatography (TLC), The TLC instrument Consists of four dedicated stations for (1) plate dispensing, (2) sample application, (3) plate development, and (4) densitometry. A robot is used to move TLC plates among stations. The TLC instrument functions either as a stand-alone unit or as one analytical module in a robotic workstation for synthetic chemistry. An integrated hardware and software architecture enables automatic TLC analysis of samples produced concurrently from synthetic reactions in progress on the workstation. The combination of fixed automation and robotics gives a throughput of 12 TLC samples per hour. From these results a blueprint has emerged for an advanced automated TLC instrument with far greater throughput and analytical capabilities

  15. Limitation of using synthetic human odours to test mosquito repellents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbeyela Edgar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gold-standard tests of mosquito repellents involve exposing human volunteers to host-seeking mosquitoes, to assess the protective efficacy of the repellents. These techniques are not exposure-free and cannot be performed prior to toxicological evaluation. It is postulated that synthetic lures could provide a useful assay that mimics in-vivo conditions for use in high-throughput screening for mosquito repellents. Methods This paper reports on a semi-field evaluation of repellents using a synthetic blend of human derived attractants for the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Different concentrations of known repellents, N, N diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet and Para-methane-3, 8, diol (PMD were added into traps baited with the synthetic blend, and resulting changes in mosquito catches were measured. Results All test concentrations of deet (0.001% to 100% reduced the attractiveness of the synthetic blend. However, PMD was repellent only at 0.25%. Above this concentration, it significantly increased the attractiveness of the blend. There was no relationship between the repellent concentrations and the change in mosquito catches when either deet (r2 = 0.033, P = 0.302 or PMD (r2 = 0.020, P = 0.578 was used. Conclusion It is concluded that while some repellents may reduce the attractiveness of synthetic human odours, others may instead increase their attractiveness. Such inconsistencies indicate that even though the synthetic attractants may provide exposure-free and consistent test media for repellents, careful selection and multiple-repellent tests are necessary to ascertain their suitability for use in repellent screening. The synthetic odour blend tested here is not yet sufficiently refined to serve as replacement for humans in repellent testing, but may be developed further and evaluated in different formats for exposure free repellent testing purposes.

  16. Enhanced energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater by sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and algal lipid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong-Yu; Liu, Bing-Feng; Kong, Fanying; Zhao, Lei; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2014-04-01

    A two-stage process of sequential dark fermentative hydrogen production and microalgal cultivation was applied to enhance the energy conversion efficiency from high strength synthetic organic wastewater. Ethanol fermentation bacterium Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was used as hydrogen producer, and the energy conversion efficiency and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 18.6% and 28.3% in dark fermentation. Acetate was the main soluble product in dark fermentative effluent, which was further utilized by microalga Scenedesmus sp. R-16. The final algal biomass concentration reached 1.98gL(-1), and the algal biomass was rich in lipid (40.9%) and low in protein (23.3%) and carbohydrate (11.9%). Compared with single dark fermentation stage, the energy conversion efficiency and COD removal efficiency of two-stage system remarkably increased 101% and 131%, respectively. This research provides a new approach for efficient energy production and wastewater treatment using a two-stage process combining dark fermentation and algal cultivation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Meeting Report: Synthetic Biology Jamboree for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A. Malcolm

    2005-01-01

    The field of synthetic biology (the name is derived from an analogy to synthetic chemistry) has recognized itself as a "field" only since about 2002. Synthetic biology has gotten some high-profile attention recently, but most people are not aware the field even exists. Synthetic biologists apply engineering principles to genomic circuits to…

  18. 21 CFR 73.1200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.1200 Section 73.1200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  19. 21 CFR 73.200 - Synthetic iron oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Synthetic iron oxide. 73.200 Section 73.200 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.200 Synthetic iron oxide. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive synthetic iron oxide consists of any one or any combination of synthetically prepared...

  20. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  1. A systematic design method for robust synthetic biology to satisfy design specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bor-Sen; Wu, Chih-Hung

    2009-06-30

    Synthetic biology is foreseen to have important applications in biotechnology and medicine, and is expected to contribute significantly to a better understanding of the functioning of complex biological systems. However, the development of synthetic gene networks is still difficult and most newly created gene networks are non-functioning due to intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations of intra- and extra-cellular environments. The design method for a robust synthetic gene network that works properly in a host cell under these intrinsic parameter uncertainties and external disturbances is the most important topic in synthetic biology. In this study, we propose a stochastic model that includes parameter fluctuations and external disturbances to mimic the dynamic behaviors of a synthetic gene network in the host cell. Then, based on this stochastic model, four design specifications are introduced to guarantee that a synthetic gene network can achieve its desired steady state behavior in spite of parameter fluctuations, external disturbances and functional variations in the host cell. We propose a systematic method to select a set of appropriate design parameters for a synthetic gene network that will satisfy these design specifications so that the intrinsic parameter fluctuations can be tolerated, the external disturbances can be efficiently filtered, and most importantly, the desired steady states can be achieved. Thus the synthetic gene network can work properly in a host cell under intrinsic parameter uncertainties, external disturbances and functional variations. Finally, a design procedure for the robust synthetic gene network is developed and a design example is given in silico to confirm the performance of the proposed method. Based on four design specifications, a systematic design procedure is developed for designers to engineer a robust synthetic biology network that can achieve its desired steady state behavior

  2. Application of Sargassum biomass to remove heavy metal ions from synthetic multi-metal solutions and urban storm water runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K; Teo, Ting Ting; Balasubramanian, R; Joshi, Umid Man

    2009-05-30

    The ability of Sargassum sp. to biosorb four metal ions, namely lead, copper, zinc, and manganese from a synthetic multi-solute system and real storm water runoff has been investigated for the first time. Experiments on synthetic multi-solute systems revealed that Sargassum performed well in the biosorption of all four metal ions, with preference towards Pb, followed by Cu, Zn, and Mn. The solution pH strongly affected the metal biosorption, with pH 6 being identified as the optimal condition for achieving maximum biosorption. Experiments at different biosorbent dosages revealed that good biosorption capacity as well as high metal removal efficiency was observed at 3g/L. The biosorption kinetics was found to be fast with equilibrium being attained within 50 min. According to the Langmuir isotherm model, Sargassum exhibited maximum uptakes of 214, 67.5, 24.2 and 20.2mg/g for lead, copper, zinc, and manganese, respectively in single-solute systems. In multi-metal systems, strong competition between four metal ions in terms of occupancy binding sites was observed, and Sargassum showed preference in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Mn. The application of Sargassum to remove four heavy metal ions in real storm water runoff revealed that the biomass was capable of removing the heavy metal ions. However, the biosorption performance was slightly lower compared to that of synthetic metal solutions. Several factors were responsible for this difference, and the most important factor is the presence of other contaminants such as anions, organics, and other trace metals in the runoff.

  3. Review of Microfluidic Photobioreactor Technology for Metabolic Engineering and Synthetic Biology of Cyanobacteria and Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Tang Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available One goal of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and microalgae is to engineer strains that can optimally produce biofuels and commodity chemicals. However, the current workflow is slow and labor intensive with respect to assembly of genetic parts and characterization of production yields because of the slow growth rates of these organisms. Here, we review recent progress in the microfluidic photobioreactors and identify opportunities and unmet needs in metabolic engineering and synthetic biology. Because of the unprecedented experimental resolution down to the single cell level, long-term real-time monitoring capability, and high throughput with low cost, microfluidic photobioreactor technology will be an indispensible tool to speed up the development process, advance fundamental knowledge, and realize the full potential of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology for cyanobacteria and microalgae.

  4. Synthetic vision systems: operational considerations simulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-04-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents / accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  5. Synthetic Vision Systems - Operational Considerations Simulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Lynda J.; Williams, Steven P.; Bailey, Randall E.; Glaab, Louis J.

    2007-01-01

    Synthetic vision is a computer-generated image of the external scene topography that is generated from aircraft attitude, high-precision navigation information, and data of the terrain, obstacles, cultural features, and other required flight information. A synthetic vision system (SVS) enhances this basic functionality with real-time integrity to ensure the validity of the databases, perform obstacle detection and independent navigation accuracy verification, and provide traffic surveillance. Over the last five years, NASA and its industry partners have developed and deployed SVS technologies for commercial, business, and general aviation aircraft which have been shown to provide significant improvements in terrain awareness and reductions in the potential for Controlled-Flight-Into-Terrain incidents/accidents compared to current generation cockpit technologies. It has been hypothesized that SVS displays can greatly improve the safety and operational flexibility of flight in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) to a level comparable to clear-day Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC), regardless of actual weather conditions or time of day. An experiment was conducted to evaluate SVS and SVS-related technologies as well as the influence of where the information is provided to the pilot (e.g., on a Head-Up or Head-Down Display) for consideration in defining landing minima based upon aircraft and airport equipage. The "operational considerations" evaluated under this effort included reduced visibility, decision altitudes, and airport equipage requirements, such as approach lighting systems, for SVS-equipped aircraft. Subjective results from the present study suggest that synthetic vision imagery on both head-up and head-down displays may offer benefits in situation awareness; workload; and approach and landing performance in the visibility levels, approach lighting systems, and decision altitudes tested.

  6. Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lipophilic compounds with application to synthetic and commercial biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yang, J; Rainville, P; Jones, M D; Fountain, K J; Isaac, G; Taylor, L T

    2015-03-01

    Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) in combination with sub-2μm particles and either diode array ultraviolet (UV), evaporative light scattering, (ELSD), or mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been shown to be a valuable technique for the determination of acylglycerols in soybean, corn, sesame, and tobacco seed oils. Excellent resolution on an un-endcapped single C18 column (3.0mm×150mm) with a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile and carbon dioxide in as little as 10min served greatly as an improvement on first generation packed column SFC instrumentation. Unlike high resolution gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UHPSFC/MS was determined to be a superior analytical tool for both separation and detection of mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols as well as free glycerol itself in biodiesel without derivatization. Baseline separation of residual tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols alongside glycerol at 0.05% (w/w) was easily obtained employing packed column SFC. The new analytical methodology was applied to both commercial B100 biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid methyl esters) derived from vegetable oil and to an "in-house" synthetic biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid ethyl esters) derived from tobacco seed oil and ethanol both before and after purification via column chromatography on bare silica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Customizable Generation of Synthetically Accessible, Local Chemical Subspaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottel, Joshua; Moitessier, Nicolas

    2017-03-27

    Screening large libraries of chemicals has been an efficient strategy to discover bioactive compounds; however a portion of the potential for success is limited to the available libraries. Synergizing combinatorial and computational chemistries has emerged as a time-efficient strategy to explore the chemical space more widely. Ideally, streamlining the evaluation process for larger, feasible chemical libraries would become commonplace. Thus, combinatorial tools and, for example, docking methods would be integrated to identify novel bioactive entities. The idea is simple in nature, but much more complex in practice; combinatorial chemistry is more than the coupling of chemicals into products: synthetic feasibility includes chemoselectivity, stereoselectivity, protecting group chemistry, and chemical availability which must all be considered for combinatorial library design. In addition, intuitive interfaces and simple user manipulation is key for optimal use of such tools by organic chemists-crucial for the integration of such software in medicinal chemistry laboratories. We present herein Finders and React2D-integrated into the Virtual Chemist platform, a modular software suite. This approach enhances virtual combinatorial chemistry by identifying available chemicals compatible with a user-defined chemical transformation and by carrying out the reaction leading to libraries of realistic, synthetically accessible chemicals-all with a completely automated, black-box, and efficient design. We demonstrate its utility by generating ∼40 million synthetically accessible, stereochemically accurate compounds from a single library of 100 000 purchasable molecules and 56 well-characterized chemical reactions.

  8. Synthetic biology: programming cells for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörner, Maximilian; Reischmann, Nadine; Weber, Wilfried

    2012-01-01

    The emerging field of synthetic biology is a novel biological discipline at the interface between traditional biology, chemistry, and engineering sciences. Synthetic biology aims at the rational design of complex synthetic biological devices and systems with desired properties by combining compatible, modular biological parts in a systematic manner. While the first engineered systems were mainly proof-of-principle studies to demonstrate the power of the modular engineering approach of synthetic biology, subsequent systems focus on applications in the health, environmental, and energy sectors. This review describes recent approaches for biomedical applications that were developed along the synthetic biology design hierarchy, at the level of individual parts, of devices, and of complex multicellular systems. It describes how synthetic biological parts can be used for the synthesis of drug-delivery tools, how synthetic biological devices can facilitate the discovery of novel drugs, and how multicellular synthetic ecosystems can give insight into population dynamics of parasites and hosts. These examples demonstrate how this new discipline could contribute to novel solutions in the biopharmaceutical industry.

  9. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisila Mkenda

    Full Text Available Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders. Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A. Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides.

  10. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  11. Microorganism Utilization for Synthetic Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morford, Megan A.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Caro, Janicce I.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Richards, Jeffery T.; Strayer, Richard F.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    A desired architecture for long duration spaceflight, like aboard the International Space Station or for future missions to Mars, is to provide a supply of fresh food crops for the astronauts. However, some crops can create a high proportion of inedible plant waste. The main goal of the Synthetic Biology project, Cow in a Column, was to produce the components of milk (sugar, lipid, protein) from inedible plant waste by utilizing microorganisms (fungi, yeast, bacteria). Of particular interest was utilizing the valuable polysaccharide, cellulose, found in plant waste, to naturally fuel-through microorganism cellular metabolism- the creation of sugar (glucose), lipid (milk fat), and protein (casein) in order to produce a synthetic edible food product. Environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, carbon source, aeration, and choice microorganisms were optimized in the laboratory and the desired end-products, sugars and lipids, were analyzed. Trichoderma reesei, a known cellulolytic fungus, was utilized to drive the production of glucose, with the intent that the produced glucose would serve as the carbon source for milk fat production and be a substitute for the milk sugar lactose. Lipid production would be carried out by Rhodosporidium toruloides, yeast known to accumulate those lipids that are typically found in milk fat. Results showed that glucose and total lipid content were below what was expected during this phase of experimentation. In addition, individual analysis of six fatty acids revealed that the percentage of each fatty acid was lower than naturally produced bovine milk. Overall, this research indicates that microorganisms could be utilized to breakdown inedible solid waste to produce useable products. For future work, the production of the casein protein for milk would require the development of a genetically modified organism, which was beyond the scope of the original project. Additional trials would be needed to further refine the required

  12. High-Performance Vertical Organic Electrochemical Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Mary J; Williamson, Adam; Strakosas, Xenofon; Friedlein, Jacob T; McLeod, Robert R; Gleskova, Helena; Malliaras, George G

    2018-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising transducers for biointerfacing due to their high transconductance, biocompatibility, and availability in a variety of form factors. Most OECTs reported to date, however, utilize rather large channels, limiting the transistor performance and resulting in a low transistor density. This is typically a consequence of limitations associated with traditional fabrication methods and with 2D substrates. Here, the fabrication and characterization of OECTs with vertically stacked contacts, which overcome these limitations, is reported. The resulting vertical transistors exhibit a reduced footprint, increased intrinsic transconductance of up to 57 mS, and a geometry-normalized transconductance of 814 S m -1 . The fabrication process is straightforward and compatible with sensitive organic materials, and allows exceptional control over the transistor channel length. This novel 3D fabrication method is particularly suited for applications where high density is needed, such as in implantable devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodagholy, Dion; Rivnay, Jonathan; Sessolo, Michele; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Jimison, Leslie H.; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-07-01

    The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1 kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications.

  14. High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodagholy, Dion; Rivnay, Jonathan; Sessolo, Michele; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Jimison, Leslie H.; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-01-01

    The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1 kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications. PMID:23851620

  15. Distributed detection of communities in complex networks using synthetic coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, H; Fragopoulou, P; Panagiotakis, C

    2014-01-01

    Various applications like finding Web communities, detecting the structure of social networks, and even analyzing a graph’s structure to uncover Internet attacks are just some of the applications for which community detection is important. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that finds the entire community structure of a network, on the basis of local interactions between neighboring nodes and an unsupervised distributed hierarchical clustering algorithm. The novelty of the proposed approach, named SCCD (standing for synthetic coordinate community detection), lies in the fact that the algorithm is based on the use of Vivaldi synthetic network coordinates computed by a distributed algorithm. The current paper not only presents an efficient distributed community finding algorithm, but also demonstrates that synthetic network coordinates could be used to derive efficient solutions to a variety of problems. Experimental results and comparisons with other methods from the literature are presented for a variety of benchmark graphs with known community structure, derived from varying a number of graph parameters and real data set graphs. The experimental results and comparisons to existing methods with similar computation cost on real and synthetic data sets demonstrate the high performance and robustness of the proposed scheme. (paper)

  16. Aluminum Exchangeable and Phosphorous Availability on Ultisol Using Humic Substance and Synthetic ……………..…. Sugeng Winarso and Abdullah Taufiq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugeng Winarso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Humic substance (HS extracted from composted agricultural waste contains organic acids that potential for an acid soil amandement. Functional group of COOH and OH in synthetically organic acid is higher than in HS originated from composted agricultural waste. Addition of synthetically organic acid to the HS may increase its functional group and therefore it will increase effectiveness in detoxifying aluminum (Al and desorpting phosphorus (P from an acid soil. Objective of reseach was to determine effect of synthetic organic acid addition to HS extracted from composted organic matter in desorpting P and detoxify Al. Research was conducted at Soil Laboratory of Agricultural Faculty of Jember University from February to May 2010. Treatment consisted of combination of four levels of HS concentration extracted from composted rice straw (0; 1,000; 2,000; and 5,000 mg kg-1 with two kind of synthetic organic acid: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA and acetic acid (CH3COOH at concentration of 5 mM. The treatment laid out in a randomized complete by design with three replications. Ultisol collected from Kentrong Banten was used in this research. Observation consisted of pH, Al and P concentration in the suspension at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks after incubation. The result showed that EDTA or acetic acid treatment at concentration of 5 mM effectively increased soil pH and decreased exchangeable Al (exch-Al. However, EDTA was more reactive and having higher capability in increasing pH and detoxifying exch-Al than acetic acid. Humic substance extracted from composted rice straw at concentration of 1,000 to 5,000 mg kg-1 also effectively increased soil pH, decreased exch-Al, and increased P availability during a 4 weeks incubation period. The HS effect in Al detoxification and P desorption in acid soil could be boosted by addition of EDTA or acetic acid synthetic

  17. Evidence for replacement of an infected synthetic by a biological mesh in abdominal wall hernia repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta eMontgomery

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of deep infection using a synthetic mesh in inguinal hernia repair is low and reported to be well below 1%. This is in contrast to incisional hernia surgery where the reported incidence is 3% respective 13% comparing laparoscopic to open mesh repair reported in a Cochrane review. Main risk factors were long operation time, surgical site contamination and early wound complications. An infected mesh can be preserved using conservative treatment were negative pressure wound therapy (VAC® could play an important role. If strategy fails, the mesh needs to be removed. This review aims to look at evidence for situations were a biological mesh would work as a replacement of a removed infected synthetic mesh. Material and MethodsA literature search of the Medline database was performed using the PubMed search engine. Twenty publications were found relevant for this review.ResultsFor studies reviewed three options are presented: removal of the infected synthetic mesh alone, replacement with either a new synthetic or a new biological mesh. Operations were all performed at specialist centers. Removal of the mesh alone was an option limited to inguinal hernias. In ventral/incisional hernias the use of a biological mesh for replacement resulted in a very high recurrence rate, if bridging was required. Either a synthetic or a biological mesh seems to work as a replacement when fascial closure can be achieved. Evidence is though very low. ConclusionWhen required, either a synthetic or a biological meshes seems to work as a replacement for an infected synthetic mesh if the defect can be closed. It is however not recommended to use a biological mesh for bridging. Mesh replacement surgery is demanding and is recommended to be performed in a specialist center.

  18. Library Design-Facilitated High-Throughput Sequencing of Synthetic Peptide Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Alexander A; Gates, Zachary P; Zhang, Chi; Quartararo, Anthony J; Halloran, Kathryn H; Pentelute, Bradley L

    2017-11-13

    A methodology to achieve high-throughput de novo sequencing of synthetic peptide mixtures is reported. The approach leverages shotgun nanoliquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of library mixtures (up to 2000 peptides) as well as automated data analysis protocols to filter away incorrect assignments, noise, and synthetic side-products. For increasing the confidence in the sequencing results, mass spectrometry-friendly library designs were developed that enabled unambiguous decoding of up to 600 peptide sequences per hour while maintaining greater than 85% sequence identification rates in most cases. The reliability of the reported decoding strategy was additionally confirmed by matching fragmentation spectra for select authentic peptides identified from library sequencing samples. The methods reported here are directly applicable to screening techniques that yield mixtures of active compounds, including particle sorting of one-bead one-compound libraries and affinity enrichment of synthetic library mixtures performed in solution.

  19. Mammalian synthetic biology: emerging medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Zoltán; Pereira, Hugo Sant'Ana; Homma, Takayuki; Pedrigi, Ryan M; Krams, Rob

    2015-05-06

    In this review, we discuss new emerging medical applications of the rapidly evolving field of mammalian synthetic biology. We start with simple mammalian synthetic biological components and move towards more complex and therapy-oriented gene circuits. A comprehensive list of ON-OFF switches, categorized into transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational and post-translational, is presented in the first sections. Subsequently, Boolean logic gates, synthetic mammalian oscillators and toggle switches will be described. Several synthetic gene networks are further reviewed in the medical applications section, including cancer therapy gene circuits, immuno-regulatory networks, among others. The final sections focus on the applicability of synthetic gene networks to drug discovery, drug delivery, receptor-activating gene circuits and mammalian biomanufacturing processes. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Laser-induced charge separation in organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Luciana; Behn, Dino; Kjelstrup-Hansen, Jakob

    Organic semiconductors have unique properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications, which combined with their low price and straight-forward processing over large areas make them interesting materials for future devices. Certain oligomers can self-assemble into c......Organic semiconductors have unique properties that can be tailored via synthetic chemistry for specific applications, which combined with their low price and straight-forward processing over large areas make them interesting materials for future devices. Certain oligomers can self......-assemble into crystalline nanofibers by vapor deposition onto muscovite mica substrates, and we have recently shown that such nanofibers can be transferred to different substrates by roll-printing and used as the active material in e.g. organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting transistors (OLETs......), and organic phototransistors (OPTs). However, several device-related issues incl. charge-separation and local band structure remain poorly understood. In this work, we use electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) combined with optical microscopy to study the local surface charge of an individual organic nanofiber...

  1. Protease-sensitive synthetic prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Colby

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Prions arise when the cellular prion protein (PrP(C undergoes a self-propagating conformational change; the resulting infectious conformer is designated PrP(Sc. Frequently, PrP(Sc is protease-resistant but protease-sensitive (s prions have been isolated in humans and other animals. We report here that protease-sensitive, synthetic prions were generated in vitro during polymerization of recombinant (rec PrP into amyloid fibers. In 22 independent experiments, recPrP amyloid preparations, but not recPrP monomers or oligomers, transmitted disease to transgenic mice (n = 164, denoted Tg9949 mice, that overexpress N-terminally truncated PrP. Tg9949 control mice (n = 174 did not spontaneously generate prions although they were prone to late-onset spontaneous neurological dysfunction. When synthetic prion isolates from infected Tg9949 mice were serially transmitted in the same line of mice, they exhibited sPrP(Sc and caused neurodegeneration. Interestingly, these protease-sensitive prions did not shorten the life span of Tg9949 mice despite causing extensive neurodegeneration. We inoculated three synthetic prion isolates into Tg4053 mice that overexpress full-length PrP; Tg4053 mice are not prone to developing spontaneous neurological dysfunction. The synthetic prion isolates caused disease in 600-750 days in Tg4053 mice, which exhibited sPrP(Sc. These novel synthetic prions demonstrate that conformational changes in wild-type PrP can produce mouse prions composed exclusively of sPrP(Sc.

  2. Properties of alternative microbial hosts used in synthetic biology: towards the design of a modular chassis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juhyun; Salvador, Manuel; Saunders, Elizabeth; González, Jaime; Avignone-Rossa, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    The chassis is the cellular host used as a recipient of engineered biological systems in synthetic biology. They are required to propagate the genetic information and to express the genes encoded in it. Despite being an essential element for the appropriate function of genetic circuits, the chassis is rarely considered in their design phase. Consequently, the circuits are transferred to model organisms commonly used in the laboratory, such as Escherichia coli, that may be suboptimal for a required function. In this review, we discuss some of the properties desirable in a versatile chassis and summarize some examples of alternative hosts for synthetic biology amenable for engineering. These properties include a suitable life style, a robust cell wall, good knowledge of its regulatory network as well as of the interplay of the host components with the exogenous circuits, and the possibility of developing whole-cell models and tuneable metabolic fluxes that could allow a better distribution of cellular resources (metabolites, ATP, nucleotides, amino acids, transcriptional and translational machinery). We highlight Pseudomonas putida, widely used in many different biotechnological applications as a prominent organism for synthetic biology due to its metabolic diversity, robustness and ease of manipulation. PMID:27903818

  3. Elements of Performance Management and Audit in Public Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe MINCULETE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of performance is a new one, having in mind the fact that, in order to achieve functional progress, public organizations are themselves determined to measure the results of their activity over a definite period of time. Nevertheless, a new characteristic regarding the implementation of this concept refers to the approach used by managers for putting it into practice that is the identification of the answers to the question: „What should be measured/monitored in order to have a better control over activities and which will determine their improvement?” The current article presents notions and elements specific to performance management at the level of public organizations, with a brief emphasis on the indicators and standards related to this domain.

  4. Simultaneous determination of seven synthetic colorants in wine by dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction coupled with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun; Zhou, Hua; Wang, Yougang; Wu, Xianglun; Zhao, Yonggang

    2015-02-01

    A novel and effective dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (d-µ-SPE) using ethanediamine-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4 polymer (EDA-MP) as an efficient adsorbent in wine sample was developed. Based on this, a simple and time-saving analytical method for the simultaneous determination of seven synthetic colorants (i.e., tartrazine, amaranth, carmine, sunset yellow, allura red, brilliant blue and erythrosine) in wine by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with an ultraviolet detector was established. The experimental parameters, including the chromatographic retention behavior of studied synthetic colorants, the effect of the usage amount of cross-linking monomer, the effect of the usage amount of EDA-MP on the recovery and the recyclability of the adsorbents, were studied in detail. The results showed that the EDA-MP could be reused efficiently at least six times. Under optimized conditions, the recoveries for all analytes were in the range of 88.6-105.2%, with the intraday relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 2.1 to 8.2% and the interday RSDs ranging from 3.4 to 8.7%, and all the analytes had good linearities in the tested ranges with correlation coefficients (r(2)) >0.9995. The limits of quantification for seven synthetic colorants were between 0.12 and 0.45 mg L(-1). The developed method was successfully applied to wine samples, and it was confirmed that the EDA-MP particles were highly effective d-µ-SPE materials. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Synthetic biology meets bioprinting: enabling technologies for humans on Mars (and Earth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J

    2016-08-15

    Human exploration off planet is severely limited by the cost of launching materials into space and by re-supply. Thus materials brought from Earth must be light, stable and reliable at destination. Using traditional approaches, a lunar or Mars base would require either transporting a hefty store of metals or heavy manufacturing equipment and construction materials for in situ extraction; both would severely limit any other mission objectives. Long-term human space presence requires periodic replenishment, adding a massive cost overhead. Even robotic missions often sacrifice science goals for heavy radiation and thermal protection. Biology has the potential to solve these problems because life can replicate and repair itself, and perform a wide variety of chemical reactions including making food, fuel and materials. Synthetic biology enhances and expands life's evolved repertoire. Using organisms as feedstock, additive manufacturing through bioprinting will make possible the dream of producing bespoke tools, food, smart fabrics and even replacement organs on demand. This new approach and the resulting novel products will enable human exploration and settlement on Mars, while providing new manufacturing approaches for life on Earth. © 2016 The Author(s).

  6. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications. PMID:25022769

  7. Synergistic Synthetic Biology: Units in Concert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trosset, Jean-Yves; Carbonell, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic biology aims at translating the methods and strategies from engineering into biology in order to streamline the design and construction of biological devices through standardized parts. Modular synthetic biology devices are designed by means of an adequate elimination of cross-talk that makes circuits orthogonal and specific. To that end, synthetic constructs need to be adequately optimized through in silico modeling by choosing the right complement of genetic parts and by experimental tuning through directed evolution and craftsmanship. In this review, we consider an additional and complementary tool available to the synthetic biologist for innovative design and successful construction of desired circuit functionalities: biological synergies. Synergy is a prevalent emergent property in biological systems that arises from the concerted action of multiple factors producing an amplification or cancelation effect compared with individual actions alone. Synergies appear in domains as diverse as those involved in chemical and protein activity, polypharmacology, and metabolic pathway complementarity. In conventional synthetic biology designs, synergistic cross-talk between parts and modules is generally attenuated in order to verify their orthogonality. Synergistic interactions, however, can induce emergent behavior that might prove useful for synthetic biology applications, like in functional circuit design, multi-drug treatment, or in sensing and delivery devices. Synergistic design principles are therefore complementary to those coming from orthogonal design and may provide added value to synthetic biology applications. The appropriate modeling, characterization, and design of synergies between biological parts and units will allow the discovery of yet unforeseeable, novel synthetic biology applications.

  8. Self-organization leads to supraoptimal performance in public transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenson, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The performance of public transportation systems affects a large part of the population. Current theory assumes that passengers are served optimally when vehicles arrive at stations with regular intervals. In this paper, it is shown that self-organization can improve the performance of public transportation systems beyond the theoretical optimum by responding adaptively to local conditions. This is possible because of a "slower-is-faster" effect, where passengers wait more time at stations but total travel times are reduced. The proposed self-organizing method uses "antipheromones" to regulate headways, which are inspired by the stigmergy (communication via environment) of some ant colonies.

  9. Organic Donor-Acceptor Complexes as Novel Organic Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Wei; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhu, Daoben

    2017-07-18

    Organic donor-acceptor (DA) complexes have attracted wide attention in recent decades, resulting in the rapid development of organic binary system electronics. The design and synthesis of organic DA complexes with a variety of component structures have mainly focused on metallicity (or even superconductivity), emission, or ferroelectricity studies. Further efforts have been made in high-performance electronic investigations. The chemical versatility of organic semiconductors provides DA complexes with a great number of possibilities for semiconducting applications. Organic DA complexes extend the semiconductor family and promote charge separation and transport in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and organic photovoltaics (OPVs). In OFETs, the organic complex serves as an active layer across extraordinary charge pathways, ensuring the efficient transport of induced charges. Although an increasing number of organic semiconductors have been reported to exhibit good p- or n-type properties (mobilities higher than 1 or even 10 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ), critical scientific challenges remain in utilizing the advantages of existing semiconductor materials for more and wider applications while maintaining less complicated synthetic or device fabrication processes. DA complex materials have revealed new insight: their unique molecular packing and structure-property relationships. The combination of donors and acceptors could offer practical advantages compared with their unimolecular materials. First, growing crystals of DA complexes with densely packed structures will reduce impurities and traps from the self-assembly process. Second, complexes based on the original structural components could form superior mixture stacking, which can facilitate charge transport depending on the driving force in the coassembly process. Third, the effective use of organic semiconductors can lead to tunable band structures, allowing the operation mode (p- or n-type) of the transistor to be

  10. Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) hosts robust phyllosphere and rhizosphere bacterial communities when grown in soil amended with various organic and synthetic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Sarah M; Walsh, Christopher S; Wallis, Anna E; Ottesen, Andrea R; Brown, Eric W; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-12-15

    Due to the intimate association between plants and their microbial symbionts, an examination of the influence of agricultural practices on phytobiome structure and diversity could foster a more comprehensive understanding of plant health and produce safety. Indeed, the impact of upstream crop producti006Fn practices cannot be overstated in their role in assuring an abundant and safe food supply. To assess whether fertilizer type impacted rhizosphere and phyllosphere bacterial communities associating with tomato plants, the bacterial microbiome of tomato cv. 'BHN602' grown in soils amended with fresh poultry litter, commercially available sterilized poultry litter pellets, vermicompost or synthetic fertilizer was described. Culture independent DNA was extracted from bulk and rhizosphere soils, and washes of tomato blossoms and ripe fruit. PCR amplicons of hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene were sequenced and profiled using the QIIME pipeline. Bulk and rhizosphere soil, and blossom and fruit surfaces all supported distinct bacterial communities according to principal coordinate analysis and ANOSIM (R=0.87, p=0.001 in year 1; R=0.93, p=0.001 in year 2). Use of microbiologically diverse organic fertilizers generally did not influence bacterial diversity, community structure or relative abundance of specific taxa on any plant organ surface. However, statistically significant differences in sand and silt contents of soil (pfertilized plants. Plant anatomy, and other factors related to field location, possibly associated with edaphic and air characteristics, were more influential drivers of different tomato organ microbiomes than were diverse soil amendment applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthetic biology, metaphors and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Nerlich, Brigitte

    2017-08-29

    Metaphors are not just decorative rhetorical devices that make speech pretty. They are fundamental tools for thinking about the world and acting on the world. The language we use to make a better world matters; words matter; metaphors matter. Words have consequences - ethical, social and legal ones, as well as political and economic ones. They need to be used 'responsibly'. They also need to be studied carefully - this is what we want to do through this editorial and the related thematic collection. In the context of synthetic biology, natural and social scientists have become increasingly interested in metaphors, a wave of interest that we want to exploit and amplify. We want to build on emerging articles and books on synthetic biology, metaphors of life and the ethical and moral implications of such metaphors. This editorial provides a brief introduction to synthetic biology and responsible innovation, as well as a comprehensive review of literature on the social, cultural and ethical impacts of metaphor use in genomics and synthetic biology. Our aim is to stimulate an interdisciplinary and international discussion on the impact that metaphors can have on science, policy and publics in the context of synthetic biology.

  12. Cognitive Performance in Operational Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Michael; McGhee, James; Friedler, Edna; Thomas, Maria

    2005-01-01

    Optimal cognition during complex and sustained operations is a critical component for success in current and future military operations. "Cognitive Performance, Judgment, and Decision-making" (CPJD) is a newly organized U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command research program focused on sustaining operational effectiveness of Future Force Warriors by developing paradigms through which militarily-relevant, higher-order cognitive performance, judgment, and decision-making can be assessed and sustained in individuals, small teams, and leaders of network-centric fighting units. CPJD evaluates the impact of stressors intrinsic to military operational environments (e.g., sleep deprivation, workload, fatigue, temperature extremes, altitude, environmental/physiological disruption) on military performance, evaluates noninvasive automated methods for monitoring and predicting cognitive performance, and investigates pharmaceutical strategies (e.g., stimulant countermeasures, hypnotics) to mitigate performance decrements. This manuscript describes the CPJD program, discusses the metrics utilized to relate militarily applied research findings to academic research, and discusses how the simulated combat capabilities of a synthetic battle laboratory may facilitate future cognitive performance research.

  13. Approaches to chemical synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarabelli, Cristiano; Stano, Pasquale; Anella, Fabrizio; Carrara, Paolo; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2012-07-16

    Synthetic biology is first represented in terms of two complementary aspects, the bio-engineering one, based on the genetic manipulation of extant microbial forms in order to obtain forms of life which do not exist in nature; and the chemical synthetic biology, an approach mostly based on chemical manipulation for the laboratory synthesis of biological structures that do not exist in nature. The paper is mostly devoted to shortly review chemical synthetic biology projects currently carried out in our laboratory. In particular, we describe: the minimal cell project, then the "Never Born Proteins" and lastly the Never Born RNAs. We describe and critically analyze the main results, emphasizing the possible relevance of chemical synthetic biology for the progress in basic science and biotechnology. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Investigation on Frequency Characteristics of Plasma Synthetic Jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zong, H.; Kotsonis, M.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of a two–electrode plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) is investigated for a wide range of dimensionless actuation frequencies (f*) using high-speed phase-locked Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The jet-induced velocity fields in the

  15. Performance of organic grain legumes in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Moschini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2005-2007 growing season, few varieties of field bean, high protein pea and white lupin were compared in an organic farm of Central Italy (Mugello area, Tuscany, to evaluate their agronomic performance in terms of grain yield, nutritional quality and competitive ability against weeds. The experiment was performed under rain-fed conditions. Furthermore, grain legumes features were compared between two different sowing seasons (autumnal vs late-winter for two years, in order to get information on the best time of sowing of these species, and the stability of yields of different genotypes in those climatic and soil conditions. These legumes could be an alternative protein source to external soybean, a high-risk alimentary source of genetically modified organisms, in the organic livestock sector. The main findings indicate that higher yields in grain and crude protein were obtained with the pea species and in particular with cultivars Hardy (4.0 t/ha grain yield; 626 kg/ha crude protein yield and Classic (3.1 t/ha grain yield; 557 kg/ha crude protein yield; followed by field bean cv. Chiaro di Torre Lama (2.9 t/ha grain yield; 624 kg/ha crude protein yield and cv. Vesuvio (2.5 t/ha grain yield; 549 kg/ha crude protein yield. Furthermore the field bean is interesting for the stability of yield in both years despite climatic conditions rather different. The white lupin has showed the lower yield but the best values of grain quality, with higher values in lupin Multitalia for dry matter, crude protein and ether extract and in lupin Luxe also for crude fibre, respect to the other legumes analysed. Among lupin varieties, lupin Multitalia showed the best yield results for the pedo-climatic conditions of Mugello area (0.9 t/ha lupin Multitalia; 0.2 t/ha lupin Luxe. The total yield of organic grain legumes, in the experimental site, is resulted higher with an autumnal seeding respect to the late-winter seeding (2.8 t/ha vs 1.9 t/ha.

  16. Growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Animal Science teaching and research farm, Bayero University Kano, to evaluate the effect of feeding graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in diets on growth performance, carcass and organ characteristics of weaned rabbits. Twenty eight grower rabbits of ...

  17. Accounting for External Turbulence of Logistics Organizations via Performance Measurement Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Andreas; Wallenburg, Carl Marcus; Wieland, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the role of upper management in designing performance measurement systems (PMS) that account for external turbulence of the organization and to show how this PMS design for turbulence impacts organizational resilience and distribution service performance....... Design/methodology/approach: Hypotheses are developed by integrating management accounting and strategic management perspectives into supply chain management and subsequently tested based on data from 431 logistics organizations (i.e. both logistics companies and internal logistics departments...

  18. Best practices on institutional performance indicators system in R and D and I public organizations - the case of military organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Maria Cecilia [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), SP (Brazil). Superintendencia da Qualidade]. E-mail: mcecilia37@hotmail.com; ctmsp-70b1@ctmsp.mar.mil.br; Zouain, Desiree Moraes [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dmzouain@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    This paper reflects the partial results of a Master degree research, performed in IPEN and CTMSP in Brazil. The focus of this research is to establish the best practices for an Institutional Performance Indicators System in Public Research, Development and Innovation (R and D and I) Organizations, particularly, the military ones. In public sector, especially military Institutes that are strongly committed to R and D and I, there have been changes in order to modernize the organization management. The focus, in our days, is on the Performance Indicator System, financial or not, strategic, tactic and operational, as a tool for the organizational control over the accomplishment of settled plans, the completion of the mission, everything according to a continuous improvement process. Among the many approaches underlying the development of a Performance Indicator System, since the 90s, the Balanced Scorecard - BSC stands out. It is based on the studies developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1986. By using the BSC approach, it is possible to construct a Performance Indicator System that makes available the information, financial or non-financial data, in logical format. This paper presents the results of the international and national experiences review of Institutional Performance Indicator Systems, applicable to the public organizations of R and D and I, preferably military organizations, and identify the best practices of these Systems. At the end of this paper, it is conducted a comparison among the experiences analyzed, in operation or planned, and are established some suggestions for an Institutional Performance Indicator System for a Military R and D and I Organization. (author)

  19. Best practices on institutional performance indicators system in R and D and I public organizations - the case of military organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Maria Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reflects the partial results of a Master degree research, performed in IPEN and CTMSP in Brazil. The focus of this research is to establish the best practices for an Institutional Performance Indicators System in Public Research, Development and Innovation (R and D and I) Organizations, particularly, the military ones. In public sector, especially military Institutes that are strongly committed to R and D and I, there have been changes in order to modernize the organization management. The focus, in our days, is on the Performance Indicator System, financial or not, strategic, tactic and operational, as a tool for the organizational control over the accomplishment of settled plans, the completion of the mission, everything according to a continuous improvement process. Among the many approaches underlying the development of a Performance Indicator System, since the 90s, the Balanced Scorecard - BSC stands out. It is based on the studies developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1986. By using the BSC approach, it is possible to construct a Performance Indicator System that makes available the information, financial or non-financial data, in logical format. This paper presents the results of the international and national experiences review of Institutional Performance Indicator Systems, applicable to the public organizations of R and D and I, preferably military organizations, and identify the best practices of these Systems. At the end of this paper, it is conducted a comparison among the experiences analyzed, in operation or planned, and are established some suggestions for an Institutional Performance Indicator System for a Military R and D and I Organization. (author)

  20. Towards a synthetic chloroplast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M Agapakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of eukaryotic cells is widely agreed to have proceeded through a series of endosymbiotic events between larger cells and proteobacteria or cyanobacteria, leading to the formation of mitochondria or chloroplasts, respectively. Engineered endosymbiotic relationships between different species of cells are a valuable tool for synthetic biology, where engineered pathways based on two species could take advantage of the unique abilities of each mutualistic partner.We explored the possibility of using the photosynthetic bacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 as a platform for studying evolutionary dynamics and for designing two-species synthetic biological systems. We observed that the cyanobacteria were relatively harmless to eukaryotic host cells compared to Escherichia coli when injected into the embryos of zebrafish, Danio rerio, or taken up by mammalian macrophages. In addition, when engineered with invasin from Yersinia pestis and listeriolysin O from Listeria monocytogenes, S. elongatus was able to invade cultured mammalian cells and divide inside macrophages.Our results show that it is possible to engineer photosynthetic bacteria to invade the cytoplasm of mammalian cells for further engineering and applications in synthetic biology. Engineered invasive but non-pathogenic or immunogenic photosynthetic bacteria have great potential as synthetic biological devices.

  1. Rational Diversification of a Promoter Providing Fine-Tuned Expression and Orthogonal Regulation for Synthetic Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex “multi-wire” logic functions. PMID:22442681

  2. Rational diversification of a promoter providing fine-tuned expression and orthogonal regulation for synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Benjamin A; Weenink, Tim; Vasylechko, Serge; Ellis, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Yeast is an ideal organism for the development and application of synthetic biology, yet there remain relatively few well-characterised biological parts suitable for precise engineering of this chassis. In order to address this current need, we present here a strategy that takes a single biological part, a promoter, and re-engineers it to produce a fine-graded output range promoter library and new regulated promoters desirable for orthogonal synthetic biology applications. A highly constitutive Saccharomyces cerevisiae promoter, PFY1p, was identified by bioinformatic approaches, characterised in vivo and diversified at its core sequence to create a 36-member promoter library. TetR regulation was introduced into PFY1p to create a synthetic inducible promoter (iPFY1p) that functions in an inverter device. Orthogonal and scalable regulation of synthetic promoters was then demonstrated for the first time using customisable Transcription Activator-Like Effectors (TALEs) modified and designed to act as orthogonal repressors for specific PFY1-based promoters. The ability to diversify a promoter at its core sequences and then independently target Transcription Activator-Like Orthogonal Repressors (TALORs) to virtually any of these sequences shows great promise toward the design and construction of future synthetic gene networks that encode complex "multi-wire" logic functions.

  3. Enhancement of aerodynamic performance of a heaving airfoil using synthetic-jet based active flow control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenglei; Tang, Hui

    2018-05-25

    In this study, we explore the use of synthetic jet (SJ) in manipulating the vortices around a rigid heaving airfoil, so as to enhance its aerodynamic performance. The airfoil heaves at two fixed pitching angles, with the Strouhal number, reduced frequency and Reynolds number chosen as St  =  0.3, k  =  0.25 and Re  =  100, respectively, all falling in the ranges for natural flyers. As such, the vortex force plays a dominant role in determining the airfoil's aerodynamic performance. A pair of in-phase SJs is implemented on the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces, operating with the same strength but in opposite directions. Such a fluid-structure interaction problem is numerically solved using a lattice Boltzmann method based numerical framework. It is found that, as the airfoil heaves with zero pitching angle, its lift and drag can be improved concurrently when the SJ phase angle [Formula: see text] relative to the heave motion varies between [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. But this concurrent improvement does not occur as the airfoil heaves with [Formula: see text] pitching angle. Detailed inspection of the vortex evolution and fluid stress over the airfoil surface reveals that, if at good timing, the suction and blowing strokes of the SJ pair can effectively delay or promote the shedding of leading edge vortices, and mitigate or even eliminate the generation of trailing edge vortices, so as to enhance the airfoil's aerodynamic performance. Based on these understandings, an intermittent operation of the SJ pair is then proposed to realize concurrent lift and drag improvement for the heaving airfoil with [Formula: see text] pitching angle.

  4. A comparative thermoluminescence and electron spin resonance study of synthetic carbonated A-type hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.C.; Rossi, A.M.; Baffa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Intensity of the 150 °C thermoluminescence peak of beta-irradiated carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite is approximately 12 times higher than that of the noncarbonated material. Deconvolution of the glow curve showed that this peak is a result of a trap distribution. An attempt was made to relate this thermoluminescence peak enhanced by carbonation with the ESR signal of the CO 2 − radical in natural or synthetic hydroxyapatite. - Highlights: ► Synthetic hydroxyapatite was carbonated with CO 2 . ► TL enhanced by 12 times in carbonated synthetic A-type hydroxyapatite. ► EPR and TL were performed to find out a relation between CO 2 − center and the TL. ► No direct relation was found between the CO 2 − center and TL enhancement.

  5. Development of a Synthetic Switch to Control Protein Stability in Eukaryotic Cells with Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taxis, Christof

    2017-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, virtually all regulatory processes are influenced by proteolysis. Thus, synthetic control of protein stability is a powerful approach to influence cellular behavior. To achieve this, selected target proteins are modified with a conditional degradation sequence (degron) that responds to a distinct signal. For development of a synthetic degron, an appropriate sensor domain is fused with a degron such that activity of the degron is under control of the sensor. This chapter describes the development of a light-activated, synthetic degron in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This photosensitive degron module is composed of the light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) 2 photoreceptor domain of Arabidopsis thaliana phototropin 1 and a degron derived from murine ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). Excitation of the photoreceptor with blue light induces a conformational change that leads to exposure and activation of the degron. Subsequently, the protein is targeted for degradation by the proteasome. Here, the strategy for degron module development and optimization is described in detail together with experimental aspects, which were pivotal for successful implementation of light-controlled proteolysis. The engineering of the photosensitive degron (psd) module may well serve as a blueprint for future development of sophisticated synthetic switches.

  6. A Two-Step Method to Identify Positive Deviant Physician Organizations of Accountable Care Organizations with Robust Performance Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperl, Alexander F; Rodriguez, Hector P; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Shortell, Stephen M

    2018-06-01

    To identify positive deviant (PD) physician organizations of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) with robust performance management systems (PMSYS). Third National Survey of Physician Organizations (NSPO3, n = 1,398). Organizational and external factors from NSPO3 were analyzed. Linear regression estimated the association of internal and contextual factors on PMSYS. Two cutpoints (75th/90th percentiles) identified PDs with the largest residuals and highest PMSYS scores. A total of 65 and 41 PDs were identified using 75th and 90th percentiles cutpoints, respectively. The 90th percentile more strongly differentiated PDs from non-PDs. Having a high proportion of vulnerable patients appears to constrain PMSYS development. Our PD identification method increases the likelihood that PD organizations selected for in-depth inquiry are high-performing organizations that exceed expectations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. OZONE TREATMENT OF SOLUBLE ORGANICS IN PRODUCED WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, KT

    2002-03-14

    This project was an extension of previous research to improve the applicability of ozonation and will help address the petroleum-industry problem of treating produced water containing soluble organics. The goal of this project was to maximize oxidation of hexane-extractable organics during a single-pass operation. The project investigated: (1) oxidant production by electrochemical and sonochemical methods, (2) increasing the mass transfer rate in the reactor by forming microbubbles during ozone injection into the produced water, and (3) using ultraviolet irradiation to enhance the reaction if needed. Several types of methodologies for treatment of soluble organics in synthetic and actual produced waters have been performed. The technologies tested may be categorized as follows: (1) Destruction via sonochemical oxidation at different pH, salt concentration, ultraviolet irradiation, and ferrous iron concentrations. (2) Destruction via ozonation at different pH, salt concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentrations, ultraviolet irradiation, temperature, and reactor configurations.

  8. Synthetic Biology: Advancing Biological Frontiers by Building Synthetic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yvonne Yu-Hsuan; Galloway, Kate E; Smolke, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Advances in synthetic biology are contributing to diverse research areas, from basic biology to biomanufacturing and disease therapy. We discuss the theoretical foundation, applications, and potential of this emerging field.

  9. Measuring business performance using indicators of ecologically sustainable organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Charles G., Jr.; Snow, Charles C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of ecology-based performance measures as a way of augmenting the Balanced Scorecard approach to organizational performance measurement. The Balanced Scorecard, as proposed by Kaplan and Norton, focuses on four primary dimensions; financial, internal-business-process, customer, and learning and growth perspectives. Recently, many 'green' organizational theorists have developed the concept of "Ecologically Sustainable Organizations" or ESOs, a concept rooted in open systems theory. The ESO is called upon to consider resource use and conservation as a strategy for long-term viability. This paper asserts that in order to achieve ESO status, an organization must not only measure but also reward resource conservation measures. Only by adding a fifth perspective for ecological dimensions will the entity be truly motivated toward ESO status.

  10. Synthetic biology: an emerging engineering discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Allen A; Lu, Timothy K

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, synthetic biology has emerged as an engineering discipline for biological systems. Compared with other substrates, biology poses a unique set of engineering challenges resulting from an incomplete understanding of natural biological systems and tools for manipulating them. To address these challenges, synthetic biology is advancing from developing proof-of-concept designs to focusing on core platforms for rational and high-throughput biological engineering. These platforms span the entire biological design cycle, including DNA construction, parts libraries, computational design tools, and interfaces for manipulating and probing synthetic circuits. The development of these enabling technologies requires an engineering mindset to be applied to biology, with an emphasis on generalizable techniques in addition to application-specific designs. This review aims to discuss the progress and challenges in synthetic biology and to illustrate areas where synthetic biology may impact biomedical engineering and human health.

  11. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.D. Zegers (Netty)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractSynthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps

  12. Synthetic LDL as targeted drug delivery vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Trudy M [Berkeley, CA; Nikanjam, Mina [Richmond, CA

    2012-08-28

    The present invention provides a synthetic LDL nanoparticle comprising a lipid moiety and a synthetic chimeric peptide so as to be capable of binding the LDL receptor. The synthetic LDL nanoparticle of the present invention is capable of incorporating and targeting therapeutics to cells expressing the LDL receptor for diseases associated with the expression of the LDL receptor such as central nervous system diseases. The invention further provides methods of using such synthetic LDL nanoparticles.

  13. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing Reactive Red 198 by Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    N.M Mahmoodi; A Ameri; M Gholami; A Jonidi jafari; A Dalvand

    2011-01-01

    "nBackground and Objectives: Discharge of textile colored wastewater industries without providing enough treatment in water bodies, is harmful for human and aquatic organisms and poses serious damages to the environment. Most of conventional wastewater treatment methods don't have enough efficiency to remove textile dyes from colored wastewater; thus in this research the efficiency of electrocoagulation treatment process with aluminum electrodes for treatment of a synthetic wastewater co...

  14. Performance comparison of independent component analysis algorithms for fetal cardiac signal reconstruction: a study on synthetic fMCG data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantini, D; II, K E Hild; Alleva, G; Comani, S

    2006-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) algorithms have been successfully used for signal extraction tasks in the field of biomedical signal processing. We studied the performances of six algorithms (FastICA, CubICA, JADE, Infomax, TDSEP and MRMI-SIG) for fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG). Synthetic datasets were used to check the quality of the separated components against the original traces. Real fMCG recordings were simulated with linear combinations of typical fMCG source signals: maternal and fetal cardiac activity, ambient noise, maternal respiration, sensor spikes and thermal noise. Clusters of different dimensions (19, 36 and 55 sensors) were prepared to represent different MCG systems. Two types of signal-to-interference ratios (SIR) were measured. The first involves averaging over all estimated components and the second is based solely on the fetal trace. The computation time to reach a minimum of 20 dB SIR was measured for all six algorithms. No significant dependency on gestational age or cluster dimension was observed. Infomax performed poorly when a sub-Gaussian source was included; TDSEP and MRMI-SIG were sensitive to additive noise, whereas FastICA, CubICA and JADE showed the best performances. Of all six methods considered, FastICA had the best overall performance in terms of both separation quality and computation times

  15. Staged Closure of Giant Omphalocele using Synthetic Mesh

    OpenAIRE

    Parida, Lalit; Pal, Kamalesh; Al Buainain, Hussah; Elshafei, Hossam

    2014-01-01

    Giant omphalocele is difficult to manage and is associated with a poor outcome. A male newborn presented to our hospital with a giant omphalocele. We performed a staged closure of giant omphalocele using synthetic mesh to construct a silo and then mesh abdominoplasty in the neonatal period that led to a successful outcome within a reasonable period of hospital stay.

  16. Fasciola gigantica cathepsin L proteinase-based synthetic peptide for immunodiagnosis and prevention of sheep fasciolosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ježek, Jan; El Ridi, R.; Salah, M.; Wagih, A.; Aziz, H. W.; Tallima, H.; El Shafie, M. H.; Khalek, T. A.; Ammou, F. F. A.; Strongylis, C.; Moussis, V.; Tsikaris, V.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 3 (2008), s. 349-357 ISSN 0006-3525 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cathepsin L proteinase * peptides * sequential oligopeptide carriers * synthetic peptide vaccine * Fasciiola gigantica Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.823, year: 2008

  17. Precision control of recombinant gene transcription for CHO cell synthetic biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam J; James, David C

    2016-01-01

    The next generation of mammalian cell factories for biopharmaceutical production will be genetically engineered to possess both generic and product-specific manufacturing capabilities that may not exist naturally. Introduction of entirely new combinations of synthetic functions (e.g. novel metabolic or stress-response pathways), and retro-engineering of existing functional cell modules will drive disruptive change in cellular manufacturing performance. However, before we can apply the core concepts underpinning synthetic biology (design, build, test) to CHO cell engineering we must first develop practical and robust enabling technologies. Fundamentally, we will require the ability to precisely control the relative stoichiometry of numerous functional components we simultaneously introduce into the host cell factory. In this review we discuss how this can be achieved by design of engineered promoters that enable concerted control of recombinant gene transcription. We describe the specific mechanisms of transcriptional regulation that affect promoter function during bioproduction processes, and detail the highly-specific promoter design criteria that are required in the context of CHO cell engineering. The relative applicability of diverse promoter development strategies are discussed, including re-engineering of natural sequences, design of synthetic transcription factor-based systems, and construction of synthetic promoters. This review highlights the potential of promoter engineering to achieve precision transcriptional control for CHO cell synthetic biology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Synthetic peptides for antibody production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    Synthetic peptides are useful tools for the generation of antibodies. The use of antibodies as specific reagents in inununochemical assays is widely applied. In this chapter, the application of synthetic peptides for the generation of antibodies is described. The different steps that lead to the

  19. The Ethics of Synthetic Biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Andreas

    The dissertation analyses and discusses a number of ethical issues that have been raised in connection with the development of synthetic biology. Synthetic biology is a set of new techniques for DNA-level design and construction of living beings with useful properties. The dissertation especially...

  20. Prediction of novel synthetic pathways for the production of desired chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Jin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been several methods developed for the prediction of synthetic metabolic pathways leading to the production of desired chemicals. In these approaches, novel pathways were predicted based on chemical structure changes, enzymatic information, and/or reaction mechanisms, but the approaches generating a huge number of predicted results are difficult to be applied to real experiments. Also, some of these methods focus on specific pathways, and thus are limited to expansion to the whole metabolism. Results In the present study, we propose a system framework employing a retrosynthesis model with a prioritization scoring algorithm. This new strategy allows deducing the novel promising pathways for the synthesis of a desired chemical together with information on enzymes involved based on structural changes and reaction mechanisms present in the system database. The prioritization scoring algorithm employing Tanimoto coefficient and group contribution method allows examination of structurally qualified pathways to recognize which pathway is more appropriate. In addition, new concepts of binding site covalence, estimation of pathway distance and organism specificity were taken into account to identify the best synthetic pathway. Parameters of these factors can be evolutionarily optimized when a newly proven synthetic pathway is registered. As the proofs of concept, the novel synthetic pathways for the production of isobutanol, 3-hydroxypropionate, and butyryl-CoA were predicted. The prediction shows a high reliability, in which experimentally verified synthetic pathways were listed within the top 0.089% of the identified pathway candidates. Conclusions It is expected that the system framework developed in this study would be useful for the in silico design of novel metabolic pathways to be employed for the efficient production of chemicals, fuels and materials.

  1. Content metamorphosis in synthetic holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desbiens, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    A synthetic hologram is an optical system made of hundreds of images amalgamated in a structure of holographic cells. Each of these images represents a point of view on a three-dimensional space which makes us consider synthetic holography as a multiple points of view perspective system. In the composition of a computer graphics scene for a synthetic hologram, the field of view of the holographic image can be divided into several viewing zones. We can attribute these divisions to any object or image feature independently and operate different transformations on image content. In computer generated holography, we tend to consider content variations as a continuous animation much like a short movie. However, by composing sequential variations of image features in relation with spatial divisions, we can build new narrative forms distinct from linear cinematographic narration. When observers move freely and change their viewing positions, they travel from one field of view division to another. In synthetic holography, metamorphoses of image content are within the observer's path. In all imaging Medias, the transformation of image features in synchronisation with the observer's position is a rare occurrence. However, this is a predominant characteristic of synthetic holography. This paper describes some of my experimental works in the development of metamorphic holographic images.

  2. Potentially toxic concentrations of synthetic pyrethroids associated with low density residential land use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Marshall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Trace organic compounds associated with human activity are now ubiquitous in the environment. As the population becomes more urbanised and the use of pesticides and person care products continues to increase, urban waterways are likely to receive higher loads of trace organic contaminants with unknown ecological consequences. To establish the extent of trace organic contamination in urban runoff, concentrations of emerging chemicals of concern were determined in sediments from 99 urban wetlands in and around Melbourne, Australia between February and April, 2015. As a preliminary estimation of potential risks to aquatic biota, we compared measured concentrations with thresholds for acute and chronic toxicity, and modelled toxic units as a function of demographic and land use trends. The synthetic pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin was common and widespread, and frequently occurred at concentrations likely to cause toxicity to aquatic life. Personal care products DEET and triclosan were common and widely distributed, while the herbicides diuron and prometryn, and the fungicides pyrimethanil and trifloxystrobin occurred less frequently. Toxic unit modelling using random forests found complex and unexpected associations between urban land uses and trace organic concentrations. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides were identified as emerging compounds of concern, particularly bifenthrin. In contrast with previous surveys, the highest bifenthrin concentrations were associated with lower housing and population density, implicating low-density residential land use in bifenthrin contamination. We discuss the implications for pesticide regulation and urban wetland management in a global context.

  3. Can Management Practices Make a Difference? Nonprofit Organization Financial Performance during Times of Economic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QIAN HU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis presented unprecedented challenges to nonprofit organizations to sustain their services. In this study, we examined both financial and management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations during times of economic stress. In particular, we investigated whether strategic planning and plan implementation, revenue diversification, and board involvement help nonprofit organizations deal with financial uncertainty and strengthen financial performance. Despite the negative impacts that the economic downturn had on nonprofit organizations, we found that the implementation of strategic plans can help nonprofit organizations reduce financial vulnerability. Our findings call attention to key management factors that influence the financial performance of nonprofit organizations.

  4. Multiply-Imputed Synthetic Data: Advice to the Imputer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loong Bronwyn

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Several statistical agencies have started to use multiply-imputed synthetic microdata to create public-use data in major surveys. The purpose of doing this is to protect the confidentiality of respondents’ identities and sensitive attributes, while allowing standard complete-data analyses of microdata. A key challenge, faced by advocates of synthetic data, is demonstrating that valid statistical inferences can be obtained from such synthetic data for non-confidential questions. Large discrepancies between observed-data and synthetic-data analytic results for such questions may arise because of uncongeniality; that is, differences in the types of inputs available to the imputer, who has access to the actual data, and to the analyst, who has access only to the synthetic data. Here, we discuss a simple, but possibly canonical, example of uncongeniality when using multiple imputation to create synthetic data, which specifically addresses the choices made by the imputer. An initial, unanticipated but not surprising, conclusion is that non-confidential design information used to impute synthetic data should be released with the confidential synthetic data to allow users of synthetic data to avoid possible grossly conservative inferences.

  5. History, Progress and New Results in Synthetic Passive Element Design Employing CFTAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Koton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After the presentation of the Current Follower Transconductance Amplifier (CFTA active element, it has found a numerous application possibilities while designing linear and non-linear analog function blocks. This paper gives a short review of the CFTA and mainly focuses on the synthetic floating and grounded passive element design, which can also be electronically controllable. Except the design of synthetic inductors, also possible realizations of floating and grounded capacitors and resistors are described, where the value of these passive elements can be adjusted by means of active elements’ parameters. For the design of the corresponding circuit realizations, the Mason-Coates signal flow graph approach is used. The performance of some discussed synthetic elements is verified and  evaluated by Spice simulations on simple analog frequency filters.

  6. Surface modification of polyester synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane by atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C. W.; Kwong, C. H.; Ng, S. P.

    2015-08-01

    Much works have been done on synthetic materials but scarcely on synthetic leather owing to its surface structures in terms of porosity and roughness. This paper examines the use of atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment for improving the surface performance of polyester synthetic leather by use of a precursor, tetramethylsilane (TMS). Plasma deposition is regarded as an effective, simple and single-step method with low pollution. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirm the deposition of organosilanes on the sample's surface. The results showed that under a particular combination of treatment parameters, a hydrophobic surface was achieved on the APP treated sample with sessile drop static contact angle of 138°. The hydrophobic surface is stable without hydrophilic recovery 30 days after plasma treatment.

  7. The Underexplored Role of Managing Interdependencies Fit in Organization Design and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Caspin-Wagner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We argue that research on interdependencies fit is an underexplored variable in strategy and organization research and is the missing variable that differentiates the performance of “built to last” organizations from the rest. Interdependencies fit relates to how well activities and processes within the organization or between the organization and its environment mutually reinforce one another. We suggest that the major reason underlying variation in firm performance may be rooted in differences of whether and how firms manage interdependencies within and across an organization’s strategic activities. Progress on researching interdependencies fit could be realized by focusing on strategically important activities, and the research challenge is to identify the unobservable processes and routines that underlie interdependencies fit.

  8. 77 FR 33290 - National Organic Program (NOP); Sunset Review (2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... resistance in human pathogens; (ii) inconsistency with the prohibition on antibiotic use in organic livestock... synthetic substances that may be used in organic production and nonsynthetic (natural) substances that are prohibited in organic crop and livestock production. The National List also identifies nonagricultural...

  9. Novel organic semiconductors and dielectric materials for high performance and low-voltage organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Myung-Han

    Two novel classes of organic semiconductors based on perfluoroarene/arene-modified oligothiophenes and perfluoroacyl/acyl-derivatized quaterthiophens are developed. The frontier molecular orbital energies of these compounds are studied by optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry while solid-state/film properties are investigated by thermal analysis, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) performance parameters are discussed in terms of the interplay between semiconductor molecular energetics and film morphologies/microstructures. For perfluoroarene-thiophene oligomer systems, majority charge carrier type and mobility exhibit a strong correlation with the regiochemistry of perfluoroarene incorporation. In quaterthiophene-based semiconductors, carbonyl-functionalization allows tuning of the majority carrier type from p-type to ambipolar and to n-type. In situ conversion of a p-type semiconducting film to n-type film is also demonstrated. Very thin self-assembled or spin-on organic dielectric films have been integrated into OTFTs to achieve 1 - 2 V operating voltages. These new dielectrics are deposited either by layer-by-layer solution phase deposition of molecular precursors or by spin-coating a mixture of polymer and crosslinker, resulting in smooth and virtually pinhole-free thin films having exceptionally large capacitances (300--700 nF/cm2) and low leakage currents (10 -9 - 10-7 A/cm2). These organic dielectrics are compatible with various vapor- or solution-deposited p- and n-channel organic semiconductors. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that spin-on crosslinked-polymer-blend dielectrics can be employed for large-area/patterned electronics, and complementary inverters. A general approach for probing semiconductor-dielectric interface effects on OTFT performance parameters using bilayer gate dielectrics is presented. Organic semiconductors having p-, n-type, or ambipolar majority charge carriers are grown on

  10. Synthetic biology to access and expand nature’s chemical diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smanski, Michael J.; Zhou, Hui; Claesen, Jan; Shen, Ben; Fischbach, Michael; Voigt, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial genomes encode the biosynthetic potential to produce hundreds of thousands of complex molecules with diverse applications, from medicine to agriculture and materials. Economically accessing the potential encoded within sequenced genomes promises to reinvigorate waning drug discovery pipelines and provide novel routes to intricate chemicals. This is a tremendous undertaking, as the pathways often comprise dozens of genes spanning as much as 100+ kiliobases of DNA, are controlled by complex regulatory networks, and the most interesting molecules are made by non-model organisms. Advances in synthetic biology address these issues, including DNA construction technologies, genetic parts for precision expression control, synthetic regulatory circuits, computer aided design, and multiplexed genome engineering. Collectively, these technologies are moving towards an era when chemicals can be accessed en mass based on sequence information alone. This will enable the harnessing of metagenomic data and massive strain banks for high-throughput molecular discovery and, ultimately, the ability to forward design pathways to complex chemicals not found in nature. PMID:26876034

  11. Plant synthetic biology for molecular engineering of signalling and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemhauser, Jennifer L; Torii, Keiko U

    2016-03-02

    Molecular genetic studies of model plants in the past few decades have identified many key genes and pathways controlling development, metabolism and environmental responses. Recent technological and informatics advances have led to unprecedented volumes of data that may uncover underlying principles of plants as biological systems. The newly emerged discipline of synthetic biology and related molecular engineering approaches is built on this strong foundation. Today, plant regulatory pathways can be reconstituted in heterologous organisms to identify and manipulate parameters influencing signalling outputs. Moreover, regulatory circuits that include receptors, ligands, signal transduction components, epigenetic machinery and molecular motors can be engineered and introduced into plants to create novel traits in a predictive manner. Here, we provide a brief history of plant synthetic biology and significant recent examples of this approach, focusing on how knowledge generated by the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana has contributed to the rapid rise of this new discipline, and discuss potential future directions.

  12. Effects of Supply Chain Risk Management on Organization Performance: Case of Andy Forwarders Services Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Wanjiru Munyuko

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the effects of Supply chain risk management on organization performance. Previous studies have focused on risk management within the general context of an organization but little attention has been focused on how supply chain risk affect organization performance in terms of its bottom line profits and overall organization objectives. Particular attention was paid to the effects of supply chain risk management variables to the performance of the org...

  13. X-ray studies of synthetic radiation-counting diamonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Moore, Moreton (Royal Holloway and Bedford New Coll., Egham (UK). Dept. of Physics); Makepeace, Anthony (Bristol Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physiology)

    1990-10-01

    Synthetic diamonds with a nitrogen content less than 100 ppm may be used as radiation dosemeters in a conduction counting mode, and are especially useful in medical applications. Crystal imperfections, revealed by x-ray diffraction topography, were found to affect counting performance. The best quality diamond gave the highest photocurrent (500 nA at 50 V mm{sup -1} and 2.75 Gy min{sup -1}). Diamonds containing dislocations had lower photocurrents but had the advantage of shorter settling times (seconds rather than minutes). Placing contacts on two opposite cube {l brace}100{r brace} faces gave a higher photocurrent than on a pair of octahedral {l brace}111{r brace} faces. Higher photocurrents were also achieved when the majority of dislocations were perpendicular rather than parallel, to the electric field. Some recommendations for selecting synthetic diamonds for dosemeters are given. (author).

  14. Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impinging jet study of the deposition of colloidal particles on synthetic polymer (Zeonor)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlček, Jakub; Lapčík, Lubomír; Cech, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    In this study, an impinging jet deposition experiments were performed on synthetic polymer (Zeonor) original and by micro-embossing modified substrates with exactly defined topology as confirmed by AFM and SEM. Deposition experiments were performed at ambient temperature and at selected flow regi...

  16. Intramolecular Diels-Alder Reactions in Organic Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Sizemore, Nicholas Blandford Luke

    2014-01-01

    Intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) reactions are an important class of reactions in synthetic organic chemistry for the rapid construction of polycyclic frameworks. Three classes of IMDA reactions were investigated synthetically and computationally: 1) all-carbon type 1 IMDA reactions, 2) N-acylnitroso type 2 IMDA reactions, and 3) cyano-azadiene IMDA reactions. The first class was implemented in research toward the total synthesis of maoecrystal Z and isopalhinine A. The second class was stud...

  17. CERTIFICATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR RICE PRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedik Budianta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To make better the life, it is required safety foods for health. The health foods can be satisfied by organic farming. Organic farming is farming system based on biomass recycling or eliminating the use of materials as a synthetic agrochemical inputs. To determine whether the result of rice called as an organic product needs to be certified by the Organic Certification Board (OCB. According to the Indonesian National Standard (INS 6729: 2013, organic farming systems (OFS are not only limited to not use material agrochemical synthetic, but must meet the requirements of OFS in rice production ranging from cultivating, handling, storage, processing, transportation, labeling, marketing, production facilities and other materials that are allowed start on farm to off farm should be separated from conventional agriculture. The farm is just a negate the use of synthetic agrochemicals without regard to the cultivation process and the system of post-harvest organic results are said to be premium food which is not as organic food, because organic food is food produced from OFS by applying processing practices to preserve the ecosystem of sustainable, control of weeds, pests, diseases, selection and crop rotation, water management, land preparation and planting and the use of biological materials. Thus the system of organic agriculture is a holistic management system to improve and develop the agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. The first step that must be done is the conversion of land for food crops from anorganic to organic farming for 2 years did not get the requisite amount of agrochemical applied to the soil for annual crop and 3 years for perennial crops. If agriculture in paddy soil can control the conventional farms into OFS, then the resulting rice is as an organic product.

  18. LVQ-SMOTE - Learning Vector Quantization based Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique for biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Munehiro; Kajiwara, Yusuke; Otsuka, Atsushi; Kimura, Haruhiko

    2013-10-02

    Over-sampling methods based on Synthetic Minority Over-sampling Technique (SMOTE) have been proposed for classification problems of imbalanced biomedical data. However, the existing over-sampling methods achieve slightly better or sometimes worse result than the simplest SMOTE. In order to improve the effectiveness of SMOTE, this paper presents a novel over-sampling method using codebooks obtained by the learning vector quantization. In general, even when an existing SMOTE applied to a biomedical dataset, its empty feature space is still so huge that most classification algorithms would not perform well on estimating borderlines between classes. To tackle this problem, our over-sampling method generates synthetic samples which occupy more feature space than the other SMOTE algorithms. Briefly saying, our over-sampling method enables to generate useful synthetic samples by referring to actual samples taken from real-world datasets. Experiments on eight real-world imbalanced datasets demonstrate that our proposed over-sampling method performs better than the simplest SMOTE on four of five standard classification algorithms. Moreover, it is seen that the performance of our method increases if the latest SMOTE called MWMOTE is used in our algorithm. Experiments on datasets for β-turn types prediction show some important patterns that have not been seen in previous analyses. The proposed over-sampling method generates useful synthetic samples for the classification of imbalanced biomedical data. Besides, the proposed over-sampling method is basically compatible with basic classification algorithms and the existing over-sampling methods.

  19. Inelastic neutron scattering from synthetic and biological polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron elastic and inelastic scattering measurements have provided many unique insights into structure, and by reviewing progress on synthetics, important differences likely to arise in biological systems are identified and a direction for studies of the latter is suggested. By neutron inelastic scattering it is possible to measure the frequency of thermally excited interatomic and intermolecular vibrations in crystals. With perfect organic and inorganic crystals the technique is now classical and has given great insight into the crystal forces responsible for the observed structures as well as the phase transitions they undergo. The study of polymer crystals immediately presents two problems of disorder: (1) Macroscopic disorder arises because the sample is a mixture of amorphous and crystalline fractions, and it may be acute enough to inhibit growth of a single crystal large enough for neutron studies. (2) Microscopic disorder in the packing of polymer chains in the ''crystalline'' regions is indicated by broadening of Bragg peaks. Both types of disorder problem arise in biological systems. The methods by which they were partially overcome to allow neutron measurements with synthetic polymers are described but first a classical example of the determination of interatomic forces by inelastic neutron scattering is given

  20. Cell-free synthetic biology: thinking outside the cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    Cell-free synthetic biology is emerging as a powerful approach aimed to understand, harness, and expand the capabilities of natural biological systems without using intact cells. Cell-free systems bypass cell walls and remove genetic regulation to enable direct access to the inner workings of the cell. The unprecedented level of control and freedom of design, relative to in vivo systems, has inspired the rapid development of engineering foundations for cell-free systems in recent years. These efforts have led to programmed circuits, spatially organized pathways, co-activated catalytic ensembles, rational optimization of synthetic multi-enzyme pathways, and linear scalability from the micro-liter to the 100-liter scale. It is now clear that cell-free systems offer a versatile test-bed for understanding why nature's designs work the way they do and also for enabling biosynthetic routes to novel chemicals, sustainable fuels, and new classes of tunable materials. While challenges remain, the emergence of cell-free systems is poised to open the way to novel products that until now have been impractical, if not impossible, to produce by other means. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.