WorldWideScience

Sample records for performing exponential flights

  1. Linear, Step by Step Managerial Performance, versus Exponential Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOLDOVEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the transition from the potential management concept, which its authors approached by determining its dimension (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009b, to the linear, step by step performance concept, as an objective result of management process. In this way, we “answer” the theorists and practitioners, who support exponential management performance. The authors, as detractors of the exponential performance, are influenced by the current crisis (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009a, by the lack of organizational excellence in many companies, particularly in Romanian ones and also reaching “the finality” in the evolved companies, developed into an uncontrollable speed.

  2. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi; Garcia, Daniel; Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  3. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Ghommem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  4. Enclosure enhancement of flight performance

    KAUST Repository

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2014-08-19

    We use a potential flow solver to investigate the aerodynamic aspects of flapping flights in enclosed spaces. The enclosure effects are simulated by the method of images. Our study complements previous aerodynamic analyses which considered only the near-ground flight. The present results show that flying in the proximity of an enclosure affects the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings in terms of lift and thrust generation and power consumption. It leads to higher flight efficiency and more than 5% increase of the generation of lift and thrust.

  5. Capital Flight and Economic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Beja, Edsel Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Capital flight aggravates resource constraints and contributes to undermine long-term economic growth. Counterfactual calculations on the Philippines suggest that capital flight contributed to lower the quality of long-term economic growth. Sustained capital flight over three decades means that capital flight had a role for the Philippines to lose the opportunities to achieve economic takeoff. Unless decisive policy actions are taken up to address enduring capital flight and manage the macroe...

  6. TRANSMUTED EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    MEROVCI, FATON

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we generalize the exponentiated exponential distribution using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw etal. [6] to develop a transmuted exponentiated exponential distribution. Theproperties of this distribution are derived and the estimation of the model parameters is discussed. An application to real data set are finally presented forillustration

  7. Flight performance of Galileo and Ulysses RTGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemler, R.J.; Kelly, C.E.

    1993-01-01

    Flight performance data of the GPHS-RTGs (General Purpose Heat Source---Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators) on the Galileo and Ulysses spacecraft are reported. Comparison of the flight data with analytical predictions is preformed. Differences between actual flight telemetry data and analytical predictions are addressed including the degree of uncertainty associated with the telemetry data. End of mission power level predictions are included for both missions with an overall assessment of RTG mission performances

  8. CHANGES IN FLIGHT TRAINEE PERFORMANCE FOLLOWING SYNTHETIC HELICOPTER FLIGHT TRAINING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARO, PAUL W., JR.; ISLEY, ROBERT N.

    A STUDY WAS CONDUCTED AT THE U.S. ARMY PRIMARY HELICOPTER SCHOOL, FORT WOLTERS, TEXAS, TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE USE OF A HELICOPTER TRAINING DEVICE WOULD IMPROVE STUDENT PERFORMANCE DURING SUBSEQUENT HELICOPTER CONTACT FLIGHT TRAINING. SUBJECTS WERE TWO EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TWO CONTROL GROUPS OF WARRANT OFFICER CANDIDATES ENROLLED FOR A…

  9. Motion of the two-control airplane in rectilinear flight after initial disturbances with introduction of controls following an exponential law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemin, Alexander

    1937-01-01

    An airplane in steady rectilinear flight was assumed to experience an initial disturbance in rolling or yawing velocity. The equations of motion were solved to see if it was possible to hasten recovery of a stable airplane or to secure recovery of an unstable airplane by the application of a single lateral control following an exponential law. The sample computations indicate that, for initial disturbances complex in character, it would be difficult to secure correlation with any type of exponential control. The possibility is visualized that the two-control operation may seriously impair the ability to hasten recovery or counteract instability.

  10. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  11. Web-based application on employee performance assessment using exponential comparison method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryana, S.; Kurnia, E.; Ruyani, A.

    2017-02-01

    Employee performance assessment is also called a performance review, performance evaluation, or assessment of employees, is an effort to assess the achievements of staffing performance with the aim to increase productivity of employees and companies. This application helps in the assessment of employee performance using five criteria: Presence, Quality of Work, Quantity of Work, Discipline, and Teamwork. The system uses the Exponential Comparative Method and Weighting Eckenrode. Calculation results using graphs were provided to see the assessment of each employee. Programming language used in this system is written in Notepad++ and MySQL database. The testing result on the system can be concluded that this application is correspond with the design and running properly. The test conducted is structural test, functional test, and validation, sensitivity analysis, and SUMI testing.

  12. Chapter 4: Exponential experiments on natural uranium graphite moderated systems. I: Performance and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Moore, P.G.F.; Richmond, R.

    1963-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used on the first BICEP stack for the performance and analysis of graphite exponential experiments. These differ in many respects from the methods formerly employed at A.E.R.E. The accuracy of the measurements has been increased, and the time taken to carry out and analyse an experiment has been reduced by approximately a factor of four. The following have contributed to the experimental work reported in this paper: J. R. Dyson, W. M. Holderay, R. M. Turner, S. D. R. Summers. (author)

  13. Morphing Flight Control Surface for Advanced Flight Performance, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a new Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) will be developed. The distinction of the research effort is that the SenAnTech team will employ...

  14. Filtering of Discrete-Time Switched Neural Networks Ensuring Exponential Dissipative and $l_{2}$ - $l_{\\infty }$ Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun Duck; Ahn, Choon Ki; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Lim, Myo Taeg

    2017-10-01

    This paper studies delay-dependent exponential dissipative and l 2 - l ∞ filtering problems for discrete-time switched neural networks (DSNNs) including time-delayed states. By introducing a novel discrete-time inequality, which is a discrete-time version of the continuous-time Wirtinger-type inequality, we establish new sets of linear matrix inequality (LMI) criteria such that discrete-time filtering error systems are exponentially stable with guaranteed performances in the exponential dissipative and l 2 - l ∞ senses. The design of the desired exponential dissipative and l 2 - l ∞ filters for DSNNs can be achieved by solving the proposed sets of LMI conditions. Via numerical simulation results, we show the validity of the desired discrete-time filter design approach.

  15. Both nursery and field performance determine suitable nitrogen supply of nursery-grown, exponentially fertilized Chinese pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiaxi Wang; Guolei Li; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Jiajia Liu; Wenhui Shi; Yong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Optimum fertilization levels are often determined solely from nursery growth responses. However, it is the performance of the seedling on the outplanting site that is the most important. For Pinus species seedlings, little information is known about the field performance of plants cultured with different nutrient rates, especially with exponential fertilization. In...

  16. Testing the count rate performance of the scintillation camera by exponential attenuation: Decaying source; Multiple filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.; Mena, I.

    1988-01-01

    An algorithm and two fortrAN programs have been developed to evaluate the count rate performance of scintillation cameras from count rates reduced exponentially, either by a decaying source or by filtration. The first method is used with short-lived radionuclides such as 191 /sup m/Ir or 191 /sup m/Au. The second implements a National Electrical Manufacturers' Association (NEMA) protocol in which the count rate from a source of 191 /sup m/Tc is attenuated by a varying number of copper filters stacked over it. The count rate at each data point is corrected for deadtime loss after assigning an arbitrary deadtime (tau). A second-order polynomial equation is fitted to the logarithms of net count rate values: ln(R) = A+BT+CT 2 where R is the net corrected count rate (cps), and T is the elapsed time (or the filter thickness in the NEMA method). Depending on C, tau is incremented or decremented iteratively, and the count rate corrections and curve fittings are repeated until C approaches zero, indicating a correct value of the deadtime (tau). The program then plots the measured count rate versus the corrected count rate values

  17. Morphing flight control surface for advanced flight performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrick, Matt; Kwak, Seung-Keon; Yoon, Hwan-Sik

    2006-03-01

    A novel Morphing Flight Control Surface (MFCS) system has been developed. The distinction of this research effort is that the SenAnTech team has incorporated our innovative Highly Deformable Mechanism (HDM) into our MFCS. The feasibility of this novel technology for deformable wing structures, such as airfoil shaping, warping or twisting with a flexure-based high displacement PZT actuator has been demonstrated via computational simulations such as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). CFD was implemented to verify the accuracy of the complex potential flow theory for this application. Then, complex potential flow theory, kinematics, geometry, and static force analysis were incorporated into a multidisciplinary GUI simulation tool. This tool has been used to aid the design of the MFCS. The results show that we can achieve up to five degrees of wing twisting with our proposed system, while using minimal volume within the wing and adding little weight.

  18. Poor flight performance in deep-diving cormorants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Takahashi, Akinori; Sato, Katsufumi; Viviant, Morgane; Bost, Charles-André

    2011-02-01

    Aerial flight and breath-hold diving present conflicting morphological and physiological demands, and hence diving seabirds capable of flight are expected to face evolutionary trade-offs regarding locomotory performances. We tested whether Kerguelen shags Phalacrocorax verrucosus, which are remarkable divers, have poor flight capability using newly developed tags that recorded their flight air speed (the first direct measurement for wild birds) with propeller sensors, flight duration, GPS position and depth during foraging trips. Flight air speed (mean 12.7 m s(-1)) was close to the speed that minimizes power requirement, rather than energy expenditure per distance, when existing aerodynamic models were applied. Flights were short (mean 92 s), with a mean summed duration of only 24 min day(-1). Shags sometimes stayed at the sea surface without diving between flights, even on the way back to the colony, and surface durations increased with the preceding flight durations; these observations suggest that shags rested after flights. Our results indicate that their flight performance is physiologically limited, presumably compromised by their great diving capability (max. depth 94 m, duration 306 s) through their morphological adaptations for diving, including large body mass (enabling a large oxygen store), small flight muscles (to allow for large leg muscles for underwater propulsion) and short wings (to decrease air volume in the feathers and hence buoyancy). The compromise between flight and diving, as well as the local bathymetry, shape the three-dimensional foraging range (<26 km horizontally, <94 m vertically) in this bottom-feeding cormorant.

  19. Performance Analysis of Binary Exponential Backoff and Improved Backoff for WPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mehta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.3 medium access control (MAC is proposed, especially, for wireless personal area network (WPAN short and high data rates applications, to coordinate the access to the wireless medium among the competing devices. A concept of a geometrically increasing probability distribution for contention process was brought up in the work of Tay et al. (2004. In this paper, we adopt this idea as improved backoff (IB for contention process of IEEE 802.15.3, where binary exponential backoff (BEB is originally used. Here, we propose an analytical model for IB and compared both BEB and IB for saturated and nonsaturated traffic conditions. Furthermore, our research results demonstrate that IB provides an edge over BEB in terms of channel efficiency, channel access delay, and energy efficiency.

  20. Evaluating Flight Crew Performance by a Bayesian Network Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flight crew performance is of great significance in keeping flights safe and sound. When evaluating the crew performance, quantitative detailed behavior information may not be available. The present paper introduces the Bayesian Network to perform flight crew performance evaluation, which permits the utilization of multidisciplinary sources of objective and subjective information, despite sparse behavioral data. In this paper, the causal factors are selected based on the analysis of 484 aviation accidents caused by human factors. Then, a network termed Flight Crew Performance Model is constructed. The Delphi technique helps to gather subjective data as a supplement to objective data from accident reports. The conditional probabilities are elicited by the leaky noisy MAX model. Two ways of inference for the BN—probability prediction and probabilistic diagnosis are used and some interesting conclusions are drawn, which could provide data support to make interventions for human error management in aviation safety.

  1. Human factors quantification via boundary identification of flight performance margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changpeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A systematic methodology including a computational pilot model and a pattern recognition method is presented to identify the boundary of the flight performance margin for quantifying the human factors. The pilot model is proposed to correlate a set of quantitative human factors which represent the attributes and characteristics of a group of pilots. Three information processing components which are influenced by human factors are modeled: information perception, decision making, and action execution. By treating the human factors as stochastic variables that follow appropriate probability density functions, the effects of human factors on flight performance can be investigated through Monte Carlo (MC simulation. Kernel density estimation algorithm is selected to find and rank the influential human factors. Subsequently, human factors are quantified through identifying the boundary of the flight performance margin by the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN classifier. Simulation-based analysis shows that flight performance can be dramatically improved with the quantitative human factors.

  2. Preliminary performance analysis of exponential experimental system for the determination of neutron effective multiplication factor of PWR spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Heesung; Lee, Sang-Yun; Ro, Seung-Gy; Seo, Gi-Seok; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2002-01-01

    An exponential experiment system which is composed of neutron detector, signal analysis system and neutron source, 10 mCi Cf-252 has been installed in the storage pool of PIEF at KAERI in order to experimentally determining neutron effective multiplication factors of PWR spent fuel assemblies. Preliminary functional characteristic tests of the experimental system are performed for C15, J14 and J44 assemblies loaded in the pool. As a result of preliminary tests, the average neutron counts obtained for 3 minutes in the plateau of the C15, J14 and J44 assemblies are about 1900, 3800 and 3200, respectively. A dip of the neutron flux density distribution is noticed in the spacer grid position. Neutron counts at those positions appear to be reduced to about 70 % in comparison to the fuel position. The measured axial neutron distribution shapes are compared with the result for the P14 assembly and Cs-137 gamma scanning data performed in KAERI. It is revealed that the spacer grid position measured is consistent with the design specifications within a 2.3 % error. The exponential decay constants for the C15 assembly were determined to be 0.152 and 0.165 for detector and source scanning, respectively. (author)

  3. Helicopter Pilot Performance for Discrete-maneuver Flight Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffley, R. K.; Bourne, S. M.; Hindson, W. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a current study of several basic helicopter flight maneuvers. The data base consists of in-flight measurements from instrumented helicopters using experienced pilots. The analysis technique is simple enough to apply without automatic data processing, and the results can be used to build quantitative matah models of the flight task and some aspects of the pilot control strategy. In addition to describing the performance measurement technqiue, some results are presented which define the aggressiveness and amplitude of maneuvering for several lateral maneuvers including turns and sidesteps.

  4. Performance evaluation and design of flight vehicle control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Falangas, Eric T

    2015-01-01

    This book will help students, control engineers and flight dynamics analysts to model and conduct sophisticated and systemic analyses of early flight vehicle designs controlled with multiple types of effectors and to design and evaluate new vehicle concepts in terms of satisfying mission and performance goals. Performance Evaluation and Design of Flight Vehicle Control Systems begins by creating a dynamic model of a generic flight vehicle that includes a range of elements from airplanes and launch vehicles to re-entry vehicles and spacecraft. The models may include dynamic effects dealing with structural flexibility, as well as dynamic coupling between structures and actuators, propellant sloshing, and aeroelasticity, and they are typically used for control analysis and design. The book shows how to efficiently combine different types of effectors together, such as aero-surfaces, TVC, throttling engines and RCS, to operate as a system by developing a mixing logic atrix. Methods of trimming a vehicle controll...

  5. Statistical inference for the lifetime performance index based on generalised order statistics from exponential distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vali Ahmadi, Mohammad; Doostparast, Mahdi; Ahmadi, Jafar

    2015-04-01

    In manufacturing industries, the lifetime of an item is usually characterised by a random variable X and considered to be satisfactory if X exceeds a given lower lifetime limit L. The probability of a satisfactory item is then ηL := P(X ≥ L), called conforming rate. In industrial companies, however, the lifetime performance index, proposed by Montgomery and denoted by CL, is widely used as a process capability index instead of the conforming rate. Assuming a parametric model for the random variable X, we show that there is a connection between the conforming rate and the lifetime performance index. Consequently, the statistical inferences about ηL and CL are equivalent. Hence, we restrict ourselves to statistical inference for CL based on generalised order statistics, which contains several ordered data models such as usual order statistics, progressively Type-II censored data and records. Various point and interval estimators for the parameter CL are obtained and optimal critical regions for the hypothesis testing problems concerning CL are proposed. Finally, two real data-sets on the lifetimes of insulating fluid and ball bearings, due to Nelson (1982) and Caroni (2002), respectively, and a simulated sample are analysed.

  6. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odorico, D' P.; Alberti, E.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption

  7. Effects of Reynold's number on flight performance of turbofan engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozu, Masao; Yajima, Satoshi [Defense Agency Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-12-10

    Concerning the performance of the F3-30 turbofan engine which is carried on the intermediate trainer XT-4 of the Air Self Defense Force, tests simulating its flight conditions were conducted at the Altitude Test Facility (ATF) of the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), U.S. Air Force in order to adjust the effect of Reynold's number corresponding to the flight condition. This report summarizes the results of the above tests. As the results of the tests, it was revealed that in order to calculate with precision the flight performance of the F3-30 turbofan engine, it was required to adjust Reynold's number against the following figures, namely the fan air flow, compressor air flow, compressor adiabatic efficiency, low pressure turbine gas flow and low pressure turbine adiabatic efficiency. The engine performance calculated by using the above adjustments agreed well with the measured values of the ATF tests. 7 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Bird or bat: comparing airframe design and flight performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedenstroem, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer; Spedding, Geoffrey R

    2009-01-01

    Birds and bats have evolved powered flight independently, which makes a comparison of evolutionary 'design' solutions potentially interesting. In this paper we highlight similarities and differences with respect to flight characteristics, including morphology, flight kinematics, aerodynamics, energetics and flight performance. Birds' size range is 0.002-15 kg and bats' size range is 0.002-1.5 kg. The wingbeat kinematics differ between birds and bats, which is mainly due to the different flexing of the wing during the upstroke and constraints by having a wing of feathers and a skin membrane, respectively. Aerodynamically, bats appear to generate a more complex wake than birds. Bats may be more closely adapted for slow maneuvering flight than birds, as required by their aerial hawking foraging habits. The metabolic rate and power required to fly are similar among birds and bats. Both groups share many characteristics associated with flight, such as for example low amounts of DNA in cells, the ability to accumulate fat as fuel for hibernation and migration, and parallel habitat-related wing shape adaptations

  9. Aging Enhances Indirect Flight Muscle Fiber Performance yet Decreases Flight Ability in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark S.; Lekkas, Panagiotis; Braddock, Joan M.; Farman, Gerrie P.; Ballif, Bryan A.; Irving, Thomas C.; Maughan, David W.; Vigoreaux, Jim O. (IIT); (Vermont)

    2008-10-02

    We investigated the effects of aging on Drosophila melanogaster indirect flight muscle from the whole organism to the actomyosin cross-bridge. Median-aged (49-day-old) flies were flight impaired, had normal myofilament number and packing, barely longer sarcomeres, and slight mitochondrial deterioration compared with young (3-day-old) flies. Old (56-day-old) flies were unable to beat their wings, had deteriorated ultrastructure with severe mitochondrial damage, and their skinned fibers failed to activate with calcium. Small-amplitude sinusoidal length perturbation analysis showed median-aged indirect flight muscle fibers developed greater than twice the isometric force and power output of young fibers, yet cross-bridge kinetics were similar. Large increases in elastic and viscous moduli amplitude under active, passive, and rigor conditions suggest that median-aged fibers become stiffer longitudinally. Small-angle x-ray diffraction indicates that myosin heads move increasingly toward the thin filament with age, accounting for the increased transverse stiffness via cross-bridge formation. We propose that the observed protein composition changes in the connecting filaments, which anchor the thick filaments to the Z-disk, produce compensatory increases in longitudinal stiffness, isometric tension, power and actomyosin interaction in aging indirect flight muscle. We also speculate that a lack of MgATP due to damaged mitochondria accounts for the decreased flight performance.

  10. Joint statistics of partial sums of ordered exponential variates and performance of GSC RAKE receivers over rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik

    2011-08-01

    Spread spectrum receivers with generalized selection combining (GSC) RAKE reception were proposed and have been studied as alternatives to the classical two fundamental schemes: maximal ratio combining and selection combining because the number of diversity paths increases with the transmission bandwidth. Previous work on performance analyses of GSC RAKE receivers based on the signal to noise ratio focused on the development of methodologies to derive exact closed-form expressions for various performance measures. However, some open problems related to the performance evaluation of GSC RAKE receivers still remain to be solved such as the exact performance analysis of the capture probability and an exact assessment of the impact of self-interference on GSC RAKE receivers. The major difficulty in these problems is to derive some joint statistics of ordered exponential variates. With this motivation in mind, we capitalize in this paper on some new order statistics results to derive exact closed-form expressions for the capture probability and outage probability of GSC RAKE receivers subject to self-interference over independent and identically distributed Rayleigh fading channels, and compare it to that of partial RAKE receivers. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. PHARAO laser source flight model: Design and performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lévèque, T., E-mail: thomas.leveque@cnes.fr; Faure, B.; Esnault, F. X.; Delaroche, C.; Massonnet, D.; Grosjean, O.; Buffe, F.; Torresi, P. [Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales, 18 avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Bomer, T.; Pichon, A.; Béraud, P.; Lelay, J. P.; Thomin, S. [Sodern, 20 Avenue Descartes, 94451 Limeil-Brévannes (France); Laurent, Ph. [LNE-SYRTE, CNRS, UPMC, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l’Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we describe the design and the main performances of the PHARAO laser source flight model. PHARAO is a laser cooled cesium clock specially designed for operation in space and the laser source is one of the main sub-systems. The flight model presented in this work is the first remote-controlled laser system designed for spaceborne cold atom manipulation. The main challenges arise from mechanical compatibility with space constraints, which impose a high level of compactness, a low electric power consumption, a wide range of operating temperature, and a vacuum environment. We describe the main functions of the laser source and give an overview of the main technologies developed for this instrument. We present some results of the qualification process. The characteristics of the laser source flight model, and their impact on the clock performances, have been verified in operational conditions.

  12. Jump-Down Performance Alterations after Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, M. F.; Kofman, I. S.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Peters, B. T.; Miller, C. A.; Harm, D. L.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, changes to those strategies within a test session, and recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS: Seven astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high onto a force plate that measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Neuromuscular activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS: Postural settling time was significantly increased on the first postflight test session and many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which performance improvements could be attributed to adjustments in takeoff or landing strategy. Jump strategy changes were evident in reduced air time (time between takeoff and landing) and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. CONCLUSIONS: The test results revealed significant decrements

  13. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L

    2014-06-01

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack.

  14. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Hedrick, Tyson L; Mittal, Rajat

    2014-01-01

    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s −1 , respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack. (papers)

  15. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  16. APMS 3.0 Flight Analyst Guide: Aviation Performance Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Griff; Prothero, Gary; Romanowski, Timothy; Lynch, Robert; Lawrence, Robert; Rosenthal, Loren

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) is a method-embodied in software-that uses mathematical algorithms and related procedures to analyze digital flight data extracted from aircraft flight data recorders. APMS consists of an integrated set of tools used to perform two primary functions: a) Flight Data Importation b) Flight Data Analysis.

  17. In-flight performance optimization for rotorcraft with redundant controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Gurbuz Taha

    A conventional helicopter has limits on performance at high speeds because of the limitations of main rotor, such as compressibility issues on advancing side or stall issues on retreating side. Auxiliary lift and thrust components have been suggested to improve performance of the helicopter substantially by reducing the loading on the main rotor. Such a configuration is called the compound rotorcraft. Rotor speed can also be varied to improve helicopter performance. In addition to improved performance, compound rotorcraft and variable RPM can provide a much larger degree of control redundancy. This additional redundancy gives the opportunity to further enhance performance and handling qualities. A flight control system is designed to perform in-flight optimization of redundant control effectors on a compound rotorcraft in order to minimize power required and extend range. This "Fly to Optimal" (FTO) control law is tested in simulation using the GENHEL model. A model of the UH-60, a compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and vectored thrust ducted propeller (VTDP), and a generic compound version of the UH-60A with lifting wing and propeller were developed and tested in simulation. A model following dynamic inversion controller is implemented for inner loop control of roll, pitch, yaw, heave, and rotor RPM. An outer loop controller regulates airspeed and flight path during optimization. A Golden Section search method was used to find optimal rotor RPM on a conventional helicopter, where the single redundant control effector is rotor RPM. The FTO builds off of the Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) method of Gilyard by performing low frequency sweeps on a redundant control for a fixed wing aircraft. A method based on the APO method was used to optimize trim on a compound rotorcraft with several redundant control effectors. The controller can be used to optimize rotor RPM and compound control effectors through flight test or simulations in order to

  18. High performance real-time flight simulation at NASA Langley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1994-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be deterministic and be completed in as short a time as possible. This includes simulation mathematical model computational and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, personnel at NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to a standard input/output system to provide for high bandwidth, low latency data acquisition and distribution. The Computer Automated Measurement and Control technology (IEEE standard 595) was extended to meet the performance requirements for real-time simulation. This technology extension increased the effective bandwidth by a factor of ten and increased the performance of modules necessary for simulator communications. This technology is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications of this technology are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC have completed the development of the use of supercomputers for simulation mathematical model computational to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and the development of specialized software and hardware for the CAMAC simulator network. This work, coupled with the use of an open systems software architecture, has advanced the state of the art in real time flight simulation. The data acquisition technology innovation and experience with recent developments in this technology are described.

  19. Flight Performance of the Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Robert; DiNonno, John; Bodkin, Richard; Gsell, Valerie; Miller, Nathanael; Olds, Aaron; Bruce, Walter

    2013-01-01

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment 3 (IRVE-3) launched July 23, 2012, from NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) on a Black Brant XI suborbital sounding rocket and successfully performed its mission, demonstrating the survivability of a hypersonic inflatable aerodynamic decelerator (HIAD) in the reentry heating environment and also illustrating the effect of an offset center of gravity on the HIAD's lift-to-drag ratio. IRVE-3 was a follow-on to 2009's IRVE-II mission, which demonstrated exo-atmospheric inflation, reentry survivability - without significant heating - and the aerodynamic stability of a HIAD down to subsonic flight conditions. NASA Langley Research Center is leading the development of HIAD technology for use on future interplanetary and Earth reentry missions.

  20. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  1. Joint statistics of partial sums of ordered exponential variates and performance of GSC RAKE receivers over rayleigh fading channel

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sungsik; Hasna, Mazen Omar; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    -interference on GSC RAKE receivers. The major difficulty in these problems is to derive some joint statistics of ordered exponential variates. With this motivation in mind, we capitalize in this paper on some new order statistics results to derive exact closed

  2. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  3. Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 Post-Flight Navigation Performance Assessment Relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Robert S.; Holt, Greg N.; Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    This paper details the post-flight navigation performance assessment of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1). Results of each flight phase are presented: Ground Align, Ascent, Orbit, and Entry Descent and Landing. This study examines the on-board Kalman Filter uncertainty along with state deviations relative to the Best Estimated Trajectory (BET). Overall the results show that the Orion Navigation System performed as well or better than expected. Specifically, the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement availability was significantly better than anticipated at high altitudes. In addition, attitude estimation via processing GPS measurements along with Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) data performed very well and maintained good attitude throughout the mission.

  4. Habitability and Performance Issues for Long Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; McQuilkin, Meredith L.; Woolford, Barbara J.

    1997-01-01

    Advancing technology, coupled with the desire to explore space has resulted in increasingly longer manned space missions. Although the Long Duration Space Flights (LDSF) have provided a considerable amount of scientific research on human ability to function in extreme environments, findings indicate long duration missions take a toll on the individual, both physiologically and psychologically. These physiological and psychological issues manifest themselves in performance decrements; and could lead to serious errors endangering the mission, spacecraft and crew. The purpose of this paper is to document existing knowledge of the effects of LDSF on performance, habitability, and workload and to identify and assess potential tools designed to address these decrements as well as propose an implementation plan to address the habitability, performance and workload issues.

  5. VSB-30 sounding rocket: history of flight performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Jung

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The VSB-30 vehicle is a two-stage, unguided, rail launched sounding rocket, consisting of two solid propellant motors, payload, with recovery and service system. By the end of 2010, ten vehicles had already been launched, three from Brazil (Alcântara and seven from Sweden (Esrange. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the main characteristics of the first ten flights of the VSB-30, with emphasis on performance and trajectory data. The circular 3σ dispersion area for payload impact point has around 50 km of radius. In most launchings of such vehicle, the impact of the payload fell within 2 sigma. This provides the possibility for further studies to decrease the area of dispersion from the impact point.

  6. An exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2009-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the probabilistic evaluation of product life on the example of the exponential distribution. The exponential distribution is special one-parametric case of the weibull distribution.

  7. Effect of video-game experience and position of flight stick controller on simulated-flight performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bo-Keun; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Al-Qaisi, Saif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of video-game experience and flight-stick position on flying performance. The study divided participants into 2 groups; center- and side-stick groups, which were further divided into high and low level of video-game experience subgroups. The experiment consisted of 7 sessions of simulated flying, and in the last session, the flight stick controller was switched to the other position. Flight performance was measured in terms of the deviation of heading, altitude, and airspeed from their respective requirements. Participants with high experience in video games performed significantly better (p increase (0.78 %). However, after switching from a center- to a side-stick controller, performance scores decreased (4.8%).

  8. Combining control input with flight path data to evaluate pilot performance in transport aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbatson, Matt; Harris, Don; Huddlestone, John; Sears, Rodney

    2008-11-01

    When deriving an objective assessment of piloting performance from flight data records, it is common to employ metrics which purely evaluate errors in flight path parameters. The adequacy of pilot performance is evaluated from the flight path of the aircraft. However, in large jet transport aircraft these measures may be insensitive and require supplementing with frequency-based measures of control input parameters. Flight path and control input data were collected from pilots undertaking a jet transport aircraft conversion course during a series of symmetric and asymmetric approaches in a flight simulator. The flight path data were analyzed for deviations around the optimum flight path while flying an instrument landing approach. Manipulation of the flight controls was subject to analysis using a series of power spectral density measures. The flight path metrics showed no significant differences in performance between the symmetric and asymmetric approaches. However, control input frequency domain measures revealed that the pilots employed highly different control strategies in the pitch and yaw axes. The results demonstrate that to evaluate pilot performance fully in large aircraft, it is necessary to employ performance metrics targeted at both the outer control loop (flight path) and the inner control loop (flight control) parameters in parallel, evaluating both the product and process of a pilot's performance.

  9. Energy extraction from atmospheric turbulence to improve flight vehicle performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chinmay Karsandas

    Small 'bird-sized' Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have now become practical due to technological advances in embedded electronics, miniature sensors and actuators, and propulsion systems. Birds are known to take advantage of wind currents to conserve energy and fly long distances without flapping their wings. This dissertation explores the possibility of improving the performance of small UAVs by extracting the energy available in atmospheric turbulence. An aircraft can gain energy from vertical gusts by increasing its lift in regions of updraft and reducing its lift in downdrafts - a concept that has been known for decades. Starting with a simple model of a glider flying through a sinusoidal gust, a parametric optimization approach is used to compute the minimum gust amplitude and optimal control input required for the glider to sustain flight without losing energy. For small UAVs using optimal control inputs, sinusoidal gusts with amplitude of 10--15% of the cruise speed are sufficient to keep the aircraft aloft. The method is then modified and extended to include random gusts that are representative of natural turbulence. A procedure to design optimal control laws for energy extraction from realistic gust profiles is developed using a Genetic Algorithm (GA). A feedback control law is designed to perform well over a variety of random gusts, and not be tailored for one particular gust. A small UAV flying in vertical turbulence is shown to obtain average energy savings of 35--40% with the use of a simple control law. The design procedure is also extended to determine optimal control laws for sinusoidal as well as turbulent lateral gusts. The theoretical work is complemented by experimental validation using a small autonomous UAV. The development of a lightweight autopilot and UAV platform is presented. Flight test results show that active control of the lift of an autonomous glider resulted in approximately 46% average energy savings compared to glides with fixed

  10. Performance of active vibration control technology: the ACTEX flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, T. W.; Manning, R. A.; Qassim, K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper discusses the development and results of two intelligent structures space-flight experiments, each of which could affect architecture designs of future spacecraft. The first, the advanced controls technology experiment I (ACTEX I), is a variable stiffness tripod structure riding as a secondary payload on a classified spacecraft. It has been operating well past its expected life since becoming operational in 1996. Over 60 on-orbit experiments have been run on the ACTEX I flight experiment. These experiments form the basis for in-space controller design problems and for concluding lifetime/reliability data on the active control components. Transfer functions taken during the life of ACTEX I have shown consistent predictability and stability in structural behavior, including consistency with those measurements taken on the ground prior to a three year storage period and the launch event. ACTEX I can change its modal characteristics by employing its dynamic change mechanism that varies preloads in portions of its structure. Active control experiments have demonstrated maximum vibration reductions of 29 dB and 16 dB in the first two variable modes of the system, while operating over a remarkable on-orbit temperature range of -80 °C to 129 °C. The second experiment, ACTEX II, was successfully designed, ground-tested, and integrated on an experimental Department of Defense satellite prior to its loss during a launch vehicle failure in 1995. ACTEX II also had variable modal behavior by virtue of a two-axis gimbal and added challenges of structural flexibility by being a large deployable appendage. Although the loss of ACTEX II did not provide space environment experience, ground testing resulted in space qualifying the hardware and demonstrated 21 dB, 14 dB, and 8 dB reductions in amplitude of the first three primary structural modes. ACTEX II could use either active and/or passive techniques to affect vibration suppression. Both experiments trailblazed

  11. Enroute flight-path planning - Cooperative performance of flight crews and knowledge-based systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Galdes, Deb

    1989-01-01

    Interface design issues associated with the introduction of knowledge-based systems into the cockpit are discussed. Such issues include not only questions about display and control design, they also include deeper system design issues such as questions about the alternative roles and responsibilities of the flight crew and the computer system. In addition, the feasibility of using enroute flight path planning as a context for exploring such research questions is considered. In particular, the development of a prototyping shell that allows rapid design and study of alternative interfaces and system designs is discussed.

  12. Methodology for Evaluating the Simulator Flight Performance of Pilots

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The type of research that investigates operational tasks such as flying an aircraft or flight simulator is extremely useful to the Air Force's operational community because the results apply directly...

  13. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  14. Dynamics of exponential maps

    OpenAIRE

    Rempe, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    This thesis contains several new results about the dynamics of exponential maps $z\\mapsto \\exp(z)+\\kappa$. In particular, we prove that periodic external rays of exponential maps with nonescaping singular value always land. This is an analog of a theorem of Douady and Hubbard for polynomials. We also answer a question of Herman, Baker and Rippon by showing that the boundary of an unbounded exponential Siegel disk always contains the singular value. In addition to the presentation of new resul...

  15. Visual and flight performance recovery after PRK or LASIK in helicopter pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Pol, Corina; Greig, Joanna L; Estrada, Art; Bissette, Gina M; Bower, Kraig S

    2007-06-01

    Refractive surgery, specifically photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), is becoming more accepted in the military environment. Determination of the impact on visual performance in the more demanding aviation environment was the impetus for this study. A prospective evaluation of 20 Black Hawk pilots pre-surgically and at 1 wk, 1 mo, and 6 mo postsurgery was conducted to assess both PRK and LASIK visual and flight performance outcomes on the return of aviators to duty. Of 20 pilots, 19 returned to flight status at 1 mo after surgery; 1 PRK subject was delayed due to corneal haze and subjective visual symptoms. Improvements were seen under simulator night and night vision goggle flight after LASIK; no significant changes in flight performance were measured in the aircraft. Results indicated a significantly faster recovery of all visual performance outcomes 1 wk after LASIK vs. PRK, with no difference between procedures at 1 and 6 mo. Low contrast acuity and contrast sensitivity only weakly correlated to flight performance in the early post-operative period. Overall flight performance assessed in this study after PRK and LASIK was stable or improved from baseline, indicating a resilience of performance despite measured decrements in visual performance, especially in PRK. More visually demanding flight tasks may be impacted by subtle changes in visual performance. Contrast tests are more sensitive to the effects of refractive surgical intervention and may prove to be a better indicator of visual recovery for return to flight status.

  16. Intraindividual Variability in Basic Reaction Time Predicts Middle-Aged and Older Pilots’ Flight Simulator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Method. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40–69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Results. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%–12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. Discussion. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance. PMID:23052365

  17. Intraindividual variability in basic reaction time predicts middle-aged and older pilots' flight simulator performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Quinn; Taylor, Joy; Heraldez, Daniel; Noda, Art; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Yesavage, Jerome

    2013-07-01

    Intraindividual variability (IIV) is negatively associated with cognitive test performance and is positively associated with age and some neurological disorders. We aimed to extend these findings to a real-world task, flight simulator performance. We hypothesized that IIV predicts poorer initial flight performance and increased rate of decline in performance among middle-aged and older pilots. Two-hundred and thirty-six pilots (40-69 years) completed annual assessments comprising a cognitive battery and two 75-min simulated flights in a flight simulator. Basic and complex IIV composite variables were created from measures of basic reaction time and shifting and divided attention tasks. Flight simulator performance was characterized by an overall summary score and scores on communication, emergencies, approach, and traffic avoidance components. Although basic IIV did not predict rate of decline in flight performance, it had a negative association with initial performance for most flight measures. After taking into account processing speed, basic IIV explained an additional 8%-12% of the negative age effect on initial flight performance. IIV plays an important role in real-world tasks and is another aspect of cognition that underlies age-related differences in cognitive performance.

  18. Bayesian Exponential Smoothing.

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, C.S.; Snyder, R.D.; Shami, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a Bayesian version of the exponential smoothing method of forecasting is proposed. The approach is based on a state space model containing only a single source of error for each time interval. This model allows us to improve current practices surrounding exponential smoothing by providing both point predictions and measures of the uncertainty surrounding them.

  19. Flight delay performance at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Yablonsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main objective of this paper is to determine the annual cyclical flight delays at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Then using other data such as annual precipitation, passenger and aircraft traffic volumes and other factors, we attempted to correlate these factors with overall delays. These data could assist airport management in predicting periods of flight delay.Design/methodology/approach: Data were taken and analyzed from the data base “Research and Innovation Technology Administration” (RITA for the years 2005-2011 for Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. The data included 2.8 million flights originating and departing from this airport. Data were also gathered from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA showing precipitation. Additional data were gathered from the FAA regarding delay causes, number and types of delays and changes to the infrastructure of ATL airportFindings: There is a repeatable annual pattern of delays at ATL that can be modeled using delay data from the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. This pattern appears to be caused primarily by the frequency and amount of precipitation that falls at ATL and by the amount of flights that arrive and depart at ATL.Originality/value: This information could assist airport operations personnel, FAA air traffic controllers and airlines in anticipating and mitigating delays at specific times of the year.

  20. Exponential Cardassian universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daojun; Sun Changbo; Li Xinzhou

    2006-01-01

    The expectation of explaining cosmological observations without requiring new energy sources is forsooth worthy of investigation. In this Letter, a new kind of Cardassian models, called exponential Cardassian models, for the late-time universe are investigated in the context of the spatially flat FRW universe scenario. We fit the exponential Cardassian models to current type Ia supernovae data and find they are consistent with the observations. Furthermore, we point out that the equation-of-state parameter for the effective dark fluid component in exponential Cardassian models can naturally cross the cosmological constant divide w=-1 that observations favor mildly without introducing exotic material that destroy the weak energy condition

  1. Optimum Wing Shape of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  2. An Unusual Exponential Graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, M. Qasim; Lovatt, Ian

    2014-01-01

    This paper is an addition to the series of papers on the exponential function begun by Albert Bartlett. In particular, we ask how the graph of the exponential function y = e[superscript -t/t] would appear if y were plotted versus ln t rather than the normal practice of plotting ln y versus t. In answering this question, we find a new way to…

  3. Exponential and Logarithmic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Todorova, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Exponential functions find applications in economics in relation to growth and economic dynamics. In these fields, quite often the choice variable is time and economists are trying to determine the best timing for certain economic activities to take place. An exponential function is one in which the independent variable appears in the exponent. Very often that exponent is time. In highly mathematical courses, it is a truism that students learn by doing, not by reading. Tamara Todorova’s Pr...

  4. Test Exponential Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, Enrico

    The Patent contains an extremely detailed description of an atomic pile employing natural uranium as fissile material and graphite as moderator. It starts with the discussion of the theory of the intervening phenomena, in particular the evaluation of the reproduction or multiplication factor, K, that is the ratio of the number of fast neutrons produced in one generation by the fissions to the original number of fast neutrons, in a system of infinite size. The possibility of having a self-maintaining chain reaction in a system of finite size depends both on the facts that K is greater than unity and the overall size of the system is sufficiently large to minimize the percentage of neutrons escaping from the system. After the description of a possible realization of such a pile (with many detailed drawings), the various kinds of neutron losses in a pile are depicted. Particularly relevant is the reported "invention" of the exponential experiment: since theoretical calculations can determine whether or not a chain reaction will occur in a give system, but can be invalidated by uncertainties in the parameters of the problem, an experimental test of the pile is proposed, aimed at ascertaining if the pile under construction would be divergent (i.e. with a neutron multiplication factor K greater than 1) by making measurements on a smaller pile. The idea is to measure, by a detector containing an indium foil, the exponential decrease of the neutron density along the length of a column of uranium-graphite lattice, where a neutron source is placed near its base. Such an exponential decrease is greater or less than that expected due to leakage, according to whether the K factor is less or greater than 1, so that this experiment is able to test the criticality of the pile, its accuracy increasing with the size of the column. In order to perform this measure a mathematical description of the effect of neutron production, diffusion, and absorption on the neutron density in the

  5. Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) Simulation and Flight Test Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kevin J.; Kramer, Lynda J.; Ellis,Kyle K.; Rehfeld, Sherri A.

    2012-01-01

    The Synthetic and Enhanced Vision Systems for NextGen (SEVS) simulation and flight tests are jointly sponsored by NASA's Aviation Safety Program, Vehicle Systems Safety Technology project and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The flight tests were conducted by a team of Honeywell, Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel with the goal of obtaining pilot-in-the-loop test data for flight validation, verification, and demonstration of selected SEVS operational and system-level performance capabilities. Nine test flights (38 flight hours) were conducted over the summer and fall of 2011. The evaluations were flown in Gulfstream.s G450 flight test aircraft outfitted with the SEVS technology under very low visibility instrument meteorological conditions. Evaluation pilots flew 108 approaches in low visibility weather conditions (600 ft to 2400 ft visibility) into various airports from Louisiana to Maine. In-situ flight performance and subjective workload and acceptability data were collected in collaboration with ground simulation studies at LaRC.s Research Flight Deck simulator.

  6. Flight performance in night-flying sweat bees suffers at low light levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Jamie Carroll; Coates, Melissa M; Wcislo, William T; Warrant, Eric J

    2007-11-01

    The sweat bee Megalopta (Hymenoptera: Halictidae), unlike most bees, flies in extremely dim light. And although nocturnal insects are often equipped with superposition eyes, which greatly enhance light capture, Megalopta performs visually guided flight with apposition eyes. We examined how light limits Megalopta's flight behavior by measuring flight times and corresponding light levels and comparing them with flight trajectories upon return to the nest. We found the average time to land increased in dim light, an effect due not to slow approaches, but to circuitous approaches. Some landings, however, were quite fast even in the dark. To explain this, we examined the flight trajectories and found that in dim light, landings became increasingly error prone and erratic, consistent with repeated landing attempts. These data agree well with the premise that Megalopta uses visual summation, sacrificing acuity in order to see and fly at the very dimmest light intensities that its visual system allows.

  7. On the performance of dual-hop mixed RF/FSO wireless communication system in urban area over aggregated exponentiated Weibull fading channels with pointing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaoxia; Cao, Tian

    2018-03-01

    The performance of decode-and-forward dual-hop mixed radio frequency / free-space optical system in urban area is studied. The RF link is modeled by the Nakagami-m distribution and the FSO link is described by the composite exponentiated Weibull (EW) fading channels with nonzero boresight pointing errors (NBPE). For comparison, the ABER results without pointing errors (PE) and those with zero boresight pointing errors (ZBPE) are also provided. The closed-form expression for the average bit error rate (ABER) in RF link is derived with the help of hypergeometric function, and that in FSO link is obtained by Meijer's G and generalized Gauss-Laguerre quadrature functions. Then, the end-to-end ABERs with binary phase shift keying modulation are achieved on the basis of the computed ABER results of RF and FSO links. The end-to-end ABER performance is further analyzed with different Nakagami-m parameters, turbulence strengths, receiver aperture sizes and boresight displacements. The result shows that with ZBPE and NBPE considered, FSO link suffers a severe ABER degradation and becomes the dominant limitation of the mixed RF/FSO system in urban area. However, aperture averaging can bring significant ABER improvement of this system. Monte Carlo simulation is provided to confirm the validity of the analytical ABER expressions.

  8. Fast quantum modular exponentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, Rodney van; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the impact on quantum modular exponentiation of architectural features and possible concurrent gate execution. Various arithmetic algorithms are evaluated for execution time, potential concurrency, and space trade-offs. We find that to exponentiate an n-bit number, for storage space 100n (20 times the minimum 5n), we can execute modular exponentiation 200-700 times faster than optimized versions of the basic algorithms, depending on architecture, for n=128. Addition on a neighbor-only architecture is limited to O(n) time, whereas non-neighbor architectures can reach O(log n), demonstrating that physical characteristics of a computing device have an important impact on both real-world running time and asymptotic behavior. Our results will help guide experimental implementations of quantum algorithms and devices

  9. Homing pigeons externally exposed to Deepwater Horizon crude oil change flight performance and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-11-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill was the largest in U.S. history, contaminating thousands of miles of coastal habitat and affecting the lives of many avian species. The Gulf of Mexico is a critical bird migration route area and migrants that were oiled but did not suffer mortality as a direct result of the spill faced unpredictable fates. This study utilized homing pigeons as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects a single low level external oiling event has on the flight performance and behavior of birds flying repeated 161 km flights. Data from GPS data loggers showed that lightly oiled pigeons changed their flight paths, increased their flight durations by 2.6 fold, increased their flight distances by 28 km and subsequently decreased their route efficiencies. Oiled birds also exhibited reduced rate of weight gain between flights. Our data suggest that contaminated birds surviving the oil spill may have experienced flight impairment and reduced refueling abilities, likely reducing overall migration speed. Our findings contribute new information on how oil spills affect avian species, as the effects of oil on the flight behavior of long distance free-flying birds have not been previously described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  11. Correlation of Space Shuttle Landing Performance with Post-Flight Cardiovascular Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, R.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Microgravity induces cardiovascular adaptations resulting in orthostatic intolerance on re-exposure to normal gravity. Orthostasis could interfere with performance of complex tasks during the re-entry phase of Shuttle landings. This study correlated measures of Shuttle landing performance with post-flight indicators of orthostatic intolerance. Methods: Relevant Shuttle landing performance parameters routinely recorded at touchdown by NASA included downrange and crossrange distances, airspeed, and vertical speed. Measures of cardiovascular changes were calculated from operational stand tests performed in the immediate post-flight period on mission commanders from STS-41 to STS-66. Stand test data analyzed included maximum standing heart rate, mean increase in maximum heart rate, minimum standing systolic blood pressure, and mean decrease in standing systolic blood pressure. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated with the null hypothesis that there was no statistically significant linear correlation between stand test results and Shuttle landing performance. A correlation coefficient? 0.5 with a pcorrelations between landing performance and measures of post-flight cardiovascular dysfunction. Discussion: There was no evidence that post-flight cardiovascular stand test data correlated with Shuttle landing performance. This implies that variations in landing performance were not due to space flight-induced orthostatic intolerance.

  12. A Multiple Agent Model of Human Performance in Automated Air Traffic Control and Flight Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, Kevin; Pisanich, Gregory; Condon, Gregory W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A predictive model of human operator performance (flight crew and air traffic control (ATC)) has been developed and applied in order to evaluate the impact of automation developments in flight management and air traffic control. The model is used to predict the performance of a two person flight crew and the ATC operators generating and responding to clearances aided by the Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS). The purpose of the modeling is to support evaluation and design of automated aids for flight management and airspace management and to predict required changes in procedure both air and ground in response to advancing automation in both domains. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. In-Flight performance of MESSENGER's Mercury dual imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S.E.; Murchie, S.L.; Becker, K.J.; Selby, C.M.; Turner, F.S.; Noble, M.W.; Chabot, N.L.; Choo, T.H.; Darlington, E.H.; Denevi, B.W.; Domingue, D.L.; Ernst, C.M.; Holsclaw, G.M.; Laslo, N.R.; Mcclintock, W.E.; Prockter, L.M.; Robinson, M.S.; Solomon, S.C.; Sterner, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Mercury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, launched in August 2004 and planned for insertion into orbit around Mercury in 2011, has already completed two flybys of the innermost planet. The Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) acquired nearly 2500 images from the first two flybys and viewed portions of Mercury's surface not viewed by Mariner 10 in 1974-1975. Mercury's proximity to the Sun and its slow rotation present challenges to the thermal design for a camera on an orbital mission around Mercury. In addition, strict limitations on spacecraft pointing and the highly elliptical orbit create challenges in attaining coverage at desired geometries and relatively uniform spatial resolution. The instrument designed to meet these challenges consists of dual imagers, a monochrome narrow-angle camera (NAC) with a 1.5?? field of view (FOV) and a multispectral wide-angle camera (WAC) with a 10.5?? FOV, co-aligned on a pivoting platform. The focal-plane electronics of each camera are identical and use a 1024??1024 charge-coupled device detector. The cameras are passively cooled but use diode heat pipes and phase-change-material thermal reservoirs to maintain the thermal configuration during the hot portions of the orbit. Here we present an overview of the instrument design and how the design meets its technical challenges. We also review results from the first two flybys, discuss the quality of MDIS data from the initial periods of data acquisition and how that compares with requirements, and summarize how in-flight tests are being used to improve the quality of the instrument calibration. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  14. Rocket flight performance of a preprototype Apollo 17 UV spectrometer S-169

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastie, W. G.

    1971-01-01

    The design, construction, testing, calibration, flight performance and flight data of an Ebert ultraviolet spectrometer are described which is an accurate representation of the conceptual design of the Apollo 17 UV spectrometer. The instrument was flown in an Aerobee 350 rocket from Wallops Island, Va., at 7:10 p.m. EDT on June 10, 1971 to an altitude of 328 km with a solar elevation angle of about 11 deg.

  15. Psychophysiological Assessment in Pilots Performing Challenging Simulated and Real Flight Maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Bernd; Rothe, Stefanie; Gens, André; Westphal, Soeren; Birkenfeld, Katja; Mulder, Edwin; Rittweger, Jörn; Ledderhos, Carla

    2017-09-01

    The objective assessment of psychophysiological arousal during challenging flight maneuvers is of great interest to aerospace medicine, but remains a challenging task. In the study presented here, a vector-methodological approach was used which integrates different psychophysiological variables, yielding an integral arousal index called the Psychophysiological Arousal Value (PAV). The arousal levels of 15 male pilots were assessed during predetermined, well-defined flight maneuvers performed under simulated and real flight conditions. The physiological data, as expected, revealed inter- and intra-individual differences for the various measurement conditions. As indicated by the PAV, air-to-air refueling (AAR) turned out to be the most challenging task. In general, arousal levels were comparable between simulator and real flight conditions. However, a distinct difference was observed when the pilots were divided by instructors into two groups based on their proficiency in AAR with AWACS (AAR-Novices vs. AAR-Professionals). AAR-Novices had on average more than 2000 flight hours on other aircrafts. They showed higher arousal reactions to AAR in real flight (contact: PAV score 8.4 ± 0.37) than under simulator conditions (7.1 ± 0.30), whereas AAR-Professionals did not (8.5 ± 0.46 vs. 8.8 ± 0.80). The psychophysiological arousal value assessment was tested in field measurements, yielding quantifiable arousal differences between proficiency groups of pilots during simulated and real flight conditions. The method used in this study allows an evaluation of the psychophysiological cost during a certain flying performance and thus is possibly a valuable tool for objectively evaluating the actual skill status of pilots.Johannes B, Rothe S, Gens A, Westphal S, Birkenfeld K, Mulder E, Rittweger J, Ledderhos C. Psychophysiological assessment in pilots performing challenging simulated and real flight maneuvers. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):834-840.

  16. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. In-flight sleep, pilot fatigue and Psychomotor Vigilance Task performance on ultra-long range versus long range flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Jay, Sarah M; Jim Mangie, Captain

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated whether pilot fatigue was greater on ultra-long range (ULR) trips (flights >16 h on 10% of trips in a 90-day period) than on long range (LR) trips. The within-subjects design controlled for crew complement, pattern of in-flight breaks, flight direction and departure time. Thirty male Captains (mean age = 54.5 years) and 40 male First officers (mean age = 48.0 years) were monitored on commercial passenger flights (Boeing 777 aircraft). Sleep was monitored (actigraphy, duty/sleep diaries) from 3 days before the first study trip to 3 days after the second study trip. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, Samn-Perelli fatigue ratings and a 5-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task were completed before, during and after every flight. Total sleep in the 24 h before outbound flights and before inbound flights after 2-day layovers was comparable for ULR and LR flights. All pilots slept on all flights. For each additional hour of flight time, they obtained an estimated additional 12.3 min of sleep. Estimated mean total sleep was longer on ULR flights (3 h 53 min) than LR flights (3 h 15 min; P(F) = 0.0004). Sleepiness ratings were lower and mean reaction speed was faster at the end of ULR flights. Findings suggest that additional in-flight sleep mitigated fatigue effectively on longer flights. Further research is needed to clarify the contributions to fatigue of in-flight sleep versus time awake at top of descent. The study design was limited to eastward outbound flights with two Captains and two First Officers. Caution must be exercised when extrapolating to different operations. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Johansson, L Christoffer; Bowlin, Melissa S; Winter, York; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate longer distances

  19. Comparing aerodynamic efficiency in birds and bats suggests better flight performance in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian T Muijres

    Full Text Available Flight is one of the energetically most costly activities in the animal kingdom, suggesting that natural selection should work to optimize flight performance. The similar size and flight speed of birds and bats may therefore suggest convergent aerodynamic performance; alternatively, flight performance could be restricted by phylogenetic constraints. We test which of these scenarios fit to two measures of aerodynamic flight efficiency in two passerine bird species and two New World leaf-nosed bat species. Using time-resolved particle image velocimetry measurements of the wake of the animals flying in a wind tunnel, we derived the span efficiency, a metric for the efficiency of generating lift, and the lift-to-drag ratio, a metric for mechanical energetic flight efficiency. We show that the birds significantly outperform the bats in both metrics, which we ascribe to variation in aerodynamic function of body and wing upstroke: Bird bodies generated relatively more lift than bat bodies, resulting in a more uniform spanwise lift distribution and higher span efficiency. A likely explanation would be that the bat ears and nose leaf, associated with echolocation, disturb the flow over the body. During the upstroke, the birds retract their wings to make them aerodynamically inactive, while the membranous bat wings generate thrust and negative lift. Despite the differences in performance, the wake morphology of both birds and bats resemble the optimal wake for their respective lift-to-drag ratio regimes. This suggests that evolution has optimized performance relative to the respective conditions of birds and bats, but that maximum performance is possibly limited by phylogenetic constraints. Although ecological differences between birds and bats are subjected to many conspiring variables, the different aerodynamic flight efficiency for the bird and bat species studied here may help explain why birds typically fly faster, migrate more frequently and migrate

  20. Integrated flight/propulsion control - Subsystem specifications for performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neighbors, W. K.; Rock, Stephen M.

    1993-01-01

    A procedure is presented for calculating multiple subsystem specifications given a number of performance requirements on the integrated system. This procedure applies to problems where the control design must be performed in a partitioned manner. It is based on a structured singular value analysis, and generates specifications as magnitude bounds on subsystem uncertainties. The performance requirements should be provided in the form of bounds on transfer functions of the integrated system. This form allows the expression of model following, command tracking, and disturbance rejection requirements. The procedure is demonstrated on a STOVL aircraft design.

  1. Flight performance of western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, remains uncompromised when mounting an acute phase immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Silke; Buehler, Deborah M; MacMillan, Alexander; Guglielmo, Christopher G

    2013-07-15

    Migratory birds have been implicated in the spread of some zoonotic diseases, but how well infected individuals can fly remains poorly understood. We used western sandpipers, Calidris mauri, to experimentally test whether flight is affected when long-distance migrants are mounting an immune response and whether migrants maintain immune defences during a flight in a wind tunnel. We measured five indicators of innate immunity in 'flown-healthy' birds (flying in a wind tunnel without mounting an immune response), 'flown-sick' birds (flying while mounting an acute phase response, which is part of induced innate immunity), and a non-flying control group ('not-flown'). Voluntary flight duration did not differ between flown-healthy and flown-sick birds, indicating that mounting an acute phase response to simulated infection did not hamper an individual's ability to fly for up to 3 h. However, in comparison to not-flown birds, bacterial killing ability of plasma was significantly reduced after flight in flown-sick birds. In flown-healthy birds, voluntary flight duration was positively correlated with bacterial killing ability and baseline haptoglobin concentration of the blood plasma measured 1-3 weeks before experimental flights, suggesting that high quality birds had strong immune systems and greater flight capacity. Our findings indicate that flight performance is not diminished by prior immune challenge, but that flight while mounting an acute phase response negatively affects other aspects of immune function. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the transmission of avian diseases, as they suggest that birds can still migrate while fighting an infection.

  2. The redder the better: wing color predicts flight performance in monarch butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K Davis

    Full Text Available The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width, melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color.

  3. The Redder the Better: Wing Color Predicts Flight Performance in Monarch Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew K.; Chi, Jean; Bradley, Catherine; Altizer, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    The distinctive orange and black wings of monarchs (Danaus plexippus) have long been known to advertise their bitter taste and toxicity to potential predators. Recent work also showed that both the orange and black coloration of this species can vary in response to individual-level and environmental factors. Here we examine the relationship between wing color and flight performance in captive-reared monarchs using a tethered flight mill apparatus to quantify butterfly flight speed, duration and distance. In three different experiments (totaling 121 individuals) we used image analysis to measure body size and four wing traits among newly-emerged butterflies prior to flight trials: wing area, aspect ratio (length/width), melanism, and orange hue. Results showed that monarchs with darker orange (approaching red) wings flew longer distances than those with lighter orange wings in analyses that controlled for sex and other morphometric traits. This finding is consistent with past work showing that among wild monarchs, those sampled during the fall migration are darker in hue (redder) than non-migratory monarchs. Together, these results suggest that pigment deposition onto wing scales during metamorphosis could be linked with traits that influence flight, such as thorax muscle size, energy storage or metabolism. Our results reinforce an association between wing color and flight performance in insects that is suggested by past studies of wing melansim and seasonal polyphenism, and provide an important starting point for work focused on mechanistic links between insect movement and color. PMID:22848463

  4. Foraging in an unsteady world: bumblebee flight performance in field-realistic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crall, J D; Chang, J J; Oppenheimer, R L; Combes, S A

    2017-02-06

    Natural environments are characterized by variable wind that can pose significant challenges for flying animals and robots. However, our understanding of the flow conditions that animals experience outdoors and how these impact flight performance remains limited. Here, we combine laboratory and field experiments to characterize wind conditions encountered by foraging bumblebees in outdoor environments and test the effects of these conditions on flight. We used radio-frequency tags to track foraging activity of uniquely identified bumblebee ( Bombus impatiens ) workers, while simultaneously recording local wind flows. Despite being subjected to a wide range of speeds and turbulence intensities, we find that bees do not avoid foraging in windy conditions. We then examined the impacts of turbulence on bumblebee flight in a wind tunnel. Rolling instabilities increased in turbulence, but only at higher wind speeds. Bees displayed higher mean wingbeat frequency and stroke amplitude in these conditions, as well as increased asymmetry in stroke amplitude-suggesting that bees employ an array of active responses to enable flight in turbulence, which may increase the energetic cost of flight. Our results provide the first direct evidence that moderate, environmentally relevant turbulence affects insect flight performance, and suggest that flying insects use diverse mechanisms to cope with these instabilities.

  5. Predictability of Pilot Performance from Simulated to Real Flight in the UH-60 (Black Hawk) Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    keratectomy ( PRK ) and laser in-situ keratomileusis ( LASIK ) procedures to determine compatibility, safety, and efficacy of these procedures for rated Army...performance data. Table B- 1. Simulator and aircraft mean flight performance. LASIK PRK Simulator Aircraft Simulator Aircraft Pre-op 60.81 (2.65) 56.41...12 7. Aircraft vs . Simulator scatter plot, hover turn maneuvers

  6. In-flight spectral performance monitoring of the Airborne Prism Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Petra; Alberti, Edoardo; Schaepman, Michael E

    2010-06-01

    Spectral performance of an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer cannot be assumed to be stable over a whole flight season given the environmental stresses present during flight. Spectral performance monitoring during flight is commonly accomplished by looking at selected absorption features present in the Sun, atmosphere, or ground, and their stability. The assessment of instrument performance in two different environments, e.g., laboratory and airborne, using precisely the same calibration reference, has not been possible so far. The Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX), an airborne dispersive pushbroom imaging spectrometer, uses an onboard in-flight characterization (IFC) facility, which makes it possible to monitor the sensor's performance in terms of spectral, radiometric, and geometric stability in flight and in the laboratory. We discuss in detail a new method for the monitoring of spectral instrument performance. The method relies on the monitoring of spectral shifts by comparing instrument-induced movements of absorption features on ground and in flight. Absorption lines originate from spectral filters, which intercept the full field of view (FOV) illuminated using an internal light source. A feature-fitting algorithm is used for the shift estimation based on Pearson's correlation coefficient. Environmental parameter monitoring, coregistered on board with the image and calibration data, revealed that differential pressure and temperature in the baffle compartment are the main driving parameters explaining the trend in spectral performance deviations in the time and the space (across-track) domains, respectively. The results presented in this paper show that the system in its current setup needs further improvements to reach a stable performance. Findings provided useful guidelines for the instrument revision currently under way. The main aim of the revision is the stabilization of the instrument for a range of temperature and pressure conditions

  7. Changes in Jump-Down Performance After Space Flight: Short- and Long-Term Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Fisher, E. A.; Lawrence, E. L.; Peters, B. T.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Successful jump performance requires functional coordination of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, which are affected by prolonged exposure to microgravity. Astronauts returning from space flight exhibit impaired ability to coordinate effective landing strategies when jumping from a platform to the ground. This study compares the jump strategies used by astronauts before and after flight, the changes to those strategies within a test session, and the recoveries in jump-down performance parameters across several postflight test sessions. These data were obtained as part of an ongoing interdisciplinary study (Functional Task Test, FTT) designed to evaluate both astronaut postflight functional performance and related physiological changes. METHODS Six astronauts from short-duration (Shuttle) and three from long-duration (International Space Station) flights performed 3 two-footed jumps from a platform 30 cm high. A force plate measured the ground reaction forces and center-of-pressure displacement from the landings. Muscle activation data were collected from the medial gastrocnemius and anterior tibialis of both legs using surface electromyography electrodes. Two load cells in the platform measured the load exerted by each foot during the takeoff phase of the jump. Data were collected in 2 preflight sessions, on landing day (Shuttle only), and 1, 6, and 30 days after flight. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION Many of the astronauts tested were unable to maintain balance on their first postflight jump landing but recovered by the third jump, showing a learning progression in which the performance improvement could be attributed to adjustments of strategy on takeoff, landing, or both. Takeoff strategy changes were evident in air time (time between takeoff and landing), which was significantly reduced after flight, and also in increased asymmetry in foot latencies on takeoff. Landing modifications were seen in changes in ground reaction force curves. The

  8. Use of a Commercially Available Flight Simulator during Aircrew Performance Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Automiated Battery of Performance-based Tests, NAMRL 1354, Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, Pensacola, FL, 1990. 13. Human Performance...ability of an aircraft to remain airborne well beyond the limits of its human operator. This capacity for longer flights, coupled with a tendency for short...Measurement, Final Report, Air Force Human Resources Laboratory, Brooks AFB, TX, 1983. 5. Stein, E.S., Measurement of Pilot Performance: A Master Journeyman

  9. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  10. Continuous exponential martingales and BMO

    CERN Document Server

    Kazamaki, Norihiko

    1994-01-01

    In three chapters on Exponential Martingales, BMO-martingales, and Exponential of BMO, this book explains in detail the beautiful properties of continuous exponential martingales that play an essential role in various questions concerning the absolute continuity of probability laws of stochastic processes. The second and principal aim is to provide a full report on the exciting results on BMO in the theory of exponential martingales. The reader is assumed to be familiar with the general theory of continuous martingales.

  11. Exponential smoothing weighted correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, F.; Di Matteo, T.; Aste, T.

    2012-06-01

    In many practical applications, correlation matrices might be affected by the "curse of dimensionality" and by an excessive sensitiveness to outliers and remote observations. These shortcomings can cause problems of statistical robustness especially accentuated when a system of dynamic correlations over a running window is concerned. These drawbacks can be partially mitigated by assigning a structure of weights to observational events. In this paper, we discuss Pearson's ρ and Kendall's τ correlation matrices, weighted with an exponential smoothing, computed on moving windows using a data-set of daily returns for 300 NYSE highly capitalized companies in the period between 2001 and 2003. Criteria for jointly determining optimal weights together with the optimal length of the running window are proposed. We find that the exponential smoothing can provide more robust and reliable dynamic measures and we discuss that a careful choice of the parameters can reduce the autocorrelation of dynamic correlations whilst keeping significance and robustness of the measure. Weighted correlations are found to be smoother and recovering faster from market turbulence than their unweighted counterparts, helping also to discriminate more effectively genuine from spurious correlations.

  12. From damselflies to pterosaurs: how burst and sustainable flight performance scale with size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marden, J H

    1994-04-01

    Recent empirical data for short-burst lift and power production of flying animals indicate that mass-specific lift and power output scale independently (lift) or slightly positively (power) with increasing size. These results contradict previous theory, as well as simple observation, which argues for degradation of flight performance with increasing size. Here, empirical measures of lift and power during short-burst exertion are combined with empirically based estimates of maximum muscle power output in order to predict how burst and sustainable performance scale with body size. The resulting model is used to estimate performance of the largest extant flying birds and insects, along with the largest flying animals known from fossils. These estimates indicate that burst flight performance capacities of even the largest extinct fliers (estimated mass 250 kg) would allow takeoff from the ground; however, limitations on sustainable power output should constrain capacity for continuous flight at body sizes exceeding 0.003-1.0 kg, depending on relative wing length and flight muscle mass.

  13. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  14. arXiv Performance of the ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00531272

    The ALICE Time-Of-Flight (TOF) detector at LHC is based on the Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). The TOF performance during LHC Run 2 is here reported. Particular attention is given to the improved time resolution reached by TOF detector of $56$ ps, with the consequently improved particle identification capabilities.

  15. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Full Flight Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required for aircraft certification and simulation programming and validation (b) For each maneuver or... programming and for validating the performance of the FFS, and discuss the flight test plan anticipated for..., or checking activities. r. Problems with objective test results are handled as follows: (1) If a...

  16. Tracking performance and global stability guaranteed neural control of uncertain hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Teng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a global adaptive neural dynamic surface control with predefined tracking performance is developed for a class of hypersonic flight vehicles, whose accurate dynamics is hard to obtain. The control scheme developed in this paper overcomes the limitations of neural approximation region by employing a switching mechanism which incorporates an additional robust controller outside the neural approximation region to pull the transient state variables back when they overstep the neural approximation region, such that globally uniformly ultimately bounded stability can be guaranteed. Especially, the developed global adaptive neural control also improves the tracking performance by introducing an error transformation mechanism, such that both transient and steady-state performance can be shaped according to the predefined bounds. Simulation studies on the hypersonic flight vehicle validate that the designed controller has good velocity modulation and velocity stability performance.

  17. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  18. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    of car drivers' route and mode choice under uncertain travel times. Our analysis exposes some important methodological issues related to complex non-linear scheduling models: One issue is identifying the point in time where the marginal utility of being at the destination becomes larger than the marginal......Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily...... utility of being at the origin. Another issue is that models with the exponential marginal utility formulation suffer from empirical identification problems. Though our results are not decisive, they partly support the constant-affine specification, in which the value of travel time variability...

  19. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrocchi, Matteo; Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G.; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Ambrosi, Giovanni; Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito; Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres; Del Guerra, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm 2 of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  20. Timing performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrocchi, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.morrocchi@pi.infn.it [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, Sara; Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G. [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [University of Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni [INFN Sezione di Perugia, I 06100 Perugia (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari and INFN Sezione di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa and INFN Sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2012-12-11

    We are investigating the performances of a data acquisition system for Time of Flight PET, based on LYSO crystal slabs and 64 channels Silicon Photomultipliers matrices (1.2 cm{sup 2} of active area each). Measurements have been performed to test the timing capability of the detection system (SiPM matices coupled to a LYSO slab and the read-out electronics) with both test signal and radioactive source.

  1. Flight mechanics and control of escape manoeuvres in hummingbirds. II. Aerodynamic force production, flight control and performance limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo; Tobalske, Bret W; Powers, Donald R; Hedrick, Tyson L; Wang, Yi; Wethington, Susan M; Chiu, George T-C; Deng, Xinyan

    2016-11-15

    The superior manoeuvrability of hummingbirds emerges from complex interactions of specialized neural and physiological processes with the unique flight dynamics of flapping wings. Escape manoeuvring is an ecologically relevant, natural behaviour of hummingbirds, from which we can gain understanding into the functional limits of vertebrate locomotor capacity. Here, we extend our kinematic analysis of escape manoeuvres from a companion paper to assess two potential limiting factors of the manoeuvring performance of hummingbirds: (1) muscle mechanical power output and (2) delays in the neural sensing and control system. We focused on the magnificent hummingbird (Eugenes fulgens, 7.8 g) and the black-chinned hummingbird (Archilochus alexandri, 3.1 g), which represent large and small species, respectively. We first estimated the aerodynamic forces, moments and the mechanical power of escape manoeuvres using measured wing kinematics. Comparing active-manoeuvring and passive-damping aerodynamic moments, we found that pitch dynamics were lightly damped and dominated by the effect of inertia, while roll dynamics were highly damped. To achieve observed closed-loop performance, pitch manoeuvres required faster sensorimotor transduction, as hummingbirds can only tolerate half the delay allowed in roll manoeuvres. Accordingly, our results suggested that pitch control may require a more sophisticated control strategy, such as those based on prediction. For the magnificent hummingbird, we estimated that escape manoeuvres required muscle mass-specific power 4.5 times that during hovering. Therefore, in addition to the limitation imposed by sensorimotor delays, muscle power could also limit the performance of escape manoeuvres. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Body Unloading Associated with Space Flight and Bed-rest Impacts Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Ballard, K. L.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the Functional Task Test study is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting studies on both ISS crewmembers and on subjects experiencing 70 days of 6 degrees head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. This allows us to parse out the contribution of the body unloading component on functional performance. In this on-going study both ISS crewmembers and bed-rest subjects were tested using an interdisciplinary protocol that evaluated functional performance and related physiological changes before and after 6 months in space and 70 days of 6? head-down bed-rest, respectively. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall, and object translation tasks. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Bed-rest subjects were tested three times before bed-rest and immediately after getting up from bed-rest as well as 1, 6 and 12 days after reambulation. A comparison of bed-rest and space flight data showed a significant concordance in performance changes across all functional tests. Tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with

  3. Mechanical Constraints on Flight at High Elevation Decrease Maneuvering Performance of Hummingbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Paolo S; Dakin, Roslyn; Read, Tyson J G; Straw, Andrew D; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2016-12-19

    High-elevation habitats offer ecological advantages including reduced competition, predation, and parasitism [1]. However, flying organisms at high elevation also face physiological challenges due to lower air density and oxygen availability [2]. These constraints are expected to affect the flight maneuvers that are required to compete with rivals, capture prey, and evade threats [3-5]. To test how individual maneuvering performance is affected by elevation, we measured the free-flight maneuvers of male Anna's hummingbirds in a large chamber translocated to a high-elevation site and then measured their performance at low elevation. We used a multi-camera tracking system to identify thousands of maneuvers based on body position and orientation [6]. At high elevation, the birds' translational velocities, accelerations, and rotational velocities were reduced, and they used less demanding turns. To determine how mechanical and metabolic constraints independently affect performance, we performed a second experiment to evaluate flight maneuvers in an airtight chamber infused with either normoxic heliox, to lower air density, or nitrogen, to lower oxygen availability. The hypodense treatment caused the birds to reduce their accelerations and rotational velocities, whereas the hypoxic treatment had no significant effect on maneuvering performance. Collectively, these experiments reveal how aerial maneuvering performance changes with elevation, demonstrating that as birds move up in elevation, air density constrains their maneuverability prior to any influence of oxygen availability. Our results support the hypothesis that changes in competitive ability at high elevations are the result of mechanical limits to flight performance [7]. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Powered Flight Design and Reconstructed Performance Summary for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, Steven; Chen, Allen; Davis, Jody; San Martin, Miguel; Serricchio, Frederick; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2013-01-01

    The Powered Flight segment of Mars Science Laboratory's (MSL) Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system extends from backshell separation through landing. This segment is responsible for removing the final 0.1% of the kinetic energy dissipated during EDL and culminating with the successful touchdown of the rover on the surface of Mars. Many challenges exist in the Powered Flight segment: extraction of Powered Descent Vehicle from the backshell, performing a 300m divert maneuver to avoid the backshell and parachute, slowing the descent from 85 m/s to 0.75 m/s and successfully lowering the rover on a 7.5m bridle beneath the rocket-powered Descent Stage and gently placing it on the surface using the Sky Crane Maneuver. Finally, the nearly-spent Descent Stage must execute a Flyaway maneuver to ensure surface impact a safe distance from the Rover. This paper provides an overview of the powered flight design, key features, and event timeline. It also summarizes Curiosity's as flown performance on the night of August 5th as reconstructed by the flight team.

  5. Subsonic Longitudinal Performance Coefficient Extraction from Shuttle Flight Data: an Accuracy Assessment for Determination of Data Base Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, J. T.; Kelly, G. M.; Mcconnell, J. G.; Compton, H. R.

    1983-01-01

    Longitudinal performance comparisons between flight derived and predicted values are presented for the first five NASA Space Shuttle Columbia flights. Though subsonic comparisons are emphasized, comparisons during the transonic and low supersonic regions of flight are included. Computed air data information based on the remotely sensed atmospheric measurements as well as in situ Orbiter Air Data System (ADS) measurements were incorporated. Each air data source provides for comparisons versus the predicted values from the LaRC data base. Principally, L/D, C sub L, and C sub D, comparisons are presented, though some pitching moment results are included. Similarities in flight conditions and spacecraft configuration during the first five flights are discussed. Contributions from the various elements of the data base are presented and the overall differences observed between the flight and predicted values are discussed in terms of expected variations. A discussion on potential data base updates is presented based on the results from the five flights to date.

  6. LiPo battery energy studies for improved flight performance of unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K.; Rammos, P.; Wilkerson, S. A.; Bundy, M.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage is one of the most important determinants of how long and far a small electric powered unmanned aerial system (UAS) can fly. For years, most hobby and experimentalists used heavy fuels to power small drone-like systems. Electric motors and battery storage prior to the turn of the century were either too heavy or too inefficient for flight times of any usable duration. However, with the availability of brushless electric motors and lithium-based batteries everything has changed. Systems like the Dragon Eye, Pointer, and Raven are in service performing reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) for more than an hour at a time. More recently, multi-rotor vehicles have expanded small UAS capabilities to include activities with hovering and persistent surveillance. Moreover, these systems coupled with the surge of small, low-cost electronics can perform autonomous and semi-autonomous missions not possible just ten years ago. This paper addresses flight time limitation issues by proposing an experimental method with procedures for system identification that may lead to modeling of energy storage in electric UAS'. Consequently, this will allow for energy storage to be used more effectively in planning autonomous missions. To achieve this, a set of baseline experiments were designed to measure the energy consumption of a mid-size UAS multi-rotor. Several different flight maneuvers were considered to include different lateral velocities, climbing, and hovering. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to create baseline flight data for each maneuver to be characterized with a certain rate of energy usage. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. Future work will include the development of mission planning algorithms that provide realistic estimates of possible mission flight times and distances given specific mission parameters.

  7. Cosmology with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehagias, Alex; Kofinas, Georgios

    2004-01-01

    We examine in the context of general relativity the dynamics of a spatially flat Robertson-Walker universe filled with a classical minimally coupled scalar field φ of exponential potential V(φ) ∼ exp(-μφ) plus pressureless baryonic matter. This system is reduced to a first-order ordinary differential equation for Ω φ (w φ ) or q(w φ ), providing direct evidence on the acceleration/deceleration properties of the system. As a consequence, for positive potentials, passage into acceleration not at late times is generically a feature of the system for any value of μ, even when the late-times attractors are decelerating. Furthermore, the structure formation bound, together with the constraints Ω m0 ∼ 0.25 - 0.3, -1 ≤ w φ0 ≤ -0.6, provides, independently of initial conditions and other parameters, the necessary condition 0 N , while the less conservative constraint -1 ≤ w φ ≤ -0.93 gives 0 N . Special solutions are found to possess intervals of acceleration. For the almost cosmological constant case w φ ∼ -1, the general relation Ω φ (w φ ) is obtained. The generic (nonlinearized) late-times solution of the system in the plane (w φ , Ω φ ) or (w φ , q) is also derived

  8. OPINION: Safe exponential manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Chris; Drexler, Eric

    2004-08-01

    In 1959, Richard Feynman pointed out that nanometre-scale machines could be built and operated, and that the precision inherent in molecular construction would make it easy to build multiple identical copies. This raised the possibility of exponential manufacturing, in which production systems could rapidly and cheaply increase their productive capacity, which in turn suggested the possibility of destructive runaway self-replication. Early proposals for artificial nanomachinery focused on small self-replicating machines, discussing their potential productivity and their potential destructiveness if abused. In the light of controversy regarding scenarios based on runaway replication (so-called 'grey goo'), a review of current thinking regarding nanotechnology-based manufacturing is in order. Nanotechnology-based fabrication can be thoroughly non-biological and inherently safe: such systems need have no ability to move about, use natural resources, or undergo incremental mutation. Moreover, self-replication is unnecessary: the development and use of highly productive systems of nanomachinery (nanofactories) need not involve the construction of autonomous self-replicating nanomachines. Accordingly, the construction of anything resembling a dangerous self-replicating nanomachine can and should be prohibited. Although advanced nanotechnologies could (with great difficulty and little incentive) be used to build such devices, other concerns present greater problems. Since weapon systems will be both easier to build and more likely to draw investment, the potential for dangerous systems is best considered in the context of military competition and arms control.

  9. Use of high performance networks and supercomputers for real-time flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Jeff I., II

    1993-01-01

    In order to meet the stringent time-critical requirements for real-time man-in-the-loop flight simulation, computer processing operations must be consistent in processing time and be completed in as short a time as possible. These operations include simulation mathematical model computation and data input/output to the simulators. In 1986, in response to increased demands for flight simulation performance, NASA's Langley Research Center (LaRC), working with the contractor, developed extensions to the Computer Automated Measurement and Control (CAMAC) technology which resulted in a factor of ten increase in the effective bandwidth and reduced latency of modules necessary for simulator communication. This technology extension is being used by more than 80 leading technological developers in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Included among the commercial applications are nuclear process control, power grid analysis, process monitoring, real-time simulation, and radar data acquisition. Personnel at LaRC are completing the development of the use of supercomputers for mathematical model computation to support real-time flight simulation. This includes the development of a real-time operating system and development of specialized software and hardware for the simulator network. This paper describes the data acquisition technology and the development of supercomputing for flight simulation.

  10. Monte-Carlo studies of the performance of scintillator detectors for time-of-flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we report on a Monte-Carlo program, SToF, developed to evaluate the performance of scintillator-based Time-of-Flight (TOF) detectors. This program has been used in the design of the TOF system for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The program was used to evaluate the intrinsic time-of-flight resolution of various scintillator and light-guide geometries, and the results of these simulations are presented here. The simulation results agree extremely well with measured pulse-height and time distributions with one adjustable parameter. These results, thus, explain also the reduced quantities, such as the position dependence of the time resolution, etc, implying that SToF will be generally useful for estimating the performance of TOF detectors. ((orig.))

  11. S.S.T.O. performance assessment with in-flight lox collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenkerckhove, J.; Czysz, P.

    1995-10-01

    Much attention has recently been given, up to harware development to in-flight oxygen collection as a means to improve considerably the performance of both TSTO & SSTO vehicles. A first assessment suggests that it permits simultaneously to improve much both gross take-off weight (by more than 30%) & dry weight (by more than 15%) of an SSTO and to lower significantly the Mach number of transition scramjet → rocket, from 15 down below 10, thereby reducing dramatically the programmatic development risks. After having compared in-flight lox collection with other SSTO concepts, this paper provides a tentative assessment of the performance of SSTO vehicles taking advantage of it, in particular their sensitivity to changes in system characteristics such as transition Mach number, vehicle slenderness (i.e. Küchemann's parameter τ) or planform loading at take-off and in collection characteristics, in particular collection ratio & specific collection plant weight.

  12. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pperformance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

  13. The tracking performance of distributed recoverable flight control systems subject to high intensity radiated fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui

    It is known that high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) can produce upsets in digital electronics, and thereby degrade the performance of digital flight control systems. Such upsets, either from natural or man-made sources, can change data values on digital buses and memory and affect CPU instruction execution. HIRF environments are also known to trigger common-mode faults, affecting nearly-simultaneously multiple fault containment regions, and hence reducing the benefits of n-modular redundancy and other fault-tolerant computing techniques. Thus, it is important to develop models which describe the integration of the embedded digital system, where the control law is implemented, as well as the dynamics of the closed-loop system. In this dissertation, theoretical tools are presented to analyze the relationship between the design choices for a class of distributed recoverable computing platforms and the tracking performance degradation of a digital flight control system implemented on such a platform while operating in a HIRF environment. Specifically, a tractable hybrid performance model is developed for a digital flight control system implemented on a computing platform inspired largely by the NASA family of fault-tolerant, reconfigurable computer architectures known as SPIDER (scalable processor-independent design for enhanced reliability). The focus will be on the SPIDER implementation, which uses the computer communication system known as ROBUS-2 (reliable optical bus). A physical HIRF experiment was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in order to validate the theoretical tracking performance degradation predictions for a distributed Boeing 747 flight control system subject to a HIRF environment. An extrapolation of these results for scenarios that could not be physically tested is also presented.

  14. Multivariate Matrix-Exponential Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2010-01-01

    be written as linear combinations of the elements in the exponential of a matrix. For this reason we shall refer to multivariate distributions with rational Laplace transform as multivariate matrix-exponential distributions (MVME). The marginal distributions of an MVME are univariate matrix......-exponential distributions. We prove a characterization that states that a distribution is an MVME distribution if and only if all non-negative, non-null linear combinations of the coordinates have a univariate matrix-exponential distribution. This theorem is analog to a well-known characterization theorem...

  15. Treadmill Exercise with Increased Body Loading Enhances Post Flight Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Laurie, S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the Functional Task Test (FTT) study were to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We have previously shown that for Shuttle, ISS and bed rest subjects functional tasks requiring a greater demand for dynamic control of postural equilibrium (i.e. fall recovery, seat egress/obstacle avoidance during walking, object translation, jump down) showed the greatest decrement in performance. Functional tests with reduced requirements for postural stability (i.e. hatch opening, ladder climb, manual manipulation of objects and tool use) showed little reduction in performance. These changes in functional performance were paralleled by similar decrements in sensorimotor tests designed to specifically assess postural equilibrium and dynamic gait control. The bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of axial body unloading in isolation on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrements in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. These results indicate that body support unloading experienced during space flight plays a central role in postflight alteration of functional task performance. Given the importance of body-support loading we set out to determine if there is a relationship between the load experienced during inflight treadmill exercise (produced by a harness and bungee system) and postflight functional performance. ISS crewmembers (n=13) were tested using the FTT protocol before and after 6 months in space. Crewmembers were tested three times before flight, and on 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. To determine how differences in body

  16. Understanding the Effects of Long-duration Space Flight on Astronant Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Batson, Crystal D.; Buxton, Roxanne E.; Feiveson, Al H.; Kofman, Igor S.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Miller, Chris A.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Phillips, Tiffany; hide

    2014-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These physiological changes cause balance, gait and visual disturbances, cardiovascular deconditioning, and loss of muscle mass and strength. These changes may affect a crewmember's ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. To understand how changes in physiological function affect functional performance, an interdisciplinary pre- and postflight testing regimen, Functional Task Test (FTT), was developed to systematically evaluate both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Ultimately this information will be used to assess performance risks and inform the design of countermeasures for exploration class missions. We are currently conducting the FTT study on International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers before and after 6-month expeditions. Additionally, in a corresponding study we are using the FTT protocol on subjects before and after 70 days of 6deg head-down bed-rest as an analog for space flight. Bed-rest provides the opportunity for us to investigate the role of prolonged axial body unloading in isolation from the other physiological effects produced by exposure to the microgravity environment of space flight. Therefore, the bed rest analog allows us to investigate the impact of body unloading on both functional tasks and on the underlying physiological factors that lead to decrement in performance and then compare them with the results obtained in our space flight study. Functional tests included ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures included assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, heart rate, blood pressure

  17. Transverse exponential stability and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, Vincent; Jayawardhana, Bayu; Praly, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    We investigate how the following properties are related to each other: i) A manifold is “transversally” exponentially stable; ii) The “transverse” linearization along any solution in the manifold is exponentially stable; iii) There exists a field of positive definite quadratic forms whose

  18. The time-of-flight TOFW detector of the HARP experiment: construction and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldo-Ceolin, M.; Barichello, G.; Bobisut, F.; Bonesini, M.; De Min, A.; Ferri, A.F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Laveder, M.; Menegolli, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Pepato, A.; Tonazzo, A.; Vascon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The construction and performance of a large area scintillator-based time-of-flight detector for the HARP experiment at CERN are reported. An intrinsic counter time resolution of ∼160 ps was achieved. The precision on the time calibration and monitoring of the detector was maintained at better than 100 ps by using dedicated cosmic rays runs, a fast laser-based system and calibrations with beam particles. The detector was operated on the T9 PS beamline during 2001 and 2002. A time-of-flight resolution of ∼200 ps was obtained, providing π/p discrimination at more than 3σ up to 4.0 GeV/c momentum

  19. A method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1971-01-01

    A computer-oriented technique is presented for performing a nonlinear exponential regression analysis on decay-type experimental data. The technique involves the least squares procedure wherein the nonlinear problem is linearized by expansion in a Taylor series. A linear curve fitting procedure for determining the initial nominal estimates for the unknown exponential model parameters is included as an integral part of the technique. A correction matrix was derived and then applied to the nominal estimate to produce an improved set of model parameters. The solution cycle is repeated until some predetermined criterion is satisfied.

  20. Efficient adaptive constrained control with time-varying predefined performance for a hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caisheng Wei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel low-complexity adaptive control method, capable of guaranteeing the transient and steady-state tracking performance in the presence of unknown nonlinearities and actuator saturation, is investigated for the longitudinal dynamics of a generic hypersonic flight vehicle. In order to attenuate the negative effects of classical predefined performance function for unknown initial tracking errors, a modified predefined performance function with time-varying design parameters is presented. Under the newly developed predefined performance function, two novel adaptive controllers with low-complexity computation are proposed for velocity and altitude subsystems of the hypersonic flight vehicle, respectively. Wherein, different from neural network-based approximation, a least square support vector machine with only two design parameters is utilized to approximate the unknown hypersonic dynamics. And the relevant ideal weights are obtained by solving a linear system without resorting to specialized optimization algorithms. Based on the approximation by least square support vector machine, only two adaptive scalars are required to be updated online in the parameter projection method. Besides, a new finite-time-convergent differentiator, with a quite simple structure, is proposed to estimate the unknown generated state variables in the newly established normal output-feedback formulation of altitude subsystem. Moreover, it is also employed to obtain accurate estimations for the derivatives of virtual controllers in a recursive design. This avoids the inherent drawback of backstepping — “explosion of terms” and makes the proposed control method achievable for the hypersonic flight vehicle. Further, the compensation design is employed when the saturations of the actuator occur. Finally, the numerical simulations validate the efficiency of the proposed finite-time-convergent differentiator and control method.

  1. TOF plotter - a program to perform routine analysis time-of-flight mass spectral data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knippel, Brad C.; Padgett, Clifford W.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    The main article discusses the operation and application of the program to mass spectral data files. This laboratory has recently reported the construction and characterization of a linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ToF-MS) utilizing a radio frequency glow discharge ionization source. Data acquisition and analysis was performed using a digital oscilloscope and Microsoft Excel, respectively. Presently, no software package is available that is specifically designed for time-of-flight mass spectral analysis that is not instrument dependent. While spreadsheet applications such as Excel offer tremendous utility, they can be cumbersome when repeatedly performing tasks which are too complex or too user intensive for macros to be viable. To address this situation and make data analysis a faster, simpler task, our laboratory has developed a Microsoft Windows-based software program coded in Microsoft Visual Basic. This program enables the user to rapidly perform routine data analysis tasks such as mass calibration, plotting and smoothing on x-y data sets. In addition to a suite of tools for data analysis, a number of calculators are built into the software to simplify routine calculations pertaining to linear ToF-MS. These include mass resolution, ion kinetic energy and single peak identification calculators. A detailed description of the software and its associated functions is presented followed by a characterization of its performance in the analysis of several representative ToF-MS spectra obtained from different GD-ToF-MS systems

  2. Flight Investigation of the Performance of a Two-stage Solid-propellant Nike-deacon (DAN) Meteorological Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitkotter, Robert H

    1956-01-01

    A flight investigation of two Nike-Deacon (DAN) two-stage solid-propellant rocket vehicles indicated satisfactory performance may be expected from the DAN meteorological sounding rocket. Peak altitudes of 356,000 and 350,000 feet, respectively, were recorded for the two flight tests when both vehicles were launched from sea level at an elevation angle of 75 degrees. Performance calculations based on flight-test results show that altitudes between 358,000 feet and 487,000 feet may be attained with payloads varying between 60 pounds and 10 pounds.

  3. A high performance Time-of-Flight detector applied to isochronous mass measurement at CSRe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Bo; Tu Xiaolin; Wang Meng; Xu Hushan; Mao Ruishi; Hu Zhengguo; Ma Xinwen; Yuan Youjin; Zhang Xueying; Geng Peng; Shuai Peng; Zang Yongdong; Tang Shuwen; Ma Peng; Lu Wan; Yan Xinshuai; Xia Jiawen; Xiao Guoqing; Guo Zhongyan; Zhang Hongbin

    2010-01-01

    A high performance Time-of-Flight detector has been designed and constructed for isochronous mass spectrometry at the experimental Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe). The detector has been successfully used in an experiment to measure the masses of the N∼Z∼33 nuclides near the proton drip-line. Of particular interest is the mass of 65 As. A maximum detection efficiency of 70% and a time resolution of 118±8 ps (FWHM) have been achieved in the experiment. The dependence of detection efficiency and signal average pulse height (APH) on atomic number Z has been studied. The potential of APH for Z identification has been discussed.

  4. Final Phase Flight Performance and Touchdown Time Assessment of TDV in RLV-TD HEX-01 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Sandeep; Jayakumar, M.; Nizin, Aziya; Kesavabrahmaji, K.; Shyam Mohan, N.

    2017-12-01

    RLV-TD HEX-01 mission was configured as a precursor flight to actual two stages to orbit vehicle. In this mission RLV-TD was designed as a two stage vehicle for demonstrating the hypersonic flight of a winged body vehicle at Mach No. 5. One of the main objectives of this mission was to generate data for better understanding of new technologies required to design the future vehicle. In this mission, the RLV-TD vehicle was heavily instrumented to get data related to performance of different subsystems. As per the mission design, RLV-TD will land in sea after flight duration of 700 s and travelling a distance of nearly 500 km in Bay of Bengal from the launch site for a nominal trajectory. The visibility studies for telemetry data of vehicle for the nominal and off nominal trajectories were carried out. Based on that, three ground stations were proposed for the telemetry data reception (including one in sea). Even with this scheme it was seen that during the final phase of the flight there will not be any ground station visible to the flight due to low elevation. To have the mission critical data during final phase of the flight, telemetry through INSAT scheme was introduced. During the end of the mission RLV-TD will be landing in the sea on a hypothetical runway. To know the exact time of touchdown for the flight in sea, there was no direct measurement available. Simultaneously there were all chances of losing ground station visibility just before touchdown, making it difficult to assess flight performance during that phase. In this work, telemetry and instrumentation scheme of RLV-TD HEX-01 mission is discussed with an objective to determine the flight performance during the final phase. Further, using various flight sensor data the touchdown time of TDV is assessed for this mission.

  5. Tracking error constrained robust adaptive neural prescribed performance control for flexible hypersonic flight vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghua Wu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A robust adaptive neural control scheme based on a back-stepping technique is developed for the longitudinal dynamics of a flexible hypersonic flight vehicle, which is able to ensure the state tracking error being confined in the prescribed bounds, in spite of the existing model uncertainties and actuator constraints. Minimal learning parameter technique–based neural networks are used to estimate the model uncertainties; thus, the amount of online updated parameters is largely lessened, and the prior information of the aerodynamic parameters is dispensable. With the utilization of an assistant compensation system, the problem of actuator constraint is overcome. By combining the prescribed performance function and sliding mode differentiator into the neural back-stepping control design procedure, a composite state tracking error constrained adaptive neural control approach is presented, and a new type of adaptive law is constructed. As compared with other adaptive neural control designs for hypersonic flight vehicle, the proposed composite control scheme exhibits not only low-computation property but also strong robustness. Finally, two comparative simulations are performed to demonstrate the robustness of this neural prescribed performance controller.

  6. Formation Flight System Extremum-Seeking-Control Using Blended Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An extremum-seeking control system for formation flight that uses blended performance parameters in a conglomerate performance function that better approximates drag reduction than performance functions formed from individual measurements. Generally, a variety of different measurements are taken and fed to a control system, the measurements are weighted, and are then subjected to a peak-seeking control algorithm. As measurements are continually taken, the aircraft will be guided to a relative position which optimizes the drag reduction of the formation. Two embodiments are discussed. Two approaches are shown for determining relative weightings: "a priori" by which they are qualitatively determined (by minimizing the error between the conglomerate function and the drag reduction function), and by periodically updating the weightings as the formation evolves.

  7. Liver fibrosis: stretched exponential model outperforms mono-exponential and bi-exponential models of diffusion-weighted MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Nieun; Chung, Yong Eun; Park, Yung Nyun; Kim, Eunju; Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, Myeong-Jin

    2018-07-01

    To compare the ability of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters acquired from three different models for the diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis (HF). Ninety-five patients underwent DWI using nine b values at 3 T magnetic resonance. The hepatic apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) from a mono-exponential model, the true diffusion coefficient (D t ), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D p ) and perfusion fraction (f) from a biexponential model, and the distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) and intravoxel heterogeneity index (α) from a stretched exponential model were compared with the pathological HF stage. For the stretched exponential model, parameters were also obtained using a dataset of six b values (DDC # , α # ). The diagnostic performances of the parameters for HF staging were evaluated with Obuchowski measures and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. The measurement variability of DWI parameters was evaluated using the coefficient of variation (CoV). Diagnostic accuracy for HF staging was highest for DDC # (Obuchowski measures, 0.770 ± 0.03), and it was significantly higher than that of ADC (0.597 ± 0.05, p bi-exponential DWI model • Acquisition of six b values is sufficient to obtain accurate DDC and α.

  8. Flight Performance Evaluation of Three GPS Receivers for Sounding Rocket Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Barton; Diehl, James; Montenbruck, Oliver; Markgraf, Markus; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for the European Space Agency Maxus-4 mission, a sounding rocket test flight was carried out at Esrange, near Kiruna, Sweden on February 19, 2001 to validate existing ground facilities and range safety installations. Due to the absence of a dedicated scientific payload, the flight offered the opportunity to test multiple GPS receivers and assess their performance for the tracking of sounding rockets. The receivers included an Ashtech G12 HDMA receiver, a BAE (Canadian Marconi) Allstar receiver and a Mitel Orion receiver. All of them provide C/A code tracking on the L1 frequency to determine the user position and make use of Doppler measurements to derive the instantaneous velocity. Among the receivers, the G12 has been optimized for use under highly dynamic conditions and has earlier been flown successfully on NASA sounding rockets. The Allstar is representative of common single frequency receivers for terrestrial applications and received no particular modification, except for the disabling of the common altitude and velocity constraints that would otherwise inhibit its use for space application. The Orion receiver, finally, employs the same Mitel chipset as the Allstar, but has received various firmware modifications by DLR to safeguard it against signal losses and improve its tracking performance. While the two NASA receivers were driven by a common wrap-around antenna, the DLR experiment made use of a switchable antenna system comprising a helical antenna in the tip of the rocket and two blade antennas attached to the body of the vehicle. During the boost a peak acceleration of roughly l7g's was achieved which resulted in a velocity of about 1100 m/s at the end of the burn. At apogee, the rocket reached an altitude of over 80 km. A detailed analysis of the attained flight data is given together with a evaluation of different receiver designs and antenna concepts.

  9. Comparison of Controller and Flight Deck Algorithm Performance During Interval Management with Dynamic Arrival Trees (STARS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiste, Vernol; Lawton, George; Lachter, Joel; Brandt, Summer; Koteskey, Robert; Dao, Arik-Quang; Kraut, Josh; Ligda, Sarah; Johnson, Walter W.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the interval between arrival aircraft is a major part of the en route and TRACON controller s job. In an effort to reduce controller workload and low altitude vectoring, algorithms have been developed to allow pilots to take responsibility for, achieve and maintain proper spacing. Additionally, algorithms have been developed to create dynamic weather-free arrival routes in the presence of convective weather. In a recent study we examined an algorithm to handle dynamic re-routing in the presence of convective weather and two distinct spacing algorithms. The spacing algorithms originated from different core algorithms; both were enhanced with trajectory intent data for the study. These two algorithms were used simultaneously in a human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulation where pilots performed weather-impacted arrival operations into Louisville International Airport while also performing interval management (IM) on some trials. The controllers retained responsibility for separation and for managing the en route airspace and some trials managing IM. The goal was a stress test of dynamic arrival algorithms with ground and airborne spacing concepts. The flight deck spacing algorithms or controller managed spacing not only had to be robust to the dynamic nature of aircraft re-routing around weather but also had to be compatible with two alternative algorithms for achieving the spacing goal. Flight deck interval management spacing in this simulation provided a clear reduction in controller workload relative to when controllers were responsible for spacing the aircraft. At the same time, spacing was much less variable with the flight deck automated spacing. Even though the approaches taken by the two spacing algorithms to achieve the interval management goals were slightly different they seem to be simpatico in achieving the interval management goal of 130 sec by the TRACON boundary.

  10. Optimal Control Allocation with Load Sensor Feedback for Active Load Suppression, Flight-Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Goodrick, Dan

    2017-01-01

    The problem of control command and maneuver induced structural loads is an important aspect of any control system design. The aircraft structure and the control architecture must be designed to achieve desired piloted control responses while limiting the imparted structural loads. The classical approach is to utilize high structural margins, restrict control surface commands to a limited set of analyzed combinations, and train pilots to follow procedural maneuvering limitations. With recent advances in structural sensing and the continued desire to improve safety and vehicle fuel efficiency, it is both possible and desirable to develop control architectures that enable lighter vehicle weights while maintaining and improving protection against structural damage. An optimal control technique has been explored and shown to achieve desirable vehicle control performance while limiting sensed structural loads to specified values. This technique has been implemented and flown on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Full-scale Advanced Systems Testbed aircraft. The flight tests illustrate that the approach achieves the desired performance and show promising potential benefits. The flights also uncovered some important issues that will need to be addressed for production application.

  11. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  12. Objective techniques for psychological assessment, phase 2. [techniques for measuring human performance during space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortz, E. C.; Saur, A. J.; Nowlis, D. P.; Kendall, M. P.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of an initial experiment in a research program designed to develop objective techniques for psychological assessment of individuals and groups participating in long-duration space flights. Specifically examined is the rationale for utilizing measures of attention as an objective assessment technique. Subjects participating in the experiment performed various tasks (eg, playing matrix games which appeared on a display screen along with auditory stimuli). The psychophysiological reactions of the subjects were measured and are given. Previous research of various performance and psychophysiological methods of measuring attention is also discussed. The experiment design (independent and dependent variables) and apparatus (computers and display devices) are described and shown. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  13. Activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Cerri, C.; Vataga, E.; Prokoshin, F.; Tokar, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activity on improving the time resolution of the Time-of-Flight detector at CDF. The main goal of the detector is the identification of kaons and pions for b-quark (B-meson) flavour tagging. Construction of the detector has been described as well as proposals on detector design changes to improve its time resolution. Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response to MIP was performed. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed modifications (at least with currently available materials) bring modest or no improvement of the detector time resolution. An automated set-up was assembled to test and check out the changes in the electronic readout system of the detector. Sophisticated software has been developed for this set-up to provide control of the system as well as processing and presentation of data from the detector. This software can perform various tests using different implementations of the hardware set-up

  14. Influence of Age and Nutritional Status on Flight Performance of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren F. Collins

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a competent vector for arboviruses and recently was implicated as the vector of the first autochthonous cases of dengue and chikungunya in southern Europe. The objective of this study was to analyze the flight performance of female Ae. albopictus of different ages that were starved, sugar-fed, or sugar-fed and blood-fed, using flight mills. After three days of starvation post emergence, females flew an average distance of 0.7 ± 0.5 km in 1.9 ± 1.5 h during a 16 h trial period, whereas sugar- or sugar- and blood-fed females of this age covered a significantly higher distance of around 3 km with a mean total flight time of around 6 h. The age of females (up to four weeks had no effect on performance. The average of maximal continuous flight segments of sugar-fed (2.14 ± 0.69 h and blood-fed (3.17 ± 0.82 h females was distinctly higher than of starved females (0.38 ± 0.15 h of which most flyers (83% performed maximal flight segments that lasted no longer than 0.5 h. Overall, the results for the laboratory monitored flight performance of Ae. albopictus confirm their ability to disperse a few kilometres between breeding site and host.

  15. Generalized approach to non-exponential relaxation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Non-exponential relaxation is a universal feature of systems as diverse as glasses, spin ... which changes from a simple exponential to a stretched exponential and a power law by increasing the constraints in the system. ... Current Issue

  16. Universality in stochastic exponential growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R

    2014-07-11

    Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth.

  17. Future Challenges in Managing Human Health and Performance Risks for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbin, Barbara J.; Barratt, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The global economy forces many nations to consider their national investments and make difficult decisions regarding their investment in future exploration. To enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration, we must pool global resources to understand and mitigate human health & performance risks prior to embarking on human exploration of deep space destinations. Consensus on the largest risks to humans during exploration is required to develop an integrated approach to mitigating risks. International collaboration in human space flight research will focus research on characterizing the effects of spaceflight on humans and the development of countermeasures or systems. Sharing existing data internationally will facilitate high quality research and sufficient power to make sound recommendations. Efficient utilization of ISS and unique ground-based analog facilities allows greater progress. Finally, a means to share results of human research in time to influence decisions for follow-on research, system design, new countermeasures and medical practices should be developed. Although formidable barriers to overcome, International working groups are working to define the risks, establish international research opportunities, share data among partners, share flight hardware and unique analog facilities, and establish forums for timely exchange of results. Representatives from the ISS partnership research and medical communities developed a list of the top ten human health & performance risks and their impact on exploration missions. They also drafted a multilateral data sharing plan to establish guidelines and principles for sharing human spaceflight data. Other working groups are also developing methods to promote international research solicitations. Collaborative use of analog facilities and shared development of space flight research and medical hardware continues. Establishing a forum for exchange of results between researchers, aerospace physicians

  18. Exponential Expansion in Evolutionary Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Peter; Jagtfelt, Tue

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to solve current problems of conceptual fragmentation within the field of evolutionary economics. One of the problems, as noted by a number of observers, is that the field suffers from an assemblage of fragmented and scattered concepts (Boschma and Martin 2010). A solution...... to this problem is proposed in the form of a model of exponential expansion. The model outlines the overall structure and function of the economy as exponential expansion. The pictographic model describes four axiomatic concepts and their exponential nature. The interactive, directional, emerging and expanding...... concepts are described in detail. Taken together it provides the rudimentary aspects of an economic system within an analytical perspective. It is argued that the main dynamic processes of the evolutionary perspective can be reduced to these four concepts. The model and concepts are evaluated in the light...

  19. Exponential x-ray transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazou, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    In emission computed tomography one wants to determine the location and intensity of radiation emitted by sources in the presence of an attenuating medium. If the attenuation is known everywhere and equals a constant α in a convex neighborhood of the support of f, then the problem reduces to that of inverting the exponential x-ray transform P/sub α/. The exponential x-ray transform P/sub μ/ with the attenuation μ variable, is of interest mathematically. For the exponential x-ray transform in two dimensions, it is shown that for a large class of approximate δ functions E, convolution kernels K exist for use in the convolution backprojection algorithm. For the case where the attenuation is constant, exact formulas are derived for calculating the convolution kernels from radial point spread functions. From these an exact inversion formula for the constantly attenuated transform is obtained

  20. [Separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin by high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/ time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Meichen; Liu, Ning

    2010-02-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight/time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) method was developed for the separation and identification of bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB). Bovine lactoferrin was hydrolyzed by pepsin and then separated by ion exchange chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC). The antibacterial activities of the fractions from RP-LC separation were determined and the protein concentration of the fraction with the highest activity was measured, whose sequence was indentified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. The relative molecular mass of LfcinB was 3 124.89 and the protein concentration was 18.20 microg/mL. The method of producing LfcinB proposed in this study has fast speed, high accuracy and high resolution.

  1. Monte Carlo study of the performance of a time-of-flight multichopper spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daemen, L.L.; Eckert, J.; Pynn, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method is a powerful technique for neutron transport studies. While it has been applied for many years to the study of nuclear systems, there are few codes available for neutron transport in the optical regime. The recent surge of interest in so-called next generation spallation neutron sources and the desire to design new and optimized instruments for these facilities has led us to develop a Monte Carlo code geared toward the simulation of neutron scattering instruments. The time-of-flight multichopper spectrometer, of which IN5 at the ILL is the prototypical example, is the first spectrometer studied with the code. Some of the results of a comparison between the IN5 performance at a reactor and at a Long Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS) are summarized here

  2. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  3. Some Aspects of Psychophysiological Support of Crew Member's Performance Reliability in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechaev, A. P.; Myasnikov, V. I.; Stepanova, S. I.; Isaev, G. F.; Bronnikov, S. V.

    The history of cosmonautics demonstrates many instances in which only crewmembers' intervention allowed critical situations to be resolved, or catastrophes to be prevented. However, during "crew-spacecraft" system operation human is exposed by influence of numerous flight factors, and beforehand it is very difficult to predict their effects on his functional state and work capacity. So, the incidents are known when unfavorable alterations of crewmember's psychophysiological state (PPS) provoked errors in task performance. The objective of the present investigation was to substantiate the methodological approach directed to increase reliability of a crewmember performance (human error prevention) by means of management of his/her PPS. The specific aims of the investigation were: 1) to evaluate the statistical significance of the interrelation between crew errors (CE) and crewmember's PPS, and 2) to develop the way of PPS management. At present, there is no conventional method to assess combined effect of flight conditions (microgravity, confinement, psychosocial factors, etc.) on crewmembers' PPS. For this purpose experts of the Medical Support Group (psychoneurologists and psychologists) at the Moscow Mission Control Center analyze information received during radio and TV contacts with crew. Peculiarities of behavior, motor activity, sleep, speech, mood, emotional reactions, well-being and sensory sphere, trend of dominant interests and volitional acts, signs of deprivation phenomena are considered as separate indicators of crewmember's PPS. The set of qualitative symptoms reflecting PPS alterations and corresponding to them ratings (in arbitrary units) was empirically stated for each indicator. It is important to emphasize that symptoms characterizing more powerful PPS alterations have higher ratings. Quantitative value of PPS integral parameter is calculating by adding up the ratings of all separate indicators over a day, a week, or other temporal interval (in

  4. Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly Performance and Integration of the Flight Focal Plane Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, Dick; Byrd, Don; Christensen, Wynn; Henson, Tammy; Krumel, Les; Rappoport, William; Shen, Gon-Yen

    1999-01-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Optical Assembly (OA) has been fabricated, assembled, successfully performance tested, and integrated into the flight payload structure with the flight Focal Plane Assembly (FPA) integrated and aligned to it. This represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. The OA consists of an off-axis three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36 cm unobscured clear aperture, a wide-field-of-view (WFOV) of 1.82 along the direction of spacecraft motion and 1.38 across the direction of spacecraft motion. It also contains a comprehensive on-board radiometric calibration system. The OA is part of a multispectral pushbroom imaging sensor which employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 m. The OA achieves near diffraction-limited performance from visible to the long-wave infrared (LWIR) wavelengths. The two major design drivers for the OA are 80% enpixeled energy in the visible bands and radiometric stability. Enpixeled energy in the visible bands also drove the alignment of the FPA detectors to the OA image plane to a requirement of less than 20 m over the entire visible detector field of view (FOV). Radiometric stability requirements mandated a cold Lyot stop for stray light rejection and thermal background reduction. The Lyot stop is part of the FPA assembly and acts as the aperture stop for the imaging system. The alignment of the Lyot stop to the OA drove the centering and to some extent the tilt alignment requirements of the FPA to the OA

  5. Exponential Potential versus Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-15

    scale of the solar system. Galaxy, Dark matter , Galaxy cluster, Gravitation, Quantum gravity...A two parameter exponential potential explains the anomalous kinematics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without need for the myriad ad hoc dark ... matter models currently in vogue. It also explains much about the scales and structures of galaxies and galaxy clusters while being quite negligible on the

  6. Phenomenology of stochastic exponential growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirjol, Dan; Jafarpour, Farshid; Iyer-Biswas, Srividya

    2017-06-01

    Stochastic exponential growth is observed in a variety of contexts, including molecular autocatalysis, nuclear fission, population growth, inflation of the universe, viral social media posts, and financial markets. Yet literature on modeling the phenomenology of these stochastic dynamics has predominantly focused on one model, geometric Brownian motion (GBM), which can be described as the solution of a Langevin equation with linear drift and linear multiplicative noise. Using recent experimental results on stochastic exponential growth of individual bacterial cell sizes, we motivate the need for a more general class of phenomenological models of stochastic exponential growth, which are consistent with the observation that the mean-rescaled distributions are approximately stationary at long times. We show that this behavior is not consistent with GBM, instead it is consistent with power-law multiplicative noise with positive fractional powers. Therefore, we consider this general class of phenomenological models for stochastic exponential growth, provide analytical solutions, and identify the important dimensionless combination of model parameters, which determines the shape of the mean-rescaled distribution. We also provide a prescription for robustly inferring model parameters from experimentally observed stochastic growth trajectories.

  7. Exponentiated Lomax Geometric Distribution: Properties and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Soliman Hassan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new four-parameter lifetime distribution, called the exponentiated Lomax geometric (ELG is introduced. The new lifetime distribution contains the Lomax geometric and exponentiated Pareto geometric as new sub-models. Explicit algebraic formulas of probability density function, survival and hazard functions are derived. Various structural properties of the new model are derived including; quantile function, Re'nyi entropy, moments, probability weighted moments, order statistic, Lorenz and Bonferroni curves. The estimation of the model parameters is performed by maximum likelihood method and inference for a large sample is discussed. The flexibility and potentiality of the new model in comparison with some other distributions are shown via an application to a real data set. We hope that the new model will be an adequate model for applications in various studies.

  8. Flight performance summary for three NASA Terrier-Malemute II sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the presentation of flight data for three Terrier-Malemute II sounding rocket vehicles. The Malemute motor was modified by adding insulation and using a propellant that produced less Al2O3 agglomerate in the chamber. This modification, designated Malemute II, reduced the sensitivity of the motor to the roll rate induced motor case burnthrough experienced on some earlier Malemute flights. Two flight tests, including a single stage Malemute II and a Terrier-Malemute II, were made by Sandia to qualify this modification. The three NASA operational flights that are the subject of this paper were made using the modified Malemute II motors.

  9. The exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution | Adeyemi | Ife ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently Gupta et al. (1998) introduced the exponentiated exponential distribution as a generalization of the standard exponential distribution. In this paper, we introduce a three-parameter generalized Pareto distribution, the exponentiated generalized Pareto distribution (EGP). We present a comprehensive treatment of the ...

  10. Flight performance and feather quality: paying the price of overlapping moult and breeding in a tropical highland bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angela Echeverry-Galvis

    Full Text Available A temporal separation of energetically costly life history events like reproduction and maintenance of the integumentary system is thought to be promoted by selection to avoid trade-offs and maximize fitness. It has therefore remained somewhat of a paradox that certain vertebrate species can undergo both events simultaneously. Identifying potential costs of overlapping two demanding life history stages will further our understanding of the selection pressures that shape the temporal regulation of life history events in vertebrates. We studied free-living tropical Slaty brush-finches (Atlapetes schistaceus, in which individuals spontaneously overlap reproduction and moult or undergo both events in separation. To assess possible costs of such an overlap we quantified feather quality and flight performance of individuals in different states. We determined individual's life history state by measuring gonad size and scoring moult stage, and collected a newly grown 7(th primary wing feather for later analysis of feather quality. Finally, we quantified flight performance for each individual in the wild. Overlapping individuals produced lighter and shorter wing feathers than individuals just moulting, with females decreasing feather quality more strongly during the overlap than males. Moreover, overlapping individuals had a reduced flight speed during escape flights, while their foraging flight speed was unaffected. Despite overlappers being larger and having a smaller wing area, their lower body mass resulted in a similar wing load as in breeders or moulters. Individuals measured repeatedly in different states also showed significant decreases in feather quality and escape flight speed during the overlap. Reduced escape flight speed may represent a major consequence of the overlap by increasing predation risk. Our data document costs to undergoing two life history stages simultaneously, which likely arise from energetic trade-offs. Impairments in

  11. Sustaining the Exponential Growth of Embedded Digital Signal Processing Capability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Gary A; Richards, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    .... We conjecture that as IC shrinkage and attendant performance improvements begin to slow, the exponential rate of improvement we have become accustomed to for embedded applications will be sustainable...

  12. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr 3 crystals respectively.

  13. Accelerating cosmologies from exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neupane, Ishwaree P.

    2003-11-01

    It is learnt that exponential potentials of the form V ∼ exp(-2cφ/M p ) arising from the hyperbolic or flux compactification of higher-dimensional theories are of interest for getting short periods of accelerated cosmological expansions. Using a similar potential but derived for the combined case of hyperbolic-flux compactification, we study a four-dimensional flat (or open) FRW cosmologies and give analytic (and numerical) solutions with exponential behavior of scale factors. We show that, for the M-theory motivated potentials, the cosmic acceleration of the universe can be eternal if the spatial curvature of the 4d spacetime is negative, while the acceleration is only transient for a spatially flat universe. We also briefly discuss about the mass of massive Kaluza-Klein modes and the dynamical stabilization of the compact hyperbolic extra dimensions. (author)

  14. Science in an Exponential World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Alexander

    The amount of scientific information is doubling every year. This exponential growth is fundamentally changing every aspect of the scientific process - the collection, analysis and dissemination of scientific information. Our traditional paradigm for scientific publishing assumes a linear world, where the number of journals and articles remains approximately constant. The talk presents the challenges of this new paradigm and shows examples of how some disciplines are trying to cope with the data avalanche. In astronomy, the Virtual Observatory is emerging as a way to do astronomy in the 21st century. Other disciplines are also in the process of creating their own Virtual Observatories, on every imaginable scale of the physical world. We will discuss how long this exponential growth can continue.

  15. Exponential asymptotics of homoclinic snaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, A D; Matthews, P C; Cox, S M; King, J R

    2011-01-01

    We study homoclinic snaking in the cubic-quintic Swift–Hohenberg equation (SHE) close to the onset of a subcritical pattern-forming instability. Application of the usual multiple-scales method produces a leading-order stationary front solution, connecting the trivial solution to the patterned state. A localized pattern may therefore be constructed by matching between two distant fronts placed back-to-back. However, the asymptotic expansion of the front is divergent, and hence should be truncated. By truncating optimally, such that the resultant remainder is exponentially small, an exponentially small parameter range is derived within which stationary fronts exist. This is shown to be a direct result of the 'locking' between the phase of the underlying pattern and its slowly varying envelope. The locking mechanism remains unobservable at any algebraic order, and can only be derived by explicitly considering beyond-all-orders effects in the tail of the asymptotic expansion, following the method of Kozyreff and Chapman as applied to the quadratic-cubic SHE (Chapman and Kozyreff 2009 Physica D 238 319–54, Kozyreff and Chapman 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 44502). Exponentially small, but exponentially growing, contributions appear in the tail of the expansion, which must be included when constructing localized patterns in order to reproduce the full snaking diagram. Implicit within the bifurcation equations is an analytical formula for the width of the snaking region. Due to the linear nature of the beyond-all-orders calculation, the bifurcation equations contain an analytically indeterminable constant, estimated in the previous work by Chapman and Kozyreff using a best fit approximation. A more accurate estimate of the equivalent constant in the cubic-quintic case is calculated from the iteration of a recurrence relation, and the subsequent analytical bifurcation diagram compared with numerical simulations, with good agreement

  16. Limit laws for exponential families

    OpenAIRE

    Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.

    1999-01-01

    For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...

  17. Laminar phase flow for an exponentially tapered Josephson oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabdallah, A.; Caputo, J. G.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    2000-01-01

    Exponential tapering and inhomogeneous current feed were recently proposed as means to improve the performance of a Josephson flux flow oscillator. Extensive numerical results backed up by analysis are presented here that support this claim and demonstrate that exponential tapering reduces...... the small current instability region and leads to a laminar flow regime where the voltage wave form is periodic giving the oscillator minimal spectral width. Tapering also leads to an increased output power. Since exponential tapering is not expected to increase the difficulty of fabricating a flux flow...

  18. Design and Performance of the NASA SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borer, Nicholas K.; Patterson, Michael D.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Moore, Mark D.; Clarke, Sean; Redifer, Matthew E.; Christie, Robert J.; Stoll, Alex M.; Dubois, Arthur; Bevirt, JoeBen; hide

    2016-01-01

    Distributed Electric Propulsion (DEP) technology uses multiple propulsors driven by electric motors distributed about the airframe to yield beneficial aerodynamic-propulsion interaction. The NASA SCEPTOR flight demonstration project will retrofit an existing internal combustion engine-powered light aircraft with two types of DEP: small "high-lift" propellers distributed along the leading edge of the wing which accelerate the flow over the wing at low speeds, and larger cruise propellers co-located with each wingtip for primary propulsive power. The updated high-lift system enables a 2.5x reduction in wing area as compared to the original aircraft, reducing drag at cruise and shifting the velocity for maximum lift-to-drag ratio to a higher speed, while maintaining low-speed performance. The wingtip-mounted cruise propellers interact with the wingtip vortex, enabling a further efficiency increase that can reduce propulsive power by 10%. A tradespace exploration approach is developed that enables rapid identification of salient trades, and subsequent creation of SCEPTOR demonstrator geometries. These candidates were scrutinized by subject matter experts to identify design preferences that were not modeled during configuration exploration. This exploration and design approach is used to create an aircraft that consumes an estimated 4.8x less energy at the selected cruise point when compared to the original aircraft.

  19. Bivariate copulas on the exponentially weighted moving average control chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasigarn Kuvattana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes four types of copulas on the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA control chart when observations are from an exponential distribution using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. The performance of the control chart is based on the Average Run Length (ARL which is compared for each copula. Copula functions for specifying dependence between random variables are used and measured by Kendall’s tau. The results show that the Normal copula can be used for almost all shifts.

  20. THE ATKINSON INDEX, THE MORAN STATISTIC, AND TESTING EXPONENTIALITY

    OpenAIRE

    Nao, Mimoto; Ricardas, Zitikis; Department of Statistics and Probability, Michigan State University; Department of Statistical and Actuarial Sciences, University of Western Ontario

    2008-01-01

    Constructing tests for exponentiality has been an active and fruitful research area, with numerous applications in engineering, biology and other sciences concerned with life-time data. In the present paper, we construct and investigate powerful tests for exponentiality based on two well known quantities: the Atkinson index and the Moran statistic. We provide an extensive study of the performance of the tests and compare them with those already available in the literature.

  1. Is Radioactive Decay Really Exponential?

    OpenAIRE

    Aston, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive decay of an unstable isotope is widely believed to be exponential. This view is supported by experiments on rapidly decaying isotopes but is more difficult to verify for slowly decaying isotopes. The decay of 14C can be calibrated over a period of 12,550 years by comparing radiocarbon dates with dates obtained from dendrochronology. It is well known that this approach shows that radiocarbon dates of over 3,000 years are in error, which is generally attributed to past variation in ...

  2. Flight Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Seagull Technology, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA, produced a computer program under a Langley Research Center Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant called STAFPLAN (Seagull Technology Advanced Flight Plan) that plans optimal trajectory routes for small to medium sized airlines to minimize direct operating costs while complying with various airline operating constraints. STAFPLAN incorporates four input databases, weather, route data, aircraft performance, and flight-specific information (times, payload, crew, fuel cost) to provide the correct amount of fuel optimal cruise altitude, climb and descent points, optimal cruise speed, and flight path.

  3. Team Performance and Error Management in Chinese and American Simulated Flight Crews: The Role of Cultural and Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Donald D.; Bryant, Janet L.; Tedrow, Lara; Liu, Ying; Selgrade, Katherine A.; Downey, Heather J.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes results of a study conducted for NASA-Langley Research Center. This study is part of a program of research conducted for NASA-LARC that has focused on identifying the influence of national culture on the performance of flight crews. We first reviewed the literature devoted to models of teamwork and team performance, crew resource management, error management, and cross-cultural psychology. Davis (1999) reported the results of this review and presented a model that depicted how national culture could influence teamwork and performance in flight crews. The second study in this research program examined accident investigations of foreign airlines in the United States conducted by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). The ability of cross-cultural values to explain national differences in flight outcomes was examined. Cultural values were found to covary in a predicted way with national differences, but the absence of necessary data in the NTSB reports and limitations in the research method that was used prevented a clear understanding of the causal impact of cultural values. Moreover, individual differences such as personality traits were not examined in this study. Davis and Kuang (2001) report results of this second study. The research summarized in the current report extends this previous research by directly assessing cultural and individual differences among students from the United States and China who were trained to fly in a flight simulator using desktop computer workstations. The research design used in this study allowed delineation of the impact of national origin, cultural values, personality traits, cognitive style, shared mental model, and task workload on teamwork, error management and flight outcomes. We briefly review the literature that documents the importance of teamwork and error management and its impact on flight crew performance. We next examine teamwork and crew resource management training designed to improve

  4. Numerical simulation of divergent rocket-based-combined-cycle performances under the flight condition of Mach 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Xu, WanWu; Li, Qinglian

    2018-01-01

    Currently, the upper operating limit of the turbine engine is Mach 2+, and the lower limit of the dual-mode scramjet is Mach 4. Therefore no single power systems can operate within the range between Mach 2 + and Mach 4. By using ejector rockets, Rocket-based-combined-cycle can work well in the above scope. As the key component of Rocket-based-combined-cycle, the ejector rocket has significant influence on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performance. Research on the influence of rocket parameters on Rocket-based-combined-cycle in the speed range of Mach 2 + to Mach 4 is scarce. In the present study, influences of Mach number and total pressure of the ejector rocket on Rocket-based-combined-cycle were analyzed numerically. Due to the significant effects of the flight conditions and the Rocket-based-combined-cycle configuration on Rocket-based-combined-cycle performances, flight altitude, flight Mach number, and divergence ratio were also considered. The simulation results indicate that matching lower altitude with higher flight Mach numbers can increase Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust. For another thing, with an increase of the divergent ratio, the effect of the divergent configuration will strengthen and there is a limit on the divergent ratio. When the divergent ratio is greater than the limit, the effect of divergent configuration will gradually exceed that of combustion on supersonic flows. Further increases in the divergent ratio will decrease Rocket-based-combined-cycle thrust.

  5. An Electronic Workshop on the Performance Seeking Control and Propulsion Controlled Aircraft Results of the F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control Flight Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Sheryll Goecke (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    Flight research for the F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) program was completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in the fall of 1993. The flight research conducted during the last two years of the HIDEC program included two principal experiments: (1) performance seeking control (PSC), an adaptive, real-time, on-board optimization of engine, inlet, and horizontal tail position on the F-15; and (2) propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), an augmented flight control system developed for landings as well as up-and-away flight that used only engine thrust (flight controls locked) for flight control. In September 1994, the background details and results of the PSC and PCA experiments were presented in an electronic workshop, accessible through the Dryden World Wide Web (http://www.dfrc.nasa.gov/dryden.html) and as a compact disk.

  6. Fully exponentially correlated wavefunctions for small atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Frank E. [Department of Physics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 and Quantum Theory Project, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118435, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2015-01-22

    Fully exponentially correlated atomic wavefunctions are constructed from exponentials in all the interparticle coordinates, in contrast to correlated wavefunctions of the Hylleraas form, in which only the electron-nuclear distances occur exponentially, with electron-electron distances entering only as integer powers. The full exponential correlation causes many-configuration wavefunctions to converge with expansion length more rapidly than either orbital formulations or correlated wavefunctions of the Hylleraas type. The present contribution surveys the effectiveness of fully exponentially correlated functions for the three-body system (the He isoelectronic series) and reports their application to a four-body system (the Li atom)

  7. Direction-dependent exponential biassing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bending, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    When Monte Carlo methods are applied to penetration problems, the use of variance reduction techniques is essential if realistic computing times are to be achieved. A technique known as direction-dependent exponential biassing is described which is simple to apply and therefore suitable for problems with difficult geometry. The material cross section in any region is multiplied by a factor which depends on the particle direction, so that particles travelling in a preferred direction ''see'' a smaller cross section than those travelling in the opposite direction. A theoretical study shows that substantial gains may be obtained, and that the choice of biassing parameter is not critical. The method has been implemented alongside other importance sampling techniques in the general Monte Carlo code SPARTAN, and results obtained for simple problems using this code are included. 4 references. (U.S.)

  8. Deformed exponentials and portfolio selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Flávia P.; Guerreiro, Igor M.; Cavalcante, Charles Casimiro

    In this paper, we present a method for portfolio selection based on the consideration on deformed exponentials in order to generalize the methods based on the gaussianity of the returns in portfolio, such as the Markowitz model. The proposed method generalizes the idea of optimizing mean-variance and mean-divergence models and allows a more accurate behavior for situations where heavy-tails distributions are necessary to describe the returns in a given time instant, such as those observed in economic crises. Numerical results show the proposed method outperforms the Markowitz portfolio for the cumulated returns with a good convergence rate of the weights for the assets which are searched by means of a natural gradient algorithm.

  9. Coarse Grained Exponential Variational Autoencoders

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ke

    2017-02-25

    Variational autoencoders (VAE) often use Gaussian or category distribution to model the inference process. This puts a limit on variational learning because this simplified assumption does not match the true posterior distribution, which is usually much more sophisticated. To break this limitation and apply arbitrary parametric distribution during inference, this paper derives a \\\\emph{semi-continuous} latent representation, which approximates a continuous density up to a prescribed precision, and is much easier to analyze than its continuous counterpart because it is fundamentally discrete. We showcase the proposition by applying polynomial exponential family distributions as the posterior, which are universal probability density function generators. Our experimental results show consistent improvements over commonly used VAE models.

  10. SOFIA's secondary mirror assembly: in-flight performance and control approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinacher, Andreas; Lammen, Yannick; Roeser, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    dependent non-linearity the underlying model of the Kalman filter adapts in real-time to those two parameters. This highly specialized controller was developed over the course of years and only the final design is introduced here. The main intention of this contribution is to present the currently achieved performance of the SOFIA chopper over the full amplitude, frequency, and temperature range. Therefore a range of data gathered during in-flight tests aboard SOFIA is displayed and explained. The SMM's three main performance parameters are the transition time between two chop positions, the stability of the Secondary Mirror when exposed to the low pressures, low temperatures, aerodynamic, and aeroacoustic excitations present when the SOFIA observatory operates in the stratosphere at speeds of up to 850 km/h, and finally the closed-loop bandwidth available for fast pointing corrections.

  11. Performance of the Components of the XJ34-WE-32 Turbojet Engine over a Range of Engine and Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcaulay, John E; Sobolewski, Adam E; Smith, Ivan D

    1952-01-01

    Performance of the compressor, combustor, and turbine operating as integral parts of the XJ34-WE-32 turbojet engine was determined in the Lewis altitude wind tunnel over a range of altitudes from 5000 to 55,000 feet and flight Mach numbers from 0.28 to 1.05. Data were obtained for each of four exhaust-nozzle areas and are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  12. Chasing behaviour and optomotor following in free-flying male blowflies: flight performance and interactions of the underlying control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Trischler

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The chasing behaviour of male blowflies after small targets belongs to the most rapid and virtuosic visually guided behaviours found in nature. Since in a structured environment any turn towards a target inevitably leads to a displacement of the entire retinal image in the opposite direction, it might evoke optomotor following responses counteracting the turn. To analyse potential interactions between the control systems underlying chasing behaviour and optomotor following, respectively, we performed behavioural experiments on male blowflies and examined the characteristics of the two flight control systems in isolation and in combination. Three findings are particularly striking. (i The characteristic saccadic flight and gaze style – a distinctive feature of blowfly cruising flights – is largely abandoned when the entire visual surroundings move around the fly; in this case flies tend to follow the moving pattern in a relatively continuous and smooth way. (ii When male flies engage in following a small target, they also employ a smooth pursuit strategy. (iii Although blowflies are reluctant to fly at high background velocities, the performance and dynamical characteristics of the chasing system are not much affected when the background moves in either the same or in the opposite direction as the target. Hence, the optomotor following response is largely suppressed by the chasing system and does not much impair chasing performance.

  13. From Research to Flight: Thinking About Implementation While Performing Fundamental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Les

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation calls for a strategy to implement new technologies. Such a strategy would allow advanced space transportation technologies to mature for exploration beyond Earth orbit. It discusses the difference between technology push versus technology pull. It also reviews the three basic technology readiness levels (TRL). The presentation traces examples of technology development to flight application: the Space Shuttle Main Engine Advanced Health Management System, the Friction Stir Welding technology the (auto-adjustable pin tool). A couple of technologies currently not in flight, but are being reviewed for potential use are: cryogenic fluid management (CFM), and solar sail propulsion. There is also an attempt to explain why new technologies are so difficult to field.

  14. Visual Performance Challenges to Low-Frequency Perturbations After Long-Duration Space Flight, and Countermeasure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Fiedler, Matthew; Kofman, Igor; Kulecz, Walter B.; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Serrador, Jorge; Cohen, Helen; Reschke, Millard; hide

    2010-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances after long-duration space flight. After a water landing, crewmembers may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons in various sea state conditions. Exposure to even low-frequency motions induced by sea conditions surrounding a vessel can cause significant motor control problems affecting critical functions. The first objective of this study was to document human visual performance during simulated wave motion below 2.0 Hz. We examined the changes in accuracy and reaction time when subjects performed a visual target acquisition task in which the location of the target was offset vertically during horizontal rotation at an oscillating frequency of 0.8 Hz. The main finding was that both accuracy and reaction time varied as a function of target location, with greater performance decrements occurring when vertical targets were acquired at perturbing frequencies of 0.8 Hz in the horizontal plane. A second objective was to develop a countermeasure, base d on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance sensorimotor capabilities with the aim of facilitating rapid adaptation to gravitational transitions after long-duration space flight. SR is a mechanism by which noise can enhance the response of neural systems to relevant sensory signals. Recent studies have shown that applying imperceptible stochastic electrical stimulation to the vestibular system (SVS) significantly improved balance and oculomotor responses. This study examined the effectiveness of SVS on improving balance performance. Subjects performed a standard balance task while bipolar SVS was applied to the vestibular system using constant current stimulation through electrodes placed over the mastoid process. The main finding of this study was that balance performance with the application of SR showed significant improvement in the range of 10%-25%. Ultimately an SR-based countermeasure might be fielded either as preflight training

  15. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, S A; Crall, J D; Mukherjee, S

    2010-06-23

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop-escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival.

  16. Low level exposure to crude oil impacts avian flight performance: The Deepwater Horizon oil spill effect on migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristina R; Moye, John K; Cacela, Dave; Dean, Karen M; Pritsos, Chris A

    2017-12-01

    In 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil spill released 134 million gallons of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico making it the largest oil spill in US history. The three month oil spill left tens of thousands of birds dead; however, the fate of tens of thousands of other migratory birds that were affected but did not immediately die is unknown. We used the homing pigeon as a surrogate species for migratory birds to investigate the effects of a single external oiling event on the flight performance of birds. Data from GPS data loggers revealed that lightly oiled pigeons took significantly longer to return home and spent more time stopped en route than unoiled birds. This suggests that migratory birds affected by the oil spill could have experienced long term flight impairment and delayed arrival to breeding, wintering, or crucial stopover sites and subsequently suffered reductions in survival and reproductive success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exponential Stabilization of Underactuated Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, K.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Underactuated vehicles are vehicles with fewer independent control actuators than degrees of freedom to be controlled. Such vehicles may be used in inspection of sub-sea cables, inspection and maintenance of offshore oil drilling platforms, and similar. This doctoral thesis discusses feedback stabilization of underactuated vehicles. The main objective has been to further develop methods from stabilization of nonholonomic systems to arrive at methods that are applicable to underactuated vehicles. A nonlinear model including both dynamics and kinematics is used to describe the vehicles, which may be surface vessels, spacecraft or autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). It is shown that for a certain class of underactuated vehicles the stabilization problem is not solvable by linear control theory. A new stability result for a class of homogeneous time-varying systems is derived and shown to be an important tool for developing continuous periodic time-varying feedback laws that stabilize underactuated vehicles without involving cancellation of dynamics. For position and orientation control of a surface vessel without side thruster a new continuous periodic feedback law is proposed that does not cancel any dynamics, and that exponentially stabilizes the origin of the underactuated surface vessel. A further issue considered is the stabilization of the attitude of an AUV. Finally, the thesis discusses stabilization of both position and attitude of an underactuated AUV. 55 refs., 28 figs.

  18. Exponential Hilbert series of equivariant embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Wayne A.

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we study properties of the exponential Hilbert series of a $G$-equivariant projective variety, where $G$ is a semisimple, simply-connected complex linear algebraic group. We prove a relationship between the exponential Hilbert series and the degree and dimension of the variety. We then prove a combinatorial identity for the coefficients of the polynomial representing the exponential Hilbert series. This formula is used in examples to prove further combinatorial identities inv...

  19. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  20. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  1. TOFPET 2: A high-performance circuit for PET time-of-flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Francesco, Agostino, E-mail: agodifra@lip.pt [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); Bugalho, Ricardo [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); PETsys Electronics, Oeiras (Portugal); Oliveira, Luis [CTS-UNINOVA, DEE FCT-UNL, Caparica (Portugal); Rivetti, Angelo [INFN - sez. Torino (Italy); Rolo, Manuel [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); INFN - sez. Torino (Italy); Silva, Jose C.; Varela, Joao [LIP, Lisbon (Portugal); PETsys Electronics, Oeiras (Portugal)

    2016-07-11

    We present a readout and digitization ASIC featuring low-noise and low-power for time-of flight (TOF) applications using SiPMs. The circuit is designed in standard CMOS 110 nm technology, has 64 independent channels and is optimized for time-of-flight measurement in Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET). The input amplifier is a low impedance current conveyor based on a regulated common-gate topology. Each channel has quad-buffered analogue interpolation TDCs (time binning 20 ps) and charge integration ADCs with linear response at full scale (1500 pC). The signal amplitude can also be derived from the measurement of time-over-threshold (ToT). Simulation results show that for a single photo-electron signal with charge 200 (550) fC generated by a SiPM with (320 pF) capacitance the circuit has 24 (30) dB SNR, 75 (39) ps r.m.s. resolution, and 4 (8) mW power consumption. The event rate is 600 kHz per channel, with up to 2 MHz dark counts rejection.

  2. Method for nonlinear exponential regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junkin, B. G.

    1972-01-01

    Two computer programs developed according to two general types of exponential models for conducting nonlinear exponential regression analysis are described. Least squares procedure is used in which the nonlinear problem is linearized by expanding in a Taylor series. Program is written in FORTRAN 5 for the Univac 1108 computer.

  3. Multivariate Marshall and Olkin Exponential Minification Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A stationary bivariate minification process with bivariate Marshall-Olkin exponential distribution that was earlier studied by Miroslav et al [15]is in this paper extended to multivariate minification process with multivariate Marshall and Olkin exponential distribution as its stationary marginal distribution. The innovation and the ...

  4. On Uniform Exponential Trichotomy in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Monteola Ilona

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider three concepts of uniform exponential trichotomy on the half-line in the general framework of evolution operators in Banach spaces. We obtain a systematic classification of uniform exponential trichotomy concepts and the connections between them.

  5. Dual exponential polynomials and linear differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhi-Tao; Gundersen, Gary G.; Heittokangas, Janne

    2018-01-01

    We study linear differential equations with exponential polynomial coefficients, where exactly one coefficient is of order greater than all the others. The main result shows that a nontrivial exponential polynomial solution of such an equation has a certain dual relationship with the maximum order coefficient. Several examples illustrate our results and exhibit possibilities that can occur.

  6. Does proton decay follow the exponential law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Gomez, J.L.; Alvarez-Estrada, R.F.; Fernandez, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the exponential law for proton decay. By using a simple model based upon SU(5)GUT and the current theories of hadron structure, we explicitely show that the corrections to the Wigner-Weisskopf approximation are quite negligible for present day protons, so that their eventual decay should follow the exponential law. Previous works are critically analyzed. (orig.)

  7. Estimation of exponential convergence rate and exponential stability for neural networks with time-varying delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Fenghua; Liao Xiaofeng

    2005-01-01

    We study the problem of estimating the exponential convergence rate and exponential stability for neural networks with time-varying delay. Some criteria for exponential stability are derived by using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. They are less conservative than the existing ones. Some analytical methods are employed to investigate the bounds on the interconnection matrix and activation functions so that the systems are exponentially stable

  8. Late-time acceleration with steep exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahalam, M. [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Wang, Anzhong [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Baylor University, GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this letter, we study the cosmological dynamics of steeper potential than exponential. Our analysis shows that a simple extension of an exponential potential allows to capture late-time cosmic acceleration and retain the tracker behavior. We also perform statefinder and Om diagnostics to distinguish dark energy models among themselves and with ΛCDM. In addition, to put the observational constraints on the model parameters, we modify the publicly available CosmoMC code and use an integrated data base of baryon acoustic oscillation, latest Type Ia supernova from Joint Light Curves sample and the local Hubble constant value measured by the Hubble Space Telescope. (orig.)

  9. Late-time acceleration with steep exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahalam, M.; Yang, Weiqiang; Myrzakulov, R.; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we study the cosmological dynamics of steeper potential than exponential. Our analysis shows that a simple extension of an exponential potential allows to capture late-time cosmic acceleration and retain the tracker behavior. We also perform statefinder and Om diagnostics to distinguish dark energy models among themselves and with ΛCDM. In addition, to put the observational constraints on the model parameters, we modify the publicly available CosmoMC code and use an integrated data base of baryon acoustic oscillation, latest Type Ia supernova from Joint Light Curves sample and the local Hubble constant value measured by the Hubble Space Telescope. (orig.)

  10. Pilot performance: assessing how scan patterns & navigational assessments vary by flight expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Hyun; Kennedy, Quinn; Sullivan, Joseph; Fricker, Ronald D

    2013-02-01

    Helicopter overland navigation is a cognitively complex task that requires continuous monitoring of system and environmental parameters and many hours of training to master. This study investigated the effect of expertise on pilots' gaze measurements, navigation accuracy, and subjective assessment of their navigation accuracy in overland navigation on easy and difficult routes. A simulated overland task was completed by 12 military officers who ranged in flight experience as measured by total flight hours (TFH). They first studied a map of a route that included both easy and difficult route sections, and then had to 'fly' this simulated route in a fixed-base helicopter simulator. They also completed pre-task estimations and post-task assessments of the navigational difficulty of the transit to each waypoint in the route. Their scan pattern was tracked via eye tracking systems, which captured both the subject's out-the-window (OTW) and topographical map scan data. TFH was not associated with navigation accuracy or root mean square (RMS) error for any route section. For the easy routes, experts spent less time scanning out the window (p = 0.61) and had shorter OTW dwell (p = -0.66). For the difficult routes, experts appeared to slow down their scan by spending as much time scanning out the window as the novices while also having fewer Map fixations (p = -0.65) and shorter OTW dwell (p = -0.69). However, TFH was not significantly correlated with more accurate estimates of route difficulty. This study found that TFH did not predict navigation accuracy or subjective assessment, but was correlated with some gaze parameters.

  11. Performance of a high sensitivity time-of-flight PET ring operating simultaneously within a 3T MR system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Craig S; Jansen, Floris; Deller, Tim; Maramraju, Sri Harsha; Grant, Alex; Iagaru, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF)-PET/MR research system installed at Stanford will be used to test the hypotheses that (a) it is possible to acquire simultaneous TOF-PET and 3T MR data while achieving uncompromised performance in both modalities and (b) simultaneous TOF-PET/MR is a tool for multi-parameter characterization of disease. In this paper we will describe the design as well as performance measurements both for the standalone PET ring, and with the two systems integrated. We will also show a selection of clinical images to compare the performance of the integrated TOF-PET/MR system with that of a state-of-the-art PET/CT system.

  12. Utilizing Commercial Hardware and Open Source Computer Vision Software to Perform Motion Capture for Reduced Gravity Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Brad; Bellisario, Brian; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts. To perform validation of these models and to support the Advanced Exercise Concepts Project, several candidate devices have been flown onboard NASAs Reduced Gravity Aircraft. In terrestrial laboratories, researchers typically have available to them motion capture systems for the measurement of subject kinematics. Onboard the parabolic flight aircraft it is not practical to utilize the traditional motion capture systems due to the large working volume they require and their relatively high replacement cost if damaged. To support measuring kinematics on board parabolic aircraft, a motion capture system is being developed utilizing open source computer vision code with commercial off the shelf (COTS) video camera hardware. While the systems accuracy is lower than lab setups, it provides a means to produce quantitative comparison motion capture kinematic data. Additionally, data such as required exercise volume for small spaces such as the Orion capsule can be determined. METHODS: OpenCV is an open source computer vision library that provides the

  13. Lesion detection and quantification performance of the Tachyon-I time-of-flight PET scanner: phantom and human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuezhu; Peng, Qiyu; Zhou, Jian; Huber, Jennifer S.; Moses, William W.; Qi, Jinyi

    2018-03-01

    The first generation Tachyon PET (Tachyon-I) is a demonstration single-ring PET scanner that reaches a coincidence timing resolution of 314 ps using LSO scintillator crystals coupled to conventional photomultiplier tubes. The objective of this study was to quantify the improvement in both lesion detection and quantification performance resulting from the improved time-of-flight (TOF) capability of the Tachyon-I scanner. We developed a quantitative TOF image reconstruction method for the Tachyon-I and evaluated its TOF gain for lesion detection and quantification. Scans of either a standard NEMA torso phantom or healthy volunteers were used as the normal background data. Separately scanned point source and sphere data were superimposed onto the phantom or human data after accounting for the object attenuation. We used the bootstrap method to generate multiple independent noisy datasets with and without a lesion present. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a channelized hotelling observer (CHO) was calculated for each lesion size and location combination to evaluate the lesion detection performance. The bias versus standard deviation trade-off of each lesion uptake was also calculated to evaluate the quantification performance. The resulting CHO-SNR measurements showed improved performance in lesion detection with better timing resolution. The detection performance was also dependent on the lesion size and location, in addition to the background object size and shape. The results of bias versus noise trade-off showed that the noise (standard deviation) reduction ratio was about 1.1–1.3 over the TOF 500 ps and 1.5–1.9 over the non-TOF modes, similar to the SNR gains for lesion detection. In conclusion, this Tachyon-I PET study demonstrated the benefit of improved time-of-flight capability on lesion detection and ROI quantification for both phantom and human subjects.

  14. Development of an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method Suitable for Performing During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, James H.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Mishra S. K.; McElmeel, M. Letticia; Maher, Louise A.; Mulder, Ross; Lancaster, Michael V.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a Space Shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, MO) were designed to include 6-11 serial two-fold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a Beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color endpoints in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue(Trademark), Accumed International, Westlake, OH). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results when testing isolates of Staphylococcus aurezis, Group A Streptococcus, Enterococcusfaecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomoiias aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined using a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values, that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the Space Shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the Space Shuttle until experiment initiation, then incubation of the cards for 18-48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4-8 C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronauts' activities. For comparison, ground-based control

  15. Characterization of UAV Performance and Development of a Formation Flight Controller for Multiple Small UAVS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCarthy, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    ... (UAV). One area of particular interest is using multiple small UAVs cooperatively to improve mission efficiency, as well as perform missions that couldn't be performed using vehicles independently...

  16. Exponential Stability of Switched Positive Homogeneous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadong Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the exponential stability of switched positive nonlinear systems defined by cooperative and homogeneous vector fields. In order to capture the decay rate of such systems, we first consider the subsystems. A sufficient condition for exponential stability of subsystems with time-varying delays is derived. In particular, for the corresponding delay-free systems, we prove that this sufficient condition is also necessary. Then, we present a sufficient condition of exponential stability under minimum dwell time switching for the switched positive nonlinear systems. Some results in the previous literature are extended. Finally, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  17. Exponential Frequency Spectrum in Magnetized Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of a magnetized plasma with a controlled electron temperature gradient show the development of a broadband spectrum of density and temperature fluctuations having an exponential frequency dependence at frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The origin of the exponential frequency behavior is traced to temporal pulses of Lorentzian shape. Similar exponential frequency spectra are also found in limiter-edge plasma turbulence associated with blob transport. This finding suggests a universal feature of magnetized plasma turbulence leading to nondiffusive, cross-field transport, namely, the presence of Lorentzian shaped pulses

  18. Matrix-exponential description of radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, P.C.

    1981-01-01

    By appling the matrix-exponential operator technique to the radiative-transfer equation in discrete form, new analytical solutions are obtained for the transmission and reflection matrices in the limiting cases x >1, where x is the optical depth of the layer. Orthongonality of the eigenvectors of the matrix exponential apparently yields new conditions for determining. Chandrasekhar's characteristic roots. The exact law of reflection for the discrete eigenfunctions is also obtained. Finally, when used in conjuction with the doubling method, the matrix exponential should result in reduction in both computation time and loss of precision

  19. Thermal impact of migrating birds' wing color on their flight performance: Possibility of new generation of biologically inspired drones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M; Abdelmoula, H; Ben Ayed, S; Abdelkefi, A

    2017-05-01

    The thermal impact of the birds' color on their flight performance are investigated. In most of the large migrating birds, the top of their wings is black. Considering this natural phenomenon in the migrating birds, such as albatross, a thermal analysis of the boundary layer of their wings is performed during the year depending on the solar insulation. It is shown that the temperature difference between the bright and dark colored top wing surface is around 10°C. The dark color on the top of the wing increases the temperature of the boundary layer over the wing which consequently reduces the skin drag force over the wing. This reduction in the drag force can be considered as one of the effective factors for long endurance of these migrating birds. This research should lead to improved designs of the drones by applying the inspired colors which can help drones increase their endurance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of in-flight and ground-based simulator derived flying qualities and pilot performance for approach and landing tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, William D.; Williams, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    For the case of an approach-and-landing piloting task emphasizing response to the landing flare, pilot opinion and performance parameters derived from jet transport aircraft six-degree-of-freedom ground-based and in-flight simulators were compared in order to derive data for the flight-controls/flying-qualities engineers. The data thus obtained indicate that ground simulation results tend to be conservative, and that the effect of control sensitivity is more pronounced for ground simulation. The pilot also has a greater tendency to generate pilot-induced oscillation in ground-based simulation than in flight.

  1. Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid-Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid ChromatographyTime-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Quantification of VX Nerve Agent in Various Food Matrices by Solid - Phase Extraction Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography...QUANTIFICATION OF VX NERVE AGENT IN VARIOUS FOOD MATRICES BY SOLID - PHASE EXTRACTION ULTRA-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY–TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS

  2. On the formation of exponential discs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshii, Yuzuru; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper

    1989-01-01

    Spiral galaxy discs are characterized by approximately exponential surface luminosity profiles. In this paper the evolutionary equations for a star-forming, viscous disc are solved analytically or semi-analytically. It is shown that approximately exponential stellar surface density profiles result if the viscous time-scale t ν is comparable to the star-formation time scale t * everywhere in the disc. The analytical solutions are used to illuminate further on the issue of why the above mechanism leads to resulting exponential stellar profiles under certain conditions. The sensitivity of the solution to variations of various parameters are investigated and show that the initial gas surface density distribution has to be fairly regular in order that final exponential stellar surface density profiles result. (author)

  3. Exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaozhen Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation in ${H^{2}(Omega}cap{H}^{1}_{0}(Omega$ when the space dimension is less than 4.

  4. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: flight service and inspection. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizer, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force

  5. Central limit theorem and deformed exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignat, C; Plastino, A

    2007-01-01

    The central limit theorem (CLT) can be ranked among the most important ones in probability theory and statistics and plays an essential role in several basic and applied disciplines, notably in statistical thermodynamics. We show that there exists a natural extension of the CLT from exponentials to so-called deformed exponentials (also denoted as q-Gaussians). Our proposal applies exactly in the usual conditions in which the classical CLT is used. (fast track communication)

  6. Sampling from the normal and exponential distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaplin, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for generating random numbers from the normal and exponential distributions are described. These involve dividing each function into subregions, and for each of these developing a method of sampling usually based on an acceptance rejection technique. When sampling from the normal or exponential distribution, each subregion provides the required random value with probability equal to the ratio of its area to the total area. Procedures written in FORTRAN for the CYBER 175/CDC 6600 system are provided to implement the two algorithms

  7. Time and motion, experiment M151. [human performance and space flight stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, J. F.; Elrod, J. T.; Rusnak, R.; Mcbride, G. H.; Barnes, J. E.; Saxon, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut work performance during the preparation and execution of experiments in simulated Skylab tests was analyzed according to time and motion in order to evaluate the efficiency and consistency of performance (adaptation function) for several different types of activity over the course of the mission; to evaluate the procedures to be used by the same experiment in Skylab; to generate characteristic adaptation functions for later comparison with Skylab data; and to examine astronaut performance for any behavioral stress due to the environment. The overall results indicate that the anticipated adaptation function was obtained both for individual and for averaged data.

  8. Performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry for identification of clinical yeast isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenvinge, Flemming S; Dzajic, Esad; Knudsen, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Accurate and fast yeast identification is important when treating patients with invasive fungal disease as susceptibility to antifungal agents is highly species related. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) provides a powerful tool with a clear potential...... spectra output, all 13 isolates were correctly identified, resulting in an overall identification performance of 92%. No misidentifications occurred with the two systems. Of the routine isolates one laboratory identified 99/99 (100%) and 90/99 (91%) to species level by Saramis/Axima and conventional...... identification, respectively, whereas the other laboratory identified 83/98 (85%) to species level by both BioTyper/Bruker and conventional identification. Both MALDI-TOF-MS systems are fast, have built-in databases that cover the majority of clinically relevant Candida species, and have an accuracy...

  9. In-flight calibration and performance evaluation of the fixed head star trackers for the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. H.; Gambardella, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) spacecraft provides an excellent opportunity for evaluating attitude determination accuracies achievable with tracking instruments such as fixed head star trackers (FHSTs). As a part of its payload, SMM carries a highly accurate fine pointing Sun sensor (FPSS). The EPSS provides an independent check of the pitch and yaw parameters computed from observations of stars in the FHST field of view. A method to determine the alignment of the FHSTs relative to the FPSS using spacecraft data is applied. Two methods that were used to determine distortions in the 8 degree by 8 degree field of view of the FHSTs using spacecraft data are also presented. The attitude determination accuracy performance of the in flight calibrated FHSTs is evaluated.

  10. Investigation of possible causes for human-performance degradation during microgravity flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, James E.; Tuttle, Megan L.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the first year of a three year study of the effects of microgravity on human performance are given. Test results show support for the hypothesis that the effects of microgravity can be studied indirectly on Earth by measuring performance in an altered gravitational field. The hypothesis was that an altered gravitational field could disrupt performance on previously automated behaviors if gravity was a critical part of the stimulus complex controlling those behaviors. In addition, it was proposed that performance on secondary cognitive tasks would also degrade, especially if the subject was provided feedback about degradation on the previously automated task. In the initial experimental test of these hypotheses, there was little statistical support. However, when subjects were categorized as high or low in automated behavior, results for the former group supported the hypotheses. The predicted interaction between body orientation and level of workload in their joint effect on performance in the secondary cognitive task was significant for the group high in automatized behavior and receiving feedback, but no such interventions were found for the group high in automatized behavior but not receiving feedback, or the group low in automatized behavior.

  11. Stretched versus compressed exponential kinetics in α-helix folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Peter; Helbing, Jan; Bredenbeck, Jens

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (J. Bredenbeck, J. Helbing, J.R. Kumita, G.A. Woolley, P. Hamm, α-helix formation in a photoswitchable peptide tracked from picoseconds to microseconds by time resolved IR spectroscopy, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 102 (2005) 2379), we have investigated the folding of a photo-switchable α-helix with a kinetics that could be fit by a stretched exponential function exp(-(t/τ) β ). The stretching factor β became smaller as the temperature was lowered, a result which has been interpreted in terms of activated diffusion on a rugged energy surface. In the present paper, we discuss under which conditions diffusion problems occur with stretched exponential kinetics (β 1). We show that diffusion problems do have a strong tendency to yield stretched exponential kinetics, yet, that there are conditions (strong perturbation from equilibrium, performing the experiment in the folding direction) under which compressed exponential kinetics would be expected instead. We discuss the kinetics on free energy surfaces predicted by simple initiation-propagation models (zipper models) of α-helix folding, as well as by folding funnel models. We show that our recent experiment has been performed under condition for which models with strong downhill driving force, such as the zipper model, would predict compressed, rather than stretched exponential kinetics, in disagreement with the experimental observation. We therefore propose that the free energy surface along a reaction coordinate that governs the folding kinetics must be relatively flat and has a shape similar to a 1D golf course. We discuss how this conclusion can be unified with the thermodynamically well established zipper model by introducing an additional kinetic reaction coordinate

  12. Planck early results. III. First assessment of the Low Frequency Instrument in-flight performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poutanen, T.; Lähteenmäki, A.; León-Tavares, J.

    2011-01-01

    The scientific performance of the Planck Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) after one year of in-orbit operation is presented. We describe the main optical parameters and discuss photometric calibration, white noise sensitivity, and noise properties. A preliminary evaluation of the impact of the main...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Flight Training Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... programming and validation. (b) For each maneuver or procedure— (i) The procedures and control input the... area review the data necessary for programming and for validating the performance of the FTD and..., or checking activities. r. Problems with objective test results are handled as follows: (1) If a...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Helicopter Flight Training Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... required for aircraft certification and simulation programming and validation. (b) For each maneuver or... the data necessary for programming and for validating the performance of the FTD and discuss the... the FTD during the training, testing, or checking activities. r. Problems with objective test results...

  15. Miracle Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Flight Get Involved Events Shop Miles Contact Miracle Flights Blog Giving Tuesday 800-359-1711 Thousands of children have been saved, but we still have miles to go. Request a Flight Click Here to Donate - Your ...

  16. Theory underlying CRM training: Psychological issues in flight crew performance and crew coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    What psychological theory and research can reveal about training in Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) is summarized. A framework is provided for the critical analysis of current approaches to CRM training. Background factors and definitions critical to evaluating CRM are reviewed, followed by a discussion of issues directly related to CRM training effectiveness. Some of the things not known about the optimization of crew performance and the research needed to make these efforts as effective as possible are described.

  17. Implicit and fully implicit exponential finite difference methods

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burgers' equation; exponential finite difference method; implicit exponential finite difference method; ... This paper describes two new techniques which give improved exponential finite difference solutions of Burgers' equation. ... Current Issue

  18. Design and flight performance evaluation of the Mariners 6, 7, and 9 short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the short-circuit voltage transducer is to provide engineering data to aid the evaluation of array performance during flight. The design, fabrication, calibration, and in-flight performance of the transducers onboard the Mariner 6, 7 and 9 spacecrafts are described. No significant differences were observed in the in-flight electrical performance of the three transducers. The transducers did experience significant losses due to coverslides or adhesive darkening, increased surface reflection, or spectral shifts within coverslide assembly. Mariner 6, 7 and 9 transducers showed non-cell current degradations of 3-1/2%, 3%, and 4%, respectively at Mars encounter and 6%, 3%, and 4-12%, respectively at end of mission. Mariner 9 solar Array Test 2 showed 3-12% current degradation while the transducer showed 4-12% degradation.

  19. Optimized performance of flight Plan during chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma: Importance of the proportion of segmented tumor area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Seung Moon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Yum, Tae Jun; Eun, Na Lae; Lee, Da Hye; Lee, Kwang Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To evaluate retrospectively the clinical effectiveness of Flight Plan for Liver (FPFL), an automated tumor-feeding artery detection software in cone-beam CT angiography (CBCTA), in identifying tumor-feeding arteries for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using three different segmentation sensitivities. The study included 50 patients with 80 HCC nodules who received transarterial chemoembolization. Standard digital subtracted angiography (DSA) and CBCTA were systematically performed and analyzed. Three settings of the FPFL software for vascular tree segmentation were tested for each tumor: the default, Group D; adjusting the proportion of segmented tumor area between 30 to 50%, Group L; and between 50 to 80%, Group H. In total, 109 feeder vessels supplying 80 HCC nodules were identified. The negative predictive value of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 56.8%, 87.7%, 94.2%, 98.5%, respectively. The accuracy of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 62.6%, 86.8%, 93.4%, 95.6%, respectively. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of FPFL were higher in Group H than in Group D (p = 0.041, 0.034, 0.005). All three segmentation sensitivity groups showed higher specificity, positive predictive value, NPV, and accuracy of FPFL, as compared to DSA. FlightPlan for Liver is a valuable tool for increasing detection of HCC tumor feeding vessels, as compared to standard DSA analysis, particularly in small HCC. Manual adjustment of segmentation sensitivity improves the accuracy of FPFL.

  20. Optimized Performance of FlightPlan during Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Importance of the Proportion of Segmented Tumor Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Seung-Moon; Kim, Yong Pyo; Yum, Tae Jun; Eun, Na Lae; Lee, Dahye; Lee, Kwang-Hun [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 06273 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate retrospectively the clinical effectiveness of FlightPlan for Liver (FPFL), an automated tumor-feeding artery detection software in cone-beam CT angiography (CBCTA), in identifying tumor-feeding arteries for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using three different segmentation sensitivities. The study included 50 patients with 80 HCC nodules who received transarterial chemoembolization. Standard digital subtracted angiography (DSA) and CBCTA were systematically performed and analyzed. Three settings of the FPFL software for vascular tree segmentation were tested for each tumor: the default, Group D; adjusting the proportion of segmented tumor area between 30 to 50%, Group L; and between 50 to 80%, Group H. In total, 109 feeder vessels supplying 80 HCC nodules were identified. The negative predictive value of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 56.8%, 87.7%, 94.2%, 98.5%, respectively. The accuracy of DSA, FPFL in groups D, L, and H was 62.6%, 86.8%, 93.4%, 95.6%, respectively. The sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of FPFL were higher in Group H than in Group D (p = 0.041, 0.034, 0.005). All three segmentation sensitivity groups showed higher specificity, positive predictive value, NPV, and accuracy of FPFL, as compared to DSA. FlightPlan for Liver is a valuable tool for increasing detection of HCC tumor feeding vessels, as compared to standard DSA analysis, particularly in small HCC. Manual adjustment of segmentation sensitivity improves the accuracy of FPFL.

  1. Risk of Adverse Health Outcomes and Decrements in Performance Due to In-flight Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsen,Erik

    2017-01-01

    The drive to undertake long-duration space exploration missions at greater distances from Earth gives rise to many challenges concerning human performance under extreme conditions. At NASA, the Human Research Program (HRP) has been established to investigate the specific risks to astronaut health and performance presented by space exploration, in addition to developing necessary countermeasures and technology to reduce risk and facilitate safer, more productive missions in space (NASA Human Research Program 2009). The HRP is divided into five subsections, covering behavioral health, space radiation, habitability, and other areas of interest. Within this structure is the ExMC Element, whose research contributes to the overall development of new technologies to overcome the challenges of expanding human exploration and habitation of space. The risk statement provided by the HRP to the ExMC Element states: "Given that medical conditions/events will occur during human spaceflight missions, there is a possibility of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance in mission and for long term health" (NASA Human Research Program 2016). Within this risk context, the Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element is specifically concerned with establishing evidenced-based methods of monitoring and maintaining astronaut health. Essential to completing this task is the advancement in techniques that identify, prevent, and treat any health threats that may occur during space missions. The ultimate goal of the ExMC Element is to develop and demonstrate a pathway for medical system integration into vehicle and mission design to mitigate the risk of medical issues. Integral to this effort is inclusion of an evidence-based medical and data handling system appropriate for long-duration, exploration-class missions. This requires a clear Concept of Operations, quantitative risk metrics or other tools to address changing risk throughout a mission, and system scoping and system

  2. The technological singularity and exponential medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The "technological singularity" is forecasted to occur in 2045. It is a point when non-biological intelligence becomes more intelligent than humans and each generation of intelligent machines re-designs itself smarter. Beyond this point, there is a symbiosis between machines and humans. This co-existence will produce incredible impacts on medicine that its sparkles could be seen in healthcare industry and the future medicine since 2025. Ray Kurzweil, the great futurist, suggested that three revolutions in science and technology consisting genetic and molecular science, nanotechnology, and robotic (artificial intelligence provided an exponential growth rate for medicine. The "exponential medicine" is going to create more disruptive technologies in healthcare industry. The exponential medicine shifts the paradigm of medical philosophy and produces significant impacts on the healthcare system and patient-physician relationship.   

  3. ESTIMATION ACCURACY OF EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    muhammad zahid rashid

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The exponential distribution is commonly used to model the behavior of units that have a constant failure rate. The two-parameter exponential distribution provides a simple but nevertheless useful model for the analysis of lifetimes, especially when investigating reliability of technical equipment.This paper is concerned with estimation of parameters of the two parameter (location and scale exponential distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS, ridge regression method (RR,  moment estimators (ME, modified moment estimators (MME, maximum likelihood estimators (MLE and modified maximum likelihood estimators (MMLE. We used the mean square error MSE, and total deviation TD, as measurement for the comparison between these methods. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes

  4. Pre- and post-flight radiation performance evaluation of the space GPS receiver (SGR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldfield, M.K.; Underwood, C.I.; Unwin, M.J.; Asenek, V.; Harboe-Sorensen, R.

    1999-01-01

    SSTL (Survey Satellite Technology Ltd), in collaboration with ESA/ESTEC, recently developed a state-of-the-art low cost GPS (Global Positioning System) receiver payload for use on small satellites. The space GPS Receiver (SGR), will be flown on the TiungSAT-1 micro-satellite, UoSAT-12 mini-satellite and ESA's PROBA satellite. The SGR payload is currently flying on the TMSAT micro-satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) and has carried out autonomous on-board positioning whilst also providing an experimental test-bed for evaluating spacecraft attitude determination algorithms. In order to reduce development time and costs, the SGR consists solely of industry standard COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) devices. This paper describes the ground-based radiation testing of several payload-critical COTS devices used in the SGR payload and describes its on-orbit performance. (authors)

  5. In-flight performance of the polarization modulator in the CLASP rocket experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Kano, Ryohei; Bando, Takamasa; Ishikawa, Ryoko; Giono, Gabriel; Beabout, Dyana L.; Beabout, Brent L.; Nakayama, Satoshi; Tajima, Takao

    2016-07-01

    We developed a polarization modulation unit (PMU), a motor system to rotate a waveplate continuously. In polarization measurements, the continuous rotating waveplate is an important element as well as a polarization analyzer to record the incident polarization in a time series of camera exposures. The control logic of PMU was originally developed for the next Japanese solar observation satellite SOLAR-C by the SOLAR-C working group. We applied this PMU for the Chromospheric Lyman-alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP). CLASP is a sounding rocket experiment to observe the linear polarization of the Lyman-alpha emission (121.6 nm vacuum ultraviolet) from the upper chromosphere and transition region of the Sun with a high polarization sensitivity of 0.1 % for the first time and investigate their vector magnetic field by the Hanle effect. The driver circuit was developed to optimize the rotation for the CLASP waveplate (12.5 rotations per minute). Rotation non- uniformity of the waveplate causes error in the polarization degree (i.e. scale error) and crosstalk between Stokes components. We confirmed that PMU has superior rotation uniformity in the ground test and the scale error and crosstalk of Stokes Q and U are less than 0.01 %. After PMU was attached to the CLASP instrument, we performed vibration tests and confirmed all PMU functions performance including rotation uniformity did not change. CLASP was successfully launched on September 3, 2015, and PMU functioned well as designed. PMU achieved a good rotation uniformity, and the high precision polarization measurement of CLASP was successfully achieved.

  6. Quantum Zeno effect for exponentially decaying systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshino, Kazuki; Shimizu, Akira

    2004-01-01

    The quantum Zeno effect - suppression of decay by frequent measurements - was believed to occur only when the response of the detector is so quick that the initial tiny deviation from the exponential decay law is detectable. However, we show that it can occur even for exactly exponentially decaying systems, for which this condition is never satisfied, by considering a realistic case where the detector has a finite energy band of detection. The conventional theories correspond to the limit of an infinite bandwidth. This implies that the Zeno effect occurs more widely than expected thus far

  7. Calorimeter prediction based on multiple exponentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.K.; Bracken, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Calorimetry allows very precise measurements of nuclear material to be carried out, but it also requires relatively long measurement times to do so. The ability to accurately predict the equilibrium response of a calorimeter would significantly reduce the amount of time required for calorimetric assays. An algorithm has been developed that is effective at predicting the equilibrium response. This multi-exponential prediction algorithm is based on an iterative technique using commercial fitting routines that fit a constant plus a variable number of exponential terms to calorimeter data. Details of the implementation and the results of trials on a large number of calorimeter data sets will be presented

  8. Exponential Growth of Nonlinear Ballooning Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2009-01-01

    Recent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that a perturbation evolving from a linear ballooning instability will continue to grow exponentially in the intermediate nonlinear phase at the same linear growth rate. This prediction is confirmed in ideal MHD simulations. When the Lagrangian compression, a measure of the ballooning nonlinearity, becomes of the order of unity, the intermediate nonlinear phase is entered, during which the maximum plasma displacement amplitude as well as the total kinetic energy continues to grow exponentially at the rate of the corresponding linear phase.

  9. The Matrix exponential, Dynamic Systems and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    The matrix exponential can be found in various connections in analysis and control of dynamic systems. In this short note we are going to list a few examples. The matrix exponential usably pops up in connection to the sampling process, whatever it is in a deterministic or a stochastic setting...... or it is a tool for determining a Gramian matrix. This note is intended to be used in connection to the teaching post the course in Stochastic Adaptive Control (02421) given at Informatics and Mathematical Modelling (IMM), The Technical University of Denmark. This work is a result of a study of the litterature....

  10. Exponential Operators, Dobinski Relations and Summability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, P; Gawron, A; Horzela, A; Penson, K A; Solomon, A I

    2006-01-01

    We investigate properties of exponential operators preserving the particle number using combinatorial methods developed in order to solve the boson normal ordering problem. In particular, we apply generalized Dobinski relations and methods of multivariate Bell polynomials which enable us to understand the meaning of perturbation-like expansions of exponential operators. Such expansions, obtained as formal power series, are everywhere divergent but the Pade summation method is shown to give results which very well agree with exact solutions got for simplified quantum models of the one mode bosonic systems

  11. Exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benabdallah, A.; Caputo, J. G.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1996-01-01

    We introduce an exponentially tapered Josephson flux-flow oscillator that is tuned by applying a bias current to the larger end of the junction. Numerical and analytical studies show that above a threshold level of bias current the static solution becomes unstable and gives rise to a train...... of fluxons moving toward the unbiased smaller end, as in the standard flux-flow oscillator. An exponentially shaped junction provides several advantages over a rectangular junction including: (i) smaller linewidth, (ii) increased output power, (iii) no trapped flux because of the type of current injection...

  12. Exponential Data Fitting and its Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Real and complex exponential data fitting is an important activity in many different areas of science and engineering, ranging from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics to Electrical and Chemical Engineering, Vision and Robotics. The most commonly used norm in the approximation by linear combinations of exponentials is the l2 norm (sum of squares of residuals), in which case one obtains a nonlinear separable least squares problem. A number of different methods have been proposed through the years to solve these types of problems and new applications appear

  13. An Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory: Students' Emerging Understanding of Exponential Growth through Covariation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Amy B.; Ozgur, Zekiye; Kulow, Torrey; Dogan, Muhammed F.; Amidon, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an Exponential Growth Learning Trajectory (EGLT), a trajectory identifying and characterizing middle grade students' initial and developing understanding of exponential growth as a result of an instructional emphasis on covariation. The EGLT explicates students' thinking and learning over time in relation to a set of tasks…

  14. When economic growth is less than exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  15. When Economic Growth is Less than Exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas M.

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  16. Academic Sacred Cows and Exponential Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heterick, Robert C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The speech notes the linear growth of resources versus the exponential growth of costs in higher education. It identifies opportunities arising from information technology to transform teaching and learning through creation of a new scholarly information delivery system. An integrated triad of communications, computing, and library organizations…

  17. Students' Understanding of Exponential and Logarithmic Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    Exponential, and logarithmic functions are pivotal mathematical concepts that play central roles in advanced mathematics. Unfortunately, these are also concepts that give students serious difficulty. This report describe a theory of how students acquire an understanding of these functions by prescribing a set of mental constructions that a student…

  18. Intersection of the Exponential and Logarithmic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukas, Andreas; Valahas, Theodoros

    2009-01-01

    The study of the number of intersection points of y = a[superscript x] and y = log[subscript a]x can be an interesting topic to present in a single-variable calculus class. In this article, the authors present a classroom presentation outline involving the basic algebra and the elementary calculus of the exponential and logarithmic functions. The…

  19. The evolution of stellar exponential discs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferguson, AMN; Clarke, CJ

    2001-01-01

    Models of disc galaxies which invoke viscosity-driven radial flows have long been known to provide a natural explanation for the origin of stellar exponential discs, under the assumption that the star formation and viscous time-scales are comparable. We present models which invoke simultaneous star

  20. Chapter 3: The analysis of exponential experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; Moore, P.F.G.; Richmond, R.

    1963-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used by the BICEP group for the analysis of exponential experiments on graphite-moderated natural uranium lattices. These differ in some respects from the methods formerly employed at A.E.R.E. and have resulted in a reduction by a factor of four in the time taken to carry out and analyse an experiment. (author)

  1. Exponential Lower Bounds For Policy Iteration

    OpenAIRE

    Fearnley, John

    2010-01-01

    We study policy iteration for infinite-horizon Markov decision processes. It has recently been shown policy iteration style algorithms have exponential lower bounds in a two player game setting. We extend these lower bounds to Markov decision processes with the total reward and average-reward optimality criteria.

  2. Exponential rate of convergence in current reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    De Masi, Anna; Presutti, Errico; Tsagkarogiannis, Dimitrios; Vares, Maria Eulalia

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a family of interacting particle systems on $[-N,N]$ that arises as a natural model for current reservoirs and Fick's law. We study the exponential rate of convergence to the stationary measure, which we prove to be of the order $N^{-2}$.

  3. Chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule by double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiong; Ye, Xiaolan; Zhou, Yingyi; Li, Hua; Song, Fenyun

    2015-06-01

    A method incorporating double-wavelength ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the investigation of the chemical fingerprint of Ganmaoling granule. The chromatographic separations were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS C18 column (2.1 × 50 mm, 1.8 μm) at 30°C using gradient elution with water/formic acid (1%) and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. A total of 11 chemical constituents of Ganmaoling granule were identified from their molecular weight, UV spectra, tandem mass spectrometry data, and retention behavior by comparing the results with those of the reference standards or literature. And 25 peaks were selected as the common peaks for fingerprint analysis to evaluate the similarities among 25 batches of Ganmaoling granule. The results of principal component analysis and orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis showed that the important chemical markers that could distinguish the different batches were revealed as 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid. This is the first report of the ultra high performance liquid chromatography chemical fingerprint and component identification of Ganmaoling granule, which could lay a foundation for further studies of Ganmaoling granule. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Performance optimisation of a new-generation orthogonal-acceleration quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Tony; Constantine, Jill; Harrison, Mark; Cavoit, Fabien

    2008-04-01

    Orthogonal-acceleration quadrupole time-of-flight (oa-QTOF) mass spectrometers, employed for accurate mass measurement, have been commercially available for well over a decade. A limitation of the early instruments of this type was the narrow ion abundance range over which accurate mass measurements could be made with a high degree of certainty. Recently, a new generation of oa-QTOF mass spectrometers has been developed and these allow accurate mass measurements to be recorded over a much greater range of ion abundances. This development has resulted from new ion detection technology and improved electronic stability or by accurate control of the number of ions reaching the detector. In this report we describe the results from experiments performed to evaluate the mass measurement performance of the Bruker micrOTOF-Q, a member of the new-generation oa-QTOFs. The relationship between mass accuracy and ion abundance has been extensively evaluated and mass measurement accuracy remained stable (+/-1.5 m m/z units) over approximately 3-4 orders of magnitude of ion abundance. The second feature of the Bruker micrOTOF-Q that was evaluated was the SigmaFit function of the software. This isotope pattern-matching algorithm provides an exact numerical comparison of the theoretical and measured isotope patterns as an additional identification tool to accurate mass measurement. The smaller the value, the closer the match between theoretical and measured isotope patterns. This information is then employed to reduce the number of potential elemental formulae produced from the mass measurements. A relationship between the SigmaFit value and ion abundance has been established. The results from the study for both mass accuracy and SigmaFit were employed to define the performance criteria for the micrOTOF-Q. This provided increased confidence in the selection of elemental formulae resulting from accurate mass measurements.

  5. Performance measurements of a dual-rotor arm mechanism for efficient flight transition of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Karen Ashley Jean

    Reconfigurable systems are a class of systems that can be transformed into different configurations, generally to perform unique functions or to maintain operational efficiency under distinct conditions. A UAV can be considered a reconfigurable system when coupled with various useful features such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL), hover capability, long-range, and relatively large payload. Currently, a UAV having these capabilities is being designed by the UTSA Mechanical Engineering department. UAVs such as this one have the following potential uses: emergency response/disaster relief, hazard-critical missions, offshore oil rig/wind farm delivery, surveillance, etc. The goal of this thesis is to perform experimental thrust and power measurements for the propulsion system of this fixed-wing UAV. Focus was placed on a rotating truss arm supporting two brushless motors and rotors that will later be integrated to the ends of the UAV wing. These truss arms will rotate via a supporting shaft from 0° to 90° to transition the UAV between a vertical take-off, hover, and forward flight. To make this hover/transition possible, a relationship between thrust, arm angle, and power drawn was established by testing the performance of the arm/motor assembly at arm angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90°. Universal equations for this system of thrust as a function of the arm angle were created by correlating data collected by a load cell. A Solidworks model was created and used to conduct fluid dynamics simulations of the streamlines over the arm/motor assembly.

  6. Effects of Adult Feeding and Overwintering Conditions on Energy Reserves and Flight Performance of Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tussey, Dylan A; Aukema, Brian H; Charvoz, Anthony M; Venette, Robert C

    2018-04-02

    Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), an invasive beetle from Asia, spreads through human-mediated movement and active flight. The effects of adult feeding and overwintering conditions on A. planipennis energy reserves (e.g., lipid, glycogen, and sugars) and flight are poorly understood. We conjectured that the potential energetic demands associated with the production of cryoprotectants might affect dispersal capacity and partially explain slower spread of A. planipennis in Minnesota than in the other states. Two studies sought to measure the effects of adult feeding on lipid content and flight capacity. Adult A. planipennis were fed shamel ash, Fraxinus uhdei Wenzig, leaves for 0-20 d after emergence, and half were flown on a custom flight mill for 24 h, before being frozen for comparative lipid analysis with a control group. The second study compared the effects of adult feeding on energy reserves and flight capacity of A. planipennis that were originally from St. Paul, Minnesota but overwintered in infested logs placed in Grand Rapids, Minnesota (low winter temperature, -34°C) or St. Paul, Minnesota (-26.3°C). Live adults consumed foliage at a constant rate, but lipid content (percentage of fresh mass) did not change with increases in feeding or flight. Adult glycogen content declined with flight and increased only slightly with feeding. Overwintering location affected survival rates but not energy reserves or flight capacity. These results suggest that the flight capacity of A. planipennis is largely determined before emergence, with no differences in energy reserves after cryoprotectant investment.

  7. Metabolic profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and evaluation of commercial preparations using Ultra-High Performance Quadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-High Performance-Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometr(UHPLC-QToF-MS)profiling has become an impattant tool for identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. Chemometric approaches can be used to ana...

  8. Performance comparison and selection criteria: an assessment for choosing the best flight detector for the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer on Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, P.; Vilenius, E.; Mall, U.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the performance evaluation of a sample of InGaAs detectors from which the best unit had to be selected for the flight model of the SIR-2 NIR-spectrometer to be flown on the Chandrayaan-1 mission in 2008.

  9. Development of a broad toxicological screening technique for urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Hon Kit; Ho, Chung Shun; Iu, Yan Ping Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Withdrawal of the support for the REMEDi HS drug profiling system has necessitated its replacement within our laboratories with an alternative broad toxicological screening technique. To this end, a novel method, based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) and time-of-flight (TOF) mass...

  10. The Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna ultra-high energy neutrino detector: Design, performance, and sensitivity for 2006-2007 balloon flight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorham, P. W. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Allison, P. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Barwick, S. W. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Beatty, J. J. [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Besson, D. Z. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binns, W. R. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Chen, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Chen, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Clem, J. M. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Connolly, A. [Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Dowkontt, P. F. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); DuVernois, M. A. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Field, R. C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Goldstein, D. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Goodhue, A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hast, C. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hebert, C. L. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States); Hoover, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Israel, M. H. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Learned, J. G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Manoa, HI (United States). et al.

    2009-05-23

    In this article, we present a comprehensive report on the experimental details of the Antarctic Impulsive Transient Antenna (ANITA) long-duration balloon payload, including the design philosophy and realization, physics simulations, performance of the instrument during its first Antarctic flight completed in January of 2007, and expectations for the limiting neutrino detection sensitivity.

  11. Profiling the Metabolism of Astragaloside IV by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu-Dong Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological actions and pharmacology. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS-based approach was developed to profile the metabolites of astragaloside IV in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces samples. Twenty-two major metabolites were detected. The major components found in plasma, bile, urine and feces included the parent chemical and phases I and II metabolites. The major metabolic reactions of astragaloside IV were hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation and dehydrogenation. These results will help to improve understanding the metabolism and reveal the biotransformation profiling of astragaloside IV in vivo. The metabolic information obtained from our study will guide studies into the pharmacological activity and clinical safety of astragaloside IV.

  12. Metabolite Analysis of Toosendanin by an Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Toosendanin is the major bioactive component of Melia toosendan Sieb. et Zucc., which is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal pain and as an insecticide. Previous studies reported that toosendanin possesses hepatotoxicity, but the mechanism remains unknown. Its bioavailability in rats is low, which indicates the hepatotoxicity might be induced by its metabolites. In this connection, in the current study, we examined the metabolites obtained by incubating toosendanin with human live microsomes, and then six of these metabolites (M1–M6 were identified for the first time by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Further analysis on the MS spectra showed M1, M2, and M3 are oxidative products and M6 is a dehydrogenation product, while M4 and M5 are oxidative and dehydrogenation products of toosendanin. Moreover, their possible structures were deduced from the MS/MS spectral features. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that M1-M5 levels rapidly increased and reached a plateau at 30 min, while M6 rapidly reached a maximal level at 20 min and then decreased slowly afterwards. These findings have provided valuable data not only for understanding the metabolic fate of toosendanin in liver microsomes, but also for elucidating the possible molecular mechanism of its hepatotoxicity.

  13. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry to quantify acidic drugs in wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Herrera, Mercedes; Honda, Luis; Richter, Pablo

    2015-12-04

    A novel analytical approach involving an improved rotating-disk sorptive extraction (RDSE) procedure and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to an ultraspray electrospray ionization source (UESI) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF/MS), in trap mode, was developed to identify and quantify four non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (naproxen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and diclofenac) and two anti-cholesterol drugs (ACDs) (clofibric acid and gemfibrozil) that are widely used and typically found in water samples. The method reduced the amount of both sample and reagents used and also the time required for the whole analysis, resulting in a reliable and green analytical strategy. The analytical eco-scale was calculated, showing that this methodology is an excellent green analysis, increasing its ecological worth. The detection limits (LOD) and precision (%RSD) were lower than 90ng/L and 10%, respectively. Matrix effects and recoveries were studied using samples from the influent of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). All the compounds exhibited suppression of their signals due to matrix effects, and the recoveries were approximately 100%. The applicability and reliability of this methodology were confirmed through the analysis of influent and effluent samples from a WWTP in Santiago, Chile, obtaining concentrations ranging from 1.1 to 20.5μg/L and from 0.5 to 8.6μg/L, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Capital Flight from Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Loungani; Paolo Mauro

    2000-01-01

    This paper documents the scale of capital flight from Russia, compares it with that observed in other countries, and reviews policy options. The evidence from other countries suggests that capital flight can be reversed once reforms take hold. The paper argues that capital flight from Russia can only be curbed through a medium-term reform strategy aimed at improving governance and macroeconomic performance, and strengthening the banking system. Capital controls result in costly distortions an...

  15. Conceptual design and performance study for the first implementation of AGATA at the in-flight RIB facility of GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Pardo, C.; Bazzacco, D.; Doornenbal, P.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Gerl, J.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Agata Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of the Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) is the investigation of the structure of exotic nuclei at the new generation of RIB facilities. As part of the preparatory phase for FAIR-NUSTAR, AGATA is going to be installed at the FRS fragmentation facility of the GSI centre for an experimental campaign to be performed in 2012 and 2013. Owing to its γ-ray tracking capabilities and the envisaged enhancement in resolving power, a series of in-flight γ-ray spectroscopy experiments are being planned. The present work describes the conceptual design of this first implementation of AGATA at GSI-FRS, and provides information about the expected performance figures. According to the characteristics of each particular experiment, it is foreseen that the target-array distance is adjusted in order to achieve the optimum compromise between detection efficiency and energy resolution, or to cover an specific angular range of the emitted electromagnetic radiation. Thus, a comprehensive Monte Carlo study of the detection sensitivity in terms of photopeak efficiency, resolution and peak-to-total ratio, as a function of the target-array distance is presented. Several configurations have been investigated, and MC-calculations indicate that a remarkable enhancement in resolving power can be achieved when double-cluster AGATA detectors are developed and implemented. Several experimental effects are also investigated. This concerns the impact of passive materials between the target and the array, the angular distribution of the detection efficiency and the influence of target thickness effects and transition lifetimes in the attainable detection sensitivity. A short overview on half-life measurements via lineshape effects utilizing AGATA is also presented.

  16. Review of the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) Experiment at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J. B.; Sims, Herb; Martin, James; Chakrabarti, Suman; Lewis, Raymond; Fant, Wallace

    2003-01-01

    The significant energy density of matter-antimatter annihilation is attractive to the designers of future space propulsion systems, with the potential to offer a highly compact source of power. Many propulsion concepts exist that could take advantage of matter-antimatter reactions, and current antiproton production rates are sufficient to support basic proof-of-principle evaluation of technology associated with antimatter- derived propulsion. One enabling technology for such experiments is portable storage of low energy antiprotons, allowing antiprotons to be trapped, stored, and transported for use at an experimental facility. To address this need, the Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Research Center is developing a storage system referred to as the High Performance Antiproton Trap (HiPAT) with a design goal of containing 10(exp 12) particles for up to 18 days. The HiPAT makes use of an electromagnetic system (Penning- Malmberg design) consisting of a 4 Telsa superconductor, high voltage electrode structure, radio frequency (RF) network, and ultra high vacuum system. To evaluate the system normal matter sources (both electron guns and ion sources) are used to generate charged particles. The electron beams ionize gas within the trapping region producing ions in situ, whereas the ion sources produce the particles external to the trapping region and required dynamic capture. A wide range of experiments has been performed examining factors such as ion storage lifetimes, effect of RF energy on storage lifetime, and ability to routinely perform dynamic ion capture. Current efforts have been focused on improving the FW rotating wall system to permit longer storage times and non-destructive diagnostics of stored ions. Typical particle detection is performed by extracting trapped ions from HiPAT and destructively colliding them with a micro-channel plate detector (providing number and energy information). This improved RF system has been used to detect various

  17. Statistical estimation for truncated exponential families

    CERN Document Server

    Akahira, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    This book presents new findings on nonregular statistical estimation. Unlike other books on this topic, its major emphasis is on helping readers understand the meaning and implications of both regularity and irregularity through a certain family of distributions. In particular, it focuses on a truncated exponential family of distributions with a natural parameter and truncation parameter as a typical nonregular family. This focus includes the (truncated) Pareto distribution, which is widely used in various fields such as finance, physics, hydrology, geology, astronomy, and other disciplines. The family is essential in that it links both regular and nonregular distributions, as it becomes a regular exponential family if the truncation parameter is known. The emphasis is on presenting new results on the maximum likelihood estimation of a natural parameter or truncation parameter if one of them is a nuisance parameter. In order to obtain more information on the truncation, the Bayesian approach is also considere...

  18. Matrix-exponential distributions in applied probability

    CERN Document Server

    Bladt, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    This book contains an in-depth treatment of matrix-exponential (ME) distributions and their sub-class of phase-type (PH) distributions. Loosely speaking, an ME distribution is obtained through replacing the intensity parameter in an exponential distribution by a matrix. The ME distributions can also be identified as the class of non-negative distributions with rational Laplace transforms. If the matrix has the structure of a sub-intensity matrix for a Markov jump process we obtain a PH distribution which allows for nice probabilistic interpretations facilitating the derivation of exact solutions and closed form formulas. The full potential of ME and PH unfolds in their use in stochastic modelling. Several chapters on generic applications, like renewal theory, random walks and regenerative processes, are included together with some specific examples from queueing theory and insurance risk. We emphasize our intention towards applications by including an extensive treatment on statistical methods for PH distribu...

  19. Harmonic analysis on exponential solvable Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first one that brings together recent results on the harmonic analysis of exponential solvable Lie groups. There still are many interesting open problems, and the book contributes to the future progress of this research field. As well, various related topics are presented to motivate young researchers. The orbit method invented by Kirillov is applied to study basic problems in the analysis on exponential solvable Lie groups. This method tells us that the unitary dual of these groups is realized as the space of their coadjoint orbits. This fact is established using the Mackey theory for induced representations, and that mechanism is explained first. One of the fundamental problems in the representation theory is the irreducible decomposition of induced or restricted representations. Therefore, these decompositions are studied in detail before proceeding to various related problems: the multiplicity formula, Plancherel formulas, intertwining operators, Frobenius reciprocity, and associated alge...

  20. Exponential Stabilization of an Underactuated Surface Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Y. Pettersen

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that a large class of underactuated vehicles cannot be asymptotically stabilized by either continuous or discontinuous state feedback. Furthermore, stabilization of an underactuated surface vessel is considered. Controllability properties of the surface vessels is presented, and a continuous periodic time-varying feedback law is proposed. It is shown that this feedback law exponentially stabilizes the surface vessel to the origin, and this is illustrated by simulations.

  1. Financing exponential growth at H3

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, João Ricardo Ferreira Hipolito da

    2012-01-01

    H3 is a fast-food chain that introduced the concept of gourmet hamburgers in the Portuguese market. This case-study illustrates its financing strategy that supported an exponential growth represented by opening 33 restaurants within approximately 3 years of its inception. H3 is now faced with the challenge of structuring its foreign ventures and change its financial approach. The main covered topics are the options an entrepreneur has for financing a new venture and how it evolves along th...

  2. Exponentially Light Dark Matter from Coannihilation

    OpenAIRE

    D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Mondino, Cristina; Ruderman, Joshua T.; Wang, Po-Jen

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter may be a thermal relic whose abundance is set by mutual annihilations among multiple species. Traditionally, this coannihilation scenario has been applied to weak scale dark matter that is highly degenerate with other states. We show that coannihilation among states with split masses points to dark matter that is exponentially lighter than the weak scale, down to the keV scale. We highlight the regime where dark matter does not participate in the annihilations that dilute its numb...

  3. Heterogeneous dipolar theory of the exponential pile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrangelo, P.V.

    1981-01-01

    We present a heterogeneous theory of the exponential pile, closely related to NORDHEIM-SCALETTAR's. It is well adapted to lattice whose pitch is relatively large (D-2O, grahpite) and the dimensions of whose channels are not negligible. The anisotropy of neutron diffusion is taken into account by the introduction of dipolar parameters. We express the contribution of each channel to the total flux in the moderator by means of multipolar coefficients. In order to be able to apply conditions of continuity between the flux and their derivatives, on the side of the moderator, we develop in a Fourier series the fluxes found at the periphery of each channel. Using Wronski's relations of Bessel's functions, we express the multipolar coefficients of the surfaces of each channel, on the side of the moderator, by means of the harmonics of each flux and their derivatives. We retain only monopolar (A 0 sub(g)) and dipolar (A 1 sub(g)) coefficients; those of a higher order are ignored. We deduce from these coefficients the systems of homogeneous equations of the exponential pile with monopoles on their own and monopoles plus dipoles. It should be noted that the systems of homogeneous equations of the critical pile are contained in those of the exponential pile. In another article, we develop the calculation of monopolar and dipolar heterogeneous parameters. (orig.)

  4. Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Yun Seok

    2015-07-28

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.

  5. Flight research and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Ayers, Theodore G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight research and testing form a critical link in the aeronautic research and development chain. Brilliant concepts, elegant theories, and even sophisticated ground tests of flight vehicles are not sufficient to prove beyond a doubt that an unproven aeronautical concept will actually perform as predicted. Flight research and testing provide the ultimate proof that an idea or concept performs as expected. Ever since the Wright brothers, flight research and testing were the crucible in which aeronautical concepts were advanced and proven to the point that engineers and companies are willing to stake their future to produce and design aircraft. This is still true today, as shown by the development of the experimental X-30 aerospace plane. The Dryden Flight Research Center (Ames-Dryden) continues to be involved in a number of flight research programs that require understanding and characterization of the total airplane in all the aeronautical disciplines, for example the X-29. Other programs such as the F-14 variable-sweep transition flight experiment have focused on a single concept or discipline. Ames-Dryden also continues to conduct flight and ground based experiments to improve and expand the ability to test and evaluate advanced aeronautical concepts. A review of significant aeronautical flight research programs and experiments is presented to illustrate both the progress being made and the challenges to come.

  6. Background does not significantly affect power-exponential fitting of gastric emptying curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonderko, K.

    1987-01-01

    Using a procedure enabling the assessment of background radiation, research was done to elucidate the course of changes in background activity during gastric emptying measurements. Attention was focused on the changes in the shape of power-exponential fitted gastric emptying curves after correction for background was performed. The observed pattern of background counts allowed to explain the shifts of the parameters characterizing power-exponential curves connected with background correction. It was concluded that background had a negligible effect on the power-exponential fitting of gastric emptying curves. (author)

  7. Robust exponential stability and domains of attraction in a class of interval neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaofan; Liao Xiaofeng; Bai Sen; Evans, David J

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses robust exponential stability as well as domains of attraction in a class of interval neural networks. A sufficient condition for an equilibrium point to be exponentially stable is established. And an estimate on the domains of attraction of exponentially stable equilibrium points is presented. Both the condition and the estimate are formulated in terms of the parameter intervals, the neurons' activation functions and the equilibrium point. Hence, they are easily checkable. In addition, our results neither depend on monotonicity of the activation functions nor on coupling conditions between the neurons. Consequently, these results are of practical importance in evaluating the performance of interval associative memory networks

  8. Dynamic Transcriptional Regulation of Fis in Salmonella During the Exponential Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Li, Ping; Hu, Yilang; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Bo

    2015-12-01

    Fis is one of the most important global regulators and has attracted extensive research attention. Many studies have focused on comparing the Fis global regulatory networks for exploring Fis function during different growth stages, such as the exponential and stationary stages. Although the Fis protein in bacteria is mainly expressed in the exponential phase, the dynamic transcriptional regulation of Fis during the exponential phase remains poorly understood. To address this question, we used RNA-seq technology to identify the Fis-regulated genes in the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium during the early exponential phase, and qRT-PCR was performed to validate the transcriptional data. A total of 1495 Fis-regulated genes were successfully identified, including 987 Fis-repressed genes and 508 Fis-activated genes. Comparing the results of this study with those of our previous study, we found that the transcriptional regulation of Fis was diverse during the early- and mid-exponential phases. The results also showed that the strong positive regulation of Fis on Salmonella pathogenicity island genes in the mid-exponential phase transitioned into insignificant effect in the early exponential phase. To validate these results, we performed a cell infection assay and found that Δfis only exhibited a 1.49-fold decreased capacity compared with the LT2 wild-type strain, indicating a large difference from the 6.31-fold decrease observed in the mid-exponential phase. Our results provide strong evidence for a need to thoroughly understand the dynamic transcriptional regulation of Fis in Salmonella during the exponential phase.

  9. High-performance multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers for research with exotic nuclei and for analytical mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Dickel, Timo; Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Ebert, Jens; Greiner, Florian; Hornung, Christine; Jesch, Christian; Lang, Johannes; Lippert, Wayne; Majoros, Tamas; Short, Devin; Geissel, Hans; Haettner, Emma; Reiter, Moritz P.; Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Yavor, Mikhail I.

    2015-11-01

    A class of multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometers (MR-TOF-MSs) has been developed for research with exotic nuclei at present and future accelerator facilities such as GSI and FAIR (Darmstadt), and TRIUMF (Vancouver). They can perform highly accurate mass measurements of exotic nuclei, serve as high-resolution, high-capacity mass separators and be employed as diagnostics devices to monitor the production, separation and manipulation of beams of exotic nuclei. In addition, a mobile high-resolution MR-TOF-MS has been developed for in situ applications in analytical mass spectrometry ranging from environmental research to medicine. Recently, the MR-TOF-MS for GSI and FAIR has been further developed. A novel RF quadrupole-based ion beam switchyard has been developed that allows merging and splitting of ion beams as well as transport of ions into different directions. It efficiently connects a test and reference ion source and an auxiliary detector to the system. Due to an increase in the kinetic energy of the ions in the time-of-flight analyzer of the MR-TOF-MS, a given mass resolving power is now achieved in less than half the time-of-flight. Conversely, depending on the time-of-flight, the mass resolving power has been increased by a factor of more than two.

  10. Finite difference computing with exponential decay models

    CERN Document Server

    Langtangen, Hans Petter

    2016-01-01

    This text provides a very simple, initial introduction to the complete scientific computing pipeline: models, discretization, algorithms, programming, verification, and visualization. The pedagogical strategy is to use one case study – an ordinary differential equation describing exponential decay processes – to illustrate fundamental concepts in mathematics and computer science. The book is easy to read and only requires a command of one-variable calculus and some very basic knowledge about computer programming. Contrary to similar texts on numerical methods and programming, this text has a much stronger focus on implementation and teaches testing and software engineering in particular. .

  11. Exponential expansion: galactic destiny or technological hubris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, B. R.

    Is it our destiny to expand exponentially to populate the galaxy, or is such a vision but an extreme example of technological hubris? The overall record of human evolution and dispersion over the Earth can be cited to support the view that we are a uniquely expansionary and technological animal bound for the stars, yet an examination of the fate of individual migrations and exploratory initiatives raises doubts. Although it may be in keeping with our hubristic nature to predict ultimate galactic expansion, there is no way to specify how far expansionary urges may drive our spacefaring descendants.

  12. Progressive Exponential Clustering-Based Steganography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cluster indexing-based steganography is an important branch of data-hiding techniques. Such schemes normally achieve good balance between high embedding capacity and low embedding distortion. However, most cluster indexing-based steganographic schemes utilise less efficient clustering algorithms for embedding data, which causes redundancy and leaves room for increasing the embedding capacity further. In this paper, a new clustering algorithm, called progressive exponential clustering (PEC, is applied to increase the embedding capacity by avoiding redundancy. Meanwhile, a cluster expansion algorithm is also developed in order to further increase the capacity without sacrificing imperceptibility.

  13. Exponentially Convergent Algorithms for Abstract Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilyuk, Ivan; Vasylyk, Vitalii

    2011-01-01

    This book presents new accurate and efficient exponentially convergent methods for abstract differential equations with unbounded operator coefficients in Banach space. These methods are highly relevant for the practical scientific computing since the equations under consideration can be seen as the meta-models of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODE) as well as the partial differential equations (PDEs) describing various applied problems. The framework of functional analysis allows one to obtain very general but at the same time transparent algorithms and mathematical results which

  14. Blowing-up Semilinear Wave Equation with Exponential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Blowing-up Semilinear Wave Equation with Exponential Nonlinearity in Two Space ... We investigate the initial value problem for some semi-linear wave equation in two space dimensions with exponential nonlinearity growth. ... Current Issue

  15. Hyperbolic Cosine–Exponentiated Exponential Lifetime Distribution and its Application in Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Kharazmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Kharazmi and Saadatinik (2016 introduced a new family of lifetime distributions called hyperbolic cosine – F (HCF distribution. In the present paper, it is focused on a special case of HCF family with exponentiated exponential distribution as a baseline distribution (HCEE. Various properties of the proposed distribution including explicit expressions for the moments, quantiles, mode, moment generating function, failure rate function, mean residual lifetime, order statistics and expression of the entropy are derived. Estimating parameters of HCEE distribution are obtained by eight estimation methods: maximum likelihood, Bayesian, maximum product of spacings, parametric bootstrap, non-parametric bootstrap, percentile, least-squares and weighted least-squares. A simulation study is conducted to examine the bias, mean square error of the maximum likelihood estimators. Finally, one real data set has been analyzed for illustrative purposes and it is observed that the proposed model fits better than Weibull, gamma and generalized exponential distributions.

  16. Exponential potentials, scaling solutions and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wands, D.; Copeland, E.J.; Liddle, A.R.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of driving a period of rapid inflation in the early universe in a model motivated by grand unified theories has been given new life in recent years in the context of extended gravity theories. Extended inflation is one model based on a Brans-Dicke type gravity which can allow a very general first-order phase transition to complete by changing the expansion of the false vacuum dominated universe from an exponential to a power law expansion. This inflation is conformally equivalent to general relativity where the vacuum energy density is exponentially dependent upon a dilaton field. With this in mind, the authors consider in this paper the evolution of a scalar field σ with a potential V(σ) = V 0 exp(-λκ 1/2 σ) in a spatially flat (κ = 0) Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric in the presence of a barotropic (P = (γ - 1)ρ) fluid. Here κ = 8πG, and λ is a dimensionless constant describing the steepness of the potential. It is well known that if the potential is sufficiently flat (λ small), the energy density of the scalar field dominated and the universe undergoes power law inflation. The behavior of fields with a steep potential seems to be less well known, although the results the authors present here are not new. 11 refs., 2 figs

  17. Exponential inflation with F (R ) gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomou, V. K.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we shall consider an exponential inflationary model in the context of vacuum F (R ) gravity. By using well-known reconstruction techniques, we shall investigate which F (R ) gravity can realize the exponential inflation scenario at leading order in terms of the scalar curvature, and we shall calculate the slow-roll indices and the corresponding observational indices, in the context of slow-roll inflation. We also provide some general formulas of the slow-roll and the corresponding observational indices in terms of the e -foldings number. In addition, for the calculation of the slow-roll and of the observational indices, we shall consider quite general formulas, for which it is not necessary for the assumption that all the slow-roll indices are much smaller than unity to hold true. Finally, we investigate the phenomenological viability of the model by comparing it with the latest Planck and BICEP2/Keck-Array observational data. As we demonstrate, the model is compatible with the current observational data for a wide range of the free parameters of the model.

  18. Double-Exponentially Decayed Photoionization in CREI Effect: Numerical Experiment on 3D H2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Li; Ting-Ying, Wang; Gui-Zhong, Zhang; Wang-Hua, Xiang; III, W. T. Hill

    2008-01-01

    On the platform of the 3D H 2 + system, we perform a numerical simulation of its photoionization rate under excitation of weak to intense laser intensities with varying pulse durations and wavelengths. A novel method is proposed for calculating the photoionization rate: a double exponential decay of ionization probability is best suited for fitting this rate. Confirmation of the well-documented charge-resonance-enhanced ionization (CREI) effect at medium laser intensity and finding of ionization saturation at high light intensity corroborate the robustness of the suggested double-exponential decay process. Surveying the spatial and temporal variations of electron wavefunctions uncovers a mechanism for the double-exponentially decayed photoionization probability as onset of electron ionization along extra degree of freedom. Henceforth, the new method makes clear the origins of peak features in photoionization rate versus internuclear separation. It is believed that this multi-exponentially decayed ionization mechanism is applicable to systems with more degrees of motion

  19. Exponential frequency spectrum and Lorentzian pulses in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, D. C.; Shi, M.; Maggs, J. E.; Morales, G. J.; Carter, T. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two different experiments involving pressure gradients across the confinement magnetic field in a large plasma column are found to exhibit a broadband turbulence that displays an exponential frequency spectrum for frequencies below the ion cyclotron frequency. The exponential feature has been traced to the presence of solitary pulses having a Lorentzian temporal signature. These pulses arise from nonlinear interactions of drift-Alfven waves driven by the pressure gradients. In both experiments the width of the pulses is narrowly distributed resulting in exponential spectra with a single characteristic time scale. The temporal width of the pulses is measured to be a fraction of a period of the drift-Alfven waves. The experiments are performed in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD-U) [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] operated by the Basic Plasma Science Facility at the University of California, Los Angeles. One experiment involves a controlled, pure electron temperature gradient associated with a microscopic (6 mm gradient length) hot electron temperature filament created by the injection a small electron beam embedded in the center of a large, cold magnetized plasma. The other experiment is a macroscopic (3.5 cm gradient length) limiter-edge experiment in which a density gradient is established by inserting a metallic plate at the edge of the nominal plasma column of the LAPD-U. The temperature filament experiment permits a detailed study of the transition from coherent to turbulent behavior and the concomitant change from classical to anomalous transport. In the limiter experiment the turbulence sampled is always fully developed. The similarity of the results in the two experiments strongly suggests a universal feature of pressure-gradient driven turbulence in magnetized plasmas that results in nondiffusive cross-field transport. This may explain previous observations in helical confinement devices, research tokamaks, and arc plasmas.

  20. Matrix effect in analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andoralov A.M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available For modern food safety control are using techniques that allow to determinate a large number of components. So for determination of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables commonly used methods of gas and liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass-spectrometric detection. This system allows to carry out quantitative determination several hundreds of pesticides and their identification by the characteristic fragments of the mass spectrum. The main problem when using mass spectrometric detection is a matrix effect, which is caused by the influence of matrix components extracted with pesticides from the sample. In this work, attempts have been made to reduce the influence of the matrix in the analysis of pesticide residues by high performance liquid chromatography with time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC / TOFMS.

  1. Exponential decay and exponential recovery of modal gains in high count rate channel electron multipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, S.F.; Burch, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    A series of data on high count rate channel electron multipliers revealed an initial drop and subsequent recovery of gains in exponential fashion. The FWHM of the pulse height distribution at the initial stage of testing can be used as a good criterion for the selection of operating bias voltage of the channel electron multiplier

  2. An exponentiation method for XML element retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichaiwong, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP.

  3. Statistics on exponential averaging of periodograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, T.T.J.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Ciftcioglu, Oe. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1994-11-01

    The algorithm of exponential averaging applied to subsequent periodograms of a stochastic process is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD). For an independent process, assuming the periodogram estimates to be distributed according to a {chi}{sup 2} distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, the probability density function (PDF) of the PSD estimate is derived. A closed expression is obtained for the moments of the distribution. Surprisingly, the proof of this expression features some new insights into the partitions and Eulers infinite product. For large values of the time constant of the averaging process, examination of the cumulant generating function shows that the PDF approximates the Gaussian distribution. Although restrictions for the statistics are seemingly tight, simulation of a real process indicates a wider applicability of the theory. (orig.).

  4. Statistics on exponential averaging of periodograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, T.T.J.M.; Ciftcioglu, Oe.

    1994-11-01

    The algorithm of exponential averaging applied to subsequent periodograms of a stochastic process is used to estimate the power spectral density (PSD). For an independent process, assuming the periodogram estimates to be distributed according to a χ 2 distribution with 2 degrees of freedom, the probability density function (PDF) of the PSD estimate is derived. A closed expression is obtained for the moments of the distribution. Surprisingly, the proof of this expression features some new insights into the partitions and Eulers infinite product. For large values of the time constant of the averaging process, examination of the cumulant generating function shows that the PDF approximates the Gaussian distribution. Although restrictions for the statistics are seemingly tight, simulation of a real process indicates a wider applicability of the theory. (orig.)

  5. Poissonian renormalizations, exponentials, and power laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive “renormalization study” of Poisson processes governed by exponential and power-law intensities. These Poisson processes are of fundamental importance, as they constitute the very bedrock of the universal extreme-value laws of Gumbel, Fréchet, and Weibull. Applying the method of Poissonian renormalization we analyze the emergence of these Poisson processes, unveil their intrinsic dynamical structures, determine their domains of attraction, and characterize their structural phase transitions. These structural phase transitions are shown to be governed by uniform and harmonic intensities, to have universal domains of attraction, to uniquely display intrinsic invariance, and to be intimately connected to “white noise” and to “1/f noise.” Thus, we establish a Poissonian explanation to the omnipresence of white and 1/f noises.

  6. Poissonian renormalizations, exponentials, and power laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive "renormalization study" of Poisson processes governed by exponential and power-law intensities. These Poisson processes are of fundamental importance, as they constitute the very bedrock of the universal extreme-value laws of Gumbel, Fréchet, and Weibull. Applying the method of Poissonian renormalization we analyze the emergence of these Poisson processes, unveil their intrinsic dynamical structures, determine their domains of attraction, and characterize their structural phase transitions. These structural phase transitions are shown to be governed by uniform and harmonic intensities, to have universal domains of attraction, to uniquely display intrinsic invariance, and to be intimately connected to "white noise" and to "1/f noise." Thus, we establish a Poissonian explanation to the omnipresence of white and 1/f noises.

  7. An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanrath, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An exponential multireference wave-function Ansatz is formulated. In accordance with the state universal coupled-cluster Ansatz of Jeziorski and Monkhorst [Phys. Rev. A 24, 1668 (1981)] the approach uses a reference specific cluster operator. In order to achieve state selectiveness the excitation- and reference-related amplitude indexing of the state universal Ansatz is replaced by an indexing which is based on excited determinants. There is no reference determinant playing a particular role. The approach is size consistent, coincides with traditional single-reference coupled cluster if applied to a single-reference, and converges to full configuration interaction with an increasing cluster operator excitation level. Initial applications on BeH 2 , CH 2 , Li 2 , and nH 2 are reported

  8. Transient accelerating scalar models with exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Wen-Ping; Zhang Yang; Fu Zheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    We study a known class of scalar dark energy models in which the potential has an exponential term and the current accelerating era is transient. We find that, although a decelerating era will return in the future, when extrapolating the model back to earlier stages (z ≳ 4), scalar dark energy becomes dominant over matter. So these models do not have the desired tracking behavior, and the predicted transient period of acceleration cannot be adopted into the standard scenario of the Big Bang cosmology. When couplings between the scalar field and matter are introduced, the models still have the same problem; only the time when deceleration returns will be varied. To achieve re-deceleration, one has to turn to alternative models that are consistent with the standard Big Bang scenario.

  9. An Exponentiation Method for XML Element Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    XML document is now widely used for modelling and storing structured documents. The structure is very rich and carries important information about contents and their relationships, for example, e-Commerce. XML data-centric collections require query terms allowing users to specify constraints on the document structure; mapping structure queries and assigning the weight are significant for the set of possibly relevant documents with respect to structural conditions. In this paper, we present an extension to the MEXIR search system that supports the combination of structural and content queries in the form of content-and-structure queries, which we call the Exponentiation function. It has been shown the structural information improve the effectiveness of the search system up to 52.60% over the baseline BM25 at MAP. PMID:24696643

  10. Cascade DNA nanomachine and exponential amplification biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianguo; Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Weiyu; Xu, Huo; Li, Hongling; Jia, Lee

    2015-11-15

    DNA is a versatile scaffold for the assembly of multifunctional nanostructures, and potential applications of various DNA nanodevices have been recently demonstrated for disease diagnosis and treatment. In the current study, a powerful cascade DNA nanomachine was developed that can execute the exponential amplification of p53 tumor suppressor gene. During the operation of the newly-proposed DNA nanomachine, dual-cyclical nucleic acid strand-displacement polymerization (dual-CNDP) was ingeniously introduced, where the target trigger is repeatedly used as the fuel molecule and the nicked fragments are dramatically accumulated. Moreover, each displaced nicked fragment is able to activate the another type of cyclical strand-displacement amplification, increasing exponentially the value of fluorescence intensity. Essentially, one target binding event can induce considerable number of subsequent reactions, and the nanodevice was called cascade DNA nanomachine. It can implement several functions, including recognition element, signaling probe, polymerization primer and template. Using the developed autonomous operation of DNA nanomachine, the p53 gene can be quantified in the wide concentration range from 0.05 to 150 nM with the detection limit of 50 pM. If taking into account the final volume of mixture, the detection limit is calculated as lower as 6.2 pM, achieving an desirable assay ability. More strikingly, the mutant gene can be easily distinguished from the wild-type one. The proof-of-concept demonstrations reported herein is expected to promote the development and application of DNA nanomachine, showing great potential value in basic biology and medical diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bat flight: aerodynamics, kinematics and flight morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2015-03-01

    Bats evolved the ability of powered flight more than 50 million years ago. The modern bat is an efficient flyer and recent research on bat flight has revealed many intriguing facts. By using particle image velocimetry to visualize wake vortices, both the magnitude and time-history of aerodynamic forces can be estimated. At most speeds the downstroke generates both lift and thrust, whereas the function of the upstroke changes with forward flight speed. At hovering and slow speed bats use a leading edge vortex to enhance the lift beyond that allowed by steady aerodynamics and an inverted wing during the upstroke to further aid weight support. The bat wing and its skeleton exhibit many features and control mechanisms that are presumed to improve flight performance. Whereas bats appear aerodynamically less efficient than birds when it comes to cruising flight, they have the edge over birds when it comes to manoeuvring. There is a direct relationship between kinematics and the aerodynamic performance, but there is still a lack of knowledge about how (and if) the bat controls the movements and shape (planform and camber) of the wing. Considering the relatively few bat species whose aerodynamic tracks have been characterized, there is scope for new discoveries and a need to study species representing more extreme positions in the bat morphospace. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Comparison of matrix exponential methods for fuel burnup calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hyung Suk; Yang, Won Sik

    1999-01-01

    Series expansion methods to compute the exponential of a matrix have been compared by applying them to fuel depletion calculations. Specifically, Taylor, Pade, Chebyshev, and rational Chebyshev approximations have been investigated by approximating the exponentials of bum matrices by truncated series of each method with the scaling and squaring algorithm. The accuracy and efficiency of these methods have been tested by performing various numerical tests using one thermal reactor and two fast reactor depletion problems. The results indicate that all the four series methods are accurate enough to be used for fuel depletion calculations although the rational Chebyshev approximation is relatively less accurate. They also show that the rational approximations are more efficient than the polynomial approximations. Considering the computational accuracy and efficiency, the Pade approximation appears to be better than the other methods. Its accuracy is better than the rational Chebyshev approximation, while being comparable to the polynomial approximations. On the other hand, its efficiency is better than the polynomial approximations and is similar to the rational Chebyshev approximation. In particular, for fast reactor depletion calculations, it is faster than the polynomial approximations by a factor of ∼ 1.7. (author). 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. 14 CFR 63.23 - Special purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... purpose flight engineer and flight navigator certificates: Operation of U.S.-registered civil airplanes... flight engineer or flight navigator duties on a civil airplane of U.S. registry, leased to a person not a... certificate holder is performing flight engineer or flight navigator duties on the U.S.-registered civil...

  14. International Space Station Sustaining Engineering: A Ground-Based Test Bed for Evaluating Integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System and Internal Thermal Control System Flight Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Charles D.; Perry, Jay L.; Callahan, David M.

    2000-01-01

    As the International Space Station's (ISS) various habitable modules are placed in service on orbit, the need to provide for sustaining engineering becomes increasingly important to ensure the proper function of critical onboard systems. Chief among these are the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and the Internal Thermal Control System (ITCS). Without either, life onboard the ISS would prove difficult or nearly impossible. For this reason, a ground-based ECLSS/ITCS hardware performance simulation capability has been developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The ECLSS/ITCS Sustaining Engineering Test Bed will be used to assist the ISS Program in resolving hardware anomalies and performing periodic performance assessments. The ISS flight configuration being simulated by the test bed is described as well as ongoing activities related to its preparation for supporting ISS Mission 5A. Growth options for the test facility are presented whereby the current facility may be upgraded to enhance its capability for supporting future station operation well beyond Mission 5A. Test bed capabilities for demonstrating technology improvements of ECLSS hardware are also described.

  15. An exponential decay model for mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Matthew S

    2014-10-01

    Mediation analysis is often used to investigate mechanisms of change in prevention research. Results finding mediation are strengthened when longitudinal data are used because of the need for temporal precedence. Current longitudinal mediation models have focused mainly on linear change, but many variables in prevention change nonlinearly across time. The most common solution to nonlinearity is to add a quadratic term to the linear model, but this can lead to the use of the quadratic function to explain all nonlinearity, regardless of theory and the characteristics of the variables in the model. The current study describes the problems that arise when quadratic functions are used to describe all nonlinearity and how the use of nonlinear functions, such as exponential decay, address many of these problems. In addition, nonlinear models provide several advantages over polynomial models including usefulness of parameters, parsimony, and generalizability. The effects of using nonlinear functions for mediation analysis are then discussed and a nonlinear growth curve model for mediation is presented. An empirical example using data from a randomized intervention study is then provided to illustrate the estimation and interpretation of the model. Implications, limitations, and future directions are also discussed.

  16. Stretched Exponential relaxation in pure Se glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Boolchand, P.

    A universal feature of glasses is the stretched exponential relaxation, f (t) = exp[ - t / τ ] β . The model of diffusion of excitations to randomly distributed traps in a glass by Phillips1 yields the stretched exponent β = d[d +2] where d, the effective dimensionality. We have measured the enthalpy of relaxation ΔHnr (tw) at Tg of Se glass in modulated DSC experiments as glasses age at 300K and find β = 0.43(2) for tw in the 0

  17. Exponential growth and atmospheric carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurmann, J.A.; Rotty, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The adequacy of assumptions required to project atmospheric CO 2 concentrations in time frames of practical importance is reviewed. Relevant issues concern the form assumed for future fossil fuel release, carbon cycle approximations, and the implications of revisions in fossil fuel patterns required to maintain atmospheric CO 2 levels below a chosen threshold. In general, we find that with a judiciously selected exponential fossil fuel release rate, and with a constant airborn fraction, we can estimate atmospheric CO 2 growth over the next 50 years based on essentially surprise free scenarios. Resource depletion effects must be included for projections beyond about 50 years, and on this time frame the constant airborne fraction approximation has to be questioned as well (especially in later years when the fossil fuel use begins to taper off). For projections for over 100 years, both energy demand scenarios and currently available carbon cycle models have sufficient uncertainties that atmospheric CO 2 levels derived from them are not much better than guesses

  18. Flowshop Scheduling Problems with a Position-Dependent Exponential Learning Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingbao Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a permutation flowshop scheduling problem with a position-dependent exponential learning effect. The objective is to minimize the performance criteria of makespan and the total flow time. For the two-machine flow shop scheduling case, we show that Johnson’s rule is not an optimal algorithm for minimizing the makespan given the exponential learning effect. Furthermore, by using the shortest total processing times first (STPT rule, we construct the worst-case performance ratios for both criteria. Finally, a polynomial-time algorithm is proposed for special cases of the studied problem.

  19. Exponential stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks with diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tingwen

    2007-01-01

    The exponential stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNN) with diffusion is investigated. Exponential stability, significant for applications of neural networks, is obtained under conditions that are easily verified by a new approach. Earlier results on the exponential stability of FCNN with time-dependent delay, a special case of the model studied in this paper, are improved without using the time-varying term condition: dτ(t)/dt < μ

  20. Fitting and Analyzing Randomly Censored Geometric Extreme Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yameen Danish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Bayesian analysis of two-parameter geometric extreme exponential distribution with randomly censored data. The continuous conjugate prior of the scale and shape parameters of the model does not exist while computing the Bayes estimates, it is assumed that the scale and shape parameters have independent gamma priors. It is seen that the closed-form expressions for the Bayes estimators are not possible; we suggest the Lindley’s approximation to obtain the Bayes estimates. However, the Bayesian credible intervals cannot be constructed while using this method, we propose Gibbs sampling to obtain the Bayes estimates and also to construct the Bayesian credible intervals. Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to observe the behavior of the Bayes estimators and also to compare with the maximum likelihood estimators. One real data analysis is performed for illustration.

  1. An Exponentially Weighted Moving Average Control Chart for Bernoulli Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spliid, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    of the transformation is given and its limit for small values of p is derived. Control of high yield processes is discussed and the chart is shown to perform very well in comparison with both the most common alternative EWMA chart and the CUSUM chart. The construction and the use of the proposed EWMA chart......We consider a production process in which units are produced in a sequential manner. The units can, for example, be manufactured items or services, provided to clients. Each unit produced can be a failure with probability p or a success (non-failure) with probability (1-p). A novel exponentially...... weighted moving average (EWMA) control chart intended for surveillance of the probability of failure, p, is described. The chart is based on counting the number of non-failures produced between failures in combination with a variance-stabilizing transformation. The distribution function...

  2. On Using Exponential Parameter Estimators with an Adaptive Controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patre, Parag; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2011-01-01

    Typical adaptive controllers are restricted to using a specific update law to generate parameter estimates. This paper investigates the possibility of using any exponential parameter estimator with an adaptive controller such that the system tracks a desired trajectory. The goal is to provide flexibility in choosing any update law suitable for a given application. The development relies on a previously developed concept of controller/update law modularity in the adaptive control literature, and the use of a converse Lyapunov-like theorem. Stability analysis is presented to derive gain conditions under which this is possible, and inferences are made about the tracking error performance. The development is based on a class of Euler-Lagrange systems that are used to model various engineering systems including space robots and manipulators.

  3. Practical pulse engineering: Gradient ascent without matrix exponentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhole, Gaurav; Jones, Jonathan A.

    2018-06-01

    Since 2005, there has been a huge growth in the use of engineered control pulses to perform desired quantum operations in systems such as nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processors. These approaches, which build on the original gradient ascent pulse engineering algorithm, remain computationally intensive because of the need to calculate matrix exponentials for each time step in the control pulse. In this study, we discuss how the propagators for each time step can be approximated using the Trotter-Suzuki formula, and a further speedup achieved by avoiding unnecessary operations. The resulting procedure can provide substantial speed gain with negligible costs in the propagator error, providing a more practical approach to pulse engineering.

  4. Finite Difference Solution of Elastic-Plastic Thin Rotating Annular Disk with Exponentially Variable Thickness and Exponentially Variable Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic-plastic stresses, strains, and displacements have been obtained for a thin rotating annular disk with exponentially variable thickness and exponentially variable density with nonlinear strain hardening material by finite difference method using Von-Mises' yield criterion. Results have been computed numerically and depicted graphically. From the numerical results, it can be concluded that disk whose thickness decreases radially and density increases radially is on the safer side of design as compared to the disk with exponentially varying thickness and exponentially varying density as well as to flat disk.

  5. Accurate screening for synthetic preservatives in beverage using high performance liquid chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiuqin; Zhang Feng; Sun Yanyan; Yong Wei; Chu Xiaogang; Fang Yanyan; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    In this study, liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/TOF-MS) is applied to qualitation and quantitation of 18 synthetic preservatives in beverage. The identification by HPLC/TOF-MS is accomplished with the accurate mass (the subsequent generated empirical formula) of the protonated molecules [M + H]+ or the deprotonated molecules [M - H]-, along with the accurate mass of their main fragment ions. In order to obtain sufficient sensitivity for quantitation purposes (using the protonated or deprotonated molecule) and additional qualitative mass spectrum information provided by the fragments ions, segment program of fragmentor voltages is designed in positive and negative ion mode, respectively. Accurate mass measurements are highly useful in the complex sample analyses since they allow us to achieve a high degree of specificity, often needed when other interferents are present in the matrix. The mass accuracy typically obtained is routinely better than 3 ppm. The 18 compounds behave linearly in the 0.005-5.0 mg.kg -1 concentration range, with correlation coefficient >0.996. The recoveries at the tested concentrations of 1.0 mg.kg -1 -100 mg.kg -1 are 81-106%, with coefficients of variation -1 , which are far below the required maximum residue level (MRL) for these preservatives in foodstuff. The method is suitable for routine quantitative and qualitative analyses of synthetic preservatives in foodstuff

  6. System Identification of Flight Mechanical Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Roger

    2013-01-01

    With the demand for more advanced fighter aircraft, relying on relaxed stability or even unstable flight mechanical characteristics to gain flight performance, more focus has been put on model-based system engineering to help with the design work. The flight control system design is one important part that relies on this modeling. Therefore it has become more important to develop flight mechanical models that are highly accurate in the whole flight envelop. For today’s newly developed fighter...

  7. Exponential Correlation of IQ and the Wealth of Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    Plots of mean IQ and per capita real Gross Domestic Product for groups of 81 and 185 nations, as collected by Lynn and Vanhanen, are best fitted by an exponential function of the form: GDP = "a" * 10["b"*(IQ)], where "a" and "b" are empirical constants. Exponential fitting yields markedly higher correlation coefficients than either linear or…

  8. Is the basic law of radioactive decay exponential?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopych, P.M.; Zalyubovskii, I.I.

    1988-01-01

    Basic theoretical approaches to the explanation of the observed exponential nature of the decay law are discussed together with the hypothesis that it is not exponential. The significance of this question and its connection with fundamental problems of modern physics are considered. The results of experiments relating to investigation of the form of the decay law are given

  9. Exponential stability in a scalar functional differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pituk Mihály

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish a criterion for the global exponential stability of the zero solution of the scalar retarded functional differential equation whose linear part generates a monotone semiflow on the phase space with respect to the exponential ordering, and the nonlinearity has at most linear growth.

  10. Blowing-up semilinear wave equation with exponential nonlinearity ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H1-norm. Hence, it is legitimate to consider an exponential nonlinearity. Moreover, the choice of an exponential nonlinearity emerges from a possible control of solutions via a. Moser–Trudinger type inequality [1, 16, 19]. In fact, Nakamura and Ozawa [17] proved global well-posedness and scattering for small Cauchy data in ...

  11. Review of "Going Exponential: Growing the Charter School Sector's Best"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David

    2011-01-01

    This Progressive Policy Institute report argues that charter schools should be expanded rapidly and exponentially. Citing exponential growth organizations, such as Starbucks and Apple, as well as the rapid growth of molds, viruses and cancers, the report advocates for similar growth models for charter schools. However, there is no explanation of…

  12. Exponential convergence on a continuous Monte Carlo transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    For more than a decade, it has been known that exponential convergence on discrete transport problems was possible using adaptive Monte Carlo techniques. An adaptive Monte Carlo method that empirically produces exponential convergence on a simple continuous transport problem is described

  13. Global exponential stability for nonautonomous cellular neural networks with delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qiang; Wei Xiaopeng; Xu Jin

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, by utilizing Lyapunov functional method and Halanay inequalities, we analyze global exponential stability of nonautonomous cellular neural networks with delay. Several new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability of the network are obtained. The results given here extend and improve the earlier publications. An example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained results

  14. Stochastic B-series and order conditions for exponential integrators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arara, Alemayehu Adugna; Debrabant, Kristian; Kværnø, Anne

    2018-01-01

    We discuss stochastic differential equations with a stiff linear part and their approximation by stochastic exponential integrators. Representing the exact and approximate solutions using B-series and rooted trees, we derive the order conditions for stochastic exponential integrators. The resulting...

  15. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.; Grimm, Volker; Hochbruck, Marlis

    2013-01-01

    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is the lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Suppose the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed.

  16. Residual, restarting and Richardson iteration for the matrix exponential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochev, Mikhail A.

    2010-01-01

    A well-known problem in computing some matrix functions iteratively is a lack of a clear, commonly accepted residual notion. An important matrix function for which this is the case is the matrix exponential. Assume, the matrix exponential of a given matrix times a given vector has to be computed. We

  17. Ranking Exponential Trapezoidal Fuzzy Numbers by Median Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rezvani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we want represented a method for ranking of two exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. A median value is proposed for the ranking of exponential trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. For the validation the results of the proposed approach are compared with different existing approaches.

  18. New Results of Global Exponential Stabilization for BLDCMs System

    OpenAIRE

    Fengxia Tian; Fangchao Zhen; Guopeng Zhou; Xiaoxin Liao

    2015-01-01

    The global exponential stabilization for brushless direct current motor (BLDCM) system is studied. Four linear and simple feedback controllers are proposed to realize the global stabilization of BLDCM with exponential convergence rate; the control law used in each theorem is less conservative and more concise. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the correctness of the proposed results.

  19. Possible stretched exponential parametrization for humidity absorption in polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacinliyan, A; Skarlatos, Y; Sahin, G; Atak, K; Aybar, O O

    2009-04-01

    Polymer thin films have irregular transient current characteristics under constant voltage. In hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymers, the irregularity is also known to depend on the humidity absorbed by the polymer sample. Different stretched exponential models are studied and it is shown that the absorption of humidity as a function of time can be adequately modelled by a class of these stretched exponential absorption models.

  20. Exponential B-splines and the partition of unity property

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Massopust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We provide an explicit formula for a large class of exponential B-splines. Also, we characterize the cases where the integer-translates of an exponential B-spline form a partition of unity up to a multiplicative constant. As an application of this result we construct explicitly given pairs of dual...

  1. RTSJ Memory Areas and Their Affects on the Performance of a Flight-Like Attitude Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niessner, Albert F.; Benowitz, Edward G.

    2003-01-01

    The two most important factors in improving performance in any software system, but especially a real-time, embedded system, are knowing which components are the low performers and knowing what can be done to improve their performance. The word performance with respect to a real-time, embedded system does not necessarily mean fast execution, which is the common definition when discussing non real-time systems. It also includes meeting all of the specified execution dead-lines and executing at the correct time without sacrificing non real-time performance. Using a Java prototype of an existing control system used on Deep Space 1[1], the effects from adding memory areas are measured and evaluated with respect to improving performance.

  2. Subcriticality determination of low-enriched UO2 lattices in water by exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Takenori

    1991-01-01

    To determine the static k (effective neutron multiplication factor) ranging from the critical to an extremely subcritical states, the exponential experiments were performed using various sizes of light-water moderated and reflected low-enriched UO 2 lattice cores. For comparison, the pulsed neutron source experiments were also carried out. In the manner of the Gozani's bracketing method applied to the pulsed source experiment, a formula to obtain k from the measured spatial-decay constant was derived on the basis of diffusion theory. Parameters in the formulas needed to obtain k from the respective experiments were evaluated by 4-group neutron diffusion calculations. The results of the exponential experiments agreed well with those of the pulsed source experiments, the 4-group diffusion calculations and the 137-group Monte Carlo calculations. Therefore, the present data-processing method developed for the exponential experiment was demonstrated to be valid. Besides, through the examination on the parameters used in the data processing, it was found that the dependence of parameter value upon k is weak in the exponential experiment compared with that in the pulsed source experiment. This indicates the superiority of the exponential experiment over the pulsed source experiment for the subcriticality determination of a wide range. (author)

  3. Laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF): performance, reference spectra and classification of atmospheric samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoli; Ramisetty, Ramakrishna; Mohr, Claudia; Huang, Wei; Leisner, Thomas; Saathoff, Harald

    2018-04-01

    The laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH) is able to identify the chemical composition and mixing state of individual aerosol particles, and thus is a tool for elucidating their impacts on human health, visibility, ecosystem, and climate. The overall detection efficiency (ODE) of the instrument we use was determined to range from ˜ (0.01 ± 0.01) to ˜ (4.23 ± 2.36) % for polystyrene latex (PSL) in the size range of 200 to 2000 nm, ˜ (0.44 ± 0.19) to ˜ (6.57 ± 2.38) % for ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), and ˜ (0.14 ± 0.02) to ˜ (1.46 ± 0.08) % for sodium chloride (NaCl) particles in the size range of 300 to 1000 nm. Reference mass spectra of 32 different particle types relevant for atmospheric aerosol (e.g. pure compounds NH4NO3, K2SO4, NaCl, oxalic acid, pinic acid, and pinonic acid; internal mixtures of e.g. salts, secondary organic aerosol, and metallic core-organic shell particles; more complex particles such as soot and dust particles) were determined. Our results show that internally mixed aerosol particles can result in spectra with new clusters of ions, rather than simply a combination of the spectra from the single components. An exemplary 1-day ambient data set was analysed by both classical fuzzy clustering and a reference-spectra-based classification method. Resulting identified particle types were generally well correlated. We show how a combination of both methods can greatly improve the interpretation of single-particle data in field measurements.

  4. Geometry of the q-exponential distribution with dependent competing risks and accelerated life testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fode; Shi, Yimin; Wang, Ruibing

    2017-02-01

    In the information geometry suggested by Amari (1985) and Amari et al. (1987), a parametric statistical model can be regarded as a differentiable manifold with the parameter space as a coordinate system. Note that the q-exponential distribution plays an important role in Tsallis statistics (see Tsallis, 2009), this paper investigates the geometry of the q-exponential distribution with dependent competing risks and accelerated life testing (ALT). A copula function based on the q-exponential function, which can be considered as the generalized Gumbel copula, is discussed to illustrate the structure of the dependent random variable. Employing two iterative algorithms, simulation results are given to compare the performance of estimations and levels of association under different hybrid progressively censoring schemes (HPCSs).

  5. Optimal Exponential Synchronization of Chaotic Systems with Multiple Time Delays via Fuzzy Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsiag Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an effective approach to realize the optimal exponential synchronization of multiple time-delay chaotic (MTDC systems. First, a neural network (NN model is employed to approximate the MTDC system. Then, a linear differential inclusion (LDI state-space representation is established for the dynamics of the NN model. Based on this LDI state-space representation, this study proposes a delay-dependent exponential stability criterion of the error system derived in terms of Lyapunov’s direct method to ensure that the trajectories of the slave system can approach those of the master system. Subsequently, the stability condition of this criterion is reformulated into a linear matrix inequality (LMI. Based on the LMI, a fuzzy controller is synthesized not only to realize the exponential synchronization but also to achieve the optimal performance by minimizing the disturbance attenuation level. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is provided to illustrate the concepts discussed throughout this work.

  6. Using exponentially weighted moving average algorithm to defend against DDoS attacks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Machaka, P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to investigate the performance of the Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) for mining big data and detection of DDoS attacks in Internet of Things (IoT) infrastructure. The paper will investigate the tradeoff between...

  7. ESTIMATION OF PARAMETERS AND RELIABILITY FUNCTION OF EXPONENTIATED EXPONENTIAL DISTRIBUTION: BAYESIAN APPROACH UNDER GENERAL ENTROPY LOSS FUNCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kumar Singh

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper we propose Bayes estimators of the parameters of Exponentiated Exponential distribution and Reliability functions under General Entropy loss function for Type II censored sample. The proposed estimators have been compared with the corresponding Bayes estimators obtained under Squared Error loss function and maximum likelihood estimators for their simulated risks (average loss over sample space.

  8. Laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF: performance, reference spectra and classification of atmospheric samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Shen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH is able to identify the chemical composition and mixing state of individual aerosol particles, and thus is a tool for elucidating their impacts on human health, visibility, ecosystem, and climate. The overall detection efficiency (ODE of the instrument we use was determined to range from  ∼  (0.01 ± 0.01 to  ∼  (4.23 ± 2.36 % for polystyrene latex (PSL in the size range of 200 to 2000 nm,  ∼  (0.44 ± 0.19 to  ∼  (6.57 ± 2.38 % for ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3, and  ∼  (0.14 ± 0.02 to  ∼  (1.46 ± 0.08 % for sodium chloride (NaCl particles in the size range of 300 to 1000 nm. Reference mass spectra of 32 different particle types relevant for atmospheric aerosol (e.g. pure compounds NH4NO3, K2SO4, NaCl, oxalic acid, pinic acid, and pinonic acid; internal mixtures of e.g. salts, secondary organic aerosol, and metallic core–organic shell particles; more complex particles such as soot and dust particles were determined. Our results show that internally mixed aerosol particles can result in spectra with new clusters of ions, rather than simply a combination of the spectra from the single components. An exemplary 1-day ambient data set was analysed by both classical fuzzy clustering and a reference-spectra-based classification method. Resulting identified particle types were generally well correlated. We show how a combination of both methods can greatly improve the interpretation of single-particle data in field measurements.

  9. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianghao; Baker, Andrew; Chen, Pei

    2011-09-30

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine or ajmalicine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized and reduced species, were characterized. Common fragments and mass differences are described. It was shown that the use of IMS could provide another molecular descriptor, i.e. molecular shape by rotationally averaged collision cross-section; this is of great value for identification of constituents when reference materials are usually not available. Using the combination of high resolution (~40000) accurate mass measurement with time-aligned parallel (TAP) fragmentation, MS(E) (where E represents collision energy), ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) and UPLC chromatography, a total 55 indole alkaloids were characterized and a few new indole alkaloids are reported for the first time. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Multi-constituent determination and fingerprint analysis of Scutellaria indica L. using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xianrui; Zhao, Cui; Su, Weike

    2015-11-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry method integrating multi-constituent determination and fingerprint analysis has been established for quality assessment and control of Scutellaria indica L. The optimized method possesses the advantages of speediness, efficiency, and allows multi-constituents determination and fingerprint analysis in one chromatographic run within 11 min. 36 compounds were detected, and 23 of them were unequivocally identified or tentatively assigned. The established fingerprint method was applied to the analysis of ten S. indica samples from different geographic locations. The quality assessment was achieved by using principal component analysis. The proposed method is useful and reliable for the characterization of multi-constituents in a complex chemical system and the overall quality assessment of S. indica. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Accurate mass analysis of ethanesulfonic acid degradates of acetochlor and alachlor using high-performance liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E.M.; Ferrer, I.; Parry, R.

    2002-01-01

    Degradates of acetochlor and alachlor (ethanesulfonic acids, ESAs) were analyzed in both standards and in a groundwater sample using high-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. The negative pseudomolecular ion of the secondary amide of acetochlor ESA and alachlor ESA gave average masses of 256.0750??0.0049 amu and 270.0786??0.0064 amu respectively. Acetochlor and alachlor ESA gave similar masses of 314.1098??0.0061 amu and 314.1153??0.0048 amu; however, they could not be distinguished by accurate mass because they have the same empirical formula. On the other hand, they may be distinguished using positive-ion electrospray because of different fragmentation spectra, which did not occur using negative-ion electrospray.

  12. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  13. Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Flight Activity and Crew Tracking System (FACTS) is a Web-based application that provides an overall management and tracking tool of FAA Airmen performing Flight...

  14. Flight performance of an advanced CZT imaging detector in a balloon-borne wide-field hard X-ray telescope-ProtoEXIST1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J., E-mail: jaesub@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Allen, B.; Grindlay, J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Barthelemy, S.; Baker, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Garson, A.; Krawczynski, H. [Washington University in St. Louis and the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Apple, J.; Cleveland, W.H. [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2011-10-21

    We successfully carried out the first high-altitude balloon flight of a wide-field hard X-ray coded-aperture telescope ProtoEXIST1, which was launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility at Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on October 9, 2009. ProtoEXIST1 is the first implementation of an advanced CdZnTe (CZT) imaging detector in our ongoing program to establish the technology required for next generation wide-field hard X-ray telescopes such as the High Energy Telescope (HET) in the Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope (EXIST). The CZT detector plane in ProtoEXIST1 consists of an 8x8 array of closely tiled 2 cmx2 cmx0.5 cm thick pixellated CZT crystals, each with 8x8 pixels, mounted on a set of readout electronics boards and covering a 256 cm{sup 2} active area with 2.5 mm pixels. A tungsten mask, mounted at 90 cm above the detector provides shadowgrams of X-ray sources in the 30-600 keV band for imaging, allowing a fully coded field of view of 9{sup o}x9{sup o} (and 19{sup o}x19{sup o} for 50% coding fraction) with an angular resolution of 20'. In order to reduce the background radiation, the detector is surrounded by semi-graded (Pb/Sn/Cu) passive shields on the four sides all the way to the mask. On the back side, a 26 cmx26 cmx2 cm CsI(Na) active shield provides signals to tag charged particle induced events as well as {>=}100keV background photons from below. The flight duration was only about 7.5 h due to strong winds (60 knots) at float altitude (38-39 km). Throughout the flight, the CZT detector performed excellently. The telescope observed Cyg X-1, a bright black hole binary system, for {approx}1h at the end of the flight. Despite a few problems with the pointing and aspect systems that caused the telescope to track about 6.4{sup o} off the target, the analysis of the Cyg X-1 data revealed an X-ray source at 7.2{sigma} in the 30-100 keV energy band at the expected location from the optical images taken by the onboard daytime star camera. The

  15. Sub-exponential mixing of random billiards driven by thermostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmola, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    We study the class of open continuous-time mechanical particle systems introduced in the paper by Khanin and Yarmola (2013 Commun. Math. Phys. 320 121–47). Using the discrete-time results from Khanin and Yarmola (2013 Commun. Math. Phys. 320 121–47) we demonstrate rigorously that, in continuous time, a unique steady state exists and is sub-exponentially mixing. Moreover, all initial distributions converge to the steady state and, for a large class of initial distributions, convergence to the steady state is sub-exponential. The main obstacle to exponential convergence is the existence of slow particles in the system. (paper)

  16. Analytic results for asymmetric random walk with exponential transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutkowicz-Krusin, D.; Procaccia, I.; Ross, J.

    1978-01-01

    We present here exact analytic results for a random walk on a one-dimensional lattice with asymmetric, exponentially distributed jump probabilities. We derive the generating functions of such a walk for a perfect lattice and for a lattice with absorbing boundaries. We obtain solutions for some interesting moment properties, such as mean first passage time, drift velocity, dispersion, and branching ratio for absorption. The symmetric exponential walk is solved as a special case. The scaling of the mean first passage time with the size of the system for the exponentially distributed walk is determined by the symmetry and is independent of the range

  17. Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho; Venerus, David C.

    2000-01-01

    A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data......, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively...

  18. (Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2007-01-01

    We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found

  19. Exponential integrators in time-dependent density-functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Daniel; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán

    2017-12-01

    The integrating factor and exponential time differencing methods are implemented and tested for solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. Popular time propagation methods used in physics, as well as other robust numerical approaches, are compared to these exponential integrator methods in order to judge the relative merit of the computational schemes. We determine an improvement in accuracy of multiple orders of magnitude when describing dynamics driven primarily by a nonlinear potential. For cases of dynamics driven by a time-dependent external potential, the accuracy of the exponential integrator methods are less enhanced but still match or outperform the best of the conventional methods tested.

  20. Periodic oscillation and exponential stability of delayed CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinde

    2000-05-01

    Both the global exponential stability and the periodic oscillation of a class of delayed cellular neural networks (DCNNs) is further studied in this Letter. By applying some new analysis techniques and constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals, some simple and new sufficient conditions are given ensuring global exponential stability and the existence of periodic oscillatory solution of DCNNs. These conditions can be applied to design globally exponentially stable DCNNs and periodic oscillatory DCNNs and easily checked in practice by simple algebraic methods. These play an important role in the design and applications of DCNNs.

  1. Optimal deployment schedule of an active twist rotor for performance enhancement and vibration reduction in high-speed flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young H. YOU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The best active twist schedules exploiting various waveform types are sought taking advantage of the global search algorithm for the reduction of hub vibration and/or power required of a rotor in high-speed conditions. The active twist schedules include two non-harmonic inputs formed based on segmented step functions as well as the simple harmonic waveform input. An advanced Particle Swarm assisted Genetic Algorithm (PSGA is employed for the optimizer. A rotorcraft Computational Structural Dynamics (CSD code CAMRAD II is used to perform the rotor aeromechanics analysis. A Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD code is coupled with CSD for verification and some physical insights. The PSGA optimization results are verified against the parameter sweep study performed using the harmonic actuation. The optimum twist schedules according to the performance and/or vibration reduction strategy are obtained and their optimization gains are compared between the actuation cases. A two-phase non-harmonic actuation schedule demonstrates the best outcome in decreasing the power required while a four-phase non-harmonic schedule results in the best vibration reduction as well as the simultaneous reductions in the power required and vibration. The mechanism of reduction to the performance gains is identified illustrating the section airloads, angle-of-attack distribution, and elastic twist deformation predicted by the present approaches.

  2. Personality factors in flight operations. Volume 1: Leader characteristics and crew performance in a full-mission air transport simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. Clayton; Dickinson, Cortlandt L.; Bowles, Stephen V.

    1990-01-01

    Crew effectiveness is a joint product of the piloting skills, attitudes, and personality characteristics of team members. As obvious as this point might seem, both traditional approaches to optimizing crew performance and more recent training development highlighting crew coordination have emphasized only the skill and attitudinal dimensions. This volume is the first in a series of papers on this simulation. A subsequent volume will focus on patterns of communication within crews. The results of a full-mission simulation research study assessing the impact of individual personality on crew performance is reported. Using a selection algorithm described in previous research, captains were classified as fitting one of three profiles along a battery of personality assessment scales. The performances of 23 crews led by captains fitting each profile were contrasted over a one-and-one-half-day simulated trip. Crews led by captains fitting a positive Instrumental-Expressive profile (high achievement motivation and interpersonal skill) were consistently effective and made fewer errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Expressive profile (below average achievement motivation, negative expressive style, such as complaining) were consistently less effective and made more errors. Crews led by captains fitting a Negative Instrumental profile (high levels of competitiveness, verbal aggressiveness, and impatience and irritability) were less effective on the first day but equal to the best on the second day. These results underscore the importance of stable personality variables as predictors of team coordination and performance.

  3. Performance standards for pass-fail determinations in the national air traffic flight service station training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    This report describes and documents Pass-Fail procedures for the new FSS Training Program. New types of measures and sets of norms are used to create standards of performance that students must meet to become eligible for acceptance into the operatio...

  4. Predictors of the peak width for networks with exponential links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate optimal predictors of the peak (S) and distance to peak (T) of the width function of drainage networks under the assumption that the networks are topologically random with independent and exponentially distributed link lengths. Analytical results are derived using the fact that, under these assumptions, the width function is a homogeneous Markov birth-death process. In particular, exact expressions are derived for the asymptotic conditional expectations of S and T given network magnitude N and given mainstream length H. In addition, a simulation study is performed to examine various predictors of S and T, including N, H, and basin morphometric properties; non-asymptotic conditional expectations and variances are estimated. The best single predictor of S is N, of T is H, and of the scaled peak (S divided by the area under the width function) is H. Finally, expressions tested on a set of drainage basins from the state of Wyoming perform reasonably well in predicting S and T despite probable violations of the original assumptions. ?? 1989 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Multimodal Displays for Target Localization in a Flight Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tannen, Robert

    2001-01-01

    ... Synthesized Immersion Research Environment (SIRE) facility. Twelve pilots with a mean of 2652 flight hours performed a simulated flight task in which they were instructed to maintain a prescribed flight path, air speed, and altitude...

  6. Flight Test of an Intelligent Flight-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ron; Bosworth, John T.; Jacobson, Steven R.; Thomson, Michael Pl; Jorgensen, Charles C.

    2003-01-01

    The F-15 Advanced Controls Technology for Integrated Vehicles (ACTIVE) airplane (see figure) was the test bed for a flight test of an intelligent flight control system (IFCS). This IFCS utilizes a neural network to determine critical stability and control derivatives for a control law, the real-time gains of which are computed by an algorithm that solves the Riccati equation. These derivatives are also used to identify the parameters of a dynamic model of the airplane. The model is used in a model-following portion of the control law, in order to provide specific vehicle handling characteristics. The flight test of the IFCS marks the initiation of the Intelligent Flight Control System Advanced Concept Program (IFCS ACP), which is a collaboration between NASA and Boeing Phantom Works. The goals of the IFCS ACP are to (1) develop the concept of a flight-control system that uses neural-network technology to identify aircraft characteristics to provide optimal aircraft performance, (2) develop a self-training neural network to update estimates of aircraft properties in flight, and (3) demonstrate the aforementioned concepts on the F-15 ACTIVE airplane in flight. The activities of the initial IFCS ACP were divided into three Phases, each devoted to the attainment of a different objective. The objective of Phase I was to develop a pre-trained neural network to store and recall the wind-tunnel-based stability and control derivatives of the vehicle. The objective of Phase II was to develop a neural network that can learn how to adjust the stability and control derivatives to account for failures or modeling deficiencies. The objective of Phase III was to develop a flight control system that uses the neural network outputs as a basis for controlling the aircraft. The flight test of the IFCS was performed in stages. In the first stage, the Phase I version of the pre-trained neural network was flown in a passive mode. The neural network software was running using flight data

  7. Multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis of leaves from Ilex latifolia using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunlin; Deng, Jiewei; Yang, Yunyun; Liu, Junshan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Fai, Kuokchiu; Zhang, Qingwen; Ye, Wencai

    2013-10-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) method integrating multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis has been established for quality assessment and control of leaves from Ilex latifolia. The method possesses the advantages of speediness, efficiency, accuracy, and allows the multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis in one chromatographic run within 13min. Multi-ingredients determination was performed based on the extracted ion chromatograms of the exact pseudo-molecular ions (with a 0.01Da window), and fingerprint analysis was performed based on the base peak chromatograms, obtained by negative-ion electrospray ionization QTOF-MS. The method validation results demonstrated our developed method possessing desirable specificity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The method was utilized to analyze 22 I. latifolia samples from different origins. The quality assessment was achieved by using both similarity analysis (SA) and principal component analysis (PCA), and the results from SA were consistent with those from PCA. Our experimental results demonstrate that the strategy integrated multi-ingredients determination and fingerprint analysis using UPLC-QTOF-MS technique is a useful approach for rapid pharmaceutical analysis, with promising prospects for the differentiation of origin, the determination of authenticity, and the overall quality assessment of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unsteady MHD flow in porous media past over exponentially ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... rotation and magnetic field on the flow past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with ... Let (u, v, w) be the components of the velocity vector V. Then using the equation.

  9. Effects of Exponential Trends on Correlations of Stock Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Jing Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA is a scaling analysis method used to estimate long-range power-law correlation exponents in time series. In this paper, DFA is employed to discuss the long-range correlations of stock market. The effects of exponential trends on correlations of Hang Seng Index (HSI are investigated with emphasis. We find that the long-range correlations and the positions of the crossovers of lower order DFA appear to have no immunity to the additive exponential trends. Further, our analysis suggests that an increase in the DFA order increases the efficiency of eliminating on exponential trends. In addition, the empirical study shows that the correlations and crossovers are associated with DFA order and magnitude of exponential trends.

  10. Global robust exponential stability analysis for interval recurrent neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shengyuan; Lam, James; Ho, Daniel W.C.; Zou Yun

    2004-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of robust global exponential stability analysis for interval recurrent neural networks (RNNs) via the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. The values of the time-invariant uncertain parameters are assumed to be bounded within given compact sets. An improved condition for the existence of a unique equilibrium point and its global exponential stability of RNNs with known parameters is proposed. Based on this, a sufficient condition for the global robust exponential stability for interval RNNs is obtained. Both of the conditions are expressed in terms of LMIs, which can be checked easily by various recently developed convex optimization algorithms. Examples are provided to demonstrate the reduced conservatism of the proposed exponential stability condition

  11. Re-analysis of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.V.; Larrabee, D.A.; Fleischmann, H.H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous studies of exponential rigid-rotor astron equilibria include particles which are not trapped in the self-field of the configuration. The modification of these studies required to exclude untrapped particles is derived

  12. Studying the method of linearization of exponential calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzh, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of study of the method for linearization of exponential calibration curves are given. The calibration technique and comparison of the proposed method with piecewise-linear approximation and power series expansion, are given

  13. In-flight performance of the soft x-ray spectrometer detector system on Astro-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.; Boyce, Kevin R.; Chiao, Meng P.; Eckart, Megan E.; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kilbourne, Caroline Anne; Leutenegger, Maurice A.; McCammon, Daniel; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Sato, Kosuke; Seta, Hiromi; Sawada, Makoto; Sneiderman, Gary A.; Szymkowiak, Andrew E.; Takei, Yoh; Tashiro, Makoto S.; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Watanabe, Tomomi; Yamada, Shinya

    2018-01-01

    The soft x-ray spectrometer (SXS) instrument was launched aboard the Astro-H (Hitomi) observatory on February 17, 2016. The SXS is based on a high-sensitivity x-ray calorimeter detector system that has been successfully deployed in many ground and suborbital spectrometers. The instrument was to provide essential diagnostics for nearly every class of x-ray emitting objects from the atmosphere of Jupiter to the outskirts of galaxy clusters, without degradation for spatially extended objects. The SXS detector system consisted of a 36-pixel cryogenic microcalorimeter array operated at a heat sink temperature of 50 mK. In preflight testing, the detector system demonstrated a resolving power of better than 1300 at 6 keV with a simultaneous bandpass from below 0.3 keV to above 12 keV with a timing precision better than 100 μs. In addition, a solid-state anticoincidence detector was placed directly behind the detector array for background suppression. The detector error budget included the measured interference from the SXS cooling system and the spacecraft. Additional margin for on-orbit gain stability and on-orbit spacecraft interference were also included predicting an on-orbit performance that meets or exceeds the 7-eV FWHM at 6-keV requirement. The actual on-orbit spectral resolution was better than 5 eV FWHM at 6 keV, easily satisfying the instrument requirement. Here, we discuss the actual on-orbit performance of the SXS detector system and compare this to performance in preflight testing and the on-orbit predictions. We will also discuss the on-orbit gain stability, additional on-orbit interference, and measurements of the on-orbit background.

  14. The performance and the characterization of laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LAAP-ToF-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemayel, Rachel; Hellebust, Stig; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Hayeck, Nathalie; Van Elteren, Johannes T.; Wortham, Henri; Gligorovski, Sasho

    2016-05-01

    Hyphenated laser ablation-mass spectrometry instruments have been recognized as useful analytical tools for the detection and chemical characterization of aerosol particles. Here we describe the performances of a laser ablation aerosol particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LAAP-ToF-MS) which was designed for aerodynamic particle sizing using two 405 nm scattering lasers and characterization of the chemical composition of single aerosol particle via ablation/ionization by a 193 nm excimer laser and detection in a bipolar time-of-flight mass spectrometer with a mass resolving power of m/Δm > 600.We describe a laboratory based optimization strategy for the development of an analytical methodology for characterization of atmospheric particles using the LAAP-ToF-MS instrument in combination with a particle generator, a differential mobility analyzer and an optical particle counter. We investigated the influence of particle number concentration, particle size and particle composition on the detection efficiency. The detection efficiency is a product of the scattering efficiency of the laser diodes and the ionization efficiency or hit rate of the excimer laser. The scattering efficiency was found to vary between 0.6 and 1.9 % with an average of 1.1 %; the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 17.0 %. The hit rate exhibited good repeatability with an average value of 63 % and an RSD of 18 %. In addition to laboratory tests, the LAAP-ToF-MS was used to sample ambient air during a period of 6 days at the campus of Aix-Marseille University, situated in the city center of Marseille, France. The optimized LAAP-ToF-MS methodology enables high temporal resolution measurements of the chemical composition of ambient particles, provides new insights into environmental science, and a new investigative tool for atmospheric chemistry and physics, aerosol science and health impact studies.

  15. Demonstration of the exponential decay law using beer froth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leike, A.

    2002-01-01

    The volume of beer froth decays exponentially with time. This property is used to demonstrate the exponential decay law in the classroom. The decay constant depends on the type of beer and can be used to differentiate between different beers. The analysis shows in a transparent way the techniques of data analysis commonly used in science - consistency checks of theoretical models with the data, parameter estimation and determination of confidence intervals. (author)

  16. Meet and Join Matrices in the Poset of Exponential Divisors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... exponential divisor ( G C E D ) and the least common exponential multiple ( L C E M ) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this poset in a lattice. As an application we study the G C E D and L C E M matrices, analogues of G C D and L C M matrices, which are both special cases of meet and join matrices on lattices.

  17. Global robust exponential stability for interval neural networks with delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Shihua; Zhao Tao; Guo Jie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, new sufficient conditions for globally robust exponential stability of neural networks with either constant delays or time-varying delays are given. We show the sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global robust exponential stability of the equilibrium point by employing Lyapunov stability theory and linear matrix inequality (LMI) technique. Numerical examples are given to show the approval of our results.

  18. An exponential observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.-J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the generalized Rossler chaotic system is considered and the state observation problem of such a system is investigated. Based on the time-domain approach, a state observer for the generalized Rossler chaotic system is developed to guarantee the global exponential stability of the resulting error system. Moreover, the guaranteed exponential convergence rate can be arbitrarily pre-specified. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the obtained result.

  19. Testable Implications of Quasi-Hyperbolic and Exponential Time Discounting

    OpenAIRE

    Echenique, Federico; Imai, Taisuke; Saito, Kota

    2014-01-01

    We present the first revealed-preference characterizations of the models of exponential time discounting, quasi-hyperbolic time discounting, and other time-separable models of consumers’ intertemporal decisions. The characterizations provide non-parametric revealed-preference tests, which we take to data using the results of a recent experiment conducted by Andreoni and Sprenger (2012). For such data, we find that less than half the subjects are consistent with exponential discounting, and on...

  20. Fast Modular Exponentiation and Elliptic Curve Group Operation in Maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S. Y.; James, G.

    2006-01-01

    The modular exponentiation, y[equivalent to]x[superscript k](mod n) with x,y,k,n integers and n [greater than] 1; is the most fundamental operation in RSA and ElGamal public-key cryptographic systems. Thus the efficiency of RSA and ElGamal depends entirely on the efficiency of the modular exponentiation. The same situation arises also in elliptic…

  1. Confronting quasi-exponential inflation with WMAP seven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Barun Kumar; Pal, Supratik; Basu, B.

    2012-01-01

    We confront quasi-exponential models of inflation with WMAP seven years dataset using Hamilton Jacobi formalism. With a phenomenological Hubble parameter, representing quasi exponential inflation, we develop the formalism and subject the analysis to confrontation with WMAP seven using the publicly available code CAMB. The observable parameters are found to fair extremely well with WMAP seven. We also obtain a ratio of tensor to scalar amplitudes which may be detectable in PLANCK

  2. KIOPS: A fast adaptive Krylov subspace solver for exponential integrators

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudreault, Stéphane; Rainwater, Greg; Tokman, Mayya

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm KIOPS for computing linear combinations of $\\varphi$-functions that appear in exponential integrators. This algorithm is suitable for large-scale problems in computational physics where little or no information about the spectrum or norm of the Jacobian matrix is known \\textit{a priori}. We first show that such problems can be solved efficiently by computing a single exponential of a modified matrix. Then our approach is to compute an appropriate basis for ...

  3. Effects of simulated altitude on blood glucose meter performance: implications for in-flight blood glucose monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olateju, Tolu; Begley, Joseph; Flanagan, Daniel; Kerr, David

    2012-07-01

    Most manufacturers of blood glucose monitoring equipment do not give advice regarding the use of their meters and strips onboard aircraft, and some airlines have blood glucose testing equipment in the aircraft cabin medical bag. Previous studies using older blood glucose meters (BGMs) have shown conflicting results on the performance of both glucose oxidase (GOX)- and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH)-based meters at high altitude. The aim of our study was to evaluate the performance of four new-generation BGMs at sea level and at a simulated altitude equivalent to that used in the cabin of commercial aircrafts. Blood glucose measurements obtained by two GDH and two GOX BGMs at sea level and simulated altitude of 8000 feet in a hypobaric chamber were compared with measurements obtained using a YSI 2300 blood glucose analyzer as a reference method. Spiked venous blood samples of three different glucose levels were used. The accuracy of each meter was determined by calculating percentage error of each meter compared with the YSI reference and was also assessed against standard International Organization for Standardization (ISO) criteria. Clinical accuracy was evaluated using the consensus error grid method. The percentage (standard deviation) error for GDH meters at sea level and altitude was 13.36% (8.83%; for meter 1) and 12.97% (8.03%; for meter 2) with p = .784, and for GOX meters was 5.88% (7.35%; for meter 3) and 7.38% (6.20%; for meter 4) with p = .187. There was variation in the number of time individual meters met the standard ISO criteria ranging from 72-100%. Results from all four meters at both sea level and simulated altitude fell within zones A and B of the consensus error grid, using YSI as the reference. Overall, at simulated altitude, no differences were observed between the performance of GDH and GOX meters. Overestimation of blood glucose concentration was seen among individual meters evaluated, but none of the results obtained would have resulted in

  4. Acoustic Performance of Novel Fan Noise Reduction Technologies for a High Bypass Model Turbofan at Simulated Flights Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David M.; Woodward, Richard P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2010-01-01

    Two novel fan noise reduction technologies, over the rotor acoustic treatment and soft stator vane technologies, were tested in an ultra-high bypass ratio turbofan model in the NASA Glenn Research Center s 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel. The performance of these technologies was compared to that of the baseline fan configuration, which did not have these technologies. Sideline acoustic data and hot film flow data were acquired and are used to determine the effectiveness of the various treatments. The material used for the over the rotor treatment was foam metal and two different types were used. The soft stator vanes had several internal cavities tuned to target certain frequencies. In order to accommodate the cavities it was necessary to use a cut-on stator to demonstrate the soft vane concept.

  5. Perseus Post-flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Crew members check out the Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle on Rogers Dry Lake, adjacent to the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a test flight in 1991. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved

  6. Eclipse takeoff and flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    made by the simulation, aerodynamic characteristics and elastic properties of the tow rope were a significant component of the towing system; and the Dryden high-fidelity simulation provided a representative model of the performance of the QF-106 and C-141A airplanes in tow configuration. Total time on tow for the entire project was 5 hours, 34 minutes, and 29 seconds. All six flights were highly productive, and all project objectives were achieved. All three of the project objectives were successfully accomplished. The objectives were: demonstration of towed takeoff, climb-out, and separation of the EXD-01 from the towing aircraft; validation of simulation models of the towed aircraft systems; and development of ground and flight procedures for towing and launching a delta-winged airplane configuration safely behind a transport-type aircraft. NASA Dryden served as the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden also supplied engineering, simulation, instrumentation, range support, research pilots, and chase aircraft for the test series. Dryden personnel also performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 into the piloted EXD-01 aircraft. During the early flight phase of the project, Tracor, Inc. provided maintenance and ground support for the two QF-106 airplanes. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, provided the C-141A transport aircraft for the project, its flight and engineering support, and the aircrew. Kelly Space and Technology provided the modification design and fabrication of the hardware that was installed on the EXD-01 aircraft. Kelly Space and Technology hopes to use the data gleaned from the tow tests to develop a series of low-cost reusable launch vehicles, in particular to gain experience towing delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, and in general to demonstrate various operational procedures such as ground processing and abort scenarios. The first successful

  7. Double-exponential decay of orientational correlations in semiflexible polyelectrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačová, P; Košovan, P; Uhlík, F; Kuldová, J; Limpouchová, Z; Procházka, K

    2012-06-01

    In this paper we revisited the problem of persistence length of polyelectrolytes. We performed a series of Molecular Dynamics simulations using the Debye-Hückel approximation for electrostatics to test several equations which go beyond the classical description of Odijk, Skolnick and Fixman (OSF). The data confirm earlier observations that in the limit of large contour separations the decay of orientational correlations can be described by a single-exponential function and the decay length can be described by the OSF relation. However, at short countour separations the behaviour is more complex. Recent equations which introduce more complicated expressions and an additional length scale could describe the results very well on both the short and the long length scale. The equation of Manghi and Netz when used without adjustable parameters could capture the qualitative trend but deviated in a quantitative comparison. Better quantitative agreement within the estimated error could be obtained using three equations with one adjustable parameter: 1) the equation of Manghi and Netz; 2) the equation proposed by us in this paper; 3) the equation proposed by Cannavacciuolo and Pedersen. Two characteristic length scales can be identified in the data: the intrinsic or bare persistence length and the electrostatic persistence length. All three equations use a single parameter to describe a smooth crossover from the short-range behaviour dominated by the intrinsic stiffness of the chain to the long-range OSF-like behaviour.

  8. Exponential local discriminant embedding and its application to face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornaika, Fadi; Bosaghzadeh, Alireza

    2013-06-01

    Local discriminant embedding (LDE) has been recently proposed to overcome some limitations of the global linear discriminant analysis method. In the case of a small training data set, however, LDE cannot directly be applied to high-dimensional data. This case is the so-called small-sample-size (SSS) problem. The classical solution to this problem was applying dimensionality reduction on the raw data (e.g., using principal component analysis). In this paper, we introduce a novel discriminant technique called "exponential LDE" (ELDE). The proposed ELDE can be seen as an extension of LDE framework in two directions. First, the proposed framework overcomes the SSS problem without discarding the discriminant information that was contained in the null space of the locality preserving scatter matrices associated with LDE. Second, the proposed ELDE is equivalent to transforming original data into a new space by distance diffusion mapping (similar to kernel-based nonlinear mapping), and then, LDE is applied in such a new space. As a result of diffusion mapping, the margin between samples belonging to different classes is enlarged, which is helpful in improving classification accuracy. The experiments are conducted on five public face databases: Yale, Extended Yale, PF01, Pose, Illumination, and Expression (PIE), and Facial Recognition Technology (FERET). The results show that the performances of the proposed ELDE are better than those of LDE and many state-of-the-art discriminant analysis techniques.

  9. Trajectory Optimization of Spray Painting Robot for Complex Curved Surface Based on Exponential Mean Bézier Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated tool trajectory planning for spray painting robots is still a challenging problem, especially for a large complex curved surface. This paper presents a new method of trajectory optimization for spray painting robot based on exponential mean Bézier method. The definition and the three theorems of exponential mean Bézier curves are discussed. Then a spatial painting path generation method based on exponential mean Bézier curves is developed. A new simple algorithm for trajectory optimization on complex curved surfaces is introduced. A golden section method is adopted to calculate the values. The experimental results illustrate that the exponential mean Bézier curves enhanced flexibility of the path planning, and the trajectory optimization algorithm achieved satisfactory performance. This method can also be extended to other applications.

  10. Identification of metabolites of vindoline in rats using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqian; Sun, Yupeng; Mu, Xiyan; Yuan, Lin; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lantong

    2017-08-15

    Vindoline (VDL) is an indole alkaloid, possessing hypoglycemic and vasodilator effects, and it is also the prodrug of many vinca alkaloids. In this paper, we analyzed in vivo (including plasma, urine, bile and faeces) and in vitro metabolic profile of VDL in rat with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS). The chromatographic separation was performed on a C 18 column with a mobile phase consisted of 3mM ammonium acetate buffer and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 300μL/min. The mass spectral analysis was conducted in a positive electrospray ionization mode, and on-line data acquisition method multiple mass defect filter (MMDF) combined with dynamic background subtraction (DBS) were used in the biological samples analysis to trace all the potential metabolites of VDL. Twenty-five metabolites of VDL were detected by comparing with the blank sample, of which there were 2 sulfate conjugates. These data suggested that the biotransformation of VDL was deacetylation, oxidation, deoxidization, methylation, dealkylation and sulfate conjugation. This study provides useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of VDL, meanwhile, the research method can be widely applied to speculate structural features of the metabolites of other vinca alkaloids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolomic approaches for orange origin discrimination by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ramon; Pozo, Oscar J; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix

    2014-08-15

    In this work, hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOF MS) coupled to ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) has been used for biomarkers identification for correct authentication of Valencia (Spain) oranges. Differentiation from foreign Argentinean, Brazilian and South African oranges has been carried out using XCMS application and multivariate analysis to UHPLC-(Q)TOF MS data acquired in both, positive and negative ionisation modes. Several markers have been found and corroborated by analysing two seasons samples. A seasonal independent marker was found and its structure elucidated using accurate mass data and MS(E) fragmentation spectrum information. Empirical formula was searched in Reaxys database applying sub-structure filtering from the fragments obtained. Three possible structures were found and citrusin D, a compound present in sweet oranges, has been identified as the most plausible as it fits better with the product ion scan performed for this compound. As a result of data obtained in this work, citrusin D is suggested as a potential marker to distinguish the geographic origin of oranges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parallel microscope-based fluorescence, absorbance and time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection for high performance liquid chromatography and determination of glucosamine in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Bo; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Qiong; Nie, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Shuang-Shuang; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Ren-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Jiao; Zhou, Hong-Bin

    2015-11-01

    A parallel microscope-based laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UV) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detection for high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was achieved and used to determine glucosamine in urines. First, a reliable and convenient LIF detection was developed based on an inverted microscope and corresponding modulations. Parallel HPLC-LIF/UV/TOF-MS detection was developed by the combination of preceding Microscope-based LIF detection and HPLC coupled with UV and TOF-MS. The proposed setup, due to its parallel scheme, was free of the influence from photo bleaching in LIF detection. Rhodamine B, glutamic acid and glucosamine have been determined to evaluate its performance. Moreover, the proposed strategy was used to determine the glucosamine in urines, and subsequent results suggested that glucosamine, which was widely used in the prevention of the bone arthritis, was metabolized to urines within 4h. Furthermore, its concentration in urines decreased to 5.4mM at 12h. Efficient glucosamine detection was achieved based on a sensitive quantification (LIF), a universal detection (UV) and structural characterizations (TOF-MS). This application indicated that the proposed strategy was sensitive, universal and versatile, and it was capable of improved analysis, especially for analytes with low concentrations in complex samples, compared with conventional HPLC-UV/TOF-MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolomic study of corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells by ultra performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongye; Zheng, Hua; Zhao, Gan; Tang, Chaoling; Lu, Shiyin; Cheng, Bang; Wu, Fang; Wei, Jinbin; Liang, Yonghong; Ruan, Junxiang; Song, Hui; Su, Zhiheng

    2016-03-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been proved to be an important pathogenic factor of some neuropsychiatric disorders. Usually, a classical injury model based on corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity of differentiated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells was used to stimulate the state of GC damage of hippocampal neurons and investigate its potential mechanisms involved. However, up to now, the mechanism of corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells was still looking forward to further elucidation. In this work, the metabolomic study of the biochemical changes caused by corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells with different corticosterone concentrations was performed for the first time, using the ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF MS). Partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that metabolic profiles of different corticosterone treatment groups deviated from the control group. A total of fifteen metabolites were characterized as potential biomarkers involved in corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity, which were corresponding to the dysfunctions of five pathways including glycerophospholipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, oxidation of fatty acids, glycerolipid metabolism and sterol lipid metabolism. This study indicated that the rapid and holistic cell metabolomics approach might be a powerful tool to further study the pathogenesis mechanism of corticosterone-induced cytotoxicity in PC12 cells.

  14. Analysis of the Constituents in “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” by Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Lin Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Zhu She Yong Xue Shuan Tong” lyophilized powder (ZSYXST, consists of a series of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, which has been widely used in China for the treatment of strokes. In this study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF/MS combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography (PHPLC method was developed to rapidly identify both major and minor saponins in ZSYXST. Some high content components were removed through PHPLC in order to increase the sensitivity of the trace saponins. Then, specific characteristic fragment ions in both positive and negative mode were utilized to determine the types of aglycone, saccharide, as well as the saccharide chain linkages. As a result, 94 saponins, including 20 pairs of isomers and ten new compounds, which could represent higher than 98% components in ZSYXST, were identified or tentatively identified in commercial ZSYXST samples.

  15. Exponential and Critical Experiments Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Exponential and Critical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    In September 1963 the International Atomic Energy Agency organized the Symposium on Exponential and Critical Experiments in Amsterdam, Netherlands, at the invitation of the Government of the Netherlands. The Symposium enabled scientists from Member States to discuss the results of such experiments which provide the physics data necessary for the design of power reactors. Great advances made in recent years in this field have provided scientists with highly sophisticated and reliable experimental and theoretical methods. This trend is reflected in the presentation, at the Symposium, of many new experimental techniques resulting in more detailed and accurate information and a reduction of costs. Both the number of experimental parameters and their range of variation have been extended, and a closer degree of simulation of the actual power reactor has been achieved, for example, by means of high temperature critical assemblies. Basic types of lattices have continued to be the objective of many investigations, and extensive theoretical analyses have been carried out to provide a more thorough understanding of the neutron physics involved. Twenty nine countries and 3 international organizations were represented by 198 participants. Seventy one papers were presented. These numbers alone show the wide interest which the topic commands in the field of reactor design. We hope that this publication, which includes the papers presented at the Symposium and a record of the discussions, will prove useful as a work of reference to scientists working in this field

  16. Aerodynamic performance and particle image velocimetery of piezo actuated biomimetic manduca sexta engineered wings towards the design and application of a flapping wing flight vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Anthony M.

    Considerable research and investigation has been conducted on the aerodynamic performance, and the predominate flow physics of the Manduca Sexta size of biomimetically designed and fabricated wings as part of the AFIT FWMAV design project. Despite a burgeoning interest and research into the diverse field of flapping wing flight and biomimicry, the aerodynamics of flapping wing flight remains a nebulous field of science with considerable variance into the theoretical abstractions surrounding aerodynamic mechanisms responsible for aerial performance. Traditional FWMAV flight models assume a form of a quasi-steady approximation of wing aerodynamics based on an infinite wing blade element model (BEM). An accurate estimation of the lift, drag, and side force coefficients is a critical component of autonomous stability and control models. This research focused on two separate experimental avenues into the aerodynamics of AFIT's engineered hawkmoth wings|forces and flow visualization. 1. Six degree of freedom force balance testing, and high speed video analysis was conducted on 30°, 45°, and 60° angle stop wings. A novel, non-intrusive optical tracking algorithm was developed utilizing a combination of a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and ComputerVision (OpenCV) tools to track the wing in motion from multiple cameras. A complete mapping of the wing's kinematic angles as a function of driving amplitude was performed. The stroke angle, elevation angle, and angle of attack were tabulated for all three wings at driving amplitudes ranging from A=0.3 to A=0.6. The wing kinematics together with the force balance data was used to develop several aerodynamic force coefficient models. A combined translational and rotational aerodynamic model predicted lift forces within 10%, and vertical forces within 6%. The total power consumption was calculated for each of the three wings, and a Figure of Merit was calculated for each wing as a general expression of the overall efficiency of

  17. Diagnostic performance of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry in blood bacterial infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jamie S; Sterling, Sarah A; To, Harrison; Seals, Samantha R; Jones, Alan E

    2016-07-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has shown promise in decreasing time to identification of causative organisms compared to traditional methods; however, the utility of MALDI-TOF MS in a heterogeneous clinical setting is uncertain. To perform a systematic review on the operational performance of the Bruker MALDI-TOF MS system and evaluate published cut-off values compared to traditional blood cultures. A comprehensive literature search was performed. Studies were included if they performed direct MALDI-TOF MS analysis of blood culture specimens in human patients with suspected bacterial infections using the Bruker Biotyper software. Sensitivities and specificities of the combined studies were estimated using a hierarchical random effects linear model (REML) incorporating cut-off scores of ≥1.7 and ≥2.0. Fifty publications were identified, with 11 studies included after final review. The estimated sensitivity utilising a cut-off of ≥2.0 from the combined studies was 74.6% (95% CI = 67.9-89.3%), with an estimated specificity of 88.0% (95% CI = 74.8-94.7%). When assessing a cut-off of ≥1.7, the combined sensitivity increases to 92.8% (95% CI = 87.4-96.0%), but the estimated specificity decreased to 81.2% (95% CI = 61.9-96.6%). In this analysis, MALDI-TOF MS showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity in bacterial speciation with the current recommended cut-off point compared to blood cultures; however, lowering the cut-off point from ≥2.0 to ≥1.7 would increase the sensitivity of the test without significant detrimental effect on the specificity, which could improve clinician confidence in their results.

  18. Exponential Reliability Coefficient based Reputation Mechanism for isolating selfish nodes in MANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sengathir

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks, cooperation among active mobile nodes is considered to play a vital role in reliable transmission of data. But, the selfish mobile nodes present in an ad hoc environment refuse to forward neighbouring nodes’ packet for conserving its own energy. This intentional selfish behaviour drastically reduces the degree of cooperation maintained between the mobile nodes. Hence, a need arises for devising an effective mechanism which incorporates both energy efficiency and reputation into account for mitigating selfish behaviour in MANETs. In this paper, we propose an Exponential Reliability Coefficient based reputation Mechanism (ERCRM which isolates the selfish nodes from the routing path based on Exponential Reliability Coefficient (ExRC. This reliability coefficient manipulated through exponential failure rate based on moving average method highlights the most recent past behaviour of the mobile nodes for quantifying its genuineness. From the simulation results, it is evident that, the proposed ERCRM approach outperforms the existing Packet Conservation Monitoring Algorithm (PCMA and Spilt Half Reliability Coefficient based Mathematical Model (SHRCM in terms of performance evaluation metrics such as packet delivery ratio, throughput, total overhead and control overhead. Further, this ERCRM mechanism has a successful rate of 28% in isolating the selfish nodes from the routing path. Furthermore, it also aids in framing the exponential threshold point of detection as 0.4, where a maximum number of selfish nodes are identified when compared to the existing models available in the literature.

  19. Numerical study of MHD nanofluid flow and heat transfer past a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Rida; Mustafa, M.; Hayat, T.; Alsaedi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology have led to the discovery of new generation coolants known as nanofluids. Nanofluids possess novel and unique characteristics which are fruitful in numerous cooling applications. Current work is undertaken to address the heat transfer in MHD three-dimensional flow of magnetic nanofluid (ferrofluid) over a bidirectional exponentially stretching sheet. The base fluid is considered as water which consists of magnetite–Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles. Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. Problem formulation is presented through the Maxwell models for effective electrical conductivity and effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Similarity transformations give rise to a coupled non-linear differential system which is solved numerically. Appreciable growth in the convective heat transfer coefficient is observed when nanoparticle volume fraction is augmented. Temperature exponent parameter serves to enhance the heat transfer from the surface. Moreover the skin friction coefficient is directly proportional to both magnetic field strength and nanoparticle volume fraction. - Highlights: • Nanofluid flow due to exponentially stretching sheet. • Exponentially varying surface temperature distribution is accounted. • Sparrow–Gregg type Hills (SGH) for temperature distribution exist. • Numerical values of local Nusselt number are presented. • Cooling performance of ferrofluid is superior to pure water.

  20. Ultrafast convolution/superposition using tabulated and exponential kernels on GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Quan; Chen Mingli; Lu Weiguo [TomoTherapy Inc., 1240 Deming Way, Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: Collapsed-cone convolution/superposition (CCCS) dose calculation is the workhorse for IMRT dose calculation. The authors present a novel algorithm for computing CCCS dose on the modern graphic processing unit (GPU). Methods: The GPU algorithm includes a novel TERMA calculation that has no write-conflicts and has linear computation complexity. The CCCS algorithm uses either tabulated or exponential cumulative-cumulative kernels (CCKs) as reported in literature. The authors have demonstrated that the use of exponential kernels can reduce the computation complexity by order of a dimension and achieve excellent accuracy. Special attentions are paid to the unique architecture of GPU, especially the memory accessing pattern, which increases performance by more than tenfold. Results: As a result, the tabulated kernel implementation in GPU is two to three times faster than other GPU implementations reported in literature. The implementation of CCCS showed significant speedup on GPU over single core CPU. On tabulated CCK, speedups as high as 70 are observed; on exponential CCK, speedups as high as 90 are observed. Conclusions: Overall, the GPU algorithm using exponential CCK is 1000-3000 times faster over a highly optimized single-threaded CPU implementation using tabulated CCK, while the dose differences are within 0.5% and 0.5 mm. This ultrafast CCCS algorithm will allow many time-sensitive applications to use accurate dose calculation.

  1. Perseus in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Perseus proof-of-concept vehicle flies over Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to test basic design concepts for the remotely-piloted, high-altitude vehicle. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA

  2. Metabolomics study on primary dysmenorrhea patients during the luteal regression stage based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ling; Gu, Caiyun; Liu, Xinyu; Xie, Jiabin; Hou, Zhiguo; Tian, Meng; Yin, Jia; Li, Aizhu; Li, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological disorder which, while not life-threatening, severely affects the quality of life of women. Most patients with PD suffer ovarian hormone imbalances caused by uterine contraction, which results in dysmenorrhea. PD patients may also suffer from increases in estrogen levels caused by increased levels of prostaglandin synthesis and release during luteal regression and early menstruation. Although PD pathogenesis has been previously reported on, these studies only examined the menstrual period and neglected the importance of the luteal regression stage. Therefore, the present study used urine metabolomics to examine changes in endogenous substances and detect urine biomarkers for PD during luteal regression. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to create metabolomic profiles for 36 patients with PD and 27 healthy controls. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis were used to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with PD. Ten biomarkers for PD were identified, including ornithine, dihydrocortisol, histidine, citrulline, sphinganine, phytosphingosine, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and 15-keto-prostaglandin F2α. The specificity and sensitivity of these biomarkers was assessed based on the area under the curve of receiver operator characteristic curves, which can be used to distinguish patients with PD from healthy controls. These results provide novel targets for the treatment of PD. PMID:28098892

  3. An Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Metabolomic Approach to Studying the Impact of Moderate Red-Wine Consumption on Urinary Metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Fernández, Adelaida; Ibañez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2018-04-06

    Moderate red-wine consumption has been widely described to exert several benefits in human health. This is mainly due to its unique content of bioactive polyphenols, which suffer several modifications along their pass through the digestive system, including microbial transformation in the colon and phase-II metabolism, until they are finally excreted in urine and feces. To determine the impact of moderate wine consumption in the overall urinary metabolome of healthy volunteers ( n = 41), samples from a red-wine interventional study (250 mL/day, 28 days) were investigated. Urine (24 h) was collected before and after intervention and analyzed by an untargeted ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics approach. 94 compounds linked to wine consumption, including specific wine components (tartaric acid), microbial-derived phenolic metabolites (5-(dihydroxyphenyl)-γ-valerolactones and 4-hydroxyl-5-(phenyl)-valeric acids), and endogenous compounds were identified. Also, some relationships between parallel fecal and urinary metabolomes are discussed.

  4. Determination of sildenafil mixed into herbal honey mixture by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neira Mustabasic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a number of reports of natural products contaminated with illegal adulterants that threaten consumer health because of their adverse pharmacological effects worldwide. In this study, a multi-residual ultra-performance liquid chromatography method with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS was applied for the identification of sildenafil added into a herbal honey mixture used as an immune system booster. Electrospray ionization (ESI source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode. The mobile phase consisted of 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution/acetonitrile (70:30, v/v using the isocratic gradient elution system at a detection wavelength of 290 nm. The compound of sildenafil added into traditional herbal mixed honey was identified according to the spectrum, chromatographic behavior, and mass spectral data were identified by comparison with the reference substance. The method is selective, sensitive and can be used to detect the sildenafil illegally added into traditional herbal medicinal preparations.

  5. Identification of metabolites of Helicid in vivo using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Xinpeng; Liao, Man; Cheng, Xiaoye; Liang, Caijuan; Sun, Yupeng; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Lantong

    2018-04-18

    Helicid is an active natural aromatic phenolic glycoside ingredient originating from well-known traditional Chinese herb medicine and has the significant effects of sedative hypnosis, anti-inflammatory analgesia and antidepressant. In this study, we analyzed the potential metabolites of Helicid in rats by multiple mass defect filter (MMDF)and dynamic background subtraction (DBS)in ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Moreover, we used a novel data processing method 'key product ions (KPIs)' to rapidly detect and identifymetabolites as an assistant tool. MetabolitePilot TM 2.0 software and PeakView TM 2.2 software were used for analyzing metabolites. Twenty metabolites of Helicid (including 15 phase I metabolites and 5 phase II metabolites) were detected by comparing with the blank samples, respectively. Thebiotransformationroute of Helicid was identified as demethylation, oxidation, dehydroxylation, hydrogenation, decarbonylation,glucuronide conjugation and methylation.This is the first study of simultaneously detecting and identifying Helicid metabolism in rats by employing UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS technology. This experiment not only proposed a method for rapidly detecting and identifying metabolites, but also provided useful information for further study of the pharmacology and mechanism of Helicid in vivo. Furthermore, it provided an effective method for the analysis of other aromatic phenolic glycosides metabolic components in vivo. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of berberrubine metabolites in rats by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Qiao, Miao; Chai, Liwei; Cao, Shijie; Feng, Xinchi; Ding, Liqin; Qiu, Feng

    2018-01-01

    Berberrubine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from many medicinal plants, possesses diverse pharmacological activities, including glucose-lowering, lipid-lowering, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. This study aimed to investigate the metabolic profile of berberrubine in vivo. Therefore, a rapid and reliable method using the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) and metabolynx™ software with mass defect filter (MDF) technique was developed. Plasma, bile, urine and feces samples were collected from rats after oral administration of berberrubine with a dose of 30.0mg/kg and analyzed to characterize the metabolites of berberrubine in vivo for the first time. A total of 57 metabolites were identified, including 54 metabolites in urine, 39 metabolites in plasma, 28 metabolites in bile and 18 metabolites in feces. The results indicated that demethylenation, reduction, hydroxylation, demethylation, glucuronidation, and sulfation were the major metabolic pathways of berberrubine in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantification of Lansoprazole in Oral Suspension by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Hybrid Ion-Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy D. Brown

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated to be used as a stability indicating assay for the study of a 3 mg/mL lansoprazole oral suspension. The method utilizes a UPLC (ultra-performance liquid chromatography column and unique mass spectrometric detection (ion-trap time-of-flight (IT-TOF to achieve a sensitive (LOD 2 ng/mL, accurate, and reproducible quantification of lansoprazole. This method reports an intraday and interday coefficient of variation of 2.98 ± 2.17% (n=5 for each concentration for each day and 3.07 ± 0.89% (n=20 for each concentration, respectively. Calibration curves (5–25 μg/mL were found to be linear with an R2 value ranging from 0.9972 to 0.9991 on 4 different days. Accuracy of the assay, expressed as % error, ranged from 0.30 to 5.22%. This method is useful for monitoring the stability of lansoprazole in oral suspension.

  8. Simultaneous determination of thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and metazachlor residues in soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Silvia; Ares, Ana M; Bernal, José Luis; Nozal, María Jesús; Bernal, José

    2017-03-01

    A rapid pioneering method has been developed to simultaneously determine residues of three pesticides (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, and metazachlor) in soil by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry detector (quadrupole time-of-flight). An efficient extraction procedure (90-105% average analyte recoveries) has also been proposed, involving solid-liquid extraction by a mixture of water and methanol (60:40, v/v), centrifugation, and concentration. A chromatographic analysis of the compounds was achieved in 5.5 min by means of a core-shell technology based column (Kinetex ® EVO C 18 , 50 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm, 100 Å). The mobile phase (0.3 mL/min, gradient elution mode) consisted of 0.1% v/v formic acid in water and 0.1% v/v formic acid in acetonitrile. The method was fully validated in terms of selectivity, detection and quantification limits, matrix effect, linearity, trueness, and precision. Low limits of detection and quantification were obtained, ranging from 0.2 to 3.0 μg/kg, which are similar to those published in previous studies, while the absence of a significant matrix effect allowed quantification of the pesticides with standard calibration curves. The proposed method was applied for an analysis of pesticides in several soil samples from experimental fields dedicated to oilseed rape cultivars. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Simultaneous quantitative determination of 11 sesquiterpene lactones in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) leaves by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoyan; Yang, Qianxu

    2017-04-01

    A method of ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry was developed for the simultaneous quantification of 11 sesquiterpene lactones in 11 Jerusalem artichoke leaf samples harvested in a number of areas at different periods. The optimal chromatographic conditions were achieved on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C 18 column (3.0 × 150 mm, 1.8 μm) with linear gradient elution of methanol and water in 8 min. Quantitative analysis was carried out under selective ion monitoring mode. All of the sesquiterpene lactones showed good linearity (R 2 ≥ 0.9949), repeatability (relative standard deviations Jerusalem artichoke leaf samples from different areas. Among them, the content of sesquiterpene lactones in the sample collected from Dalian, Liaoning province was the highest and the early flowering period was considered to be the optimal harvest time. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Characterization of the multiple components of Acanthopanax Senticosus stem by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Liu, Jianhua; Zhang, Aihua; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiangcai; Han, Ying; Zhang, Yingzhi; Wang, Xijun

    2016-02-01

    Acanthopanax Senticosus Harms. has been used widely in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of chronic bronchitis, neurasthenia, hypertension and ischemic heart disease. However, the in vivo constituents of the stem of Acanthopanax Senticosus remain unknown. In this paper, ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry and the MarkerLynx(TM) software combined with multiple data processing approach were used to study the constituents in vitro and in vivo. The aqueous extract from the Acanthopanax Senticosus stem and the compositions in rat serum after intragastric administration were completely analyzed. Consequently, 115 compounds in the aqueous extract from Acanthopanax Senticosus stem and 41 compounds absorbed into blood were characterized. Of the 115 compounds in vitro, 54 were reported for first time, including sinapyl alcohol, sinapyl alcohol diglucoside, and 1-O-sinapoyl-β-D-glucose. In the 41 compounds in vivo, 7 were prototype components and 34 were metabolites which were from 21 components of aqueous extract from Acanthopanax Senticosus stem, and the metabolic pathways of the metabolites were elucidated for first time. The results narrowed the range of screening the active components and provided a basis for the study of action mechanism and pharmacology. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Metabolic profiles of physalin A in rats using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinchi; Liu, Hongxia; Chai, Liwei; Ding, Liqin; Pan, Guixiang; Qiu, Feng

    2017-03-01

    Physalin A, one of the major active components isolated from the calyces of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii is considered to be a promising natural product due to its anti-inflammatory and excellent antitumor activities. Until now, only one paper is available from our group concerning identification of two sulfonate metabolites from rat feces after physalin A treatment. All the other researches related to physalin A were focused on its extraction, separation and biological activities. In this research, a rapid and reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was developed and employed for the comprehensive study of the metabolism of physalin A in vivo for the first time. A total of 24 proposed metabolites were identified in plasma, bile, urine and feces of rats after oral administration of physalin A. The results indicated that sulfonation, reduction and hydroxylation were the major metabolic pathways of physalin A in vivo. Furthermore, this research provides scientific and reliable support for full understanding of the metabolism of physalin A and the results could help to elucidate the safety and efficacy of physalin A, as well as other physalins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Metabolic Profiling of Hoodia, Chamomile, Terminalia Species and Evaluation of Commercial Preparations Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Isaac, Giorgis; Yuk, Jimmy; Wrona, Mark; Yu, Kate; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2017-11-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) profiling was used for the identification of marker compounds and generation of metabolic patterns that could be interrogated using chemometric modeling software. UHPLC-QToF-MS was used to generate comprehensive fingerprints of three botanicals ( Hoodia, Terminalia , and chamomile), each having different classes of compounds. Detection of a broad range of ions was carried out in full scan mode in both positive and negative modes over the range m/z 100-1700 using high-resolution mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to extract relevant chemical information from the data to easily differentiate between Terminalia species, chamomile varieties, and quality control of Hoodia products. Using nontargeted analysis, identification of 37 compounds contributed to the differences between Terminalia species, 26 flavonoids were identified to show the differences between German and Roman chamomile, and 43 pregnane glycosides were identified from Hoodia gordonii samples. The UHPLC-QToF-MS-based chemical fingerprinting with principal component analysis was able to correctly distinguish botanicals and their commercial products. This work can be used as a basis to assure the quality of botanicals and commercial products. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Metabolomics Analysis of Health Functions of Physalis Pubescens L. using by Ultra-performance Liquid Chromatography/Electrospray Ionization Quadruple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang Chu; Hui Sun; Guang-Li Yan; Ai-Hua Zhang; Chang Liu; Hui Dong; Xiang-Cai Meng; Xi-Jun Wang

    2015-01-01

    Herbal medicines may benefit from metabolomics studies, and applying metabolomics may provide answers about which herbal interventions may be effective for individuals, which metabolic processes are triggered, and the subsequent chemical pathways of activity. Physalis pubescens L (PPL) is an herbal fruit for one year living plant and has been developed into healthy function’s food. However, the mechanisms of health functions are still unclear. To comprehensively and holistically assess its anti-fatigue and antioxidant effects, a novel integrative metabolomics approach was applied. In this study, we present metabolomics analysis applying ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) to determine metabolite alterations after oral administration PPL to rats. Fifteen metabolites in urine were identified as potential biomarkers. Pattern analysis of the UPLC-Q/TOF-MS data disclosed that PPL could relieve fatigue rats by ameliorating the disturbance in amino acids metabolism and energy metabolism, alleviating the oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and the inflammatory damage, and recovering the destructed regulation. Based on these results, we demonstrated that PPL is a promising source of natural anti-fatigue and antioxidants material for use in functional foods and medicines.

  14. Online extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry for rapid flavonoid profiling of Fructus aurantii immaturus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Runna; Peng, Mijun; Tong, Chaoying; Guo, Keke; Shi, Shuyun

    2018-03-01

    Chemical profiling of natural products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was critical for understanding of their clinical bioactivities, and sample pretreatment steps have been considered as a bottleneck for analysis. Currently, concerted efforts have been made to develop sample pretreatment methods with high efficiency, low solvent and time consumptions. Here, a simple and efficient online extraction (OLE) strategy coupled with HPLC-diode array detector-quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS) was developed for rapid chemical profiling. For OLE strategy, guard column inserted with ground sample (2 mg) instead of sample loop was connected with manual injection valve, in which components were directly extracted and transferred to HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system only by mobile phase without any extra time, solvent, instrument and operation. By comparison with offline heat-reflux extraction for Fructus aurantii immaturus (Zhishi), OLE strategy presented higher extraction efficiency perhaps because of the high pressure and gradient elution mode. A total of eighteen flavonoids were detected according to their retention times, UV spectra, exact mass, and fragmentation ions in MS/MS spectra, and compound 9, natsudaidain-3-O-glucoside, was discovered in Zhishi for the first time. It is concluded that the developed OLE-HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS system offers new perspectives for rapid chemical profiling of natural products. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Distribution patterns of flavonoids from three Momordica species by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry: a metabolomic profiling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntakadzeni Edwin Madala

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Plants from the Momordica genus, Curcubitaceae, are used for several purposes, especially for their nutritional and medicinal properties. Commonly known as bitter gourds, melon and cucumber, these plants are characterized by a bitter taste owing to the large content of cucurbitacin compounds. However, several reports have shown an undisputed correlation between the therapeutic activities and polyphenolic flavonoid content. Using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry in combination with multivariate data models such as principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis, three Momordica species (M. foetida Schumach., M. charantia L. and M. balsamina L. were chemo-taxonomically grouped based on their flavonoid content. Using a conventional mass spectrometric-based approach, thirteen flavonoids were tentatively identified and the three species were found to contain different isomers of the quercetin-, kaempferol- and isorhamnetin-O-glycosides. Our results indicate that Momordica species are overall very rich sources of flavonoids but do contain different forms thereof. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is a first report on the flavonoid content of M. balsamina L.

  16. Exponential Sensitivity and its Cost in Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilyén, András; Kiss, Tamás; Jex, Igor

    2016-02-10

    State selective protocols, like entanglement purification, lead to an essentially non-linear quantum evolution, unusual in naturally occurring quantum processes. Sensitivity to initial states in quantum systems, stemming from such non-linear dynamics, is a promising perspective for applications. Here we demonstrate that chaotic behaviour is a rather generic feature in state selective protocols: exponential sensitivity can exist for all initial states in an experimentally realisable optical scheme. Moreover, any complex rational polynomial map, including the example of the Mandelbrot set, can be directly realised. In state selective protocols, one needs an ensemble of initial states, the size of which decreases with each iteration. We prove that exponential sensitivity to initial states in any quantum system has to be related to downsizing the initial ensemble also exponentially. Our results show that magnifying initial differences of quantum states (a Schrödinger microscope) is possible; however, there is a strict bound on the number of copies needed.

  17. Exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mark; Zhang, Junhua; Wang, Ye; Wang, Pengfei; Kim, Kihwan

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate the protocol of exponential gain of randomness certified by quantum contextuality in a trapped ion system. The genuine randomness can be produced by quantum principle and certified by quantum inequalities. Recently, randomness expansion protocols based on inequality of Bell-text and Kochen-Specker (KS) theorem, have been demonstrated. These schemes have been theoretically innovated to exponentially expand the randomness and amplify the randomness from weak initial random seed. Here, we report the experimental evidence of such exponential expansion of randomness. In the experiment, we use three states of a 138Ba + ion between a ground state and two quadrupole states. In the 138Ba + ion system, we do not have detection loophole and we apply a methods to rule out certain hidden variable models that obey a kind of extended noncontextuality.

  18. The Exponentiated Gumbel Type-2 Distribution: Properties and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Okorie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a generalized version of the standard Gumble type-2 distribution. The new lifetime distribution is called the Exponentiated Gumbel (EG type-2 distribution. The EG type-2 distribution has three nested submodels, namely, the Gumbel type-2 distribution, the Exponentiated Fréchet (EF distribution, and the Fréchet distribution. Some statistical and reliability properties of the new distribution were given and the method of maximum likelihood estimates was proposed for estimating the model parameters. The usefulness and flexibility of the Exponentiated Gumbel (EG type-2 distribution were illustrated with a real lifetime data set. Results based on the log-likelihood and information statistics values showed that the EG type-2 distribution provides a better fit to the data than the other competing distributions. Also, the consistency of the parameters of the new distribution was demonstrated through a simulation study. The EG type-2 distribution is therefore recommended for effective modelling of lifetime data.

  19. Kullback-Leibler divergence and the Pareto-Exponential approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, G V

    2016-01-01

    Recent radar research interests in the Pareto distribution as a model for X-band maritime surveillance radar clutter returns have resulted in analysis of the asymptotic behaviour of this clutter model. In particular, it is of interest to understand when the Pareto distribution is well approximated by an Exponential distribution. The justification for this is that under the latter clutter model assumption, simpler radar detection schemes can be applied. An information theory approach is introduced to investigate the Pareto-Exponential approximation. By analysing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the two distributions it is possible to not only assess when the approximation is valid, but to determine, for a given Pareto model, the optimal Exponential approximation.

  20. Exponential rise of dynamical complexity in quantum computing through projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarth, Daniel Klaus; Facchi, Paolo; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Nakazato, Hiromichi; Pascazio, Saverio; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2014-10-10

    The ability of quantum systems to host exponentially complex dynamics has the potential to revolutionize science and technology. Therefore, much effort has been devoted to developing of protocols for computation, communication and metrology, which exploit this scaling, despite formidable technical difficulties. Here we show that the mere frequent observation of a small part of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into an exponentially complex one, capable of universal quantum computation. After discussing examples, we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics becomes universal once 'observed' as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be 'purified' into a simpler one in larger dimensions. We conclude by demonstrating that even local noise can lead to an exponentially complex dynamics.

  1. Design of a 9-loop quasi-exponential waveform generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Partha; Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-12-01

    We know in an under-damped L-C-R series circuit, current follows a damped sinusoidal waveform. But if a number of sinusoidal waveforms of decreasing time period, generated in an L-C-R circuit, be combined in first quarter cycle of time period, then a quasi-exponential nature of output current waveform can be achieved. In an L-C-R series circuit, quasi-exponential current waveform shows a rising current derivative and thereby finds many applications in pulsed power. Here, we have described design and experiment details of a 9-loop quasi-exponential waveform generator. In that, design details of magnetic switches have also been described. In the experiment, output current of 26 kA has been achieved. It has been shown that how well the experimentally obtained output current profile matches with the numerically computed output.

  2. A kinetic theory for nonanalog Monte Carlo algorithms: Exponential transform with angular biasing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, T.; Larsen, E.W.

    1998-01-01

    A new Boltzmann Monte Carlo (BMC) equation is proposed to describe the transport of Monte Carlo particles governed by a set of nonanalog rules for the transition of space, velocity, and weight. The BMC equation is a kinetic equation that includes weight as an extra independent variable. The solution of the BMC equation is the pointwise distribution of velocity and weight throughout the physical system. The BMC equation is derived for the simulation of a transmitted current, utilizing the exponential transform with angular biasing. The weight moments of the solution of the BMC equation are used to predict the score moments of the transmission current. (Also, it is shown that an adjoint BMC equation can be used for this purpose.) Integrating the solution of the forward BMC equation over space, velocity, and weight, the mean number of flights per history is obtained. This is used to determine theoretically the figure of merit for any choice of biasing parameters. Also, a maximum safe value of the exponential transform parameter is proposed, which ensure the finite variance of variance estimate (sample variance) for any penetration distance. Finally, numerical results that validate the new theory are provided

  3. Research and realization of ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dandan; Hou, Huirang; Zhang, Tao

    2016-04-01

    For ultrasonic gas flow rate measurement based on ultrasonic exponential model, when the noise frequency is close to that of the desired signals (called similar-frequency noise) or the received signal amplitude is small and unstable at big flow rate, local convergence of the algorithm genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles may appear, and measurement accuracy may be affected. Therefore, an improved method energy genetic-ant colony optimization-3cycles (EGACO-3cycles) is proposed to solve this problem. By judging the maximum energy position of signal, the initial parameter range of exponential model can be narrowed and then the local convergence can be avoided. Moreover, a DN100 flow rate measurement system with EGACO-3cycles method is established based on NI PCI-6110 and personal computer. A series of experiments are carried out for testing the new method and the measurement system. It is shown that local convergence doesn't appear with EGACO-3cycles method when similar-frequency noises exist and flow rate is big. Then correct time of flight can be obtained. Furthermore, through flow calibration on this system, the measurement range ratio is achieved 500:1, and the measurement accuracy is 0.5% with a low transition velocity 0.3 m/s. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of mono-exponential, bi-exponential and stretched exponential model-based diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the diagnosis and differentiation of uterine cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Meng; Yu, Xiaoduo; Chen, Yan; Ouyang, Han; Zhou, Chunwu [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing (China); Wu, Bing; Zheng, Dandan [GE MR Research China, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    To investigate the potential of various metrics derived from mono-exponential model (MEM), bi-exponential model (BEM) and stretched exponential model (SEM)-based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in diagnosing and differentiating the pathological subtypes and grades of uterine cervical carcinoma. 71 newly diagnosed patients with cervical carcinoma (50 cases of squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and 21 cases of adenocarcinoma [AC]) and 32 healthy volunteers received DWI with multiple b values. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), pure molecular diffusion (D), pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*), perfusion fraction (f), water molecular diffusion heterogeneity index (alpha), and distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) were calculated and compared between tumour and normal cervix, among different pathological subtypes and grades. All of the parameters were significantly lower in cervical carcinoma than normal cervical stroma except alpha. SCC showed lower ADC, D, f and DDC values and higher D* value than AC; D and DDC values of SCC and ADC and D values of AC were lower in the poorly differentiated group than those in the well-moderately differentiated group. Compared with MEM, diffusion parameters from BEM and SEM may offer additional information in cervical carcinoma diagnosis, predicting pathological tumour subtypes and grades, while f and D showed promising significance. (orig.)

  5. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Wang, Yuesheng; Wei, Huizhen; Ouyang, Hui; He, Mingzhen; Zeng, Lianqing; Shen, Fengyun; Guo, Qiang; Rao, Yi

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed for the determination of amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin in rat plasma after intragastric administration of Maxing shigan decoction. The analytes were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After purified by liquid-liquid extraction, the qualitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS III HPLC column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 1.6 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on a Triple TOF 5600 quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometer. The quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in the plasma sample was performed by separation on an Agilent C18 HPLC column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 microm), using acetonitrile-0.1% (v/v) formic acid aqueous solution. The detection was performed on an AB Q-TRAP 4500 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) interface operated in negative ion mode and multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The qualitative analysis results showed that amygdalin and its metabolite prunasin were detected in the plasma sample. The quantitative analysis results showed that the linear range of amygdalin was 1.05-4 200 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 0 and the linear range of prunasin was 1.25-2 490 ng/mL with the correlation coefficient of 0.997 0. The method had a good precision with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 9.20% and the overall recoveries varied from 82.33% to 95.25%. The limits of detection (LODs) of amygdalin and prunasin were 0.50 ng/mL. With good reproducibility, the method is simple, fast and effective for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amygdalin and prunasin in plasma sample of rats which were administered by Maxing shigan decoction.

  6. Lagrange α-exponential stability and α-exponential convergence for fractional-order complex-valued neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jigui; Wan, Peng

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the problem on Lagrange α-exponential stability and α-exponential convergence for a class of fractional-order complex-valued neural networks. To this end, some new fractional-order differential inequalities are established, which improve and generalize previously known criteria. By using the new inequalities and coupling with the Lyapunov method, some effective criteria are derived to guarantee Lagrange α-exponential stability and α-exponential convergence of the addressed network. Moreover, the framework of the α-exponential convergence ball is also given, where the convergence rate is related to the parameters and the order of differential of the system. These results here, which the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium points need not to be considered, generalize and improve the earlier publications and can be applied to monostable and multistable fractional-order complex-valued neural networks. Finally, one example with numerical simulations is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycerolipid Profiling of Yellow Sarson Seeds Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Triple Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuning ZHENG

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Yellow sarson (Brassica rapa ssp. trillocularis is an important rapeseed-mustard species of Brassica rapa due to its high seed oil content. Glycerolipids and fatty acid composition affect seed germination and determine the quality of seed oil. To date, no information is available on the composition of individual glycerolipids in this species. Therefore, in this study the glycerolipid profiling of yellow sarson seeds was performed using ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple-TOF-MS. A fast and efficient chromatographic separation of glycerolipids was accomplished based on an UPLCTM BEH C8 column within 22 min. In ESI positive ion mode, TOF-MS scan-information dependent acquisition-product ion scan was carried out to acquire both high resolution MS and MS/MS information from one injection. According to MS/MS spectra, predominant fragmentation patterns of glycerolipids were elucidated in detail. Based on retention time, accurate mass, isotopic distribution, and fragmentation patterns, the composition of 144 glycerolipids and fatty acids were finally identified in yellow sarson seeds, including 77 triacylglycerols, 32 diacylglycerols, 18 sulfoquinovosyl-diacylglycerols, 5 monogalactosyl-diaclyglycerols, and 12 digalactosyl-diacylglycerols. Of them, the most abundant glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds were triacylglycerols, the major storage form of seed oil in plants. In addition, diacylglycerols were found as a minor component of glycerolipids. The lowest amounts of glycerolipids detected in seeds were glycosyl-acylglycerols. The results revealed the composition and relative content of glycerolipids in yellow sarson seeds, which will provide a more comprehensive assessment of the quality of seed oil and also help to select functional cultivars with higher beneficial glycerolipids. This profiling method has the advantages of high throughput, high sensitivity and good accuracy

  8. Exponential Synchronization of Uncertain Complex Dynamical Networks with Delay Coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lifu; Kong Zhi; Jing Yuanwei

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the global exponential synchronization of uncertain complex delayed dynamical networks. The network model considered is general dynamical delay networks with unknown network structure and unknown coupling functions but bounded. Novel delay-dependent linear controllers are designed via the Lyapunov stability theory. Especially, it is shown that the controlled networks are globally exponentially synchronized with a given convergence rate. An example of typical dynamical network of this class, having the Lorenz system at each node, has been used to demonstrate and verify the novel design proposed. And, the numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed synchronization approaches. (general)

  9. Exponentially convergent state estimation for delayed switched recurrent neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Choon Ki

    2011-11-01

    This paper deals with the delay-dependent exponentially convergent state estimation problem for delayed switched neural networks. A set of delay-dependent criteria is derived under which the resulting estimation error system is exponentially stable. It is shown that the gain matrix of the proposed state estimator is characterised in terms of the solution to a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), which can be checked readily by using some standard numerical packages. An illustrative example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed state estimator.

  10. EXCHANGE-RATES FORECASTING: EXPONENTIAL SMOOTHING TECHNIQUES AND ARIMA MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezsi Eva

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates forecasting is, and has been a challenging task in finance. Statistical and econometrical models are widely used in analysis and forecasting of foreign exchange rates. This paper investigates the behavior of daily exchange rates of the Romanian Leu against the Euro, United States Dollar, British Pound, Japanese Yen, Chinese Renminbi and the Russian Ruble. Smoothing techniques are generated and compared with each other. These models include the Simple Exponential Smoothing technique, as the Double Exponential Smoothing technique, the Simple Holt-Winters, the Additive Holt-Winters, namely the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average model.

  11. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.

  12. Stability of the Exponential Functional Equation in Riesz Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Batko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the exponential Cauchy functional equation F(x+y=F(xF(y in the class of functions F:G→L mapping a group (G, + into a Riesz algebra L. The main aim of this paper is to prove that the exponential Cauchy functional equation is stable in the sense of Hyers-Ulam and is not superstable in the sense of Baker. To prove the stability we use the Yosida Spectral Representation Theorem.

  13. Minimizing the effect of exponential trends in detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Na; Shang Pengjian; Kamae, Santi

    2009-01-01

    The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and its extensions (MF-DFA) have been used extensively to determine possible long-range correlations in time series. However, recent studies have reported the susceptibility of DFA to trends which give rise to spurious crossovers and prevent reliable estimation of the scaling exponents. In this report, a smoothing algorithm based on the discrete laplace transform (DFT) is proposed to minimize the effect of exponential trends and distortion in the log-log plots obtained by MF-DFA techniques. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on monofractal and multifractal data corrupted with exponential trends.

  14. Generator of an exponential function with respect to time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janin, Paul; Puyal, Claude.

    1981-01-01

    This invention deals with an exponential function generator, and an application of this generator to simulating the criticality of a nuclear reactor for reactimeter calibration purposes. This generator, which is particularly suitable for simulating the criticality of a nuclear reactor to calibrate a reactimeter, can also be used in any field of application necessitating the generation of an exponential function in real time. In certain fields of thermodynamics, it is necessary to represent temperature gradients as a function of time. The generator might find applications here. Another application is nuclear physics where it is necessary to represent the attenuation of a neutron flux density with respect to time [fr

  15. Exponential stability of neural networks with asymmetric connection weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinxiang; Zhong Shouming

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the exponential stability of a class of neural networks with asymmetric connection weights. By dividing the network state variables into various parts according to the characters of the neural networks, some new sufficient conditions of exponential stability are derived via constructing a Lyapunov function and using the method of the variation of constant. The new conditions are associated with the initial values and are described by some blocks of the interconnection matrix, and do not depend on other blocks. Examples are given to further illustrate the theory

  16. Collisional avalanche exponentiation of runaway electrons in electrified plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayakumar, R.; Fleischmann, H.H.; Zweben, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    In contrast to earlier expectations, it is estimated that generation of runaway electrons from close collisions of existing runaways with cold plasma electrons can be significant even for small electric fields, whenever runaways can gain energies of about 20 MeV or more. In that case, the runaway population will grow exponentially with the energy spectrum showing an exponential decrease towards higher energies. Energy gains of the required magnitude may occur in large tokamak devices as well as in cosmic-ray generation. (orig.)

  17. Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass

  18. Fuel elements assembling for the DON project exponential experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anca Abati, R. de

    1966-01-01

    It is described the fuel unit used in the DON exponential experience, the manufacturing installments and tools as well as the stages in the fabrication.These 74 elements contain each 19 cartridges loaded with synterized urania, uranium carbide and indium, gold, and manganese probes. They were arranged in calandria-like tubes and the process-tube. This last one containing a cooling liquid simulating the reactor organic. Besides being used in the DON reactor exponential experience they were used in critic essays by the substitution method in the French reactor AQUILON II. (Author) 6 refs

  19. A cluster expansion approach to exponential random graph models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Mei

    2012-01-01

    The exponential family of random graphs are among the most widely studied network models. We show that any exponential random graph model may alternatively be viewed as a lattice gas model with a finite Banach space norm. The system may then be treated using cluster expansion methods from statistical mechanics. In particular, we derive a convergent power series expansion for the limiting free energy in the case of small parameters. Since the free energy is the generating function for the expectations of other random variables, this characterizes the structure and behavior of the limiting network in this parameter region

  20. The exponential critical state of high-Tc ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, H.; Rinderer, L.

    1994-01-01

    The critical current in high-Tc materials is strongly reduced by a magnetic field. We studied this dependency for tubular YBCO samples. We find an exponential drop as the field is increased from zero up to some tens of oersted. This behavior was already observed by others, however little work has been done in this direction. We define what we call the ''exponential critical state'' of HTSC and compare the prediction for the magnetization with experimental data. Furthermore, the ''Kim critical state'' is obtained as the small field limit. (orig.)

  1. On exponential stability and periodic solutions of CNNs with delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinde

    2000-03-01

    In this Letter, the author analyses further problems of global exponential stability and the existence of periodic solutions of cellular neural networks with delays (DCNNs). Some simple and new sufficient conditions are given ensuring global exponential stability and the existence of periodic solutions of DCNNs by applying some new analysis techniques and constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals. These conditions have important leading significance in the design and applications of globally stable DCNNs and periodic oscillatory DCNNs and are weaker than those in the earlier works [Phys. Rev. E 60 (1999) 3244], [J. Comput. Syst. Sci. 59 (1999)].

  2. Estimation of the reliability function for two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh or Burr type X distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Pathak

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Problem Statement: The two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution has been widely used especially in the modelling of life time event data. It provides a statistical model which has a wide variety of application in many areas and the main advantage is its ability in the context of life time event among other distributions. The uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimation methods are the way to estimate the parameters of the distribution. In this study we explore and compare the performance of the uniformly minimum variance unbiased and maximum likelihood estimators of the reliability function R(t=P(X>t and P=P(X>Y for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution. Approach: A new technique of obtaining these parametric functions is introduced in which major role is played by the powers of the parameter(s and the functional forms of the parametric functions to be estimated are not needed.  We explore the performance of these estimators numerically under varying conditions. Through the simulation study a comparison are made on the performance of these estimators with respect to the Biasness, Mean Square Error (MSE, 95% confidence length and corresponding coverage percentage. Conclusion: Based on the results of simulation study the UMVUES of R(t and ‘P’ for the two-parameter exponentiated Rayleigh distribution found to be superior than MLES of R(t and ‘P’.

  3. Flight telerobotic servicer legacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Paul L.; Lowrie, James W.

    1992-11-01

    The Flight Telerobotic Servicer (FTS) was developed to enhance and provide a safe alternative to human presence in space. The first step for this system was a precursor development test flight (DTF-1) on the Space Shuttle. DTF-1 was to be a pathfinder for manned flight safety of robotic systems. The broad objectives of this mission were three-fold: flight validation of telerobotic manipulator (design, control algorithms, man/machine interfaces, safety); demonstration of dexterous manipulator capabilities on specific building block tasks; and correlation of manipulator performance in space with ground predictions. The DTF-1 system is comprised of a payload bay element (7-DOF manipulator with controllers, end-of-arm gripper and camera, telerobot body with head cameras and electronics module, task panel, and MPESS truss) and an aft flight deck element (force-reflecting hand controller, crew restraint, command and display panel and monitors). The approach used to develop the DTF-1 hardware, software and operations involved flight qualification of components from commercial, military, space, and R controller, end-of-arm tooling, force/torque transducer) and the development of the telerobotic system for space applications. The system is capable of teleoperation and autonomous control (advances state of the art); reliable (two-fault tolerance); and safe (man-rated). Benefits from the development flight included space validation of critical telerobotic technologies and resolution of significant safety issues relating to telerobotic operations in the Shuttle bay or in the vicinity of other space assets. This paper discusses the lessons learned and technology evolution that stemmed from developing and integrating a dexterous robot into a manned system, the Space Shuttle. Particular emphasis is placed on the safety and reliability requirements for a man-rated system as these are the critical factors which drive the overall system architecture. Other topics focused on include

  4. Improvement of the exponential experiment system for the automatical and accurate measurement of the exponential decay constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Sung; Jang, Ji Woon; Lee, Yoon Hee; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Kim, Ho Dong

    2004-01-01

    The previous exponential experiment system has been improved for the automatical and accurate axial movement of the neutron source and detector with attaching the automatical control system which consists of a Programmable Logical Controller(PLC) and a stepping motor set. The automatic control program which controls MCA and PLC consistently has been also developed on the basis of GENIE 2000 library. The exponential experiments have been carried out for Kori 1 unit spent fuel assemblies, C14, J14 and G23, and Kori 2 unit spent fuel assembly, J44, using the improved systematical measurement system. As the results, the average exponential decay constants for 4 assemblies are determined to be 0.1302, 0.1267, 0.1247, and 0.1210, respectively, with the application of poisson regression

  5. Non-exponential extinction of radiation by fractional calculus modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casasanta, G.; Ciani, D.; Garra, R.

    2012-01-01

    Possible deviations from exponential attenuation of radiation in a random medium have been recently studied in several works. These deviations from the classical Beer-Lambert law were justified from a stochastic point of view by Kostinski (2001) . In his model he introduced the spatial correlation among the random variables, i.e. a space memory. In this note we introduce a different approach, including a memory formalism in the classical Beer-Lambert law through fractional calculus modelling. We find a generalized Beer-Lambert law in which the exponential memoryless extinction is only a special case of non-exponential extinction solutions described by Mittag-Leffler functions. We also justify this result from a stochastic point of view, using the space fractional Poisson process. Moreover, we discuss some concrete advantages of this approach from an experimental point of view, giving an estimate of the deviation from exponential extinction law, varying the optical depth. This is also an interesting model to understand the meaning of fractional derivative as an instrument to transmit randomness of microscopic dynamics to the macroscopic scale.

  6. Calculation of the exponential function of linear idempotent operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavoya-Aceves, O.; Luna, H.M.

    1989-01-01

    We give a method to calculate the exponential EXP[A r ] where A is a linear operator which satisfies the reaction A n =I, n is an integer and I is the identity operator. The method is generalised to operators such that A n +1=A and is applied to obtain some Lorentz transformations which generalise the notion of 'boost'. (Author)

  7. Conditionally exponential convex functions on locally compact groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okb El-Bab, A.S.

    1992-09-01

    The main results of the thesis are: 1) The construction of a compact base for the convex cone of all conditionally exponential convex functions. 2) The determination of the extreme parts of this cone. Some supplementary lemmas are proved for this purpose. (author). 8 refs

  8. Geometry of q-Exponential Family of Probability Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun-ichi Amari

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Gibbs distribution of statistical physics is an exponential family of probability distributions, which has a mathematical basis of duality in the form of the Legendre transformation. Recent studies of complex systems have found lots of distributions obeying the power law rather than the standard Gibbs type distributions. The Tsallis q-entropy is a typical example capturing such phenomena. We treat the q-Gibbs distribution or the q-exponential family by generalizing the exponential function to the q-family of power functions, which is useful for studying various complex or non-standard physical phenomena. We give a new mathematical structure to the q-exponential family different from those previously given. It has a dually flat geometrical structure derived from the Legendre transformation and the conformal geometry is useful for understanding it. The q-version of the maximum entropy theorem is naturally induced from the q-Pythagorean theorem. We also show that the maximizer of the q-escort distribution is a Bayesian MAP (Maximum A posteriori Probability estimator.

  9. On ambiguities in the exponentiation of large QCD perturbative corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chyla, Jiri

    1986-01-01

    Ambiguities and some practical questions connected with the exponentiation of higher-order QCD perturbative corrections are discussed for the case of deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering in the non-singlet channel. The importance of still higher-order calculations for resolving these ambiguities is stressed. (author)

  10. The many faces of the quantum Liouville exponentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Jean-Loup; Schnittger, Jens

    1994-01-01

    First, it is proven that the three main operator approaches to the quantum Liouville exponentials—that is the one of Gervais-Neveu (more recently developed further by Gervais), Braaten-Curtright-Ghandour-Thorn, and Otto-Weigt—are equivalent since they are related by simple basis transformations in the Fock space of the free field depending upon the zero-mode only. Second, the GN-G expressions for quantum Liouville exponentials, where the U q( sl(2)) quantum-group structure is manifest, are shown to be given by q-binomial sums over powers of the chiral fields in the J = {1}/{2} representation. Third, the Liouville exponentials are expressed as operator tau functions, whose chiral expansion exhibits a q Gauss decomposition, which is the direct quantum analogue of the classical solution of Leznov and Saveliev. It involves q exponentials of quantum-group generators with group "parameters" equal to chiral components of the quantum metric. Fourth, we point out that the OPE of the J = {1}/{2} Liouville exponential provides the quantum version of the Hirota bilinear equation.

  11. The generalized exponential function and fractional trigonometric identities

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we recall the generalized exponential function in the fractional-order domain which enables defining generalized cosine and sine functions. We then re-visit some important trigonometric identities and generalize them from the narrow integer-order subset to the more general fractional-order domain. Generalized hyperbolic function relations are also given. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. The generalized exponential function and fractional trigonometric identities

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, Ahmed G.; Elwakil, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we recall the generalized exponential function in the fractional-order domain which enables defining generalized cosine and sine functions. We then re-visit some important trigonometric identities and generalize them from the narrow integer-order subset to the more general fractional-order domain. Generalized hyperbolic function relations are also given. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. The Dickey-Fuller test for exponential random walks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.; Krämer, W.

    2003-01-01

    A common test in econometrics is the Dickey–Fuller test, which is based on the test statistic . We investigate the behavior of the test statistic if the data yt are given by an exponential random walk exp(Zt) where Zt = Zt-1 + [sigma][epsilon]t and the [epsilon]t are independent and identically

  14. Exploring parameter constraints on quintessential dark energy: The exponential model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, Brandon; Abrahamse, Augusta; Albrecht, Andreas; Barnard, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of a scalar field model of dark energy with an exponential potential using the Dark Energy Task Force (DETF) simulated data models. Using Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling techniques we examine the ability of each simulated data set to constrain the parameter space of the exponential potential for data sets based on a cosmological constant and a specific exponential scalar field model. We compare our results with the constraining power calculated by the DETF using their 'w 0 -w a ' parametrization of the dark energy. We find that respective increases in constraining power from one stage to the next produced by our analysis give results consistent with DETF results. To further investigate the potential impact of future experiments, we also generate simulated data for an exponential model background cosmology which cannot be distinguished from a cosmological constant at DETF 'Stage 2', and show that for this cosmology good DETF Stage 4 data would exclude a cosmological constant by better than 3σ

  15. Exponential models applied to automated processing of radioimmunoassay standard curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, J.F.; Savina, A.; Caroff, J.; Miossec, J.; Legendre, J.M.; Jacolot, G.; Morin, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved computer processing is described for fitting of radio-immunological standard curves by means of an exponential model on a desk-top calculator. This method has been applied to a variety of radioassays and the results are in accordance with those obtained by more sophisticated models [fr

  16. Mean square exponential stability of stochastic delayed Hopfield neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Li; Sun Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic effects to the stability property of Hopfield neural networks (HNN) with discrete and continuously distributed delay are considered. By using the method of variation parameter, inequality technique and stochastic analysis, the sufficient conditions to guarantee the mean square exponential stability of an equilibrium solution are given. Two examples are also given to demonstrate our results

  17. The exponential age distribution and the Pareto firm size distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Coad, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Recent work drawing on data for large and small firms has shown a Pareto distribution of firm size. We mix a Gibrat-type growth process among incumbents with an exponential distribution of firm’s age, to obtain the empirical Pareto distribution.

  18. Exponential decay for solutions to semilinear damped wave equation

    KAUST Repository

    Gerbi, Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    This paper is concerned with decay estimate of solutions to the semilinear wave equation with strong damping in a bounded domain. Intro- ducing an appropriate Lyapunov function, we prove that when the damping is linear, we can find initial data, for which the solution decays exponentially. This result improves an early one in [4].

  19. Smith-Purcell oscillator in an exponential gain regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, L.; Ron, A.

    1988-01-01

    A Smith-Purcell oscillator with a thick electron beam is analyzed in its exponential gain regime. A threshold current less than 1[A] is found for a 1 mm wavelength; this threshold is much lower than that of a similar oscillator operating in a linear gain regime

  20. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers : Exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H. T.; Mandoc, M. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  1. Electron traps in semiconducting polymers: exponential versus Gaussian trap distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolai, H.T.; Mandoc, M.M.; Blom, P.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The low electron currents in poly(dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) derivatives and their steep voltage dependence are generally explained by trap-limited conduction in the presence of an exponential trap distribution. Here we demonstrate that the electron transport of several PPV derivatives can

  2. Parameter Estimation and Model Selection for Mixtures of Truncated Exponentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Rumí, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Bayesian networks with mixtures of truncated exponentials (MTEs) support efficient inference algorithms and provide a flexible way of modeling hybrid domains (domains containing both discrete and continuous variables). On the other hand, estimating an MTE from data has turned out to be a difficul...

  3. Construction of extended exponential general linear methods 524 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper introduces a new approach for constructing higher order of EEGLM which have become very popular and novel due to its enviable stability properties. This paper also shows that methods 524 is stable with its characteristics root lies in a unit circle. Numerical experiments indicate that Extended Exponential ...

  4. Criteria for exponential asymptotic stability in the large of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for exponential asymptotic stability in the large and uniform asymptotic stability of perturbations of linear systems with unbounded delays. A strong relationship is established between the two types of asymptotic stability. It is found that if the ...

  5. RMS slope of exponentially correlated surface roughness for radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierking, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    In radar signature analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface slope is utilized to assess the relative contribution of multiple scattering effects. For an exponentially correlated surface, an effective RMS slope can be determined by truncating the high frequency tail of the roughness spectrum...

  6. The Exponential Distribution and the Application to Markov Models ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... are close to zero, and very long times are increasingly unlikely. That is, the most likely values are considered to be clustered about the mean, and large deviations from the mean are viewed as increasingly unlike. If this characteristic of the negative exponential distribution seems incompatible with the application one has ...

  7. Exponential Family Techniques for the Lognormal Left Tail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Rojas-Nandayapa, Leonardo

    [Xe−θX]/L(θ)=x. The asymptotic formulas involve the Lambert W function. The established relations are used to provide two different numerical methods for evaluating the left tail probability of lognormal sum Sn=X1+⋯+Xn: a saddlepoint approximation and an exponential twisting importance sampling estimator. For the latter we...

  8. Approximating Exponential and Logarithmic Functions Using Polynomial Interpolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.; Yang, Yajun

    2017-01-01

    This article takes a closer look at the problem of approximating the exponential and logarithmic functions using polynomials. Either as an alternative to or a precursor to Taylor polynomial approximations at the precalculus level, interpolating polynomials are considered. A measure of error is given and the behaviour of the error function is…

  9. On root mean square approximation by exponential functions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharipov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    The problem of root mean square approximation of a square integrable function by finite linear combinations of exponential functions is considered. It is subdivided into linear and nonlinear parts. The linear approximation problem is solved. Then the nonlinear problem is studied in some particular example.

  10. Double Exponential Relativity Theory Coupled Theoretically with Quantum Theory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Garcia, Jose de la Luz; Novoa Blanco, Jesus Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Here the problem of special relativity is analyzed into the context of a new theoretical formulation: the Double Exponential Theory of Special Relativity with respect to which the current Special or Restricted Theory of Relativity (STR) turns to be a particular case only

  11. Radioastron flight operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunin, V. I.; Sukhanov, K. G.; Altunin, K. R.

    1993-01-01

    Radioastron is a space-based very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) mission to be operational in the mid-90's. The spacecraft and space radio telescope (SRT) will be designed, manufactured, and launched by the Russians. The United States is constructing a DSN subnet to be used in conjunction with a Russian subnet for Radioastron SRT science data acquisition, phase link, and spacecraft and science payload health monitoring. Command and control will be performed from a Russian tracking facility. In addition to the flight element, the network of ground radio telescopes which will be performing co-observations with the space telescope are essential to the mission. Observatories in 39 locations around the world are expected to participate in the mission. Some aspects of the mission that have helped shaped the flight operations concept are: separate radio channels will be provided for spacecraft operations and for phase link and science data acquisition; 80-90 percent of the spacecraft operational time will be spent in an autonomous mode; and, mission scheduling must take into account not only spacecraft and science payload constraints, but tracking station and ground observatory availability as well. This paper will describe the flight operations system design for translating the Radioastron science program into spacecraft executed events. Planning for in-orbit checkout and contingency response will also be discussed.

  12. Resveratrol Metabolism in a Non-Human Primate, the Grey Mouse Lemur (Microcebus murinus), Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Quadrupole Time of Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menet, Marie-Claude; Marchal, Julia; Dal-Pan, Alexandre; Taghi, Méryam; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Dargère, Delphine; Laprévote, Olivier; Beaudeux, Jean-Louis; Aujard, Fabienne; Epelbaum, Jacques; Cottart, Charles-Henry

    2014-01-01

    The grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a non-human primate used to study the ageing process. Resveratrol is a polyphenol that may increase lifespan by delaying age-associated pathologies. However, no information about resveratrol absorption and metabolism is available for this primate. Resveratrol and its metabolites were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed in male mouse-lemur plasma (after 200 mg.kg−1 of oral resveratrol) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometer used in full-scan mode. Data analyses showed, in MSE mode, an ion common to resveratrol and all its metabolites: m/z 227.072, and an ion common to dihydro-resveratrol metabolites: m/z 229.08. A semi-targeted study enabled us to identify six hydrophilic resveratrol metabolites (one diglucurono-conjugated, two monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated and two both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives) and three hydrophilic metabolites of dihydro-resveratrol (one monoglucurono-conjugated, one monosulfo-conjugated, and one both sulfo- and glucurono-conjugated derivatives). The presence of such metabolites has been already detected in the mouse, rat, pig, and humans. Free resveratrol was measurable for several hours in mouse-lemur plasma, and its two main metabolites were trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate. Free dihydro-resveratrol was not measurable whatever the time of plasma collection, while its hydrophilic metabolites were present at 24 h after intake. These data will help us interpret the effect of resveratrol in mouse lemurs and provide further information on the inter-species characteristics of resveratrol metabolism. PMID:24663435

  13. Development and validation of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry method for rapid quantification of free amino acids in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Richard; Kuziene, Viktorija; Zou, Xin; Wang, Xueting; Pullen, Frank; Loo, Ruey Leng

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-qTOF-MS) method using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of 18 free amino acids in urine with a total acquisition time including the column re-equilibration of less than 18 min per sample. This method involves simple sample preparation steps which consisted of 15 times dilution with acetonitrile to give a final composition of 25 % aqueous and 75 % acetonitrile without the need of any derivatization. The dynamic range for our calibration curve is approximately two orders of magnitude (120-fold from the lowest calibration curve point) with good linearity (r (2) ≥ 0.995 for all amino acids). Good separation of all amino acids as well as good intra- and inter-day accuracy (amino acids in the prepared urine samples was found to be stable for 72 h at 4 °C, after one freeze thaw cycle and for up to 4 weeks at -80 °C. We have applied this method to quantify the content of 18 free amino acids in 646 urine samples from a dietary intervention study. We were able to quantify all 18 free amino acids in these urine samples, if they were present at a level above the LOD. We found our method to be reproducible (accuracy and precision were typically <10 % for QCL, QCM and QCH) and the relatively high sample throughput nature of this method potentially makes it a suitable alternative for the analysis of urine samples in clinical setting.

  14. Application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in identification of three isoflavone glycosides and their corresponding metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiafen; Li, Xinhui; Liang, Xianrui

    2018-02-15

    Metabolites of isoflavones have attracted much attention in recent years due to their potential bioactivities. However, the complex constituents of the metabolic system and the low level of metabolites make them difficult to analyze. A mass spectrometry (MS) method was applied in our identification of metabolites and study of their fragmentation pathways due to the advantages of rapidity, sensitivity, and low level of sample consumption. Three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/QTOF-MS). These metabolites were obtained by anaerobically incubating three isoflavone glycosides with human intestinal flora. The characteristic fragments of isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites were used for the identification work. Two metabolites from ononin, three metabolites from irilone-4'-O-β-D-glucoside, and five metabolites from sissotrin were identified respectively by the retention time (RT), accurate mass, and mass spectral fragmentation patterns. The losses of the glucosyl group, CO from the [M+H] + ion were observed for all the three isoflavone glycosides. The characteristic retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragmentation patterns were used to differentiate the compounds. The metabolic pathways of the three isoflavone glycosides were proposed according to the identified chemical structures of the metabolites. A selective, sensitive and rapid method was established for detecting and identifying three isoflavone glycosides and their metabolites using UPLC/QTOF-MS. The established method can be used for further rapid structural identification studies of metabolites and natural products. Furthermore, the proposed metabolic pathways will be helpful for understanding the in vivo metabolic process of isoflavone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Identification and characterization of vilazodone metabolites in rats and microsomes by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Balasaheb B; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Tiwari, Shristy; Nimbalkar, Rakesh D; Garg, Prabha; Srinivas, R; Talluri, M V N Kumar

    2017-12-15

    Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) used for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). An extensive literature search found few reports on the in vivo and in vitro metabolism of vilazodone. Therefore, we report a comprehensive in vivo and in vitro metabolic identification and structural characterization of vilazodone using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF/MS/MS) and in silico toxicity study of the metabolites. To identify in vivo metabolites of vilazodone, blood, urine and faeces samples were collected at different time intervals starting from 0 h to 48 h after oral administration of vilazodone to Sprague-Dawley rats. The in vitro metabolism study was conducted with human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). The samples were prepared using an optimized sample preparation approach involving protein precipitation followed by solid-phase extraction. The metabolites have been identified and characterized by using LC/ESI-MS/MS. A total of 12 metabolites (M1-M12) were identified in in vivo and in vitro matrices and characterized by LC/ESI-MS/MS. The majority of the metabolites were observed in urine, while a few metabolites were present in faeces and plasma. Two metabolites were observed in the in vitro study. A semi-quantitative study based on percentage counts shows that metabolites M11, M6 and M8 were observed in higher amounts in urine, faeces and plasma, respectively. The structures of all the 12 metabolites were elucidated by using LC/ESI-MS/MS. The study suggests that vilazodone was metabolized via hydroxylation, dihydroxylation, glucuronidation, oxidative deamination, dealkylation, dehydrogenation and dioxidation. All the metabolites were screened for toxicity using an in silico tool. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Comprehensive Analysis of Tiamulin Metabolites in Various Species of Farm Animals Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feifei; Yang, Shupeng; Zhang, Huiyan; Zhou, Jinhui; Li, Yi; Zhang, Jinzhen; Jin, Yue; Wang, Zhanhui; Li, Yanshen; Shen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Suxia; Cao, Xingyuan

    2017-01-11

    Tiamulin is an antimicrobial widely used in veterinary practice to treat dysentery and pneumonia in pigs and poultry. However, knowledge about the metabolism of tiamulin is very limited in farm animals. To better understand the biotransformation of tiamulin, in the present study, in vitro and in vivo metabolites of tiamulin in rats, chickens, swine, goats, and cows were identified and elucidated using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole/time-of-flight. As a result, a total of 26 metabolites of tiamulin, identified in vitro and in vivo, and majority of metabolites were revealed for the first time. In all farm animals, tiamulin undergoes phase I metabolic routes of hydroxylation in the mutilin part (the ring system), S-oxidation and N-deethylation on side chain, and no phase II metabolite was detected. Among these, 2β- and 8α-hydroxylation and N-deethylation were the main metabolic pathways of tiamulin in farm animals. In addition, we have put forward that 8a-hydroxy-tiamulin and 8a-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin could be hydroxylated into 8a-hydroxy-mutilin, the marker residue of tiamulin in swine. Furthermore, a significant interspecies difference was observed on the metabolism of tiamulin among various farm animals. The possible marker residues for tiamulin in swine were 8α-hydroxy-tiamulin, N-deethyl-tiamulin, and 8α-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin, which were consistent with the hypothesis proposed by the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. However, results in present study indicated that three metabolites (2β-hydroxy-tiamulin, N-deethyl-tiamulin, and 2β-hydroxy-N-deethyl-tiamulin) of tiamulin in chickens had larger yields, which implied that 2β-hydroxy-mutilin or N-deethyl-tiamulin was more likely to be regarded as the potential marker residue of tiamulin in chickens.

  17. Qualitative and quantitative two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography/high performance liquid chromatography/diode-array/electrospray-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry of cholinesterase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroczek, Tomasz

    2016-09-10

    Recently launched thin-layer chromatography-mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) interface enabling extraction of compounds directly from TLC plates into MS ion source was unusually extended into two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography/high performance liquid chromatography (2D, TLC/HPLC) system by its a direct connection to a rapid resolution 50×2.1mm, I.D. C18 column compartment followed by detection by diode array (DAD) and electrospray ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). In this way, even not separated bands of complicated mixtures of natural compounds could be analysed structurally, only within 1-2min after development of TLC plates. In comparison to typically applied TLC-MS interface, no ion suppression for acidic mobile phases was observed. Also, substantial increase in ESI-TOF-MS sensitivities and quality of spectra, were noticed. It has been utilised in combination with TLC- based bioautographic approaches of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, However, it can be also applied in any other procedures related to bioactivity (e.g. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-DPPH screen test for radicals). This system has been also used for determination of half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 values) of the active inhibitor-galanthamine, as an example. Moreover, AChE inhibitory potencies of some of purified plant extracts, never studied before, have been quantitatively measured. This is first report of usage such the 2D TLC/HPLC/MS system both for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitors in biological matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antioxidant activity and identification of bioactive compounds from leaves of Anthocephalus cadamba by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Madhu Chandel; Upendra Sharma; Neeraj Kumar; Bikram Singh; Satwinderjeet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant potential of different extract/fractions of Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba) (Roxb.) Miq. (Rubiaceae) and study the tentative identification of their active constituents. Methods: The extract/fractions were screened for antioxidant activity using various in vitro assays viz. DPPH assay, ABTS assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, reducing power assay and plasmid DNA nicking assay. Total phenolic content of extract/fractions was determined by colorimetric method. An ultra-performance LC-electrospray-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry method was used to analyse the active constituents of extract/fractions of A. cadamba. Results: The ethyl acetate fraction was found to be most active fraction in all the assays as compared to other extract/fractions. The IC50 value of ethyl acetate fraction (ETAC fraction) was 21.24 μg/mL, 1.12 μg/mL, 9.68 μg/mL and 57.81 μg/mL in DPPH assay, ABTS assay, reducing power assay and superoxide scavenging assay respectively. All the extract/fractions also showed the potential to protect the plasmid DNA (pBR322) against the attack of hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton’s reagent. The bioactive compounds were identified by UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS, by comparing the mass and λmax with literature values. Conclusions: The potential of the extract/fractions to scavenge different free radicals in different systems indicated that they may be useful therapeutic agents for treating radical-related pathologic damage.

  19. Rapid Quantification and Quantitation of Alkaloids in Xinjiang Fritillaria by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Mohammat

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fritillaria genus, including different kinds of medicinal and edible plants belonging to the Liliaceae family which have the function of treating and relieving a cough and eliminating phlegm, is widely planted in Xinjiang (China. There are few comprehensive studies reporting on the characterization of the chemical constituents of Fritillaria from Xinjiang, and to date, no work describing the quantitative differences between the components in Fritillaria from Xinjiang and related species. The purpose of this study was to develop qualitative and quantitative analytical methods by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS for the rapid quantification and quantitation of alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria, which could be used in the quality control of medicine based on this natural herb. Using the UPLC-QTOF-MS method, the chemical constituents of Xinjiang Fritillaria were identified by fragmentation information and retention behavior, and were compared to reference standards. Furthermore, a quantitative comparision of four major alkaloids in wild and cultivated Xinjiang Fritillaria was conducted by determining the content of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A, respectively. A total of 89 characteristic peaks, including more than 40 alkaloids, were identified in the chromatographic results of Fritillaria. Four main alkaloids were quantified by using a validated method based on UPLC-QTOF-MS. The relative contents of Sipeimine-3β-d-glucoside, Sipeimine, Peimisine, and Yibeinoside A varied from 0.0013%~0.1357%, 0.0066%~0.1218%, 0.0033%~0.0437%, and 0.0019%~0.1398%, respectively. A rough separation of wild and cultivated Fritillaria could be achieved by the cluster analysis method.

  20. Strategy for Comprehensive Profiling and Identification of Acidic Glycosphingolipids Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ting; Jia, Zhixin; Zhang, Jin-Lan

    2017-07-18

    Acidic glycosphingolipids (AGSLs), which mainly consist of ganglioside and sulfatide moieties, are highly concentrated in the central nervous system. Comprehensive profiling of AGSLs has historically been challenging because of their high complexity and the lack of standards. In this study, a novel strategy was developed to comprehensively profile AGSLs using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Ganglioside isomers with different glycan chains such as GD1a/GD1b were completely separated on a C18 column for the first time to our knowledge, facilitated by the addition of formic acid in the mobile phase. A mathematical model was established to predict the retention times (RTs) of all theoretically possible AGSLs on the basis of the good logarithmic relationship between the ceramide carbon numbers of the AGSLs in the reference material and their RTs. A data set was created of 571 theoretically possible AGSLs, including the ceramide carbon numbers, RTs, and high-resolution quasi-molecular ions. A novel fast identification strategy was established for global AGSL profiling by comparing the high-resolution quasi-molecular ions and RTs of the tested peaks to those in the data set of 571 AGSLs. Using this strategy, 199 AGSL candidates were identified in rat brain tissue. MS/MS fragments were further collected for these 199 candidates to confirm their identity as AGSLs. This novel strategy was employed to profile AGSLs in brain tissue samples from control rats and model rats with bilateral common carotid artery (2-VO) cerebral ischemia. Forty AGSLs were significantly different between the control and model groups, and these differences were further interpreted.

  1. In-flight performance analysis of MEMS GPS receiver and its application to precise orbit determination of APOD-A satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Defeng; Liu, Ye; Yi, Bin; Cao, Jianfeng; Li, Xie

    2017-12-01

    An experimental satellite mission termed atmospheric density detection and precise orbit determination (APOD) was developed by China and launched on 20 September 2015. The micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) GPS receiver provides the basis for precise orbit determination (POD) within the range of a few decimetres. The in-flight performance of the MEMS GPS receiver was assessed. The average number of tracked GPS satellites is 10.7. However, only 5.1 GPS satellites are available for dual-frequency navigation because of the loss of many L2 observations at low elevations. The variations in the multipath error for C1 and P2 were estimated, and the maximum multipath error could reach up to 0.8 m. The average code noises are 0.28 m (C1) and 0.69 m (P2). Using the MEMS GPS receiver, the orbit of the APOD nanosatellite (APOD-A) was precisely determined. Two types of orbit solutions are proposed: a dual-frequency solution and a single-frequency solution. The antenna phase center variations (PCVs) and code residual variations (CRVs) were estimated, and the maximum value of the PCVs is 4.0 cm. After correcting the antenna PCVs and CRVs, the final orbit precision for the dual-frequency and single-frequency solutions were 7.71 cm and 12.91 cm, respectively, validated using the satellite laser ranging (SLR) data, which were significantly improved by 3.35 cm and 25.25 cm. The average RMS of the 6-h overlap differences in the dual-frequency solution between two consecutive days in three dimensions (3D) is 4.59 cm. The MEMS GPS receiver is the Chinese indigenous onboard receiver, which was successfully used in the POD of a nanosatellite. This study has important reference value for improving the MEMS GPS receiver and its application in other low Earth orbit (LEO) nanosatellites.

  2. Is a matrix exponential specification suitable for the modeling of spatial correlation structures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauß, Magdalena E; Mezzetti, Maura; Leorato, Samantha

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the adequacy of the matrix exponential spatial specifications (MESS) as an alternative to the widely used spatial autoregressive models (SAR). To provide as complete a picture as possible, we extend the analysis to all the main spatial models governed by matrix exponentials comparing them with their spatial autoregressive counterparts. We propose a new implementation of Bayesian parameter estimation for the MESS model with vague prior distributions, which is shown to be precise and computationally efficient. Our implementations also account for spatially lagged regressors. We further allow for location-specific heterogeneity, which we model by including spatial splines. We conclude by comparing the performances of the different model specifications in applications to a real data set and by running simulations. Both the applications and the simulations suggest that the spatial splines are a flexible and efficient way to account for spatial heterogeneities governed by unknown mechanisms.

  3. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanfeng Yan

    Full Text Available Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  4. Forecasting Financial Extremes: A Network Degree Measure of Super-Exponential Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wanfeng; van Tuyll van Serooskerken, Edgar

    2015-01-01

    Investors in stock market are usually greedy during bull markets and scared during bear markets. The greed or fear spreads across investors quickly. This is known as the herding effect, and often leads to a fast movement of stock prices. During such market regimes, stock prices change at a super-exponential rate and are normally followed by a trend reversal that corrects the previous overreaction. In this paper, we construct an indicator to measure the magnitude of the super-exponential growth of stock prices, by measuring the degree of the price network, generated from the price time series. Twelve major international stock indices have been investigated. Error diagram tests show that this new indicator has strong predictive power for financial extremes, both peaks and troughs. By varying the parameters used to construct the error diagram, we show the predictive power is very robust. The new indicator has a better performance than the LPPL pattern recognition indicator.

  5. Exponential Synchronization of Networked Chaotic Delayed Neural Network by a Hybrid Event Trigger Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Zhongyang; Guan, Chaoxu; Gao, Huijun; Zhongyang Fei; Chaoxu Guan; Huijun Gao; Fei, Zhongyang; Guan, Chaoxu; Gao, Huijun

    2018-06-01

    This paper is concerned with the exponential synchronization for master-slave chaotic delayed neural network with event trigger control scheme. The model is established on a network control framework, where both external disturbance and network-induced delay are taken into consideration. The desired aim is to synchronize the master and slave systems with limited communication capacity and network bandwidth. In order to save the network resource, we adopt a hybrid event trigger approach, which not only reduces the data package sending out, but also gets rid of the Zeno phenomenon. By using an appropriate Lyapunov functional, a sufficient criterion for the stability is proposed for the error system with extended ( , , )-dissipativity performance index. Moreover, hybrid event trigger scheme and controller are codesigned for network-based delayed neural network to guarantee the exponential synchronization between the master and slave systems. The effectiveness and potential of the proposed results are demonstrated through a numerical example.

  6. Integration of large chemical kinetic mechanisms via exponential methods with Krylov approximations to Jacobian matrix functions

    KAUST Repository

    Bisetti, Fabrizio

    2012-06-01

    Recent trends in hydrocarbon fuel research indicate that the number of species and reactions in chemical kinetic mechanisms is rapidly increasing in an effort to provide predictive capabilities for fuels of practical interest. In order to cope with the computational cost associated with the time integration of stiff, large chemical systems, a novel approach is proposed. The approach combines an exponential integrator and Krylov subspace approximations to the exponential function of the Jacobian matrix. The components of the approach are described in detail and applied to the ignition of stoichiometric methane-air and iso-octane-air mixtures, here described by two widely adopted chemical kinetic mechanisms. The approach is found to be robust even at relatively large time steps and the global error displays a nominal third-order convergence. The performance of the approach is improved by utilising an adaptive algorithm for the selection of the Krylov subspace size, which guarantees an approximation to the matrix exponential within user-defined error tolerance. The Krylov projection of the Jacobian matrix onto a low-dimensional space is interpreted as a local model reduction with a well-defined error control strategy. Finally, the performance of the approach is discussed with regard to the optimal selection of the parameters governing the accuracy of its individual components. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  7. Numerical solution of matrix exponential in burn-up equation using mini-max polynomial approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, Yosuke; Chiba, Go; Tsuji, Masashi; Narabayashi, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new numerical solution of matrix exponential in burn-up depletion calculations. • The depletion calculation with extremely short half-lived nuclides can be done numerically stable with this method. • The computational time is shorter than the other conventional methods. - Abstract: Nuclear fuel burn-up depletion calculations are essential to compute the nuclear fuel composition transition. In the burn-up calculations, the matrix exponential method has been widely used. In the present paper, we propose a new numerical solution of the matrix exponential, a Mini-Max Polynomial Approximation (MMPA) method. This method is numerically stable for burn-up matrices with extremely short half-lived nuclides as the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM), and it has several advantages over CRAM. We also propose a multi-step calculation, a computational time reduction scheme of the MMPA method, which can perform simultaneously burn-up calculations with several time periods. The applicability of these methods has been theoretically and numerically proved for general burn-up matrices. The numerical verification has been performed, and it has been shown that these methods have high precision equivalent to CRAM

  8. Current amplifier and flux-buffer designs using an exponential flux shuttle with a Josephson junction synthetic inductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenson, M.

    1989-01-01

    A current amplifier design based on the principle of fluxon propagation in a multi-junction Exponential Flux Shuttle has been investigated. In this design, the critical current of the junction is increased exponentially and the SQUID inductance is a JJ (Josephson Junction) equivalent inductance. Current gain can be achieved by generating fluxons at the low end and dissipating them at the high end where the load is located. Advantages over other types of linear devices are discussed. Two parallel Exponential Flux Shuttles can be used to duplicate flux from a high inductance input coil t a low inductance output. Device performance of the two circuits are evaluated by computer simulation, noise performance is discussed

  9. Exponential characteristic spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates radiation transport with rectangular cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor, B.; Mathews, K.

    1995-01-01

    The exponential characteristic (EC) spatial quadrature for discrete ordinates neutral particle transport previously introduced in slab geometry is extended here to x-y geometry with rectangular cells. The method is derived and compared with current methods. It is similar to the linear characteristic (LC) quadrature (a linear-linear moments method) but differs by assuming an exponential distribution of the scattering source within each cell, S(x) = a exp(bx + cy), whose parameters are rootsolved to match the known (from the previous iteration) spatial average and first moments of the source over the cell. Similarly, EC assumes exponential distributions of flux along cell edges through which particles enter the cell, with parameters chosen to match the average and first moments of flux, as passed from the adjacent, upstream cells (or as determined by boundary conditions). Like the linear adaptive (LA) method, EC is positive and nonlinear. It is more accurate than LA and does not require subdivision of cells. The nonlinearity has not interfered with convergence. The exponential moment functions, which were introduced with the slab geometry method, are extended to arbitrary dimensions (numbers of arguments) and used to avoid numerical ill conditioning. As in slab geometry, the method approaches O(Δx 4 ) global truncation error on fine-enough meshes, while the error is insensitive to mesh size for coarse meshes. Performance of the method is compared with that of the step characteristic, LC, linear nodal, step adaptive, and LA schemes. The EC method is a strong performer with scattering ratios ranging from 0 to 0.9 (the range tested), particularly so for lower scattering ratios. As in slab geometry, EC is computationally more costly per cell than current methods but can be accurate with very thick cells, leading to increased computational efficiency on appropriate problems

  10. Apollo experience report: Development flight instrumentation. [telemetry equipment for space flight test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    Development flight instrumentation was delivered for 25 Apollo vehicles as Government-furnished equipment. The problems and philosophies of an activity that was concerned with supplying telemetry equipment to a space-flight test program are discussed. Equipment delivery dates, system-design details, and flight-performance information for each mission also are included.

  11. Aviator's Fluid Balance During Military Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovsky, Anna; Abot-Barkan, Sivan; Chapnik, Leah; Doron, Omer; Levy, Yuval; Heled, Yuval; Gordon, Barak

    2018-02-01

    A loss of 1% or more of bodyweight due to dehydration has a negative effect on cognitive performance, which could critically affect flight safety. There is no mention in the literature concerning the amounts of military pilots' fluid loss during flight. The aim of this study was to quantify fluid loss of pilots during military flight. There were 48 aviators (mean age 23.9) from the Israeli Air Force who participated in the study, which included 104 training flights in various flight platforms. Bodyweight, urine specific gravity, and environmental heat strain were measured before and after each flight. Fluid loss was calculated as the weight differences before and after the flight. We used a univariate and one-way ANOVA to analyze the effect of different variables on the fluid loss. The mean fluid loss rate was 462 ml · h-1. The results varied among different aircraft platforms and depended on flight duration. Blackhawk pilots lost the highest amount of fluids per flight, albeit had longer flights (mean 108 min compared to 35.5 in fighter jets). Jet fighter pilots had the highest rate of fluid loss per hour of flight (up to 692 ml, extrapolated). Overall, at 11 flights (11%) aircrew completed their flight with a meaningful fluid loss. We conclude that military flights may be associated with significant amount of fluid loss among aircrew.Levkovsky A, Abot-Barkan S, Chapnik L, Doron O, Levy Y, Heled Y, Gordon B. Aviator's fluid balance during military flight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(2):9498.

  12. Passive Attenuating Communication Earphone (PACE): Noise Attenuation and Speech Intelligibility Performance When Worn in Conjunction with the HGU-56/P and HGU-55/P Flight Helmets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    right) eartips The purpose of this study was to integrate the HGU-56/P and HGU-55/P flight helmets with PACE to measure the noise attenuation and...55/P flight helmet integrated with PACE 2.0 METHODS 2.1 Subjects Twenty paid volunteer subjects (9 male, 11 female) participated in the study ...Pan Pad Pat Path Pack Pass Buff Bus But Bug Buck Bun Sat Sag Sass Sack Sad Sap Run Sun Bun Gun Fun Nun 8 Distribution A: Approved for

  13. Time-resolved infrared stimulated luminescence signals in feldspars: Analysis based on exponential and stretched exponential functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagonis, V.; Morthekai, P.; Singhvi, A.K.; Thomas, J.; Balaram, V.; Kitis, G.; Chen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared-stimulated luminescence (TR-IRSL) signals from feldspar samples have been the subject of several recent experimental studies. These signals are of importance in the field of luminescence dating, since they exhibit smaller fading effects than the commonly employed continuous-wave infrared signals (CW-IRSL). This paper presents a semi-empirical analysis of TR-IRSL data from feldspar samples, by using a linear combination of exponential and stretched exponential (SE) functions. The best possible estimates of the five parameters in this semi-empirical approach are obtained using five popular commercially available software packages, and by employing a variety of global optimization techniques. The results from all types of software and from the different fitting algorithms were found to be in close agreement with each other, indicating that a global optimum solution has likely been reached during the fitting process. Four complete sets of TR-IRSL data on well-characterized natural feldspars were fitted by using such a linear combination of exponential and SE functions. The dependence of the extracted fitting parameters on the stimulation temperature is discussed within the context of a recently proposed model of luminescence processes in feldspar. Three of the four feldspar samples studied in this paper are K-rich, and these exhibited different behavior at higher stimulation temperatures, than the fourth sample which was a Na-rich feldspar. The new method of analysis proposed in this paper can help isolate mathematically the more thermally stable components, and hence could lead to better dating applications in these materials. - Highlights: ► TR-IRSL from four feldspars were analyzed using exponential and stretched exponential functions. ► A variety of global optimization techniques give good agreement. ► Na-rich sample behavior is different from the three K-rich samples. ► Experimental data are fitted for stimulation temperatures

  14. Simultaneous determination of niacin and pyridoxine at trace levels by using diode array high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sel, Sabriye; Öztürk Er, Elif; Bakırdere, Sezgin

    2017-12-01

    A highly sensitive and simple diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of niacin and pyridoxine in pharmaceutical drugs, tap water, and wastewater samples. To determine the in vivo behavior of niacin and pyridoxine, analytes were subjected to simulated gastric conditions. The calibration plots of the diode-array high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method showed good linearity over a wide concentration range with close to 1.0 correlation coefficients for both analytes. The limit of detection/limit of quantitation values for liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry analysis were 1.98/6.59 and 1.3/4.4 μg/L for niacin and pyridoxine, respectively, while limit of detection/limit of quantitation values for niacin and pyridoxine in high-performance liquid chromatography analysis were 3.7/12.3 and 5.7/18.9 μg/L, respectively. Recovery studies were also performed to show the applicability of the developed methods, and percentage recovery values were found to be 90-105% in tap water and 94-97% in wastewater for both analytes. The method was also successfully applied for the qualitative and quantitative determination of niacin and pyridoxine in drug samples. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Optimal design of accelerated life tests for an extension of the exponential distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghighi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated life tests provide information quickly on the lifetime distribution of the products by testing them at higher than usual levels of stress. In this paper, the lifetime of a product at any level of stress is assumed to have an extension of the exponential distribution. This new family has been recently introduced by Nadarajah and Haghighi (2011 [1]); it can be used as an alternative to the gamma, Weibull and exponentiated exponential distributions. The scale parameter of lifetime distribution at constant stress levels is assumed to be a log-linear function of the stress levels and a cumulative exposure model holds. For this model, the maximum likelihood estimates (MLEs) of the parameters, as well as the Fisher information matrix, are derived. The asymptotic variance of the scale parameter at a design stress is adopted as an optimization objective and its expression formula is provided using the maximum likelihood method. A Monte Carlo simulation study is carried out to examine the performance of these methods. The asymptotic confidence intervals for the parameters and hypothesis test for the parameter of interest are constructed

  16. Delay-Dependent Exponential Optimal Synchronization for Nonidentical Chaotic Systems via Neural-Network-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsiag Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach is presented to realize the optimal exponential synchronization of nonidentical multiple time-delay chaotic (MTDC systems via fuzzy control scheme. A neural-network (NN model is first constructed for the MTDC system. Then, a linear differential inclusion (LDI state-space representation is established for the dynamics of the NN model. Based on this LDI state-space representation, a delay-dependent exponential stability criterion of the error system derived in terms of Lyapunov's direct method is proposed to guarantee that the trajectories of the slave system can approach those of the master system. Subsequently, the stability condition of this criterion is reformulated into a linear matrix inequality (LMI. According to the LMI, a fuzzy controller is synthesized not only to realize the exponential synchronization but also to achieve the optimal performance by minimizing the disturbance attenuation level at the same time. Finally, a numerical example with simulations is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Nose Cap to Silica Tile Joint of RLV-TD under the Simulated Flight Environment using Plasma Wind Tunnel Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Aravindakshan; Krishnaraj, K.; Sreenivas, N.; Nair, Praveen

    2017-12-01

    Indian Space Research Organisation, India has successfully flight tested the reusable launch vehicle through launching of a demonstration flight known as RLV-TD HEX mission. This mission has given a platform for exposing the thermal protection system to the real hypersonic flight thermal conditions and thereby validated the design. In this vehicle, the nose cap region is thermally protected by carbon-carbon followed by silica tiles with a gap in between them for thermal expansion. The gap is filled with silica fibre. Base material on which the C-C is placed is made of molybdenum. Silica tile with strain isolation pad is bonded to aluminium structure. These interfaces with a variety of materials are characterised with different coefficients of thermal expansion joined together. In order to evaluate and qualify this joint, model tests were carried out in Plasma Wind Tunnel facility under the simultaneous simulation of heat flux and shear levels as expected in flight. The thermal and flow parameters around the model are determined and made available for the thermal analysis using in-house CFD code. Two tests were carried out. The measured temperatures at different locations were benign in both these tests and the SiC coating on C-C and the interface were also intact. These tests essentially qualified the joint interface between C-C and molybdenum bracket and C-C to silica tile interface of RLV-TD.

  18. Thermoluminescence under an exponential heating function: I. Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitis, G; Chen, R; Pagonis, V; Carinou, E; Kamenopoulou, V

    2006-01-01

    Constant temperature hot gas readers are widely employed in thermoluminescence dosimetry. In such readers the sample is heated according to an exponential heating function. The single glow-peak shape derived under this heating condition is not described by the TL kinetics equation corresponding to a linear heating rate. In the present work TL kinetics expressions, for first and general order kinetics, describing single glow-peak shapes under an exponential heating function are derived. All expressions were modified from their original form of I(n 0 , E, s, b, T) into I(I m , E, T m , b, T) in order to become more efficient for glow-curve deconvolution analysis. The efficiency of all algorithms was extensively tested using synthetic glow-peaks

  19. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  20. An Exact Analytical Solution to Exponentially Tapered Piezoelectric Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salmani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been proven that tapering the piezoelectric beam through its length optimizes the power extracted from vibration based energy harvesting. This phenomenon has been investigated by some researchers using semianalytical, finite element and experimental methods. In this paper, an exact analytical solution is presented to calculate the power generated from vibration of exponentially tapered unimorph and bimorph with series and parallel connections. The mass normalized mode shapes of the exponentially tapered piezoelectric beam with tip mass are implemented to transfer the proposed electromechanical coupled equations into modal coordinates. The steady states harmonic solution results are verified both numerically and experimentally. Results show that there exist values for tapering parameter and electric resistance in a way that the output power per mass of the energy harvester will be maximized. Moreover it is concluded that the electric resistance must be higher than a specified value for gaining more power by tapering the beam.

  1. Handbook of exponential and related distributions for engineers and scientists

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Nabendu; Lim, Wooi K

    2005-01-01

    The normal distribution is widely known and used by scientists and engineers. However, there are many cases when the normal distribution is not appropriate, due to the data being skewed. Rather than leaving you to search through journal articles, advanced theoretical monographs, or introductory texts for alternative distributions, the Handbook of Exponential and Related Distributions for Engineers and Scientists provides a concise, carefully selected presentation of the properties and principles of selected distributions that are most useful for application in the sciences and engineering.The book begins with all the basic mathematical and statistical background necessary to select the correct distribution to model real-world data sets. This includes inference, decision theory, and computational aspects including the popular Bootstrap method. The authors then examine four skewed distributions in detail: exponential, gamma, Weibull, and extreme value. For each one, they discuss general properties and applicabi...

  2. Optimization design of power efficiency of exponential impedance transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Meng; Zou Wenkang; Chen Lin; Guan Yongchao; Fu Jiabin; Xie Weiping

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates the optimization design of power efficiency of exponential impedance transformer with analytic method and numerical method. In numerical calculation, a sine wave Jantage with hypothesis of rising edge equivalence is regarded as the forward-going Jantage at input of transformer, and its dominant angular frequency is determined by typical rise-time of actual Jantage waveforms. At the same time, dissipative loss in water dielectric is neglected. The numerical results of three typical modes of impedance transformation, viz. linear mode, saturation mode and steep mode,are compared. Pivotal factors which affect the power efficiency of exponential impedance transformer are discussed, and a certain extent quantitative range of intermediate variables and accordance coefficients are obtained. Finally, the paper discusses some important issues in actual design, such as insulation safety factor in structure design, effects of coupling capacitance on impedance calculation, and dissipative loss in water dielectric. (authors)

  3. Exponential time-dependent perturbation theory in rotationally inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An exponential form of time-dependent perturbation theory (the Magnus approximation) is developed for rotationally inelastic scattering. A phase-shift matrix is calculated as an integral in time over the anisotropic part of the potential. The trajectory used for this integral is specified by the diagonal part of the potential matrix and the arithmetic average of the initial and final velocities and the average orbital angular momentum. The exponential of the phase-shift matrix gives the scattering matrix and the various cross sections. A special representation is used where the orbital angular momentum is either treated classically or may be frozen out to yield the orbital sudden approximation. Calculations on Ar+N 2 and Ar+TIF show that the theory generally gives very good agreement with accurate calculations, even where the orbital sudden approximation (coupled-states) results are seriously in error

  4. The Use of Modeling Approach for Teaching Exponential Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, L. F.; Prates, D. B.; da Silva, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a discussion related to the teaching and learning of mathematical contents related to the study of exponential functions in a freshman students group enrolled in the first semester of the Science and Technology Bachelor’s (STB of the Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys (UFVJM). As a contextualization tool strongly mentioned in the literature, the modelling approach was used as an educational teaching tool to produce contextualization in the teaching-learning process of exponential functions to these students. In this sense, were used some simple models elaborated with the GeoGebra software and, to have a qualitative evaluation of the investigation and the results, was used Didactic Engineering as a methodology research. As a consequence of this detailed research, some interesting details about the teaching and learning process were observed, discussed and described.

  5. CMB constraints on β-exponential inflationary models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M. A.; Benetti, M.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Brito, F. A.; Silva, R.

    2018-03-01

    We analyze a class of generalized inflationary models proposed in ref. [1], known as β-exponential inflation. We show that this kind of potential can arise in the context of brane cosmology, where the field describing the size of the extra-dimension is interpreted as the inflaton. We discuss the observational viability of this class of model in light of the latest Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) data from the Planck Collaboration through a Bayesian analysis, and impose tight constraints on the model parameters. We find that the CMB data alone prefer weakly the minimal standard model (ΛCDM) over the β-exponential inflation. However, when current local measurements of the Hubble parameter, H0, are considered, the β-inflation model is moderately preferred over the ΛCDM cosmology, making the study of this class of inflationary models interesting in the context of the current H0 tension.

  6. Sensitive screening of abused drugs in dried blood samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepyala, Divyabharathi; Tsai, I-Lin; Liao, Hsiao-Wei; Chen, Guan-Yuan; Chao, Hsi-Chun; Kuo, Ching-Hua

    2017-03-31

    An increased rate of drug abuse is a major social problem worldwide. The dried blood spot (DBS) sampling technique offers many advantages over using urine or whole blood sampling techniques. This study developed a simple and efficient ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-ion booster-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IB-QTOF-MS) method for the analysis of abused drugs and their metabolites using DBS. Fifty-seven compounds covering the most commonly abused drugs, including amphetamines, opioids, cocaine, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and many other new and emerging abused drugs, were selected as the target analytes of this study. An 80% acetonitrile solvent with a 5-min extraction by Geno grinder was used for sample extraction. A Poroshell column was used to provide efficient separation, and under optimal conditions, the analytical times were 15 and 5min in positive and negative ionization modes, respectively. Ionization parameters of both electrospray ionization source and ion booster (IB) source containing an extra heated zone were optimized to achieve the best ionization efficiency of the investigated abused drugs. In spite of their structural diversity, most of the abused drugs showed an enhanced mass response with the high temperature ionization from an extra heated zone of IB source. Compared to electrospray ionization, the ion booster (IB) greatly improved the detection sensitivity for 86% of the analytes by 1.5-14-fold and allowed the developed method to detect trace amounts of compounds on the DBS cards. The validation results showed that the coefficients of variation of intra-day and inter-day precision in terms of the signal intensity were lower than 19.65%. The extraction recovery of all analytes was between 67.21 and 115.14%. The limits of detection of all analytes were between 0.2 and 35.7ngmL -1 . The stability study indicated that 7% of compounds showed poor stability (below 50%) on the DBS cards after 6 months of storage at

  7. On limiting towards the boundaries of exponential families

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2015), s. 725-738 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : exponential family * variance function * Kullback--Leibler divergence * relative entropy * information divergence * mean parametrization * convex support Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 0.628, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/matus-0455604.pdf

  8. On the Dividend Strategies with Non-Exponential Discounting

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qian; Wei, Jiaqin; Wang, Rongming

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dividend strategies for a shareholder with non-constant discount rate in a diffusion risk model. We assume that the dividends can only be paid at a bounded rate and restrict ourselves to the Markov strategies. This is a time inconsistent control problem. The extended HJB equation is given and the verification theorem is proved for a general discount function. Considering the pseudo-exponential discount functions (Type I and Type II), we get the equilibrium dividend...

  9. Linearization of Nonautonomous Impulsive System with Nonuniform Exponential Dichotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a version of Hartman-Grobman theorem for the impulsive differential equations. We assume that the linear impulsive system has a nonuniform exponential dichotomy. Under some suitable conditions, we proved that the nonlinear impulsive system is topologically conjugated to its linear system. Indeed, we do construct the topologically equivalent function (the transformation. Moreover, the method to prove the topological conjugacy is quite different from those in previous works (e.g., see Barreira and Valls, 2006.

  10. Exponential Inequalities for Positively Associated Random Variables and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shanchao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We establish some exponential inequalities for positively associated random variables without the boundedness assumption. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Oliveira (2005. By one of the inequalities, we obtain the convergence rate for the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, which closes to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under the Hartman-Wintner law of the iterated logarithm and improves the convergence rate derived by Oliveira (2005 for the above case.

  11. The need for interdisciplinary research on exponential technologies and sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Alier Forment, Marc; Casany Guerrero, María José

    2017-01-01

    Technology has a clear influence on the way we live, our culture and how society functions, and last but not least our environment. At a moment when the transformational factor of technology is accelerating at an exponential pace, it is really important to reflect the direction that we want this acceleration to go. In this paper we present some of the factors relevant to this mater: 1) the influence of technology in the society and the environment. 2) The acceleration of some technologies ...

  12. Applications exponential approximation by integer shifts of Gaussian functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Sitnik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider approximations of functions using integer shifts of Gaussians – quadratic exponentials. A method is proposed to find coefficients of node functions by solving linear systems of equations. The explicit formula for the determinant of the system is found, based on it solvability of linear system under consideration is proved and uniqueness of its solution. We compare results with known ones and briefly indicate applications to signal theory.

  13. Notes on spectrum and exponential decay in nonautonomous evolutionary equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pötzsche

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We first determine the dichotomy (Sacker-Sell spectrum for certain nonautonomous linear evolutionary equations induced by a class of parabolic PDE systems. Having this information at hand, we underline the applicability of our second result: If the widths of the gaps in the dichotomy spectrum are bounded away from $0$, then one can rule out the existence of super-exponentially decaying (i.e. slow solutions of semi-linear evolutionary equations.

  14. Extracting the exponential behaviors in the market data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota; Takayasu, Hideki; Takayasu, Misako

    2007-08-01

    We introduce a mathematical criterion defining the bubbles or the crashes in financial market price fluctuations by considering exponential fitting of the given data. By applying this criterion we can automatically extract the periods in which bubbles and crashes are identified. From stock market data of so-called the Internet bubbles it is found that the characteristic length of bubble period is about 100 days.

  15. Stretched exponentials and power laws in granular avalanching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, D. A.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1999-02-01

    We introduce a model for granular surface flow which exhibits both stretched exponential and power law avalanching over its parameter range. Two modes of transport are incorporated, a rolling layer consisting of individual particles and the overdamped, sliding motion of particle clusters. The crossover in behaviour observed in experiments on piles of rice is attributed to a change in the dominant mode of transport. We predict that power law avalanching will be observed whenever surface flow is dominated by clustered motion.

  16. Evidence for Truncated Exponential Probability Distribution of Earthquake Slip

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran Kumar; Mai, Paul Martin

    2016-01-01

    Earthquake ruptures comprise spatially varying slip on the fault surface, where slip represents the displacement discontinuity between the two sides of the rupture plane. In this study, we analyze the probability distribution of coseismic slip, which provides important information to better understand earthquake source physics. Although the probability distribution of slip is crucial for generating realistic rupture scenarios for simulation-based seismic and tsunami-hazard analysis, the statistical properties of earthquake slip have received limited attention so far. Here, we use the online database of earthquake source models (SRCMOD) to show that the probability distribution of slip follows the truncated exponential law. This law agrees with rupture-specific physical constraints limiting the maximum possible slip on the fault, similar to physical constraints on maximum earthquake magnitudes.We show the parameters of the best-fitting truncated exponential distribution scale with average coseismic slip. This scaling property reflects the control of the underlying stress distribution and fault strength on the rupture dimensions, which determines the average slip. Thus, the scale-dependent behavior of slip heterogeneity is captured by the probability distribution of slip. We conclude that the truncated exponential law accurately quantifies coseismic slip distribution and therefore allows for more realistic modeling of rupture scenarios. © 2016, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserverd.

  17. Exponentiation and deformations of Lie-admissible algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, H.C.

    1982-01-01

    The exponential function is defined for a finite-dimensional real power-associative algebra with unit element. The application of the exponential function is focused on the power-associative (p,q)-mutation of a real or complex associative algebra. Explicit formulas are computed for the (p,q)-mutation of the real envelope of the spin 1 algebra and the Lie algebra so(3) of the rotation group, in light of earlier investigations of the spin 1/2. A slight variant of the mutated exponential is interpreted as a continuous function of the Lie algebra into some isotope of the corresponding linear Lie group. The second part of this paper is concerned with the representation and deformation of a Lie-admissible algebra. The second cohomology group of a Lie-admissible algebra is introduced as a generalization of those of associative and Lie algebras in the Hochschild and Chevalley-Eilenberg theory. Some elementary theory of algebraic deformation of Lie-admissible algebras is discussed in view of generalization of that of associative and Lie algebras. Lie-admissible deformations are also suggested by the representation of Lie-admissible algebras. Some explicit examples of Lie-admissible deformation are given in terms of the (p,q)-mutation of associative deformation of an associative algebra. Finally, we discuss Lie-admissible deformations of order one

  18. Evidence for Truncated Exponential Probability Distribution of Earthquake Slip

    KAUST Repository

    Thingbaijam, Kiran K. S.

    2016-07-13

    Earthquake ruptures comprise spatially varying slip on the fault surface, where slip represents the displacement discontinuity between the two sides of the rupture plane. In this study, we analyze the probability distribution of coseismic slip, which provides important information to better understand earthquake source physics. Although the probability distribution of slip is crucial for generating realistic rupture scenarios for simulation-based seismic and tsunami-hazard analysis, the statistical properties of earthquake slip have received limited attention so far. Here, we use the online database of earthquake source models (SRCMOD) to show that the probability distribution of slip follows the truncated exponential law. This law agrees with rupture-specific physical constraints limiting the maximum possible slip on the fault, similar to physical constraints on maximum earthquake magnitudes.We show the parameters of the best-fitting truncated exponential distribution scale with average coseismic slip. This scaling property reflects the control of the underlying stress distribution and fault strength on the rupture dimensions, which determines the average slip. Thus, the scale-dependent behavior of slip heterogeneity is captured by the probability distribution of slip. We conclude that the truncated exponential law accurately quantifies coseismic slip distribution and therefore allows for more realistic modeling of rupture scenarios. © 2016, Seismological Society of America. All rights reserverd.

  19. Approximation of the exponential integral (well function) using sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baalousha, Husam Musa

    2015-04-01

    Exponential integral (also known as well function) is often used in hydrogeology to solve Theis and Hantush equations. Many methods have been developed to approximate the exponential integral. Most of these methods are based on numerical approximations and are valid for a certain range of the argument value. This paper presents a new approach to approximate the exponential integral. The new approach is based on sampling methods. Three different sampling methods; Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS), Orthogonal Array (OA), and Orthogonal Array-based Latin Hypercube (OA-LH) have been used to approximate the function. Different argument values, covering a wide range, have been used. The results of sampling methods were compared with results obtained by Mathematica software, which was used as a benchmark. All three sampling methods converge to the result obtained by Mathematica, at different rates. It was found that the orthogonal array (OA) method has the fastest convergence rate compared with LHS and OA-LH. The root mean square error RMSE of OA was in the order of 1E-08. This method can be used with any argument value, and can be used to solve other integrals in hydrogeology such as the leaky aquifer integral.

  20. Validation of predicted exponential concentration profiles of chemicals in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, Anne; Baijens, Iris; Ragas, Ad; Huijbregts, Mark; Meent, Dik van de

    2007-01-01

    Multimedia mass balance models assume well-mixed homogeneous compartments. Particularly for soils, this does not correspond to reality, which results in potentially large uncertainties in estimates of transport fluxes from soils. A theoretically expected exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth has been proposed, but hardly tested against empirical data. In this paper, we explored the correspondence between theoretically predicted soil concentration profiles and 84 field measured profiles. In most cases, chemical concentrations in soils appear to decline exponentially with depth, and values for the chemical specific soil penetration depth (d p ) are predicted within one order of magnitude. Over all, the reliability of multimedia models will improve when they account for depth-dependent soil concentrations, so we recommend to take into account the described theoretical exponential decrease model of chemical concentrations with depth in chemical fate studies. In this model the d p -values should estimated be either based on local conditions or on a fixed d p -value, which we recommend to be 10 cm for chemicals with a log K ow > 3. - Multimedia mass model predictions will improve when taking into account depth dependent soil concentrations