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Sample records for performing high-intensity intervals

  1. High-intensity interval training and athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Lynne; Seo, Myong-Won; Kim, Hyun-Bae; Jung, Hyun C; Song, Jong K

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance in Taekwondo athletes. Thirty-three male and female collegiate Taekwondo athletes were randomly divided into a HIIT group (N.=16) or a high-intensity continuous running (HICR) group (N.=17). The HIIT group undertook training of high-intensity sprints interspersed with active rest periods whilst the HICR group participated in high-intensity running for a continuous period. Both groups completed 11 sessions over 4 weeks. Physique, body composition, Wingate anaerobic test and VO2max test were measured. The vertical jump test, agility T-test and sit-ups were used to assess physical fitness. Repeated measures ANCOVAs with sex as a covariate were applied and significant level was set at 0.05. Following 11 sessions of training, significant improvements in anaerobic peak power (Ptraining, specifically the influence of training intensity on anaerobic capacity.

  2. Effects of high-intensity interval cycling performed after resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy.

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    Tsitkanou, S; Spengos, K; Stasinaki, A-N; Zaras, N; Bogdanis, G; Papadimas, G; Terzis, G

    2017-11-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval cycling performed immediately after resistance training would inhibit muscle strength increase and hypertrophy expected from resistance training per se. Twenty-two young men were assigned into either resistance training (RE; N = 11) or resistance training plus high-intensity interval cycling (REC; N = 11). Lower body muscle strength and rate of force development (RFD), quadriceps cross-sectional area (CSA) and vastus lateralis muscle architecture, muscle fiber type composition and capillarization, and estimated aerobic capacity were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of training (2 times per week). Muscle strength and quadriceps CSA were significantly and similarly increased after both interventions. Fiber CSA increased significantly and similarly after both RE (type I: 13.6 ± 3.7%, type IIA: 17.6 ± 4.4%, type IIX: 23.2 ± 5.7%, P high-intensity interval cycling performed after heavy-resistance exercise may not inhibit resistance exercise-induced muscle strength/hypertrophy after 2 months of training, while it prompts aerobic capacity and muscle capillarization. The addition of high-intensity cycling after heavy-resistance exercise may decrease RFD partly due to muscle architectural changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. High-intensity cycle interval training improves cycling and running performance in triathletes.

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    Etxebarria, Naroa; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B; Ferguson, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Effective cycle training for triathlon is a challenge for coaches. We compared the effects of two variants of cycle high-intensity interval training (HIT) on triathlon-specific cycling and running. Fourteen moderately-trained male triathletes ([Formula: see text]O2peak 58.7 ± 8.1 mL kg(-1) min(-1); mean ± SD) completed on separate occasions a maximal incremental test ([Formula: see text]O2peak and maximal aerobic power), 16 × 20 s cycle sprints and a 1-h triathlon-specific cycle followed immediately by a 5 km run time trial. Participants were then pair-matched and assigned randomly to either a long high-intensity interval training (LONG) (6-8 × 5 min efforts) or short high-intensity interval training (SHORT) (9-11 × 10, 20 and 40 s efforts) HIT cycle training intervention. Six training sessions were completed over 3 weeks before participants repeated the baseline testing. Both groups had an ∼7% increase in [Formula: see text]O2peak (SHORT 7.3%, ±4.6%; mean, ±90% confidence limits; LONG 7.5%, ±1.7%). There was a moderate improvement in mean power for both the SHORT (10.3%, ±4.4%) and LONG (10.7%, ±6.8%) groups during the last eight 20-s sprints. There was a small to moderate decrease in heart rate, blood lactate and perceived exertion in both groups during the 1-h triathlon-specific cycling but only the LONG group had a substantial decrease in the subsequent 5-km run time (64, ±59 s). Moderately-trained triathletes should use both short and long high-intensity intervals to improve cycling physiology and performance. Longer 5-min intervals on the bike are more likely to benefit 5 km running performance.

  4. High-intensity interval training has positive effects on performance in ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimo, M A; de Souza, E O; Wilson, J M; Carpenter, A L; Gilchrist, P; Lowery, R P; Averbuch, B; White, T M; Joy, J

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the well-known benefits that have been shown, few studies have looked at the practical applications of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on athletic performance. This study investigated the effects of a HIIT program compared to traditional continuous endurance exercise training. 24 hockey players were randomly assigned to either a continuous or high-intensity interval group during a 4-week training program. The interval group (IG) was involved in a periodized HIIT program. The continuous group (CG) performed moderate intensity cycling for 45-60 min at an intensity that was 65% of their calculated heart rate reserve. Body composition, muscle thickness, anaerobic power, and on-ice measures were assessed pre- and post-training. Muscle thickness was significantly greater in IG (p=0.01) when compared to CG. The IG had greater values for both ∆ peak power (p<0.003) and ∆ mean power (p<0.02). Additionally, IG demonstrated a faster ∆ sprint (p<0.02) and a trend (p=0.08) for faster ∆ endurance test time to completion for IG. These results indicate that hockey players may utilize short-term HIIT to elicit positive effects in muscle thickness, power and on-ice performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Five Weeks of Sprint and High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Paddling Performance in Adolescent Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Oliver R L; Secomb, Josh L; Parsonage, Joanna R; Lundgren, Lina E; Abbiss, Chris R; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2016-09-01

    Farley, ORL, Secomb, JL, Parsonage, JR, Lundgren, LE, Abbiss, CR, and Sheppard, JM. Five weeks of sprint and high-intensity interval training improves paddling performance in adolescent surfers. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2446-2452, 2016-The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of sprint interval training (SIT; 10 seconds) and high-intensity interval training (HIT; 30 seconds) on surfing athletes paddling performance (400-m time trial and repeat-sprint paddle performance). Twenty-four competitive adolescent surfers (19 male, 5 female; age = 14.4 ± 1.3 years, mass: 50.1 ± 10.7 kg, and stature: 159.9 ± 10.3 cm) were assigned to perform either 5 weeks of SIT and HIT. Participants completed a repeated-sprint paddle ability test (RSPT, 15-m surfboard sprint paddle initiated every 40 seconds × 10 bouts) and 400-m endurance surfboard paddle time trial before and after training. High-intensity interval training decreased the total time to complete the 400 m by 15.8 ± 16.1 seconds (p = 0.03), and SIT decreased the total time to complete the RSPT by 6.5 ± 4.3 seconds (p = 0.02). Fatigue index during the RSPT (first-slowest effort) was lower after HIT and SIT (p ≤ 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). There were no significant differences in performance changes in the 400 m (total time) and RSPT (total time, fastest 15 m time, and peak velocity) between HIT and SIT. Our study indicates that HIT and SIT may be implemented to the training program of surfers to improve aerobic and repeat-sprint paddle ability, both of which are identified as key aspects of the sport. In addition, these findings indicate that 400-m paddle and RSPT can discriminate between aerobic and anaerobic training adaptations, with aerobic gains likely from HIT and anaerobic gains from SIT.

  6. EFFECTS OF ISCHEMIC PRECONDITIONING ON HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY ON BADMINTON PLAYERS

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    Veli Volkan Gürses

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ischemic preconditioning (IPC on high intensity interval training and recovery parameters on badminton players. Sixteen well trained badminton players (male n= 10, female n=6 age: 18.90 ± 0.99, 20.33 ± 1.75 years; height: 176.50 ± 5.42, 159.33 ± 3.61 cm; body weight: 72.55 ± 7.93, 54.93 ± 4.53 kg; systolic blood pressure: 12.30 ± 1.15, 11.16 ± 1.47 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure: 7.80 ± 1.22, 7.66 ± 0.81 mmHg voluntarily participated in the study. All participant were able to complete all trails. A randomized crossover study design was performed to investigate the acute effect of IPC on high intensity interval training performance and recovery. The Wingate Style high intensity interval training (HIIT workout was conducted as generate to physiological fatigue. The HIIT protocol was involved 30 seconds of “all-out” cycling 3 times with 4 minutes rest against a high resistance which participants 7.5% of body weight. Relative Peak Power (PP, Relative Mean Power (MP and Power Drop (PD% were evaluated for every repeated trails to execute HITT performance. Rested; hearth rate (HR, blood lactate concentration (BLAC and blood pressure (BP values were evaluated. HR, BLAC and BP values were measured after, 12 and 30 minute after exhaustion. IPC were conducted 3 set × 5 min 220 mmHg. 72 hours rest was given between measurements. Nonparametric Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test used to determine the effect of IPC on performance and recovery parameters. All data were processed at the significance level p.05. The impact of IPC were -6.5%, -5.8% and 24.5% were respectively. According to these results it is assumed that IPC applications seems to be not effective method as enhancing performance in badminton players.

  7. Multimodal high-intensity interval training increases muscle function and metabolic performance in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Stephanie; Knapp, Kelly; Lackie, Amy; Lewry, Colin; Horvey, Karla; Benko, Chad; Trinh, Jason; Butcher, Scotty

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient method of improving aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity. In most individuals, however, HIIT using modalities such as cycling, running, and rowing does not typically result in increased muscle strength, power, or endurance. The purpose of this study is to compare the physiological outcomes of traditional HIIT using rowing (Row-HIIT) with a novel multimodal HIIT (MM-HIIT) circuit incorporating multiple modalities, including strength exercises, within an interval. Twenty-eight recreationally active women (age 24.7 ± 5.4 years) completed 6 weeks of either Row-HIIT or MM-HIIT and were tested on multiple fitness parameters. MM-HIIT and Row-HIIT resulted in similar improvements (p HIIT group had significant (p HIIT group had no increase in any muscle performance variable (p values 0.33-0.90). Post-training, 1-repetition maximum (1RM) squat (64.2 ± 13.6 vs. 45.8 ± 16.2 kg, p = 0.02), 1RM press (33.2 ± 3.8 vs. 26.0 ± 9.6 kg, p = 0.01), and squat endurance (23.9 ± 12.3 vs. 10.2 ± 5.6 reps, p HIIT group than in the Row-HIIT group. MM-HIIT resulted in similar aerobic and anaerobic adaptations but greater muscle performance increases than Row-HIIT in recreationally active women.

  8. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Physical Performance and Frailty in Aged Mice.

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    Seldeen, Kenneth Ladd; Lasky, Ginger; Leiker, Merced Marie; Pang, Manhui; Personius, Kirkwood Ely; Troen, Bruce Robert

    2018-03-14

    Sarcopenia and frailty are highly prevalent in older individuals, increasing the risk of disability and loss of independence. High intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide a robust intervention for both sarcopenia and frailty by achieving both strength and endurance benefits with lower time commitments than other exercise regimens. To better understand the impacts of HIIT during aging, we compared 24-month-old C57BL/6J sedentary mice with those that were administered 10-minute uphill treadmill HIIT sessions three times per week over 16 weeks. Baseline and end point assessments included body composition, physical performance, and frailty based on criteria from the Fried physical frailty scale. HIIT-trained mice demonstrated dramatic improvement in grip strength (HIIT 10.9% vs -3.9% in sedentary mice), treadmill endurance (32.6% vs -2.0%), and gait speed (107.0% vs 39.0%). Muscles from HIIT mice also exhibited greater mass, larger fiber size, and an increase in mitochondrial biomass. Furthermore, HIIT exercise led to a dramatic reduction in frailty scores in five of six mice that were frail or prefrail at baseline, with four ultimately becoming nonfrail. The uphill treadmill HIIT exercise sessions were well tolerated by aged mice and led to performance gains, improvement in underlying muscle physiology, and reduction in frailty.

  9. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training with Blood Restriction on Anaerobic Performance

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    Amir Behi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Limiting venous blood flow restriction is a new approach of  training aims to improving high level of performance among athletes, which has shown prominent results at muscle hypotrophy and strength. KAATSU[1] is a training system including pressure belt imposed on the proximal part of the upper and lower bodies. The present study aims to investigate the effect of HIIT Kaatsu trainings on anaerobic performance among young athletes. The present quasi experimental research was conducted through a pre-test and post-test and three groups including KAATSU intensive interval exercises (n=11, intense interval exercise (n=9 and a control group (n=10. The exercises included running distances of 20 and 40 meters. In the beginning of the protocol most of the exercises was in short distances and as the sessions proceeded, the number of the sets and repetitions increased and it reached to its highest intensity in the last session. During the exercise protocol, intensity of training was considered to be the highest running speed and based on their abilities each individual tried to run as fast as possible. The exercise load was defined based on repetitions and the sets. In the 20 meters distances, the participants took a ten second rest after each repetition and a one minute rest after each set and in 40 meters distances; Subjects took a 20 second rest after each repetition and 2 minute rest between sets. The control group did not performed any of the mentioned exercises. Moreover, before and after four weeks of training the individuals were given RAST and Anaerobic Biking Wingate Test. Statistical result has been shown, there is a significant change between the maximum anaerobic power in Wingate biking test after four weeks within KAATSU intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 and intensive interval (P≥ 0.05 groups, but no significant change was detected in the control group (P> 0.05.  The statistical analysis of this research has been shown that there is

  10. [Secondary Full Title: Effects of high intensity interval training in plain and uphill regarding physical performance].

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    Marterer, Natalie; Menz, Verena; Burtscher, Martin

    2018-04-05

     As the number of HIITs is increasing in competitive and non-competitive sports, the risk of injuries and overload is increasing. There are no scientific data to support specific recommendations in regard to intensity, duration, number of intervals and gradient for HIIT that result in improved muscular parameters in athletes. Therefore the aim of this study was to compare HIIT in plain and uphill exercise, with respect to exercise tolerance and improvements in performance (VO 2max and 800 m running time in the plain and uphill).  17 well-trained sport students (10 females, 7 males; Ø VO 2max : 53.7 ml/min/kg) were randomly assigned to the plain group (plain; GE) (n = 8) or the uphill group (hill, GB) (n = 9). In the four weeks of training, all subjects completed 14 HIIT sessions. Each session consisted of 8 × 2 min running at 90 - 95 % of the maximal heart rate (HR max ), separated by 2 min recovery periods (work/rest ratio: 1:1). Before the intervention phase, subjects performed treadmill spirometry, a 800 m field test in the plain, as well as an 800 m uphill field test to determine baseline performance. One week after the intervention period, all subjects completed a retest of all measurements and tests. After the intervention, all subjects completed a questionnaire by giving their level of perceived exertion during training, using the BORG scale.  In GE, three subjects dropped out of the study because of overtraining. In GB, two subjects did not complete the study because of time constraints. The evaluation of the perceived exertion of the training in flat terrain showed a trend (p = 0.08; t = - 1.96) towards being perceived as more exhausting then in hilly terrain. A four week HIIT showed significant improvements in VO 2max by 5.2 % (p = 0.02; t = - 2.76), and a reduction in the running time in the plain by 4.6 % (p = 0.01; t = 3.48) and uphill by 6.3 % (p = 0.02; t = 2.77). No

  11. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-Based Running Plan Improves Athletic Performance by Improving Muscle Power.

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    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Cámara-Pérez, Jose C; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2017-01-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Cámara-Pérez, JC, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. A High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)-based running plan improves athletic performance by improving muscle power. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 146-153, 2017-This study aimed to examine the effect of a 5-week high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT)-based running plan on athletic performance and to compare the physiological and neuromuscular responses during a sprint-distance triathlon before and after the HIIT period. Thirteen triathletes were matched into 2 groups: the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG). The CG was asked to maintain their normal training routines, whereas the EG maintained only their swimming and cycling routines and modified their running routine. Participants completed a sprint-distance triathlon before (pretest) and after (posttest) the intervention period. In both pretest and posttest, the participants performed 4 jumping tests: before the race (baseline), postswim, postcycling, and postrun. Additionally, heart rate was monitored (HRmean), whereas rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate accumulation (BLa) were registered after the race. No significant differences (p ≥ 0.05) between groups were found before HIIT intervention (at pretest). Significant group-by-training interactions were found in vertical jumping ability and athletic performance: the EG improved jumping performance (∼6-9%, p ≤ 0.05, effect size (ES) > 0.7), swimming performance (p = 0.013, ES = 0.438), and running time (p = 0.001, ES = 0.667) during the competition, whereas the CG remained unchanged (p ≥ 0.05, ES HIIT-based running plan combined with the high training volumes of these triathletes in swimming and cycling improved athletic performance during a sprint-distance triathlon. This improvement may be due to improved neuromuscular characteristics that were transferred into improved muscle power and work economy.

  12. A PRACTICAL MODEL OF LOW-VOLUME HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING INDUCES PERFORMANCE AND METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS THAT RESEMBLE 'ALL-OUT' SPRINT INTERVAL TRAINING

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    Mahdi Bayati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel type of high-intensity interval training known as sprint interval training has demonstrated increases in aerobic and anaerobic performance with very low time commitment. However, this type of training program is unpractical for general populations. The present study compared the impact of a low-volume high-intensity interval training to a "all-out" sprint interval training. Twenty-four active young males were recruited and randomized into three groups: (G1: 3-5 cycling bouts × 30-s all-out with 4 min recovery; G2: 6- 10 cycling bouts × 125% Pmax with 2 min recovery and a non-trained control group. They all performed a VO2max test, a time to exhaustion at Pmax (Tmax and a Wingate test before and after the intervention. Capillary blood lactate was taken at rest, 3, and 20 min after the Wingate trial. Training was performed 3 sessions per week for 4 weeks. In G1, significant improvements (p < 0.05 following training were found in VO2max (9.6%, power at VO2max (12.8%, Tmax (48.4%, peak power output (10.3% and mean power output (17.1%. In G2, significant improvements following training were found in VO2max (9.7%, power at VO2max (16.1%, Tmax (54.2%, peak power output (7.4%; p < 0.05, but mean power output did not change significantly. Blood lactate recovery (20th min significantly decreased in G1 and G2 when compared with pre-testing and the CON group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the results of the current study agree with earlier work demonstrating the effectiveness of 30-s all-out training program to aerobic and anaerobic adaptations. Of substantial interest is that the low volume high intensity training provides similar results but involves only half the intensity with double the repetitions

  13. High-Intensity Cycling Training: The Effect of Work-to-Rest Intervals on Running Performance Measures.

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    Kavaliauskas, Mykolas; Aspe, Rodrigo R; Babraj, John

    2015-08-01

    The work-to-rest ratio during cycling-based high-intensity interval training (HIT) could be important in regulating physiological and performance adaptations. We sought to determine the effectiveness of cycling-based HIT with different work-to-rest ratios for long-distance running. Thirty-two long-distance runners (age: 39 ± 8 years; sex: 14 men, 18 women; average weekly running training volume: 25 miles) underwent baseline testing (3-km time-trial, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak and time to exhaustion, and Wingate test) before a 2-week matched-work cycling HIT of 6 × 10-second sprints with different rest periods (30 seconds [R30], 80 seconds [R80], 120 seconds [R120], or control). Three-kilometer time trial was significantly improved in the R30 group only (3.1 ± 4.0%, p = 0.04), whereas time to exhaustion was significantly increased in the 2 groups with a lower work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 6.4 ± 6.3%, p = 0.003 vs. R80 group 4.4 ± 2.7%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 1.9 ± 5.0%, p = 0.2). However, improvements in average power production were significantly greater with a higher work-to-rest ratio (R30 group 0.3 ± 4.1%, p = 0.8 vs. R80 group 4.6 ± 4.2%, p = 0.03 vs. R120 group 5.3 ± 5.9%, p = 0.02), whereas peak power significantly increased only in the R80 group (8.5 ± 8.2%, p = 0.04) but not in the R30 group (4.3 ± 6.1%, p = 0.3) or in the R120 group (7.1 ± 7.9%, p = 0.09). Therefore, cycling-based HIT is an effective way to improve running performance, and the type and magnitude of adaptation is dependent on the work-to-rest ratio.

  14. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    de Araujo, Gustavo G.; Papoti, Marcelo; dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A. R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaer...

  15. High intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate production, time trial and competition performance in 9-11 year old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Helleman, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, H. C.; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Open Access - This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the source is credited. Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present s...

  16. High-intensity interval training improves VO2peak, maximal lactate accumulation, time trial and competition performance in 9?11-year-old swimmers

    OpenAIRE

    Sperlich, Billy; Zinner, Christoph; Heilemann, Ilka; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Training volume in swimming is usually very high when compared to the relatively short competition time. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of a 5-week HIIT versus high-volume training (HVT) in 9?11-year-old swimmers on competition performance, 100 and 2,000?m time (T 100?m and T 2,000?m), VO2peak and rate of maximal lactate accumulation (La...

  17. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Robert Acton; Flueck, Daniela; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2013-01-01

    sessions of HIT to determine the mechanisms explaining improvements in exercise performance. Sixteen untrained (43 +/- 6 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)) subjects completed six sessions of repeated (8-12) 60 s intervals of high-intensity cycling (100% peak power output elicited during incremental maximal exercise test...... (similar to 20 P = 0.026), as assessed by cytochrome c oxidase activity. Skeletal muscle deoxygenation also increased while maximal cardiac output, total hemoglobin, plasma volume, total blood volume, and relative measures of peripheral fatigue resistance were all unaltered with training. These results...

  18. Effects of in-season short-term aerobic and high-intensity interval training program on repeated sprint ability and jump performance in handball players.

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    Hermassi, Souhail; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Schwesig, René; Fieseler, Georg; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Chamari, Karim; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a 7-week in-season aerobic and high-intensity interval-training program on performance tests linked to successful handball play (e.g., repeated sprint and jumping ability). Thirty participants (age 17.0±1.2 years, body mass 81.1±3.4 kg, height 1.82±0.07 m) performed a Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1), a squat (SJ) and a Countermovement Jump Test (CMJ), as well as a repeated Sprint Ability Test (RSA). From this, maximal aerobic speed (MAS, reached at the end of the Yo-Yo IR1), jumping ability, best time in a single sprint trial (RSAbest), total time (RSATT) and the performance decrement (RSAdec) during all sprints were calculated. Later, subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (CG; N.=15) performing their normal training schedule (5 weekly sessions of ~90 minutes of handball training) or an experimental group (EG; N.=15). The EG performed two 30 min sessions per week of high-intensity aerobic exercises at 100-130% of MAS in addition to their normal training schedule. A significant improvement in MAS (d=4.1), RSAbest (d=1.9), RSATT (d=1.5) and RSAdec (d=2.3) after the training period was demonstrated. Also, significant interaction effects (time x group) were found for all parameters as the EG significantly improved performances in all tests after training. The greatest interaction effects were observed in MAS (η2=0.811) and CMJ (η2=0.759). No relevant changes in test performances were found in the CG (mean d=-0.02). These results indicate that individually speed-controlled aerobic and interval training is effective for improving specific handball performance.

  19. Short-Term Effects of Combined High-Intensity Strength and Sprint Interval Training on Anthropometric Characteristics and Physical Performance of Elite Team Handball Players.

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    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed Souhail; Fieseler, Georg; Bartels, Thomas; Schulze, Stephan; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shepard, Roy J; Schwesig, René

    2017-12-01

    Muscular strength and speed are critical physical factors in determining the technical and tactical skills of elite team handball players. This study thus investigated the effect of high-intensity muscular strength and sprint interval training (SIT) on lower limb explosive performance and anthropometric characteristics in 22 male handball athletes aged 20.2 ± 0.1 years. A training group (TG, n = 12) and a control group (CG, n = 10) were followed over 8 weeks parallel to regular handball training. The TG received combined additional high-intensity muscular strength and interval training twice per week during this period. The muscular training was comprised of 3 - 4 sets of 70 - 85 % of 1-RM (repetition maximum) of dynamic back half squat exercise; followed immediately by a short sprint program with 4, 5, and 6 maximal intensity repetitions of 30 m runs. Strength (1-RM of the half back-squat and bench press), first step (V1S), first 5 m (V5 m), squat jumps (SJ), counter movement jumps (CMJ) and the Modified Agility Test (MAT) were tested at the beginning and end of the study. Significant interaction effects (group × time) were observed for all parameters (η² range: 0.531 (MAT) to 0.829 (First 5 m)). All 10 parameters showed relevant intervention effects (d> 0.5) in the TG (highest intervention effect: CMJ: d = 4.05), the mean effect size being d = 1.85. In contrast, scores for the CG either remained unchanged or decreased (d = -0.24). We conclude that combined high-intensity strength and sprint interval training during the competitive season should be recommended to elite male handball players as a means of improving handball-related performance characteristics without compromising other critical aspects of the individual's performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial.

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    Smith, Abbie E; Walter, Ashley A; Graef, Jennifer L; Kendall, Kristina L; Moon, Jordan R; Lockwood, Christopher M; Fukuda, David H; Beck, Travis W; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2009-02-11

    Intermittent bouts of high-intensity exercise result in diminished stores of energy substrates, followed by an accumulation of metabolites, promoting chronic physiological adaptations. In addition, beta-alanine has been accepted has an effective physiological hydrogen ion (H+) buffer. Concurrent high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and beta-alanine supplementation may result in greater adaptations than HIIT alone. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of combining beta-alanine supplementation with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on endurance performance and aerobic metabolism in recreationally active college-aged men. Forty-six men (Age: 22.2 +/- 2.7 yrs; Ht: 178.1 +/- 7.4 cm; Wt: 78.7 +/- 11.9; VO2peak: 3.3 +/- 0.59 l.min-1) were assessed for peak O2 utilization (VO2peak), time to fatigue (VO2TTE), ventilatory threshold (VT), and total work done at 110% of pre-training VO2peak (TWD). In a double-blind fashion, all subjects were randomly assigned into one either a placebo (PL - 16.5 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18) or beta-alanine (BA - 1.5 g beta-alanine plus 15 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18) group. All subjects supplemented four times per day (total of 6 g/day) for the first 21-days, followed by two times per day (3 g/day) for the subsequent 21 days, and engaged in a total of six weeks of HIIT training consisting of 5-6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio. Significant improvements in VO2peak, VO2TTE, and TWD after three weeks of training were displayed (p body mass were only significant for the BA group after the second three weeks of training. The use of HIIT to induce significant aerobic improvements is effective and efficient. Chronic BA supplementation may further enhance HIIT, improving endurance performance and lean body mass.

  1. Effects of β-alanine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on endurance performance and body composition in men; a double-blind trial

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    Beck Travis W

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent bouts of high-intensity exercise result in diminished stores of energy substrates, followed by an accumulation of metabolites, promoting chronic physiological adaptations. In addition, β-alanine has been accepted has an effective physiological hydrogen ion (H+ buffer. Concurrent high-intensity interval training (HIIT and β-alanine supplementation may result in greater adaptations than HIIT alone. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of combining β-alanine supplementation with high-intensity interval training (HIIT on endurance performance and aerobic metabolism in recreationally active college-aged men. Methods Forty-six men (Age: 22.2 ± 2.7 yrs; Ht: 178.1 ± 7.4 cm; Wt: 78.7 ± 11.9; VO2peak: 3.3 ± 0.59 l·min-1 were assessed for peak O2 utilization (VO2peak, time to fatigue (VO2TTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done at 110% of pre-training VO2peak (TWD. In a double-blind fashion, all subjects were randomly assigned into one either a placebo (PL – 16.5 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18 or β-alanine (BA – 1.5 g β-alanine plus 15 g dextrose powder per packet; n = 18 group. All subjects supplemented four times per day (total of 6 g/day for the first 21-days, followed by two times per day (3 g/day for the subsequent 21 days, and engaged in a total of six weeks of HIIT training consisting of 5–6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio. Results Significant improvements in VO2peak, VO2TTE, and TWD after three weeks of training were displayed (p 2peak, VO2TTE, TWD and lean body mass were only significant for the BA group after the second three weeks of training. Conclusion The use of HIIT to induce significant aerobic improvements is effective and efficient. Chronic BA supplementation may further enhance HIIT, improving endurance performance and lean body mass.

  2. Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation Does Not Augment Fitness, Performance, or Body Composition Adaptations in Response to Four Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Young Females.

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    Forbes, Scott C; Sletten, Nathan; Durrer, Cody; Myette-Côté, Étienne; Candow, D; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-06-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. Creatine (Cr) supplementation may augment responses to HIIT, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 4 weeks of HIIT (three sessions/week) combined with Cr supplementation in recreationally active females. Seventeen females (age = 23 ± 4 yrs; BMI = 23.4 ± 2.4) were randomly assigned to either Cr (Cr; 0.3 g・kg -1 ・d -1 for 5 d followed by 0.1 g・kg -1 ・d -1 for 23 days; n = 9) or placebo (PLA; n = 8). Before and after the intervention, VO 2peak , ventilatory threshold (VT), time-trial performance, lean body mass and fat mass, and insulin sensitivity were assessed. HIIT improved VO 2peak (Cr = +10.2%; PLA = +8.8%), VT (Cr = +12.7%; PLA = +9.9%), and time-trial performance (Cr = -11.5%; PLA = -11.6%) with no differences between groups (time main effects, all p body lean mass (Cr = +0.5%; PLA = -0.9%), or insulin resistance (Cr = +3.9%; PLA = +18.7%). In conclusion, HIIT is an effective way to improve cardiorespiratory fitness, VT, and time-trial performance. The addition of Cr to HIIT did not augment improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, performance or body composition in recreationally active females.

  3. Effects of long or short duration stimulus during high-intensity interval training on physical performance, energy intake, and body composition.

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    Alves, Elaine Domingues; Salermo, Gabriela Pires; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of 6 weeks of long or short high-intensity interval training (long- or short-HIIT) on body composition, hunger perception, food intake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty previously untrained women (25±5 years) were randomly assigned to do a long-HIIT (n=10) or a short-HIIT (n=10). The long-HIIT group performed fifteen 1-min bouts at 90% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), interspersed by 30-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The short-HIIT group performed forty-five 20-sec bouts at 90% of HRmax, interspersed by 10-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The training for both groups was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks. All subjects performed the Astrand cycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) 1 week before and after the training period, as well as body composition, which was estimated through circumferences and skinfold thicknesses. For all training sessions, the heart rate, visual scale of hunger, internal load, and RPE were recorded. In the first and last week of training, subjects were asked to record a 24-hr food diary for 3 days. Both training induced significant pre to post decreases for fat mass, fat percentage, waist circumference, sum of seven skinfolds and RPE. As expected estimated, the VO 2max increased in both groups. There were no differences for hunger perception, energy intake, and body mass. Long and short-HIIT resulted in fat loss, without altering the energy intake.

  4. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance.

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    Cochran, Andrew J; Myslik, Frank; MacInnis, Martin J; Percival, Michael E; Bishop, David; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups. On each of 6 days over 2 weeks, subjects completed two training sessions, each consisting of 5 × 4-min cycling intervals (60% of peak power), interspersed by 2 min of recovery. Subjects ingested either 195 g of CHO (HI-HI group: ~2.3 g/kg) or 17 g of CHO (HI-LO group: ~0.3 g/kg) during the 3-hr period between sessions. The training-induced improvement in 250-kJ time trial performance was greater (p = .02) in the HI-LO group (211 ± 66 W to 244 ± 75 W) compared with the HI-HI group (203 ± 53 W to 219 ± 60 W); however, the increases in mitochondrial content was similar between groups, as reflected by similar increases in citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein content and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV protein content (p > .05 for interaction terms). This is the first study to show that a short-term "train low, compete high" intervention can improve whole-body exercise capacity. Further research is needed to determine whether this type of manipulation can also enhance performance in highly-trained subjects.

  5. High Intensity High Volume Interval Training Improves Endurance Performance and Induces a Nearly Complete Slow-to-Fast Fiber Transformation on the mRNA Level

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    Julian Eigendorf

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We present here a longitudinal study determining the effects of two 3 week-periods of high intensity high volume interval training (HIHVT (90 intervals of 6 s cycling at 250% maximum power, Pmax/24 s on a cycle ergometer. HIHVT was evaluated by comparing performance tests before and after the entire training (baseline, BSL, and endpoint, END and between the two training sets (intermediate, INT. The mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC isoforms and markers of energy metabolism were analyzed in M. vastus lateralis biopsies by quantitative real-time PCR. In incremental tests peak power (Ppeak was increased, whereas V˙O2peak was unaltered. Prolonged time-to-exhaustion was found in endurance tests with 65 and 80% Pmax at INT and END. No changes in blood levels of lipid metabolites were detected. Training-induced decreases of hematocrit indicate hypervolemia. A shift from slow MHCI/β to fast MHCIIa mRNA expression occurred after the first and second training set. The mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α, a master regulator of oxidative energy metabolism, decreased after the second training set. In agreement, a significant decrease was also found for citrate synthase mRNA after the second training set, indicating reduced oxidative capacity. However, mRNA expression levels of glycolytic marker enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not change after the first and second training set. HIHVT induced a nearly complete slow-to-fast fiber type transformation on the mRNA level, which, however, cannot account for the improvements of performance parameters. The latter might be explained by the well-known effects of hypervolemia on exercise performance.

  6. Effects of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training on aerobic and repeated sprint performance and peripheral muscle oxygenation changes in elite junior basketball players.

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    Delextrat, A; Gruet, M; Bieuzen, F

    2018-03-06

    The aim of the current study was to compare the effects of 6 weeks of small-sided game (SSG) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on aerobic fitness and muscle oxygenation during a repeated sprint (RS) sequence in elite male junior basketball players. Twenty participants (14.3 ± 0.5 years; 176.8 ± 12.5 cm; 74.5 ± 9.8 kg) performed pre- and post-tests interspersed by 6-weeks of SSG or HIIT training. Testing sessions consisted of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test and a RS sequence (two bouts of 15-s). During RS, muscle oxygenation parameters (tissue saturation index (TSI, %), post-sprint muscle reoxygenation rate) were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The results showed that both training interventions similarly improved maximal aerobic speed (VIFT, 3.4 and 4.1%, respectively for HIIT and SSG, Ptraining interventions also resulted in a greater ΔTSI during the second sprint (47.8% to 114%, Ptrainings are applicable methodologies to improve in-season aerobic and anaerobic fitness capacities in junior basketball players.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training for Improving Postprandial Hyperglycemia

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    Little, Jonathan P.; Francois, Monique E.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has garnered attention in recent years as a time-efficient exercise option for improving cardiovascular and metabolic health. New research demonstrates that HIIT may be particularly effective for improving postprandial hyperglycemia in individuals with, or at risk for, type 2 diabetes (T2D). These findings…

  8. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

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    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  9. Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Allan Inoue

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT and sprint interval training (SIT on mountain biking (MTB race simulation performance and physiological variables, including peak power output (PPO, lactate threshold (LT and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA.Sixteen mountain bikers (mean ± SD: age 32.1 ± 6.4 yr, body mass 69.2 ± 5.3 kg and VO2max 63.4 ± 4.5 mL∙kg(-1∙min(-1 completed graded exercise and MTB performance tests before and after six weeks of training. The HIT (7-10 x [4-6 min--highest sustainable intensity / 4-6 min-CR100 10-15] and SIT (8-12 x [30 s--all-out intensity / 4 min--CR100 10-15] protocols were included in the participants' regular training programs three times per week.Post-training analysis showed no significant differences between training modalities (HIT vs. SIT in body mass, PPO, LT or OBLA (p = 0.30 to 0.94. The Cohen's d effect size (ES showed trivial to small effects on group factor (p = 0.00 to 0.56. The interaction between MTB race time and training modality was almost significant (p = 0.08, with a smaller ES in HIT vs. SIT training (ES = -0.43. A time main effect (pre- vs. post-phases was observed in MTB race performance and in several physiological variables (p = 0.001 to 0.046. Co-variance analysis revealed that the HIT (p = 0.043 group had significantly better MTB race performance measures than the SIT group. Furthermore, magnitude-based inferences showed HIT to be of likely greater benefit (83.5% with a lower probability of harmful effects (0.8% compared to SIT.The results of the current study suggest that six weeks of either HIT or SIT may be effective at increasing MTB race performance; however, HIT may be a preferable strategy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01944865.

  10. Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Allan; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Pires, Flávio O; Pompeu, Fernando A M S; Deslandes, Andrea C; Santos, Tony M

    2016-01-01

    The current study compared the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on mountain biking (MTB) race simulation performance and physiological variables, including peak power output (PPO), lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). Sixteen mountain bikers (mean ± SD: age 32.1 ± 6.4 yr, body mass 69.2 ± 5.3 kg and VO2max 63.4 ± 4.5 mL∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) completed graded exercise and MTB performance tests before and after six weeks of training. The HIT (7-10 x [4-6 min--highest sustainable intensity / 4-6 min-CR100 10-15]) and SIT (8-12 x [30 s--all-out intensity / 4 min--CR100 10-15]) protocols were included in the participants' regular training programs three times per week. Post-training analysis showed no significant differences between training modalities (HIT vs. SIT) in body mass, PPO, LT or OBLA (p = 0.30 to 0.94). The Cohen's d effect size (ES) showed trivial to small effects on group factor (p = 0.00 to 0.56). The interaction between MTB race time and training modality was almost significant (p = 0.08), with a smaller ES in HIT vs. SIT training (ES = -0.43). A time main effect (pre- vs. post-phases) was observed in MTB race performance and in several physiological variables (p = 0.001 to 0.046). Co-variance analysis revealed that the HIT (p = 0.043) group had significantly better MTB race performance measures than the SIT group. Furthermore, magnitude-based inferences showed HIT to be of likely greater benefit (83.5%) with a lower probability of harmful effects (0.8%) compared to SIT. The results of the current study suggest that six weeks of either HIT or SIT may be effective at increasing MTB race performance; however, HIT may be a preferable strategy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01944865.

  11. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men

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    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/ obese and nine normal-weight men (control group aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ, counter-movement jump (CMJ, five-jump test (FJT, 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11 and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23 in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82, VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41, FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52, SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70 and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64 significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16. Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96, LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77 and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08 significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normalweight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  12. Effects of high-intensity interval training on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese and normal-weight young men.

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    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Fradj, Mohamed Kacem Ben; Bezrati, Ikram; Khammassi, Marwa; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-12-01

    To examine the effects of short high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, physical performance and plasma lipids in overweight/obese compared to normal-weight young men. Nine overweight/obese and nine normal-weight men (control group) aged 17 to 20 years underwent a HIIT programme three times per week for eight weeks. Body composition, indices of aerobic [maximal aerobic velocity (MAV) and maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max )] and anaerobic [squat jump (SJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), five-jump test (FJT), 10-m and 30-m sprint] performances, as well as fasting plasma lipids, were assessed in the two groups at PRE and POST HIIT. The HIIT programme resulted in significant reductions in body mass (-1.62%, P=0.016, ES=0.11) and fat mass (-1.59%, P=0.021, ES=0.23) in obese, but not in normal-weight subjects. MAV (+5.55%, P=0.005, ES=0.60 and +2.96%, P=0.009, ES=0.82), VO 2max (+5.27%, P=0.006, ES=0.63 and +2.88%, P=0.009, ES=0.41), FJT (+3.63%, P=0.005, ES=0.28 and +2.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.52), SJ (+4.92%, P=0.009, ES=0.25 and +6.94%, P=0.009, ES=0.70) and CMJ (+6.84%, P=0.014, ES=0.30 and +6.69%, P=0.002, ES=0.64) significantly increased in overweight/obese and normal-weight groups, respectively. 30-m sprint time significantly decreased in both groups (-1.77%, P=0.038, ES=0.12 and -0.72%, P=0.030, ES=0.16). Plasma total cholesterol (-11.8%, P=0.026, ES=0.96), LDL cholesterol (-11.9%, P=0.050, ES=0.77) and triglycerides (-21.3%, P=0.023, ES=1.08) significantly decreased in the obese group, but not in the normal-weight group. The eight-week HIIT programme resulted in a slight improvement in physical fitness and a significant decrease in plasma lipids in the obese. Short duration HIIT may contribute to an improved cardiometabolic profile in the obese.

  13. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  14. Short and Long Term Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on Hormones, Metabolites, Antioxidant System, Glycogen Concentration, and Aerobic Performance Adaptations in Rats.

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    de Araujo, Gustavo G; Papoti, Marcelo; Dos Reis, Ivan Gustavo Masselli; de Mello, Maria A R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone, and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus, and gastrocnemius). The Wistar rats were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT). The lactate minimum (LM) was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP) (baseline, 6, and 12 weeks). The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw): (1) 30 s of effort; (2) 30 s of passive recovery; (3) exercise until exhaustion (AP). Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 weeks (5.2 ± 0.2% bw) in relation to baseline (4.4 ± 0.2% bw), but not after 6 weeks (4.5 ± 0.3% bw). The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT = 58 ± 5 s; CT = 40 ± 7 s) and 12 weeks (HIIT = 62 ± 7 s; CT = 49 ± 3 s). Glycogen (mg/100 mg) increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 weeks (0.757 ± 0.076) and 12 weeks (1.014 ± 0.157) in comparison to baseline (0.358 ± 0.024). In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 weeks (0.738 ± 0.057) and 12 weeks (0.709 ± 0.085) in comparison to baseline (0.417 ± 0.035). The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 weeks (4.079 ± 0.319) in relation to baseline (2.400 ± 0.416). The corticosterone (ng/mL) in HIIT increased after 6 weeks (529.0 ± 30.5) and reduced after 12 weeks (153.6 ± 14.5) in comparison to baseline (370.0 ± 18.3). In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the

  15. SHORT AND LONG TERM EFFECTS OF HIGH-INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON HORMONES, METABOLITES, ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM, GLYCOGEN CONCENTRATION AND AEROBIC PERFORMANCE ADAPTATIONS IN RATS

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    Gustavo Gomes De Araujo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of short and long term High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on anaerobic and aerobic performance, creatinine, uric acid, urea, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, testosterone, corticosterone and glycogen concentration (liver, soleus and gastrocnemius. The Wistar were separated in two groups: HIIT and sedentary/control (CT. The lactate minimum (LM was used to evaluate the aerobic and anaerobic performance (AP (baseline, 6 and 12 wk. The lactate peak determination consisted of two swim bouts at 13% of body weight (bw: 1 30 s of effort; 2 30 s of passive recovery; 3 exercise until exhaustion (AP. Tethered loads equivalent to 3.5, 4.0, 4.5, 5.0, 5.5 and 6.5% bw were performed in incremental phase. The aerobic capacity in HIIT group increased after 12 wk (5.2±0.2 % bw in relation to baseline (4.4±0.2 % bw, but not after 6 wk (4.5±0.3 % bw. The exhaustion time in HIIT group showed higher values than CT after 6 (HIIT= 58±5 s; CT=40±7 s and 12 wk (HIIT=62±7 s; CT=49±3 s. Glycogen (mg/100mg increased in gastrocnemius for HIIT group after 6 wk (0.757±0.076 and 12 wk (1.014±0.157 in comparison to baseline (0.358±0.024. In soleus, the HIIT increased glycogen after 6 wk (0.738±0.057 and 12 wk (0.709±0.085 in comparison to baseline (0.417±0.035. The glycogen in liver increased after HIIT 12 wk (4.079±0.319 in relation to baseline (2.400±0.416. The corticosterone (ng/mL in HIIT increased after 6 wk (529.0±30.5 and reduced after 12 wk (153.6±14.5 in comparison to baseline (370.0±18.3. In conclusion, long term HIIT enhanced the aerobic capacity, but short term (6wk was not enough to cause aerobic adaptations. The anaerobic performance increased in HIIT short and long term compared with CT, without differences between HIIT short and long term. Furthermore, the glycogen super-compensantion increased after short and long term HIIT in comparison to

  16. High Intensity Interval Training for Maximizing Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Aamot, Inger-Lise; Haykowsky, Mark; Rognmo, Øivind

    Regular physical activity and exercise training are important actions to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and maintain health throughout life. There is solid evidence that exercise is an effective preventative strategy against at least 25 medical conditions, including cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon and breast cancer, and type 2 diabetes. Traditionally, endurance exercise training (ET) to improve health related outcomes has consisted of low- to moderate ET intensity. However, a growing body of evidence suggests that higher exercise intensities may be superior to moderate intensity for maximizing health outcomes. The primary objective of this review is to discuss how aerobic high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as compared to moderate continuous training may maximize outcomes, and to provide practical advices for successful clinical and home-based HIIT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

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    Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Seay, Rebekah F; Spain, Katie K; Clarke, Holly E

    2017-01-01

    Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE). This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI) and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA). We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training. Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography) and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100%) and low (high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  18. Energy compensation after sprint- and high-intensity interval training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M Schubert

    Full Text Available Many individuals lose less weight than expected in response to exercise interventions when considering the increased energy expenditure of exercise (ExEE. This is due to energy compensation in response to ExEE, which may include increases in energy intake (EI and decreases in non-exercise physical activity (NEPA. We examined the degree of energy compensation in healthy young men and women in response to interval training.Data were examined from a prior study in which 24 participants (mean age, BMI, & VO2max = 28 yrs, 27.7 kg•m-2, and 32 mL∙kg-1∙min-1 completed either 4 weeks of sprint-interval training or high-intensity interval training. Energy compensation was calculated from changes in body composition (air displacement plethysmography and exercise energy expenditure was calculated from mean heart rate based on the heart rate-VO2 relationship. Differences between high (≥ 100% and low (< 100% levels of energy compensation were assessed. Linear regressions were utilized to determine associations between energy compensation and ΔVO2max, ΔEI, ΔNEPA, and Δresting metabolic rate.Very large individual differences in energy compensation were noted. In comparison to individuals with low levels of compensation, individuals with high levels of energy compensation gained fat mass, lost fat-free mass, and had lower change scores for VO2max and NEPA. Linear regression results indicated that lower levels of energy compensation were associated with increases in ΔVO2max (p < 0.001 and ΔNEPA (p < 0.001.Considerable variation exists in response to short-term, low dose interval training. In agreement with prior work, increases in ΔVO2max and ΔNEPA were associated with lower energy compensation. Future studies should focus on identifying if a dose-response relationship for energy compensation exists in response to interval training, and what underlying mechanisms and participant traits contribute to the large variation between individuals.

  19. High-intensity interval training improves obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsen, Trine; Nes, Bjarne Martens; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Engstrøm, Morten; Støylen, Asbjørn; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2016-01-01

    Three hours per week of vigorous physical activity is found to be associated with reduced odds of sleep-disordered breathing. To investigate whether 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) reduced the apnoea-hypopnea index (AHI) in obese subjects with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnoea. In a prospective randomised controlled exercise study, 30 (body mass index 37±6 kg/m 2 , age 51±9 years) patients with sleep apnoea (AHI 41.5±25.3 events/hour) were randomised 1:1 to control or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (4×4 min of treadmill running or walking at 90%-95% of maximal heart rate two times per week). In the HIIT group, the AHI was reduced by 7.5±11.6 events/hour (within-group pHIIT improved the AHI and self-reported daytime sleepiness in subjects with obese sleep apnoea without any change in the desaturation index and body weight.

  20. A review of adolescent high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig R M; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Schofield, Grant

    2014-08-01

    Despite the promising evidence supporting positive effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the metabolic profile in adults, there is limited research targeting adolescents. Given the rising burden of chronic disease, it is essential to implement strategies to improve the cardiometabolic health in adolescence, as this is a key stage in the development of healthy lifestyle behaviours. This narrative review summarises evidence of the relative efficacy of HIIT regarding the metabolic health of adolescents. Methodological inconsistencies confound our ability to draw conclusions; however, there is meaningful evidence supporting HIIT as a potentially efficacious exercise modality for use in the adolescent cohort. Future research must examine the effects of various HIIT protocols to determine the optimum strategy to deliver cardiometabolic health benefits. Researchers should explicitly show between-group differences for HIIT intervention and steady-state exercise or control groups, as the magnitude of difference between HIIT and other exercise modalities is of key interest to public health. There is scope for research to examine the palatability of HIIT as an exercise modality for adolescents through investigating perceived enjoyment during and after HIIT, and consequent long-term exercise adherence.

  1. EFFECT OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING ON ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mohamed Taha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postmenopausal hypertension is the most common risk factor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. As the exercises training conveys benefits of the setting of secondary prevention of hypertension. High intensity interval training (HIIT emerged as a new form of physical training and presents as therapeutic alternative to patients and health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training on endothelial function in postmenopausal hypertension. Methods: Forty six mildly hypertensive postmenopausal women, their ages ranged from (45-55 years old, were randomly allocated to two groups: HIIT group (group-I; n=23 performed a high intensity interval training 3 times a week for 10 weeks at an intensity of (80-85% HR max for 40 minutes and control group (group-II; n=23 remains sedentary during this period. Serum nitric oxide (NO, vascular endothelial growth factor levels (VEGF and blood pressures were measured before and after intervention. Results: A significant reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure values by 9.5% and 7 % respectively, was seen after high intensity interval training which was accompanied by increase in NO and VEGF levels by 43.3% and 15.2 % respectively, while no significant change observed in the control group. Conclusion: High intensity interval training had obvious benefits in improving plasma No, VEGF concentrations and controlling hypertension in postmenopausal women.

  2. The different effects of high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training for weightlessness countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Jie; Cheng, Tan; Zhi-Li, Li; Hui-juan, Wang; Wen-juan, Chen; Jianfeng, Zhang; Desheng, Wang; Dongbin, Niu; Qi, Zhao; Chengjia, Yang; Yanqing, Wang

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been demonstrated to improve performance in a relatively short training period. But the difference between high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training (MIIT) in simulated weightlessness still has not been well studied. This study sought to characterize the difference between 6 weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training under reduced weight (RW) gait training device and zero-gravity locomotion system (ZLS). Twenty-three subjects (14M/4F, 32.5±4.5 years) volunteered to participate. They were divided into three groups, that were MITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 60% VO _{2} peak for 30min, five days per week) RW group (n=8), HITT (alternating 2 min at 40% VO _{2} peak and 2 min at 90% VO _{2} peak for 30min, three days per week) RW group (n=8) and HITT ZLS group (n=7). The Z-axis load used in RW group was 80% body weight (BW) and in ZLS was 100% BW. Cardiopulmonary function was measured before, after 4-week training and after 6-week training. Isokinetic knee extension-flexion test at 60(°) deg/s and 180(°) deg/s were performed before and after the 6-week training, and isometric knee extension-flexion test at 180(°) deg/s was also examined at the same time. It was found that the VO _{2} peaks, metabolic equivalent (MET), Speedmax and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly increased after 4 and 6-week training in all three groups and no significant group difference were detected. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion were significantly increased after 6 week-training in all three groups, and only in HITT RW group the total power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee flexion enhanced. The total power and average power at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension decreased significantly after 6-week training in all three groups. The peak torque at 60(°) deg/s for right knee extension in MIIT RW group was

  3. The effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players

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    bahareh ketabdar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of four-week high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation on aerobic and anaerobic performance and some blood parameters in girls basketball players. Materials & Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Twenty female basketball players, with the mean age of 24.65 ± 4.81 years, height of 166.97 ± 4.12 cm, weight of 59.15 ± 5.23 kg and body mass index of 21.5 ± 1.23 kg/m2, were divided into two groups, including intervention (exercise + supplement and control groups. Two days before and after the intervention, the subjects performed Wingate test (to estimate the average aerobic power and Bruce test (to estimate VO2max.The subjects attended basketball training two sessions per week; Intervention group performed high-intensity interval training in addition to the basketball training in every session. The dose of beta-alanine supplementation was 2.4, 3.6, 4.8 g per day. After four weeks, creatine kinase and lactate levels and performance tests were reevaluated. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 21, with a significance level of P0.05. Conclusion: This study showed that high-intensity interval training with beta-alanine supplementation resulted in delay in the fatigue threshold, stabilization of PH and hydrogen ions balance, increased aerobic-anaerobic capacity and exercise performance in female basketball players.

  4. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) for patients with chronic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Leanna M.; Porter, Ryan R.; Durstine, J. Larry

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT). HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared t...

  5. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Increasing Explosive Power, Speed, and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajrin, F.; Kusnanik, N. W.; Wijono

    2018-01-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is a type of exercise that combines high-intensity exercise and low intensity exercise in a certain time interval. This type of training is very effective and efficient to improve the physical components. The process of improving athletes achievement related to how the process of improving the physical components, so the selection of a good practice method will be very helpful. This study aims to analyze how is the effects of HIIT on increasing explosive power, speed, and agility. This type of research is quantitative with quasi-experimental methods. The design of this study used the Matching-Only Design, with data analysis using the t-test (paired sample t-test). After being given the treatment for six weeks, the results showed there are significant increasing in explosive power, speed, and agility. HIIT in this study used a form of exercise plyometric as high-intensity exercise and jogging as mild or moderate intensity exercise. Increase was due to the improvement of neuromuscular characteristics that affect the increase in muscle strength and performance. From the data analysis, researchers concluded that, Exercises of High Intensity Interval Training significantly effect on the increase in Power Limbs, speed, and agility.

  6. Effects of 6-Weeks High-Intensity Interval Training in Schoolchildren with Insulin Resistance: Influence of Biological Maturation on Metabolic, Body Composition, Cardiovascular and Performance Non-responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have observed significant heterogeneity in the magnitude of change in measures of metabolic response to exercise training. There are a lack of studies examining the prevalence of non-responders (NRs) in children while considering other potential environmental factors involved such as biological maturation. Aim: To compare the effects and prevalence of NRs to improve the insulin resistance level (by HOMA-IR), as well as to other anthropometric, cardiovascular, and performance co-variables, between early (EM) and normal maturation (NM) in insulin-resistance schoolchildren after 6-weeks of HIIT. Methods: Sedentary children (age 11.4 ± 1.7 years) were randomized to either HIIT-EM group (n = 12) or HIIT-NM group (n = 17). Fasting glucose (FGL), fasting insulin (FINS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) were assessed as the main outcomes, as well as the body composition [body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and tricipital (TSF), suprailiac (SSF) and abdominal skinfold (AbdSF)], cardiovascular systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and muscular performance [one-repetition maximum strength leg-extension (1RMLE) and upper row (1RMUR) tests] co-variables were assessed before and after intervention. Responders or NRs to training were defined as a change in the typical error method from baseline to follow-up for the main outcomes and co-variables. Results: There were no significant differences between groups in the prevalence of NRs based on FGL, FINS, and HOMA-IR. There were significant differences in NRs prevalence to decrease co-variables body mass (HIIT-EM 66.6% vs. HIIT-NM 35.2%) and SBP (HIIT-EM 41.6% vs. HIIT-NM 70.5%). A high risk [based on odds ratios (OR)] of NRs cases was detected for FGL, OR = 3.2 (0.2 to 5.6), and HOMA-IR, OR = 3.2 (0.2 to 6.0). Additionally, both HIIT-EM and HIIT-NM groups showed significant decreases (P cardiovascular parameters can be playing a role in

  7. Effects of 6-Weeks High-Intensity Interval Training in Schoolchildren with Insulin Resistance: Influence of Biological Maturation on Metabolic, Body Composition, Cardiovascular and Performance Non-responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have observed significant heterogeneity in the magnitude of change in measures of metabolic response to exercise training. There are a lack of studies examining the prevalence of non-responders (NRs) in children while considering other potential environmental factors involved such as biological maturation. Aim: To compare the effects and prevalence of NRs to improve the insulin resistance level (by HOMA-IR), as well as to other anthropometric, cardiovascular, and performance co-variables, between early (EM) and normal maturation (NM) in insulin-resistance schoolchildren after 6-weeks of HIIT. Methods: Sedentary children (age 11.4 ± 1.7 years) were randomized to either HIIT-EM group ( n = 12) or HIIT-NM group ( n = 17). Fasting glucose (FGL), fasting insulin (FINS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistant (HOMA-IR) were assessed as the main outcomes, as well as the body composition [body mass, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and tricipital (TSF), suprailiac (SSF) and abdominal skinfold (AbdSF)], cardiovascular systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and muscular performance [one-repetition maximum strength leg-extension (1RM LE ) and upper row (1RM UR ) tests] co-variables were assessed before and after intervention. Responders or NRs to training were defined as a change in the typical error method from baseline to follow-up for the main outcomes and co-variables. Results: There were no significant differences between groups in the prevalence of NRs based on FGL, FINS, and HOMA-IR. There were significant differences in NRs prevalence to decrease co-variables body mass (HIIT-EM 66.6% vs. HIIT-NM 35.2%) and SBP (HIIT-EM 41.6% vs. HIIT-NM 70.5%). A high risk [based on odds ratios (OR)] of NRs cases was detected for FGL, OR = 3.2 (0.2 to 5.6), and HOMA-IR, OR = 3.2 (0.2 to 6.0). Additionally, both HIIT-EM and HIIT-NM groups showed significant decreases ( P HIIT-EM group showed significant decreases

  8. Effects of 6-Weeks High-Intensity Interval Training in Schoolchildren with Insulin Resistance: Influence of Biological Maturation on Metabolic, Body Composition, Cardiovascular and Performance Non-responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Alvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have observed significant heterogeneity in the magnitude of change in measures of metabolic response to exercise training. There are a lack of studies examining the prevalence of non-responders (NRs in children while considering other potential environmental factors involved such as biological maturation.Aim: To compare the effects and prevalence of NRs to improve the insulin resistance level (by HOMA-IR, as well as to other anthropometric, cardiovascular, and performance co-variables, between early (EM and normal maturation (NM in insulin-resistance schoolchildren after 6-weeks of HIIT.Methods: Sedentary children (age 11.4 ± 1.7 years were randomized to either HIIT-EM group (n = 12 or HIIT-NM group (n = 17. Fasting glucose (FGL, fasting insulin (FINS and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistant (HOMA-IR were assessed as the main outcomes, as well as the body composition [body mass, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and tricipital (TSF, suprailiac (SSF and abdominal skinfold (AbdSF], cardiovascular systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and muscular performance [one-repetition maximum strength leg-extension (1RMLE and upper row (1RMUR tests] co-variables were assessed before and after intervention. Responders or NRs to training were defined as a change in the typical error method from baseline to follow-up for the main outcomes and co-variables.Results: There were no significant differences between groups in the prevalence of NRs based on FGL, FINS, and HOMA-IR. There were significant differences in NRs prevalence to decrease co-variables body mass (HIIT-EM 66.6% vs. HIIT-NM 35.2% and SBP (HIIT-EM 41.6% vs. HIIT-NM 70.5%. A high risk [based on odds ratios (OR] of NRs cases was detected for FGL, OR = 3.2 (0.2 to 5.6, and HOMA-IR, OR = 3.2 (0.2 to 6.0. Additionally, both HIIT-EM and HIIT-NM groups showed significant decreases (P < 0.05 in TSF, SSF, and AbdSF skinfold, and similar

  9. High-intensity interval training: Modulating interval duration in overweight/obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L

    2015-05-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient strategy shown to induce various cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations. Little is known about the optimal tolerable combination of intensity and volume necessary for adaptations, especially in clinical populations. In a randomized controlled pilot design, we evaluated the effects of two types of interval training protocols, varying in intensity and interval duration, on clinical outcomes in overweight/obese men. Twenty-five men [body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg · m(2)] completed baseline body composition measures: fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM) and percent body fat (%BF) and fasting blood glucose, lipids and insulin (IN). A graded exercise cycling test was completed for peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and power output (PO). Participants were randomly assigned to high-intensity short interval (1MIN-HIIT), high-intensity interval (2MIN-HIIT) or control groups. 1MIN-HIIT and 2MIN-HIIT completed 3 weeks of cycling interval training, 3 days/week, consisting of either 10 × 1 min bouts at 90% PO with 1 min rests (1MIN-HIIT) or 5 × 2 min bouts with 1 min rests at undulating intensities (80%-100%) (2MIN-HIIT). There were no significant training effects on FM (Δ1.06 ± 1.25 kg) or %BF (Δ1.13% ± 1.88%), compared to CON. Increases in LM were not significant but increased by 1.7 kg and 2.1 kg for 1MIN and 2MIN-HIIT groups, respectively. Increases in VO2peak were also not significant for 1MIN (3.4 ml·kg(-1) · min(-1)) or 2MIN groups (2.7 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)). IN sensitivity (HOMA-IR) improved for both training groups (Δ-2.78 ± 3.48 units; p < 0.05) compared to CON. HIIT may be an effective short-term strategy to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and IN sensitivity in overweight males.

  10. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling : The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of

  11. Circulating adiponectin concentration and body composition are altered in response to high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shing, Cecilia M; Webb, Jessica J; Driller, Matthew W; Williams, Andrew D; Fell, James W

    2013-08-01

    Adiponectin influences metabolic adaptations that would prove beneficial to endurance athletes, and yet to date there is little known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise, and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in an athlete population. This study aimed to determine the response of plasma adiponectin concentrations to acute exercise after 2 different training programs and to determine the influence of the training on body composition. Seven state-level representative rowers (age: 19 ± 1.2 years [mean ± SD], height: 1.77 ± 0.10 m, body mass: 74.0 ± 10.7 kg, VO2peak 62.1 ± 7.0 ml·kg·min) participated in the double-blind, randomized crossover investigation. Rowers performed an incremental graded exercise test before and after completing 4 weeks of high-intensity interval ergometer training and 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training. Rowers' body composition was assessed at baseline and after each training program. Significant increases in plasma adiponectin concentration occurred in response to maximal exercise after completion of the high-intensity interval training (p = 0.016) but not after traditional ergometer rowing training (p = 0.69). The high-intensity interval training also resulted in significant increases in mean 4-minute power output (p = 0.002) and VO2peak (p = 0.05), and a decrease in body fat percentage (p = 0.022). Mean 4-minute power output, VO2peak, and body fat percentage were not significantly different after 4 weeks of traditional ergometer rowing training (p > 0.05). Four weeks of high-intensity interval training is associated with an increase in adiponectin concentration in response to maximal exercise and a reduction in body fat percentage. The potential for changes in adiponectin concentration to reflect positive training adaptations and athlete performance level should be further explored.

  12. [Effect of high-intensity interval training on the reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin in type-2 diabetic adult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Eguía, Raúl Alberto; Russell Guzmán, Javier Antonio; Soto Muñoz, Marcelo Enrique; Villegas González, Bastián Eduardo; Poblete Aro, Carlos Emilio; Ibacache Palma, Alejandro

    2015-03-05

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the major non-communicable chronic diseases in the world. Its prevalence in Chile is significant, and complications associated with this disease involve great costs, which is why prevention and treatment of this condition are essential. Physical exercise is an effective means for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The emergence of new forms of physical training, such as "high intensity interval training", presents novel therapeutic alternatives for patients and health care professionals. To assess the validity and applicability of the results regarding the effectiveness of high intensity interval training in reducing glycosylated hemoglobin in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and answer the following question: In subjects with type 2 diabetes, can the method of high intensity interval training compared to moderate intensity exercise decrease glycosylated hemoglobin? We performed a critical analysis of the article "Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of high intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes". We found no significant differences in the amount of glycosylated hemoglobin between groups of high intensity interval training and moderate-intensity exercise upon completion of the study (p>0.05). In adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, high intensity interval training does not significantly improve glycosylated hemoglobin levels. Despite this, the high intensity interval training method shows as much improvement in body composition and physical condition as the moderate intensity exercise program.

  13. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Remote Sensing Tertiary Education Meets High Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, K. E.; White, B.

    2015-04-01

    Enduring a traditional lecture is the tertiary education equivalent of a long, slow, jog. There are certainly some educational benefits if the student is able to maintain concentration, but they are just as likely to get caught napping and fall off the back end of the treadmill. Alternatively, a pre-choreographed interactive workshop style class requires students to continually engage with the materials. Appropriately timed breaks or intervals allow students to recover briefly before being increasingly challenged throughout the class. Using an introductory remote sensing class at Charles Darwin University, this case study presents a transition from the traditional stand and deliver style lecture to an active student-led learning experience. The class is taught at undergraduate and postgraduate levels, with both on-campus as well as online distance learning students. Based on the concept that active engagement in learning materials promotes 'stickiness' of subject matter, the remote sensing class was re-designed to encourage an active style of learning. Critically, class content was reviewed to identify the key learning outcomes for the students. This resulted in a necessary sacrifice of topic range for depth of understanding. Graduates of the class reported high levels of enthusiasm for the materials, and the style in which the class was taught. This paper details a number of techniques that were used to engage students in active and problem based learning throughout the semester. It suggests a number of freely available tools that academics in remote sensing and related fields can readily incorporate into their teaching portfolios. Moreover, it shows how simple it can be to provide a far more enjoyable and effective learning experience for students than the one dimensional lecture.

  15. A single bout of high-intensity interval training improves motor skill retention in individuals with stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nepveu, Jean-Francois; Thiel, Alexander; Tang, Ada

    2017-01-01

    imbalances in GABAA-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition but changes in other markers of excitability were not statistically significant. The group that performed high-intensity interval training showed a better retention of the motor skill. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of a maximal graded...

  16. High-intensity interval training (HIIT for patients with chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leanna M. Ross

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training provides physiological benefits for both improving athletic performance and maintaining good health. Different exercise training modalities and strategies exist. Two common exercise strategies are high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MCT. HIIT was first used early in the 20th century and popularized later that century for improving performance of Olympic athletes. The primary premise underlying HIIT is that, compared to energy expenditure-matched MCT, a greater amount of work is performed at a higher intensity during a single exercise session which is achieved by alternating high-intensity exercise intervals with low-intensity exercise or rest intervals. Emerging research suggests that this same training method can provide beneficial effects for patients with a chronic disease and should be included in the comprehensive medical management plan. Accordingly, a major consideration in developing an individual exercise prescription for a patient with a chronic disease is the selection of an appropriate exercise strategy. In order to maximize exercise training benefits, this strategy should be tailored to the individual's need. The focus of this paper is to provide a brief summary of the current literature regarding the use of HIIT to enhance the functional capacity of individuals with cardiovascular, pulmonary, and diabetes diseases.

  17. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleg, Jerome L

    2016-01-01

    Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT). An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  18. Effects of high-intensity strength interval training program on body composition

    OpenAIRE

    Juránková, Michaela; Bílý, Jiří; Hrazdíra, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine effects of 10-week high-intensity strength interval training (HIIT) program on body composition. Seven women (31.0 ± 6.0 years old, 65.7 ± 9.8 kg body weight, 23.6 ± 2.8 kg*m−2 BMI, 18.6 ± 5.8 kg body fat, 26.0 ± 3.4 kg muscle mass) completed intervention program. We performed an analyze of body composition before and after training program. We focused especially on body fat and muscle mass. Each session consisted of short term bouts (until 30 s duration) w...

  19. The effects of high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia on aerobic capacity in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Miłosz; Zając, Adam; Maszczyk, Adam; Roczniok, Robert; Poprzęcki, Stanisław; Garbaciak, Wiesław; Zając, Tomasz

    2013-12-18

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of 3-week high intensity interval training in normobaric hypoxia (IHT) on aerobic capacity in basketball players. Twelve male well trained basketball players, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=6; age: 22±1.6 years; VO2max: 52.6±3.9 ml/kg/min; body height - BH: 188.8±6.1 cm; body mass - BM: 83.9±7.2 kg; % of body fat - FAT%: 11.2±3.1%), and a control (C) group (n=6; age: 22±2.4 years; VO2max: 53.0±5.2 ml/kg/min; BH: 194.3 ± 6.6 cm; BM: 99.9±11.1 kg; FAT% 11.0±2.8 %) took part in the study. The training program applied during the study was the same for both groups, but with different environmental conditions during the selected interval training sessions. For 3 weeks, all subjects performed three high intensity interval training sessions per week. During the interval training sessions, the H group trained in a normobaric hypoxic chamber at a simulated altitude of 2500 m, while the group C performed interval training sessions under normoxia conditions also inside the chamber. Each interval running training sessions consisted of four to five 4 min bouts at 90% of VO2max velocity determined in hypoxia (vVO2max-hyp) for the H group and 90% of velocity at VO2max determined in normoxia for the group C. The statistical post-hoc analysis showed that the training in hypoxia caused a significant (ptraining in normoxia caused an increase (ptraining protocol with high intensity intervals (4 to 5 × 4 min bouts at 90% of vVO2max-hyp) is an effective training means for improving aerobic capacity at sea level in basketball players.

  20. High-intensity interval training improves insulin sensitivity in older individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, D; Lund, M T; Scheuer, C M

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Metabolic health may deteriorate with age as a result of altered body composition and decreased physical activity. Endurance exercise is known to counter these changes delaying or even preventing onset of metabolic diseases. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time efficient...... alternative to regular endurance exercise, and the aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic benefit of HIIT in older subjects. METHODS: Twenty-two sedentary male (n = 11) and female (n = 11) subjects aged 63 ± 1 years performed HIIT training three times/week for 6 weeks on a bicycle ergometer. Each...... HIIT session consisted of five 1-minute intervals interspersed with 1½-minute rest. Prior to the first and after the last HIIT session whole-body insulin sensitivity, measured by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, plasma lipid levels, HbA1c, glycaemic parameters, body composition and maximal oxygen...

  1. The effects of high intensity interval training in women with rheumatic disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstad, Janne; Stensvold, Dorthe; Hoff, Mari; Nes, Bjarne M; Arbo, Ingerid; Bye, Anja

    2015-10-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are inflammatory diseases which involve increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High intensity interval training (HIIT) is known to be effective in improving cardiovascular health. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 10 weeks of HIIT at 85-95% of HRmax would improve important risk factors of CVD in rheumatic patients, and if these patients would tolerate exercise intensities above today's recommendations. Seven women with RA and eleven with adult-JIA, 20-50 years, were recruited to this cross-over study. Participants performed HIIT, consisting of 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% of HRmax twice a week for 10 weeks on spinning bikes. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate recovery, blood pressure, body composition, and blood variables were measured before and after the exercise and control period. Disease activity was determined and questionnaire data were collected. HIIT resulted in 12.2% increase in VO2max and 2.9% improvement in heart rate recovery (p HIIT (p = 0.08). No changes were detected in disease activity or pain. Despite rigorous high intensity exercise, no increase was detected in disease activity or pain, indicating that HIIT was well tolerated by these patients. Furthermore, HIIT had positive effects on several CVD risk factors. In light of this pilot study, HIIT seems like a promising non-pharmacological treatment strategy for patients with RA and adult-JIA.

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Cardenosa, Alba; Camacho-Cardenosa, Marta; Burtscher, Martin; Martínez-Guardado, Ismael; Timon, Rafael; Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olcina, Guillermo

    2018-01-01

    A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1) aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO 2 = 17.2%; n = 13), (2) aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15), (3) sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15), and (4) sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18). Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1), after 18 training sessions (T2), 7 days after the last session (T3), and 4 weeks after the last session (T4). The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 ( p Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly ( p fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups ( p fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval training under normobaric intermittent hypoxia for 12 weeks in overweight/obese women seems to be promising for reducing body fat content with a concomitant increase in muscle mass.

  3. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babraj, John A; Vollaard, Niels B J; Keast, Cameron

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional high volume aerobic exercise training reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease risk but involves a substantial time commitment. Extremely low volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) has recently been demonstrated to produce improvements to aerobic function...... cycle sprints per session). Aerobic performance (250-kJ self-paced cycling time trial), and glucose, insulin and NEFA responses to a 75-g oral glucose load (oral glucose tolerance test; OGTT) were determined before and after training. RESULTS: Following 2 weeks of HIT, the area under the plasma glucose......, to substantially improve insulin action in young sedentary subjects is remarkable. This novel time-efficient training paradigm can be used as a strategy to reduce metabolic risk factors in young and middle aged sedentary populations who otherwise would not adhere to time consuming traditional aerobic exercise...

  4. High-intensity interval training improves inflammatory and adipokine profiles in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, Flávia Mariel; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Figueiredo, Felipe da Cunha; Santos, Daniela Lopes Dos; Bresciani, Guilherme; Kretzmann, Nélson Alexandre; Stefanello, Sílvio Terra; Courtes, Aline Alves; Beck, Maristela de Oliveira; Sangoi Cardoso, Manuela; Duarte, Marta Maria Medeiros Frescura; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Soares, Félix Alexandre Antunes

    2018-02-12

    This study investigate the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic levels of inflammatory and hormonal markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Fifteen postmenopausal women with MS completed the training on treadmills. Functional, body composition parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max), and lipid profile were assessed before and after HIIT. Serum or plasma levels of cytokines and hormonal markers were measured along the intervention. The analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of these cytokines was performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). VO 2 max and some anthropometric parameters were improved after HIIT, while decreased levels of proinflammatory markers and increased levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10) were also found. Adipokines were also modulated after 12 weeks or training. The mRNA expression of the studied genes was unchanged after HIIT. In conclusion, HIIT benefits inflammatory and hormonal axis on serum or plasma samples, without changes on PBMC of postmenopausal MS patients.

  5. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetsloot, Kevin A; John, Casey S; Lawrence, Marcus M; Battista, Rebecca A; Shanely, R Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2) whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years) performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest) at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max). Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. PMID:24520199

  6. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Con...

  7. Effectiveness and Safety of High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E.

    2015-01-01

    IN BRIEF Recent research has shown that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can promote improvements in glucose control and cardiovascular health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This article summarizes the evidence and highlights the ways in which HIIT might be safely implemented as an adjunct to more traditional exercise approaches. PMID:25717277

  8. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  9. Effect of high-intensity interval and resistance training on cardiovascular risk factors in MS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Severijns, Tobias; Wijckmans, Ferdy

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of high-intensity interval plus resistance training (HIITR) on cardiovascular risk factors was studied through a quasi-experimental study. Outcome measures are: endurance capacity, body composition, physical activity level, isometric muscle strength, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipids and lipoprotein - cholesterol.

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Leads to Greater Body Fat Loss in Overweight/Obese Women than High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Camacho-Cardenosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A moderate hypoxic stimulus is considered a promising therapeutic modality for several pathological states including obesity. There is scientific evidence suggesting that when hypoxia and physical activity are combined, they could provide benefits for the obese population. The aim of the present study was to investigate if exposure to hypoxia combined with two different protocols of high-intensity interval exercise in overweight/obese women was more effective compared with exercise in normoxia. Study participants included 82 overweight/obese women, who started a 12 week program of 36 sessions, and were randomly divided into four groups: (1 aerobic interval training in hypoxia (AitH; FiO2 = 17.2%; n = 13, (2 aerobic interval training in normoxia (AitN; n = 15, (3 sprint interval training in hypoxia (SitH; n = 15, and (4 sprint interval training in normoxia (SitN; n = 18. Body mass, body mass index, percentage of total fat mass, muscle mass, basal metabolic rate, fat, and carbohydrate oxidation, and fat and carbohydrate energy were assessed. Outcomes were measured at baseline (T1, after 18 training sessions (T2, 7 days after the last session (T3, and 4 weeks after the last session (T4. The fat mass in the SitH group was significantly reduced compared with the SitN group from T1 to T3 (p < 0.05 and from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05 and muscle mass increased significantly from T1 to T4 (p < 0.05. Fat mass in the AitH group decreased significantly (p < 0.01 and muscle mass increased (p = 0.022 compared with the AitN group from T1 to T4. All training groups showed a reduction in the percentage of fat mass, with a statistically significant reduction in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05. Muscle mass increased significantly in the hypoxia groups (p < 0.05, especially at T4. While fat oxidation tended to increase and oxidation of carbohydrates tended to decrease in both hypoxia groups, the tendency was reversed in the normoxia groups. Thus, high-intensity interval

  11. High intensity aerobic interval training improves peak oxygen consumption in patients with metabolic syndrome: CAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Espinoza Salinas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction A number of cardiovascular risk factors characterizes the metabolic syndrome: insulin resistance (IR, low HDL cholesterol and high triglycerides. The aforementioned risk factors lead to elevated levels of abdominal adipose tissue, resulting in oxygen consumption deficiency. Purpose To verify the validity and applicability of using high intensity interval training (HIIT in subjects with metabolic syndrome and to answer the following question: Can HIIT improve peak oxygen consumption? Method The systematic review "Effects of aerobic interval training on exercise capacity and metabolic risk factors in individuals with cardiometabolic disorders" was analyzed. Results Data suggests high intensity aerobic interval training increases peak oxygen consumption by a standardized mean difference of 3.60 mL/kg-1/min-1 (95% confidence interval, 0.28-4.91. Conclusion In spite of the methodological shortcomings of the primary studies included in the systematic review, we reasonably conclude that implementation of high intensity aerobic interval training in subjects with metabolic syndrome, leads to increases in peak oxygen consumption.

  12. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short......-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one...... of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard...

  13. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ...

  14. The effect of angiotensin converting enzyme genotype on aerobic capacity following high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, N; Baker, M.D; Higgins, T; Cobbold, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Physical activity can reduce T2DM and CVD risk, and increase aerobic capacity, a significant predictor of all-cause mortality and morbidity. High intensity interval training (HIIT) produces similar improvements in aerobic capacity to continuous moderate exercise (CME). Different genotypes of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) have been implicated in improving aerobic capacity and theref...

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training in Heart Transplant Recipients: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael José Perrier-Melo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heart transplantation (HTx is considered an efficient and gold-standard procedure for patients with end-stage heart failure. After surgery, patients have lower aerobic power (VO2max and compensatory hemodynamic responses. The aim of the present study was to assess through a systematic review with meta-analysis whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT can provide benefits for those parameters. This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, which searched the databases and data portals PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct and Wiley until December 2016 (pairs. The following terms and descriptors were used: “heart recipient” OR “heart transplant recipient” OR ”heart transplant” OR “cardiac transplant” OR “heart graft”. Descriptors via DeCS and Mesh were: “heart transplantation’’ OR “cardiac transplantation”. The words used in combination (AND were: “exercise training” OR “interval training” OR “high intensity interval training” OR “high intensity training” OR “anaerobic training” OR “intermittent training” OR “sprint training”. The initial search identified 1064 studies. Then, only those studies assessing the influence of HIIT on the post-HTx period were added, resulting in three studies analyzed. The significance level adopted was 0.05. Heart transplant recipients showed significant improvement in VO2peak, heart rate and peak blood pressure in 8 to 12 weeks of intervention.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F T; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18-35 years, who declared taking 7-8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation ( SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+ SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8-12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge F. T. de Souza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT is emerging as a potential strategy.Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation.Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition, 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition, HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition, and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition. They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, were performed.Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids.Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition.

  18. Differential Motor Unit Changes after Endurance or High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Valdes, Eduardo; Falla, Deborah; Negro, Francesco; Mayer, Frank; Farina, Dario

    2017-06-01

    Using a novel technique of high-density surface EMG decomposition and motor unit (MU) tracking, we compared changes in the properties of vastus medialis and vastus lateralis MU after endurance (END) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen men were assigned to the END or the HIIT group (n = 8 each) and performed six training sessions for 14 d. Each session consisted of 8-12 × 60-s intervals at 100% peak power output separated by 75 s of recovery (HIIT) or 90-120 min continuous cycling at ~65% V˙O2peak (END). Pre- and postintervention, participants performed 1) incremental cycling to determine V˙O2peak and peak power output and 2) maximal, submaximal (10%, 30%, 50%, and 70% maximum voluntary contraction [MVC]), and sustained (until task failure at 30% MVC) isometric knee extensions while high-density surface EMG signals were recorded from the vastus medialis and vastus lateralis. EMG signals were decomposed (submaximal contractions) into individual MU by convolutive blind source separation. Finally, MU were tracked across sessions by semiblind source separation. After training, END and HIIT improved V˙O2peak similarly (by 5.0% and 6.7%, respectively). The HIIT group showed enhanced maximal knee extension torque by ~7% (P = 0.02) and was accompanied by an increase in discharge rate for high-threshold MU (≥50% knee extension MVC) (P 0.05). HIIT and END induce different adjustments in MU discharge rate despite similar improvements in cardiopulmonary fitness. Moreover, the changes induced by HIIT are specific for high-threshold MU. For the first time, we show that HIIT and END induce specific neuromuscular adaptations, possibly related to differences in exercise load intensity and training volume.

  19. High-Intensity Interval Training Attenuates Insulin Resistance Induced by Sleep Deprivation in Healthy Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Jorge F. T.; Dáttilo, Murilo; de Mello, Marco T.; Tufik, Sergio; Antunes, Hanna K. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep deprivation can impair several physiological systems and recently, new evidence has pointed to the relationship between a lack of sleep and carbohydrate metabolism, consequently resulting in insulin resistance. To minimize this effect, High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) is emerging as a potential strategy. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of HIIT on insulin resistance induced by sleep deprivation. Method: Eleven healthy male volunteers were recruited, aged 18–35 years, who declared taking 7–8 h sleep per night. All volunteers were submitted to four different conditions: a single night of regular sleep (RS condition), 24 h of total sleep deprivation (SD condition), HIIT training followed by regular sleep (HIIT+RS condition), and HIIT training followed by 24 h of total sleep deprivation (HIIT+SD condition). They performed six training sessions over 2 weeks and each session consisted of 8–12 × 60 s intervals at 100% of peak power output. In each experimental condition, tests for glucose, insulin, cortisol, free fatty acids, and insulin sensitivity, measured by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), were performed. Results: Sleep deprivation increased glycaemia and insulin levels, as well as the area under the curve. Furthermore, an increase in free fatty acids concentrations and basal metabolism was observed. There were no differences in the concentrations of cortisol. However, HIIT before 24 h of sleep deprivation attenuated the increase of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids. Conclusion: Twenty-four hours of sleep deprivation resulted in acute insulin resistance. However, HIIT is an effective strategy to minimize the deleterious effects promoted by this condition. PMID:29270126

  20. Comparison of Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses in Kettlebell High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Sprint Interval Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian M; Kraemer, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel exercise protocol we developed for kettlebell high-intensity interval training (KB-HIIT) by comparing the cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to a standard sprint interval cycling (SIC) exercise protocol. Eight men volunteered for the study and completed 2 preliminary sessions, followed by two 12-minute sessions of KB-HIIT and SIC in a counterbalanced fashion. In the KB-HITT session, 3 circuits of 4 exercises were performed using a Tabata regimen. In the SIC session, three 30-second sprints were performed, with 4 minutes of recovery in between the first 2 sprints and 2.5 minutes of recovery after the last sprint. A within-subjects' design over multiple time points was used to compare oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (f), minute ventilation (VE), caloric expenditure rate (kcal·min), and heart rate (HR) between the exercise protocols. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was compared. A significant group effect, time effect, and group × time interaction were found for V[Combining Dot Above]O2, RER, and TV, with V[Combining Dot Above]O2 being higher and TV and RER being lower in the KB-HIIT compared with the SIC. Only a significant time effect and group × time interaction were found for f, VE, kcal·min, and HR. Additionally, total caloric expenditure was found to be significantly higher during the KB-HIIT. The results of this study suggest that KB-HIIT may be more attractive and sustainable than SIC and can be effective in stimulating cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses that could improve health and aerobic performance.

  1. [Oxidative stress in Masters swimmers following high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Janina; Masoud, Magd; Brixius, Klara; Brinkmann, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Increased oxidative stress (OS) can promote diseases in the long term, but it can also trigger cellular adaptations in the short term. The present study aims to analyze whether a 3-month high-intensity (interval) training (HI(I)T) affects OS in 24 Masters swimmers (22-67 years) before (= basal) and after an all-out performance (swimming step-test). Data were analyzed for the entire group and differentiated according to sex and age (under 50 years (U50) and over 50 years (O50)). Prior to the HI(I)T intervention, a significant increase in OS from the basal to the all-out value was observed among the entire group and in the O50-subjects (subgroup analysis). Furthermore, significant increases in basal OS were evident for the entire group post-HI(I)T, but OS was only significantly increased in men in the subgroup analysis. No significant results were observed for women and U50-subjects. The response by Masters swimmers to HI(I)T depends on age and sex.

  2. Very Low Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise Is More Effective in Young Than Old Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raulas Krusnauskas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the acute neuromuscular and stress responses to three different high-intensity interval training sessions in young (age 19.5±1.3 years and older (age 65.7±2.8 years women. Cycling exercise comprised either 6 × 5 s or 3 × 30 s all-out, or 3 × 60 s submaximal, efforts each performed 5 weeks apart in randomized order. Peak and average power was higher in young than in older women and was largest during the 6 × 5 s strategy in both groups (p<0.05. The decrease in the ratio of torques evoked by 20 and 100 Hz electrical stimulation, representing low-frequency fatigue, was more evident after the 3 × 30 and 3 × 60 s than the 6 × 5 s bout in both groups and was larger in young than in older women (p<0.05. Both groups preferred 6 × 5 s cycling for further training. In conclusion, in young women, very low volume (6 × 5 s all-out exercise induces significant physiological stress and seems to be an effective means of training. For older women, longer exercise sessions (3 × 60 s are more stressful than shorter ones but are still tolerable psychologically.

  3. [Effects of high intensity interval training on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, María Angélica; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Martínez, Sergio; Díaz, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Exercise training may reduce blood pressure. To determine the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise protocol on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Eleven men and 27 women aged 46.4 ± 9.8 years were divided in two groups according to their blood pressure. Sixteen were classified as normotensive and 22 as hypertensive. All attended an exercise program with 3 sessions per week for a total of 24 sessions. Each session consisted of one minute of intense exercise performed on a stationary bike, followed by an inactive pause lasting two minutes. This cycle was repeated 10 times and it was thus called 1 * 2 * 10. Blood pressure, weight (kg) and body fat were assessed. In the hypertensive group, there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 145.4 ± 9.0 to 118.3 ± 15.6 mm Hg (p hypertension in a period of two months and 24 sessions.

  4. Affective Responses to Repeated Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saanijoki, Tiina; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna M; Vahlberg, Tero; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2015-12-01

    Vigorous exercise feels unpleasant, and negative emotions may discourage adherence to regular exercise. We quantified the subjective affective responses to short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training (MIT). Twenty-six healthy middle-age (mean age, 47 ± 5 yr; mean VO2peak, 34.2 ± 4.1 mL·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) sedentary men were randomized into HIT (n = 13, 4-6 × 30 s of all-out cycling efforts at approximately 180% of peak workload with 4-min recovery) or MIT (n = 13, 40- to 60-min continuous cycling at 60% of peak workload) groups, performing six sessions within two weeks. Perceived exertion, stress, and affective state were recorded before, during, and after each session. Perceived exertion and arousal were higher, and affective state, more negative during the HIT than that during MIT sessions (P training. Peak oxygen consumption increased (P training). Short-term HIT and MIT are equally effective in improving aerobic fitness, but HIT increases experience of negative emotions and exertion in sedentary middle-age men. This may limit the adherence to this time-effective training mode, even though displeasure lessens over time and suggests similar mental adaptations to both MIT and HIT.

  5. High Intensity Interval Training Reduces the Levels of Serum Inflammatory Cytokine on Women with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckling, F M; Farinha, J B; Santos, D L D; Bresciani, G; Mortari, J A; Stefanello, S T; Courtes, A A; Duarte, T; Duarte, M M M F; Moresco, R N; Cardoso, M S; Soares, F A A

    2016-11-01

    Objectives: This study investigate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) and 2 weeks of detraining in functional and body composition parameters, lipoproteins, glucose metabolismand inflammation markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: 17 untrained women with MS underwent a HIIT program for 12 weeks. Methods: The training was performed in treadmills, 3 days per week, with intensity ranging from 70-90% of the maximum heart rate (HR max ) and 2 weeks untrained (inactive). Functional and body composition parameters were evaluated before and after the training, while maximal oxygen uptake, lipoprotein and inflammation markers were analyzed before, after training and also in detraining. Results: The HITT program resulted in changesparameters as glucose, HbA1cand NOx after training. In addition, a reduction in pro-inflammatory interleukins and an increase in IL-10 after the HIIT program were found. However, an increase in plasma levels of lipoprotein was found and body composition parameters remain unaltered.Besides, only 2 weeks of detraining are able to revert the effects on inflammatory parameters afforded by the HIIT program. Conclusions: The HIIT program used here positively affected inflammatory profile and other parameters, as glucose, HbA1cand NOx, on postmenopausal women with MS. Moreover, 2 weeks of detraining can reverse the beneficial effects of HIIT program. Our results point out the necessity to aply acontinuous HITT program, in order maintain the benefits detected, to post menopausal women with MS. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. High-Intensity Interval Training, Appetite, and Reward Value of Food in the Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Aschehoug, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Holst, Jens; Finlayson, Graham; Wisloff, Ulrik; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil; Kulseng, Bård

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the effect of chronic interval training on appetite in the obese population are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 12 wk of isocaloric programs of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), or short-duration HIIT on subjective feelings of appetite, appetite-related hormones, and reward value of food in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women and 16 men), with a body mass index of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg·m and age of 34.4 ± 8.8 yr, were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: MICT (n = 14), HIIT (n = 16), or short-duration HIIT (n = 16). Exercise was performed three times per week for 12 wk. Subjective feelings of appetite and plasma levels of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 were measured before and after a standard breakfast (every 30 min up to 3 h), before and after the exercise intervention. Fat and sweet taste preferences and food reward were measured using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. A significant increase in fasting and postprandial feelings of hunger was observed with the exercise intervention (P = 0.01 and P = 0.048, respectively), but no effect of group and no interaction. No significant effect of exercise intervention, group, or interaction was found on fasting or postprandial subjective feelings of fullness, desire to eat, and prospective food consumption or plasma concentration of acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1. No changes in food preference or reward over time, differences between groups, or interactions were found. This study suggests that chronic HIIT has no independent effect on appetite or food reward when compared with an isocaloric program of MICT in obese individuals.

  7. High-intensity interval training improves insulin sensitivity in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, D; Lund, M T; Scheuer, C M; Dehlbaek, M S; Dideriksen, S G; Abildskov, C V; Christensen, K K; Dohlmann, T L; Larsen, S; Vigelsø, A H; Dela, F; Helge, J W

    2018-04-01

    Metabolic health may deteriorate with age as a result of altered body composition and decreased physical activity. Endurance exercise is known to counter these changes delaying or even preventing onset of metabolic diseases. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time efficient alternative to regular endurance exercise, and the aim of this study was to investigate the metabolic benefit of HIIT in older subjects. Twenty-two sedentary male (n = 11) and female (n = 11) subjects aged 63 ± 1 years performed HIIT training three times/week for 6 weeks on a bicycle ergometer. Each HIIT session consisted of five 1-minute intervals interspersed with 1½-minute rest. Prior to the first and after the last HIIT session whole-body insulin sensitivity, measured by a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, plasma lipid levels, HbA1c, glycaemic parameters, body composition and maximal oxygen uptake were assessed. Muscle biopsies were obtained wherefrom content of glycogen and proteins involved in muscle glucose handling were determined. Insulin sensitivity (P = .011) and maximal oxygen uptake increased (P body fat (P < .05) decreased after 6 weeks of HIIT. HbA1c decreased only in males (P = .001). Muscle glycogen content increased in both genders (P = .001) and in line GLUT4 (P < .05), glycogen synthase (P = .001) and hexokinase II (P < .05) content all increased. Six weeks of HIIT significantly improves metabolic health in older males and females by reducing age-related risk factors for cardiometabolic disease. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Edward H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thi...

  9. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health

    OpenAIRE

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Taylor, Alexandra S.; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.\\ud Purpose\\ud To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk ...

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training Increases Cardiac Output and V˙O2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael A; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi M

    2017-02-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) frequently occur with high-intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the specific adaptation explaining this result remains elusive. This study examined changes in V˙O2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to periodized HIIT. Thirty-nine active men and women (mean age and V˙O2max = 22.9 ± 5.4 yr and 39.6 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min) performed HIIT and 32 men and women (age and V˙O2max = 25.7 ± 4.5 yr and 40.7 ± 5.2 mL·kg·min) were nonexercising controls (CON). The first 10 sessions of HIIT required eight to ten 60 s bouts of cycling at 90%-110% percent peak power output interspersed with 75 s recovery, followed by randomization to one of three regimes (sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume interval training (HIITHI), or periodized interval training (PER) for the subsequent 10 sessions. Before, midway, and at the end of training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which V˙O2max and maximal CO were estimated. Compared with CON, significant (P HIIT + SIT (39.8 ± 7.3 mL·kg·min to 43.6 ± 6.1 mL·kg·min), HIIT + HIITHI (41.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min to 44.6 ± 7.0 mL·kg·min), and HIIT + PER (39.5 ± 5.6 mL·kg·min to 44.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg·min) occurred which were mediated by significant increases in maximal CO (20.0 ± 3.1 L·min to 21.7 ± 3.2 L·min, P = 0.04). Maximal stroke volume was increased with HIIT (P = 0.04), although there was no change in maximal HR (P = 0.88) or arteriovenous O2 difference (P = 0.36). These CO data are accurate and represent the mean changes from pre- to post-HIIT across all three training groups. Increases in V˙O2max exhibited in response to different HIIT regimes are due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  11. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T; Porcari, John P

    2015-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. There were significant (p Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key pointsSteady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained studentsMild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state trainingHIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval trainingEnjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program.

  13. Low-Active Male Adolescents: A Dose Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Greig Robert Melrose; Harris, Nigel; Duncan, Scott; Plank, Lindsay D; Merien, Fabrice; Schofield, Grant

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a potential alternative to traditionally recommended steady state exercise for providing health benefits in adolescents, yet its dose-response relationship in this cohort remains unclear, as does its translatability to real-world, nonclinical settings. The present study adopts a novel dose-response design to investigate the effects of undertaking 8 wk of HIIT on the cardiometabolic health of low-active male adolescents. Twenty-six male adolescents (age 16 ± 1 yr), identified as low active by nonparticipation in structured sport and physical education classes, were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Corresponding with their group numbers (1-5), participants completed a number of HIIT "sets," which consisted of 4 repeated bouts of 20-s near-maximal exertion interspersed with 10-s passive recovery. Participants performed two HIIT sessions and one resistance training session each week for 8 wk. Baseline and follow-up health measures consisted of peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2peak) with an incremental ramp test to volitional exhaustion; body composition (including visceral fat mass, body fat, and lean tissue mass) with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; and lipid profile, glucose, insulin, and interleukin-6 from blood analysis. All health outcomes were analyzed as percentage changes, and data were modeled using a quadratic function to explore dose-response relationships. Significant improvements were observed for V˙O2peak (∼6%), body fat percentage (∼4%), visceral fat mass (∼10%), and waist circumference-to-height ratio (∼3%), but there was no clear effect of dose across groups. Low-active adolescent males performing a single HIIT set twice weekly, in addition to one resistance training session, gained meaningful improvements in fitness and body composition. Performing additional HIIT sets provided no additional improvements to those of the lowest dose in this study.

  14. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thum, Jacob S.; Parsons, Gregory; Whittle, Taylor

    2017-01-01

    Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT) may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT) to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2) initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax) with 1 min of active recovery between bouts) or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax) in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013) in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4) versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1). Eleven of 12 participants (92%) preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (pHIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus. Trial Registration: NCT:02981667. PMID:28076352

  15. High-Intensity Interval Training Elicits Higher Enjoyment than Moderate Intensity Continuous Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob S Thum

    Full Text Available Exercise adherence is affected by factors including perceptions of enjoyment, time availability, and intrinsic motivation. Approximately 50% of individuals withdraw from an exercise program within the first 6 mo of initiation, citing lack of time as a main influence. Time efficient exercise such as high intensity interval training (HIIT may provide an alternative to moderate intensity continuous exercise (MICT to elicit substantial health benefits. This study examined differences in enjoyment, affect, and perceived exertion between MICT and HIIT. Twelve recreationally active men and women (age = 29.5 ± 10.7 yr, VO2max = 41.4 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min, BMI = 23.1 ± 2.1 kg/m2 initially performed a VO2max test on a cycle ergometer to determine appropriate workloads for subsequent exercise bouts. Each subject returned for two additional exercise trials, performing either HIIT (eight 1 min bouts of cycling at 85% maximal workload (Wmax with 1 min of active recovery between bouts or MICT (20 min of cycling at 45% Wmax in randomized order. During exercise, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, affect, and blood lactate concentration (BLa were measured. Additionally, the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES was completed after exercise. Results showed higher enjoyment (p = 0.013 in response to HIIT (103.8 ± 9.4 versus MICT (84.2 ± 19.1. Eleven of 12 participants (92% preferred HIIT to MICT. However, affect was lower (p<0.05 and HR, RPE, and BLa were higher (p<0.05 in HIIT versus MICT. Although HIIT is more physically demanding than MICT, individuals report greater enjoyment due to its time efficiency and constantly changing stimulus.NCT:02981667.

  16. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P effect on protein signaling and mRNA expression, and suggest that HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  17. Similar health benefits of endurance and high-intensity interval training in obese children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Corte de Araujo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare two modalities of exercise training (i.e., Endurance Training [ET] and High-Intensity Interval Training [HIT] on health-related parameters in obese children aged between 8 and 12 years. METHODS: Thirty obese children were randomly allocated into either the ET or HIT group. The ET group performed a 30 to 60-minute continuous exercise at 80% of the peak heart rate (HR. The HIT group training performed 3 to 6 sets of 60-s sprint at 100% of the peak velocity interspersed by a 3-min active recovery period at 50% of the exercise velocity. HIT sessions last ~70% less than ET sessions. At baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, aerobic fitness, body composition and metabolic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: BOTH THE ABSOLUTE (ET: 26.0%; HIT: 19.0% and the relative VO(2 peak (ET: 13.1%; HIT: 14.6% were significantly increased in both groups after the intervention. Additionally, the total time of exercise (ET: 19.5%; HIT: 16.4% and the peak velocity during the maximal graded cardiorespiratory test (ET: 16.9%; HIT: 13.4% were significantly improved across interventions. Insulinemia (ET: 29.4%; HIT: 30.5% and HOMA-index (ET: 42.8%; HIT: 37.0% were significantly lower for both groups at POST when compared to PRE. Body mass was significantly reduced in the HIT (2.6%, but not in the ET group (1.2%. A significant reduction in BMI was observed for both groups after the intervention (ET: 3.0%; HIT: 5.0%. The responsiveness analysis revealed a very similar pattern of the most responsive variables among groups. CONCLUSION: HIT and ET were equally effective in improving important health related parameters in obese youth.

  18. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio...

  19. Potential Universal Application of High-intensity Interval Training from Athletes and Sports Lovers to Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Koichiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2017-06-25

    Recently, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has received much attention as a promising exercise option not only to improve aerobic fitness, but also to prevent and improve lifestyle-related diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that the exercise volume, as determined by the product of exercise intensity, duration, and frequency, has been shown to be important for improvements in muscle mitochondrial activity and subsequent improvements in aerobic fitness, insulin sensitivity, and metabolic variables. Therefore, continuous moderate-intensity training has been widely recommended. On the other hand, the main contributor of HIIT to improvements in aerobic fitness and metabolic variables is its high-intensity nature, and many recent studies have shown results favoring HIIT when compared with conventional continuous training, despite its shorter exercise duration and smaller exercise volume. In this review, we aim to show the possible universal application of HIIT in a hospital setting, where athletes, sports lovers, and patients have sought medical advice and have the opportunity to undergo detailed evaluations, including an exercise stress test. For athletes, HIIT is mandatory to achieve further improvements in aerobic fitness. For patients, though higher levels of motivation and careful evaluation are required, the time constraints of HIIT are smaller and both aerobic and resistance training can be expected to yield favorable results because of the high-intensity nature of HIIT.

  20. High-intensity Interval Training Frequency: Cardiometabolic Effects and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinou, Pinelopi S; Bogdanis, Gregory C; Giannaki, Christoforos D; Terzis, Gerasimos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2018-02-01

    The effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) frequency on cardiometabolic health and quality of life were examined in 35 healthy inactive adults (age: 31.7±2.6 yrs, VO 2 peak: 32.7±7.4 ml·: kg -1 ·: min -1 ). Participants were randomly assigned to a control (CON) and two training groups, which performed 10×60-s cycling at ~83% of peak power, two (HIIT-2) or three times per week (HIIT-3) for eight weeks. Compared with CON, both training regimes resulted in similar improvements in VO 2 peak (HIIT-2: 10.8%, p=0.048, HIIT-3: 13.6%, p=0.017), waist circumference (HIIT-2: -1.4 cm, p=0.048, HIIT-3: -2.4 cm, p=0.028), thigh cross-sectional area (HIIT-2: 11.4 cm 2 , p=0.001, HIIT-3: 9.3 cm 2 , p=0.001) and the physical health component of quality of life (HIIT-2: 8.4, p=0.001, HIIT-3: 12.2, p=0.001). However, HIIT-3 conferred additional health-related benefits by reducing total body and trunk fat percentage (pHIIT only twice per week is effective in promoting cardiometabolic health-related adaptations and quality of life in inactive adults. However, higher HIIT frequency is required for an effect on fat deposits, cholesterol and mental component of well-being. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HR peak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HR peak . Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  2. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Drobner, Juliane; Fischer, Tina; Werner, Sarah; Linke, Axel; Mangner, Norman; Schuler, Gerhard; Adams, Volker

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension is a key risk factor for heart failure, with the latter characterized by diaphragm muscle weakness that is mediated in part by increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we used a deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mouse model to determine whether hypertension could independently induce diaphragm dysfunction and further investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sham-treated (n = 11), DOCA-salt-treated (n = 11), and DOCA-salt+HIIT-treated (n = 15) mice were studied over 4 wk. Diaphragm contractile function, protein expression, enzyme activity, and fiber cross-sectional area and type were subsequently determined. Elevated blood pressure confirmed hypertension in DOCA-salt mice independent of HIIT (P HIIT. Myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression tended to decrease (∼30%; P = 0.06) in DOCA-salt vs. sham- and DOCA-salt+HIIT mice, whereas oxidative stress increased (P HIIT further prevented direct oxidant-mediated diaphragm contractile dysfunction (P hypertension induces diaphragm contractile dysfunction via an oxidant-mediated mechanism that is prevented by HIIT.-Bowen, T. S., Eisenkolb, S., Drobner, J., Fischer, T., Werner, S., Linke, A., Mangner, N., Schuler, G., Adams, V. High-intensity interval training prevents oxidant-mediated diaphragm muscle weakness in hypertensive mice. © FASEB.

  3. Light-intensity and high-intensity interval training improve cardiometabolic health in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Connolly, Kylie J; Fenning, Andrew S

    2016-09-01

    Physical activity has the potential to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors but evaluation of different intensities of physical activity and the mechanisms behind their health effects still need to be fully established. This study examined the effects of sedentary behaviour, light-intensity training, and high-intensity interval training on biometric indices, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, and vascular and cardiac function in adult rats. Rats (12 weeks old) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: control (CTL; no exercise), sedentary (SED; no exercise and housed in small cages to reduce activity), light-intensity trained (LIT; four 30-min exercise bouts/day at 8 m/min separated by 2-h rest period, 5 days/week), and high-intensity interval trained (HIIT, four 2.5-min work bouts/day at 50 m/min separated by 3-min rest periods, 5 days/week). After 12 weeks of intervention, SED had greater visceral fat accumulation (p HIIT demonstrated beneficial changes in body weight, visceral and epididymal fat weight, glucose regulation, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and mesenteric vessel contractile response compared with the CTL group (p HIIT had significant improvements in systolic blood pressure and endothelium-independent vasodilation to aorta and mesenteric artery compared with the CTL group (p HIIT induce health benefits by improving traditional cardiometabolic risk factors. LIT improves cardiac health while HIIT promotes improvements in vascular health.

  4. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Wingfield, Hailee L; Blue, Malia N M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two practical interval training protocols on cardiorespiratory fitness, lipids and body composition in overweight/obese women. Thirty women (mean ± SD; weight: 88.1 ± 15.9 kg; BMI: 32.0 ± 6.0 kg · m(2)) were randomly assigned to ten 1-min high-intensity intervals (90%VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or five 2-min high-intensity intervals (80-100% VO2 peak, 1 min recovery) or control. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak), peak power output (PPO), body composition and fasting blood lipids were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of training, completed 3 days per week. Results from ANCOVA analyses demonstrated no significant training group differences for any primary variables (P > 0.05). When training groups were collapsed, 1MIN and 2MIN resulted in a significant increase in PPO (∆18.9 ± 8.5 watts; P = 0.014) and time to exhaustion (∆55.1 ± 16.4 s; P = 0.001); non-significant increase in VO2 peak (∆2.36 ± 1.34 ml · kg(-)(1) · min(-)(1); P = 0.185); and a significant decrease in fat mass (FM) (-∆1.96 ± 0.99 kg; P = 0.011). Short-term interval exercise training may be effective for decreasing FM and improving exercise tolerance in overweight and obese women.

  5. Within-session responses to high-intensity interval training in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-02-01

    Completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake and health status, yet its feasibility in persons with spinal cord injury is unknown. To compare changes in cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables between two interval training regimes and moderate intensity exercise. Nine adults with spinal cord injury (duration = 6.8 ± 6.2 year) initially underwent determination of peak oxygen uptake. During subsequent sessions, they completed moderate intensity exercise, HIIT, or sprint interval training. Oxygen uptake, heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured. Oxygen uptake and heart rate increased (p  0.05) to moderate intensity exercise. Peak oxygen uptake and heart rate were higher (p HIIT (90% peak oxygen uptake and 99% peak heart rate) and sprint interval training (80% peak oxygen uptake and 96% peak heart rate) versus moderate intensity exercise. Despite a higher intensity and peak cardiorespiratory strain, all participants preferred interval training versus moderate exercise. Examining long-term efficacy and feasibility of interval training in this population is merited, considering that exercise intensity is recognized as the most important variable factor of exercise programming to optimize maximal oxygen uptake. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury (SCI) reduces locomotion which impairs voluntary physical activity, typically resulting in a reduction in peak oxygen uptake and enhanced chronic disease risk. In various able-bodied populations, completion of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been consistently reported to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and other health-related outcomes, although its efficacy in persons with SCI is poorly understood. Data from this study in 9 men and women with SCI show similar changes in oxygen uptake and heart in response to HIIT compared to a prolonged bout of aerobic exercise, although peak values were higher in response to HIIT. Due to

  6. Active Recovery After High-Intensity Interval-Training Does Not Attenuate Training Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: High-intensity interval training (HIIT can be extremely demanding and can consequently produce high blood lactate levels. Previous studies have shown that lactate is a potent metabolic stimulus, which is important for adaptation. Active recovery (ACT after intensive exercise, however, enhances blood lactate removal in comparison with passive recovery (PAS and, consequently, may attenuate endurance performance improvements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the influence of regular ACT on training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle.Methods: Twenty-six well-trained male intermittent sport athletes (age: 23.5 ± 2.5 years; O2max: 55.36 ± 3.69 ml min kg-1 participated in a randomized controlled trial consisting of 4 weeks of a running-based HIIT mesocycle with a total of 12 HIIT sessions. After each training session, participants completed 15 min of either moderate jogging (ACT or PAS. Subjects were matched to the ACT or PAS groups according to age and performance. Before the HIIT program and 1 week after the last training session, the athletes performed a progressive incremental exercise test on a motor-driven treadmill to determine O2max, maximum running velocity (vmax, the running velocity at which O2max occurs (vO2max, and anaerobic lactate threshold (AT. Furthermore, repeated sprint ability (RSA were determined.Results: In the whole group the HIIT mesocycle induced significant or small to moderate changes in vmax (p < 0.001, effect size [ES] = 0.65,, vO2max (p < 0.001, ES = 0.62, and AT (p < 0.001, ES = 0.56 compared with the values before the intervention. O2max and RSA remained unchanged throughout the study. In addition, no significant differences in the changes were noted in any of the parameters between ACT and PAS except for AT (p < 0.05, ES = 0.57.Conclusion: Regular use of individualized ACT did not attenuate training adaptations during a HIIT mesocycle compared to PAS. Interestingly, we found that the ACT

  7. Effects of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on pacing during 5-km running trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the influence of a 4-week high-intensity interval training on the pacing strategy adopted by runners during a 5-km running trial. Sixteen male recreational long-distance runners were randomly assigned to a control group (CON, n=8 or a high-intensity interval training group (HIIT, n=8. The HIIT group performed high-intensity interval-training twice per week, while the CON group maintained their regular training program. Before and after the training period, the runners performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion to measure the onset of blood lactate accumulation, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, and peak treadmill speed (PTS. A submaximal constant-speed test to measure the running economy (RE and a 5-km running trial on an outdoor track to establish pacing strategy and performance were also done. During the 5-km running trial, the rating of perceived exertion (RPE and time to cover the 5-km trial (T5 were registered. After the training period, there were significant improvements in the HIIT group of ∼7 and 5% for RE (P=0.012 and PTS (P=0.019, respectively. There was no significant difference between the groups for VO2max (P=0.495 or onset of blood lactate accumulation (P=0.101. No difference was found in the parameters measured during the 5-km trial before the training period between HIIT and CON (P>0.05. These findings suggest that 4 weeks of HIIT can improve some traditional physiological variables related to endurance performance (RE and PTS, but it does not alter the perception of effort, pacing strategy, or overall performance during a 5-km running trial.

  8. Whole-Body High-Intensity Interval Training Induce Similar Cardiorespiratory Adaptations Compared With Traditional High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Pinto, Stephanie S; Silva, Mariana R; Dolinski, Davi B; Alberton, Cristine L

    2018-05-07

    Schaun, GZ, Pinto, SS, Silva, MR, Dolinski, DB, and Alberton, CL. Sixteen weeks of whole-body high-intensity interval training induce similar cardiorespiratory responses compared with traditional high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols that use the body weight as resistance could be an interesting and inexpensive alternative to traditional ergometer-based high-intensity interval training (HIIT-T) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Therefore, our aim was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of whole-body HIIT (HIIT-WB), HIIT-T, and MICT on maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), second ventilatory threshold (VT2), and running economy (RE) outcomes. Fifty-five healthy men (23.7 ± 0.7 years, 1.79 ± 0.01 m, 78.5 ± 1.7 kg) were randomized into 3 training groups (HIIT-T = 17; HIIT-WB = 19; MICT = 19) for 16 weeks (3× per week). The HIIT-T group performed eight 20-second bouts at 130% of the velocity associated to V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) interspersed by 10-second passive recovery on a treadmill, whereas HIIT-WB group performed the same protocol but used calisthenics exercises at an all-out intensity instead of treadmill running. Finally, MICT group exercised for 30 minutes at 90-95% of the heart rate (HR) associated to VT2. After the intervention, all groups improved V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max, time to exhaustion (Tmax), VT2, velocity associated with VT2 (vVT2), and time to reach VT2 (tVT2) significantly (p HIIT-T compared with HIIT-WB (p HIIT-WB can be as effective as traditional HIIT while also being time-efficient compared with MICT to improve health-related outcomes after 16 weeks of training. However, HIIT-T and MICT seem preferable to enhance performance-related outcomes compared with HIIT-WB.

  9. Short-Term (<8 Weeks) High-Intensity Interval Training in Diseased Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, James E M; Doleman, Brett; Herrod, Philip J J; Ricketts, Samuel; Phillips, Bethan E; Lund, Jonathan N; Williams, John P

    2018-04-21

    Exercise training regimes can lead to improvements in measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), improved general health, and reduced morbidity and overall mortality risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a time-efficient approach to improve CRF in healthy individuals, but the relative benefits of HIIT compared to traditional training methods are unknown in across different disease cohorts. This systematic review and meta-analysis compares CRF gains in randomised controlled trials of short-term (HIIT vs. either no exercise control (CON) or moderate continuous exercise training (MCT) within diseased cohorts. Literature searches of the following databases were performed: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, and PubMed (all from inception to 1st December 2017), with further searches of Clinicaltrials.gov and citations via Google Scholar. Primary outcomes were effect upon CRF variables; VO2peak and Anaerobic Threshold (AT). Thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. HIIT resulted in a clinically significant increase in VO2peak compared with CON (mean difference (MD) 3.32 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 2.56 to 2.08). Overall HIIT provided added benefit to VO2peak over MCT (MD 0.79 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.20 to 1.39). The benefit of HIIT was most marked in patients with cardiovascular disease when compared to MCT (VO2peak (MD 1.66 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.60 to 2.73); AT (MD 1.61 ml[BULLET OPERATOR]kg[BULLET OPERATOR]min; 95% CI 0.33 to 2.90)). HIIT elicits improvements in objective measures of CRF within 8 weeks in diseased cohorts compared to no intervention. When compared to MCT, HIIT imparts statistically significant additional improvements in measures of CRF, with clinically important additional improvements in VO2peak in cardiovascular patients. Comparative efficacy of HIIT vs MCT combined with an often reduced time commitment may warrant HIIT's promotion as a viable clinical

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane; Støylen, Asbjørn; Dalen, Håvard; Delagardelle, Charles; Larsen, Alf-Inge; Hole, Torstein; Mezzani, Alessandro; Van Craenenbroeck, Emeline M; Videm, Vibeke; Beckers, Paul; Christle, Jeffrey W; Winzer, Ephraim; Mangner, Norman; Woitek, Felix; Höllriegel, Robert; Pressler, Axel; Monk-Hansen, Tea; Snoer, Martin; Feiereisen, Patrick; Valborgland, Torstein; Kjekshus, John; Hambrecht, Rainer; Gielen, Stephan; Karlsen, Trine; Prescott, Eva; Linke, Axel

    2017-02-28

    Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate, MCT at 60% to 70% of maximal heart rate, or RRE. Thereafter, patients were encouraged to continue exercising on their own. Clinical assessments were performed at baseline, after the intervention, and at follow-up after 52 weeks. Primary end point was a between-group comparison of change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT ( P =0.45); left ventricular end-diastolic diameter changes compared with RRE were -2.8 mm (-5.2 to -0.4 mm; P =0.02) in HIIT and -1.2 mm (-3.6 to 1.2 mm; P =0.34) in MCT. There was also no difference between HIIT and MCT in peak oxygen uptake ( P =0.70), but both were superior to RRE. However, none of these changes was maintained at follow-up after 52 weeks. Serious adverse events were not statistically different during supervised intervention or at follow-up at 52 weeks (HIIT, 39%; MCT, 25%; RRE, 34%; P =0.16). Training records showed that 51% of patients exercised below prescribed target during supervised HIIT and 80% above target in MCT. HIIT was not superior to MCT in changing left ventricular remodeling or aerobic capacity, and its feasibility remains unresolved in patients with heart failure. URL: http

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Øyvind; Halle, Martin; Conraads, Viviane

    2017-01-01

    Background: Small studies have suggested that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate continuous training (MCT) in reversing cardiac remodeling and increasing aerobic capacity in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. The present multicenter trial...... compared 12 weeks of supervised interventions of HIIT, MCT, or a recommendation of regular exercise (RRE). Methods: Two hundred sixty-one patients with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% and New York Heart Association class II to III were randomly assigned to HIIT at 90% to 95% of maximal heart rate...... ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks. Results: Groups did not differ in age (median, 60 years), sex (19% women), ischemic pathogenesis (59%), or medication. Change in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter from baseline to 12 weeks was not different between HIIT and MCT (P=0.45); left...

  12. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique E. Francois

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  13. Carbohydrate-Restriction with High-Intensity Interval Training: An Optimal Combination for Treating Metabolic Diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Gillen, Jenna B; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions incorporating both diet and exercise strategies remain cornerstone therapies for treating metabolic disease. Carbohydrate-restriction and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have independently been shown to improve cardiovascular and metabolic health. Carbohydrate-restriction reduces postprandial hyperglycemia, thereby limiting potential deleterious metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of excessive glucose excursions. Additionally, carbohydrate-restriction has been shown to improve body composition and blood lipids. The benefits of exercise for improving insulin sensitivity are well known. In this regard, HIIT has been shown to rapidly improve glucose control, endothelial function, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Here, we report the available evidence for each strategy and speculate that the combination of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT will synergistically maximize the benefits of both approaches. We hypothesize that this lifestyle strategy represents an optimal intervention to treat metabolic disease; however, further research is warranted in order to harness the potential benefits of carbohydrate-restriction and HIIT for improving cardiometabolic health.

  14. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  15. Physiological, Perceptual, and Affective Responses to Six High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follador, Lucio; Alves, Ragami C; Ferreira, Sandro Dos S; Buzzachera, Cosme F; Andrade, Vinicius F Dos S; Garcia, Erick D S de A; Osiecki, Raul; Barbosa, Sara C; de Oliveira, Letícia M; da Silva, Sergio G

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the extent to which different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) protocols could influence psychophysiological responses in moderately active young men. Fourteen participants completed, in a randomized order, three cycling protocols (SIT: 4 × 30-second all-out sprints; Tabata: 7 × 20 seconds at 170% ⋮O 2max ; and HIIT: 10 × 60 seconds at 90% HR max ) and three running HIIT protocols (4 × 4 minutes at 90%-95% HR max , 5 × at v⋮O 2max , and 4 × 1,000 meters at a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 8, from the OMNI-Walk/Run scale). Oxygen uptake (⋮O 2 ), heart rate, and RPE were recorded during each interval. Affective responses were assessed before and after each trial. The Tabata protocol elicited the highest ⋮O 2 and RPE responses, and the least pleasant session-affect among the cycling trials. The v⋮O 2max elicited the highest ⋮O 2 and RPE responses and the lowest mean session-affect among the running trials. Findings highlight the limited application of SIT and some HIIT protocols to individuals with low fitness levels.

  16. Changes in fat oxidation in response to various regimes of high intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd Anthony; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    Increased whole-body fat oxidation (FOx) has been consistently demonstrated in response to moderate intensity continuous exercise training. Completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and its more intense form, sprint interval training (SIT), has also been reported to increase FOx in different populations. An explanation for this increase in FOx is primarily peripheral adaptations via improvements in mitochondrial content and function. However, studies examining changes in FOx are less common in response to HIIT or SIT than those determining increases in maximal oxygen uptake which is concerning, considering that FOx has been identified as a predictor of weight gain and glycemic control. In this review, we explored physiological and methodological issues underpinning existing literature concerning changes in FOx in response to HIIT and SIT. Our results show that completion of interval training increases FOx in approximately 50% of studies, with the frequency of increased FOx higher in response to studies using HIIT compared to SIT. Significant increases in β-HAD, citrate synthase, fatty acid binding protein, or FAT/CD36 are likely responsible for the greater FOx seen in these studies. We encourage scientists to adopt strict methodological procedures to attenuate day-to-day variability in FOx, which is dramatic, and develop standardized procedures for assessing FOx, which may improve detection of changes in FOx in response to HIIT.

  17. A single bout of high-intensity interval training reduces awareness of subsequent hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijackers, H.M.M.; Wiegers, E.C.; Graaf, M. van der; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Tack, C.J.J.; Galan, B.E. de

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) gains increasing popularity in patients with diabetes. HIIT acutely increases plasma lactate levels. This may be important, since administration of lactate during hypoglycemia suppresses symptoms and counterregulation, whilst preserving cognitive function. We

  18. Does a single session of high-intensity interval training provoke a transient elevated risk of falling in seniors and adults?

    OpenAIRE

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Balance and strength training can reduce seniors' fall risk up to 50%. Available evidence suggests that acute bouts of neuromuscular and endurance exercise deteriorate postural control. High-intensity endurance training has been successfully applied in different populations. Thus, it seemed valuable to examine the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on neuromuscular performance in seniors and young adults.; The acute impact of a HIIT session on balance performance and mus...

  19. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Foster, Courtney V. Farland, Flavia Guidotti, Michelle Harbin, Brianna Roberts, Jeff Schuette, Andrew Tuuri, Scott T. Doberstein, John P. Porcari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly. Steady-state (n = 19 exercised (cycle ergometer 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT. Tabata (n = 21 completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15 completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05 increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18% and PPO (+17, +24 and +14% for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5% & mean (+4, +7 and +6% power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05 than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05 across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults.

  20. High-Intensity Interval Training in Patients with Substance Use Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Flemmen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with substance use disorder (SUD suffer a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and other lifestyle diseases compared to the general population. High intensity training has been shown to effectively reduce this risk, and therefore we aimed to examine the feasibility and effect of such training in SUD patients in clinical treatment in the present study. 17 males and 7 females (32 ± 8 yr in treatment were randomized to either a training group (TG, treadmill interval training in 4 × 4 minutes at 90–95% of maximal heart rate, 3 days a week for 8 weeks, or a conventional rehabilitation control group (CG. Baseline values for both groups combined at inclusion were 44 ± 8 (males and 34 ± 9 (females mL · min−1 · kg−1, respectively. 9/12 and 7/12 patients completed the TG and CG, respectively. Only the TG significantly improved (15 ± 7% their maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, from 42.3 ± 7.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at pretest to 48.7 ± 9.2 mL · min−1 · kg−1 at posttest. No between-group differences were observed in work economy, and level of insomnia (ISI or anxiety and depression (HAD, but a significant within-group improvement in depression was apparent for the TG. High intensity training was feasible for SUD patients in treatment. This training form should be implemented as a part of the rehabilitation since it, in contrast to the conventional treatment, represents a risk reduction for cardiovascular disease and premature death.

  1. Cardiac autonomic response following high-intensity running work-to-rest interval manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Laursen, Paul B; Plews, Daniel J

    2016-10-01

    The cardiorespiratory, cardiac autonomic (via heart rate variability (HRV)) and plasma volume responses to varying sequences of high-intensity interval training (HIT) of consistent external work were investigated. Twelve moderately trained males underwent three HIT bouts and one control session. The HIT trials consisted of warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s work:relief HIT sequences at an exercise intensity of 100% of the individual velocity at [Formula: see text]O2max (v[Formula: see text]O2max), interspersed by relief intervals at 60% [Formula: see text]O2max (work/relief ratio = 1). HRV was evaluated via the square root of the mean sum of the squared differences between R-R intervals (rMSSD) before, 1 h, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. Plasma volume was assessed before, immediately after, and 3 h and 24 h after. There were no substantial between-trial differences in acute cardiorespiratory responses. The rMSSD values remained decreased 1 h after the exercise cessation in all exercise groups. The rMSSD subsequently increased between 1 h and 3 h after exercise, with the most pronounced change in the 15/15 group. There were no relationships between HRV and plasma volume. All HIT protocols resulted in similar cardiorespiratory responses with slightly varying post-exercise HRV responses, with the 30/30 protocol eliciting the least disruption to post-exercise HRV. These post-exercise HRV findings suggest that the 30/30 sequence may be the preferable HIT prescription when the between-training period is limited.

  2. High-intensity interval exercise attenuates but does not eliminate endothelial dysfunction after a fast food meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Wesley J; Sawyer, Brandon J; Jarrett, Catherine L; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Angadi, Siddhartha S; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2018-02-01

    We investigated whether two different bouts of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) could attenuate postprandial endothelial dysfunction. Thirteen young (27 ± 1 yr), nonexercise-trained men underwent three randomized conditions: 1) four 4-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 3 min of active recovery (HIIE 4 × 4), 2) 16 1-min intervals at 85-95% of maximum heart rate separated by 1 min of active recovery (HIIE 16 × 1), and 3) sedentary control. HIIE was performed in the afternoon, ~18 h before the morning fast food meal (1,250 kcal, 63g of fat). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was performed before HIIE ( baseline 1), during fasting before meal ingestion ( baseline 2), and 30 min, 2 h, and 4 h postprandial. Capillary glucose and triglycerides were assessed at fasting, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h (triglycerides only). Both HIIE protocols increased fasting FMD compared with control (HIIE 4 × 4: 6.1 ± 0.4%, HIIE 16 × 1: 6.3 ± 0.5%, and control: 5.1 ± 0.4%, P fast food meal can attenuate but not entirely eliminate postprandial decreases in FMD. This effect is not dependent on reductions in postprandial lipemia or glycemia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Two similar high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) protocols performed ∼18 h before ingestion of a high-energy fast food meal attenuated but did not entirely eliminate postprandial endothelial dysfunction in young men largely by improving fasting endothelial function. Both HIIE protocols produced essentially identical results, suggesting high reproducibility of HIIE effects.

  3. Comparison of different volumes of high intensity interval training on cardiac autonomic function in sedentary young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhati, Pooja; Bansal, Vishal; Moiz, Jamal Ali

    2017-08-24

    Purpose The present study was conducted to compare the effects of low volume of high intensity interval training (LVHIIT) and high volume of high intensity interval training (HVHIIT) on heart rate variability (HRV) as a primary outcome measure, and on maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max), body composition, and lower limb muscle strength as secondary outcome measures, in sedentary young women. Methods Thirty-six participants were recruited in this study. The LVHIIT group (n = 17) performed one 4-min bout of treadmill running at 85%-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), followed by 3 min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, three times per week for 6 weeks. The HVHIIT group (n = 15) performed four times 4-min bouts of treadmill running at 85%-95% HRmax, interspersed with 3-min of recovery by running at 70% HRmax, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. All criterion measures were measured before and after training in both the groups. Results Due to attrition of four cases, data of 32 participants was used for analysis. A significant increase in high frequency (HF) power (p high frequency power (LF/HF) ratio (p body composition, and muscle strength. Conclusion The study results suggest that both LVHIIT and HVHIIT are equally effective in improving VO2max, body composition, and muscle strength, in sedentary young women. However, HVHIIT induces parasympathetic dominance as well, as measured by HRV.

  4. Continuous and high-intensity interval training: which promotes higher pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno R R Oliveira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To compare the psychological responses to continuous (CT and high-intensity interval training (HIT sessions. METHODS: Fifteen men attended one CT session and one HIT session. During the first visit, the maximum heart rate, VO2Peak and respiratory compensation point (RCP were determined through a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test. The HIT stimulus intensity corresponded to 100% of VO2Peak, and the average intensity of both sessions was maintained at 15% below the RCP. The order of the sessions was randomized. Psychological and physiological variables were recorded before, during and after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the average percentages of VO2 during the two exercise sessions (HIT: 73.3% vs. CT: 71.8%; p = 0.779. Lower responses on the feeling scale (p≤0.01 and higher responses on the felt arousal scale (p≤0.001 and the rating of perceived exertion were obtained during the HIT session. Despite the more negative feeling scale responses observed during HIT and a greater feeling of fatigue (measured by Profile of Mood States afterwards (p<0.01, the physical activity enjoyment scale was not significantly different between the two conditions (p = 0.779. CONCLUSION: Despite the same average intensity for both conditions, similar psychological responses under HIT and CT conditions were not observed, suggesting that the higher dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIT negatively influenced the feeling scale responses.

  5. Acute Hypotension after High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

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    Morales-Palomo, Felix; Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Pallarés, Jesús G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m -2 ) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (T INT ), forearm skin blood flow (S K BF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (Pexercise T INT and S K BF increased only after HIIT (all Pexercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

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    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  7. High-intensity interval exercise and cerebrovascular health: curiosity, cause, and consequence.

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    Lucas, Samuel J E; Cotter, James D; Brassard, Patrice; Bailey, Damian M

    2015-06-01

    Exercise is a uniquely effective and pluripotent medicine against several noncommunicable diseases of westernised lifestyles, including protection against neurodegenerative disorders. High-intensity interval exercise training (HIT) is emerging as an effective alternative to current health-related exercise guidelines. Compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise training, HIT confers equivalent if not indeed superior metabolic, cardiac, and systemic vascular adaptation. Consequently, HIT is being promoted as a more time-efficient and practical approach to optimize health thereby reducing the burden of disease associated with physical inactivity. However, no studies to date have examined the impact of HIT on the cerebrovasculature and corresponding implications for cognitive function. This review critiques the implications of HIT for cerebrovascular function, with a focus on the mechanisms and translational impact for patient health and well-being. It also introduces similarly novel interventions currently under investigation as alternative means of accelerating exercise-induced cerebrovascular adaptation. We highlight a need for studies of the mechanisms and thereby also the optimal dose-response strategies to guide exercise prescription, and for studies to explore alternative approaches to optimize exercise outcomes in brain-related health and disease prevention. From a clinical perspective, interventions that selectively target the aging brain have the potential to prevent stroke and associated neurovascular diseases.

  8. High intensity interval training improves liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity

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    Marcinko, Katarina; Sikkema, Sarah R.; Samaan, M. Constantine; Kemp, Bruce E.; Fullerton, Morgan D.; Steinberg, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endurance exercise training reduces insulin resistance, adipose tissue inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), an effect often associated with modest weight loss. Recent studies have indicated that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) lowers blood glucose in individuals with type 2 diabetes independently of weight loss; however, the organs affected and mechanisms mediating the glucose lowering effects are not known. Intense exercise increases phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in muscle, adipose tissue and liver. AMPK and ACC are key enzymes regulating fatty acid metabolism, liver fat content, adipose tissue inflammation and insulin sensitivity but the importance of this pathway in regulating insulin sensitivity with HIIT is unknown. Methods In the current study, the effects of 6 weeks of HIIT were examined using obese mice with serine–alanine knock-in mutations on the AMPK phosphorylation sites of ACC1 and ACC2 (AccDKI) or wild-type (WT) controls. Results HIIT lowered blood glucose and increased exercise capacity, food intake, basal activity levels, carbohydrate oxidation and liver and adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed WT and AccDKI mice. These changes occurred independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, inflammation and liver lipid content. Conclusions These data indicate that HIIT lowers blood glucose levels by improving adipose and liver insulin sensitivity independently of changes in adiposity, adipose tissue inflammation, liver lipid content or AMPK phosphorylation of ACC. PMID:26909307

  9. High-intensity interval training programme for obese youth (HIP4YOUTH): A pilot feasibility study.

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    Lee, SoJung; Spector, Jenna; Reilly, Stephanie

    2017-09-01

    Recently, there has been growing interest in high-intensity interval training (HIT) as a strategy to improve health. In this pilot study, we examined the feasibility of a 4-week low-volume HIT and its effects on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure (BP) and enjoyment in overweight and obese youth. Twelve adolescents (body mass index (BMI): 34.8 ± 3.9 kg · m ‒ 2 , 14.9 ± 1.5 years) participated in 12 sessions of HIT (10 × 60 s cycling bouts eliciting ~90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 90 s recovery, 30 min/session, 3 sessions/week) over ~4 weeks. All the participants completed the study and exercise attendance averaged 92%. Despite no changes in body weight and total fat, HIT resulted in significant (P HIT and more than half of the participants (58%) reported that HIT is a more enjoyable form of exercise compared to other types of exercises. Low-volume HIT is a useful strategy to promote exercise participation and improve cardiovascular health in overweight and obese youth.

  10. Effect of 8 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Levels of Adiponectin and Leptin in Overweight Nurses

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    Sahar Avazpor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High intensity interval training (HIIT is a novel training method which has received most attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT on plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in overweight nurses.Materials and Methods: 27 nurses (mean age 25.81±60 years, height 158.01±67 cm and weight 69.41±25 kg were voluntarily selected and randomly assigned to three groups (each group 9 subjects: 1. HIIT (type 1 including 8 seconds of sprint running and 12 seconds of active recovery 2. HIIT (type 2 including 40-m shuttle run with maximum speed 3. Control group. HIIT (type 1 was performed for eight weeks, three sessions per week, each session 6-9 min. With more than 90% HRmax. HIIT (type 2 was applied for eight weeks, three sessions per week with more than 90% HRmax. The control group did not participate in any training protocol.Results: The data were analyzed by the dependent t test and ANOVA. The results showed that the HIIT (type 1 and (type 2 had significant effects on plasma leptin decrease and plasma adiponectin concentration increase in nurses. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to analyze the intergroup data at p˂0.05.Conclusion: The results showed a significant difference in the variables (leptin and adiponectin among HIIT (type 1, HIIT (type 2 and control.

  11. Increased cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake in response to ten sessions of high intensity interval training.

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    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; King, Leesa; Gallant, Rachael M; Namm, Samantha; Fischer, Anthony; Wood, Kimi A

    2018-01-01

    Increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) are widely reported in response to completion of high intensity interval training (HIIT), yet the mechanism explaining this result is poorly understood. This study examined changes in VO2max and cardiac output (CO) in response to 10 sessions of low-volume HIIT. Participants included 30 active men and women (mean age and VO2max=22.9±5.4 years and 39.6±5.6 mL/kg/min) who performed HIIT and 30 men and women (age and VO2max=25.7±4.5 years and 40.7±5.2 mL/kg/min) who served as non-exercising controls (CON). High intensity interval training consisted of 6-10 s bouts of cycling per session at 90-110 percent peak power output (PPO) interspersed with 75 s recovery. Before and after training, progressive cycling to exhaustion was completed during which CO, stroke volume (SV), and heart rate (HR) were estimated using thoracic impedance. To confirm VO2max attainment, a verification test was completed after progressive cycling at a work rate equal to 110%PPO. Data demonstrated significant improvements in VO2max (2.71±0.63 L/min to 2.86±0.63 L/min, Psessions of HIIT is due to improvements in oxygen delivery.

  12. Cardioprotective Effect of High Intensity Interval Training and Nitric Oxide Metabolites (NO2 (-), NO3 (-)).

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    Fallahi, Aliasghar; Gaeini, Abbasali; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on nitric oxide metabolites (NO2(-), NO3(-)) and myocardial infarct size after Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) injury in healthy male rats. A total of 44 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups including HIIT (n=8), HIIT + IR protocol (n=14), control (n=8), and control + IR (n=14). Each training session of HIIT consisted of 1 hour of exercise in three stages: 6-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for warm-up; 7 intervals of 7-minute running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 minutes with an intensity of 80-100% VO2max and 3 minutes at 50-60% VO2max); and 5-minute running at 50-60% VO2max for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Nitric Oxide (NO) and its metabolites were measured by using Griess reaction test. The results showed that eight weeks of exercise training exerted a significantly increasing effect on nitrite (8.55 μmol per liter, equivalent to 34.79%), nitrate (62.02 μmol per liter, equivalent to 149.48%), and NOx (66 μmol per liter, equivalent to 98.11%) in the HIIT group compared with the control group. The results showed myocardial infract size (IS) was significantly smaller (23.2%, PHIIT program can protect the heart from I/R injury and decrease myocardial infarction.

  13. IL-6, Antioxidant Capacity and Muscle Damage Markers Following High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols.

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    Cipryan, Lukas

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate changes of interleukin-6 (IL-6), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and muscle damage markers (creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)) in response to three different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols of identical external work. Twelve moderately-trained males participated in the three HIIT trials which consisted of a warm-up, followed by 12 min of 15 s, 30 s or 60 s HIIT sequences with the work/rest ratio 1. The biochemical markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and muscle damage were analysed POST, 3 h and 24 h after the exercise. All HIIT protocols caused an immediate increase in IL-6, TAC, CK, myoglobin and LDH. The most pronounced between-trials differences were found for the POST-exercise changes in IL-6 (Effect size ± 90% confidence interval: 1.51 ± 0.63, 0.84 ± 0.34 and 1.80 ± 0.60 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively) and myoglobin (1.11 ± 0.29, 0.45 ± 0.48 and 1.09 ± 0.22 for the 15s/15s, 30s/30s and 60s/60s protocol, respectively). There were no substantial between-trial differences in other biochemical variables. In conclusion, the 15s/15s and 60s/60s protocols might be preferred to the 30s/30s protocols in order to maximize the training stimulus.

  14. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

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    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  15. Effect of endurance and high intensity interval swimming training on cardiac structure and Hand2 expression of rats

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    Mohammad Ali Gharaat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: In the situation of the present study, both of Endurance and Interval training regimens increase Hand2 gene expression, heart weight and left ventricle weight. Because of the shorter training time, high intensity interval training can be more beneficial to be executed.

  16. High-Intensity Interval Exercises' Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.

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    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2018-01-01

    Schaun, GZ and Del Vecchio, FB. High-intensity interval exercises' acute impact on heart rate variability: comparison between whole-body and cycle ergometer protocols. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 223-229, 2018-Study aimed to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability. Twelve young adult males (23.3 ± 3.9 years, 177.8 ± 7.4 cm, 76.9 ± 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed 2 HIIT protocols, 1 on a cycle ergometer (Tabata protocol [TBT]; eight 20-second bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10-second rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (McRae protocol; eight 20-second all-out intervals interspersed by 10-second rest). Heart rate variability outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on 3 moments: (a) presession; (b) immediately postsession; and (c) 24 hours postsession. Results revealed that RRmean, Ln rMSSD, Ln high frequency (HF), and Ln low frequency (LF) were significantly reduced immediately postsession (p ≤ 0.001) and returned to baseline 24 h after both protocols. In addition, LF/HF ratio was reduced 24 h postsession (p ≤ 0.01) and SD2 was significantly lower immediately postsession only in TBT. Our main finding was that responses from heart rate autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed. Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after session with subsequent recovery within 1 day. These results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols.

  17. Personalised Prescription of Scalable High Intensity Interval Training to Inactive Female Adults of Different Ages.

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    Jacqueline L Mair

    Full Text Available Stepping is a convenient form of scalable high-intensity interval training (HIIT that may lead to health benefits. However, the accurate personalised prescription of stepping is hampered by a lack of evidence on optimal stepping cadences and step heights for various populations. This study examined the acute physiological responses to stepping exercise at various heights and cadences in young (n = 14 and middle-aged (n = 14 females in order to develop an equation that facilitates prescription of stepping at targeted intensities. Participants completed a step test protocol consisting of randomised three-minute bouts at different step cadences (80, 90, 100, 110 steps·min-1 and step heights (17, 25, 30, 34 cm. Aerobic demand and heart rate values were measured throughout. Resting metabolic rate was measured in order to develop female specific metabolic equivalents (METs for stepping. Results revealed significant differences between age groups for METs and heart rate reserve, and within-group differences for METs, heart rate, and metabolic cost, at different step heights and cadences. At a given step height and cadence, middle-aged females were required to work at an intensity on average 1.9 ± 0.26 METs greater than the younger females. A prescriptive equation was developed to assess energy cost in METs using multilevel regression analysis with factors of step height, step cadence and age. Considering recent evidence supporting accumulated bouts of HIIT exercise for health benefits, this equation, which allows HIIT to be personally prescribed to inactive and sedentary women, has potential impact as a public health exercise prescription tool.

  18. Lymphocyte Redox Imbalance and Reduced Proliferation after a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Exercise.

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    Tossige-Gomes, Rosalina; Costa, Karine Beatriz; Ottone, Vinícius de Oliveira; Magalhães, Flávio de Castro; Amorim, Fabiano Trigueiro; Rocha-Vieira, Etel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is sufficient to alter lymphocyte function and redox status. Sixteen young healthy men underwent a HIIT session on a cycloergometer, consisting of eight bouts of 1 min at 90-100% of peak power, with 75 seconds of active recovery at 30 W between bouts. Venous blood was collected before, immediately after, and 30 minutes after the HIIT session. In response to Staphylococcus aureus superantigen B (SEB) stimulation, lymphocyte proliferation decreased and the IL-2 concentration increased after the HIIT session. However, the HIIT session had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation or IL-2 response to phytohemagglutinin stimulation. The HIIT session also induced lymphocyte redox imbalance, characterized by an increase in the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in the activity of the antioxidant enzyme catalase. Lymphocyte viability was not affected by the HIIT session. The frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ T helper and B lymphocytes in response to superantigen stimulation were lower after exercise, suggesting that superantigen-induced lymphocyte activation was reduced by HIIT. However, HIIT also led to a reduction in the frequency of CD4+ and CD19+ cells, so the frequencies of CD25+ and CD69+ cells within the CD4 and CD19 cell populations were not affected by HIIT. These data indicate that the reduced lymphocyte proliferation observed after HIIT is not due to reduced early lymphocyte activation by superantigen. Our findings show that an acute HIIT session promotes lymphocyte redox imbalance and reduces lymphocyte proliferation in response to superantigenic, but not to mitogenic stimulation. This observation cannot be explained by alteration of the early lymphocyte activation response to superantigen. The manner in which lymphocyte function modulation by an acute HIIT session can affect individual immunity and susceptibility to infection is important

  19. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

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    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  20. High-Intensity Interval or Continuous-Moderate Exercise: A 24-Week Pilot Trial.

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    Locke, Sean R; Bourne, Jessica E; Beauchamp, Mark R; Little, Jonathan P; Barry, Julianne; Singer, Joel; Jung, Mary E

    2018-05-14

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may lead to superior cardiometabolic improvements when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). However, adherence to HIIT requires examination. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) adherence 24 weeks following a brief counselling intervention combined with either HIIT or MICT. Individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) were randomized to HIIT (n = 15) or MICT (n = 17) and completed 10 exercise sessions accompanied by a brief 10-minute counselling intervention over a 2-week period. Objectively measured purposeful MVPA (accelerometry) and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) were assessed at baseline and 24 weeks post-intervention. Self-regulatory efficacy and task self-efficacy were examined at baseline, post-intervention and 24 weeks post-intervention. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, change scores were calculated for HIIT and MICT and compared between groups. Individuals assigned to HIIT increased their MVPA by 53 minutes (Cohen's d=1.52) at 24 weeks compared to 19 minutes in MICT (tbetween=1.96, p=.06, d =.56). Both HIIT and MICT increased relative VO2peak by 2 and 1 ml/kg/min, respectively (tbetween=0.72, p=0.47). Participants in both groups increased in their self-regulatory and task self-efficacy post-intervention but both groups demonstrated similar decline at 24 weeks. This pilot intervention was successful in increasing, and maintaining, free-living MVPA over a 24-week period in individuals at high risk of T2D. Speculation that HIIT is inappropriate or unattainable for overweight individuals at high risk of T2D may be unfounded.

  1. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training

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    Hadi Sarir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and Scope: The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a and interleukin-6 (IL-6 production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C, supplementation (S, HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day was conducted for 6 weeks. Results: Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002. Also, serum TNF-a concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001 in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-a when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05. However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-a (P = 0.31 and IL-6 (P = 0.52 concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. Conclusion: HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  2. Effect of vitamin E succinate on inflammatory cytokines induced by high-intensity interval training.

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    Sarir, Hadi; Emdadifard, Ghodsieh; Farhangfar, Homayoun; TaheriChadorneshin, Hossein

    2015-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin E under moderate exercises has been evaluated. However, the effect of vitamin E succinate, which has more potent anti-inflammatory effect than other isomers of vitamin E has not been evaluated. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E succinate on tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production induced by high-intensity interval training (HIIT). In the present study, 24 rats were randomly divided into control (C), supplementation (S), HIIT, and HIIT + supplementation (HIIT+S) groups. HIIT training protocol on a treadmill (at a speed of 40-54 m/min) and vitamin E succinate supplementation (60 mg/kg/day) was conducted for 6 weeks. Serum IL-6 in the HIIT group significantly increased compared with the C group (350.42 ± 123.31 pg/mL vs 158.60 ± 41.96 pg/mL; P = 0.002). Also, serum TNF-α concentrations significantly enhanced (718.15 ± 133.42 pg/mL vs 350.87 ± 64.93 pg/mL; P = 0.001) in the HIIT group compared with the C group. Treatment of the training group with vitamin E numerically reduced IL-6 and TNF-α when compared with the HIIT group (217.31 ± 29.21 and 510.23 ± 217.88, respectively, P > 0.05). However, no significant changes were observed in serum TNF-α (P = 0.31) and IL-6 (P = 0.52) concentrations in the HIIT + S group compared with the C group. HIIT-induced IL-6 and TNF-α decreased by administration of Vitamin E succinate.

  3. [Effects of high-intensity interval training and nutritional education in patients with type 2 diabetes].

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    Mangiamarchi, Pedro; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Patricio; Morales, Sylvana; Cano-Montoya, Johnattan; Bresciani, Guilherme; Álvarez, Cristian

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves cardiometabolic markers, but its effects on the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is not well known. To determine the effects of a 12-week HIIT exercise program on cardiometabolic and quality of life variables of T2D patients. Nine T2D women were assigned to a HIIT + nutritional education (GE) and 10, to a nutritional education alone group (GC). At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometric and body composition parameters using bio-impedance were assessed, and a blood sample was obtained to measure serum lipid levels, blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire adapted for the Chilean population. There were no significant changes on the lipid profile variables in the GE group, although HDL cholesterol was increased significantly (p < 0.05) in the GC group. Total fat mass was decreased in the GE group from 43.5 ± 1.5 to 41.9 ± 1.5%, p < 0.01. Fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin decreased in the GE group. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in total fat mass and that of glycated hemoglobin. There were significant increases in quality of life parameters; physical function, physical role, pain, general health, vitality, emotional role, mental health, and social function in the GE but not in the GC group. A 12-week program of HIIT plus nutritional education improves cardiometabolic and quality of life parameters on type 2 diabetics.

  4. High-intensity interval training reduces abdominal fat mass in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

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    Maillard, F; Rousset, S; Pereira, B; Traore, A; de Pradel Del Amaze, P; Boirie, Y; Duclos, M; Boisseau, N

    2016-12-01

    This study compared the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) for 16 weeks on whole-body and abdominal fat mass (FM) in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Seventeen women (69±1 years; BMI: 31±1kg.m -2 ) were randomly assigned to either a HIIT [60×(8s at 77-85% HR max , 12s of active recovery)] or MICT (40min at 55-60% of their individual HRR) cycling program for 16 weeks, 2 days/week. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure whole-body and regional FM content, including abdominal adiposity and visceral adipose tissue. Plasma cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, glucose and HbA 1c levels were measured. Levels of nutritional intake and physical activity were evaluated by 7-day self-reports. Dietary energy (caloric) intake, physical activity level and total body mass did not vary in either group from the beginning to the end of the training intervention. Overall, total FM decreased and total fat-free mass significantly increased over time (by around 2-3%). Total FM reduction at the end of the intervention was not significantly different between groups. However, significant loss of total abdominal (-8.3±2.2%) and visceral (-24.2±7.7%) FM was observed only with HIIT. Time effects were noted for HbA 1c and total cholesterol/HDL ratio. With no concomitant caloric restriction, an HIIT program in postmenopausal women with T2D (twice a week for 16 weeks) appeared to be more effective for reducing central obesity than MICT, and could be proposed as an alternative exercise training program for this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Responses to Imposed vs. Self-selected High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Erin; Cantacessi, Cheyann; McNamer, Olivia; Holmes, Heather; von Bargen, Robert; Ramirez, Richard; Gallagher, Daren; Vargas, Stacy; Santia, Ben; Rodriguez, Karen; Astorino, Todd A

    2018-05-08

    Kellogg, E, Cantacessi, C, McNamer, O, Holmes, H, von Bargen, R, Ramirez, R, Gallagher, D, Vargas, S, Santia, B, Rodriguez, K, and Astorino, TA. Comparison of psychological and physiological responses to imposed vs. self-selected high-intensity interval training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-intensity interval training elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). Some studies report greater enjoyment to a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) vs. MICT, which is surprising considering that HIIE is more intense and typically imposed on the participant. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between imposed and self-selected HIIE. Fourteen adults (age = 24 ± 3 years) unfamiliar with HIIE initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) followed by 2 subsequent sessions whose order was randomized. Imposed HIIE consisted of eight 60 seconds bouts at 80 percent peak power output (%PPO) separated by 60 seconds recovery at 10 %PPO. Self-selected HIIE (HIIESS) followed the same structure, but participants freely selected intensity in increments of 10 %PPO to achieve a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ≥7. During exercise, heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect (+5 to -5), and RPE were assessed. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale was measured after exercise. Results showed higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+10%, p = 0.013), BLa (p = 0.001), and RPE (p = 0.001) in HIIESS vs. HIIEIMP, and lower affect (p = 0.01), and enjoyment (87.6 ± 15.7 vs. 95.7 ± 11.7, p = 0.04). There was a significantly higher power output in self-selected vs. imposed HIIE (263.9 ± 81.4 W vs. 225.2 ± 59.6 W, p < 0.001). Data suggest that intensity mediates affective responses rather than the mode of HIIE performed by the participant.

  6. A 3-week multimodal intervention involving high-intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss-Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-02-01

    To compare the effects of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer-related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty-eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a group performing exercise of low-to-moderate intensity (LMIE; n = 14) or a group performing high-intensity interval training (HIIT; n = 14) as part of a 3-week multimodal rehabilitation program. No adverse events related to the exercise were reported. Work economy improved following both HIIT and LMIE, with improved peak oxygen uptake following LMIE. HIIT reduced mean total body fat mass with no change in body mass, muscle or fat-free mass (best P body mass. Total energy expenditure (P = 0.45) did not change between the groups, whereas both improved quality of life to a similar high extent and lessened cancer-related fatigue. This randomized controlled study demonstrates that HIIT can be performed by female cancer survivors without adverse health effects. Here, HIIT and LMIE both improved work economy, quality of life and cancer-related fatigue, body composition or energy expenditure. Since the outcomes were similar, but HIIT takes less time, this may be a time-efficient strategy for improving certain aspects of the health of female cancer survivors. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  7. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Salutary effects of high-intensity interval training in persons with elevated cardiovascular risk [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome L. Fleg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT has been the traditional model for aerobic exercise training for over four decades, a growing body of literature has demonstrated equal if not greater improvement in aerobic capacity and similar beneficial effects on body composition, glucose metabolism, blood pressure, and quality of life from high-intensity interval training (HIIT. An advantage of HIIT over MICT is the shorter time required to perform the same amount of energy expenditure. The current brief review summarizes the effects of HIIT on peak aerobic capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy adults and those with various cardiovascular diseases, including coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, and post heart transplantation.

  9. High-intensity interval exercise training for public health: a big HIT or shall we HIT it on the head?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Batterham, Alan M

    2015-07-18

    The efficacy of high-intensity interval training for a broad spectrum of cardio-metabolic health outcomes is not in question. Rather, the effectiveness of this form of exercise is at stake. In this paper we debate the issues concerning the likely success or failure of high-intensity interval training interventions for population-level health promotion. Biddle maintains that high-intensity interval training cannot be a viable public health strategy as it will not be adopted or maintained by many people. This conclusion is based on an analysis of perceptions of competence, the psychologically aversive nature of high-intensity exercise, the affective component of attitudes, the less conscious elements of motivated behaviour that reflect our likes and dislikes, and analysis using the RE-AIM framework. Batterham argues that this appraisal is based on a constrained and outmoded definition of high-intensity interval training and that truly practical and scalable protocols have been - and continue to be - developed. He contends that the purported displeasure associated with this type of exercise has been overstated. Biddle suggests that the way forward is to help the least active become more active rather than the already active to do more. Batterham claims that traditional physical activity promotion has been a spectacular failure. He proposes that, within an evolutionary health promotion framework, high-intensity interval training could be a successful population strategy for producing rapid physiological adaptations benefiting public health, independent of changes in total physical activity energy expenditure. Biddle recommends that we focus our attention elsewhere if we want population-level gains in physical activity impacting public health. His conclusion is based on his belief that high-intensity interval training interventions will have limited reach, effectiveness, and adoption, and poor implementation and maintenance. In contrast, Batterham maintains that there

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training for Cognitive and Mental Health in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Hillman, Charles H; Lubans, David R

    2016-10-01

    Emerging literature suggests that physical activity and fitness may have a positive effect on cognitive and mental health in adolescents. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols for improving cognitive and mental health outcomes (executive function, psychological well-being, psychological distress, and physical self-concept) in adolescents. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8 ± 0.6 yr) were randomized to three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP; n = 21), resistance and aerobic program (RAP; n = 22), and control (n = 22). HIIT sessions (8-10 min per session) were delivered during physical education lessons or at lunchtime three times per week for 8 wk. Assessments were conducted at baseline and immediately postintervention to detect changes in executive function (trail making test), psychological well-being, psychological distress, and physical self-description by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models. Cohen's d effect sizes and clinical inference were also calculated. While results were not significant, small improvements in executive function (mean change (95% CI) -6.69 (-22.03, 8.64), d = -0.32) and psychological well-being (mean change (95% CI) 2.81 (-2.06, 7.68), d = 0.34) were evident in the AEP group; and moderate improvements in executive function (mean change (95% CI) -10.73 (-26.22, 4.76), d = -0.51), and small improvements in well-being (mean change (95% CI) 2.96 (-1.82, 7.75), d = 0.36) and perceived appearance (mean change (95% CI) 0.32 (-0.25, 0.86), d = 0.35), were observed for the RAP group. Mean feeling state scores improved from preworkout to postworkout in both HIIT conditions, with significant results for the AEP (P = 0.001). This study highlights the potential of embedding HIIT within the school day for improving cognitive and mental health among adolescents.

  11. High-Intensity Interval Training in Normobaric Hypoxia Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Chinese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei; Tong, Tomas K; Song, Lili; Yi, Longyan; Hu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in overweight populations. However, the additive effect of HIIT and hypoxia on health parameters is not clear. This study compared the effects of HIIT under hypoxic conditions on cardiometabolic function with that under normoxia in overweight Chinese young women. Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled experimental design was applied. Twenty-four sedentary overweight Chinese young women (weight: 68.8 ± 7.0 kg, BMI: 25.8 ± 2.3 kg·m -2 ) participated in the HIIT under either normoxia (NORM, n = 13, PIO 2 : 150 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.21) or normobaric hypoxia (HYP, n = 11, PIO 2 : 117 mmHg, FIO 2 : 0.15) for 5 weeks. HIIT was composed of 60 repetitions of 8 s maximal cycling effort interspersed with 12-s recovery per day, for 4 days per week. Cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O 2peak ), and peak oxygen pulse (peak O 2 pulse)], serum lipid profile [triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and body composition (regional and whole-body), were assessed at pre- and post-intervention during the days beyond the self-reported menstrual phase of the participants. Habitual physical activity and diary behavior were maintained during the intervention period. Results: With similar daily energy intake and physical activity, the increases in [Formula: see text]O 2peak [NORM: 0.26 ± 0.37 L·min -1 (+11.8%) vs. HYP: 0.54 ± 0.34 L·min -1 (+26.1%)] and peak O 2 pulse (NORM: +13.4% vs. HYP: +25.9%) for HYP were twice-larger than for NORM ( p body composition or serum fasting leptin were observed in either group. Conclusion: 5-wk of HIIT improved cardiorespiratory fitness and blood lipids in overweight Chinese young females, while the additive effect of the HIIT under normobaric hypoxia solely enhanced

  12. Long Rest Interval Promotes Durable Testosterone Responses in High-Intensity Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Vingren, Jakob L; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Baffi, Matheus; Miranda, Humberto

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of rest period duration (1 vs. 3 minute between sets) on acute hormone responses to a high-intensity and equal volume bench press workout. Ten resistance-trained men (25.2 ± 5.6 years; 78.2 ± 5.7 kg; 176.7 ± 5.4 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.3 ± 0.1 kg per kilogram of body mass) performed 2 bench press workouts separated by 1 week. Each workout consisted of 5 sets of 3 repetitions performed at 85% of 1 repetition maximum, with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol (C), testosterone/cortisol ratio (TT/C), and growth hormone (GH) were measured at preworkout (PRE), and immediately (T0), 15 minutes (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) postworkout. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded before and after each set. For TT, both rest lengths enhanced all postexercise verifications (T0, T15, and T30) compared with PRE, with 1 minute showing decreases on T15 and T30 compared with T0. For FT, both 1- and 3-minute rest protocols triggered augmentations on distinct postexercise moments (T0 and T15 for 1 minute; T15 and T30 for 3-minute) compared with PRE. The C values did not change throughout any postexercise verification for either rests. The TT/C ratio was significantly elevated for both rests in all postexercise moments compared with PRE. Finally, GH values did not change for both rest lengths. In conclusion, although both short and long rest periods enhanced acute testosterone values, the longer rest promoted a long-lasting elevation for both TT and FT.

  13. High-Intensity Interval vs. Continuous Endurance Training: Preventive Effects on Hormonal Changes and Physiological Adaptations in Prediabetes Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarimosavi, Saleh; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rohani, Hadi

    2018-06-22

    Safarimosavi, S, Mohebbi, H, and Rohani, H. High-intensity interval vs. continuous endurance training: Preventive effects on hormonal changes and physiological adaptations in prediabetes patients. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention, or an isocaloric continuous endurance training (CET) intervention on insulin resistance indices and change in irisin and preptin in patients with prediabetes. Thirty-two prediabetic male patients (age = 38.7 ± 4; body mass index = 26.9 ± 1.4 kg·m; and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak = 2.49 ± 0.22 L·min) were randomly assigned into 3 training groups (N = 8). These groups were matched based on the required energy expenditure (EE) for completing each protocol: (a) HIIT (10 × 60 seconds at 90% peak oxygen uptake [V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak], 1: 1 work to recovery at 50 W), (b) CET at an intensity equivalent to maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax) (CETFAT) (pedaling for a duration that expends an equivalent EE to an HIIT session [E ≈ HIIT]), (c) CET at an intensity equivalent to anaerobic threshold (CETAT) (E ≈ HIIT), and (d) the control group (CON): continued to perform their daily activities. After intervention, blood glucose levels were significantly (p HIIT group compared with CETAT group. Exercise training improved the insulin resistance index by 35, 28, and 37% in CETFAT, CETAT, and HIIT groups, respectively. Irisin concentrations in the HIIT and CETAT groups was significantly (p HIIT and CETFAT resulted in significant (p HIIT and CETFAT protocols had similar effects on the insulin resistance index of prediabetic patients. Also, the intensity and type of exercise were effective factors in changing irisin and preptin concentrations.

  14. Comparison of affective responses during and after low volume high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate- and continuous high-intensity exercise in active, untrained, healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Ailsa; Thow, Jacqueline; Holroyd, Jack; Turner, Anthony P; Phillips, Shaun M

    2018-09-01

    This study compared affective responses to low volume high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) and high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE). Twelve untrained males ([Formula: see text] 48.2 ± 6.7 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed MICE (30 min cycle at 85% of ventilatory threshold (VT)), HICE (cycle at 105% of VT matched with MICE for total work), and HIIE (10 x 6 s cycle sprints with 60 s recovery). Affective valence and perceived activation were measured before exercise, post warm-up, every 20% of exercise time, and 1, 5, 10, and 15 min post-exercise. Affective valence during exercise declined by 1.75 ± 2.42, 1.17 ± 1.99, and 0.42 ± 1.38 units in HICE, HIIE, and MICE, respectively, but was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.35), time (P = 0.06), or interaction effect (P = 0.08). Affective valence during HICE and HIIE was consistently less positive than MICE. Affective valence post-exercise was not statistically influenced by trial (P = 0.10) and at 5 min post-exercise exceeded end-exercise values (P = 0.048). Circumplex profiles showed no negative affect in any trial. Affective responses to low volume HIIE are similar to HICE but remain positive and rebound rapidly, suggesting it may be a potential alternative exercise prescription.

  15. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...

  16. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...

  17. Effect of Eight Weeks High Intensity Interval Training and Medium Intensity Interval Training and Aloe vera Intake on Serum Vaspin and Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya Asgari Hazaveh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The use of herbal supplements and exercise training for the treatment of diabetic has increased.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks high intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training and Aloe vera intake on serum vaspin and insulin resistance in diabetic male rats. Materials and Methods: During this experimental study, 32 diabetic rats with STZ Wistar were randomly divided into four groups including the control, high intensity interval training +supplement, moderate intensity interval training + supplement and supplement. Training program was planned for 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 6 to 12 periods of 2-minute activity with the intensity of 90% and 60% with one minute rest (speed: 10m/min. In the supplement groups, 300milligrams Aloe vera solution per kilogram of body weight Gavage was given 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: The results showed that high and moderate intensity interval training with supplement has no significant effect on the of serum vaspin (p=0.112. High intensity interval training with supplement had significant effects on insulin in diabetic male rats (0.000. Conclusion: .Based on the findings of this study, it seems that supplementation of Aloe vera with high intensity interval training can have better effects on serum insulin in diabetic rats.

  18. Age-related changes in physical and perceptual markers of recovery following high-intensity interval cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2018-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4.5 min rest between efforts. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 10 s sprint (10SST), 30-min time trial (30TT) performance, creatine kinase concentration (CK) and perceptual measures of motivation, total recovery, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected at baseline and at standardised time points across the 48 h recovery period. No significant group-time interactions were observed for performance of MVC, 10SST, 30TT and CK (P > 0.05). A significant reduction in 10SST peak power was found in both masters (P = 0.002) and young (P = 0.003) cyclists at 1 h post exercise, however, both groups physically recovered at similar rates. Neither group showed significant (P > 0.05) or practically meaningful increases in CK (%∆ < 10%). A significant age-related difference was found for perceptual fatigue (P = 0.01) and analysis of effect size (ES) showed that perceptual recovery was delayed with masters cyclists reporting lower motivation (ES ±90%CI = 0.69 ± 0.77, moderate), greater fatigue (ES = 0.75 ± 0.93, moderate) and muscle soreness (ES = 0.61 ± 0.70, moderate) after 48 h of recovery. The delay in perceived recovery may have negative effects on long-term participation to systematic training.

  19. Performance of GEM detectors in high intensity particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bachmann, S; Ketzer, B; Deutel, M; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Bondar, A E; Buzulutskov, A F; Shekhtman, L I; Sokolov, A; Tatarinov, A A; Vasilev, A; Kappler, S; Schulte, E C

    2001-01-01

    We describe extensive tests of Double GEM and Triple GEM detectors, including full size prototypes for the COMPASS experiment, exposed to high intensity muon, proton and pion beams at the Paul~Scherrer Institute and at CERN. The measurements aim at detecting problems possible under these operation conditions, the main concern being the occurrence of discharges induced by beam particles. Results on the dependence of the probability for induced discharges on the experimental environment are presented and discussed. Implications for the application of GEM~detectors in experiments at high luminosity colliders are illustrated.

  20. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songstad, Nils Thomas; Kaspersen, Knut-Helge Frostmo; Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  1. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafstad, Anne Dragøy; Basnet, Purusotam; Ytrehus, Kirsti; Acharya, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats. Methods Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85–90% of maximal oxygen consumption) for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats), echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples. Results Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03), hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04) and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02) in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014), superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001) and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049) in the fetal heart. Conclusions Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated. PMID:26566220

  2. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training on Pregnant Rats, and the Placenta, Heart and Liver of Their Fetuses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Thomas Songstad

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT on the maternal heart, fetuses and placentas of pregnant rats.Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to HIIT or sedentary control groups. The HIIT group was trained for 6 weeks with 10 bouts of high intensity uphill running on a treadmill for four minutes (at 85-90% of maximal oxygen consumption for five days/week. After three weeks of HIIT, rats were mated. After six weeks (gestational day 20 in pregnant rats, echocardiography was performed to evaluate maternal cardiac function. Real-time PCR was performed for the quantification of gene expression, and oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity was assessed in the tissue samples.Maternal heart weight and systolic function were not affected by HIIT or pregnancy. In the maternal heart, expression of 11 of 22 genes related to cardiac remodeling was influenced by pregnancy but none by HIIT. Litter size, fetal weight and placental weight were not affected by HIIT. Total antioxidant capacity, malondialdehyde content, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity measured in the placenta, fetal heart and liver were not influenced by HIIT. HIIT reduced the expression of eNOS (p = 0.03, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (p = 0.04 and glutathione peroxidase 4.2 (p = 0.02 in the fetal liver and increased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-β (p = 0.014, superoxide dismutase 1 (p = 0.001 and tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3 (p = 0.049 in the fetal heart.Maternal cardiac function and gene expression was not affected by HIIT. Although HIIT did not affect fetal growth, level of oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity in the fetal tissues, some genes related to oxidative stress were altered in the fetal heart and liver indicating that protective mechanisms may be activated.

  3. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L; Tiller, NB; Karageorghis, CI

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on ac...

  4. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J

    2014-03-01

    Growing research suggests that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve cardiorespiratory and metabolic health. "All out" HIIT models such as Wingate-type exercise are particularly effective, but this type of training may not be safe, tolerable or practical for many individuals. Recent studies, however, have revealed the potential for other models of HIIT, which may be more feasible but are still time-efficient, to stimulate adaptations similar to more demanding low-volume HIIT models and high-volume endurance-type training. As little as 3 HIIT sessions per week, involving ≤10 min of intense exercise within a time commitment of ≤30 min per session, including warm-up, recovery between intervals and cool down, has been shown to improve aerobic capacity, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity, exercise tolerance and markers of disease risk after only a few weeks in both healthy individuals and people with cardiometabolic disorders. Additional research is warranted, as studies conducted have been relatively short-term, with a limited number of measurements performed on small groups of subjects. However, given that "lack of time" remains one of the most commonly cited barriers to regular exercise participation, low-volume HIIT is a time-efficient exercise strategy that warrants consideration by health practitioners and fitness professionals.

  5. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  6. Pedalling rate affects endurance performance during high-intensity cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Steen; Hansen, Ernst Albin; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study into high-intensity cycling was to: (1) test the hypothesis that endurance time is longest at a freely chosen pedalling rate (FCPR), compared to pedalling rates 25% lower (FCPR-25) and higher (FCPR+25) than FCPR, and (2) investigate how physiological variables......, and endurance time at W90 with FCPR-25, FCPR, and FCPR+25. Power reserve was calculated as the difference between applied power output at a given pedalling rate and peak crank power at this same pedalling rate. W90 was 325 (47) W. FCPR at W90 was 78 (11) rpm, resulting in FCPR-25 being 59 (8) rpm and FCPR+25...... time was negatively related to VO(2max), W90 and % MHC I, while positively related to power reserve. In conclusion, at group level, endurance time was longer at FCPR and at a pedalling rate 25% lower compared to a pedalling rate 25% higher than FCPR. Further, inter-individual physiological variables...

  7. The influence of 2 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training on health outcomes in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alan R; Day, Josephine; Smith, Aaron; Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish whether 2 weeks of high-intensity interval training would have a beneficial effect on aerobic fitness, fat oxidation, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in healthy adolescent boys. Ten adolescent boys (15.1 ± 0.3 years, 1.3 ± 0.2 years post-estimated peak height velocity) completed six sessions of Wingate-style high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period. The first session consisted of four sprints with training progressed to seven sprints in the final session. High-intensity interval training had a beneficial effect on maximal O2 uptake (mean change, ±90% confidence intervals: 0.19 L · min(-1), ±0.19, respectively), on the O2 uptake at the gas exchange threshold (0.09 L · min(-1), ±0.13) and on the O2 cost of sub-maximal exercise (-0.04 L · min(-1), ±0.04). A beneficial effect on the contribution of lipid (0.06 g · min(-1), ±0.06) and carbohydrate (-0.23 g · min(-1), ±0.14) oxidation was observed during sub-maximal exercise, but not for the maximal rate of fat oxidation (0.04 g · min(-1), ±0.08). Systolic blood pressure (1 mmHg, ±4) and BMI (0.1 kg · m2, ±0.1) were not altered following training. These data demonstrate that meaningful changes in health outcomes are possible in healthy adolescent boys after just six sessions of high-intensity interval training over a 2-week period.

  8. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  9. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, S; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  10. A 3?week multimodal intervention involving high?intensity interval training in female cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Joachim; Lindner, Nathalie; Reuss?Borst, Monika; Holmberg, Hans?Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare the effects of a 3?week multimodal rehabilitation involving supervised high?intensity interval training (HIIT) on female breast cancer survivors with respect to key variables of aerobic fitness, body composition, energy expenditure, cancer?related fatigue, and quality of life to those of a standard multimodal rehabilitation program. A randomized controlled trial design was administered. Twenty?eight women, who had been treated for cancer were randomly assigned to either a ...

  11. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 ? 8?s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ( V ? O 2 p e a k ) interspersed with 12?s recovery, whereas MI...

  12. High Intensity Interval Training in Handcycling: The Effects of a 7 Week Training Intervention in Able-bodied Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, Patrick; Reed, Kate; Van Der Woude, Luc; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In lower body endurance training, quantities of both moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) and high intensity interval training (HIIT) can lead to an improved physiological capacity and performance. Limited research is available regarding the endurance and muscular capacity of the upper body, and how training contributes to improvements in performance capacity is still unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and MICT on the physiological capacity and handcycling performance of able-bodied men in a well-controlled laboratory setting. Methods: Twenty four recreationally active men (22 ± 2 years; 1.84 ± 0.04 m; 79 ± 10 kg) were matched on incremental handcycling pre-test performance (peakPO) and then randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT, or a non-training control group (CON, 3 × n = 8). Participants in HIIT completed 14 interval training sessions, performing 4 × 4 min intervals at 85% heart rate reserve (%HRR), and seven continuous training sessions at 55 %HRR (every 2nd training session of the week). Participants in MICT performed 21 training sessions of 30 min at 55 %HRR. After the intervention, changes in peak oxygen uptake (peakVO 2 ) and peak power output (peakPO) were compared within and between HIIT, MICT and CON. Results: The average external training load per training session did not differ between MICT and HIIT ( p = 0.713). Improvements after HIIT in peakVO 2 (22.2 ± 8.1%) and peakPO (47.1 ± 20.7%) were significantly larger compared with MICT and CON ( p HIIT occurred despite training 22% less time than MICT. No significant changes were found in CON. Discussion: As in lower body endurance sports, HIIT proved to be very effective in improving the physiological and performance capacity of upper body exercise. Whilst physiological capacity in both training groups improved significantly compared with CON, the present study shows that peakVO 2 and peakPO improved more after HIIT than after MICT in able

  13. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  14. Effects of carbohydrate mouth rinse and caffeine on high-intensity interval running in a fed state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Simon; Mangan, Shane; Shortall, Marcus; Collins, Kieran

    2018-05-01

    The current study aims to identify if mouth rinsing with a 6% carbohydrate mouth-rinse (CMR) solution and mouth rinsing and ingestion of caffeine (CMR+CAFF) can affect exercise performance during steady-state (SS) running and high-intensity intervals (HIIT) in comparison with a 0% control solution (PLA) when in a fed state. Eight recreationally trained males completed 3 trials (CMR, CMR+CAFF, and PLA) of 45 min SS running and an HIIT protocol (90% peak treadmill velocity) until fatigue in a double blinded, repeated-measures study. Participants ingested a capsule of either CAFF or PLA before and after SS. Participants received a 25-mL bolus of carbohydrate solution (CMR and CMR+CAFF trials) or taste-matched PLA (PLA trial) prior to HIIT protocol and after every second effort. Heart rate and lactate responses were recorded throughout the SS and HIIT protocol. CMR+CAFF was significantly different when compared with PLA (p = 0.001; Cohens d = 1.34) and CMR (p = 0.031; Cohens d = 0.87) in relation to distance covered before fatigue. Although there was no significant difference between CMR and PLA, there was a small benefit for CMR (p = 0.218; Cohens d = 0.46). Results indicate that CMR and ingestion of CAFF leads to improvements in performance during interval sessions while participants were in a fed state. These findings indicate that the regular use of CMR can decrease the risk of gastrointestinal distress reported by athletes, which can be applicable to athletes in a real-world setting.

  15. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  16. Increased Brain Glucose Uptake After 12 Weeks of Aerobic High-Intensity Interval Training in Young and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Matthew M; Lowe, Val J; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training can increase brain volume and blood flow, but the impact on brain metabolism is less known. We determined whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases brain metabolism by measuring brain glucose uptake in younger and older adults. Brain glucose uptake was measured before and after HIIT or a sedentary (SED) control period within a larger exercise study. Study procedures were performed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. Participants were younger (18 to 30 years) or older (65 to 80 years) SED adults who were free of major medical conditions. Group sizes were 15 for HIIT (nine younger and six older) and 12 for SED (six younger and six older). Participants completed 12 weeks of HIIT or SED. HIIT was 3 days per week of 4 × 4 minute intervals at over 90% of peak aerobic capacity (VO2peak) with 2 days per week of treadmill walking at 70% VO2peak. Resting brain glucose uptake was measured using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans at baseline and at week 12. Scans were performed at 96 hours after exercise. VO2peak was measured by indirect calorimetry. Glucose uptake increased significantly in the parietal-temporal and caudate regions after HIIT compared with SED. The gains with HIIT were not observed in all brain regions. VO2peak was increased for all participants after HIIT and did not change with SED. We demonstrate that brain glucose metabolism increased after 12 weeks of HIIT in adults in regions where it is reduced in Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  17. High-intensity interval training in overweight and obese children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Masurier, Julie; Baquet, Georges; Timmons, Brian W; Pereira, Bruno; Berthoin, Serge; Duclos, Martine; Aucouturier, Julien

    2018-03-27

    While High Intensity Interval Training is praised in many populations for its beneficial effects on body composition and cardiometabolic health, its use among obese youth remain uncertain. This study aimed at determining whether HIIT is effective to improve aerobic fitness and reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight and obese youth. A systematic search was conducted and articles reporting studies that investigated the effects of HIIT in 6 to 18-year-old youth were eligible. Meta-analyses were performed when appropriate. 15 studies were included for the systematic review and meta-analyses. HIIT significantly improves maximal oxygen uptake [1.117 (95% CI=0.528 to 1.706), pbody mass [-0.295 (95%CI =-0.525 to -0.066), pbody fat [-0.786 (95%CI =-1.452 to - 0.120), phigh inconsistency for most cardiometabolic risk factors and aerobic fitness. Although few studies have reported cardiometabolic risks, HIIT may also be as effective as traditional endurance continuous training to decrease blood pressure and insulin resistance. HIIT is effective to improve aerobic fitness, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk factors in obese youth, but data are insufficient to determine whether it is more effective than traditional continuous submaximal intensity exercise training.

  18. High-Intensity Training Improves Exercise Performance in Elite Women Volleyball Players During a Competitive Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-11-01

    Purkhús, E, Krustrup, P, and Mohr, M. High-intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3066-3072, 2016-Elite women volleyball players (n = 25; mean ± SD: age, 19 ± 5 years; height, 171 ± 7 cm; weight, 63 ± 10 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high-intensity training (HIT; n = 13) group and a control (CON; n = 12) group. In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT performed 6-10 × 30-seconds all-out running intervals separated by 3-minute recovery periods 3 times per week during a 4-week in-season period whereas CON only completed the team training sessions and games. Preintervention and postintervention, all players completed the arrowhead agility test (AAT), a repeated sprint test (RST; 5 × 30 meters separated by 25 seconds of recovery), and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery level 2 test (Yo-Yo IR2) followed by a-10 minute rest period and the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Mean running distance during HIT in week 1 was 152 ± 4 m and increased (p ≤ 0.05) by 4.6% (159 ± 3 m) in week 4. The AAT performance improved (p ≤ 0.05) by 2.3% (18.87 ± 0.97-18.44 ± 1.06 seconds) and RST by 4.3% postintervention in the HIT group only. Baseline RST fatigue index was 7.0 ± 2.9 and 6.2 ± 5.0% in HIT and CON, respectively, but was lowered (p ≤ 0.05) to 2.7 ± 3.0% posttraining in HIT and remained unaltered in CON (5.5 ± 5.0%). In HIT, Yo-Yo IR2 and Yo-Yo IR1 performance improved by 12.6 and 18.3% postintervention, respectively, with greater (p ≤ 0.05) Yo-yo IR1 change scores than in CON. In conclusion, additional high-intensity in-season training performed as interval running improved agility, repeated sprint ability, and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in elite women volleyball players.

  19. Effect of a 10 week high intensity interval training supplemented with green tea on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Ghasemi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Increasing the intensity of physical activity along with regular consumption of green tea can be effective on energy metabolism, weight, and body fat content. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a 10 week. .high intensity interval training supplemented with consuming green tea .on lipid profiles and body composition in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 30 overweight women were purposefully and randomly chosen and divided into 3 equal groups. Training group performed training programs including 3 sessions per week at maximum intensity of 85-95% heart rate and the supplement group consumed 3 tablets of green tea (500 mg daily for 10 weeks High intensity interval training and the supplement group both underwent intervention. Blood samples were collected before and after the intervention in fasting state. Finally,the obtained data was fed into SPSS software (V. 19 and analyzed using paired t test, covariance analysis, one way-variance analysis, and Bonferroni post- hoc tests at the significant level of P<0.05. Results: After the period of high intensity interval training and green tea supplementation triglycerides (P=0.001, LDL (P=0.02, weight (P=0.0001, body mass index (P=0.0001, and body fat percentage (P=0.0001 in all the groups and total cholesterol (P=0.01 decreased ,but  HDL (P=0.01 increased in high intensity interval training plus supplements and high intensity interval training plus placebo groups. However, these two indicators did not differ significantly in the supplement group (P=0.23 and P=0.06, respectively. Furthermore, systolic (P= 0.55 and diastolic (P= 0.15 blood pressure and waist-to-hip ratio (P= 0.08 did not change after intervention in all the groups. Conclusion: It was found that consumption of green tea along with performing of high intensity interval training can be effective in improving of cardiovascular risk factors in overweight women.

  20. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Ruas, Jorge L; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-12-15

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca(2+) leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca(2+) release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca(2+)-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group.

  1. Ryanodine receptor fragmentation and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ leak after one session of high-intensity interval exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Nicolas; Ivarsson, Niklas; Venckunas, Tomas; Neyroud, Daria; Brazaitis, Marius; Cheng, Arthur J.; Ochala, Julien; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Girard, Sebastien; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Paužas, Henrikas; Mekideche, Abdelhafid; Kayser, Bengt; Martinez-Redondo, Vicente; Bruton, Joseph; Truffert, Andre; Lanner, Johanna T.; Skurvydas, Albertas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of improving physical performance in healthy subjects and in patients with common chronic diseases, but less so in elite endurance athletes. The mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of HIIT are uncertain. Here, recreationally active human subjects performed highly demanding HIIT consisting of 30-s bouts of all-out cycling with 4-min rest in between bouts (≤3 min total exercise time). Skeletal muscle biopsies taken 24 h after the HIIT exercise showed an extensive fragmentation of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release channel, the ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1). The HIIT exercise also caused a prolonged force depression and triggered major changes in the expression of genes related to endurance exercise. Subsequent experiments on elite endurance athletes performing the same HIIT exercise showed no RyR1 fragmentation or prolonged changes in the expression of endurance-related genes. Finally, mechanistic experiments performed on isolated mouse muscles exposed to HIIT-mimicking stimulation showed reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS)-dependent RyR1 fragmentation, calpain activation, increased SR Ca2+ leak at rest, and depressed force production due to impaired SR Ca2+ release upon stimulation. In conclusion, HIIT exercise induces a ROS-dependent RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of recreationally active subjects, and the resulting changes in muscle fiber Ca2+-handling trigger muscular adaptations. However, the same HIIT exercise does not cause RyR1 fragmentation in muscles of elite endurance athletes, which may explain why HIIT is less effective in this group. PMID:26575622

  2. A short period of high-intensity interval training improves skeletal muscle mitochondrial function and pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Jacobs, Robert A; Bonne, Thomas Christian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improvements in pulmonary V̇O2 kinetics following a short period of high-intensity training (HIT) would be associated with improved skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. Ten untrained male volunteers (age: 26 ± 2; mean ± SD) performed six HIT...

  3. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O Shepherd

    Full Text Available Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT. It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment.To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max, cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT.Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2 were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1. MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1. VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention.Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT and 128±44 min (MICT (p<0.05, with greater adherence to HIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; p<0.05. HIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (p<0.05. HIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (p<0.05. No difference between HIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables.HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  4. Affective and enjoyment responses in high intensity interval training and continuous training: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho Oliveira

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigating the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT showed controversial results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of HIIT and MICT on affective and enjoyment responses. The PRISMA Statement and the Cochrane recommendation were used to perform this systematic review and the database search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Eight studies investigating the acute affective and enjoyment responses on HIIT and MICT were included in the present systematic review. The standardized mean difference (SMD was calculated for Feeling Scale (FS, Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES. The MICT was used as the reference condition. The overall results showed similar beneficial effects of HIIT on PACES and EES responses compared to MICT with SMDs classified as small (PACES-SMD = 0.49, I2 = 69.3%, p = 0.001; EES-SMD = 0.48, I2 = 24.1%, p = 0.245 while for FS, the overall result showed a trivial effect (FS-SMD = 0.19, I2 = 78.9%, p<0.001. Most of the comparisons performed presented positive effects for HIIT. For the FS, six of 12 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For PACES, six of 10 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For EES, six of seven comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT also involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. Based on the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that HIIT exercise may be a viable strategy for obtaining positive psychological responses. Although HIIT exercise may be recommended for obtaining positive psychological responses, chronic studies should clarify the applicability of HIIT for exercise adherence.

  5. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training in a community setting: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reljic, Dejan; Wittmann, Felix; Fischer, Joachim E

    2018-06-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as an effective and time-efficient exercise strategy for health promotion. However, most HIIT studies are conducted in laboratory settings and evidence regarding the efficacy of time-efficient "low-volume" HIIT is based mainly on demanding "all-out" protocols. Thus, the aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility and efficacy of two low-volume (≤ 30 min time-effort/week), non-all-out HIIT protocols, performed 2 ×/week over 8 weeks in a community-based fitness centre. Thirty-four sedentary men and women were randomised to either 2 × 4-min HIIT (2 × 4-HIIT) or 5 × 1-min HIIT (5 × 1-HIIT) at 85-95% maximal heart rate (HR max ), or an active control group performing moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, 76 min/week) at 65-75% HR max . The exercise protocols were well tolerated and no adverse events occurred. 2 × 4-HIIT and 5 × 1-HIIT exhibited lower dropout rates (17 and 8 vs. 30%) than MICT. All training modes improved VO 2max (2 × 4-HIIT: + 20%, P HIIT: + 27%, P HIIT protocols required 60% less time commitment. Both HIIT protocols and MICT had positive impact on cholesterol profiles. Only 5 × 1-HIIT significantly improved waist circumference (P HIIT can be feasibly implemented in a community-based setting. Moreover, our data suggest that practical (non-all-out) HIIT that requires as little as 30 min/week, either performed as 2 × 4-HIIT or 5 × 1-HIIT, may induce significant improvements in VO 2max and cardiometabolic risk markers.

  6. Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training in a Gym Setting Improves Cardio-Metabolic and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Sam O; Wilson, Oliver J; Taylor, Alexandra S; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Adlan, Ahmed M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M; Shaw, Christopher S

    2015-01-01

    Within a controlled laboratory environment, high-intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar cardiovascular and metabolic benefits as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). It is currently unclear how HIT can be applied effectively in a real-world environment. To investigate the hypothesis that 10 weeks of HIT, performed in an instructor-led, group-based gym setting, elicits improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2max), cardio-metabolic risk and psychological health which are comparable to MICT. Ninety physically inactive volunteers (42±11 y, 27.7±4.8 kg.m-2) were randomly assigned to HIT or MICT group exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 seconds, >90% HRmax) interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min.session-1, 3 sessions.week-1). MICT participants performed continuous cycling (~70% HRmax, 30-45 min.session-1, 5 sessions.week-1). VO2max, markers of cardio-metabolic risk, and psychological health were assessed pre and post-intervention. Mean weekly training time was 55±10 (HIT) and 128±44 min (MICT) (pHIT (83±14% vs. 61±15% prescribed sessions attended, respectively; pHIT improved VO2max, insulin sensitivity, reduced abdominal fat mass, and induced favourable changes in blood lipids (pHIT also induced beneficial effects on health perceptions, positive and negative affect, and subjective vitality (pHIT and MICT was seen for any of these variables. HIT performed in a real-world gym setting improves cardio-metabolic risk factors and psychological health in physically inactive adults. With a reduced time commitment and greater adherence than MICT, HIT offers a viable and effective exercise strategy to target the growing incidence of metabolic disease and psychological ill-being associated with physical inactivity.

  7. Chronic and acute inspiratory muscle loading augment the effect of a 6-week interval program on tolerance of high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tom K; Fu, Frank H; Eston, Roger; Chung, Pak-Kwong; Quach, Binh; Lu, Kui

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that chronic (training) and acute (warm-up) loaded ventilatory activities applied to the inspiratory muscles (IM) in an integrated manner would augment the training volume of an interval running program. This in turn would result in additional improvement in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test in comparison with interval training alone. Eighteen male nonprofessional athletes were allocated to either an inspiratory muscle loading (IML) group or control group. Both groups participated in a 6-week interval running program consisting of 3-4 workouts (1-3 sets of various repetitions of selected distance [100-2,400 m] per workout) per week. For the IML group, 4-week IM training (30 inspiratory efforts at 50% maximal static inspiratory pressure [P0] per set, 2 sets·d-1, 6 d·wk-1) was applied before the interval program. Specific IM warm-up (2 sets of 30 inspiratory efforts at 40% P0) was performed before each workout of the program. For the control group, neither IML was applied. In comparison with the control group, the interval training volume as indicated by the repeatability of running bouts at high intensity was approximately 27% greater in the IML group. Greater increase in the maximum performance of the Yo-Yo test (control: 16.9 ± 5.5%; IML: 30.7 ± 4.7% baseline value) was also observed after training. The enhanced exercise performance was partly attributable to the greater reductions in the sensation of breathlessness and whole-body metabolic stress during the Yo-Yo test. These findings show that the combination of chronic and acute IML into a high-intensity interval running program is a beneficial training strategy for enhancing the tolerance to high-intensity intermittent bouts of running.

  8. Glucocorticoids improve high-intensity exercise performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, Rafael A; Melskens, Lars; Bruhn, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise.......It was investigated whether oral dexamethasone (DEX) administration improves exercise performance by reducing the initial rate of muscle fatigue development during dynamic exercise....

  9. High-intensity interval running is perceived to be more enjoyable than moderate-intensity continuous exercise: implications for exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jonathan D; Close, Graeme L; MacLaren, Don P M; Gregson, Warren; Drust, Barry; Morton, James P

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to objectively quantify ratings of perceived enjoyment using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale following high-intensity interval running versus moderate-intensity continuous running. Eight recreationally active men performed two running protocols consisting of high-intensity interval running (6 × 3 min at 90% VO(2max) interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% VO(2max) with a 7-min warm-up and cool down at 70% VO(2max)) or 50 min moderate-intensity continuous running at 70% VO(2max). Ratings of perceived enjoyment after exercise were higher (P running compared with continuous running (88 ± 6 vs. 61 ± 12) despite higher (P running may be relevant for improving exercise adherence, since running is a low-cost exercise intervention requiring no exercise equipment and similar relative exercise intensities have previously induced health benefits in patient populations.

  10. High-Intensity Interval Training as a Tool for Counteracting Dyslipidemia in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Cristian; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martinez-Salazar, Cristian; Castillo, Angélica; Gallardo, Francisco; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2018-05-01

    Sedentary overweight or obese adult (agehigh-intensity interval training (HIIT) program. Triglycerides reduced significantly ( P high-density lipoprotein increased ( P body composition improved ( P <0.05) in all groups. The HIIT program was effective for restoring lipid profile of DYS and DYSHG, and fasting glucose of DYSHG to levels similar to those of CON, with a weekly time commitment 25% to 56% lower than the minimum recommended in current exercise guidelines. These findings suggest that HIIT may be a time-efficient intervention for counteracting dyslipidemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Affective and enjoyment responses in high intensity interval training and continuous training: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; Santos, Tony Meireles; Kilpatrick, Marcus; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Deslandes, Andréa Camaz

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) showed controversial results. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the effects of HIIT and MICT on affective and enjoyment responses. The PRISMA Statement and the Cochrane recommendation were used to perform this systematic review and the database search was performed using PubMed, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SPORTDiscus. Eight studies investigating the acute affective and enjoyment responses on HIIT and MICT were included in the present systematic review. The standardized mean difference (SMD) was calculated for Feeling Scale (FS), Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) and Exercise Enjoyment Scale (EES). The MICT was used as the reference condition. The overall results showed similar beneficial effects of HIIT on PACES and EES responses compared to MICT with SMDs classified as small (PACES-SMD = 0.49, I2 = 69.3%, p = 0.001; EES-SMD = 0.48, I2 = 24.1%, p = 0.245) while for FS, the overall result showed a trivial effect (FS-SMD = 0.19, I2 = 78.9%, pHIIT. For the FS, six of 12 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For PACES, six of 10 comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. For EES, six of seven comparisons showed beneficial effects for HIIT also involving normal weight and overweight-to-obese populations. Based on the results of the present study, it is possible to conclude that HIIT exercise may be a viable strategy for obtaining positive psychological responses. Although HIIT exercise may be recommended for obtaining positive psychological responses, chronic studies should clarify the applicability of HIIT for exercise adherence.

  12. Acute high-intensity interval running increases markers of gastrointestinal damage and permeability but not gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie N; Impey, Samuel G; Doran, Dominic A; Fleming, Simon C; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of high-intensity interval running on markers of gastrointestinal (GI) damage and permeability alongside subjective symptoms of GI discomfort. Eleven male runners completed an acute bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) (eighteen 400-m runs at 120% maximal oxygen uptake) where markers of GI permeability, intestinal damage, and GI discomfort symptoms were assessed and compared with resting conditions. Compared with rest, HIIT significantly increased serum lactulose/rhamnose ratio (0.051 ± 0.016 vs. 0.031 ± 0.021, p = 0.0047; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.006 to 0.036) and sucrose concentrations (0.388 ± 0.217 vs. 0.137 ± 0.148 mg·L -1 ; p HIIT and resting conditions. Plasma intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was significantly increased (p HIIT whereas no changes were observed during rest. Mild symptoms of GI discomfort were reported immediately and at 24 h post-HIIT, although these symptoms did not correlate to GI permeability or I-FABP. In conclusion, acute HIIT increased GI permeability and intestinal I-FABP release, although these do not correlate with symptoms of GI discomfort. Furthermore, by using serum sampling, we provide data showing that it is possible to detect changes in intestinal permeability that is not observed using urinary sampling over a shorter time-period.

  13. No Additional Benefits of Block- Over Evenly-Distributed High-Intensity Interval Training within a Polarized Microcycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGawley, Kerry; Juudas, Elisabeth; Kazior, Zuzanna; Ström, Kristoffer; Blomstrand, Eva; Hansson, Ola; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The current study aimed to investigate the responses to block- versus evenly-distributed high-intensity interval training (HIT) within a polarized microcycle. Methods: Twenty well-trained junior cross-country skiers (10 males, age 17.6 ± 1.5 and 10 females, age 17.3 ± 1.5) completed two, 3-week periods of training (EVEN and BLOCK) in a randomized, crossover-design study. In EVEN, 3 HIT sessions (5 × 4-min of diagonal-stride roller-skiing) were completed at a maximal sustainable intensity each week while low-intensity training (LIT) was distributed evenly around the HIT. In BLOCK, the same 9 HIT sessions were completed in the second week while only LIT was completed in the first and third weeks. Heart rate (HR), session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), and perceived recovery (pREC) were recorded for all HIT and LIT sessions, while distance covered was recorded for each HIT interval. The recovery-stress questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) was completed weekly. Before and after EVEN and BLOCK, resting saliva and muscle samples were collected and an incremental test and 600-m time-trial (TT) were completed. Results: Pre- to post-testing revealed no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for changes in resting salivary cortisol, testosterone, or IgA, or for changes in muscle capillary density, fiber area, fiber composition, enzyme activity (CS, HAD, and PFK) or the protein content of VEGF or PGC-1α. Neither were any differences observed in the changes in skiing economy, [Formula: see text] or 600-m time-trial performance between interventions. These findings were coupled with no significant differences between EVEN and BLOCK for distance covered during HIT, summated HR zone scores, total sRPE training load, overall pREC or overall recovery-stress state. However, 600-m TT performance improved from pre- to post-training, irrespective of intervention ( P = 0.003), and a number of hormonal and muscle biopsy markers were also significantly

  14. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes. Key points The manner in which each training background (endurance vs. sprint) influences the response to HIIT is not well known. Despite the identical exercise intensity in relative terms, endurance

  15. Caffeine withdrawal and high-intensity endurance cycling performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Christopher; Desbrow, Ben; Ellis, Aleisha; O'Keeffe, Brooke; Grant, Gary; Leveritt, Michael

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of a controlled 4-day caffeine withdrawal period on the effect of an acute caffeine dose on endurance exercise performance. Twelve well-trained and familiarized male cyclists, who were caffeine consumers (from coffee and a range of other sources), were recruited for the study. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design was employed, involving four experimental trials. Participants abstained from dietary caffeine sources for 4 days before the trials and ingested capsules (one in the morning and one in the afternoon) containing either placebo or caffeine (1.5 mg · kg(-1) body weight · day(-1)). On day 5, capsules containing placebo or caffeine (3 mg · kg(-1) body weight) were ingested 90 min before completing a time trial, equivalent to one hour of cycling at 75% peak sustainable power output. Hence the study was designed to incorporate placebo-placebo, placebo-caffeine, caffeine-placebo, and caffeine-caffeine conditions. Performance time was significantly improved after acute caffeine ingestion by 1:49 ± 1:41 min (3.0%, P = 0.021) following a withdrawal period (placebo-placebo vs. placebo-caffeine), and by 2:07 ± 1:28 min (3.6%, P = 0.002) following the non-withdrawal period (caffeine-placebo vs. caffeine-caffeine). No significant difference was detected between the two acute caffeine trials (placebo-caffeine vs. caffeine-caffeine). Average heart rate throughout exercise was significantly higher following acute caffeine administration compared with placebo. No differences were observed in ratings of perceived exertion between trials. A 3 mg · kg(-1) dose of caffeine significantly improves exercise performance irrespective of whether a 4-day withdrawal period is imposed on habitual caffeine users.

  16. Four minutes of in-class high-intensity interval activity improves selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jasmin K; Le Mare, Lucy; Gurd, Brendon J

    2015-03-01

    The amount of time allocated to physical activity in schools is declining. Time-efficient physical activity solutions that demonstrate their impact on academic achievement-related outcomes are needed to prioritize physical activity within the school curricula. "FUNtervals" are 4-min, high-intensity interval activities that use whole-body actions to complement a storyline. The purpose of this study was to (i) explore whether FUNtervals can improve selective attention, an executive function posited to be essential for learning and academic success; and (ii) examine whether this relationship is predicted by students' classroom off-task behaviour. Seven grade 3-5 classes (n = 88) were exposed to a single-group, repeated cross-over design where each student's selective attention was compared between no-activity and FUNtervals days. In week 1, students were familiarized with the d2 test of attention and FUNterval activities, and baseline off-task behaviour was observed. In both weeks 2 and 3 students completed the d2 test of attention following either a FUNterval break or a no-activity break. The order of these breaks was randomized and counterbalanced between weeks. Neither motor nor passive off-task behaviour predicted changes in selective attention following FUNtervals; however, a weak relationship was observed for verbal off-task behaviour and improvements in d2 test performance. More importantly, students made fewer errors during the d2 test following FUNtervals. In supporting the priority of physical activity inclusion within schools, FUNtervals, a time efficient and easily implemented physical activity break, can improve selective attention in 9- to 11-year olds.

  17. High-Intensity Interval Training as an Efficacious Alternative to Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training for Adults with Prediabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. High-intensity interval training (HIIT leads to improvements in various markers of cardiometabolic health but adherence to HIIT following a supervised laboratory intervention has yet to be tested. We compared self-report and objective measures of physical activity after one month of independent exercise in individuals with prediabetes who were randomized to HIIT (n=15 or traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT, n=17. Method. After completing 10 sessions of supervised training participants were asked to perform HIIT or MICT three times per week for four weeks. Results. Individuals in HIIT (89 ± 11% adhered to their prescribed protocol to a greater extent than individuals in MICT (71 ± 31% as determined by training logs completed over one-month follow-up (P = 0.05, Cohen’s d = 0.75. Minutes spent in vigorous physical activity per week measured by accelerometer were higher in HIIT (24 ± 18 as compared to MICT (11 ± 10 at one-month follow-up (P = 0.049, Cohen’s d = 0.92. Cardiorespiratory fitness and systolic blood pressure assessed at one-month follow-up were equally improved (P’s < 0.05. Conclusions. This study provides preliminary evidence that individuals with prediabetes can adhere to HIIT over the short-term and do so at a level that is greater than MICT.

  18. Effect of periodized high intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition and attitudes towards hunger in active men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Heath, Brendyn; Bandong, Jason; Ordille, Gina M; Contreras, Ramon; Montell, Matthew; Schubert, Matthew M

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) increases maximal oxygen uptake similar to aerobic exercise. However, changes in body composition are equivocal in response to HIIT. We examined changes in body composition and dietary restraint in response to 20 sessions of HIIT varying in structure. Thirty nine active men and women (age and VO2max=22.5±4.4 years and 40.1±5.6 mL/kg/min) were randomized to one of three periodized HIIT regimes performed on a cycle ergometer. Before and after training, body composition was assessed using skinfolds (SKF), circumference measures, and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) following standardized procedures. Hunger, restraint, and disinhibition were also measured using the 3-Factor Eating Questionnaire and Power of Food Survey. Control participants (N.=32, age and VO2max=25.6±4.4 years and 40.6±4.9 mL/kg/min) matched for age and fitness level underwent all testing but did not complete HIIT. There was no change (P>0.05) in body mass, circumferences, or BIA-derived body fat in response to HIIT. However, SKF-derived body fat declined (P=0.04) with HIIT, and gender x time (P=0.03) and gender x time x regimen interactions (P=0.04) were shown in that women but not men exhibited significant reductions in body fat. Hunger was reduced from baseline to post-training (P=0.028), but this response was not different in response to HIIT compared to controls. Twenty sessions of low-volume HIIT reduce body fat in women but not men, but do not alter perceptions of hunger.

  19. Effects of resistance-guided high intensity interval functional electrical stimulation cycling on an individual with paraplegia: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbow, David R; Credeur, Daniel P

    2018-03-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are more than twice as likely to develop and die from cardio-metabolic diseases as compared to able-bodied. This increased risk is thought to be in part due to accelerated muscle atrophy and reduced blood flow through sublesional arteries. Thus, strategies to recondition paralyzed skeletal muscles may help reduce cardio-metabolic disease risk. The purpose of this case report was to examine the impact of a novel, resistance-guided, high intensity interval training functional electrical stimulation (RG-HIIT-FES) cycling program on cardio-metabolic health in people with chronic SCI. One adult female with chronic T10 SCI. A novel RG-HIIT-FES cycling program three times per week for 10 weeks. Measures of body composition and cardio-metabolic health (vascular endothelial function of the brachial artery via flow-mediated dilation) and HbA1c blood values were performed at baseline and following completion of the RG-HIIT-FES program. Total body lean mass and legs lean mass increased 2.8% and 5.3% respectively while vastus lateralis thickness increased by 59.5%. Reactive hyperemia and flow mediated dilation change in brachial artery diameter increased by 11.1% and 147.7% following the program, respectively. HbA1c level changed minimally (5 to 4.9%). This case report suggests that RG-HIIT-FES cycling was an effective strategy to improve lean mass, and systemic vascular endothelial health in an individual with chronic SCI.

  20. The effects of high intensity interval training on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Malia N M; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Trexler, Eric T; Hirsch, Katie R

    2018-02-01

    Despite growing popularity of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving health and fitness, limited data exist identifying the effects of HIIT on muscle characteristics. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 3-week HIIT intervention on muscle size and quality in overweight and obese men and women. Randomized controlled trial. Forty-four overweight and obese men and women (mean±SD; age: 35.4±12.3years; height: 174.9±9.7cm; weight: 94.6±17.0kg; %fat: 32.7±6.5%) completed the current study. During baseline and post testing, muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) and echo intensity (EI) were determined from a panoramic scan of the vastus lateralis obtained by B-mode ultrasonography. Body composition variables were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Participants were randomized into either a 1:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (SIT; n=16), a 2:1 work-to-rest ratio HIIT group (LIT; n=19), or control (CON; n=9). HIIT participants performed five, 2-min bouts (LIT) or 10, 1-min bouts (SIT) at 85-100% VO 2peak for 9 sessions over three weeks. Analysis of covariance demonstrated a significant increase in mCSA for SIT (p=0.038; change (Δ)=3.17±3.36cm 2 ) compared to CON (Δ=-0.34±2.36cm 2 ). There was no significant difference in EI across groups (p=0.672). HIIT may be an effective exercise modality to influence muscle size in overweight and obese individuals. Future studies should investigate muscle characteristics and remodeling in an overweight population following interventions of longer duration and varying work-to-rest protocols. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group (p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations. PMID:29719514

  2. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Rolfes, Florian; Schelleckes, Katrin; Mewes, Mirja; Thorwesten, Lothar; Krüger, Michael; Klose, Andreas; Brand, Stefan-Martin

    2018-01-01

    Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222) and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels. Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years) fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week) a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery) and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery). miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT) protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR) monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT). Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p HIIT group ( p HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p 24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002) speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group ( p HIIT can induce increased circulating levels of cardiac growth-associated miR-222 and -29c. miR-222 and miR-29c could be useful markers to monitor HIIT response in general and to identify optimal work/rest combinations.

  3. High Intensity Training (HIT) en High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) bij patiënten met chronische non-specifieke lage rugpijn: effecten op fysieke parameters en subjectieve pijnbeleving

    OpenAIRE

    Nuyttens, Jelle; Vuylsteke, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    Niet-specifieke chronische lage rugpijn (NSCLRP) zorgt via directe en indirecte kosten voor een enorme economische last in onze huidige maatschappij. Tot op heden wordt een grote variëteit aan trainingsprogramma's aangewend in de behandeling van lage rugpijn, maar er bestaat weinig consensus omtrent de ideale trainingsintensiteit. In deze pilotstudie werd de bruikbaarheid en het effect van de combinatie 'High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT)' en 'High-Intensity Training (HIT)' op pijn, acti...

  4. High-intensity interval training in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Grete; Heje, Karen; Buch, Astrid Emile

    2017-01-01

    of muscle damage in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1). We aimed to determine whether HIT is safe and effective in FSHD1 in a randomized, controlled parallel study. Untrained adults with genetically verified FSHD1 (n = 13) able to perform cycle-ergometer exercise were randomized to 8......, workload, 6-min walk distance, 5-time sit-to-stand time, muscle strength, and daily activity levels were measured. Pain, fatigue, and plasma-CK were monitored. Twelve patients completed the randomized part of the study. Plasma-CK levels and pain scores were unaffected by HIT. Supervised HIT improved...... counterintuitive to perform HIT in muscular dystrophies, but this RCT shows that regular HIT is safe, efficacious, and well liked by moderately affected patients with FSHD1, which suggests that HIT is a feasible method for rehabilitating patients with FSHD1....

  5. High-intensity intermittent exercise and its effects on heart rate variability and subsequent strength performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PRUPOSE: To investigate the effects of a 5-km high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE on heart rate variability (HRV and subsequent strength performance. METHODS: nine trained males performed a control session composed of a half-squat strength exercise (4 x 80% of one repetition maximum – 1RM in isolation and 30-min, 1-, 4-, 8- and 24-h after an HIIE (1-min at the velocity peak:1-min passive recovery. All experimental sessions were performed on different days. The maximum number of repetitions and total weight lifted during the strength exercise were registered in all conditions; in addition, prior to each session, HRV were assessed [beat-to-beat intervals (RR and log-transformed of root means square of successive differences in the normal-to-normal intervals (lnRMSSD]. RESULTS: Performance in the strength exercise dropped at 30-min (31% and 1-h (19% post-HIIE concomitantly with lower values of RR (781±79 ms; 799±134 ms, respectively in the same recovery intervals compared to the control (1015±197 ms. Inferential analysis did not detect any effect of condition on lnRMSSD, however, values were lower after 30-min (3.5±0.4 ms and 1-h (3.3±0.5 ms with moderate and large effect sizes (0.9 and 1.2, respectively compared with the control condition (3.9±0.4 ms. CONCLUSION: Both RR and lnRMSSD seem to be associated with deleterious effects on strength performance, although further studies should be conducted to clarify this association.

  6. Effect of Six Sessions of High Intensity Interval Training on Levels of Hypoxanthine, Xanthine, Hypoxanthine-Guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and Serum Uric Acid in active young men

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    ROHOULLAH HAGHSHENAS GATABI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction and objectives: long-term sport and physical activity results in compatibility in maintaining purine derivatives but the compatibility achieved within a few sessions is not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a 30-seconds high intensity interval training on Hypoxanthine, xanthine, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT and serum uric acid in young college men. Methods: In this study, 18 untrained healthy men were divided into two control and training groups after homogenization based on their personal characteristics. Training included six sessions (every other day for two weeks with different intervals (4, 7, 6, 6, 5 & 4, respectively with a fixed four-minute rest between each interval, and with a constant load of .6 on the cycle-ergometer. Blood samples were taken before and 48 hours after the last training session, and were used to analyze hypoxanthine, xanthine, uric acid, and serum HGPRT. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA. Results: The results showed that high-intensity interval training for two weeks did not cause significant changes in serum HGPRT (P = .73; likewise, the increase in serum hypoxanthine (P = .170 and serum xanthine (P = .170 was not statistically significant but significant reduction was observed in serum uric acid (P = .025. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicated that two-week HIIT training is likely to enhance athletic performance and recovery of purine nucleotide cycle.

  7. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

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    Sabine Herget

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity interval training (HIIT consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation twice a week (60 min/session. Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female. The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10 units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024, p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37, p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  8. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Grimm, Andrea; Petroff, David; Käpplinger, Jakob; Haase, Michael; Markert, Jana; Blüher, Susann

    2016-11-08

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session). Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female). The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI -0.048 to 0.10) units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024), p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI -8 to 37), p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as "good" by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  9. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Methods Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg-1 · min-1) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5–6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. Results The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p HIIT group. Both PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT treatment groups demonstrated significant (p HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Conclusions Our findings support the use of HIIT in combination with HMBFA to improve aerobic fitness in college age men and women. These data suggest that the addition of HMBFA supplementation may result in greater changes in VO2peak and VT than HIIT alone. Study registration The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368). PMID:24782684

  10. Beneficial Autophagic Activities, Mitochondrial Function, and Metabolic Phenotype Adaptations Promoted by High-Intensity Interval Training in a Rat Model

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    Fang-Hui Li

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on basal autophagy and mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle and plasma metabolic phenotypes have not been clearly characterized. Here, we investigated how 10-weeks HIIT and MICT differentially modify basal autophagy and mitochondrial markers in cardiac and skeletal muscle and conducted an untargeted metabolomics study with proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolic phenotypes. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were separated into three groups: sedentary control (SED, MICT, and HIIT. Rats underwent evaluation of exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength, and blood lactate levels were measured immediately after an incremental exercise test. Plasma samples were analyzed by 1H NMR. The expression of autophagy and mitochondrial markers and autophagic flux (LC3II/LC3-I ratio in cardiac, rectus femoris, and soleus muscle were analyzed by western blotting. Time to exhaustion and grip strength increased significantly following HIIT compared with that in both SED and MICT groups. Compared with those in the SED group, blood lactate level, and the expression of SDH, COX-IV, and SIRT3 significantly increased in rectus femoris and soleus muscle of both HIIT and MICT groups. Meanwhile, SDH and COX-IV content of cardiac muscle and COX-IV and SIRT3 content of rectus femoris and soleus muscle increased significantly following HIIT compared with that following MICT. The expression of LC3-II, ATG-3, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3-I ratio were significantly increased only in soleus and cardiac muscle following HIIT. These data indicate that HIIT was more effective for improving physical performance and facilitating cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations that increase mitochondrial function and basal autophagic activities. Moreover, 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate

  11. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Søren Møller; Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Overgaard, Kristian; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT) on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2), non-active T2D patients (n = 10) and matched (52 yrs±2) healthy controls (CON) (n = 13) exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT) a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01), end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04) and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04) were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β) were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively). Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI) was significantly increased (p = 0.03). During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03), 30 (p = 0.03) and 120 min (p = 0.03) and at -10 (p = 0.003) and 0 min (p = 0.003) with an additional improvement (p = 0.03) of its 1st phase (30 min) area under curve (AUC). Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02) corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  12. Beneficial Autophagic Activities, Mitochondrial Function, and Metabolic Phenotype Adaptations Promoted by High-Intensity Interval Training in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang-Hui; Li, Tao; Ai, Jing-Yi; Sun, Lei; Min, Zhu; Duan, Rui; Zhu, Ling; Liu, Yan-Ying; Liu, Timon Cheng-Yi

    2018-01-01

    The effects of high-intensity interval (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on basal autophagy and mitochondrial function in cardiac and skeletal muscle and plasma metabolic phenotypes have not been clearly characterized. Here, we investigated how 10-weeks HIIT and MICT differentially modify basal autophagy and mitochondrial markers in cardiac and skeletal muscle and conducted an untargeted metabolomics study with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate statistical analysis of plasma metabolic phenotypes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into three groups: sedentary control (SED), MICT, and HIIT. Rats underwent evaluation of exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength, and blood lactate levels were measured immediately after an incremental exercise test. Plasma samples were analyzed by 1 H NMR. The expression of autophagy and mitochondrial markers and autophagic flux (LC3II/LC3-I ratio) in cardiac, rectus femoris, and soleus muscle were analyzed by western blotting. Time to exhaustion and grip strength increased significantly following HIIT compared with that in both SED and MICT groups. Compared with those in the SED group, blood lactate level, and the expression of SDH, COX-IV, and SIRT3 significantly increased in rectus femoris and soleus muscle of both HIIT and MICT groups. Meanwhile, SDH and COX-IV content of cardiac muscle and COX-IV and SIRT3 content of rectus femoris and soleus muscle increased significantly following HIIT compared with that following MICT. The expression of LC3-II, ATG-3, and Beclin-1 and LC3II/LC3-I ratio were significantly increased only in soleus and cardiac muscle following HIIT. These data indicate that HIIT was more effective for improving physical performance and facilitating cardiac and skeletal muscle adaptations that increase mitochondrial function and basal autophagic activities. Moreover, 1 H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate statistical

  13. High Intensity Interval Training Improves Glycaemic Control and Pancreatic β Cell Function of Type 2 Diabetes Patients.

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    Søren Møller Madsen

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves the regulation of glucose homeostasis in both type 2 diabetes (T2D patients and healthy individuals, but the effect on pancreatic β cell function is unknown. We investigated glycaemic control, pancreatic function and total fat mass before and after 8 weeks of low volume high intensity interval training (HIIT on cycle ergometer in T2D patients and matched healthy control individuals. Study design/method: Elderly (56 yrs±2, non-active T2D patients (n = 10 and matched (52 yrs±2 healthy controls (CON (n = 13 exercised 3 times (10×60 sec. HIIT a week over an 8 week period on a cycle ergometer. Participants underwent a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. On a separate day, resting blood pressure measurement was conducted followed by an incremental maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max cycle ergometer test. Finally, a whole body dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA was performed. After 8 weeks of training, the same measurements were performed. Results: in the T2D-group, glycaemic control as determined by average fasting venous glucose concentration (p = 0.01, end point 2-hour OGTT (p = 0.04 and glycosylated haemoglobin (p = 0.04 were significantly reduced. Pancreatic homeostasis as determined by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and HOMA β cell function (HOMA-%β were both significantly ameliorated (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively. Whole body insulin sensitivity as determined by the disposition index (DI was significantly increased (p = 0.03. During OGTT, the glucose continuum was significantly reduced at -15 (p = 0.03, 30 (p = 0.03 and 120 min (p = 0.03 and at -10 (p = 0.003 and 0 min (p = 0.003 with an additional improvement (p = 0.03 of its 1st phase (30 min area under curve (AUC. Significant abdominal fat mass losses were seen in both groups (T2D: p = 0.004 and CON: p = 0.02 corresponding to a percentage change of -17.84%±5.02 and -9.66%±3.07, respectively. Conclusion: these results

  14. Concomitant external pneumatic compression treatment with consecutive days of high intensity interval training reduces markers of proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Cody T; Roberts, Michael D; Romero, Matthew A; Osburn, Shelby C; Healy, James C; Moore, Angelique N; Mobley, Christopher B; Roberson, Paul A; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Goodlett, Michael D; Pascoe, David D; Martin, Jeffrey S

    2017-12-01

    To compare the effects of external pneumatic compression (EPC) and sham when used concurrently with high intensity interval training (HIIT) on performance-related outcomes and recovery-related molecular measures. Eighteen recreationally endurance-trained male participants (age: 21.6 ± 2.4 years, BMI: 25.7 ± 0.5 kg/m 2 , VO 2peak : 51.3 ± 0.9 mL/kg/min) were randomized to balanced sham and EPC treatment groups. Three consecutive days of HIIT followed by EPC/sham treatment (Days 2-4) and 3 consecutive days of recovery (Days 5-7) with EPC/sham only on Days 5-6 were employed. Venipuncture, flexibility and pressure-to-pain threshold (PPT) measurements were made throughout. Vastus lateralis muscle was biopsied at PRE (i.e., Day 1), 1-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day 2 (POST1), and 24-h post-EPC/sham treatment on Day 7 (POST2). 6-km run time trial performance was tested at PRE and POST2. No group × time interaction was observed for flexibility, PPT, or serum measures of creatine kinase (CK), hsCRP, and 8-isoprostane. However, there was a main effect of time for serum CK (p = 0.005). Change from PRE in 6-km run times at POST2 were not significantly different between groups. Significant between-groups differences existed for change from PRE in atrogin-1 mRNA (p = 0.018) at the POST1 time point (EPC: - 19.7 ± 8.1%, sham: + 7.7 ± 5.9%) and atrogin-1 protein concentration (p = 0.013) at the POST2 time point (EPC: - 31.8 ± 7.5%, sham: + 96.0 ± 34.7%). In addition, change from PRE in poly-Ub proteins was significantly different between groups at both the POST1 (EPC: - 26.0 ± 10.3%, sham: + 34.8 ± 28.5%; p = 0.046) and POST2 (EPC: - 33.7 ± 17.2%, sham: + 21.4 ± 14.9%; p = 0.037) time points. EPC when used concurrently with HIIT and in subsequent recovery days reduces skeletal muscle markers of proteolysis.

  15. High-intensity interval training and β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid improves aerobic power and metabolic thresholds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Edward H; Stout, Jeffrey R; Miramonti, Amelia A; Fukuda, David H; Wang, Ran; Townsend, Jeremy R; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research combining Calcium β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (CaHMB) and running high-intensity interval training (HIIT) have shown positive effects on aerobic performance measures. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyric free acid (HMBFA) and cycle ergometry HIIT on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory threshold (VT), respiratory compensation point (RCP) and time to exhaustion (Tmax) in college-aged men and women. Thirty-four healthy men and women (Age: 22.7 ± 3.1 yrs ; VO2peak: 39.3 ± 5.0 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) volunteered to participate in this double-blind, placebo-controlled design study. All participants completed a series of tests prior to and following treatment. A peak oxygen consumption test was performed on a cycle ergometer to assess VO2peak, Tmax, VT, and RCP. Twenty-six participants were randomly assigned into either a placebo (PLA-HIIT) or 3 g per day of HMBFA (BetaTor™) (HMBFA-HIIT) group. Eight participants served as controls (CTL). Participants in the HIIT groups completed 12 HIIT (80-120% maximal workload) exercise sessions consisting of 5-6 bouts of a 2:1 minute cycling work to rest ratio protocol over a four-week period. Body composition was measured with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA with posttest means adjusted for pretest differences. The HMBFA-HIIT intervention showed significant (p body composition. An independent-samples t-test confirmed that there were no significant differences between the training volumes for the PLA-HIIT and HMBFA-HIIT groups. Our findings support the use of HIIT in combination with HMBFA to improve aerobic fitness in college age men and women. These data suggest that the addition of HMBFA supplementation may result in greater changes in VO2peak and VT than HIIT alone. The study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (ID NCT01941368).

  16. Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval training on type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk in young healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Higgins, T.P; Baker, M.D; Evans, S-A; Adams, R.A; Cobbold, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which p...

  17. High-intensity interval training for improving health-related fitness in adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Lubans, D R

    2015-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may be a feasible and efficacious strategy for improving health-related fitness in young people. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the utility of HIIT to improve health-related fitness in adolescents and to identify potential moderators of training effects. Studies were considered eligible if they: (1) examined adolescents (13-18 years); (2) examined health-related fitness outcomes; (3) involved an intervention of ≥4 weeks in duration; (4) included a control or moderate intensity comparison group; and (5) prescribed high-intensity activity for the HIIT condition. Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the effect of HIIT on health-related fitness components using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software and potential moderators were explored (ie, study duration, risk of bias and type of comparison group). The effects of HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition were large, and medium, respectively. Study duration was a moderator for the effect of HIIT on body fat percentage. Intervention effects for waist circumference and muscular fitness were not statistically significant. HIIT is a feasible and time-efficient approach for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in adolescent populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Cardiorespiratory Effects of One-Legged High-Intensity Interval Training in Normoxia and Hypoxia: A Pilot Study

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    Verena Menz, Mona Semsch, Florian Mosbach, Martin Burtscher

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A higher-than-average maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, is closely associated with decreased morbidity and mortality and improved quality of life and acts as a marker of cardiorespiratory fitness. Although there is no consensus about an optimal training method to enhance VO2max, nevertheless training of small muscle groups and repeated exposure to hypoxia seem to be promising approaches. Therefore, this study was aimed at gaining innovative insights into the effects of small muscle group training in normoxia and hypoxia. Thirteen healthy participants were randomly assigned to the hypoxic (HG, n = 7 or normoxic (NG, n = 6 training group. Both groups completed nine high-intensity interval training sessions in 3 wks. The NG performed the training in normoxia (FiO2: 0.21; ~ 600 m and the HG in hypoxia (FiO2: 0.126; ~ 4500 m. Each session consisted of 4 x 4 min one-legged cycling at 90% of maximal heart rate separated by 4 min recovery periods. Before and after the intervention period, VO2max and peak power output (Wmax and responses to submaximal cycling (100 and 150 watts were assessed in a laboratory cycling test. Peak power output significantly improved within both groups (9.6 ± 4.8% and 12.6 ± 8.9% for HG and NG, respectively with no significant interaction (p = 0.277. However, VO2max only significantly increased after training in hypoxia from 45.4 ± 10.1 to 50.0 ± 9.8 ml/min/kg (10.8 ± 6.0%; p = 0.002 with no significant interaction (p = 0.146. The maximal O2-pulse improved within the HG and demonstrated a significant interaction (p = 0.040. One-legged cycling training significantly improved VO2max and peak power output. Training under hypoxic conditions may generate greater effects on VO2max than a similar training in normoxia and is considered as a promising training method for improving cardiorespiratory fitness.

  19. Effect of high-intensity interval training on body composition and bioenergetic indices in boys - futsal players

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    Balbasi Fatemeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval trainings (HIIT can result in the best improvement of body fitness among athletes in the shortest possible time. The impact of HIIT on bioenergetic factors of futsal players has not been studied extensively. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 3-week HIIT on body composition indices, maximum aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power, anaerobic power among boys - futsal players. Material: 30 boys - futsal players (mean± SD age, 13.49±1.03 years; BMI, 20.95±1.78 kg/m2 participated in the study voluntarily. They were randomly assigned to experimental (n=15 and control (n=15 groups. HIIT lasted for three weeks, three sessions a week for 12-36 minutes on treadmill. Weight, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio (WHR, thickness of body fat, maximal aerobic power, and maximum anaerobic power were recorded before intervention and 48 hours after the final training session. Aerobic power was measured with 20-m shuttle run, and maximum anaerobic power was measured with RAST test. Paired sample t-test was used to determine pretest-posttest differences, and independent t-test was used to determine between-group differences. The significance level was set to P < 0.05. Results: Significant differences were found in weight, BMI, thickness of body fat, maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power in experimental group (P = 0.001 before and after training intervention, but the change in WHR was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant differences were observed in selected body composition between experimental and control groups, but they exhibited significant differences in maximum aerobic power and maximum anaerobic power (P = 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results, HIIT can be an effective training program for improving the performance of bioenergetic indices of futsal players. Also, it is recommended to study the effect of similar trainings with longer durations on other

  20. High Rate of Return to High-Intensity Interval Training After Arthroscopic Management of Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riff, Andrew J; Ukwuani, Gift; Clapp, Ian; Movassaghi, Kamran; Kelly, D Michael; Nho, Shane J

    2018-06-01

    Since the inception of CrossFit in 2000, the popularity of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in the United States has risen dramatically. While HIIT is a highly efficient exercise for weight loss and improved conditioning, some literature reports injuries in up to 34% of HIIT participants. We sought to evaluate the functional and sports-specific results of hip arthroscopic surgery in recreational HIIT participants. To evaluate patients' ability to return to HIIT after hip arthroscopic surgery for femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS). Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Consecutive patients with FAIS who had identified themselves as participating in HIIT and had undergone hip arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of FAIS by a single fellowship-trained surgeon between 2012 and 2015 were reviewed. Demographic data; preoperative physical examination findings; preoperative imaging results; preoperative patient-reported outcome (PRO) scores including the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), Hip Outcome Score-Sports-Specific Subscale (HOS-SSS), and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain; and postoperative examination and PRO scores at a minimum 2 years after surgery, including a HIIT-specific questionnaire, were assessed for all patients. Thirty-two patients (13 male, 19 female) with a mean age of 34.7 ± 6.9 years (range, 21-49 years) were identified with a minimum 24-month follow-up. Among these, 22 participated in CrossFit, 4 in Shred415, 3 in Orangetheory, and 3 in self-directed cross-training including plyometrics. Preoperatively, 14 patients had discontinued HIIT because of activity-related hip complaints, 17 patients had scaled back involvement in HIIT, and 1 patient maintained her baseline routine. Postoperatively, 28 of 32 patients (88%) returned to HIIT at a mean of 9.8 ± 5.7 months after surgery (range, 3-24 months); 96% returned to HIIT at the same level as or better than before the injury. Fear

  1. Metabolic effects of resistance or high-intensity interval training among glycemic control-nonresponsive children with insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, C; Ramírez-Campillo, R; Ramírez-Vélez, R; Martínez, C; Castro-Sepúlveda, M; Alonso-Martínez, A; Izquierdo, M

    2018-01-01

    Little evidence exists on which variables of body composition or muscular strength mediates more glucose control improvements taking into account inter-individual metabolic variability to different modes of exercise training. We examined 'mediators' to the effects of 6-weeks of resistance training (RT) or high-intensity interval training (HIT) on glucose control parameters in physically inactive schoolchildren with insulin resistance (IR). Second, we also determined both training-induce changes and the prevalence of responders (R) and non-responders (NR) to decrease the IR level. Fifty-six physically inactive children diagnosed with IR followed a RT or supervised HIT program for 6 weeks. Participants were classified based on ΔHOMA-IR into glycemic control R (decrease in homeostasis model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) training-induced changes to glucose control parameters; and third the report of R and NR to improve body composition, cardiovascular, metabolic and performance variables. Mediation analysis revealed that improvements (decreases) in abdominal fat by the waist circumference can explain more the effects (decreases) of HOMA-IR in physically inactive schoolchildren under RT or HIT regimes. The same analysis showed that increased one-maximum repetition leg-extension was correlated with the change in HOMA-IR (β=-0.058; P=0.049). Furthermore, a change in the waist circumference fully mediated the dose-response relationship between changes in the leg-extension strength and HOMA-IR (β'=-0.004; P=0.178). RT or HIT were associated with significant improvements in body composition, muscular strength, blood pressure and cardiometabolic parameters irrespective of improvement in glycemic control response. Both glucose control RT-R and HIT-R (respectively), had significant improvements in mean HOMA-IR, mean muscular strength leg-extension and mean measures of adiposity. The improvements in the lower body strength and the decreases in waist circumference can explain more

  2. Application of the Speed-Duration Relationship to Normalize the Intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wilson, John; Birch, Karen M.; Kemi, Ole J.

    2013-01-01

    The tolerable duration of continuous high-intensity exercise is determined by the hyperbolic Speed-tolerable duration (S-tLIM) relationship. However, application of the S-tLIM relationship to normalize the intensity of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) has yet to be considered, with this the aim of present study. Subjects completed a ramp-incremental test, and series of 4 constant-speed tests to determine the S-tLIM relationship. A sub-group of subjects (n = 8) then repeated 4 min bouts of exercise at the speeds predicted to induce intolerance at 4 min (WR4), 6 min (WR6) and 8 min (WR8), interspersed with bouts of 4 min recovery, to the point of exercise intolerance (fixed WR HIIT) on different days, with the aim of establishing the work rate that could be sustained for 960 s (i.e. 4×4 min). A sub-group of subjects (n = 6) also completed 4 bouts of exercise interspersed with 4 min recovery, with each bout continued to the point of exercise intolerance (maximal HIIT) to determine the appropriate protocol for maximizing the amount of high-intensity work that can be completed during 4×4 min HIIT. For fixed WR HIIT tLIM of HIIT sessions was 399±81 s for WR4, 892±181 s for WR6 and 1517±346 s for WR8, with total exercise durations all significantly different from each other (PHIIT, there was no difference in tLIM of each of the 4 bouts (Bout 1: 229±27 s; Bout 2: 262±37 s; Bout 3: 235±49 s; Bout 4: 235±53 s; P>0.050). However, there was significantly less high-intensity work completed during bouts 2 (153.5±40. 9 m), 3 (136.9±38.9 m), and 4 (136.7±39.3 m), compared with bout 1 (264.9±58.7 m; P>0.050). These data establish that WR6 provides the appropriate work rate to normalize the intensity of HIIT between subjects. Maximal HIIT provides a protocol which allows the relative contribution of the work rate profile to physiological adaptations to be considered during alternative intensity-matched HIIT protocols. PMID:24244266

  3. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

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    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  4. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Exercise on Serum Dopamine Level and Improvement of Perceptual-Motor Skills in Male Students with Hyperactivity/Attention Deficit Disorder

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    F. Torabi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Known by hyperactivity, inattentiveness, and impulsiveness, the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is considered as a behavioral disorder in the children, as well as in the adolescents. The disorder might also damage their motor skill procedure. The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of 6-week high intensity interval exercise on the serum dopamine levels and the improvement of perceptual-motor performance in boys with ADHD. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 20 adolescent male students with ADHD of the eastern Tehran schools were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected by random sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including experimental (n=10 and control (n=10 groups. 6-week high intensity interval training (3 days a week was conducted in experimental group. The anthropometric indices, dopamine levels, and perceptual-motor performance scores were measured both at the beginning and at the end of the course. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and independent T tests. Findings: In the experimental group, the dopamine levels significantly increased at the posttest stage compared to the pretest (p=0.01, while BMI (p=0.001 and body fat percentage (p=0.002 significantly decreased. In addition, the motor skill score significantly increased in experimental group (p=0.001. No variable was significantly changed in control group during the 6 weeks (p>0.05. Conclusion: 6-week high intensity interval exercise improves perceptual-motor performance and increases serum dopamine levels in boys with ADHD.

  5. The effects of four weeks of creatine supplementation and high-intensity interval training on cardiorespiratory fitness: a randomized controlled trial

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    Cramer Joel T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-intensity interval training has been shown to be a time-efficient way to induce physiological adaptations similar to those of traditional endurance training. Creatine supplementation may enhance high-intensity interval training, leading to even greater physiological adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and creatine supplementation on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption (VO2PEAK, time-to-exhaustion (VO2PEAKTTE, ventilatory threshold (VT, and total work done (TWD in college-aged men. Methods Forty-three recreationally active men completed a graded exercise test to determine VO2PEAK, VO2PEAKTTE, and VT. In addition, participants completed a time to exhaustion (TTE ride at 110% of the maximum workload reached during the graded exercise test to determine TWD (TTE (sec × W = J. Following testing, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: creatine (creatine citrate (Cr; n = 16, placebo (PL; n = 17, or control (n = 10 groups. The Cr and PL groups completed four weeks of HIIT prior to post-testing. Results Significant improvements in VO2PEAK and VO2PEAKTTE occurred in both training groups. Only the Cr group significantly improved VT (16% vs. 10% improvement in PL. No changes occurred in TWD in any group. Conclusion In conclusion, HIIT is an effective and time-efficient way to improve maximal endurance performance. The addition of Cr improved VT, but did not increase TWD. Therefore, 10 g of Cr per day for five days per week for four weeks does not seem to further augment maximal oxygen consumption, greater than HIIT alone; however, Cr supplementation may improve submaximal exercise performance.

  6. High-intensity high-volume swimming induces more robust signaling through PGC-1α and AMPK activation than sprint interval swimming in m. triceps brachii

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    Casuso, Rafael A; Plaza-Díaz, Julio; Ruiz-Ojeda, Francisco J

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to test whether high-intensity high-volume training (HIHVT) swimming would induce more robust signaling than sprint interval training (SIT) swimming within the m. triceps brachii due to lower metabolic and oxidation. Nine well-trained swimmers performed the two training procedures...... on separate randomized days. Muscle biopsies from m. triceps brachii and blood samples were collected at three different time points: a) before the intervention (pre), b) immediately after the swimming procedures (post) and c) after 3 h of rest (3 h). Hydroperoxides, creatine kinase (CK), and lactate...

  7. Longer Work/Rest Intervals During High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Lead to Elevated Levels of miR-222 and miR-29c

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    Boris Schmitz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: MicroRNA-222 (miR-222 and miR-29c have been identified as important modulators of cardiac growth and may protect against pathological cardiac remodeling. miR-222 and -29c may thus serve as functional biomarkers for exercise-induced cardiac adaptations. This investigation compared the effect of two workload-matched high-intensity interval training (HIIT protocols with different recovery periods on miR-222 and -29c levels.Methods: Sixty-three moderately trained females and males (22.0 ± 1.7 years fulfilled the eligibility criteria and were randomized into two HIIT groups using sex and exercise capacity. During a controlled 4-week intervention (two sessions/week a 4 × 30 HIIT group performed 4 × 30 s runs (all-out, 30 s active recovery and a 8 × 15 HIIT group performed 8 × 15 s runs (all-out, 15 s active recovery. miR-222 and -29c as well as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1 mRNA levels were determined during high-intensity running as well as aerobic exercise using capillary blood from earlobes. Performance parameters were assessed using an incremental continuous running test (ICRT protocol with blood lactate diagnostic and heart rate (HR monitoring to determine HR recovery and power output at individual anaerobic threshold (IAT.Results: At baseline, acute exercise miR-222 and -29c levels were increased only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (both p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise. After the intervention, acute exercise miR-222 levels were still increased in the 4 × 30 HIIT group (p < 0.01, pre- vs. post-exercise while in the 8 × 15 HIIT group again no acute effect was observed. However, both HIIT interventions resulted in elevated resting miR-222 and -29c levels (all p < 0.001, pre- vs. post-intervention. Neither of the two miRNAs were elevated at any ICRT speed level at baseline nor follow-up. While HR recovery was improved by >24% in both HIIT groups (both p ≤ 0.0002 speed at IAT was improved by 3.6% only in the 4 × 30 HIIT group

  8. Acute effects of high-intensity interval, resistance or combined exercise protocols on testosterone - cortisol responses in inactive overweight individuals.

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    Velasco-Orjuela, Gina P; Domínguez-Sanchéz, María A; Hernández, Enrique; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Triana-Reina, Héctor R; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Izquierdo, Mikel; Cadore, Eduardo L; Hackney, Anthony C; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2018-06-22

    The purpose of this study was to compare the hormonal responses to one session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 4 × 4 min intervals at 85-95% maximum heart rate [HRmax], interspersed with 4 min of recovery at 75-85% HRmax), resistance training (RT at 50-70% of one repetition maximum 12-15 repetitions per set with 60s of recovery) or both (HIIT+RT) exercise protocol in a cohort of physical inactivity, overweight adults (age 18-30 years old). Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial among fifty-one men (23.6 ± 3.5 yr; 83.5 ± 7.8 kg; 28.0 ± 1.9 kg/m2), physical inactivity (i.e., 6 months), with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm) or body mass index ≥25 and ≤30 kg/m 2 were randomized to the following 4 groups: high-intensity interval training (HIIT, n = 14), resistance training (RT, n = 12), combined high-intensity interval and resistance training (HIIT+RT, n = 13), or non-exercising control (CON, n = 12). Cortisol, total- and free-testosterone and total-testosterone/cortisol-ratio (T/C) assessments (all in serum) were determined before (pre) and 1-min post-exercise for each protocol session. Decreases in cortisol levels were -57.08 (95%CI, -75.58 to -38.58; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.61) and - 37.65 (95%CI, -54.36 to -20.93; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.51) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. Increases in T/C ratio were 0.022 (95%CI, 0.012 to 0.031; P = 0.001; ɳ 2  = 0.49) and 0.015 (95%CI, 0.004 to 0.025; P = 0.007; ɳ 2  = 0.29) in the HIIT and control group, respectively. In per-protocol analyses revealed a significant change in cortisol levels [interaction effect F( 7.777 ), ɳ 2  = 0.33] and T/C ratio [interaction effect F( 5.298 ), ɳ 2  = 0.25] between groups over time. Additionally, we showed that in both the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol analyses, HIIT+RT did not change serum cortisol, total or free testosterone. The present

  9. Effect of High Intensity Interval Training on Cardiac Function in Children with Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

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    Ingul, Charlotte B; Dias, Katrin A; Tjonna, Arnt E; Follestad, Turid; Hosseini, Mansoureh S; Timilsina, Anita S; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M; Ro, Torstein B; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Coombes, Jeff S

    2018-02-13

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) confers superior cardiovascular health benefits to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) in adults and may be efficacious for improving diminished cardiac function in obese children. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT, MICT and nutrition advice interventions on resting left ventricular (LV) peak systolic tissue velocity (S') in obese children. Ninety-nine obese children were randomised into one of three 12-week interventions, 1) HIIT [n = 33, 4 × 4 min bouts at 85-95% maximum heart rate (HR max ), 3 times/week] and nutrition advice, 2) MICT [n = 32, 44 min at 60-70% HR max , 3 times/week] and nutrition advice, and 3) nutrition advice only (nutrition) [n = 34]. Twelve weeks of HIIT and MICT were equally efficacious, but superior to nutrition, for normalising resting LV S' in children with obesity (estimated mean difference 1.0 cm/s, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.6 cm/s, P HIIT and MICT were superior to nutrition advice only for improving resting LV systolic function in obese children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of high-intensity interval training on glucose regulation and insulin resistance: a meta-analysis.

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    Jelleyman, C; Yates, T; O'Donovan, G; Gray, L J; King, J A; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of glucose regulation and insulin resistance compared with control conditions (CON) or continuous training (CT). Databases were searched for HIIT interventions based upon the inclusion criteria: training ≥2 weeks, adult participants and outcome measurements that included insulin resistance, fasting glucose, HbA1c or fasting insulin. Dual interventions and participants with type 1 diabetes were excluded. Fifty studies were included. There was a reduction in insulin resistance following HIIT compared with both CON and CT (HIIT vs. CON: standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.49, confidence intervals [CIs] -0.87 to -0.12, P = 0.009; CT: SMD = -0.35, -0.68 to -0.02, P = 0.036). Compared with CON, HbA1c decreased by 0.19% (-0.36 to -0.03, P = 0.021) and body weight decreased by 1.3 kg (-1.9 to -0.7, P HIIT appears effective at improving metabolic health, particularly in those at risk of or with type 2 diabetes. Larger randomized controlled trials of longer duration than those included in this meta-analysis are required to confirm these results. © 2015 World Obesity.

  11. Simultaneous Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and Consumption of Flaxseed on Serum Levels of TNF-α and IL1β in Rats

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    Khademi Y.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims The high concentration of Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β and Tumor Necrosis Factor- α (TNF-α is an important risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the simultaneous effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and the use of flaxseed oil with different doses on the serum levels of TNF-α and IL1β in rats. Materials & Methods In this experimental study, 30 Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: control, training, 10mg/kg supplement, 30mg/kg supplement, training with 10mg/kg supplement and training with 30mg/kg supplement. The groups performed High- Intensity Interval Training (HIIT for 10 weeks and received flaxseed oil extracts. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA and LSD post hoc test. Findings Serum levels of IL1β in the training group and training groups with doses of 10 and 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than the control group. Serum levels of IL1β in the training group with 30mg/kg of extract, was significantly lower than group with 10mg/ kg of extract. Also, serum levels of TNF-α in the training group, training groups with doses of 10 and 30mg/kg of extract and group with 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than the control group. Serum levels of TNF-α in the training group with 30mg/kg of extract were significantly lower than other groups (p<0.05. Conclusion High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT and consumption of flaxseed oil for 10 weeks have interactive effects on reduction of serum levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in rats.

  12. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

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    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  13. High-Intensity Interval Training After Stroke: An Opportunity to Promote Functional Recovery, Cardiovascular Health, and Neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Jennifer; Roig, Marc; Eng, Janice J; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Fung, Joyce; Ploughman, Michelle; Bailey, Damian M; Sweet, Shane N; Giacomantonio, Nicholas; Thiel, Alexander; Trivino, Michael; Tang, Ada

    2018-04-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Individuals poststroke possess less than half of the cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) as their nonstroke counterparts, leading to inactivity, deconditioning, and an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Preserving cardiovascular health is critical to lower stroke risk; however, stroke rehabilitation typically provides limited opportunity for cardiovascular exercise. Optimal cardiovascular training parameters to maximize recovery in stroke survivors also remains unknown. While stroke rehabilitation recommendations suggest the use of moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE) to improve CRF, neither is it routinely implemented in clinical practice, nor is the intensity always sufficient to elicit a training effect. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged as a potentially effective alternative that encompasses brief high-intensity bursts of exercise interspersed with bouts of recovery, aiming to maximize cardiovascular exercise intensity in a time-efficient manner. HIIT may provide an alternative exercise intervention and invoke more pronounced benefits poststroke. To provide an updated review of HIIT poststroke through ( a) synthesizing current evidence; ( b) proposing preliminary considerations of HIIT parameters to optimize benefit; ( c) discussing potential mechanisms underlying changes in function, cardiovascular health, and neuroplasticity following HIIT; and ( d) discussing clinical implications and directions for future research. Preliminary evidence from 10 studies report HIIT-associated improvements in functional, cardiovascular, and neuroplastic outcomes poststroke; however, optimal HIIT parameters remain unknown. Larger randomized controlled trials are necessary to establish ( a) effectiveness, safety, and optimal training parameters within more heterogeneous poststroke populations; (b) potential mechanisms of HIIT-associated improvements; and ( c) adherence and psychosocial outcomes.

  14. Plyometric exercise combined with high-intensity interval training improves metabolic abnormalities in young obese females more so than interval training alone.

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    Racil, Ghazi; Zouhal, Hassane; Elmontassar, Wassim; Ben Abderrahmane, Abderraouf; De Sousa, Maysa Vieira; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Coquart, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with the effects of 12 weeks of plyometric exercise combined with HIIT (P+HIIT) on anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness data in young obese females. Sixty-eight participants (age, 16.6 ± 1.3 y; body mass, 82.8 ± 5.0 kg; body fat, 39.4% ± 3.3%; body mass index z score, 2.9 ± 0.4) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: HIIT (2 blocks per session of 6-8 bouts of 30-s runs at 100% velocity at peak oxygen uptake, with 30-s active recovery between bouts at 50%velocity at peak oxygen uptake (n = 23)); P+HIIT (2 blocks per session of 3 different 15-s plyometric exercises with 15-s passive recoveries, totaling 2 min for each plyometric exercise + the same HIIT program (n = 26)); or control (no exercise (n = 19)). Anthropometric (body mass, body mass index z score, body fat, lean body mass, and waist circumference), biochemical (plasma glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin concentrations, leptin/adiponectin ratio, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)), physical fitness (peak oxygen uptake, velocity at peak oxygen uptake, squat jump, and countermovement jump performances), and energy intake data were collected. Both training programs improved the anthropometric, biochemical, and physical fitness variables. However, the P+HIIT program induced greater improvements than did the HIIT program in lean body mass (+3.0% ± 1.7%), plasma glucose and leptin concentrations (-11.0% ± 4.7% and -23.8% ± 5.8%, respectively), plasma leptin/adiponectin ratio (-40.9% ± 10.9%), HOMA-IR (-37.3% ± 6.2%), and squat jump performance (22.2% ± 7.5%). Taken together, these findings suggest that adding plyometric exercises to a HIIT program may be more beneficial than HIIT alone in obese female adolescents.

  15. The impact of acute high-intensity interval exercise on biomarkers of cardiovascular health in type 2 diabetes.

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    Francois, Monique E; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-08-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) interventions improve cardiovascular health, yet the acute effects on circulating and functional biomarkers of cardiovascular function are unclear in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore this, we conducted two investigations to examine the acute response to HIIT in individuals with T2D. Study 1 measured blood pressure, endothelial-dependent dilation, circulating measures of endothelial activation, and troponin T, 30 min and 2 h after HIIT (7 × 1-min intervals) in T2D (n = 8) and age-matched normoglycemic controls (CTL; n = 8). Study 2 assessed circulating measures of endothelial activation and troponin T, 30 min, and 24 h after HIIT (10 × 1-min intervals) in ten previously trained T2D men. In study 1, markers of endothelial function and activation within the first 2 h after HIIT did not differ from baseline between T2D and CTL participants, except at 30 min after HIIT for glucose, which was reduced more in T2D than CTL (by -0.8 ± 1.2 mmol/L, p = 0.04), and VCAM-1, which was reduced more 30 min after HIIT in CTL compared to T2D (by -187 ± 221 ng/mL, p = 0.05). Study 2 saw no significant difference in any circulating markers of endothelial activation and troponin T, 30 min, and 24 h after HIIT in trained T2D males. Exploratory findings from these two studies suggest that acute HIIT does not substantially alter circulating and functional markers of cardio(vascular) health in individuals with T2D who are unaccustomed (study 1) and accustomed to HIIT (study 2).

  16. High-intensity interval exercise and glycemic control in adolescents with type one diabetes mellitus: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Emma J; Moudiotis, Christopher; Kitchen, Julie; Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A; Barker, Alan R

    2017-07-01

    Current physical activity guidelines for youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) are poorly supported by empirical evidence and the optimal dose of physical activity to improve glycemic control is unknown. This case report documents the effect of acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) on 24-h glycemic control in three adolescents with T1D using continuous glucose monitoring. Results highlight varied individual response to exercise across the participants. In two participants both MIE and HIIE resulted in a drop in blood glucose during exercise (-38 to -42% for MIE and -21-46% in HIIE) and in one participant both MIE and HIIE resulted in increased blood glucose (+19% and + 36%, respectively). Over the 24-h period average blood glucose was lower for all participants in the HIIE condition, and for two for the MIE condition, compared to no exercise. All three participants reported HIIE to be more enjoyable than MIE These data show both HIIE and MIE have the potential to improve short-term glycemic control in youth with T1D but HIIE was more enjoyable. Future work with a larger sample size is required to explore the potential for HIIE to improve health markers in youth with T1D. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng Hsiu; Lee, Chin Pang; Hsu, Shih Chieh; Chang, Chia Ming; Chen, Ching Yen

    2015-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (PHIIT has positive effects on the physical and mental health of patients with chronic schizophrenia.

  18. High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kassia S; Wisløff, Ulrik; Coombes, Jeff S

    2014-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. The Effect of Age on the V˙O2max Response to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støren, Øyvind; Helgerud, Jan; Sæbø, Mona; Støa, Eva Maria; Bratland-Sanda, Solfrid; Unhjem, Runar J; Hoff, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    2017-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is documented to yield effective improvements in the cardiovascular system and be an excellent strategy for healthy aging. However, it is not determined how age may affect the training response of key components of aerobic endurance. We recruited 72 males (mean ± SD, weight = 84.9 ± 12.9 kg, height = 180.4 ± 5.8 cm) and 22 females (weight = 76.0 ± 17.2 kg, height = 171.2 ± 6.7 cm) from 20 to 70+ yr with a training status typical for their age group and divided them into six decade cohorts. The participants followed supervised training with a targeted intensity of 90%-95% of maximal HR (HRmax) three times a week for 8 wk. After HIIT, all age groups increased (P HIIT were inversely associated with baseline training status (r = 0.66, P HIIT may be used as an excellent strategy for healthy aging.

  20. Effects of high-intensity interval training on fatigue and quality of life in testicular cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; DeLorey, Darren S; Davenport, Margie H; Fairey, Adrian S; North, Scott; Courneya, Kerry S

    2018-05-08

    Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) are at increased risk of cancer-related fatigue (CRF), psychosocial impairment, and poor mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Here, we examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in TCS. Secondarily, we explore cardiorespiratory fitness as a mediator of intervention effects and select baseline characteristics as moderators of intervention effects. TCS (n = 63) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of supervised HIIT or usual care (UC). PROs included CRF, depression, anxiety, stress, self-esteem, sleep quality, and HRQoL assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and 3-month follow-up. TCS (median 7 years postdiagnosis) completed 99% of training sessions and achieved 98% of target training intensity. ANCOVA revealed that, compared to UC, HIIT significantly improved post-intervention CRF (p = 0.003), self-esteem (p = 0.029), and multiple HRQoL domains (ps ≤ 0.05). Effects on CRF (p = 0.031) and vitality (p = 0.015) persisted at 3-month follow-up. Cardiorespiratory fitness changes mediated CRF and HRQoL improvements. CRF effects were larger for TCS with an inactive lifestyle, lower fitness, higher testosterone, and clinical fatigue at baseline. HIIT significantly improves CRF and HRQoL in TCS. Mediation by cardiorespiratory fitness and moderation by clinical characteristics suggests opportunities for targeted exercise interventions to optimise PROs in TCS.

  1. Comparison of the acute effects of high-intensity interval training and continuous aerobic walking on inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Shih-Chun; Westfall, Daniel R; Soneson, Jack; Gurd, Brendon; Hillman, Charles H

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous aerobic exercise (CAE) on inhibitory control. The P3 component of the stimulus-locked ERP was collected in 64 young adults during a modified flanker task following 20 min of seated rest, 20 min of CAE, and 9 min of HIIT on separate days in counterbalanced order. Participants exhibited shorter overall reaction time following CAE and HIIT compared to seated rest. Response accuracy improved following HIIT in the task condition requiring greater inhibitory control compared to seated rest and CAE. P3 amplitude was larger following CAE compared to seated rest and HIIT. Decreased P3 amplitude and latency were observed following HIIT compared to seated rest. The current results replicated previous findings indicating the beneficial effect of acute CAE on behavioral and neuroelectric indices of inhibitory control. With a smaller duration and volume of exercise, a single bout of HIIT resulted in additional improvements in inhibitory control, paralleled by a smaller and more efficient P3 component. In sum, the current study demonstrated that CAE and HIIT differentially facilitate inhibitory control and its underlying neuroelectric activation, and that HIIT may be a time-efficient approach for enhancing cognitive health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5.3. Short-term (ST) HIIT (HIIT (≥12 weeks) significantly improved waist circumference (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.01; pHIIT demonstrated no effect on insulin, lipid profile, C reactive protein or interleukin 6 in overweight/obese populations. In normal weight populations, ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT significantly improved VO 2 max, but no other significant effects were observed. Current evidence suggests that ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT can increase VO 2 max and improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. High-Intensity Interval Training Versus Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in the Prevention/Management of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Syed R; Macaluso, Andrea; Pearson, Stephen J

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superior extent to MICT. Since then, many studies have attempted to explore the potential clinical utility of HIIT, relative to MICT, with respect to treating numerous cardiovascular conditions, such as coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and hypertension. Despite this, however, the efficacy of HIIT in reversing the specific symptoms and risk factors of these cardiovascular pathologies is not well understood. HIIT is often perceived as very strenuous, which could render it unsafe for those at risk of or afflicted with CVD, but these issues are also yet to be reviewed. Furthermore, the optimal HIIT protocol for each of the CVD cohorts has not been established. Thus, the purpose of this review article is to (1) evaluate the efficacy of HIIT relative to MICT in the prevention and management of cardiovascular conditions, and (2) explore any potential safety issues surrounding the suitability and/or tolerability of HIIT for patients with CVD, and the potential optimal prescriptive variables of HIIT for application in the clinical environment.

  4. High Intensity Interval and Endurance Training Have Opposing Effects on Markers of Heart Failure and Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M.; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L.; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (PHIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (PHIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease. PMID:25803693

  5. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training on People Living with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wormgoor, Shohn G; Dalleck, Lance C; Zinn, Caryn; Harris, Nigel K

    2017-10-01

    People with type 2 diabetes typically present with comorbidities, such as elevated blood pressure, high cholesterol, high blood glucose, obesity and decreased fitness, all contributive to increased risk for cardiovascular complications. Determination of effective exercise modalities for the management of such complications is important. One such modality is high-intensity interval training (HIIT). To conduct the review, PubMed and EBSCOHost databases were searched through June 1, 2016, for all HIIT intervention studies conducted in people living with type 2 diabetes. Thereafter, the central characteristics of HIIT were analyzed to obtain a broader understanding of the cardiometabolic benefits achievable by HIIT. Fourteen studies were included for review, but the heterogeneity of the participants with type 2 diabetes, the training equipment and HIIT parameters, accompanied by variations in supervision, dietary advice and medications, prevented direct comparisons. However HIIT, regardless of the specific parameters employed, was a suitable option in pursuing improved glycemic control, body composition, aerobic fitness, blood pressure and lipidemia measures in individuals with type 2 diabetes. HIIT is a therapy with at least equivalent benefit to moderate-intensity continuous training; hence, HIIT should be considered when prescribing exercise interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents' objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Sarah A; Ridgers, Nicola D; Eather, Narelle; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Harris, Nigel; Lubans, David R

    2018-05-01

    High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) may be effective for accumulating VPA. However, the contribution of HIIT to overall physical activity is unknown. Our primary aim was to explore the impact of school-based HIIT on physical activity. The secondary aim was to explore within-individual changes in physical activity after participating in HIIT. Participants [n = 65; 15.8(0.6)years] were randomized to a HIIT or control group. Intervention groups participated in three HIIT sessions/week. GENEActiv accelerometers assessed objective physical activity at baseline and week-one, to detect changes in MPA and VPA. Intervention effects were examined using linear mixed models and evidence of a change in physical activity (i.e., compensation) were examined using multilevel linear regression models. The group-by-time interaction effects for MPA and VPA were small and moderate, respectively. Adjusted difference between groups for VPA was 1.70 min/day, 95%CI -1.96 to 5.36; p = 0.354; d = 0.55). Embedding HIIT within the school-day had a moderate effect on VPA compared to controls. Compensation analyses (i.e., individual level) suggested that adolescents were more active on days when they participated in HIIT. Further studies are needed to test the effects of HIIT on adolescents' physical activity over extended time periods.

  7. Effects of a Single Session of High Intensity Interval Treadmill Training on Corticomotor Excitability following Stroke: Implications for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. High intensity interval treadmill training (HIITT has been gaining popularity for gait rehabilitation after stroke. In this study, we examined the changes in excitability of the lower limb motor cortical representation (M1 in chronic stroke survivors following a single session of HIITT. We also determined whether exercise-induced changes in excitability could be modulated by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS enhanced with a paretic ankle skill acquisition task. Methods. Eleven individuals with chronic stroke participated in two 40-minute treadmill-training sessions: HIITT alone and HITT preceded by anodal tDCS enhanced with a skill acquisition task (e-tDCS+HIITT. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS was used to assess corticomotor excitability of paretic and nonparetic tibialis anterior (TA muscles. Results. HIIT alone reduced paretic TA M1 excitability in 7 of 11 participants by ≥ 10%. e-tDCS+HIITT increased paretic TA M1 excitability and decreased nonparetic TA M1 excitability. Conclusions. HIITT suppresses corticomotor excitability in some people with chronic stroke. When HIITT is preceded by tDCS in combination with a skill acquisition task, the asymmetry of between-hemisphere corticomotor excitability is reduced. Significance. This study provides preliminary data indicating that the cardiovascular benefits of HIITT may be achieved without suppressing motor excitability in some stroke survivors.

  8. An After-School, high-intensity, interval physical activity programme improves health-related fitness in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Reloba Martínez

    Full Text Available Abstract Health problems related to a low level of physical activity (PA in children and adolescents have prompted research into extracurricular PA programs. This study was designed to determine the effects of two different levels of PA on the health-related fitness of school children. Ninety-four girls and boys (7-9 years were randomly assigned to a control group (CG or intervention group (IG. Over a 12 week study period, children in the CG participated in a similar PA program to that of a standard school physical education program while those in the IG completed a high intensity interval training (HIIT program. Both programs involved two 40 minute extracurricular sessions per week. Our findings indicate that the HIIT intervention improved motor capacity (speed/agility, Vpeak, VO2 max and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC (p < 0.05 along with the musculoskeletal capacity of the lower trunk (mean propulsive velocity and standing long jump, p < 0.05. The PA program had no effect on anthropometric variables or hand-grip strength. The data indicate that a 12 week strength training program using workloads adapted to children may significantly improve several markers of health and physical fitness compared to a standard school PA program.

  9. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in overweight and obese young women. Methods. Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of V˙O2peak. V˙O2peak, body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results. Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in V˙O2peak (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention (p=0.062. The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT (p=0.042. Conclusion. Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  10. Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training on Body Composition and Blood Glucose in Overweight and Obese Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Sun, Shengyan; Liu, Min; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    This study was to determine the effects of five-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, blood glucose, and relevant systemic hormones when compared to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in overweight and obese young women. Methods . Eighteen subjects completed 20 sessions of HIIT or MICT for five weeks. HIIT involved 60 × 8 s cycling at ~90% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) interspersed with 12 s recovery, whereas MICT involved 40-minute continuous cycling at 65% of [Formula: see text]. [Formula: see text], body composition, blood glucose, and fasting serum hormones, including leptin, growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and fibroblast growth factor 21, were measured before and after training. Results . Both exercise groups achieved significant improvements in [Formula: see text] (+7.9% in HIIT versus +11.7% in MICT) and peak power output (+13.8% in HIIT versus +21.9% in MICT) despite no training effects on body composition or the relevant systemic hormones. Blood glucose tended to be decreased after the intervention ( p = 0.062). The rating of perceived exertion in MICT was higher than that in HIIT ( p = 0.042). Conclusion . Compared with MICT, short-term HIIT is more time-efficient and is perceived as being easier for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and fasting blood glucose for overweight and obese young women.

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) for smoking cessation in women: HIIT to quit study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavey, Toby G; Gartner, Coral E; Coombes, Jeff S; Brown, Wendy J

    2015-12-29

    Smoking and physical inactivity are major risk factors for heart disease. Linking strategies that promote improvements in fitness and assist quitting smoking has potential to address both these risk factors simultaneously. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of two exercise interventions (high intensity interval training (HIIT) and lifestyle physical activity) on smoking cessation in female smokers. This study will use a randomised controlled trial design. Women aged 18-55 years who smoke ≥ 5 cigarettes/day, and want to quit smoking. all participants will receive usual care for quitting smoking. Group 1--will complete two gym-based supervised HIIT sessions/week and one home-based HIIT session/week. At each training session participants will be asked to complete four 4-min (4 × 4 min) intervals at approximately 90% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3- min recovery periods. Group 2--participants will receive a resource pack and pedometer, and will be asked to use the 10,000 steps log book to record steps and other physical activities. The aim will be to increase daily steps to 10,000 steps/day. Analysis will be intention to treat and measures will include smoking cessation, withdrawal and cravings, fitness, physical activity, and well-being. The study builds on previous research suggesting that exercise intensity may influence the efficacy of exercise as a smoking cessation intervention. The hypothesis is that HIIT will improve fitness and assist women to quit smoking. ACTRN12614001255673 (Registration date 02/12/2014).

  12. Change in maximal fat oxidation in response to different regimes of periodized high-intensity interval training (HIIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Edmunds, Ross M; Clark, Amy; Gallant, Rachael; King, Leesa; Ordille, Gina M; Heath, Brendyn; Montell, Matthew; Bandong, Jason

    2017-04-01

    Increased capacity for fat oxidation (FatOx) is demonstrated in response to chronic endurance training as well as high-intensity interval training (HIIT). This study examined changes in maximal fat oxidation (MFO) in response to 20 sessions of periodized HIIT in an attempt to identify if various regimes of HIIT similarly augment capacity for FatOx. Thirty-nine habitually active men and women (mean age and VO 2 max = 22.5 ± 4.4 year and 40.0 ± 5.6 mL/kg/min) completed training and 32 men and women with similar physical activity and fitness level served as non-exercising controls (CON). Training consisted of ten sessions of progressive low-volume HIIT on the cycle ergometer after which participants completed an additional ten sessions of sprint interval training (SIT), high-volume HIIT, or periodized HIIT, whose assignment was randomized. Before and throughout training, MFO, FatOx, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx) were assessed during progressive cycling to exhaustion. Compared to CON, there was no effect of HIIT on MFO (p = 0.11). Small increases (p = 0.03) in FatOx were evident in response to HIIT leading to an additional 4.3 g of fat oxidized, although this value may not be clinically meaningful. Our results refute the widely reported increases in capacity for FatOx demonstrated with HIIT, which is likely due to marked day-to-day variability in determinations of MFO and exercise fat oxidation as well as the heterogeneity of our sample.

  13. Warm-up strategy and high-intensity endurance performance in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    ; means±SD) performed three warm-up strategies lasting 20 min before a 4-min maximal performance test (PT). Strategies consisted of moderate intensity exercise (50%iPPO) followed by 6 min of recovery (MOD6) or progressive-high intensity exercise (10-100%iPPO and 2x20-s sprints) followed by recovery for 6...

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval training on physical capacities and substrate oxidation rate in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzer, S; Tringali, G; Caccavale, M; De Micheli, R; Abbruzzese, L; Sartorio, A

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of a 3-week weight-management program entailing moderate energy restriction, nutritional education, psychological counseling and three different exercise training (a: low intensity, LI: 40 % V'O 2 max; b: high intensity, HI: 70 % V'O 2 max; c: high-intensity interval training, HIIT), on body composition, energy expenditure and fat oxidation rate in obese adolescents. Thirty obese adolescents (age: 15-17 years, BMI: 37.5 kg m -2 ) participated in this study. Before starting (week 0, W0) and at the end of the weight-management program (week 3, W3), body composition was assessed by an impedancemeter; basal metabolic rate (BMR), energy expenditure and substrate oxidation rate were measured during exercise and post-exercise recovery by indirect calorimetry. At W3, body mass (BM) and fat mass (FM) decreased significantly in all groups, the decreases being significantly greater in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups (BM: -8.4 ± 1.5 vs -6.3 ± 1.9 vs -4.9 ± 1.3 kg and FM: -4.2 ± 1.9 vs -2.8 ± 1.2 vs -2.3 ± 1.4 kg, p < 0.05, respectively). V'O 2 peak, expressed in relative values, changed significantly only in the HI and HIIT groups by 0.009 ± 0.005 and 0.007 ± 0.004 L kg FFM -1  min -1 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HI and HIIT subgroups exhibited a greater absolute rate of fat oxidation between 50 and 70 % V'O 2 peak at W3. No significant changes were observed at W3 in BMR, energy expenditure during exercise and post-exercise recovery. A 3-week weight-management program induced a greater decrease in BM and FM in the LI than in the HI and HIIT subgroups, and greater increase in V'O 2 peak and fat oxidation rate in the HI and HIIT than in the LI subgroup.

  15. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM) during Continuous and High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Othmar; Mader, Julia K; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R; Koehler, Gerd; Messerschmidt, Janin; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-08-10

    Continuous exercise (CON) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) can be safely performed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Additionally, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems may serve as a tool to reduce the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. It is unclear if CGM is accurate during CON and HIIE at different mean workloads. Seven T1DM patients performed CON and HIIE at 5% below (L) and above (M) the first lactate turn point (LTP₁), and 5% below the second lactate turn point (LTP₂) (H) on a cycle ergometer. Glucose was measured via CGM and in capillary blood (BG). Differences were found in comparison of CGM vs. BG in three out of the six tests (p exercise-induced hypoglycemia, but usual BG control should be performed during intense exercise.

  16. High-intensity interval and endurance training are associated with divergent skeletal muscle adaptations in a rodent model of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is extremely adaptable to a variety of metabolic challenges, as both traditional moderate-intensity endurance (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases oxidative potential in a coordinated manner. Although these responses have been clearly demonstrated in healthy individuals, it remains to be determined whether both produce similar responses in the context of hypertension, one of the most prevalent and costly diseases worldwide. Therefore, in the current study, we used the Dahl sodium-sensitive rat, a model of hypertension, to determine the molecular responses to 4 wk of either ET or HIIT in the red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles. In the RG, both ET and HIIT increased the content of electron transport chain proteins and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) content in type I fibers. Although both intensities of exercise shifted fiber type in RG (increased IIA, decreased IIX), only HIIT was associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an increase in HIF-1α proteins. In the WG, both ET and HIIT increased markers of the electron transport chain; however, HIIT decreased SDH content in a fiber-specific manner. ET increased type IIA, decreased IIB fibers, and increased capillarization, while, in contrast, HIIT increased the percentage of IIB fibers, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratios, decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. Altogether, these data show that unlike in healthy animals, ET and HIIT have divergent effects in the skeletal muscle of hypertensive rats. This suggests ET may be optimal at improving the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in animals with hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Australian cardiac rehabilitation exercise parameter characteristics and perceptions of high-intensity interval training: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Furness, James; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    Purpose This study explored current demographics, characteristics, costs, evaluation methods, and outcome measures used in Australian cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs. It also determined the actual usage and perceptions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods A cross-sectional observational web-based survey was distributed to 328 Australian CR programs nationally. Results A total of 261 programs completed the survey (79.6% response rate). Most Australian CR programs were located in a hospital setting (76%), offered exercise sessions once a week (52%) for 6–8 weeks (49%) at moderate intensity (54%) for 46–60 min (62%), and serviced 101–500 clients per annum (38%). HIIT was reported in only 1% of programs, and 27% of respondents believed that it was safe while 42% of respondents were unsure. Lack of staff (25%), monitoring resources (20%), and staff knowledge (18%) were the most commonly reported barriers to the implementation of HIIT. Overall, Australian CR coordinators are unsure of the cost of exercise sessions. Conclusion There is variability in CR delivery across Australia. Only half of programs reassess outcome measures postintervention, and cost of exercise sessions is unknown. Although HIIT is recommended in international CR guidelines, it is essentially not being used in Australia and clinicians are unsure as to the safety of HIIT. Lack of resources and staff knowledge were perceived as the biggest barriers to HIIT implementation, and there are inconsistent perceptions of prescreening and monitoring requirements. This study highlights the need to educate health professionals about the benefits and safety of HIIT to improve its usage and patient outcomes. PMID:29750058

  18. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya M Holloway

    Full Text Available There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05, and promoted a 20% (P<0.05 increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05, and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05. In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05 and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05. HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05, in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  19. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Costigan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6 years were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP (n = 21, resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP (n = 22 and control (n = 22. The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8–10 min/session, delivered during physical education (PE lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run, muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests, body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI, BMI-z scores, waist circumference and physical activity motivation (questionnaire, by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024, BMI-z (p = 0.037 and BMI (not significant in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group.

  20. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training Compared to Conventional Therapy on Cardiovascular and Psychological Aspects in Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ha-Yoon; Han, Hee-Jun; Choi, Ji-Won; Jung, Han-Young; Joa, Kyung-Lim

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on psychological symptoms, activity states, and cardiovascular functions in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) of low and moderate risk stratification. This prospective study randomly allocated 44 patients with MI to 18 sessions of HIIT or conventional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 18 sessions. Post-exercise cardiovascular and functional states, maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), metabolic equivalents (METs), 6-Minute Walking Test (6MWT), and Korean Activity Scale/Index (KASI) scores were significantly improved in the HIIT group compared to those in the MICT group after 18 exercise sessions. In particular, VO 2max was significantly (pHIIT group (7.58 mL/kg/min) compared to that in the MICT group (2.42 mL/kg/min). In addition, post-exercise psychological states (i.e., scores of Fatigue Severity Scale [FSS] and depression items of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS_D]) were significantly improved in the HIIT group compared to those in the MICT group after 18 exercise sessions. HADS-D was improved by 1.89 in the HIIT group compared to decrement of 0.47 in the MICT group. FSS was improved by 6.38 in the HIIT group compared to decrement of 0.77 in the MICT group (pHIIT can improve cardiac function, psychological, and activity states in low and moderate risk MI patients. Compared to conventional MICT, HIIT can improve cardiovascular functions, activity states, depression, and fatigue more effectively.

  1. Ketogenic diet, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Kaitlyn; Gibas, Kelly J

    2018-04-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) deaths have increased by 89% since 2000. This alarming trajectory of neurological disease highlights the failure of current best practice. Deteriorating brain fuel supply is the nemesis of intact neurological health. Cerebral hypo-metabolism associated with AD occurs years before onset. Both the ketogenic diet and calorie restriction (fasting) lead to a compensatory rise in ketones to improve energy deficits in the brain derived from cerebral insulin resistance. Two forms of ketone bodies, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, fuel the brain during starvation, fasting and strenuous exercise. Ketones are neuroprotective agents that shelter the aging brain from memory loss and neurodegeneration. Induced ketone production has been shown to ameliorate mitochondrial function, reduce the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and provide neuroprotection to cells (Lange et al., 2017). This case study highlights an innovative research design aimed at attenuating memory decline in a 57 year old female previously diagnosed with comorbid mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mild cognitive impairment is a predementia syndrome known to precede AD (Michaud et al, 2017). The 12-week intervention included ketogenic nutrition protocol, high intensity interval training (HIIT) and memory training using the PEAK brain training app. Memory function was assessed via the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) pre/post intervention. Physiological biomarkers for MetS including HOMA-IR(homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), triglyceride/HDL ratio, HgA1c, fasting triglycerides and HDL were measured pre/post intervention. MoCA baseline score was 22/30 (MCI); post intervention score: 30/30 (normal). MetS biomarker improvements also reflected statistical significance. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Preliminary efficacy and feasibility of embedding high intensity interval training into the school day: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

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    Costigan, S A; Eather, N; Plotnikoff, R C; Taaffe, D R; Pollock, E; Kennedy, S G; Lubans, D R

    2015-01-01

    Current physical activity and fitness levels among adolescents are low, increasing the risk of chronic disease. Although the efficacy of high intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving metabolic health is now well established, it is not known if this type of activity can be effective to improve adolescent health. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of embedding HIIT into the school day. A 3-arm pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted in one secondary school in Newcastle, Australia. Participants (n = 65; mean age = 15.8(0.6) years) were randomized into one of three conditions: aerobic exercise program (AEP) (n = 21), resistance and aerobic exercise program (RAP) (n = 22) and control (n = 22). The 8-week intervention consisted of three HIIT sessions per week (8-10 min/session), delivered during physical education (PE) lessons or at lunchtime. Assessments were conducted at baseline and post-intervention to detect changes in cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage shuttle-run), muscular fitness (push-up, standing long jump tests), body composition (Body Mass Index (BMI), BMI-z scores, waist circumference) and physical activity motivation (questionnaire), by researchers blinded to treatment allocation. Intervention effects for outcomes were examined using linear mixed models, and Cohen's d effect sizes were reported. Participants in the AEP and RAP groups had moderate intervention effects for waist circumference (p = 0.024), BMI-z (p = 0.037) and BMI (not significant) in comparison to the control group. A small intervention effect was also evident for cardiorespiratory fitness in the RAP group.

  3. The effect of a 10-week high-intensity interval training and ginger consumption on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women

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    Shila Nayebifar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most of the cardiovascular diseases can be prevented by doing regular physical exercises and using herbal supplements. The present study is aimed at assessing ginger supplement and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on inflammatory indices contributing to atherosclerosis in overweight women. Materials and Methods: The present study is a randomized, experimental, and controlled one in which thirty healthy overweight women aged 20–30 years were randomly divided into three equal groups, namely, ginger, ginger + HIIT, and placebo + HIIT. The training groups performed high-intensity interval exercises (i.e. 40-m maximal shuttle run for ten consecutive weeks. The supplement groups daily took 3 g of ginger pills and the third group took placebo. Results: Paired t-test revealed a significant decrease in the density of type 1 monocytes chemo tactic protein (MCP-1 in HIIT + ginger (P = 0.026 and HIIT + placebo (P = 0.001 groups. Besides, maximum aerobic capacity in the two training groups significantly increased P = 0.002 and P = 0.000, respectively. In spite of this, analysis of variance showed no significant differences in three groups regarding the three indices such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 (P = 0.093, MCP-1(P = 0.075, and serum interleukin-10 (IL-10 (P = 0.164. Conclusion: A 10-week intensive interval exercise, by itself or together with ginger supplement, improved MCP-1 and maximum oxygen consumption in overweight women, without any significant effect on soluble ICAM-1 and IL-10. These findings indicate the relative and efficient role of HIIT in overweight women without the necessity to combine with ginger as an antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplement.

  4. Effect of Elliptical High Intensity Interval Training on Metabolic Risk Factor in Pre- and Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Pilot Study.

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    Fex, Annie; Leduc-Gaudet, Jean-Philippe; Filion, Marie-Eve; Karelis, Antony D; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of 12 weeks of elliptical high intensity interval training (HIIT) on metabolic risk factors and body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients. Sixteen pre- (n = 8) and type 2 diabetes (n = 8) participants completed this study. Fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, anthropometric measurements, body composition (DXA), blood pressure, resting heart rate, VO2max, and dietary factors, as well as total and physical activity energy expenditure, were measured. The HIIT program on the elliptical was performed 3 times a week for 12 weeks. After the intervention, we observed a significant improvement for fasting blood glucose, waist and hip circumference, appendicular fat mass, leg lean body mass and appendicular lean body mass, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, and VO2max (P body composition in pre- and type 2 diabetes patients.

  5. Adding high-intensity interval training to conventional training modalities: optimizing health-related outcomes during chemotherapy for breast cancer: the OptiTrain randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Jervaeus, Anna; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Margolin, Sara; Browall, Maria; Rundqvist, Helene; Wengström, Yvonne

    2018-02-01

    Exercise training is an effective and safe way to counteract cancer-related fatigue (CRF) and to improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). High-intensity interval training has proven beneficial for the health of clinical populations. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT), and moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) to usual care (UC) in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. The primary endpoint was CRF and the secondary endpoints were HRQoL and cancer treatment-related symptoms. Two hundred and forty women planned to undergo chemotherapy were randomized to supervised RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. Measurements were performed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Questionnaires included Piper Fatigue Scale, EORTC-QLQ-C30, and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The RT-HIIT group was superior to UC for CRF: total CRF (p = 0.02), behavior/daily life (p = 0.01), and sensory/physical (p = 0.03) CRF. Role functioning significantly improved while cognitive functioning was unchanged for RT-HIIT compared to declines shown in the UC group (p = 0.04). AT-HIIT significantly improved emotional functioning versus UC (p = 0.01) and was superior to UC for pain symptoms (p = 0.03). RT-HIIT reported a reduced symptom burden, while AT-HIIT remained stable compared to deteriorations shown by UC (p HIIT was superior to UC for total symptoms (p HIIT was effective in preventing increases in CRF and in reducing symptom burden for patients during chemotherapy for breast cancer. These findings add to a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of structured exercise prescriptions, including HIIT, as a vital component of cancer rehabilitation. Clinicaltrials.gov Registration Number: NCT02522260.

  6. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training on the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia

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    Wu MH

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Meng Hsiu Wu,1,2 Chin Pang Lee,1–3 Shih Chieh Hsu,1,3 Chia Ming Chang,1,3 Ching Yen Chen1–3 1Department of Psychiatry, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 2Men’s Health Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan; 3School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background: Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIIT is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and for controlling blood sugar levels and hypertension. In addition, patient acceptance of HIIT may improve adherence to exercise programs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of HIIT for improving the mental and physical health of people with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: Twenty patients attending a psychiatric day care unit volunteered for an 8-week program of HIIT. Blood pressure, resting heart rate, body weight, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio were measured weekly. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score was recorded at baseline and at the end of the study. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI scores were recorded every 2 weeks. Results: Statistically significant changes occurred in the physical and mental parameters measured in the 18 patients who completed the study. Body weight, body mass index, resting heart rate, and pulse pressure decreased significantly. Mean arterial pressure and diastolic blood pressure increased significantly. Mental health scores improved, with the Negative Scale score decreasing from 31.17±5.95 to 27.78±3.57 (P<0.01 and the General Psychopathology Scale score from 14.28±2.16 to 13.00±1.72 (P<0.01. Positive Scale scores changed, but not significantly, from 12.28±2.27 to 12.33±2.00 (P=0.729. Scores on the BDI (from 19.56±15.28 to 15.89±14.33, P<0.001 and BAI (from 13.67±13.83 to 10.06±11.18, P=0.003 both improved significantly. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that HIIT has positive

  7. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

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    Gordon Fisher

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group.28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2 participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure.A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185 in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P < 0.05.Participation in HIIT or MIT exercise training displayed: 1 improved SI, 2 reduced blood lipids, 3 decreased % body fat, and 4 improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or

  8. Effects of 12-week high-intensity interval training on plasma visfatin concentration and insulin resistance in overweight men

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    Hasan Matinhomaee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on visfatin and insulin resistance (IR in overweight adult men during a weight-loss program. Eighteen overweight men (age = 31.8 ± 9.2 years; body mass index = 28.6 ± 1.4 kg/m2 were randomly recruited into one of the two groups, namely, HIIT (3 days/week, 20 minutes/day; 85–95% peak oxygen uptake and diet-induced weight-loss combined (DHIIT; n = 10 and diet-induced weight loss only (DIO; n = 8. The DHIIT and DIO groups undertook a 12-week weight-loss intervention using a moderate isocaloric energy-deficit diet. Both DHIIT and DIO groups demonstrated a significant reduction in body weight (p < 0.01. Total fat mass (p < 0.05 and lean body mass (p < 0.05 were decreased in the DIO group with no significant changes in abdominal fat mass, plasma insulin concentration, homeostasis model assessment-estimated IR (HOMA-IR, blood glucose level, and plasma visfatin. In the DHIIT group, total fat mass (p < 0.01, abdominal fat mass (p < 0.05, plasma insulin concentration (p < 0.05, plasma visfatin (p < 0.01, and HOMA-IR (p < 0.05 were reduced and lean body mass remained unchanged. In conclusion, adding a low-volume 20-minute HIIT (three times/week to an energy-deficit diet not only can improve the efficiency of weight-loss program in the reduction of body fat, plasma visfatin levels, and HOMA-IR, but also has a reservation effect on lean body mass.

  9. High Intensity Interval- vs Moderate Intensity- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight or Obese Males: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Brown, Andrew W; Bohan Brown, Michelle M; Alcorn, Amy; Noles, Corey; Winwood, Leah; Resuehr, Holly; George, Brandon; Jeansonne, Madeline M; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of six weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT) vs continuous moderate intensity training (MIT) for improving body composition, insulin sensitivity (SI), blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiovascular fitness in a cohort of sedentary overweight or obese young men. We hypothesized that HIIT would result in similar improvements in body composition, cardiovascular fitness, blood lipids, and SI as compared to the MIT group, despite requiring only one hour of activity per week compared to five hours per week for the MIT group. 28 sedentary overweight or obese men (age, 20 ± 1.5 years, body mass index 29.5 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participated in a six week exercise treatment. Participants were randomly assigned to HIIT or MIT and evaluated at baseline and post-training. DXA was used to assess body composition, graded treadmill exercise test to measure cardiovascular fitness, oral glucose tolerance to measure SI, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess lipoprotein particles, and automatic auscultation to measure blood pressure. A greater improvement in VO2peak was observed in MIT compared to HIIT (11.1% vs 2.83%, P = 0.0185) in the complete-case analysis. No differences were seen in the intention to treat analysis, and no other group differences were observed. Both exercise conditions were associated with temporal improvements in % body fat, total cholesterol, medium VLDL, medium HDL, triglycerides, SI, and VO2peak (P training displayed: 1) improved SI, 2) reduced blood lipids, 3) decreased % body fat, and 4) improved cardiovascular fitness. While both exercise groups led to similar improvements for most cardiometabolic risk factors assessed, MIT led to a greater improvement in overall cardiovascular fitness. Overall, these observations suggest that a relatively short duration of either HIIT or MIT training may improve cardiometabolic risk factors in previously sedentary overweight or obese young men, with no clear advantage between these

  10. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

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    Ida Almenning

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks.The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20, equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014. After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5 mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04. Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0 %, between-group difference (p = 0.08. Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4 pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04. There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group.High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot

  11. Effects of High Intensity Interval Training and Strength Training on Metabolic, Cardiovascular and Hormonal Outcomes in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenning, Ida; Rieber-Mohn, Astrid; Lundgren, Kari Margrethe; Shetelig Løvvik, Tone; Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Moholdt, Trine

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrinopathy in reproductive-age women, and associates with insulin resistance. Exercise is advocated in this disorder, but little knowledge exists on the optimal exercise regimes. We assessed the effects of high intensity interval training and strength training on metabolic, cardiovascular, and hormonal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Three-arm parallel randomized controlled trial. Thirty-one women with polycystic ovary syndrome (age 27.2 ± 5.5 years; body mass index 26.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to high intensity interval training, strength training, or a control group. The exercise groups exercised three times weekly for 10 weeks. The main outcome measure was change in homeostatic assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). HOMA-IR improved significantly only after high intensity interval training, by -0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], -1.45, -0.20), equal to 17%, with between-group difference (p = 0.014). After high intensity interval training, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased by 0.2 (95% CI, 0.02, 0.5) mmol/L, with between group difference (p = 0.04). Endothelial function, measured as flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery, increased significantly after high intensity interval training, by 2.0 (95% CI, 0.1, 4.0) %, between-group difference (p = 0.08). Fat percentage decreased significantly after both exercise regimes, without changes in body weight. After strength training, anti-Müllarian hormone was significantly reduced, by -14.8 (95% CI, -21.2, -8.4) pmol/L, between-group difference (p = 0.04). There were no significant changes in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, adiponectin or leptin in any group. High intensity interval training for ten weeks improved insulin resistance, without weight loss, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Body composition improved significantly after both strength training and high intensity interval training. This pilot study

  12. Effects of Exercise Modality During Additional "High-Intensity Interval Training" on Aerobic Fitness and Strength in Powerlifting and Strongman Athletes.

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    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James P; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2018-02-01

    Androulakis-Korakakis, P, Langdown, L, Lewis, A, Fisher, JP, Gentil, P, Paoli, A, and Steele, J. Effects of exercise modality during additional "high-intensity interval training" on aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 450-457, 2018-Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength while maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. This study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g., a traditional aerobic mode (AM) and strength mode (SM), during HIIT on aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance-trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n = 8) and SM (resistance training, n = 8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the YMCA 3 minutes step test and strength as predicted 1 repetition maximum from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p ≤ 0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within-group effect size for aerobic fitness and strength was considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.9). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g., traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an

  13. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benda, N.M.M.; Seeger, J.P.; Stevens, G.G.; Hijmans-Kersten, B.T.P.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Bellersen, L.; Lamfers, E.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT). We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT) in HF

  14. Postexercise cold-water immersion improves intermittent high-intensity exercise performance in normothermia.

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    McCarthy, Avina; Mulligan, James; Egaña, Mikel

    2016-11-01

    A brief cold water immersion between 2 continuous high-intensity exercise bouts improves the performance of the latter compared with passive recovery in the heat. We investigated if this effect is apparent in normothermic conditions (∼19 °C), employing an intermittent high-intensity exercise designed to reflect the work performed at the high-intensity domain in team sports. Fifteen young active men completed 2 exhaustive cycling protocols (Ex1 and Ex2: 12 min at 85% ventilatory threshold (VT) and then an intermittent exercise alternating 30-s at 40% peak power (P peak ) and 30 s at 90% P peak to exhaustion) separated by 15 min of (i) passive rest, (ii) 5-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C, and (iii) 10-min cold-water immersion at 8 °C. Core temperature, heart rate, rates of perceived exertion, and oxygen uptake kinetics were not different during Ex1 among conditions. Time to failure during the intermittent exercise was significantly (P immersions (7.2 ± 3.5 min and 7.3 ± 3.3 min, respectively) compared with passive rest (5.8 ± 3.1 min). Core temperature, heart rate, and rates of perceived exertion were significantly (P immersions compared with passive rest. The time constant of phase II oxygen uptake response during the 85% VT bout of Ex2 was not different among the 3 conditions. A postexercise, 5- to 10-min cold-water immersion increases subsequent intermittent high-intensity exercise compared with passive rest in normothermia due, at least in part, to reductions in core temperature, circulatory strain, and effort perception.

  15. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Cycling Sprints Subsequent to Arm-Curl Exercise on Upper-Body Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy.

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    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Okuyama, Mizuki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6). The RT program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (3 sets × 10 repetitions [reps] at 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] of arm-curl exercise) and was performed in an 8-week training schedule performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days. Subjects assigned to the CT group performed identical protocols as strength training and modified SIT (4 sets of 30-s maximal effort, separated in 4 m 30-s rest intervals) on the same day. Pretest and posttest maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and 1RM were measured. Significant increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from pretest to posttest was observed in the CT group (p = 0.010, effect size [ES] = 1.84) but not in the RT group (p = 0.559, ES = 0.35). Significant increase in CSA from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.030, ES = 1.49) but not in the CT group (p = 0.110, ES = 1.01). Significant increase in 1RM from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.021, ES = 1.57) but not in the CT group (p = 0.065, ES = 1.19). In conclusion, our data indicate that concurrent lower limb SIT interferes with arm muscle hypertrophy and strength.

  16. Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improves High-Intensity Intermittent Type Exercise Performance in Trained Soccer Players

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    Jean Nyakayiru

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that nitrate supplementation can enhance endurance exercise performance. Recent work suggests that nitrate ingestion can also increase intermittent type exercise performance in recreational athletes. We hypothesized that six days of nitrate supplementation can improve high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players. Thirty-two male soccer players (age: 23 ± 1 years, height: 181 ± 1 m, weight: 77 ± 1 kg, playing experience: 15.2 ± 0.5 years, playing in the first team of a 2nd or 3rd Dutch amateur league club participated in this randomized, double-blind cross-over study. All subjects participated in two test days in which high-intensity intermittent running performance was assessed using the Yo-Yo IR1 test. Subjects ingested nitrate-rich (140 mL; ~800 mg nitrate/day; BR or a nitrate-depleted beetroot juice (PLA for six subsequent days, with at least eight days of wash-out between trials. The distance covered during the Yo-Yo IR1 was the primary outcome measure, while heart rate (HR was measured continuously throughout the test, and a single blood and saliva sample were collected just prior to the test. Six days of BR ingestion increased plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite concentrations in comparison to PLA (p < 0.001, and enhanced Yo-Yo IR1 test performance by 3.4 ± 1.3% (from 1574 ± 47 to 1623 ± 48 m; p = 0.027. Mean HR was lower in the BR (172 ± 2 vs. PLA trial (175 ± 2; p = 0.014. Six days of BR ingestion effectively improves high-intensity intermittent type exercise performance in trained soccer players.

  17. The Effect of High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Plasma Levels of Resistin in Male Non-athlete Students (A Trial Study

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    Karim Dehghani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Adipose tissue as a source of energy, is known as an important endocrine organ that releases various hormones including resistin. Resistin plays an important role in regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. The effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on resistin concentration in individuals is not clearly defined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of 10-weeks of HIIT on plasma resistin levels in male non-athlete students.   Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 26 male non-athlete students were randomly selected and divided into two groups of experimental and control. The experimental group performed interval trainings, in a 10-week training program (3 times a week according to the training program with the intensity of 85-100% HRmax. Blood samples were taken after 14 hours of fasting at different stages and similar conditions, and plasma levels of resistin were measured using a resistin kit (BOSTER Company, USA. The data were analyzed using independent and dependent t-tests at the significance level of α < 0.05.   Results: In this study, 10 weeks of HIIT caused a significant decrease in the plasma levels of resistin in the experimental group compared to the control group (p≤0.05.   Conclusion: From the obtained results, it can be said that HIIT, as a new and effective training method, has a preventive effect on cardiovascular diseases through a significant reduction of resistin.

  18. Effects and prevalence of nonresponders after 12 weeks of high-intensity interval or resistance training in women with insulin resistance: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Cristian; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the effects and prevalence of nonresponders (NR) to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) in women with insulin resistance on cardiometabolic health parameters. Sedentary overweight/obese insulin-resistant women (age = 33.5 ± 6.5 yr; body mass index = 29.9 ± 3.7 kg/m 2 ) were randomly assigned to a triweekly HIIT program (HIIT; n = 18) or resistance training (RT; n = 17). Anthropometry (body mass, fat mass, muscle mass, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness), cardiovascular (blood pressure), metabolic [fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], as well as muscle strength, and endurance performance covariables were measured before and after 12 wk in both intervention groups. The interindividual variability to exercise training of the subjects was categorized as responders and NR using as cut points two times the typical error of measurement in mean outcomes. After intervention, significant reduction in waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, fat mass, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR ( P HIIT and RT group, respectively. Both HIIT and RT groups exhibited a significant decrease in the endurance performance, whereas only RT exhibited increased muscle strength. Significant differences in the NR prevalence between the HIIT and RT groups were identified for a decrease in fat mass (HIIT 33.3% vs. RT 70.5%; P = 0.028), muscle mass (HIIT 100% vs. RT 52.9%; P = 0.001), and tricipital skinfold (HIIT 5.5% vs. RT 29.4%; P HIIT and RT groups (55.5% vs. 94.1; P = 0.009). However, there were no differences in the NR prevalence between HIIT and RT for decreasing fasting glucose. Twelve weeks of HIIT and RT have similar effects and NR prevalence to improve glucose control variables; however, there is different NR prevalence in other anthropometric, cardiovascular, strength, and endurance performance measurements in insulin-resistant women. These

  19. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatle, Håvard; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Mølmen, Harald Edvard; Brønstad, Eivind; Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Skogvoll, Eirik; Wisløff, Ulrik; Ingul, Charlotte Björk; Rognmo, Øivind

    2014-01-01

    The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively. Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females) completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF) or three weeks (high frequency, HF) followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was evaluated before training, at the 9(th) and 17(th) session and four days after the final 24(th) training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training. The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126), whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (ptraining of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  20. Nutrition therapy with high intensity interval training to improve prostate cancer-related fatigue in men on androgen deprivation therapy: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Skinner, Tina L; Leveritt, Michael D; Wright, Olivia R L

    2017-01-03

    Cancer-related fatigue is one of the most prevalent, prolonged and distressing side effects of prostate cancer treatment with androgen deprivation therapy. Preliminary evidence suggests natural therapies such as nutrition therapy and structured exercise prescription can reduce symptoms of cancer-related fatigue. Men appear to change their habitual dietary patterns after prostate cancer diagnosis, yet prostate-specific dietary guidelines provide limited support for managing adverse side effects of treatment. The exercise literature has shown high intensity interval training can improve various aspects of health that are typically impaired with androgen deprivation therapy; however exercise at this intensity is yet to be conducted in men with prostate cancer. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of nutrition therapy beyond the current healthy eating guidelines with high intensity interval training for managing cancer-related fatigue in men with prostate cancer treated with androgen deprivation therapy. This is a two-arm randomized control trial of 116 men with prostate cancer and survivors treated with androgen deprivation therapy. Participants will be randomized to either the intervention group i.e. nutrition therapy and high intensity interval training, or usual care. The intervention group will receive 20 weeks of individualized nutrition therapy from an Accredited Practising Dietitian, and high intensity interval training (from weeks 12-20 of the intervention) from an Accredited Exercise Physiologist. The usual care group will maintain their standard treatment regimen over the 20 weeks. Both groups will undertake primary and secondary outcome testing at baseline, week 8, 12, and 20; testing includes questionnaires of fatigue and quality of life, objective measures of body composition, muscular strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers for disease progression, as well as dietary analysis. The primary outcomes for this trial are measures of

  1. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Omentin-1 Concentration in Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Youth

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    Nejmeddine Ouerghi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Omentin-1 is a recently discovered adipokine, mainly produced by visceral adipose tissue, which is thought to improve insulin sensitivity. The study aimed to assess the association of plasma omentin-1 with cardiometabolic traits and physical performance and to test its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT in obese and normal-weight subjects. Methods: Nine overweight/obese (OG and 9 normal-weight (NWG young men performed an 8-week HIIT program. Body composition, physical performance, homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR as well as plasma omentin-1and lipid levels were assessed before and after the HIIT program. Results: Baseline plasma omentin-1 was lower in OG than NWG men (359 ± 138 vs. 470 ± 114 ng/ml; p = 0.052. Plasma omentin-1 was related to body fat (r = -0.57; p = 0.03 and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.49; p = 0.04. There was a trend towards significant association of omentin-1 with BMI (r = -0.47; p = 0.06 and VO2max (r = 0.41; p = 0.09. However, no association was observed with HOMA-IR. Following the HIIT program, omentin-1 concentrations have significantly (p Conclusions: HIIT resulted in a plasma omentin-1 increase and an improvement with regard to cardiometabolic traits in the OG men, which may contribute to modulate insulin sensitivity.

  2. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Björklund, Glenn

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR) in well-trained endurance athletes. Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33) and female (n = 3) runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak): 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT). A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT) was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period. Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P 0.05). Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002) and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023) with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group. Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT) had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes. PMID:28824457

  3. Effects of High Intensity Interval versus Moderate Continuous Training on Markers of Ventilatory and Cardiac Efficiency in Coronary Heart Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo G. Cardozo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We tested the hypothesis that high intensity interval training (HIIT would be more effective than moderate intensity continuous training (MIT to improve newly emerged markers of cardiorespiratory fitness in coronary heart disease (CHD patients, as the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production (VE/VCO2 slope, oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES, and oxygen pulse (O2P. Methods. Seventy-one patients with optimized treatment were randomly assigned into HIIT (n=23, age = 56 ± 12 years, MIT (n=24, age = 62 ± 12 years, or nonexercise control group (CG (n=24, age = 64 ± 12 years. MIT performed 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise at 70–75% of maximal heart rate (HRmax, and HIIT performed 30 min sessions split in 2 min alternate bouts at 60%/90% HRmax (3 times/week for 16 weeks. Results. No differences among groups (before versus after were found for VE/VCO2 slope or OUES (P>0.05. After training the O2P slope increased in HIIT (22%, P0.05, while decreased in CG (−20%, P<0.05 becoming lower versus HIIT (P=0.03. Conclusion. HIIT was more effective than MIT for improving O2P slope in CHD patients, while VE/VCO2 slope and OUES were similarly improved by aerobic training regimens versus controls.

  4. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, K; Zmijewski, P; Krawczyk, K; Czajkowska, A; Kęska, A; Kapuściński, P; Mazurek, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE) or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME). Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n = 24 or CME; n = 24) of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week) physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%-75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p body mass not changing significantly (p = 0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME). A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) (p body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  5. Design and rationale of the HITTS randomized controlled trial: Effect of High-intensity Interval Training in de novo Heart Transplant Recipients in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nytrøen, Kari; Yardley, Marianne; Rolid, Katrine; Bjørkelund, Elisabeth; Karason, Kristjan; Wigh, Julia Philip; Dall, Christian Have; Arora, Satish; Aakhus, Svend; Lunde, Ketil; Solberg, Ole Geir; Gustafsson, Finn; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-02-01

    There is no consensus on how, when, and at what intensity exercise should be performed and organized after heart transplantation (HTx). Most rehabilitation programs are conducted in HTx centers, which might be impractical and costly. We have recently shown that high-intensity interval training (HIT) is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in maintenance HTx recipients, but there are no studies among de novo patients, and whether HIT is feasible and superior to moderate training in HTx recipients is unclear. A total of 120 clinically stable HTx recipients older than 18 years will be recruited from 3 Scandinavian HTx centers. Participants are randomized to HIT or moderate training, shortly after surgery. All exercises are supervised in the patients' local communities. Testing at baseline and follow-up includes the following: VO2peak (primary end point), muscle strength, body composition, quality of life, myocardial performance, endothelial function, biomarkers, and progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. A subgroup (n = 90) will also be tested at 3-year follow-up to assess long-term effects of exercise. So far, the HIT intervention is well tolerated, without any serious adverse events. We aim to test whether decentralized HIT is feasible, safe, and superior to moderate training, and whether it will lead to significant improvement in exercise capacity and less long-term complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  7. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Patrick S.; Scanlan, Aaron T.; Dalbo, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of...

  8. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J.; Presson, Robert G.; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute ...

  9. Age related vascular endothelial function following lifelong sedentariness: positive impact of cardiovascular conditioning without further improvement following low frequency high intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Grace, Fergal M.; Herbert, Peter; Ratcliffe, John W.; New, Karl J.; Baker, Julien S.; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aging is associated with diffuse impairments in vascular endothelial function and traditional aerobic exercise is known to ameliorate these changes. High intensity interval training (HIIT) is effective at improving vascular function in aging men with existing disease, but its effectiveness remains to be demonstrated in otherwise healthy sedentary aging. However, the frequency of commonly used HIIT protocols may be poorly tolerated in older cohorts. Therefore, the present study invest...

  10. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Mat...

  11. Long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval training improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise parameters in patients with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremeaux, Vincent; Drigny, Joffrey; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Gayda, Mathieu

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to study the impact of a combined long-term lifestyle and high-intensity interval training intervention on body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in overweight and obese subjects. Sixty-two overweight and obese subjects (53.3 ± 9.7 yrs; mean body mass index, 35.8 ± 5 kg/m(2)) were retrospectively identified at their entry into a 9-mo program consisting of individualized nutritional counselling, optimized high-intensity interval exercise, and resistance training two to three times a week. Anthropometric measurements, cardiometabolic risk factors, and exercise tolerance were measured at baseline and program completion. Adherence rate was 97%, and no adverse events occurred with high-intensity interval exercise training. Exercise training was associated with a weekly energy expenditure of 1582 ± 284 kcal. Clinically and statistically significant improvements were observed for body mass (-5.3 ± 5.2 kg), body mass index (-1.9 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)), waist circumference (-5.8 ± 5.4 cm), and maximal exercise capacity (+1.26 ± 0.84 metabolic equivalents) (P high-density lipoprotein ratio were also significantly improved (P body mass and waist circumference loss were baseline body mass index and resting metabolic rate; those for body mass index decrease were baseline waist circumference and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. A long-term lifestyle intervention with optimized high-intensity interval exercise improves body composition, cardiometabolic risk, and exercise tolerance in obese subjects. This intervention seems safe, efficient, and well tolerated and could improve adherence to exercise training in this population.

  12. Does a single session of high-intensity interval training provoke a transient elevated risk of falling in seniors and adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Balance and strength training can reduce seniors' fall risk up to 50%. Available evidence suggests that acute bouts of neuromuscular and endurance exercise deteriorate postural control. High-intensity endurance training has been successfully applied in different populations. Thus, it seemed valuable to examine the acute effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on neuromuscular performance in seniors and young adults. The acute impact of a HIIT session on balance performance and muscle activity after exercise cessation and during post-exercise recovery was examined in young and old adults. We intended to investigate whether a transient exercise-induced fall-risk may occur in both groups. 20 healthy seniors (age 70 (SD 4) years) and young adults (age 27 (SD 3) years) were examined on 3 days. After exhaustive ramp-like treadmill testing in order to determine maximal heart rate (HRmax) on the first day, either a 4 × 4 min HIIT at 90% of HRmax or a control condition (CON) was randomly performed on the second and third day, respectively. Balance performance (postural sway) was assessed during single limb stance with open eyes (SLEO) and double limb stance with closed eyes (DLEC). EMG was recorded for the soleus (SOL), anterior tibialis (TIB), gastrocnemius (GM) and peroneus longus (PL) muscles at the dominant leg. All measures were collected before, immediately as well as 10, 30 and 45 min after HIIT and CON, respectively. Compared to CON, HIIT induced significant increases of postural sway immediately after exercise cessation during SLEO in both groups (adults: p seniors: p = 0.007, Δ = +15% sway). Increased sway during DLEC was only found for seniors immediately and 10 min after HIIT (post: p = 0.003, Δ = +14% sway, 10 min post: p = 0.004, Δ = +18% sway). Muscle activity was increased during SLEO for TIB until 10 min post in seniors (0.008 seniors seems to prolong this period up to 30 min. Thus, the advantage of HIIT with regard to time efficiency seems

  13. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Yusuke; Azuma, Koichiro; Tabata, Shogo; Katsukawa, Fuminori; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Oguma, Yuko; Kawai, Toshihide; Itoh, Hiroshi; Okuda, Shigeo; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC) and arm-cranking (AC) ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7) and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5) twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute) peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; PHIIT program improves aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in both leg and trunk muscles.

  14. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Voth, Elizabeth; Little, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P fasting plasma glucose (P fasting glucose. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Comparing the Effect of Endurance and High Intensity Interval Trainings on Levels of Chemerin and Protein of C-reactive Plasma in Obese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Salimi Avan sar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The prevalence of obesity among children is alarmingly rising. Obesity in a chronical inflammatory condition accompanies with inflammatory markers such as Chemerin and CRP; therefore, the aim of this following study is to compare the affection of Endurance & High Intensity Interval Trainings on levels of Chemerin & Protein of C-reactive plasma in obese children. Materials and Methods: This experimentation included 21 obese children (average weight 61.46±2.5 kg and BMI 7.1±4.31 aging 9-12 years old who were randomly divided into three groups of endurance, HIIT and control (n=7. The training groups performed regular exercises for 8 weeks long (3 sessions in every week. The differences between groups were evaluated using covariance analysis. (p<0.05. Results: In both training groups, there was a more significant decrease in weight, BMI and body fat percentage than there was before workouts. In HIIT group, we witnessed a significant reduction in level of Chemerin (p=0.016 than before. CRP level was also decreased in both groups, but the changes were not significant. Conclusion: In summary, 8 weeks of HIIT exercises compared to endurance trainings have greater effect on Chemerin and CRP levels in obese children.

  16. The compatibility of concurrent high intensity interval training and resistance training for muscular strength and hypertrophy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabag, Angelo; Najafi, Abdolrahman; Michael, Scott; Esgin, Tuguy; Halaki, Mark; Hackett, Daniel

    2018-04-16

    The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to assess the effect of concurrent high intensity interval training (HIIT) and resistance training (RT) on strength and hypertrophy. Five electronic databases were searched using terms related to HIIT, RT, and concurrent training. Effect size (ES), calculated as standardised differences in the means, were used to examine the effect of concurrent HIIT and RT compared to RT alone on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Sub-analyses were performed to assess region-specific strength and hypertrophy, HIIT modality (cycling versus running), and inter-modal rest responses. Compared to RT alone, concurrent HIIT and RT led to similar changes in muscle hypertrophy and upper body strength. Concurrent HIIT and RT resulted in a lower increase in lower body strength compared to RT alone (ES = -0.248, p = 0.049). Sub analyses showed a trend for lower body strength to be negatively affected by cycling HIIT (ES = -0.377, p = 0.074) and not running (ES = -0.176, p = 0.261). Data suggests concurrent HIIT and RT does not negatively impact hypertrophy or upper body strength, and that any possible negative effect on lower body strength may be ameliorated by incorporating running based HIIT and longer inter-modal rest periods.

  17. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Voth, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT and MICT (P HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217

  18. Effects of Heart Rate vs. Speed-Based High Intensity Interval Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity of Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two types of high-intensity interval training (HIIT programs on aerobic and anaerobic capacity of female soccer players. Regional-level female athletes were randomly divided into heart rate-based HIIT (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.1 year and speed-based HIIT groups (n = 8; age 23.4 ± 1.3 year. Athletes trained three days per week for six weeks. Before and after training, each athlete’s performance was assessed directly through the Hoff test, 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test (VIFT, and repeated-sprint ability test (RAST; maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, power and fatigue were estimated indirectly. Both experimental groups improved power, fatigue index and VO2max after training (p < 0.05. It was noteworthy that the speed-based group had greater gains in minimal power (effect size (ES: 3.99 vs. 0.75, average power (ES: 2.23 vs. 0.33, and fatigue index (ES: 2.53 vs. 0.17 compared to heart rate-based group (p < 0.05. In conclusion, both heart rate-based and speed-based HIIT induced meaningful improvements in power, VO2max, and fatigue index in female soccer players, although the speed-based HIIT group achieved greater gains in power and fatigue index compared to the heart rate-based group.

  19. High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliott, Adrian D; Richards, Jo; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2017-05-13

    This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each PHIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (PHIIT. A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Eight weeks of a combination of high intensity interval training and conventional training reduce visceral adiposity and improve physical fitness: a group-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Aphamis, George; Sakkis, Panikos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2016-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently promoted as an effective, low volume and time-efficient training method for improving fitness and health related parameters. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of a combination of a group-based HIIT and conventional gym training on physical fitness and body composition parameters in healthy adults. Thirty nine healthy adults volunteered to participate in this eight-week intervention study. Twenty three participants performed regular gym training 4 days a week (C group), whereas the remaining 16 participants engaged twice a week in HIIT and twice in regular gym training (HIIT-C group) as the other group. Total body fat and visceral adiposity levels were calculated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness, speed, lower limb explosiveness, flexibility and isometric arm strength were assessed through a battery of field tests. Both exercise programs were effective in reducing total body fat and visceral adiposity (Ptraining improved cardiorespiratory fitness levels (Ptraining (Ptraining improve various physical fitness parameters and reduce both total and visceral fat levels. This type of training was also found to be superior compared with conventional exercise training alone in terms of reducing more visceral adiposity levels. Group-based HIIT may consider as a good methods for individuals who exercise in gyms and craving to acquire significant fitness benefits in relatively short period of time.

  1. The Effect of Folate Supplementation on Ghrelin of Stomach and Insulin Level of Serum in Male Wistar Rats during 10 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gorzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: High intensity training can lead to lower the appetite. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of folate supplementation on ghrelin level of stomach and insulin level of serum in male wistar rats during 10 weeks of high intensity interval training (HIIT. Materials and Methods: Twenty seven male Wistar rats (weight= 203.94±27.34 gr, Age: 9 weeks after one week familiarization, were randomly divided into four groups: control (n=6, folate supplementation (n=6, (HIIT (n=7 and HIIT+ folate supplement (n=8. HIIT training protocol started with 30 m/min running on treadmill for 1 min with 10 reps and 2 min active rest at the first week and reached to 75-80 m/min for 1 min with 7 reps and 3 min active rest at last 3 weeks. Acylated ghrelin level of stomach tissue and serum level of insulin were assayed by ELISA kit. Results: The results of Kruskal-vallis analysis showed that the ghrelin level of stomach was increased significantly (p=0.001 in folate+HIIT in compare with HIIT group. Also, insulin level of serum was decreased significantly (p=0.001 in folate +HIIT in compare with control and HIIT groups. Conclusion: Based on our results, folate supplementation during high intensity interval training, increased the ghrelin of stomach and decreased the insulin level of serum. So, it seems that folate supplementation can prevent from losing appetite in athletes who train with high intensity training with interval type.

  2. Impact of a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise and short-term interval training on interleukin-6, FNDC5, and METRNL mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Eaton

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise promotes numerous phenotypic adaptations in skeletal muscle that contribute to improved function and metabolic capacity. An emerging body of evidence suggests that skeletal muscle also releases a myriad of factors during exercise, termed “myokines”. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the acute regulation of the mRNA expression of several myokines, including the prototypical myokine interleukin-6 (IL-6, and recently identified myokines fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5 (irisin and meteorin-like protein (METRNL. Methods: Both before and after a 20-day period of twice-daily high-volume HIIT, 9 healthy males (20.5 ± 1.5 years performed a standardized bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 5 × 4 min at ~80% pretraining peak power output with skeletal muscle biopsy samples (vastus lateralis obtained at rest, immediately following exercise, and at 3 h recovery. Results: Before training, a single bout of HIIE increased IL-6 (p < 0.05 and METRNL (p < 0.05 mRNA expression measured at 3 h recovery when compared to rest. Following 20 days of HIIT, IL-6 and FNDC5 mRNA were increased at 3 h recovery from the standardized HIIE bout when compared to rest (both p < 0.05. Resting METRNL and FNDC5 mRNA expression were higher following training (p < 0.05, and there was an overall increase in FNDC5 mRNA post-training (main effect of training, p < 0.05. Conclusion: In human skeletal muscle (1 an acute bout of HIIE can induce upregulation of skeletal muscle IL-6 mRNA both before and after a period of intensified HIIT; (2 Resting and overall FNDC5 mRNA expression is increased by 20 days of HIIT; and (3 METRNL mRNA expression is responsive to both acute HIIE and short-term intense HIIT. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings at the protein and secretion level in humans. Keywords: Brown adipose tissue

  3. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...... and expressed as a percentage of the maximal EMG. Seventeen women (aged 24-55 years) without serious disorders participated. Several of the investigated exercises - press-up, prone flexion, one-arm row and prone abduction at Borg 3 and press-up, push-up plus and one-arm row at Borg 8 - predominantly activated...

  4. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Background Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test......) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg−1 body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Results Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively......-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior intake of sodium bicarbonate in trained young men, with concomitant elevations in blood alkalosis and peak blood lactate levels, as well as lowered rating of perceived exertion....

  5. Soccer training: high-intensity interval training is mood disturbing while small sided games ensure mood balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, Okba; Haddad, Monoem; Majed, Lina; Ben Khalifa, Wissam; Hamza, Marzougui; Chamari, Karim

    2017-05-09

    BACKGROUNDː The aim of the study was to compare the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) versus small-sided games (SSG) in soccer on both the physiological responses and the mood state of players. Sixteen professional soccer players took part in the study (age: 24.1±0.9 years). Testing of players was conducted on separate days in a randomized and counter-balanced order (each training session: 28-min: 4x4 minutes work with 3-min of passive recovery in-between). Effort: HIIT: intermittent 15-s runs at 110% maximal aerobic speed with 15-s of passive recovery in-between. SSG: 4 versus 4 players on a 25x35m pitch size with full-involvement play. Psychological responses before- and after- each training-session were assessed using the profile of mood-state (POMS: Tension, Depression, Anger, Vigor, Fatigue, and Confusion). The players' heart rate (HR) was continuously measured, whereas ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate concentration ([La]) were collected ~3-min after each training-session. HIIT and SSG showed no significant difference in HR, RPE and [La] responses. The HIIT compared with SSG resulted in: an increased total mood disturbance (pmind the mood-related advantages of the SSG shown in the present study.

  6. The training and detraining effect of high-intensity interval training on post-exercise hypotension in young overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsu, Biggie; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2016-01-01

    Studies evaluating the response in blood pressure (BP) following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are scant even though there has been extensive work done on the BP response following acute and chronic low- to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. The present study sought to investigate the training and detraining effects of short-term HIIT on the post-exercise hypotension (PEH) response in overweight/obese young women. Twenty young untrained women volunteered for the study. Participants performed six HIIT sessions on a treadmill within 2 weeks (week 1: 10 × 1 min and week 2: 15 × 1 min intervals at 90-95% HRmax, separated by 1 min active recovery at 70% HRmax each session) and detrained for 2 weeks. Post-exercise BP was measured for 1 h following the first and last HIIT sessions. Participants were normotensive (SBP: 119.2 ± 5.60 mmHg; DBP: 78.8 ± 4.12 mmHg) and had a BMI greater than 25 kg m(-2). The magnitude of the systolic hypotensive response was slightly greater after the six sessions HIIT compared to pre-training (5.04 and 4.28 mmHg, respectively), and both would be considered clinically significant (>3 mmHg decrease). After 2 weeks, detraining the PEH response was not clinically significant (1.08 mmHg decrease). The magnitude of the DBP response was only clinically significant following post- and detraining (4.26 and 3.87 mmHg, respectively). The findings suggest that six HIIT sessions is sufficient to affect clinically significant PEH responses in young, overweight/obese women; however, the training effects are lost within 2 weeks of detraining.

  7. Acute high-intensity interval exercise induces comparable levels of circulating cell-free DNA and Interleukin-6 in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandi, Peter J; Fico, Brandon G; Whitehurst, Michael; Zourdos, Michael C; Bao, Fanchen; Dodge, Katelyn M; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Pena, Gabriel; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is associated with lipid aggregation in adipocytes and macrophage infiltration, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions of systemic inflammation. While the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on the release of circulating cfDNA still remain unknown, acute intense exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines and cfDNA concentrations in normal-weight individuals. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute high-intensity interval Exercise (HIIE) on plasma cfDNA and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Fourteen male subjects (7 obese and 7 normal-weight) participated in an acute HIIE protocol (30 min, 4x4min @ 80% - 90% of VO 2max ) on a treadmill. Between HIIE intervals, subjects performed 3 min of active recovery at 50-60% VO 2max . Blood samples were collected prior to, immediately following exercise, and one hour into recovery for measurements of plasma cfDNA and IL-6. Our results demonstrated a significant elevation in plasma cfDNA immediately following acute HIIE in both obese and normal-weight subjects. A comparable elevation in the concentration of plasma IL-6 was also found between two groups in response to acute HIIE. Furthermore, the level of plasma cfDNA was not correlated with IL-6 either at baseline or in response to acute HIIE. These findings may support the utilization of HIIE as a time-efficient exercise protocol to understand the obesity-associated cfDNA and inflammatory responses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Alteration in cardiac uncoupling proteins and eNOS gene expression following high-intensity interval training in favor of increasing mechanical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Ali Asghar; Shekarfroush, Shahnaz; Rahimi, Mostafa; Jalali, Amirhossain; Khoshbaten, Ali

    2016-03-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases energy expenditure and mechanical energy efficiency. Although both uncoupling proteins (UCPs) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) affect the mechanical efficiency and antioxidant capacity, their effects are inverse. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alterations of cardiac UCP2, UCP3, and eNOS mRNA expression following HIIT are in favor of increased mechanical efficiency or decreased oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (n=12), HIIT for an acute bout (AT1), short term HIIT for 3 and 5 sessions (ST3 and ST5), long-term training for 8 weeks (LT) (6 in each group). The rats of the training groups were made to run on a treadmill for 60 min in three stages: 6 min running for warm-up, 7 intervals of 7 min running on treadmill with a slope of 5° to 20° (4 min with an intensity of 80-110% VO2max and 3 min at 50-60% VO2max), and 5-min running for cool-down. The control group did not participate in any exercise program. Rats were sacrificed and the hearts were extracted to analyze the levels of UCP2, UCP3 and eNOS mRNA by RT-PCR. UCP3 expression was increased significantly following an acute training bout. Repeated HIIT for 8 weeks resulted in a significant decrease in UCPs mRNA and a significant increase in eNOS expression in cardiac muscle. This study indicates that Long term HIIT through decreasing UCPs mRNA and increasing eNOS mRNA expression may enhance energy efficiency and physical performance.

  9. The 'Critical Power' Concept: Applications to Sports Performance with a Focus on Intermittent High-Intensity Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew M; Vanhatalo, Anni

    2017-03-01

    The curvilinear relationship between power output and the time for which it can be sustained is a fundamental and well-known feature of high-intensity exercise performance. This relationship 'levels off' at a 'critical power' (CP) that separates power outputs that can be sustained with stable values of, for example, muscle phosphocreatine, blood lactate, and pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), from power outputs where these variables change continuously with time until their respective minimum and maximum values are reached and exercise intolerance occurs. The amount of work that can be done during exercise above CP (the so-called W') is constant but may be utilized at different rates depending on the proximity of the exercise power output to CP. Traditionally, this two-parameter CP model has been employed to provide insights into physiological responses, fatigue mechanisms, and performance capacity during continuous constant power output exercise in discrete exercise intensity domains. However, many team sports (e.g., basketball, football, hockey, rugby) involve frequent changes in exercise intensity and, even in endurance sports (e.g., cycling, running), intensity may vary considerably with environmental/course conditions and pacing strategy. In recent years, the appeal of the CP concept has been broadened through its application to intermittent high-intensity exercise. With the assumptions that W' is utilized during work intervals above CP and reconstituted during recovery intervals below CP, it can be shown that performance during intermittent exercise is related to four factors: the intensity and duration of the work intervals and the intensity and duration of the recovery intervals. However, while the utilization of W' may be assumed to be linear, studies indicate that the reconstitution of W' may be curvilinear with kinetics that are highly variable between individuals. This has led to the development of a new CP model for intermittent exercise in

  10. Effect of 24 sessions of high-intensity aerobic interval training carried out at either high or moderate frequency, a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Hatle

    Full Text Available The training response of an intensified period of high-intensity exercise is not clear. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular adaptations of completing 24 high-intensity aerobic interval training sessions carried out for either three or eight weeks, respectively.Twenty-one healthy subjects (23.0±2.1 years, 10 females completed 24 high-intensity training sessions throughout a time-period of either eight weeks (moderate frequency, MF or three weeks (high frequency, HF followed by a detraining period of nine weeks without any training. In both groups, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was evaluated before training, at the 9(th and 17(th session and four days after the final 24(th training session. In the detraining phase VO2max was evaluated after 12 days and thereafter every second week for eight weeks. Left ventricular echocardiography, carbon monoxide lung diffusion transfer factor, brachial artery flow mediated dilatation and vastus lateralis citrate maximal synthase activity was tested before and after training.The cardiovascular adaptation after HF training was delayed compared to training with MF. Four days after ending training the HF group showed no improvement (+3.0%, p = 0.126, whereas the MF group reached their highest VO2max with a 10.7% improvement (p<0.001: group difference p = 0.035. The HF group reached their highest VO2max (6.1% increase, p = 0.026 twelve days into the detraining period, compared to a concomitant reduction to 7.9% of VO2max (p<0.001 above baseline in the MF group (group difference p = 0.609.Both HF and MF training of high-intensity aerobic exercise improves VO2max. The cardiovascular adaptation following a HF programme of high-intensity exercise is however delayed compared to MF training.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00733941.

  11. Effects of combined high intensity arm and leg training on performance and cardio-respiratory measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Michels, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined arm and leg high-intensity low-volume interval training (HIITarm+leg) on maximal oxygen uptake, myocardial measures (i.e. stroke volume, cardiac output, ejection fraction), Tissue Oxygenation Index (TOI) of the vastus lateralis and triceps brachii, as well as power output in comparison to leg HIIT (HIITleg) only. The 20 healthy, male and female volunteers completed six sessions of either HIITleg on a cycle ergometer or HIITarm+leg on an arm and leg cycle ergometer. During pre- and post-testing, the volunteers completed a submaximal and incremental test to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. Magnitude based interference revealed likely to very likely beneficial effects for HIITarm+leg compared to HIITleg in maximal oxygen uptake, cardiac measures as well peak power output. The TOI following HIITarm+leg demonstrated likely to very likely increased oxygenation in the triceps brachii or the vastus lateralis when compared to HIITleg. The results suggest that six sessions of HIITarm+leg may likely to very likely improve maximal oxygen uptake, some inotropy-related cardiac measures with improved tissue oxygenation of the triceps brachii and vastus lateralis muscles resulting in greater leg peak power output.

  12. Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Monitoring (CGM during Continuous and High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othmar Moser

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Continuous exercise (CON and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE can be safely performed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. Additionally, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM systems may serve as a tool to reduce the risk of exercise-induced hypoglycemia. It is unclear if CGM is accurate during CON and HIIE at different mean workloads. Seven T1DM patients performed CON and HIIE at 5% below (L and above (M the first lactate turn point (LTP1, and 5% below the second lactate turn point (LTP2 (H on a cycle ergometer. Glucose was measured via CGM and in capillary blood (BG. Differences were found in comparison of CGM vs. BG in three out of the six tests (p < 0.05. In CON, bias and levels of agreement for L, M, and H were found at: 0.85 (−3.44, 5.15 mmol·L−1, −0.45 (−3.95, 3.05 mmol·L−1, −0.31 (−8.83, 8.20 mmol·L−1 and at 1.17 (−2.06, 4.40 mmol·L−1, 0.11 (−5.79, 6.01 mmol·L−1, 1.48 (−2.60, 5.57 mmol·L−1 in HIIE for the same intensities. Clinically-acceptable results (except for CON H were found. CGM estimated BG to be clinically acceptable, except for CON H. Additionally, using CGM may increase avoidance of exercise-induced hypoglycemia, but usual BG control should be performed during intense exercise.

  13. High Intensity Interval Training Leads to Greater Improvements in Acute Heart Rate Recovery and Anaerobic Power as High Volume Low Intensity Training

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    Thomas L. Stöggl

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the current study was to explore if training regimes utilizing diverse training intensity distributions result in different responses on neuromuscular status, anaerobic capacity/power and acute heart rate recovery (HRR in well-trained endurance athletes.Methods: Thirty-six male (n = 33 and female (n = 3 runners, cyclists, triathletes and cross-country skiers [peak oxygen uptake: (VO2peak: 61.9 ± 8.0 mL·kg−1·min−1] were randomly assigned to one of three groups (blocked high intensity interval training HIIT; polarized training POL; high volume low intensity oriented control group CG/HVLIT applying no HIIT. A maximal anaerobic running/cycling test (MART/MACT was performed prior to and following a 9-week training period.Results: Only the HIIT group achieved improvements in peak power/velocity (+6.4%, P < 0.001 and peak lactate (P = 0.001 during the MART/MACT, while, unexpectedly, in none of the groups the performance at the established lactate concentrations (4, 6, 10 mmol·L−1 was changed (P > 0.05. Acute HRR was improved in HIIT (11.2%, P = 0.002 and POL (7.9%, P = 0.023 with no change in the HVLIT oriented control group.Conclusion: Only a training regime that includes a significant amount of HIIT improves the neuromuscular status, anaerobic power and the acute HRR in well-trained endurance athletes. A training regime that followed more a low and moderate intensity oriented model (CG/HVLIT had no effect on any performance or HRR outcomes.

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval training on optic nerve head and macular perfusion using optical coherence tomography angiography in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Boris; Nelis, Pieter; Rolfes, Florian; Alnawaiseh, Maged; Klose, Andreas; Krüger, Michael; Eter, Nicole; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Alten, Florian

    2018-07-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been identified to be efficient for increasing health-related fitness in general and in lifestyle-induced chronic diseases such as hypertension, obesity and metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to evaluate HIIT effects on optic nerve head (ONH) and macular perfusion in healthy adults using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Fifty-eight healthy participants (22.0 ± 2.02 years, 40 females (69.0%)) performed a 4-week HIIT with two exercise sessions/week: Group 1, 4 × 30 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 4 × 30 s with 30 s active recovery, Group 2, 8 × 15 HIIT, running at maximal speed (all-out) for 8 × 15 s with 15 s active recovery. OCTA of the ONH and the macula was performed at baseline and follow-up to detect changes of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ). Flow density was evaluated in the superficial and deep plexus of the central macula, in the radial peripapillary capillary layer, the nerve head layer of the disc region and of the peripapillary region. The mean deep FAZ area and flow density of the superficial layer decreased by 14.00 ± 13.02% and 1.26 ± 3.20%, respectively, in response to overall HIIT (pre vs. post p HIIT may be performed to induce changes in ophthalmic measures such as FAZ and nerve head perfusion. OCTA imaging of the central retina and the ONH could represent a sensitive tool for the early detection of systemic vascular changes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Plasma Omentin-1 Concentration in Overweight/Obese and Normal-Weight Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Ben Fradj, Mohamed Kacem; Bezrati, Ikram; Feki, Moncef; Kaabachi, Naziha; Bouassida, Anissa

    2017-01-01

    Omentin-1 is a recently discovered adipokine, mainly produced by visceral adipose tissue, which is thought to improve insulin sensitivity. The study aimed to assess the association of plasma omentin-1 with cardiometabolic traits and physical performance and to test its response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in obese and normal-weight subjects. Nine overweight/obese (OG) and 9 normal-weight (NWG) young men performed an 8-week HIIT program. Body composition, physical performance, homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as well as plasma omentin-1and lipid levels were assessed before and after the HIIT program. Baseline plasma omentin-1 was lower in OG than NWG men (359 ± 138 vs. 470 ± 114 ng/ml; p = 0.052). Plasma omentin-1 was related to body fat (r = -0.57; p = 0.03) and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.49; p = 0.04). There was a trend towards significant association of omentin-1 with BMI (r = -0.47; p = 0.06) and VO2max (r = 0.41; p = 0.09). However, no association was observed with HOMA-IR. Following the HIIT program, omentin-1 concentrations have significantly (p < 0.01) increased in OG (359 ± 138 to 455 ± 126 ng/ml) and NWG men (470 ± 114 to 572 ± 115 ng/ml). In parallel, the cardiometabolic profile has improved with a significant decrease of HOMA-IR in OG. HIIT resulted in a plasma omentin-1 increase and an improvement with regard to cardiometabolic traits in the OG men, which may contribute to modulate insulin sensitivity. © 2017 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  16. INFLUENCE OF RAMADAN FASTING ON ANAEROBIC PERFORMANCE AND RECOVERY FOLLOWING SHORT TIME HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Karli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and the removal rate of lactate after short time high intensity exercise in power athletes. Ten male elite power athletes (2 wrestlers, 7 sprinters and 1 thrower, aged 20-24 yr, mean age 22.30 ± 1.25 yr participated in this study. The subjects were tested three times [3 days before the beginning of Ramadan (Pre-RF, the last 3 days of Ramadan (End-RF and the last 3 days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan (After-RF]. Anaerobic power and capacity were measured by using the Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT at Pre-RF, End-RF and After- RF. Capillary blood samples for lactate analyses and heart rate recordings were taken at rest, immediately after WAnT and throughout the recovery period. Repeated measures of ANOVA indicated that there were no significant changes in body weight, body mass index, fat free mass, percentage of body fat, daily sleeping time and daily caloric intake associated with Ramadan fasting. No significant changes were found in total body water either, but urinary density measured at End-RF was significantly higher than After-RF. Similarity among peak HR and peak LA values at Pre-RF, End- RF and After-RF demonstrated that cardiovascular and metabolic stress caused by WAnT was not affected by Ramadan fasting. In addition, no influence of Ramadan fasting on anaerobic power and capacity and removal rate of LA from blood following high intensity exercise was observed. The results of this study revealed that if strength-power training is performed regularly and daily food intake, body fluid balance and daily sleeping time are maintained as before Ramadan, Ramadan fasting will not have adverse effects on body composition, anaerobic power and capacity, and LA metabolism during and after high intensity exercise in power athletes

  17. A HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING AND AEROBIC EXERCISE TO CONTROL DIABETES MALLITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes has become a very common disease all over the world since last few decades and is now perceived as a global health disorder. Diabetes mellitus is identified on the basis of constant high concentration of blood glucose level and it mainly occurs due to deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. High-intensity interval training (HIIT is an improved form of interval trainings, and exercise strategies which alternate the periods of small intense anaerobic exercise by less-intense regaining periods. The study aimed to compare the hematological parameters associated with diabetes and muscle activity between healthy humans and diabetic type-1 patients when subjected to HIIT and regular aerobic exercises. Methods: A convenience sample of total 60 participants was taken it comprised of thirty healthy individuals taken from the department of Physical Therapy, University of Sargodha, Lahore campus and thirty diabetic type-1 individuals of age 15-30 years taken from Akhuwat health services clinic Township, Lahore. Participants were divided into four groups of fifteen individuals each. Group one was the diabetic HIIT (DH group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to HIIT. Group two was the diabetic aerobic (DA group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Group three was control High intensity interval training (HH that consisted of fifteen healthy individuals to be subjected to High intensity interval training exercises (HIIT. Group four (HA was the control aerobic group with fifteen healthy individuals of average lifestyles subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Results: Aerobic exercise was found to be more effective in reducing glucose level, lowering exogenous insulin and glycated hemoglobin, however HIIT proved to be more effective in lowering blood cholesterol level and decrease LDL level and increase HDL level. Conclusion: It was concluded that aerobic exercise program in comparison to high

  18. 12 min/week of high-intensity interval training reduces aortic reservoir pressure in individuals with metabolic syndrome: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Joyce S; Dalleck, Lance C; Ramos, Maximiano V; Borrani, Fabio; Roberts, Llion; Gomersall, Sjaan; Beetham, Kassia S; Dias, Katrin A; Keating, Shelley E; Fassett, Robert G; Sharman, James E; Coombes, Jeff S

    2016-10-01

    Decreased aortic reservoir function leads to a rise in aortic reservoir pressure that is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events. Although there is evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be useful to improve aortic reservoir pressure, the optimal dose of high-intensity exercise to improve aortic reservoir function has yet to be investigated. Therefore, this study compared the effect of different volumes of HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on aortic reservoir pressure in participants with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Fifty individuals with MetS were randomized into one of the following 16-week training programs: MICT [n = 17, 30 min at 60-70% peak heart rate (HRpeak), five times/week]; 4 × 4-min high-intensity interval training (4HIIT) (n = 15, 4 × 4 min bouts at 85-95% HRpeak, interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 50-70% HRpeak, three times/week); and 1 × 4-min high-intensity interval training (1HIIT) (n = 18, 1 × 4 min bout at 85-95% HRpeak, three times/week). Aortic reservoir pressure was calculated from radial applanation tonometry. Although not statistically significant, there was a trend for a small-to-medium group × time interaction effect on aortic reservoir pressure, indicating a positive adaptation following 1HIIT compared with 4HIIT and MICT [F (2,46) = 2.9, P = 0.07, η = 0.06]. This is supported by our within-group analysis wherein only 1HIIT significantly decreased aortic reservoir pressure from pre to postintervention (pre-post: 1HIIT 33 ± 16 to 31 ± 13, P = 0.03; MICT 29 ± 9-28 ± 8, P = 0.78; 4HIIT 28 ± 10-30 ± 9 mmHg, P = 0.10). Three sessions of 4 min of high-intensity exercise per week (12 min/week) was sufficient to improve aortic reservoir pressure, and thus may be a time-efficient exercise modality for reducing cardiovascular risk in individuals with MetS.

  19. Impact of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on resting and postexercise cardiac troponin T concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinlei; Zhang, Haifeng; Kong, Zhaowei; George, Keith; Little, Jonathan P; Tong, Tomas K; Li, Feifei; Shi, Qingde

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does exercise training impact resting and postexercise cardiac troponin T (cTnT) concentration? What is the main finding and its importance? This randomized controlled intervention study demonstrated that 12 weeks of either high-intensity interval training or moderate-intensity continuous training largely abolished the exercise-induced elevation in cTnT when exercise was performed at the same absolute intensity. There was no impact of training on resting cTnT or postexercise appearance of cTnT when exercise was performed at the same relative intensity. These findings provide new information that might help clinicians with decision-making in relationship to basal and postexercise values of cTnT in individuals with different training status. We evaluated the influence of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training [HIIT; repeated 4 min cycling at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) interspersed with 3 min rest, 200-300 kJ per session, 3 or 4 days each week] and work-equivalent moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; continuous cycling at 60% V̇O2max) on resting cardiac troponin T (cTnT) and the appearance of exercise-induced cTnT. Forty-eight sedentary obese young women were randomly assigned to HIIT, MICT or a control group. The V̇O2max and body composition were measured before and after training. At baseline, cTnT was assessed using a high-sensitivity assay at rest and immediately, 2 and 4 h after 45 min cycling at 60% V̇O2max. After a 12 week training period, cTnT was assessed before and after 45 min cycling at the same relative and absolute intensities as before training. Training led to higher V̇O2max and lower fat mass in both HIIT and MICT groups (all P training, cTnT was significantly elevated in all three groups (by 35-118%, all P training, both resting and postexercise cTnT concentrations (same relative intensity) were similar to pretraining values. In contrast, postexercise cTnT (same

  20. Appetite and gut hormone responses to moderate-intensity continuous exercise versus high-intensity interval exercise, in normoxic and hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Daniel P; Smith, Lindsey R; Chrismas, Bryna C; Taylor, Lee; Stensel, David J; Deighton, Kevin; Douglas, Jessica A; Kerr, Catherine J

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of continuous moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) and high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) in combination with short exposure to hypoxia on appetite and plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Twelve healthy males completed four, 2.6 h trials in a random order: (1) MIE-normoxia, (2) MIE-hypoxia, (3) HIIE-normoxia, and (4) HIIE-hypoxia. Exercise took place in an environmental chamber. During MIE, participants ran for 50 min at 70% of altitude-specific maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) and during HIIE performed 6 × 3 min running at 90% V˙O2max interspersed with 6 × 3 min active recovery at 50% V˙O2max with a 7 min warm-up and cool-down at 70% V˙O2max (50 min total). In hypoxic trials, exercise was performed at a simulated altitude of 2980 m (14.5% O2). Exercise was completed after a standardised breakfast. A second meal standardised to 30% of participants' daily energy requirements was provided 45 min after exercise. Appetite was suppressed more in hypoxia than normoxia during exercise, post-exercise, and for the full 2.6 h trial period (linear mixed modelling, p  0.05). These findings demonstrate that short exposure to hypoxia causes suppressions in appetite and plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations. Furthermore, appetite responses to exercise do not appear to be influenced by exercise modality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training elicit similar enjoyment and adherence levels in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Chantal A; Taylor, Katrina; Drummer, Devin

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been shown to improve cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies but adherence, enjoyment, and health benefits of HIIT performed independently are yet to be understood. We compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT. After completing 12 sessions of supervised training over 3 weeks, participants were asked to independently perform HIIT or MICT for 30 min, 4 times/week for 5 weeks. Cardiometabolic outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak), lipids, and inflammatory markers. Exercise enjoyment was measured by the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. Exercise adherence (93.4 ± 3.1% vs. 93.1 ± 3.7%, respectively) and mean enjoyment across the intervention (100.1 ± 4.3 vs. 100.3 ± 4.4, respectively) were high, with no differences between HIIT and MICT (p > .05). Similarly, enjoyment levels did not change over time in either group (p > .05). After training, HIIT exhibited a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than MICT (-0.66 mmol L -1 vs. -0.03 mmol L -1 , respectively) and a greater increase in VO 2 peak than MICT (p HIIT (+0.5 pg mL -1 and + 31.4 nmol L -1 , respectively) and decreased in MICT (-0.6 pg mL -1 and -6.7 nmol L -1 , respectively, p HIIT is enjoyable and has high unsupervised adherence rates in overweight and obese adults. However, HIIT may be associated with an increase in inflammation with short-term exercise in this population.

  2. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Gelatinase-A (MMP-2 Serum Levels and Muscle Damage Indices in Young Sedentary Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari M

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The current study aims to investigate the impact of high intensity interval training (HIIT on serum levels of CK and LDH as the muscle damage indicators and on Gelatinase-A (MMP-2 serum levels as the tissae inflammatory marker among young sedentary girls. Materials and Methods: For this quasi-experimental study, 14 sedentary female college students were selected and randomly divided into two groups; including the exercise HIIT group (means and standard deviations of age: 21/28 ± 2/56 (years; weight:52/86 ±4/95 (kg; and height: 163/1±3/7 (cm and the control group (means and standard deviations of age: 20/25 ±7/50 (years; weight:52/64 ±3/67 (kg; and height: 162/4±4/5 (cm. The experimental group performed six repetitions of one-minute runs at 90%- 95% of HRmax. The blood samples were collected before and 30 minutes after the exercise protocol. The serum CK, LDH and MMP-2 levels were measured using corresponding kits. The data were analyzed through the independent t-test at the significance level of 0.05 (p<0/05. Results: After collecting and analyzing Data, the results showed that CK and LDH levels increased significantly after performing HIIT, while there was no significant change in MMP-2 due to the HIIT. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the HIIT protocol will lead to an increase in some indicators of muscle damage such as CK, LDH, and that no significant changes could be observed for MMP-2 as the body's inflammation response.

  3. Highly favorable physiological responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training during chemotherapy: the OptiTrain breast cancer trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Backman, Malin; Bolam, Kate A; Olofsson, Emil; Norrbom, Jessica; Bergh, Jonas; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Rundqvist, Helene

    2018-05-01

    Advanced therapeutic strategies are often accompanied by significant adverse effects, which warrant equally progressive countermeasures. Physical exercise has proven an effective intervention to improve physical function and reduce fatigue in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in this population are not well established although HIIT has proven effective in other clinical populations. The aim of the OptiTrain trial was to examine the effects of concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) or concurrent moderate-intensity aerobic and high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT), to usual care (UC) on pain sensitivity and physiological outcomes in patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy. Two hundred and forty women were randomized to 16 weeks of RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC. cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, body mass, hemoglobin levels, and pressure-pain threshold. Pre- to post-intervention, RT-HIIT (ES = 0.41) and AT-HIIT (ES = 0.42) prevented the reduced cardiorespiratory fitness found with UC. Handgrip strength (surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.41, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.28; non-surgery side: RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.35, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.22) and lower-limb muscle strength (RT-HIIT vs. UC: ES = 0.66, RT-HIIT vs. AT-HIIT: ES = 0.23) were significantly improved in the RT-HIIT. Increases in body mass were smaller in RT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) and AT-HIIT (ES = - 0.16) versus UC. RT-HIIT reported higher pressure-pain thresholds than UC (trapezius: ES = 0.46, gluteus: ES = 0.53) and AT-HIIT (trapezius: ES = 0.30). Sixteen weeks of RT-HIIT significantly improved muscle strength and reduced pain sensitivity. Both exercise programs were well tolerated and were equally efficient in preventing increases in body mass and in preventing declines in cardiorespiratory fitness. These results highlight the importance of implementing a combination of

  4. Psychological skills training as a way to enhance an athlete's performance in high-intensity sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrer, D; Morgan, G

    2010-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills training (PST) in the development of athletic performance is widely recognized. This paper is a comprehensive review of PST in elite sports, with a special focus on high-intensity sports (HIS). The reviewed literature showed a lack of convincing evidence and theoretical underpinning concerning traditional psychological skills to enhance performance in HIS. Therefore, a model with three conceptual levels (psychological demands, skills and techniques) is presented. The model facilitates the identification of the psychological demands of a specific sport, which in turn enables distinguishing which psychological skills are required. This allows an expert to choose psychological techniques to improve the athlete's psychological skill. Considerations based on our model and the limited HIS-related literature available revealed self-skills, personal development and life skills, arousal-regulation skills, volitional skills, motivational skills and recovery skills as the most important skills to address in order to enhance performance. Development of harmonious passion, in-practice integration of volitional strategies, use of associative attentional techniques, pain management techniques, use of the mindfulness-acceptance approach and the facilitative interpretation of cognitive and somatic sensations are regarded as suitable to meet the psychological demands of HIS. They are recommended for systematic application by athletes and coaches. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. One year of high-intensity interval training improves exercise capacity, but not left ventricular function in stable heart transplant recipients: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustad, Lene A; Nytrøen, Kari; Amundsen, Brage H; Gullestad, Lars; Aakhus, Svend

    2014-02-01

    Heart transplant recipients have lower exercise capacity and impaired cardiac function compared with the normal population. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves exercise capacity and cardiac function in patients with heart failure and hypertension, but the effect on cardiac function in stable heart transplant recipients is not known. Thus, we investigated whether HIIT improved cardiac function and exercise capacity in stable heart transplant recipients by use of comprehensive rest- and exercise-echocardiography and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Fifty-two clinically stable heart transplant recipients were randomised either to HIIT (4 × 4 minutes at 85-95% of peak heart rate three times per week for eight weeks) or to control. Three such eight-week periods were distributed throughout one year. Echocardiography (rest and submaximal exercise) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing were performed at baseline and follow-up. One year of HIIT increased VO 2peak from 27.7 ± 5.5 at baseline to 30.9 ± 5.0 ml/kg/min at follow-up, while the control group remained unchanged (28.5 ± 7.0 vs. 28.0 ± 6.7 ml/kg per min, p HIIT. Whereas HIIT is feasible in heart transplant recipients and effectively improves exercise capacity, it does not alter cardiac systolic and diastolic function significantly. Thus, the observed augmentation in exercise capacity is best explained by extra-cardiac adaptive mechanisms.

  6. High intensity interval exercise is an effective alternative to moderate intensity exercise for improving glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in adolescent boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, Emma J; Williams, Craig A; Tomlinson, Owen W; Vlachopoulos, Dimitris; Jackman, Sarah R; Armstrong, Neil; Barker, Alan R

    2015-11-01

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) may offer a time efficient means to improve health outcomes compared to moderate-intensity exercise (MIE). This study examined the acute effect of HIIE compared to a work-matched bout of MIE on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity (IS), resting fat oxidation and exercise enjoyment in adolescent boys. Within-measures design with counterbalanced experimental conditions. Nine boys (14.2 ± 0.4 years) completed three conditions on separate days in a counterbalanced order: (1) HIIE; (2) work matched MIE, both on a cycle ergometer; and (3) rest (CON). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed after exercise or rest and the area under curve (AUC) responses for plasma [glucose] and [insulin] were calculated, and IS estimated (Cederholm index). Energy expenditure and fat oxidation were measured following the OGTT using indirect calorimetry. Exercise enjoyment was assessed using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. The incremental AUC (iAUC) for plasma [glucose] was reduced following both MIE (-23.9%, P = 0.013, effect size [ES] = -0.64) and HIIE (-28.9%, P=0.008, ES = -0.84) compared to CON. The iAUC for plasma [insulin] was lower for HIIE (-24.2%, P = 0.021, ES = -0.71) and MIE (-29.1%, P = 0.012, ES = -0.79) compared to CON. IS increased by 11.2% after HIIE (P = 0.03, ES = 0.76) and 8.4% after MIE (P = 0.10, ES = 0.58). There was a trend for an increase in fat oxidation following HIIE (P = 0.097, ES = 0.70). Both HIIE and MIE were rated as equally enjoyable (P > 0.05, ES effective alternative to MIE for improving glucose tolerance and IS in adolescent boys immediately after exercise. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Postexercise hypotension in an endurance-trained population of men and women following high-intensity interval and steady-state cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Lindy; Yan, Huimin; Fahs, Christopher A; Ranadive, Sushant M; Agiovlasitis, Stamatis; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Fernhall, Bo

    2010-04-01

    The acute effect of high-intensity interval exercise (HI) on blood pressure (BP) is unknown although this type of exercise has similar or greater cardiovascular benefits compared to steady-state aerobic exercise (SS). This study examined postexercise hypotension (PEH) and potential mechanisms of this response in endurance-trained subjects following acute SS and HI. Sex differences were also evaluated. A total of 25 endurance-trained men (n = 15) and women (n = 10) performed a bout of HI and a bout of SS cycling in randomized order on separate days. Before exercise, 30 min postexercise, and 60 min postexercise, we measured brachial and aortic BP. Cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), end diastolic volume (EDV), end systolic volume (ESV), and left ventricular wall-velocities were measured using ultrasonography with tissue Doppler capabilities. Ejection fraction and fractional shortening (FS), total peripheral resistance (TPR), and calf vascular resistance were calculated from the above variables and measures of leg blood flow. BP, ejection fraction, and FS decreased by a similar magnitude following both bouts but changes in CO, heart rate (HR), TPR, and calf vascular resistance were greater in magnitude following HI than following SS. Men and women responded similarly to HI. Although men and women exhibited a similar PEH following SS, they showed differential changes in SV, EDV, and TPR. HI acutely reduces BP similarly to SS. The mechanistic response to HI appears to differ from that of SS, and endurance-trained men and women may exhibit differential mechanisms for PEH following SS but not HI.

  8. Novel all-extremity high-intensity interval training improves aerobic fitness, cardiac function and insulin resistance in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M; Petersen, John W; Christou, Demetra D

    2016-09-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4min 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4×/week for 8weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (PHIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; PHIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Mucosal Immune Function Is Not Compromised during a Period of High-Intensity Interval Training. Is It Time to Reconsider an Old Assumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, Dennis-Peter; Zinner, Christoph; Sperlich, Billy

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the mucosal immune function and circadian variation of salivary cortisol, Immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate and mood during a period of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to long-slow distance training (LSD). Methods: Recreational male runners (n = 28) completed nine sessions of either HIIT or LSD within 3 weeks. The HIIT involved 4 × 4 min of running at 90–95% of maximum heart rate interspersed with 3 min of active recovery while the LSD comprised of continuous running at 70–75% of maximum heart rate for 60–80 min. The psycho-immunological stress-response was investigated with a full daily profile of salivary cortisol and immunoglobin-A (sIgA) secretion rate along with the mood state on a baseline day, the first and last day of training and at follow-up 4 days after the last day of training. Before and after the training period, each athlete's running performance and peak oxygen uptake (V·O2peak) was determined with an incremental exercise test. Results: The HIIT resulted in a longer time-to-exhaustion (P = 0.02) and increased V·O2peak compared to LSD (P = 0.01). The circadian variation of sIgA secretion rate showed highest values in the morning immediately after waking up followed by a decrease throughout the day in both groups (P HIIT, the wake-up response of sIgA secretion rate was higher on the last day of training (P HIIT and LSD (P HIIT indicates no compromised mucosal immune function compared to LSD and shows the functional adaptation of the mucosal immune system in response to the increased stress and training load of nine sessions of HIIT. PMID:28744226

  10. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  11. The effects of a 2 week modified high intensity interval training program on the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, N; Kenno, K A; Milne, K J

    2014-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) induces similar metabolic adaptations to traditional steady state aerobic exercise training. Until recently, most HIIT studies have examined maximum efforts in healthy populations. The current study aimed to examine the effects of a 2 week modified HIIT program on the homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). It was hypothesized that HIIT would improve HOMA-IR. Nine individuals with T2D (age=40.2±9.7 y; BMI=33.9±5.3; fasting plasma glucose [FPG]=8.7±2.9 mmol/L; HbA1C=7.3±1.2%; [mean±SD]) performed 6 individualized training sessions of HIIT (4x30 seconds at 100% of estimated maximum workload followed by 4 minutes of active rest) over 2 weeks. HOMA-IR was calculated from FPG and serum insulin and compared against a prior 2 week baseline period. Blood glucose was reduced immediately after each HIIT session (PHOMA-IR were unchanged after training. However, 6 of the 9 individuals exhibited reduced HOMA-IR values after the training period and there was a significant negative correlation between HOMA-IR value prior to training and change in HOMA-IR after HIIT. These observations tend to support the positive health benefits of HITT for individuals with T2D reported in recently published data using a modified HIIT protocol. However, they suggest that the magnitude of the disease should be assessed when examining the effects of exercise interventions in individuals with T2D.

  12. Novel All-Extremity High-Intensity Interval Training Improves Aerobic Fitness, Cardiac Function and Insulin Resistance in Healthy Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chueh-Lung; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Kim, Han-Kyul; Hwang, Moon-Hyon; Handberg, Eileen M.; Petersen, John W.; Christou, Demetra D.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreased aerobic fitness and cardiac remodeling leading to increased risk for cardiovascular disease. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the treadmill has been reported to be more effective in ameliorating these risk factors compared with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in patients with cardiometabolic disease. In older adults, however, weight-bearing activities are frequently limited due to musculoskeletal and balance problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility and safety of non-weight-bearing all-extremity HIIT in older adults. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that all-extremity HIIT will be more effective in improving aerobic fitness, cardiac function, and metabolic risk factors compared with all-extremity MICT. Fifty-one healthy sedentary older adults (age: 65±1 years) were randomized to HIIT (n=17), MICT (n=18) or non-exercise control (CONT; n=16). HIIT (4×4 minutes 90% of peak heart rate; HRpeak) and isocaloric MICT (70% of HRpeak) were performed on a non-weight-bearing all-extremity ergometer, 4x/week for 8 weeks under supervision. All-extremity HIIT was feasible in older adults and resulted in no adverse events. Aerobic fitness (peak oxygen consumption; VO2peak) and ejection fraction (echocardiography) improved by 11% (PHIIT, while no changes were observed in MICT and CONT (P≥0.1). Greater improvements in ejection fraction were associated with greater improvements in VO2peak (r=0.57; PHIIT by 26% (P=0.016). Diastolic function, body composition, glucose and lipids were unaffected (P≥0.1). In conclusion, all-extremity HIIT is feasible and safe in older adults. HIIT, but not MICT, improved aerobic fitness, ejection fraction, and insulin resistance. PMID:27346646

  13. Left ventricular vascular and metabolic adaptations to high-intensity interval and moderate intensity continuous training: a randomized trial in healthy middle-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Heinonen, Ilkka; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Hakala, Juuso; Heiskanen, Marja A; Motiani, Kumail K; Virtanen, Kirsi; Pärkkä, Jussi P; Knuuti, Juhani; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2016-12-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become popular, time-sparing alternative to moderate intensity continuous training (MICT), although the cardiac vascular and metabolic effects of HIIT are incompletely known. We compared the effects of 2-week interventions with HIIT and MICT on myocardial perfusion and free fatty acid and glucose uptake. Insulin-stimulated myocardial glucose uptake was decreased by training without any significantly different response between the groups, whereas free fatty acid uptake remained unchanged. Adenosine-stimulated myocardial perfusion responded differently to the training modes (change in mean HIIT: -19%; MICT: +9%; P = 0.03 for interaction) and was correlated with myocardial glucose uptake for the entire dataset and especially after HIIT training. HIIT and MICT induce similar metabolic and functional changes in the heart, although myocardial vascular hyperaemic reactivity is impaired after HIIT, and this should be considered when prescribing very intense HIIT for previously untrained subjects. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is a time-efficient way of obtaining the health benefits of exercise, although the cardiac effects of this training mode are incompletely known. We compared the effects of short-term HIIT and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) interventions on myocardial perfusion and metabolism and cardiac function in healthy, sedentary, middle-aged men. Twenty-eight healthy, middle-aged men were randomized to either HIIT or MICT groups (n = 14 in both) and underwent six cycle ergometer training sessions within 2 weeks (HIIT session: 4-6 × 30 s all-out cycling/4 min recovery, MICT session 40-60 min at 60% V̇O2 peak ). Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) was performed to measure cardiac structure and function and positron emission tomography was used to measure myocardial perfusion at baseline and during adenosine stimulation, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (MGU) and fasting free

  14. The effect of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training on glycemic control in individuals with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Kamilla Munch; Munch, Gregers Winding; Iepsen, Ulrik Winning

    2018-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 29 individuals with type 2...... diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT...... in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose...

  15. The Effect of 8 Weeks High-intensity Interval Training on Myostatin and Follistatin Gene Expression in Gastrocnemius Muscle of the Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Biglari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The purpose of the present study is to investigate the effect of 8 weeks High-intensity Interval Training (HIIT on the expression of two muscle growth regulating genes (myostatin and follistatin in gastrocnemius muscle of healthy male rats. Materials and Methods: 16 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups in the same number: control and HIIT. HIIT program was underwent 40 min each session, three sessions in a week for eight weeks. Each exercise training session consisted of 5 min warm-up and cool-down at 40-50 % VO2max, 30 min interval running including 4 min high-intensity (85-90% VO2max and 2 min active recovery (at 50-60% VO2max. Rats in control group did not do any exercise training program. 48 h after the last training session, rats` gastrocnemius muscle was extracted and the expression of myostatin and follistatin genes was determined by Real Time-PCR. For statistical data analysis, independent t-test was used. Results: The expression of myostatin was significantly reduced 68% in HIIT group in comparison with the control group (p0.05. Gastrocnemius muscle weight was significantly increased 23% in the HIIT group compared to the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Results indicated that HIIT lead to significant reduction in the expression of myostatin gene and increase in the weight of gastrocnemius muscle in rats.

  16. Effects of 28 weeks of high-intensity interval training during physical education classes on cardiometabolic risk factors in Chilean schoolchildren: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel; García-Pinillos, Felipe; Latorre-Román, Pedro

    2018-04-21

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of 28 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) during physical education classes on the weight status, cardiorespiratory capacity, and blood pressure of overweight and obese schoolchildren. The participants included 197 schoolchildren (108 girls and 89 boys) aged between 6 and 11 years (8.39 ± 1.15 years) in four groups: experimental group 1 (EG1) = 59 overweight schoolchildren; experimental group 2 (EG2) = 92 obese schoolchildren; control group 1 (CG1) = 17 overweight children; and control group 2 (CG2) = 29 obese schoolchildren. The participants in the EGs carried out HIIT twice per week for 28 weeks. After the 28-week intervention, the participants showed significant reductions in body mass index (p HIIT program caused significant improvements in the cardiorespiratory capacity, anthropometric variables, and blood pressure levels of overweight and obese children. What is Known: • High-intensity interval training (HIIT) programs improve health, but investigations have used relatively short intervention periods. What is New: • The 28-week period (a large intervention period) of HIIT-based games during physical education classes caused significant improvements in cardiorespiratory capacity, anthropometric variables, and blood pressure levels of overweight and obese schoolchildren.

  17. The Effects of Heart Rate Versus Speed-Based High-Intensity Interval Training on Heart Rate Variability in Young Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Rabbani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT prescription by heart rate (HR-based and running speed (speed-based methods on natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (Ln rMSSD as a measure of heart rate variability (HRV in young female student athletes. Methods: Seventeen female student athletes participated in this study and were divided into HR-based (n=9, age: 16.7 years and speed-based (n=8, age: 16.9 years HIT groups. 30-15 Intermittent Fitness Test was used for the speed-based group to detect the reference maximum speed (VIFT for prescribing the HIT intensity accordingly. Age predicted maximal HR was used for the HR-based group as the reference value. All subjects performed similar training protocol for 5 weeks, except the method of individualizing HIT sessions (2 weekly sessions of HIT=3 sets of 3 minutes work interspersed with 3 minutes passive recovery with the 15-15 seconds format during each working set; either according to 90%-95% of maximal HR or VIFT. Results: HR- and speed-based HIT groups showed the most likely large improvements in Ln rMSSD of +7.9%, 90% confidence limits [CL] (5.9; 10.0; standardized change: +1.75 (1.32; 2.19 and +5.5%, (2.8; 8.3; +1.41 (0.72; 2.09, respectively. In between group analyses, HR-based HIT produced likely a small greater improvement in Ln rMSSD than speed-based HIT (+1.9%, [-5.0; 4.4]; +0.50 [-0.14; 1.14], chances for greater/similar/lower values of 79/17/4. Conclusion: It is concluded that both HIT prescription strategies were effective in Ln rMSSD elevation, but using maximal HR as a reference may elicit higher parasympathetic dominance with small effect in young female student athletes.

  18. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. Methods A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18–30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60–80% of peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as V˙O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. Results After training, V˙O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, −1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, −2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Conclusion Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals. PMID:27368057

  19. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaowei Kong

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women.A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30 randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak, both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES were collected during the intervention.After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41. Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034, fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002 and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016, there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids.Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  20. Comparison of High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate-to-Vigorous Continuous Training for Cardiometabolic Health and Exercise Enjoyment in Obese Young Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaowei; Fan, Xitao; Sun, Shengyan; Song, Lili; Shi, Qingde; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 5-week high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity continuous training (MVCT) on cardiometabolic health outcomes and enjoyment of exercise in obese young women. A randomized controlled experiment was conducted that involved thirty-one obese females (age range of 18-30) randomly assigned to either HIIT or MVCT five-week training programs. Participants in HIIT condition performed 20 min of repeated 8 s cycling interspersed with 12 s rest intervals, and those in MVCT condition cycled continuously for 40 min at 60-80% of peak oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]O2peak), both for four days in a week. Outcomes such as [Formula: see text]O2peak, body composition estimated by bioimpedance analysis, blood lipids, and serum sexual hormones were measured at pre-and post-training. The scores of Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PAES) were collected during the intervention. After training, [Formula: see text]O2peak increased significantly for both training programs (9.1% in HIIT and 10.3% in MVCT) (p = 0.010, η2 = 0.41). Although MVCT group had a significant reduction in total body weight (TBW, -1.8%, p = 0.034), fat mass (FM, - 4.7%, p = 0.002) and percentage body fat (PBF, -2.9%, p = 0.016), there were no significant between-group differences in the change of the pre- and post-measures of these variables. The HIIT group had a higher score on PAES than the MVCT group during the intervention. For both conditions, exercise training led to a decline in resting testosterone and estradiol levels, but had no significant effect on blood lipids. Both HIIT and MVCT are effective in improving cardiorespiratory fitness and in reducing sexual hormones in obese young women; however, HIIT is a more enjoyable and time-efficient strategy. The mild-HIIT protocol seems to be useful for at least maintaining the body weight among sedentary individuals.

  1. The tracking performance of distributed recoverable flight control systems subject to high intensity radiated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    It is known that high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) can produce upsets in digital electronics, and thereby degrade the performance of digital flight control systems. Such upsets, either from natural or man-made sources, can change data values on digital buses and memory and affect CPU instruction execution. HIRF environments are also known to trigger common-mode faults, affecting nearly-simultaneously multiple fault containment regions, and hence reducing the benefits of n-modular redundancy and other fault-tolerant computing techniques. Thus, it is important to develop models which describe the integration of the embedded digital system, where the control law is implemented, as well as the dynamics of the closed-loop system. In this dissertation, theoretical tools are presented to analyze the relationship between the design choices for a class of distributed recoverable computing platforms and the tracking performance degradation of a digital flight control system implemented on such a platform while operating in a HIRF environment. Specifically, a tractable hybrid performance model is developed for a digital flight control system implemented on a computing platform inspired largely by the NASA family of fault-tolerant, reconfigurable computer architectures known as SPIDER (scalable processor-independent design for enhanced reliability). The focus will be on the SPIDER implementation, which uses the computer communication system known as ROBUS-2 (reliable optical bus). A physical HIRF experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in order to validate the theoretical tracking performance degradation predictions for a distributed Boeing 747 flight control system subject to a HIRF environment. An extrapolation of these results for scenarios that could not be physically tested is also presented.

  2. The Effect of Caffeine on Repeat-High-Intensity-Effort Performance in Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Brandon M; Leveritt, Michael D; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-02-01

    Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion. Each trial consisted of 3 sets of 20-m sprints interspersed with bouts of tackling. During the RHIE test, 20-m-sprint time, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were measured. Total time to complete the nine 20-m sprints during the caffeine condition was 1.0% faster (28.46 ± 1.4 s) than during the placebo condition (28.77 ± 1.7 s) (ES = 0.18, 90%CI -0.7 to 0.1 s). This resulted in a very likely chance of caffeine being of benefit to RHIE performance (99% likely to be beneficial). These improvements were more pronounced in the early stages of the test, with a 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.9% improvement in sprint performance during sets 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in RPE across the 3 sets (P = .47, 0.48, 1.00) or mean HR (P = .36), maximal HR (P = .74), or blood lactate (P = .50) between treatment conditions. Preexercise ingestion of 300 mg caffeine produced practically meaningful improvements in RHIE performance in rugby league players.

  3. Performance of Multiplexed XY Resistive Micromegas detectors in a high intensity beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.; Burtsev, V.; Chumakov, A.; Cooke, D.; Depero, E.; Dermenev, A. V.; Donskov, S. V.; Dubinin, F.; Dusaev, R. R.; Emmenegger, S.; Fabich, A.; Frolov, V. N.; Gardikiotis, A.; Gninenko, S. N.; Hösgen, M.; Karneyeu, A. E.; Ketzer, B.; Kirsanov, M. M.; Konorov, I. V.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Levchenko, E.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Lysan, V.; Mamon, S.; Matveev, V. A.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Myalkovskiy, V. V.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Peshekhonov, D. V.; Polyakov, V. A.; Radics, B.; Rubbia, A.; Samoylenko, V. D.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tlisov, D. A.; Toropin, A. N.; Vasilishin, B.; Arenas, G. Vasquez; Ulloa, P.; Crivelli, P.

    2018-02-01

    We present the performance of multiplexed XY resistive Micromegas detectors tested in the CERN SPS 100 GeV/c electron beam at intensities up to 3 . 3 × 105e- /(s ṡcm2) . So far, all studies with multiplexed Micromegas have only been reported for tests with radioactive sources and cosmic rays. The use of multiplexed modules in high intensity environments was not explored due to the effect of ambiguities in the reconstruction of the hit point caused by the multiplexing feature. For the specific mapping and beam intensities analyzed in this work with a multiplexing factor of five, more than 50% level of ambiguity is introduced due to particle pile-up as well as fake clusters due to the mapping feature. Our results prove that by using the additional information of cluster size and integrated charge from the signal clusters induced on the XY strips, the ambiguities can be reduced to a level below 2%. The tested detectors are used in the CERN NA64 experiment for tracking the incoming particles bending in a magnetic field in order to reconstruct their momentum. The average hit detection efficiency of each module was found to be ∼96% at the highest beam intensities. By using four modules a tracking resolution of 1.1% was obtained with ∼85% combined tracking efficiency.

  4. Improved brachial artery shear patterns and increased flow-mediated dilation after low-volume high-intensity interval training in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Rakhshan, Kamran; Mafi, Farnoosh; Biglari, Soheil; Gandomkar Bagheri, Habibalah

    2018-06-22

    What is the central question of this study? Endothelial function is impaired because of increased oscillatory and retrograde shear in patients with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous moderate intensity exercise can modulate oscillatory and retrograde shear, blood flow and flow-mediated arterial dilation in these patients. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that low-volume high-intensity interval training, by increasing anterograde shear and decreasing retrograde shear and oscillatory index, can increase nitric oxide production and consequently result in increased flow-mediated dilation and outward arterial remodelling in patients with type 2 diabetes. Atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes is characterized by endothelial dysfunction associated with impaired flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and increases retrograde and oscillatory shear. The present study investigated endothelium-dependent vasodilation and shear rate in patients with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up after 12 weeks of low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIIT) or continuous moderate intensity training (CMIT). Seventy five sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and untreated pre- or stage I hypertension were randomly divided into LV-HIIT, CMIT and control groups. The LV-HIIT group intervention was 12 intervals of 1.5 min at 85%-90% HR max and 2 min at 55%-60% HR max . The CMIT group intervention was 42 min of exercise at 70% HR max for 3 sessions per week during 12 weeks. High-resolution Doppler ultrasound was used to measure FMD, arterial diameter, anterograde and retrograde blood flow and shear rate patterns. Brachial artery FMD increased significantly in the LV-HIIT group (3.83 ± 1.13 baseline, 7.39 ± 3.6% follow-up), whereas there were no significant increase in the CMIT group (3.45 ± 0.97 baseline, 4.81 ± 2.36% follow-up) compared to the control group (3.16 ± 0

  5. Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Self-reported Mood State in Response to High Intensity Interval Training. A Crossover Study on the Effect of Chronotype

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    Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS, before (PRE, after 12 (POST12 and 24 h (POST24 the completion of both morning (08.00 am and evening (08.00 p.m. training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107 while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008. Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002 and after 30 min (P = 0.042 the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times

  6. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves high-intensity intermittent exercise performance in trained young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krustrup, Peter; Ermidis, Georgios; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate intake has been shown to improve exercise tolerance, but the effects on high-intensity intermittent exercise are less clear. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate intake on Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 performance in trained young men. Thirteen men aged 23 ± 1 year (height: 180 ± 2 cm, weight: 78 ± 3 kg; VO2max: 61.3 ± 3.3 mlO2 · kg(-1) · min(-1); means ± SEM) performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) on two separate occasions in randomized order with (SBC) and without (CON) prior intake of sodium bicarbonate (0.4 g · kg(-1) body weight). Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the test and venous blood samples were taken frequently. Yo-Yo IR2 performance was 14 % higher (P = 0.04) in SBC than in CON (735 ± 61 vs 646 ± 46 m, respectively). Blood pH and bicarbonate were similar between trials at baseline, but higher (P = 0.003) immediately prior to the Yo-Yo IR2 test in SBC than in CON (7.44 ± 0.01 vs 7.32 ± 0.01 and 33.7 ± 3.2 vs 27.3 ± 0.6 mmol · l(-1), respectively). Blood lactate was 0.9 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 mmol · l(-1) at baseline and increased to 11.3 ± 1.4 and 9.4 ± 0.8 mmol · l(-1) at exhaustion in SBC and CON, respectively, being higher (P = 0.03) in SBC. Additionally, peak blood lactate was higher (P = 0.02) in SBC than in CON (11.7 ± 1.2 vs 10.2 ± 0.7 mmol · l(-1)). Blood glucose, plasma K(+) and Na(+) were not different between trials. Peak heart rate reached at exhaustion was 197 ± 3 and 195 ± 3 bpm in SBC and CON, respectively, with no difference between conditions. RPE was 7% lower (P = 0.003) in SBC than in CON after 440 m, but similar at exhaustion (19.3 ± 0.2 and 19.5 ± 0.2). In conclusion, high-intensity intermittent exercise performance is improved by prior

  7. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise

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    Purpura Martin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was performed to evaluate the effect of oral creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr and creatine citrate (Cr-Cit supplementation on exercise performance in healthy young athletes. Methods Performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity was evaluated before (pretest and after (posttest 28 days of Cr-Pyr (5 g/d, n = 16, Cr-Cit (5 g/d, n = 16 or placebo (pla, 5 g/d, n = 17 intake. Subjects performed ten 15-sec exercise intervals, each followed by 45 sec rest periods. Results Cr-Pyr (p Conclusion It is concluded that four weeks of Cr-Pyr and Cr-Cit intake significantly improves performance during intermittent handgrip exercise of maximal intensity and that Cr-Pyr might benefit endurance, due to enhanced activity of the aerobic metabolism.

  8. The effect of 6-week high intensity interval training on the VEGF/COL-18 ratio and some echocardiographic indices in rats with myocardial infarction

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    Sara Karbalaeifar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Myocardial infarction (MI is the irreversible cell death caused by ischemia in parts of myocardium. The molecular process of increased capillary density in response to activity and its appropriate intensity is not clear yet. Therefore, this research aimed to evaluate the effect of 6-week high intensity interval training on the VEGF/COL-18 ratio and echocardiographic indices in rats with MI. Methods: Twelve Wistar male rats of 10 weeks old and mean weight 250-300gr were allocated to two groups of experimental (60 minutes of interval treadmill running for four minutes with the intensity of 85-90 and two minutes of active rest at 50-60 percent of VO2max for four days a week for 6 weeks and control group (without any training. Real-time PCR was used to assess the expression of VEGF and COL-18 genes after inducing MI, and shortening fractional and ejection fraction were investigated as echocardiographic indices. Data were analyzed in SPSS18 using independent t test (α≤ 0.05. Results: The findings showed that there was no significant increase in the VEGF/COL-18 ratio in the HIIT group (1.856 mg/ml as compared with the control group (1.245 mg/ml (p=0.263. A significant increase was observed in the HIIT group for SF (77.461±7.022% and EF (41.625±6.847% as compared with the control group (64.483±3.695% and (31.320±3.460%, respectively (p=0.001. Conclusion: In general, 6 weeks of high intensity interval training can effectively increase angiogenesis factors and improve myocardial function in male Wistar rats after MI.

  9. The Effect of High Intensity Interval Training on Hormonal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axisand Fertility in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

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    Mohammad Parastesh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in fertility indices. Interval training, on the other hand, through reducing the adverse effects of diabetes, exerts a positive impact on diabetic individuals.The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of ten weeks of High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on reproductive hormones and sperm parameters in Wistar rats with diabetes mellitus type 2. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 36 Wistar rats with mean weight of 200±48 were randomly assigned to healthy control, diabetic control and diabetic + high intensity interval training groups. The diabetic training group received ten weeks of HIIT training by treadmill following the induction of diabetes. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, left epididymis of the rats was examined for studying sperm parameters and blood serum samples were examined for evaluating reproductive hormones. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significant level of 0.05%. Results: Ten weeks of HIIT training reduces fasting blood glucose (p=0.001 and significantly increases serum testosterone (p=0.001, LH (p=0.042 and FSH (p=0.024 levels in the HIIT training group in comparison to the diabetic group. In addition, sperm parameters (sperm count, survival rate and motility presented significant improvements compared to the diabetic group (p<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that HIIT training can improve sperm count, survival rate and motility, through increasing serum testosterone, LH and FSH levels (reproductive hormones in rats with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  10. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiewelhove, Thimo; Raeder, Christian; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Aim Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Methods 22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL·min·kg−1) participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ), 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK), c-reactive protein (CRP) and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS) were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery. Results Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05) in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60) and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63) after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05) in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers. Conclusions Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an

  11. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

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    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  12. Markers for Routine Assessment of Fatigue and Recovery in Male and Female Team Sport Athletes during High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thimo Wiewelhove

    Full Text Available Our study aimed to investigate changes of different markers for routine assessment of fatigue and recovery in response to high-intensity interval training (HIIT.22 well-trained male and female team sport athletes (age, 23.0 ± 2.7 years; V̇O2 max, 57.6 ± 8.6 mL · min · kg(-1 participated in a six-day running-based HIIT-microcycle with a total of eleven HIIT sessions. Repeated sprint ability (RSA; criterion measure of fatigue and recovery, countermovement jump (CMJ height, jump efficiency in a multiple rebound jump test (MRJ, 20-m sprint performance, muscle contractile properties, serum concentrations of creatinkinase (CK, c-reactive protein (CRP and urea as well as perceived muscle soreness (DOMS were measured pre and post the training program as well as after 72 h of recovery.Following the microcycle significant changes (p < 0.05 in RSA as well as in CMJ and MRJ performance could be observed, showing a decline (%Δ ± 90% confidence limits, ES = effect size; RSA: -3.8 ± 1.0, ES = -1.51; CMJ: 8.4 ± 2.9, ES = -1.35; MRJ: 17.4 ± 4.5, ES = -1.60 and a return to baseline level (RSA: 2.8 ± 2.6, ES = 0.53; CMJ: 4.1 ± 2.9, ES = 0.68; MRJ: 6.5 ± 4.5, ES = 0.63 after 72 h of recovery. Athletes also demonstrated significant changes (p < 0.05 in muscle contractile properties, CK, and DOMS following the training program and after the recovery period. In contrast, CRP and urea remained unchanged throughout the study. Further analysis revealed that the accuracy of markers for assessment of fatigue and recovery in comparison to RSA derived from a contingency table was insufficient. Multiple regression analysis also showed no correlations between changes in RSA and any of the markers.Mean changes in measures of neuromuscular function, CK and DOMS are related to HIIT induced fatigue and subsequent recovery. However, low accuracy of a single or combined use of these markers requires the verification of their applicability on an individual basis.

  13. Acute effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Ribeiro, Diego Oliveira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold. Data related to oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]) and EE were measured during the protocols and the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated for both sessions. No difference was found between groups for mean [Formula: see text] (HIIT: 2.84 ± 0.46 L min -1 ; CONT: 2.72 ± 0.43 L min -1 ) and EE per minute (HIIT: 14.36 ± 2.34 kcal min -1 ; CONT: 13.21 ± 2.08 kcal min -1 ) during protocols. Regarding total EE during session, CONT resulted in higher values compared to HIIT (390.45 ± 65.15; 55.20 ± 9.33 kcal, respectively). However, post-exercise EE and EPOC values were higher after HIIT (69.31 ± 10.88; 26.27 ± 2.28 kcal, respectively) compared to CONT (55.99 ± 10.20; 13.43 ± 10.45 kcal, respectively). These data suggest that supramaximal HIIT has a higher impact on EE and EPOC in the early phase of recovery when compared to CONT.

  14. High intensity interval and moderate continuous cycle training in a physical education programme improves health-related fitness in young females

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    K Mazurek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with high intensity interval cycle exercise (HIIE or continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME. Forty-eight collegiate females exercising in two regular physical education classes per week were randomly assigned to two programmes (HIIE; n=24 or CME; n=24 of additional (one session of 63 minutes per week physical activity for 8 weeks. Participants performed HIIE comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active recovery pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax or performed CME corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax. Before and after the 8-week programmes, anthropometric data and aero- and anaerobic capacity were measured. Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant time main effect for VO2max (p<0.001, similar improvements being found in both groups (+12% in HIIE and +11% in CME, despite body mass not changing significantly (p=0.59; +0.4% in HIIE and -0.1% in CME. A significant main time effect was found for relative fat mass (FM and fat-free mass (FFM (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively. A group x time interaction effect was found for relative FM and FFM (p=0.018 and p=0.018; a greater reduction in FM and greater increase in FFM were noted in the CME than the HIIE group. Improvements in anaerobic power were observed in both groups (p<0.001, but it was greater in the HIIE group (interaction effect, p=0.022. Weight loss is not mandatory for exercise-induced effects on improving aerobic and anaerobic capacity in collegiate females. Eight weeks of regular physical education classes supplemented with CME sessions are more effective in improving body composition than physical education classes supplemented with HIIE sessions. In contrast to earlier, smaller trials, similar improvements in aerobic capacity were observed following physical activity with additional HIIE or CME sessions.

  15. Heterogeneous responses of personalised high intensity interval training on type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Timothy P; Baker, Matthew D; Evans, Shelley-Ann; Adams, Rachel A; Cobbold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension, decreased glucose tolerance, adverse lipid profiles and low physical activity levels are associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. High intensity interval training (HIIT), a low volume, reduced time, high intensity programme, may be a useful alternative to current government guidelines which specify a minimum of 150 minutes of physical activity per week. We describe a personalised programme of high intensity exercise which provides significant improvements in CVD risk markers. Healthy volunteers undertook 6 weeks of HIIT. T2DM and CVD risk predictors including glucose tolerance, VO2max, blood pressure (BP), and lipids were measured before and after HIIT. HIIT training was associated with beneficial changes in a range of predictors of blood flow and cardiovascular risk. There was a heterogeneous response to HIIT, with some subjects responding with favourable changes and others being non-responders to HIIT. In responders, HIIT was associated with a statistically significant (p = 0.023) increase in VO2max, from 45.4 (38.4,52.5) to 56.9 (51.2,65.7) (median (interquartile range)(ml/min/kg)). In responders HIIT resulted in a decrease in systolic BP from 127 (126,129) to 116 (106,122) (mmHg) with p = 0.026 and a decrease is diastolic blood pressure from 72 (69,74) to 57 (56,66) with p = 0.026. There was also some evidence of a beneficial change in blood lipid and glucose concentrations with HIIT. In conclusion, personalised HIIT has potential as an intervention to improve blood flow and cardiovascular health.

  16. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

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    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  17. The CO{sub 2} capture performance of a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, K.H.; Mahmud, T.; Purba, E. [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    The present study focuses on the enhancement of CO{sub 2} capture efficiency using a high-intensity vortex spray scrubber by imparting swirl to the gas flow, which has the ability to augment the rates of heat and mass transfer. Experimental investigations into the reactive absorption of CO{sub 2} from a mixture of air-CO{sub 2} into an aqueous solution of NaOH in a laboratory-scale counter-current spray scrubber have been carried out. The mass transfer characteristics, in terms of the overall gas phase mass transfer coefficient (K{sub g}a) were investigated for both the swirling and the non-swirling (axial) gas flows through the scrubber in order to quantify the effect of swirl. The effects of the gas/liquid flow rates, flow arrangements, scrubber height and spray nozzle type on the CO{sub 2} capture performance were examined. For both the axial and the swirling flows, the K{sub g}a increases initially with increasing gas flow rate up to a certain limit, beyond which it becomes essentially constant, whereas the K{sub g}a increases continuously with the liquid flow rate within the measured range. The counter-current gas-droplets flow provides higher mass transfer rates compared with those in co-current flow. The K{sub g}a deceases with the increase in the tower height. The spray nozzle producing finer droplets provides enhanced mass transfer rates. It is found that imparting swirl in the gas flow enhances the K(g)a up to around 49% compared with that in axial flows.

  18. A pilot study examining the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular risk factors in cancer survivors.

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    Toohey, Kellie; Pumpa, Kate L; Arnolda, Leonard; Cooke, Julie; Yip, Desmond; Craft, Paul S; Semple, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training and continuous low to moderate intensity training on quality of life, functional capacity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in cancer survivors. Cancer survivors within 24 months post-diagnosis were randomly assigned into the low-volume high-intensity interval training group ( n  = 8) or the continuous low to moderate intensity training group ( n  = 8) group for 36 sessions (12 weeks) of supervised exercise. The low-volume high-intensity interval training (LVHIIT) group performed 7 × 30 s intervals (≥85% maximal heart rate) and the continuous low to moderate intensity training (CLMIT) group performed continuous aerobic training for 20 min (≤55% maximal heart rate) on a stationary bike or treadmill. Significant improvements (time) were observed for 13 of the 23 dependent variables (ES 0.05-0.61, p  ≤ 0.05). An interaction effect was observed for six minute walk test (18.53% [32.43-4.63] ES 0.50, p  ≤ 0.01) with the LVHIIT group demonstrating greater improvements. These preliminary findings suggest that both interventions can induce improvements in quality of life, functional capacity and selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. The LVHIIT program was well tolerated by the participants and our results suggest that LVHIIT is the preferred modality to improve fitness (6MWT); it remains to be seen which intervention elicits the most clinically relevant outcomes for patients. A larger sample size with a control group is required to confirm the significance of these findings.

  19. High intensity training improves exercise performance in elite women volleyball players during a competitive season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purkhús, Elisabeth; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2016-01-01

    Elite women volleyball players (n=25; age; 19±5 yrs, height; 171±7 cm, weight; 63±10 kg; means±SD) volunteered to participate in the study. They were randomized into a high intensity training group (HIT; n=13) and a control group (CON; n=12). In addition to the normal team training and games, HIT...... women volleyball players....

  20. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Hannan AL

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Amanda L Hannan,1 Wayne Hing,1 Vini Simas,1 Mike Climstein,2,3 Jeff S Coombes,4 Rohan Jayasinghe,5–7 Joshua Byrnes,8 James Furness1 1Faculty of Health Sciences & Medicine, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 2Exercise Health and Performance Faculty Research Group, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Water Based Research Unit, Bond University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 4School of Human Movement and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 5Cardiology Department, Gold Coast University Hospital, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 6Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 7Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 8Centre for Applied Health Economics, School of Medicine, Griffith University, Logan, QLD, Australia Background: Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. Objective: We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. Methods: A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Results: Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465

  1. High-intensity interval training and hyperoxia during chemotherapy: A case report about the feasibility, safety and physical functioning in a colorectal cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Nils; Weber, Pia Deborah; Sanders, Tanja Christiane; Schulz, Holger; Bloch, Wilhelm; Schumann, Moritz

    2018-06-01

    We conducted a case study to examine the feasibility and safety of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with increased inspired oxygen content in a colon cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy. A secondary purpose was to investigate the effects of such training regimen on physical functioning. A female patient (51 years; 49.1 kg; 1.65 m; tumor stage: pT3, pN2a (5/29), pM1a (HEP), L0, V0, R0) performed 8 sessions of HIIT (5 × 3 minutes at 90% of Wmax, separated by 2 minutes at 45% Wmax) with an increased inspired oxygen fraction of 30%. Patient safety, training adherence, cardiorespiratory fitness (peak oxygen uptake and maximal power output during an incremental cycle ergometer test), autonomous nervous function (i.e., heart rate variability during an orthostatic test) as well as questionnaire-assessed quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) were evaluated before and after the intervention.No adverse events were reported throughout the training intervention and a 3 months follow-up. While the patient attended all sessions, adherence to total training time was only 51% (102 of 200 minutes; mean training time per session 12:44 min:sec). VO2peak and Wmax increased by 13% (from 23.0 to 26.1 mL min kg) and 21% (from 83 to 100 W), respectively. Heart rate variability represented by the root mean squares of successive differences both in supine and upright positions were increased after the training by 143 and 100%, respectively. The EORTC QLQ-C30 score for physical functioning (7.5%) as well as the global health score (10.7%) improved, while social function decreased (17%). Our results show that a already short period of HIIT with concomitant hyperoxia was safe and feasible for a patient undergoing chemotherapy for colon cancer. Furthermore, the low overall training adherence of only 51% and an overall low training time per session (∼13 minutes) was sufficient to induce clinically meaningful improvements in physical functioning. However, this case also

  2. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osawa Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Osawa,1,2,* Koichiro Azuma,3,* Shogo Tabata,3 Fuminori Katsukawa,2 Hiroyuki Ishida,2 Yuko Oguma,2 Toshihide Kawai,4 Hiroshi Itoh,4 Shigeo Okuda,5 Hideo Matsumoto3 1Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Sports Medicine Research Center, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan *Yusuke Osawa and Koichiro Azuma are co-first authors of this article Abstract: It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC and arm-cranking (AC ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7 and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5 twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05. The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05. In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of

  3. Is Home-Based, High-Intensity Interval Training Cycling Feasible and Safe for Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis?: Study Protocol for a Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Grigg, Josephine; Vertullo, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease affecting the knee joint of many middle-aged and older adults. As OA symptoms typically involve knee pain and stiffness, individuals with knee OA are often insufficiently physically active, have low levels of physical function, and are at increased risk of other comorbidities and reduced quality of life. While moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) cycling is often recommended, little is known about the feasibility, safety, and benefits of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) cycling for this population, even though the feasibility, safety, and benefits of HIIT have been demonstrated in other chronic disease groups. The primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and safety of home-based HIIT and MICT cycling in middle-aged and older adults with knee OA. A secondary objective was to gain some insight into the relative efficacy of HIIT and MICT for improving health status (pain, stiffness, and disability), muscle function, and body composition in this population. This study protocol is being published separately to allow a detailed description of the research methods, explain the rationale for choosing the methodological details, and to stimulate consideration of the best means to simulate a research protocol that is relevant to a real-life treatment environment. Randomized pilot study protocol. This trial sought to recruit 40 middle-aged and older adults with knee OA. Participants were randomly allocated to either continuous (MICT) or HIIT home-based cycle training programs, with both programs requiring the performance of 4 cycling sessions (approximately 25 minutes per session) each week. Participants were measured at baseline and postintervention (8 weeks). Feasibility and safety were assessed by adherence rate, dropout rate, and number of adverse events. The relative efficacy of the cycling programs was investigated by 2 knee OA health status questionnaires (Western Ontario

  4. Iron, Hematological Parameters and Blood Plasma Lipid Profile in Vitamin D Supplemented and Non-Supplemented Young Soccer Players Subjected to High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Kaczmarczyk, Mariusz; Suárez, Arturo Diaz; Sánchez, Guillermo Felipe López; Jastrzebska, Joanna; Radziminski, Lukasz; Jastrzebski, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and anemia. Vitamin D-related changes in lipid profile have been studied extensively but the relationship between vitamin D and lipid metabolism is not completely understood. As both vitamin D and intermittent training may potentially affect iron and lipid metabolism, the aim of the study was to evaluate whether a daily supplementation of vitamin D can modulate the response of hematological and lipid parameters to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in soccer players. Thirty-six young elite junior soccer players were included in the placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Participants were non-randomly allocated into either a supplemented group (SG, n=20, HIIT and 5,000 IU of vitamin D daily) or placebo group (PG, n=16, HIIT and sunflower oil). Hematological parameters were ascertained before and after the 8-wk training. The change score (post- and pre-training difference) was calculated for each individual and the mean change score (MCS) was compared between SG and PG using the t test and analysis of covariance. There were no differences between SG and PG at baseline. The red and white cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCHC, ferritin, and HDL-cholesterol changed significantly over the 8-wk HIIT. However, no significant differences in MCS were observed between SG and PG for any variable. A daily vitamin D supplement did not have any impact on alteration in hematological or lipid parameters in young soccer players in the course of high-intensity interval training.

  5. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Continuous Exercise Training on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Koldobika Villelabeitia; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Bautista, Lorena Ruiz; de la Peña, Cesar Hernández; Gómez, María José Arriaza; Rueda, María José Calero; Fernández Mahillo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training has beneficial health effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on moderate continuous training (MCT); however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has significantly better results in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MCT versus HIIT on functional capacity and quality of life and to assess safety. Seventy-two patients with ischemic heart disease were assigned to either HIIT or MCT for 8 weeks. We analyzed cardiopulmonary exercise test data, quality of life, and adverse events. High-intensity interval training resulted in a significantly greater increase in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak (4.5 ± 4.7 mL·kg·min) compared with MCT (2.5 ± 3.6 mL·kg·min) (P HIIT and 14% in MCT. Furthermore, there was a significant (P HIIT group (49.6 ± 6.3 m) when compared with the MCT group (29.6 ± 12.0 m). Both training protocols improved quality of life. No adverse events were reported in either of the groups. On the basis of the results of this study, HIIT should be considered for use in cardiac rehabilitation as it resulted in a greater increase in functional capacity compared with MCT. We also observed greater improvement in quality of life without any increase in cardiovascular risk.

  6. Study protocol for the FITR Heart Study: Feasibility, safety, adherence, and efficacy of high intensity interval training in a hospital-initiated rehabilitation program for coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jenna; Keating, Shelley E; Leveritt, Michael D; Holland, David J; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Coombes, Jeff S

    2017-12-01

    For decades, moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) has been the cornerstone of exercise prescription for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). High intensity interval training (HIIT) is now recognized in CR exercise guidelines as an appropriate and efficient modality for improving cardiorespiratory fitness, a strong predictor of mortality. However, the clinical application of HIIT in a real world CR setting, in terms of feasibility, safety, and long-term adherence, needs further investigation to address ongoing reservations. Furthermore, studies using objective measures of exercise intensity (such as heart rate; HR) have produced variable outcomes. Therefore we propose investigating the use of subjective measures (such as rating of perceived exertion (RPE)) for prescribing exercise intensity. One hundred adults with coronary artery disease (CAD) attending a hospital-initiated CR program will be randomized to 1) HIIT: 4 × 4 min high intensity intervals at 15-18 RPE interspersed with 3-min active recovery periods or 2) MICT: usual care exercise including 40 min continuous exercise at a moderate intensity corresponding to 11-13 RPE. Primary outcome is change in exercise capacity (peak VO 2 ) following 4 weeks of exercise training. Secondary outcome measures are: feasibility, safety, exercise adherence, body composition, vascular function, inflammatory markers, intrahepatic lipid, energy intake, and dietary behavior over 12-months; and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) following 12 weeks of exercise training. This study aims to address the ongoing concerns regarding the practicality and safety of HIIT in CR programs. We anticipate study findings will lead to the development of a standardized protocol to facilitate CR programs to incorporate HIIT as a standard exercise option for appropriate patients.

  7. Multimodal Therapy Involving High-Intensity Interval Training Improves the Physical Fitness, Motor Skills, Social Behavior, and Quality of Life of Boys With ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meßler, Carolin Friederike; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Sperlich, Billy

    2018-06-01

    To compare the effects of multimodal therapy including supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with those of standard multimodal therapy (TRAD) concerning key variables of physical fitness (peak power and oxygen uptake), motor skills, social behavior, and quality of life in boys with ADHD. A single-center, two-arm randomized, controlled design was used, with 28 boys (8-13 years of age, IQ = 83-136) being randomly assigned to multimodal HIIT (three sessions/week, 4 × 4-min intervals at 95% of peak heart rate) or TRAD. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children II evaluated motor skills and the German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for external evaluation by the guardians (FBB-HKS) or German version of the hyperkinetic disorder questionnaire for self-assessment by the children (SBB-HKS) and the KINDL-R questionnaires mental health and health-related quality of life. Both interventions enhanced peak power, and HIIT also reduced submaximal oxygen uptake. HIIT was more effective than TRAD in improving the total score for motor skills (including manual dexterity and ball skills; p HIIT improved physical fitness, motor skills, certain aspects of quality of life, competence, and attention in boys with ADHD.

  8. The Effect of 12 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on Homocysteine and CRP Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Composition in Overweight Men

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    Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: High levels of homocysteine inflammatory markers and C-Reactive Protein (CRP cause many complications, including atherosclerosis, venous thrombosis, and cardiovascular problems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12-weekHigh Intensity Interval Training (HIIT on homocysteine, CRP, and body composition in overweight men. Materials & Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 students of Kashan University of Medical Sciences with a body mass index between 25 and 30 kg/m2, were purposefully selected and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. The experimental group had practiced in the HIIT program with the intensity of up to 90 percent of maximum heart rate for 12 weeks. Before and after exercise, the amount of homocysteine, CRP, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio were calculated. The data were analyzed by using dependent and independent t-test at a significance level of P<0.05. Results: The results showed that12 weeks of HIIT had significant effects on reducing serum levels of homocysteine and HSCRP, body weight, body fat percentage, BMI, and WHR in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05. Conclusion: It seems that 12 weeks of intense interval training as a non-invasive method can have a positive effect on reducing the amount of homocysteine, HS-CRP, and some anthropometric indexes of obesity and overweight.

  9. Prevalence of Non-responders for Glucose Control Markers after 10 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Adult Women with Higher and Lower Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise training improves performance and biochemical parameters on average, but wide interindividual variability exists, with individuals classified as responders (R or non-responders (NRs, especially between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance. This study assessed the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and the prevalence of NRs in adult women with higher and lower levels of insulin resistance.Methods: Forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; n = 20 and a group with lower insulin resistance (L-IR, 35 ± 9 years; 27.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2; n = 20. Anthropometric, cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance variables were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training.Results: There were significant training-induced changes [delta percent (Δ%] in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR scores in the H-IR group (−8.8, −26.5, −32.1%, p < 0.0001, whereas no significant changes were observed in the L-IR. Both groups showed significant pre-post changes in other anthropometric variables [waist circumference (−5.2, p < 0.010, and −3.8%, p = 0.046 and tricipital (−13.3, p < 0.010, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, supra-iliac (−19.4, p < 0.0001, and −13.6%, p < 0.0001, and abdominal (−18.2, p < 0.0001, and −15.6%, p < 0.010 skinfold measurements]. Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in the L-IR group (−3.2%, p < 0.010. Both groups showed significant increases in 1RMLE (+12.9, p < 0.010, and +14.7%, p = 0.045. There were significant differences in the prevalence of NRs between the H-IR and L-IR groups for fasting glucose (25 vs. 95%, p < 0.0001 and fasting insulin (p = 0.025 but not for HOMA-IR (25 vs. 45%, p = 0.185.Conclusion: Independent of the “magnitude” of the

  10. EFFECT OF IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED COLD WATER IMMERSION AFTER A HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE SESSION ON SUBSEQUENT RUN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Brophy-Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON, CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0 or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3. Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT. Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0 compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8, while differences between the CWI(3 and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5. Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0 and CWI(3 trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3. Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0 and CWI(3 on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0 resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3. CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0 (p = 0.0.36 and CWI(3 (p = 0.045, but were similar for CON (p = 0.157. Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10, while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0 (p = 0.002 and CWI(3 (p = 0.024. Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0 resulted in better performance than CWI(3. These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise

  11. Design features and performance of the LAMPF high-intensity beam area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, L.; Grisham, D.; Macek, R.J.; Sommer, W.F.; Werbeck, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    LAMPF is a multi-purpose high-intensity meson factory capable of producing a 1 mA beam of 800-MeV protons. The three target cells and the beam stop facilities in the high intensity area have many special design features that are required for operation in the presence of high heat loads and intense radiation fields where accessibility is extremely limited. Reliable targets, beam windows, beam stops, beam transport and diagnostic components, vacuum enclosures, and auxiliary systems have been developed. Sophisticated remote-handling systems are employed for maintenance. Complex protection systems have been developed to guard against damage caused by errant beam. Beam availability approaching 90% has been achieved at currents of 600 to 700 μA. A new facility for direct proton and neutron radiation effects studies will be installed in 1985. The new facility will provide an integrated spallation neutron flux of up to 5 x 10 17 m -2 s -1 and will anable proton irradiation studies in the primary beam

  12. Effects of a high-intensity interval training program versus a moderate-intensity continuous training program on maximal oxygen uptake and blood pressure in healthy adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda Serna, Víctor Hugo; Arango Vélez, Elkin Fernando; Gómez Arias, Rubén Darío; Feito, Yuri

    2016-08-18

    Participation in aerobic exercise generates increased cardiorespiratory fitness, which results in a protective factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. High-intensity interval training might cause higher increases in cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison with moderate-intensity continuous training; nevertheless, current evidence is not conclusive. To our knowledge, this is the first study to test the effect of high-intensity interval training with total load duration of 7.5 min per session. A randomized controlled trial will be performed on two groups of healthy, sedentary male volunteers (n = 44). The study protocol will include 24 exercise sessions, three times a week, including aerobic training on a treadmill and strength training exercises. The intervention group will perform 15 bouts of 30 s, each at an intensity between 90 % and 95 % of maximal heart rate. The control group will complete 40 min of continuous exercise, ranging between 65 % and 75 % of maximal heart rate. The primary outcome measure to be evaluated will be maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure will be evaluated as secondary outcome measures. Waist circumference, body mass index, and body composition will also be evaluated. Epidemiological evidence shows the link between VO2max and its association with chronic conditions that trigger CVD. Therefore, finding ways to improve VO2max and reduce blood pressure it is of vital importance to public health. NCT02288403 . Registered on 4 November 2014.

  13. Treating fructose-induced metabolic changes in mice with high-intensity interval training: insights in the liver, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Bargut, Thereza L; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2017-10-01

    Fructose-rich caloric sweeteners induce adverse changes in the metabolism of humans. The study evaluated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on a fructose feeding model, focusing on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), skeletal muscle, and their interplay. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed for 18 wk one of the following diets: control (C; 5% of total energy from fructose) or fructose (F; 55% of total energy from fructose). In the 10th week, for an additional 8-wk period, the groups were divided into nontrained (NT) or HIIT groups, totaling four groups: C-NT, C-HIIT, F-NT, and F-HIIT. At the end of the experiment, fructose consumption in the F-NT group led to a high systolic blood pressure, high plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance with glucose intolerance, and lower insulin sensitivity. We also observed liver steatosis, adipocyte hypertrophy, and diminished gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α and fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5; irisin) in this F-NT group. These results were accompanied by decreased gene expressions of nuclear respiratory factor 1 and mitochondrial transcription factor A (markers of mitochondrial biogenesis), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (markers of β-oxidation). HIIT improved all of these data in the C-HIIT and F-HIIT groups. In conclusion, in mice fed a fructose diet, HIIT improved body mass, blood pressure, glucose metabolism, and plasma triglycerides. Liver, WAT, and skeletal muscle were positively modulated by HIIT, indicating HIIT as a coadjutant treatment for diseases affecting these tissues. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in mice fed a fructose-rich diet and the resulting severe negative effect on the liver, white adipose tissue (WAT), and skeletal muscle, which reduced the expression of fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5, irisin) and

  14. Is high-intensity interval cycling feasible and more beneficial than continuous cycling for knee osteoarthritic patients? Results of a randomised control feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W; Grigg, Josephine; Vertullo, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients often suffer joint pain and stiffness, which contributes to negative changes in body composition, strength, physical performance (function), physical activity and health-related quality of life. To reduce these symptoms and side effects of knee OA, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) cycling is often recommended. While resistance training is considered the optimal form of training to improve sarcopenic outcomes, it imposes higher joint loads and requires supervision, either initially or continuously by trained exercise professionals. Therefore, this pilot study sought to gain some insight into the feasibility and potential benefits of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) cycling as an alternative exercise option to MICT cycling for individuals with knee OA. Twenty-seven middle-aged and older adults with knee OA were randomly allocated to either MICT or HIIT, with both programs involving four unsupervised home-based cycling sessions (∼25 min per session) each week for eight weeks. Feasibility was assessed by enrolment rate, withdrawal rate, exercise adherence and number of adverse effects. Efficacy was assessed by health-related quality of life (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Lequesne index), physical function (Timed Up and Go (TUG), Sit to Stand (STS) and preferred gait speed) and body composition (body mass, BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass). Twenty-seven of the interested 50 potential participants (54%) enrolled in the study, with 17 of the 27 participants completing the trial (withdrawal rate of 37%); with the primary withdrawal reasons being unrelated injuries or illness or family related issues. Of the 17 participants who completed the trial, exercise adherence was very high (HIIT 94%; MICT 88%). While only three individuals (one in the MICT and two in the HIIT group) reported adverse events, a total of 28 adverse events were reported, with 24 of these

  15. Is high-intensity interval cycling feasible and more beneficial than continuous cycling for knee osteoarthritic patients? Results of a randomised control feasibility trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin W. Keogh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA patients often suffer joint pain and stiffness, which contributes to negative changes in body composition, strength, physical performance (function, physical activity and health-related quality of life. To reduce these symptoms and side effects of knee OA, moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT cycling is often recommended. While resistance training is considered the optimal form of training to improve sarcopenic outcomes, it imposes higher joint loads and requires supervision, either initially or continuously by trained exercise professionals. Therefore, this pilot study sought to gain some insight into the feasibility and potential benefits of high-intensity interval training (HIIT cycling as an alternative exercise option to MICT cycling for individuals with knee OA. Methods Twenty-seven middle-aged and older adults with knee OA were randomly allocated to either MICT or HIIT, with both programs involving four unsupervised home-based cycling sessions (∼25 min per session each week for eight weeks. Feasibility was assessed by enrolment rate, withdrawal rate, exercise adherence and number of adverse effects. Efficacy was assessed by health-related quality of life (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Lequesne index, physical function (Timed Up and Go (TUG, Sit to Stand (STS and preferred gait speed and body composition (body mass, BMI, body fat percentage and muscle mass. Results Twenty-seven of the interested 50 potential participants (54% enrolled in the study, with 17 of the 27 participants completing the trial (withdrawal rate of 37%; with the primary withdrawal reasons being unrelated injuries or illness or family related issues. Of the 17 participants who completed the trial, exercise adherence was very high (HIIT 94%; MICT 88%. While only three individuals (one in the MICT and two in the HIIT group reported adverse events, a total of 28 adverse events were

  16. High Intensity Interval Training Increases Natural Killer Cell Number and Function in Obese Breast Cancer-challenged Mice and Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Nicole G; Fan, Isabella Y; Gillen, Jenna B; Chew, Marianne; Marcinko, Katarina; Steinberg, Gregory R; Gibala, Martin J; Ashkar, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) boosts natural killer (NK) cell number and activity in normal weight breast cancer patients; however, whether this occurs in obese individuals is not well established. The goal of this study was to determine whether HIIT effectively boosts NK cells as a therapeutic strategy against breast cancer in an obese mouse model and in overweight/obese women. Diet induced female C57Bl/6 obese mice were assigned to undergo HIIT for four weeks or remain sedentary. Female participants were subjected to a six weeks HIIT protocol. HIIT mice acclimatized to treadmill running were subsequently injected with 5 × 10 5 polyoma middle T (MT) breast cancer cells intravenously. NK cell number and activation were monitored using flow cytometry, and tumor burden or lipid content evaluated from histological lung and liver tissues, respectively. In both mice and humans, circulating NK cell number and activation (CD3-NK1.1+CD27+ and CD3-CD56+, respectively) markedly increased immediately after HIIT. HIIT obese mice had reduced lung tumor burden compared to controls following MT challenge, and had diminished hepatic lipid deposition despite minimal body weight loss. Our findings demonstrate that HIIT can benefit obese individuals by enhancing NK cell number and activity, reducing tumor burden, and enhancing metabolic health.

  17. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Patrick S; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  18. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F.; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Methods: Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Results: Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P balance in sedentary ageing men. PMID:28178145

  19. Impact of a 12-week high-intensity interval training without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile in sedentary healthy overweight/obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammassi, Marwa; Ouerghi, Nejmeddine; Hadj-Taieb, Sameh; Feki, Moncef; Thivel, David; Bouassida, Anissa

    2018-02-01

    Although High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has shown its effectiveness in improving body composition, cardio-respiratory fitness and lipid profile in obese adults, evidences remain limited in overweight/obese youth. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of a 12-week HIIT program without caloric restriction on body composition and lipid profile among young overweight/obese men. Twenty healthy obese youth were randomly allocated into two groups; experimental group (HIIT) and control group. The HIIT program consisted in 3 exercises sessions per week (30 sec of work at 100% maximal aerobic velocity [MAV]) interspersed by 30 sec of active recovery at 50% MAV, starting by 15 repetitions to reach 27 by the end of the program. Aerobic capacity (MAV and maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max]), body composition (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and fat mass percent) and lipid profile (triglycerides [TG] and total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL] and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) were determined before and after the HIIT program. Following 12 weeks of HIIT, WC, BMI ( P HIIT group, only. Total cholesterol ( P HIIT group, while LDL and HDL cholesterol levels remained unchanged in both groups. HIIT may be particularly useful in overweight/obese youth to improve body composition, aerobic fitness and lipid profile.

  20. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Sam O.; Wilson, Oliver J.; Adlan, Ahmed M.; Wagenmakers, Anton J. M.; Shaw, Christopher S.; Lord, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years) healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate) or MICT (70% maximum heart rate) group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak), neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function. PMID:28656073

  1. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Tucker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max, versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max and sedentary behaviour (SED, in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p=0.001, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.028, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.045. Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p=0.035, reduced plasma LDL (p=0.001, triglycerides (p=0.029, and total cholesterol (p=0.002, increased plasma albumin (p=0.047, reduced remnant kidney weight (p=0.005, and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p=0.048. These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  2. One session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) every 5 days, improves muscle power but not static balance in lifelong sedentary ageing men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Herbert, Peter; Grace, Fergal

    2017-02-01

    Declining muscle power during advancing age predicts falls and loss of independence. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) may improve muscle power, but remains largely unstudied in ageing participants. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the efficacy of a low-frequency HIIT (LfHIIT) intervention on peak muscle power (peak power output [PPO]), body composition, and balance in lifelong sedentary but otherwise healthy males. Thirty-three lifelong sedentary ageing men were randomly assigned to either intervention (INT; n = 22, age 62.3 ± 4.1 years) or control (n = 11, age 61.6 ± 5.0 years) who were both assessed at 3 distinct measurement points (phase A), after 6 weeks of conditioning exercise (phase B), and after 6 weeks of HIIT once every 5 days in INT (phase C), where control remained inactive throughout the study. Static balance remained unaffected, and both absolute and relative PPO were not different between groups at phases A or B, but increased significantly in INT after LfHIIT (P < 0.01). Lean body mass displayed a significant interaction (P < 0.01) due to an increase in INT between phases B and C (P < 0.05). 6 weeks of LfHIIT exercise feasible and effective method to induce clinically relevant improvements in absolute and relative PPO, but does not improve static balance in sedentary ageing men.

  3. Neutrophil and Monocyte Bactericidal Responses to 10 Weeks of Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval or Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training in Sedentary Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David B. Bartlett

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutrophils and monocytes are key components of the innate immune system that undergo age-associated declines in function. This study compared the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on immune function in sedentary adults. Twenty-seven (43 ± 11 years healthy sedentary adults were randomized into ten weeks of either a HIIT (>90% maximum heart rate or MICT (70% maximum heart rate group training program. Aerobic capacity (VO2peak, neutrophil and monocyte bacterial phagocytosis and oxidative burst, cell surface receptor expression, and systemic inflammation were measured before and after the training. Total exercise time commitment was 57% less for HIIT compared to that for MICT while both significantly improved VO2peak similarly. Neutrophil phagocytosis and oxidative burst and monocyte phagocytosis and percentage of monocytes producing an oxidative burst were improved by training similarly in both groups. Expression of monocyte but not neutrophil CD16, TLR2, and TLR4 was reduced by training similarly in both groups. No differences in systemic inflammation were observed for training; however, leptin was reduced in the MICT group only. With similar immune-enhancing effects for HIIT compared to those for MICT at 50% of the time commitment, our results support HIIT as a time efficient exercise option to improve neutrophil and monocyte function.

  4. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Huang, Guoyuan; McCormick, Bryan P; Song, Tao; Xu, Xiangfeng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  5. The effect on glycaemic control of low-volume high-intensity interval training versus endurance training in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, Kamilla M; Munch, Gregers W; Iepsen, Ulrik W; Van Hall, Gerrit; Pedersen, Bente K; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with a lower time commitment can be as effective as endurance training (END) on glycaemic control, physical fitness and body composition in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A total of 29 individuals with type 2 diabetes were allocated to control (CON; no training), END or HIIT groups. Training groups received 3 training sessions per week consisting of either 40 minutes of cycling at 50% of peak workload (END) or 10 1-minute intervals at 95% of peak workload interspersed with 1 minute of active recovery (HIIT). Glycaemic control (HbA1c, oral glucose tolerance test, 3-hour mixed meal tolerance test with double tracer technique and continuous glucose monitoring [CGM]), lipolysis, VO 2 peak and body composition were evaluated before and after 11 weeks of intervention. Exercise training increased VO 2 peak more in the HIIT group (20% ± 20%) compared with the END group (8% ± 9%) despite lower total energy expenditure and time usage during the training sessions. HIIT decreased whole body and android fat mass compared with the CON group. In addition, visceral fat mass, HbA1c, fasting glucose, postprandial glucose, glycaemic variability and HOMA-IR decreased after HIIT. The reduced postprandial glucose in the HIIT group was driven primarily by a lower rate of exogenous glucose appearance. In the CON group, postprandial lipolysis was augmented over the 11-week control period. Despite a ~45% lower training volume, HIIT resulted in similar or even better improvements in physical fitness, body composition and glycemic control compared to END. HIIT therefore appears to be an important time-efficient treatment for individuals with type 2 diabetes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. High Intensity Interval- vs Resistance or Combined- Training for Improving Cardiometabolic Health in Overweight Adults (Cardiometabolic HIIT-RT Study): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Hernandez, Alejandra; Castro, Karem; Tordecilla-Sanders, Alejandra; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2016-06-24

    Although evidence shows the positive health effects of physical activity, most of the adult population in Colombia are sedentary. It is, therefore, important to implement strategies that generate changes in lifestyle behaviours. This protocol describes a study in which we will compare the effects of 12 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT), resistance training (RT) or combined training (HIIT + RT) on the improvement of body composition, endothelial function, blood pressure, blood lipids, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a cohort of sedentary, overweight adults (aged 30-50 years). Sixty sedentary, overweight adults attending primary care in Bogotá, Colombia will be included in a factorial randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomly assigned to the following intervention groups: (1) non-exercise group: usual care with dietary support, (2) HIIT group: 4 × 4-min intervals at 85-95 % maximum heart rate (HRmax) (with the target zone maintained for at least 2 minutes), interspersed with a 4-min recovery period, at 65 % HRmax, (3) RT group: completing a resistance circuit (including upper and lower muscle groups) as many times as needed according to subject's weight until an expenditure of 500 kcal at 40-80 % of one-rep max (1RM) has been achieved, and (4) combined group: HIIT + RT. The primary end point for effectiveness is vascular function as measured by flow-mediated vasodilatation 1 week after the end of exercise training. The results of this study will provide new information about the possible effect of the programme in improving the cardiometabolic health of overweight adults, making a more efficient use of an adult's resources over time. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02715063 . Registered on 8 March 2016.

  7. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Simas, Vini; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua; Furness, James

    2018-01-01

    Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465 for HIIT and 488 for MICT) were included in the analysis. HIIT was significantly superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness overall (SMD 0.34 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.2-0.48]; p HIIT intervention (n=9). However, some adverse events (n=5) were not classified by intervention group. HIIT is superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness in participants of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness are significant for CR programs of >6-week duration. Programs of 7-12 weeks' duration resulted in the largest improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness for patients with coronary artery disease. HIIT appears to be as safe as MICT for CR participants.

  8. High-intensity interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training within cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Amanda L; Hing, Wayne; Simas, Vini; Climstein, Mike; Coombes, Jeff S; Jayasinghe, Rohan; Byrnes, Joshua; Furness, James

    2018-01-01

    Background Aerobic capacity has been shown to be inversely proportionate to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity and there is growing evidence that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) appears to be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving cardiorespiratory fitness within the cardiac population. Previously published systematic reviews in cardiovascular disease have neither investigated the effect that the number of weeks of intervention has on cardiorespiratory fitness changes, nor have adverse events been collated. Objective We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) within the cardiac population that investigated cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT and to collate adverse events. Methods A critical narrative synthesis and meta-analysis was conducted after systematically searching relevant databases up to July 2017. We searched for RCTs that compared cardiorespiratory fitness changes resulting from HIIT versus MICT interventions within the cardiac population. Results Seventeen studies, involving 953 participants (465 for HIIT and 488 for MICT) were included in the analysis. HIIT was significantly superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness overall (SMD 0.34 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.2–0.48]; pHIIT intervention (n=9). However, some adverse events (n=5) were not classified by intervention group. Conclusion HIIT is superior to MICT in improving cardiorespiratory fitness in participants of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness are significant for CR programs of >6-week duration. Programs of 7–12 weeks’ duration resulted in the largest improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness for patients with coronary artery disease. HIIT appears to be as safe as MICT for CR participants. PMID:29416382

  9. Effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training on cardiovascular disease risk in testicular cancer survivors: A phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Scott C; DeLorey, Darren S; Davenport, Margie H; Stickland, Michael K; Fairey, Adrian S; North, Scott; Szczotka, Alexander; Courneya, Kerry S

    2017-10-15

    Testicular cancer survivors (TCS) have an increased risk of treatment-related cardiovascular disease (CVD), which may limit their overall survival. We evaluated the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) on traditional and novel CVD risk factors and surrogate markers of mortality in a population-based sample of TCS. This phase 2 trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02459132) randomly assigned 63 TCS to usual care (UC) or 12 weeks of supervised HIIT (ie, alternating periods of vigorous-intensity and light-intensity aerobic exercise). The primary outcome was peak aerobic fitness (VO 2peak ) assessed via a treadmill-based maximal cardiorespiratory exercise test. Secondary endpoints included CVD risk (eg, Framingham Risk Score), arterial health, parasympathetic nervous system function, and blood-based biomarkers. Postintervention VO 2peak data were obtained for 61 participants (97%). HIIT participants attended 99% of the exercise sessions and achieved 98% of the target exercise intensity. Analysis of covariance demonstrated that HIIT was superior to UC for improving VO 2peak (adjusted between-group mean difference, 3.7 mL O 2 /kg/min; 95% confidence interval, 2.4-5.1 [PHIIT reduced the prevalence of modifiable CVD risk factors by 20% compared with UC. This randomized trial provides the first evidence that HIIT improves cardiorespiratory fitness, multiple pathways of CVD risk, and surrogate markers of mortality in TCS. These findings have important implications for the management of TCS. Further research concerning the long-term effects of HIIT on CVD morbidity and mortality in TCS is warranted. Cancer 2017;123:4057-65. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  10. Effect of Novel, School-Based High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) on Cardiometabolic Health in Adolescents: Project FFAB (Fun Fast Activity Blasts) - An Exploratory Controlled Before-And-After Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kathryn L; Azevedo, Liane B; Bock, Susan; Weston, Matthew; George, Keith P; Batterham, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training holds promise for cardiometabolic health promotion in adolescents, but sustainable interventions must be practical and engaging. We examined the effect of a school-based multi-activity low-volume high-intensity interval training intervention on adolescents' cardiometabolic health. In an exploratory controlled before-and-after design, 101 adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years) were recruited from four schools; two were designated as intervention sites (n = 41), and two as control (n = 60). The intervention comprised 4 to 7 repetitions of 45 s maximal effort exercise (basketball, boxing, dance and soccer drills) interspersed with 90-s rest, thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Outcomes were non-fasting blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, resting blood pressure, physical activity, twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The difference in the change from baseline (intervention minus control) was estimated for each outcome. Using magnitude-based inferences, we calculated the probability that the true population effect was beneficial, trivial, and harmful against a threshold for the minimum clinically important difference of 0.2 between-subject SDs. Mean (± SD) attendance for the intervention (expressed as percentage of available intervention sessions [n = 30]) was 77 ± 13%. Post-intervention, there were likely beneficial effects for triglycerides (-26%; 90% confidence interval -46% to 0%), waist circumference (-3.9 cm; -6.1 cm to -1.6 cm) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+16 min; -5 to 38 min), and a possibly beneficial effect for twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance (+5 shuttles; -1 to 11 shuttles) in intervention participants (vs controls). The role of elevated triglycerides and waist circumference in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome development underlines the importance of our

  11. Effect of Novel, School-Based High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT on Cardiometabolic Health in Adolescents: Project FFAB (Fun Fast Activity Blasts - An Exploratory Controlled Before-And-After Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn L Weston

    Full Text Available Low-volume high-intensity interval training holds promise for cardiometabolic health promotion in adolescents, but sustainable interventions must be practical and engaging. We examined the effect of a school-based multi-activity low-volume high-intensity interval training intervention on adolescents' cardiometabolic health.In an exploratory controlled before-and-after design, 101 adolescents (mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 14.0 ± 0.3 years were recruited from four schools; two were designated as intervention sites (n = 41, and two as control (n = 60. The intervention comprised 4 to 7 repetitions of 45 s maximal effort exercise (basketball, boxing, dance and soccer drills interspersed with 90-s rest, thrice weekly for 10 weeks. Outcomes were non-fasting blood lipids and glucose, waist circumference, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, resting blood pressure, physical activity, twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance and carotid artery intima-media thickness. The difference in the change from baseline (intervention minus control was estimated for each outcome. Using magnitude-based inferences, we calculated the probability that the true population effect was beneficial, trivial, and harmful against a threshold for the minimum clinically important difference of 0.2 between-subject SDs.Mean (± SD attendance for the intervention (expressed as percentage of available intervention sessions [n = 30] was 77 ± 13%. Post-intervention, there were likely beneficial effects for triglycerides (-26%; 90% confidence interval -46% to 0%, waist circumference (-3.9 cm; -6.1 cm to -1.6 cm and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (+16 min; -5 to 38 min, and a possibly beneficial effect for twenty-metre shuttle-run test performance (+5 shuttles; -1 to 11 shuttles in intervention participants (vs controls. The role of elevated triglycerides and waist circumference in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome development underlines the importance of our

  12. [Performance enhancement by carbohydrate intake during sport: effects of carbohydrates during and after high-intensity exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beelen, Milou; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous carbohydrate availability does not provide sufficient energy for prolonged moderate to high-intensity exercise. Carbohydrate ingestion during high-intensity exercise can therefore enhance performance.- For exercise lasting 1 to 2.5 hours, athletes are advised to ingest 30-60 g of carbohydrates per hour.- Well-trained endurance athletes competing for longer than 2.5 hours at high intensity can metabolise up to 90 g of carbohydrates per hour, provided that a mixture of glucose and fructose is ingested.- Athletes participating in intermittent or team sports are advised to follow the same strategies but the timing of carbohydrate intake depends on the type of sport.- If top performance is required again within 24 hours after strenuous exercise, the advice is to supplement endogenous carbohydrate supplies quickly within the first few hours post-exercise by ingesting large amounts of carbohydrate (1.2 g/kg/h) or a lower amount of carbohydrate (0.8 g/kg/h) with a small amount of protein (0.2-0.4 g/kg/h).

  13. Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular fatigue and performance during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirmaul, Bruno P C; de Moraes, Antonio Carlos; Angius, Luca; Marcora, Samuele M

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effects of caffeine on performance, neuromuscular fatigue and perception of effort during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. Seven adult male participants firstly underwent an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer in conditions of acute normobaric hypoxia (fraction inspired oxygen = 0.15) to establish peak power output (PPO). In the following two visits, they performed a time to exhaustion test (78 ± 3% PPO) in the same hypoxic conditions after caffeine ingestion (4 mg kg -1 ) and one after placebo ingestion in a double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design. Caffeine significantly improved time to exhaustion by 12%. A significant decrease in subjective fatigue was found after caffeine consumption. Perception of effort and surface electromyographic signal amplitude of the vastus lateralis were lower and heart rate was higher in the caffeine condition when compared to placebo. However, caffeine did not reduce the peripheral and central fatigue induced by high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. The caffeine-induced improvement in time to exhaustion during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia seems to be mediated by a reduction in perception of effort, which occurs despite no reduction in neuromuscular fatigue.

  14. Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.

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    Youqing Shen

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI to mild-intensity endurance training (ME, combined with a high-fat diet (HFD or control diet (CD on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11, CD and ME (CME, n = 8, CD and HI (CHI, n = 8, HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10, HFD and ME (HME, n = 8, and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8. All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers. The HFD led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P 0.06, as well as higher corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.09 compared with the CD groups. Exercise training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.123. Furthermore, body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P < 0.05 were lower with HI training compared to ME training. Reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME. Correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P < 0.01. Corticosterone level was inversely correlated with QUICKI (r = -0.38, P < 0.01. Altogether, these results indicate that HFD may elicit an exacerbated basal serum corticosterone level and thus producing a metabolic imbalance. Compared with ME training, HI training contributes to greater improvements in metabolic and corticosterone responses, leading to a greater reduction in susceptibility to HFD-induced disorders.

  15. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

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    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  16. Relationship between TCF7L2 Relative Expression in Pancreas Tissue with Changes in Insulin by High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT in Type 2 Diabetes Rats

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    Mojtaba Eizadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D. The objectives of the present study were: 1 to investigate the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT on fasting glucose, insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissue of T2D rats, 2 to determine the relation between TCF7L2 expression with insulin changes in the HIIT and control groups. Methods: In the present applied-experimental study, T2D male Wistar rats induced by intraperitoneal streptozotocin-nicotinamide were assigned to control (no-training and HIIT (5 times/week/12-week groups. Fasting glucose, serum insulin and TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues of both groups were measured after lasted exercise and compared between 2 groups by independent T test. Also, the relation between TCF7L2 expression and insulin of HIIT to the control group was assessed by Pearson correlations. Results: The HIIT training in the training group was associated with improved fasting glucose compared with the control group (P<0.001. A significant increase was observed in serum insulin levels (P< 0.001. Also, there was seen a significant decrease in TCF7L2 expression in pancreas tissues in HIIT group compared with the control group (P= 0.038. Significant negative correlation was found between TCF7L2 expression and insulin changes of the HIIT to control groups (r=0.84, P=0.034. conclusion: HIIT training is associated with improvements in glycemic control and insulin secretion in T2D rats. Based on these data, this improvement can be attributed to decrease in TCF7L2 expression at pancreas tissues by HIIT training.

  17. Lifelong exercise, but not short-term high-intensity interval training, increases GDF11, a marker of successful aging: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Bradley T; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M; Stratton, Daniel; Hayes, Lawrence D

    2017-07-01

    Lifelong exercise is associated with regulation of skeletal mass and function, reductions in frailty, and successful aging. Yet, the influence of exercise on myostatin and myostatin-interacting factors is relatively under examined in older males. Therefore, we investigated whether serum total myostatin, free myostatin, follistatin, and growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) were altered following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in a group of 13 lifelong sedentary (SED; 64 [6] years) and 11 lifelong exercising (LEX; 62 [6] years) older males. SED follistatin was moderately greater than LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.66), and was largely greater post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 1.22). The HIIT-induced increase in follistatin was large in SED (Cohen's d  = 0.82) and absent in LEX (Cohen's d  = 0.03). GDF11 was higher in LEX pre-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.49) and post-HIIT (Cohen's d  = 0.63) compared to SED HIIT resulted in no change to GDF11 in LEX or SED (Cohen's d  = 0.00-0.03). Peak power output and GDF11 were correlated ( r  = 0.603), independent of grouping. Differences in GDF11 with lifelong exercise training, paired with the correlation between GDF11 and peak power output, suggested that GDF11 may be a relevant myostatin-interacting peptide to successful aging in humans, and strategies to maintain this need to be further explored. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Energy expenditure and EPOC between water-based high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training sessions in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Zaccaria; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Praia, Aline Borges de Carvalho; Alberton, Cristine Lima

    2018-02-05

    The present study compared the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two water aerobics protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT). A crossover randomized design was employed comprising 11 healthy young women. HIIT consisted of eight 20s bouts at 130% of the cadence associated with the maximal oxygen consumption (measured in the aquatic environment) with 10s passive rest. CONT corresponded to 30 min at a heart rate equivalent to 90-95% of the second ventilatory threshold. EE was measured during and 30 min before and after the protocols and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated. Total EE during session was higher in CONT (227.62 ± 31.69 kcal) compared to HIIT (39.91 ± 4.24 kcal), while EE per minute was greater in HIIT (9.98 ± 1.06 kcal) than in CONT (7.58 ± 1.07 kcal). Post-exercise EE (64.48 ± 3.50 vs. 63.65 ± 10.39 kcal) and EPOC (22.53 ± 4.98 vs.22.10 ± 8.00 kcal) were not different between HIIT and CONT, respectively. Additionally, oxygen uptake had already returned to baseline fifteen minutes post-exercise. These suggest that a water aerobics CONT session results in post-exercise EE and EPOC comparable to HIIT despite the latter supramaximal nature. Still, CONT results in higher total EE.

  19. Acute High-intensity Interval Exercise-induced Redox Signaling is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-aged Men.

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    Lewan Parker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and ageing are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK, and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods. Participants completed a 2 hour hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 minutes after HIIE (4x4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods, separated by 1-3 weeks. Results. Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SAPK phosphorylation (JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB and SOD activity (p<0.05. Conclusion. These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 hours after HIIE.

  20. High-intensity interval training beneficial effects on body mass, blood pressure, and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Marcel; Bringhenti, Isabele; Souza-Mello, Vanessa; Dos Santos Mendes, Iara Karise; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2015-10-15

    To investigate the possible beneficial effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on skeletal muscle oxidative stress, body mass (BM) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in ovariectomized mice fed or not fed a high-fat diet. Three-month-old female C57BL/6 mice were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX group) or submitted to surgical stress without ovariectomy (SHAM group) and separated into standard chow (SHAM-SC; OVX-SC) and high-fat diet (SHAM-HF; OVX-HF) groups. After 13 weeks, an HIIT program (swimming) was carried out for 8 weeks in non-trained (NT) and trained (T) groups. The significant reduction of uterine mass and the cytological examination of vaginal smears in the OVX group confirmed that ovariectomy was successful. Before the HIIT protocol, the ovariectomized groups showed a greater BM than the SHAM group, irrespective of the diet they received. The HIIT minimized BM gain in animals fed an HF diet and/or ovariectomized. SBP and total cholesterol were increased in the OVX and HF animals compared to their counterparts, and the HIIT efficiently reduced these factors. In the HF and OVX mice, the muscular superoxide dismutase and catalase levels were low while their glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase levels were high and the HIIT normalized these parameters. Diet-induced obesity maximizes the deleterious effects of an ovariectomy. The HIIT protocol significantly reduced BM, SBP and oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle indicating that HIIT diminishes the cardiovascular and metabolic risk that is inherent to obesity and menopause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of combined high-intensity aerobic interval training program and Mediterranean diet recommendations after myocardial infarction (INTERFARCT Project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado-Martín, Sara; Jayo-Montoya, Jon Ander; Matajira-Chia, Tatiana; Villar-Zabala, Beatriz; Goiriena, Juan José; Aispuru, G Rodrigo

    2018-03-02

    Exercise therapy has long been used for rehabilitation purposes after myocardial infarction (MI) and the benefit of regular physical exercise is also well-established. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been proposed to be more effective than continuous exercise for improving exercise capacity and health-related adaptations to low-volume (LV) and HIIT are also known. Furthermore, the Mediterranean diet (Mediet) has been widely reported to be a model of healthy eating for its contribution to a favorable health status and a better quality of life, reducing overall mortality. This study will investigate the effects of different HIIT programs (high-volume [HV] vs LV) and Mediet recommendations in clinical condition, cardiorespiratory fitness, biomarkers, ventricular function, and perception of quality of life after MI, and compared to an attention control group that is recommended to Mediet and physical activity without supervision sessions. In this randomized controlled trial, cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometry, central and peripheral cardiovascular variables, biochemical and nutritional condition, and quality of life will be assessed before and after 16 weeks of intervention in 177 participants diagnosed with MI type 1. All participants will be randomly (1:1:1) assigned to the attention control group or two exercise groups (Mediet recommendations plus supervised aerobic exercise two days/week: (1) HV (40 min) HIIT group and (2) LV (20 min) HIIT group. This study will be the first clinical trial comparing the effects of two different volumes of HIIT programs with Mediet recommendations for people after MI. The results of this study will provide good evidence for physical rehabilitation in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02876952 . Registered on 24 August 2016.

  2. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic risk in overweight and obese African-American women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; McKenzie, Michael J; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in African-American (AA) women. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of HIIT and steady-state (SS) exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors in young AA women. A 16-week exercise intervention was conducted 3x/week. Twenty-seven AA women were randomized to SS (n = 11; 32 continuous minutes of treadmill walking at 60-70% of maximum heart rate (HR max )), or HIIT (n = 16; 32 min of treadmill HIIT alternating 3 min at 60-70% of HR max with 1 min at 80-90% of HR max ). Two-way repeated measures ANOVA with intention-to-treat analysis was used to identify changes between groups. Significance was accepted at P ≤ 0.05. Of the 27 women who entered the study (age: 30.5 ± 6.8 years; BMI: 35.1 ± 5.1 kg/m 2 ; 5274 ± 1646 baseline steps/day), 14 completed the intervention. HIIT significantly decreased waist circumference (107.0 ± 11.3 to 105.1 ± 11.9 cm) compared to SS, which showed no change. There was a significant time effect for steps where HIIT increased steps/day (5334 ± 1586 to 7604 ± 1817 steps/day), and SS had no change. There were no significant changes in either group for any other measurements. HIIT was more effective at reducing waist circumference and increasing daily steps/day than SS treadmill exercise over 16 weeks. Further research in a larger sample is indicated to evaluate the effects of each protocol on cardiometabolic risk factors.

  3. Long-term effects of high-intensity interval training in heart transplant recipients: A 5-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardley, Marianne; Gullestad, Lars; Bendz, Bjørn; Bjørkelund, Elisabeth; Rolid, Katrine; Arora, Satish; Nytrøen, Kari

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high-intensity interval training (HIT) is superior to moderate-continuous exercise in general and in cardiovascular diseases. Recently, we also found HIT safe and efficient after heart transplantation (HTx). This study reports the 5-year long-term effects. Forty-one HTx patients who had completed the previous 12-month randomized controlled trial, comparing HIT intervention with usual care, were eligible. In particular, we measured VO 2peak , muscular capacity, intravascular ultrasound, and questionnaires measuring physical and mental health. The baseline mean±SD values were as follows: age; 49.1±16.5 years, men; 68%, time since HTx: 4.1±2.2 years. Within the HIT group, initial VO 2peak increased significantly from 27.7±5.7 to 31.2±5.3 mL/kg/min. However, during the next 4 years, VO 2peak decreased to 26.0±6.2 mL/kg/min. The control group showed slightly decreasing VO 2peak values during the entire 5-year period. The HIT group reported significantly less anxiety symptoms, but there were no long-term differences in VO 2peak , muscular capacity, or cardiac allograft vasculopathy between the groups. The similar VO 2peak values correspond to our findings of similar everyday activity. Our findings suggest that intermittent periods of HIT may be necessary to maintain the initial benefits gained from the intervention. However, HIT probably reduces the burden of anxiety, which is a frequent health issue following HTx. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training versus Continuous Training on Physical Fitness, Cardiovascular Function and Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie M M Benda

    Full Text Available Physical fitness is an important prognostic factor in heart failure (HF. To improve fitness, different types of exercise have been explored, with recent focus on high-intensity interval training (HIT. We comprehensively compared effects of HIT versus continuous training (CT in HF patients NYHA II-III on physical fitness, cardiovascular function and structure, and quality of life, and hypothesize that HIT leads to superior improvements compared to CT.Twenty HF patients (male:female 19:1, 64±8 yrs, ejection fraction 38±6% were allocated to 12-weeks of HIT (10*1-minute at 90% maximal workload-alternated by 2.5 minutes at 30% maximal workload or CT (30 minutes at 60-75% of maximal workload. Before and after intervention, we examined physical fitness (incremental cycling test, cardiac function and structure (echocardiography, vascular function and structure (ultrasound and quality of life (SF-36, Minnesota living with HF questionnaire (MLHFQ.Training improved maximal workload, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak related to the predicted VO2peak, oxygen uptake at the anaerobic threshold, and maximal oxygen pulse (all P<0.05, whilst no differences were present between HIT and CT (N.S.. We found no major changes in resting cardiovascular function and structure. SF-36 physical function score improved after training (P<0.05, whilst SF-36 total score and MLHFQ did not change after training (N.S..Training induced significant improvements in parameters of physical fitness, although no evidence for superiority of HIT over CT was demonstrated. No major effect of training was found on cardiovascular structure and function or quality of life in HF patients NYHA II-III.Nederlands Trial Register NTR3671.

  5. A comparison of the health benefits of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) and moderate-intensity walking in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, José S; Songsorn, Preeyaphorn; Haggett, Malindi; Edmonds, Daniel; Robinson, Anthony M; Thompson, Dylan; Vollaard, Niels B J

    2017-02-01

    Reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) is a genuinely time-efficient intervention that can improve aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity in sedentary individuals. The present study compared the effects of REHIT and moderate-intensity walking on health markers in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in a counter-balanced crossover study. Sixteen men with T2D (mean ± SD age: 55 ± 5 years, body mass index: 30.6 ± 2.8 kg·m -2 , maximal aerobic capacity: 27 ± 4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) completed 8 weeks of REHIT (three 10-min low-intensity cycling sessions/week with two "all-out" 10-20-s sprints) and 8 weeks of moderate-intensity walking (five 30-min sessions/week at an intensity corresponding to 40%-55% of heart-rate reserve), with a 2-month wash-out period between interventions. Before and after each intervention, participants underwent an incremental fitness test, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), a whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, and continuous glucose monitoring. REHIT was associated with a significantly larger increase in maximal aerobic capacity compared with walking (7% vs. 1%; time × intervention interaction effect: p body composition. We conclude that REHIT is superior to a 5-fold larger volume of moderate-intensity walking in improving aerobic fitness, but similar to walking REHIT is not an effective intervention for improving insulin sensitivity or glycaemic control in T2D patients in the short term.

  6. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Filho, Dionizio; Chicaybam, Gustavo; de-Souza-Ferreira, Eduardo; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Galina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage) in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10) and HIIT (n=10, swimming training). We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast), gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow) and soleus (SOL-slow) muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS) activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P), pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate) approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH) was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  7. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionizio Ramos-Filho

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10 and HIIT (n=10, swimming training. We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast, gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow and soleus (SOL-slow muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P, pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  8. High-intensity Interval training enhances mobilization/functionality of endothelial progenitor cells and depressed shedding of vascular endothelial cells undergoing hypoxia.

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    Tsai, Hsing-Hua; Lin, Chin-Pu; Lin, Yi-Hui; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Wang, Jong-Shyan

    2016-12-01

    Exercise training improves endothelium-dependent vasodilation, whereas hypoxic stress causes vascular endothelial dysfunction. Monocyte-derived endothelial progenitor cells (Mon-EPCs) contribute to vascular repair process by differentiating into endothelial cells. This study investigates how high-intensity interval (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous (MCT) exercise training affect circulating Mon-EPC levels and EPC functionality under hypoxic condition. Sixty healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage in either HIT (3-min intervals at 40 and 80 % VO 2max for five repetitions, n = 20) or MCT (sustained 60 % VO 2max , n = 20) for 30 min/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL) that did not received exercise intervention (n = 20). Mon-EPC characteristics and EPC functionality under hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12 % O 2 ) were determined before and after HIT, MCT, and CTL. The results demonstrated that after the intervention, the HIT group exhibited larger improvements in VO 2peak , estimated peak cardiac output (Q C ), and estimated peak perfusions of frontal cerebral lobe (Q FC ) and vastus lateralis (Q VL ) than the MCT group. Furthermore, HIT (a) increased circulating CD14 ++ /CD16 - /CD34 + /KDR + (Mon-1 EPC) and CD14 ++ /CD16 + /CD34 + /KDR + (Mon-2 EPC) cell counts, (b) promoted the migration and tube formation of EPCs, (c) diminished the shedding of endothelial (CD34 - /KDR + /phosphatidylserine + ) cells, and (d) elevated plasma nitrite plus nitrate, stromal cell-derived factor-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and vascular endothelial growth factor-A concentrations at rest or following HE, compared to those of MCT. In addition, Mon-1 and -2 EPC counts were directly related to VO 2peak and estimated peak Q C , Q FC , and Q VL . HIT is superior to MCT for improving hemodynamic adaptation and Mon-EPC production. Moreover, HIT effectively enhances EPC functionality and suppresses endothelial injury undergoing hypoxia.

  9. High-Intensity Interval Training and Isocaloric Moderate-Intensity Continuous Training Result in Similar Improvements in Body Composition and Fitness in Obese Individuals.

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    Martins, Catia; Kazakova, Irina; Ludviksen, Marit; Mehus, Ingar; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bard; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of 12 weeks of isocaloric programs of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or a short-duration HIIT (1/2HIIT) inducing only half the energy deficit on a cycle ergometer, on body weight and composition, cardiovascular fitness, resting metabolism rate (RMR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), nonexercise physical activity (PA) levels and fasting and postprandial insulin response in sedentary obese individuals. Forty-six sedentary obese individuals (30 women), with a mean BMI of 33.3 ± 2.9 kg/m2 and a mean age of 34.4 ± 8.8 years were randomly assigned to one of the three training groups: HIIT (n = 16), MICT (n = 14) or 1/2HIIT (n = 16) and exercise was performed 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Overall, there was a significant reduction in body weight, waist (p fasting insulin or insulin sensitivity with exercise or between groups. There was a tendency for a reduction in AUC insulin with exercise (p = .069), but no differences between groups. These results indicate that isocaloric training protocols of HIIT or MICT (or 1/2HIIT inducing only half the energy deficit) exert similar metabolic and cardiovascular improvements in sedentary obese individuals.

  10. High Intensity Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wens, Inez; Dalgas, Ulrik; Vandenabeele, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Low-to-moderate intensity exercise improves muscle contractile properties and endurance capacity in multiple sclerosis (MS). The impact of high intensity exercise remains unknown. Methods Thirty-four MS patients were randomized into a sedentary control group (SED, n = 11) and 2...... exercise groups that performed 12 weeks of a high intensity interval (HITR, n = 12) or high intensity continuous cardiovascular training (HCTR, n = 11), both in combination with resistance training. M.vastus lateralis fiber cross sectional area (CSA) and proportion, knee-flexor/extensor strength, body...... composition, maximal endurance capacity and self-reported physical activity levels were assessed before and after 12 weeks. Results Compared to SED, 12 weeks of high intensity exercise increased mean fiber CSA (HITR: +21±7%, HCTR: +23±5%). Furthermore, fiber type I CSA increased in HCTR (+29±6%), whereas type...

  11. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

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    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  12. Effects of high-intensity interval training and moderate-intensity continuous training on endothelial function and cardiometabolic risk markers in obese adults.

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    Sawyer, Brandon J; Tucker, Wesley J; Bhammar, Dharini M; Ryder, Justin R; Sweazea, Karen L; Gaesser, Glenn A

    2016-07-01

    We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would be more effective than moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) at improving endothelial function and maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2 max) in obese adults. Eighteen participants [35.1 ± 8.1 (SD) yr; body mass index = 36.0 ± 5.0 kg/m(2)] were randomized to 8 wk (3 sessions/wk) of either HIIT [10 × 1 min, 90-95% maximum heart rate (HRmax), 1-min active recovery] or MICT (30 min, 70-75% HRmax). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) increased after HIIT (5.13 ± 2.80% vs. 8.98 ± 2.86%, P = 0.02) but not after MICT (5.23 ± 2.82% vs. 3.05 ± 2.76%, P = 0.16). Resting artery diameter increased after MICT (3.68 ± 0.58 mm vs. 3.86 ± 0.58 mm, P = 0.02) but not after HIIT (4.04 ± 0.70 mm vs. 4.09 ± 0.70 mm; P = 0.63). There was a significant (P = 0.02) group × time interaction in low flow-mediated constriction (L-FMC) between MICT (0.63 ± 2.00% vs. -2.79 ± 3.20%; P = 0.03) and HIIT (-1.04 ± 4.09% vs. 1.74 ± 3.46%; P = 0.29). V̇o2 max increased (P HIIT (2.19 ± 0.65 l/min vs. 2.64 ± 0.88 l/min) and MICT (2.24 ± 0.48 l/min vs. 2.55 ± 0.61 l/min). Biomarkers of cardiovascular risk and endothelial function were unchanged. HIIT and MICT produced different vascular adaptations in obese adults, with HIIT improving FMD and MICT increasing resting artery diameter and enhancing L-FMC. HIIT required 27.5% less total exercise time and ∼25% less energy expenditure than MICT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  13. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in sedentary aging men but not masters' athletes: an observational study.

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    Herbert, Peter; Hayes, Lawrence D; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the impact high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in active compared with sedentary aging men. 22 lifetime sedentary (SED; 62 ± 2 years) and 17 masters' athletes (LEX; 60 ± 5 years) were recruited to the study. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, the study required three assessment phases; enrollment (phase A), following preconditioning exercise (phase B), and post-HIIT (phase C). Serum IGF-I was determined by electrochemiluminescent immunoassay. IGF-I was higher in LEX compared to SED at baseline (p = 0.007, Cohen's d = 0.91), and phase B (p = 0.083, Cohen's d = 0.59), with only a small difference at C (p = 0.291, Cohen's d = 0.35). SED experienced a small increase in IGF-I following preconditioning from 13.1 ± 4.7 to 14.2 ± 6.0 μg·dl -1 (p = 0.376, Cohen's d = 0.22), followed by a larger increase post-HIIT (16.9 ± 4.4 μg·dl -1 ), which was significantly elevated compared with baseline (p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.85), and post-preconditioning (p = 0.005, Cohen's d = 0.51). LEX experienced a trivial changes in IGF-I from A to B (18.2 ± 6.4 to 17.2 ± 3.7 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.538, Cohen's d = 0.19]), and a small change post-HIIT (18.4 ± 4.1 μg·dl -1 [p = 0.283, Cohen's d = 0.31]). Small increases were observed in fat-free mass in both groups following HIIT (p HIIT with preconditioning exercise abrogates the age associated difference in IGF-I between SED and LEX, and induces small improvements in fat-free mass in both SED and LEX.

  14. Differential metabolic effects of constant moderate versus high intensity interval training in high-fat fed mice: possible role of muscle adiponectin.

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    Martinez-Huenchullan, Sergio F; Maharjan, Babu Raja; Williams, Paul F; Tam, Charmaine S; Mclennan, Susan V; Twigg, Stephen M

    2018-02-01

    Exercise regimens may have differing effects in the presence of obesity. In addition to being fat derived, adiponectin has recently been described as a myokine that regulates insulin sensitivity, which may link to exercise-related metabolic benefits in obesity. Whether skeletal muscle adiponectin varies in different exercise modalities is unclear. This study investigated the comparative effects of 10 weeks of endurance constant-moderate intensity exercise (END) with high intensity interval training (HIIT), on metabolic outcomes, including muscle adiponectin in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Ten-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) (45% FAT) or standard CHOW diet ab libitum and underwent one of three training regimes: (1) no exercise, (2) END, or (3) HIIT (8 bouts of 2.5 min with eight periods of rest of 2.5 min) for 10 weeks (3 × 40 min sessions/week). Chow-fed mice acted as controls. Compared with HFD alone, both training programs similarly protected against body weight gain (HFD = 45 ± 2; END = 37 ± 2; HIIT = 36 ± 2 g), preserved lean/fat tissue mass ratio (HFD = 0.64 ± 0.09; END = 0.34 ± 0.13; HIIT = 0.33 ± 0.13), and improved blood glucose excursion during an insulin tolerance test (HFD = 411 ± 54; END = 350 ± 57; HIIT = 320 ± 66 arbitrary units [AU]). Alterations in fasting glycemia, insulinemia, and AST/ALT ratios were prevented only by END. END, but not HIIT increased skeletal muscle adiponectin mRNA (14-fold; P HIIT induced a milder increase (2.4-fold). Compared with HFD, neither END nor HIIT altered circulating low (LMW) or high (HMW) molecular weight adiponectin forms. Furthermore, only END prevented the HFD downregulation of PGC1α (P < 0.05) mRNA levels downstream of muscle adiponectin. These data show that different training programs affect muscle adiponectin to differing degrees. Together these results suggest that END is a more effective regimen to prevent HFD

  15. Cardiometabolic risk markers, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aFABP) and the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in obese adolescents.

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    Blüher, Susann; Käpplinger, Jakob; Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Böttcher, Yvonne; Grimm, Andrea; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Petroff, David

    2017-03-01

    The impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) as well as the association between the adipocyte fatty binding protein (aFABP) and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight adolescents was investigated. Twenty-eight adolescents (13-18years; BMI≥90th percentile according to German reference values) were offered HIIT twice weekly for 6months. At baseline and after program completion, anthropometric, clinical and metabolic characteristics were assessed and a fasting blood sample was obtained. Leptin, adiponectin, visfatin and aFABP were measured using commercially available kits. DNA methylation at RALBP1 was assessed using pyrosequencing. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation and linear models were calculated. Mean age at start of the program was 15.5±1.4years (53.5% females) and 20/28 (71%) provided follow-up data. At baseline, aFABP was correlated with BMI-SDS (0.48 [0.13,0.72]; p=0.0095), waist-to-height-ratio (0.63 [0.33,0.81], p=0.00036) and body fat content (0.55 [0.21, 0.77]; p=0.0031). Certain markers of metabolic risk were significantly correlated with aFABP (HOMA-IR 0.52 [0.19, 0.75], p=0.0044; γGT 0.48 [0.13, 0.73], p=0.0091; uric acid 0.46 [0.11, 0.71] p=0.013; HDL-C -0.39 [-0.66, -0.01] p=0.043; triglycerides 0.38 [0.01, 0.66], p=0.047). With the exception of triglycerides, these associations vanished after adjusting for BMI-SDS. aFABP did not depend on sex, age or pubertal stage in obese adolescents. After the HIIT program, small but significant reductions were observed in waist-to-height-ratio, (0.013 [0.0025, 0.024]; p=0.023), skin-fold based body fat content (2.0% [0.6, 3.5]; p=0.011), and standard deviation score of systolic blood pressure (0.69 [0.26 to 1.1]; p=0.0036). No changes were observed in adipokines or epigenetic markers following the program. HIIT may have beneficial effects on body composition and cardiometabolic health in overweight adolescents. Like in adults, aFABP seems to be associated with markers of metabolic

  16. Superior Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training vs. Moderate Continuous Training on Arterial Stiffness in Episodic Migraine: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henner Hanssen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Migraine is associated with increased cardiovascular risk and vascular dysfunction. Since aerobic exercise can reduce cardiovascular risk, the present randomized controlled trail aimed at investigating the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIT vs. moderate continuous exercise training (MCT on arterial stiffness in migraine patients.Methods: Forty-eight episodic migraineurs were initially enrolled in the study. 37 patients [female: 30; age: 37 (SD: 10; BMI: 23.1 (5.2; Migraine days per month: 3.7 (2.5] completed the intervention. Central blood pressure, pulse wave reflection, and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV were obtained by an oscillometric monitor. Incremental treadmill exercise testing yielded maximal and submaximal fitness parameters. Participants were randomly assigned to either HIT, MCT, or a control group (CON. The intervention groups trained twice a week over a 12-week intervention period.Results: After adjustment for between-group baseline differences, a moderate meaningful overall reduction of the augmentation index at 75 min−1 heart rate (AIx@75 was observed [partial eta squared (ηp2 = 0.16; p = 0.06]. With 91% likely beneficial effects, HIT was more effective in reducing AIx@75 than MCT [HIT: pre 22.0 (9.7, post 14.9 (13.0, standardized mean difference (SMD = 0.62; MCT: pre 16.6 (8.5, post 21.3 (10.4, SMD −0.49]. HIT induced a relevant reduction in central systolic blood pressure [cSBP: pre 118 (23 mmHg, post 110 (16 mmHg, SMD = 0.42] with a 59% possibly beneficial effect compared to CON, while MCT showed larger effects in lowering central diastolic blood pressure [pre 78 (7 mmHg, post 74 (7 mmHg, SMD = 0.61], presenting 60% possibly beneficial effects compared to CON. Central aortic PWV showed no changes in any of the three groups. Migraine days were reduced more successfully by HIT than MCT (HIT: SMD = 1.05; MCT: SMD = 0.43.Conclusion: HIT but not MCT reduces AIx@75 as a measure of pulse wave

  17. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Fitness, Fat Mass and Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Children with Obesity: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

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    Dias, Katrin A; Ingul, Charlotte B; Tjønna, Arnt E; Keating, Shelley E; Gomersall, Sjaan R; Follestad, Turid; Hosseini, Mansoureh S; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M; Ro, Torstein B; Haram, Margrete; Huuse, Else Marie; Davies, Peter S W; Cain, Peter A; Leong, Gary M; Coombes, Jeff S

    2018-03-01

    Paediatric obesity significantly increases the risk of developing cardiometabolic diseases across the lifespan. Increasing cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) could mitigate this risk. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves CRF in clinical adult populations but the evidence in paediatric obesity is inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy of a 12-week, HIIT intervention for increasing CRF and reducing adiposity in children with obesity. Children with obesity (n = 99, 7-16 years old) were randomised into a 12-week intervention as follows: (1) HIIT [n = 33, 4 × 4-min bouts at 85-95% maximum heart rate (HR max ), interspersed with 3 min of active recovery at 50-70% HR max , 3 times/week] and nutrition advice; (2) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) [n = 32, 44 min at 60-70% HR max , 3 times/week] and nutrition advice; and (3) nutrition advice only (nutrition) [n = 34]. CRF was quantified through a maximal exercise test ([Formula: see text]) while adiposity was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air-displacement plethysmography. HIIT stimulated significant increases in relative [Formula: see text] compared with MICT (+3.6 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 1.1-6.0, P = 0.004) and the nutrition intervention (+5.4 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.9-7.9, P = 0.001). However, the intervention had no significant effect on visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, whole body composition or cardiometabolic biomarkers (P > 0.05). A 12-week, HIIT intervention was highly effective in increasing cardiorespiratory fitness when compared with MICT and nutrition interventions. While there were no concomitant reductions in adiposity or blood biomarkers, the cardiometabolic health benefit conferred through increased CRF should be noted. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01991106.

  18. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous moderate-intensity aerobic exercise on apoptosis, oxidative stress and metabolism of the infarcted myocardium in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Yang, Yuan; Hu, Dayi; Ding, Rongjing

    2015-08-01

    The optimal aerobic exercise training (AET) protocol for patients following myocardial infarction (MI) has remained under debate. The present study therefore aimed to compare the effects of continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) and high-intensity interval training (HIT) on cardiac functional recovery, and to investigate the potential associated mechanisms in a post-MI rat model. Female Sprague Dawley rats (8-10 weeks old) undergoing MI or sham surgery were subsequently submitted to CMT or HIT, or kept sedentary for eight weeks. Prior to and following AET, echocardiographic parameters and exercise capacity of the rats were measured. Western blotting was used to evaluate the levels of apoptosis and associated signaling pathway protein expression. The concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress were also determined by ELISA assay. Messenger (m)RNA levels and activity of the key enzymes for glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation, as well as the rate of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis, were also measured. Compared with the MI group, exercise capacity and cardiac function were significantly improved following AET, particularly following HIT. Left ventricular ejection fraction and fraction shortening were further improved in the MI-HIT group in comparison to that of the MI-CMT group. The two forms of AET almost equally attenuated apoptosis of the post-infarction myocardium. CMT and HIT also alleviated oxidative stress by decreasing the concentration of malondialdehyde and increasing the concentration of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). In particular, HIT induced a greater increase in the concentration of GPx than that of CMT. AET, and HIT in particular, significantly increased the levels of mRNA and the maximal activity of phosphofructokinase-1 and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1, as well as the maximal ratio of ATP synthesis. In addition, compared with the MI group, the expression of signaling proteins PI3K, Akt, p38mapk and AMPK

  19. Skeletal muscle and performance adaptations to high-intensity training in elite male soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransson, Dan; Nielsen, Tobias Schmidt; Olsson, Karl

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the skeletal muscle and performance responses across two different exercise training modalities which are highly applied in soccer training. METHODS: Using an RCT design, 39 well-trained male soccer players were randomized into either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 21...... pronouncedly than small-sided game training, but comparable responses were in muscle ion transporters and antioxidative capacity in well-trained male soccer players....

  20. Effectiveness of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIT) and Continuous Endurance Training for VO2max Improvements: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zoran; Sporiš, Goran; Weston, Matthew

    2015-10-01

    Enhancing cardiovascular fitness can lead to substantial health benefits. High-intensity interval training (HIT) is an efficient way to develop cardiovascular fitness, yet comparisons between this type of training and traditional endurance training are equivocal. Our objective was to meta-analyse the effects of endurance training and HIT on the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) of healthy, young to middle-aged adults. Six electronic databases were searched (MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, CINAHL and Google Scholar) for original research articles. A search was conducted and search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint interval training', 'endurance training', 'peak oxygen uptake', and 'VO2max'. Inclusion criteria were controlled trials, healthy adults aged 18-45 years, training duration ≥2 weeks, VO2max assessed pre- and post-training. Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. This resulted in 723 participants with a mean ± standard deviation (SD) age and initial fitness of 25.1 ± 5 years and 40.8 ± 7.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. We made probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects based on standardised thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject SDs for baseline VO2max. The meta-analysed effect of endurance training on VO2max was a possibly large beneficial effect (4.9 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); 95 % confidence limits ±1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), when compared with no-exercise controls. A possibly moderate additional increase was observed for typically younger subjects (2.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.1 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and interventions of longer duration (2.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±3.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and a small additional improvement for subjects with lower baseline fitness (1.4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); ±2.0 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)). When compared with no-exercise controls

  1. High-intensity stepwise conditioning programme for improved exercise responses and agility performance of a badminton player with knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bob; Mok, Damon; Lee, Winson C C; Lam, Wing Kai

    2015-02-01

    To examine the effect of a high-intensity stepwise conditioning programme combined with multiple recovery measures on physical fitness, agility, and knee pain symptoms of an injured player. A single case study. University-based conditioning training laboratory. One 26-year-old male world-class badminton player (height, 190.0 cm; weight, 79.3 kg; left dominant hand; playing experience, 16 years; former world champion) with patellar tendinosis and calcification of his left knee. The player received seven conditioning sessions over three weeks. During the programme, there was a gradual increase in training duration and load across sessions while cold therapy, manual stretches and massage were administered after each session to minimise inflammation. The training outcome was evaluated with three different testing methods: standard step test, badminton-specific agility test, and tension-pain rating. The conditioning programme reduced knee pain symptoms and improved actual performance and cardiopulmonary fitnes