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Sample records for performed histological examination

  1. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoetzer, Marcus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator.Material and methods: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n=50. Subperiosteal preparation was performed using either a piezoelectric device or a periosteal elevator. Immunohistochemical and histological analyses were performed immediately after preparation as well as three and eight days postoperatively. A statistical analysis of the histological colouring was performed offline using analysis of variance (ANOVA on ranks (p<0.05. Results: At all times, immunohistochemical and histological analysis demonstrated a significantly more homogenous tissue structure in the group of rats that underwent piezosurgery than in the group of rats that underwent treatment with a periosteal elevator.Conclusion: The use of a piezoelectric device for subperiosteal preparation is associated with more harmonious immunohistochemical and histological results for the periosteum than the use of a conventional periosteal elevator. As a result, piezoelectric devices can be expected to have a positive effect primarily on soft tissue, in particular of the periosteal as well as on surrounding tissues.

  2. Aspiration biopsy of testis: another method for histologic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nseyo, U.O.; Englander, L.S.; Huben, R.P.; Pontes, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    The most important method for evaluating the pathogenesis of male infertility is open testicular biopsy. Herein the authors describe a method of aspiration biopsy of testis for histologic examination. Sexually mature dogs and rats treated with chemotherapeutic agents and ionizing radiation were followed with periodic testicular aspiration biopsy during and after treatment. The histologic findings from the aspiration biopsy compare with the results of routine histologic examination in assessing spermatogenetic activity and delineating pathologic changes. The puncture in the experimental animals was performed under general anesthesia. In human patients testicular biopsy could be done under local anesthesia in an outpatient clinic. The procedure would be less painful, minimally invasive, and more cost-effective

  3. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...

  4. Examination of Cervical Spine Histological Sections - A Technical Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhrenholt, Lars; Ullerup, Rita; Vesterby, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of the cervical spine facet joints morphology and anatomy is increasingly important since improved understanding of clinical syndromes, such as whiplash injuries, and therapeutic interventions is based on this knowledge. So far systematic examination of the age-related morphology...... of these joints has not yet been performed, nor has any generally accepted histological classification system for degenerative changes in the cervical spine facet joints been proposed. In the case of whiplash injuries the presented histological method has particular relevance since it allows detailed description...... of the anatomy and pathoanatomical status of the osteo-cartilagenous structures, including the facet joints from where a major portion of chronic whiplash patients experience their pain symptoms....

  5. Subperiosteal preparation using a new piezoelectric device: a histological examination

    OpenAIRE

    Stoetzer, Marcus; Magel, Anja; Kampmann, Andreas; Lemound, Juliana; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; von See, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Subperiosteal preparation using a periosteal elevator leads to disturbances of local immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology due to a microtrauma. Usually soft-tissue damage can be considerably reduced by using piezoelectric technology. For this reason, the effects of a novel piezoelectric device on immunohistochemistry and periosteal histology were examined and compared to conventional preparation of the periosteum using a periosteal elevator.Material and methods: Lewis...

  6. Histological Examination of Precious Corals from the Ryukyu Archipelago

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    Masanori Nonaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examined the histology of three commercially valuable species of precious corals (Paracorallium japonicum, Corallium elatius, and C. konojoi from the Ryukyu Archipelago. In order to observe their inner structure, samples were thin sectioned and examined with a digital light microscope. Colonies of C. konojoi had thicker coenenchyme and larger autozooids than those of C. elatius and P. japonicum. The sclerites of the three species tended to be concentrated in the outer layers of coenenchyme. The gastric cavities of autozooids of all three species were found to be relatively empty. Some symbiotic polychates were observed in the axis of P. japonicum. As well, a zoanthid (Corallizoanthus tsukaharai was often observed living on the coenenchyme surface of P. japonicum. It is hoped our observations will provide a good foundation of future study of Japanese Coralliidae corals.

  7. Sinus Augmentation by Platelet-Rich Fibrin Alone: A Report of Two Cases with Histological Examinations

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    Naofumi Aoki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In sinus floor augmentation of an atrophic posterior maxilla, platelet-rich fibrin (PRF has been used as a graft material. We herein report two cases with histological evaluations of PRF after the surgery. The first case was a 28-year-old female with an atrophic right posterior maxilla who was treated with sinus floor augmentation and simultaneous implant placement using PRF as the sole graft material in our hospital. Twenty-four months after surgery, the implant was unfortunately removed because of occlusal overloading by parafunctional habits. During implant replacement, a tissue sample was obtained from the site of augmentation with PRF and was evaluated histologically. The second case was a 58-year-old man with severe alveolar atrophy of the right maxilla who underwent lateral sinus augmentation using only PRF in a two-stage procedure in our hospital. Samples were obtained at the second-stage surgery and histological examinations were performed. As a result, new bone formation was confirmed histologically in both cases. Our findings show that the use of PRF as a graft material during sinus floor augmentation induces natural bone regeneration.

  8. Aetiology and pathogenesis of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats by histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessely, Marlis; Reese, Sven; Schnabl-Feichter, Eva

    2017-06-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine histologically intact and ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cats, in order to evaluate whether degeneration is a prerequisite for rupture. Methods We performed a histological examination of 50 intact and 19 ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments in cadaver or client-owned cats, respectively, using light microscopy. Cats with stifle pathology were further divided into five age groups in order to investigate the relationship of changes in the ligament with lifespan. Cats with ruptured cranial cruciate ligaments were divided into two groups according to medical history (with presumed history of trauma or without any known history of trauma) in order to investigate the relationship of ligament rupture with a traumatic event. Data from 200 healthy cats were selected randomly and reviewed to make a statistical comparison of cats with and without cranial cruciate ligament rupture (reference group). Results On histological examination, the intact cranial cruciate ligaments showed basic parallel arrangement of the collagen fibres, with no relation to age. While cats of a more advanced age showed fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament - a likely physiological reaction to compression forces over the lifespan - degenerative changes within the fibrocartilage were absent in all cases, regardless of age or rupture status. Cats suffering from cranial cruciate ligament rupture without history of trauma were significantly older than cats in the reference group. Conclusions and relevance This study showed that differentiation of fibrocartilage in the middle of the cranial cruciate ligament is likely a physiological reaction to compressive forces and not a degenerative change associated with greater risk of rupture in advanced age. This finding in cats is distinct from the known decrease in differentiation of fibrocartilage in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Furthermore, the histological examination

  9. Ultrastructural and histological findings on examination of skin in osteogenesis imperfecta: a novel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Meena; Wagner, Bart E; Peres, Luiz C; Sobey, Glenda J; Parker, Michael J; Dalton, Ann; Arundel, Paul; Bishop, Nicholas J

    2015-04-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders of bone formation, resulting in low bone mass and an increased propensity for fractures. It is a variable condition with a range of clinical severities. The histological and ultrastructural findings in the skin of patients with OI have not been described in detail in the previously published literature. Although protein analysis of cultured fibroblasts has historically been used in the diagnostic work-up of OI patients, other aspects of skin examination are not routinely performed as part of the diagnostic pathway in patients with OI. The aims of this study were to perform histological and ultrastructural examination of skin biopsies in patients with OI. This was to identify common and distinguishing features in the numerous genetically distinct subtypes of OI and compare the findings with those in patients who did not present with fractures, and to enable the use of the results thus obtained to aid in the diagnostic work-up of patients with OI. As part of a larger research study set-up to identify clinical features and natural history in patients with atypical features of OI, skin biopsy and examination (histology and electron microscopy) were undertaken. Genetic analysis and ancillary investigations were also performed to identify similarities within this group and to differentiate this group from the 'normal' population. At the end of this study, we were able to demonstrate that the histological and electron microscopic findings on a skin biopsy may be an indicator of the likelihood of identifying a pathogenic mutation in type 1 collagen genes. This is because patients with specific findings on examination, such as elastic fibre area fraction (on histological analysis), collagen fibril diameter variability, deviation from the expected mean and collagen flowers (on electron microscopy), are more likely to be positive on genetic analyses. This has, in turn, provided more insight into the

  10. Ultrasound and Histologic Examination after Subcutaneous Injection of Two Volumizing Hyaluronic Acid Fillers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Stéphanie; Sarazin, Didier; Quinodoz, Pierre; Elias, Badwi; Safa, Marva; Vandeputte, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study examined the influence of hyaluronic acid (HA) crosslinking technology on the ultrasound and histologic behavior of HA fillers designed for subcutaneous injection. Methods: One subject received subcutaneous injections of 0.25 ml Cohesive Polydensified Matrix (CPM) and Vycross volumizing HA in tissue scheduled for abdominoplasty by bolus and retrograde fanning techniques. Ultrasound analyses were performed on days 0 and 8 and histologic analyses on days 0 and 21 after injection. A series of simple rheologic tests was also performed. Results: Day 0 ultrasound images after bolus injection showed CPM and Vycross as hypoechogenic papules in the hypodermis. CPM appeared little changed after gentle massage, whereas Vycross appeared more hyperechogenic and diminished in size. Ultrasound images at day 8 were similar. On day 0, both gels appeared less hypoechogenic after retrograde fanning than after bolus injection. Vycross was interspersed with hyperechogenic areas (fibrous septa from the fat network structure) and unlike CPM became almost completely invisible after gentle massage. On day 8, CPM appeared as a hypoechogenic pool and Vycross as a long, thin rod. Day 0 histologic findings confirmed ultrasound results. Day 21 CPM histologic findings showed a discrete inflammatory reaction along the injection row after retrograde fanning. Vycross had a more pronounced inflammatory reaction, particularly after retrograde fanning, with macrophages and giant cells surrounding the implant. Rheologic tests showed CPM to have greater cohesivity and resistance to traction forces than Vycross. Conclusions: CPM HA volumizer appears to maintain greater tissue integrity than Vycross after subcutaneous injection with less inflammatory activity. PMID:28280664

  11. Effectiveness of combined use of imprint cytological and histological examination in CT-guided tissue-core biopsy

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    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu [Tokai University Hachioji Hospital, Tokai University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Hachioji, Tokyo (Japan); Kakizawa, Hideaki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic-bomb Survivors Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Naka-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); Toyoda, Naoyuki [Hiroshima University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Institute and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Minami-Ku, Hiroshima (Japan); National Hospital Organisation Kure Medical Centre, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Kure, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2014-05-15

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combination of imprint cytology and histology in tissue-core percutaneous biopsy under real-time computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Between October 2009 and June 2013, 156 percutaneous needle biopsies were performed in our institution. Those obtained by tissue-core biopsy underwent both imprint cytological and histological examinations routinely after touch imprint cytology was performed on site to evaluate the samples' sufficiency for cytological and pathological examination. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Rates of adequate specimens and precise diagnosis, by combined cytological and histological examination were 100 % (156/156) and 96.2 % (150/156), by cytology 94.4 % (152/156) and 83.3 % (130/156) and by histology 99.3 % (155/156) and 92.3 % (144/156). Precise diagnosis was achieved by combined examinations in 94.7 % (89/94) of thoracic lesions, 97.6 % (40/41) of musculoskeletal lesions, and 100 % (21/21) of abdominal, pelvic and retroperitoneal lesions. In all 104 lesions diagnosed as malignant by CT-guided biopsy and in 30 of 52 diagnosed as benign, specific cell types could be proved by combined examinations. Combined imprint cytology and histology performed after on-site touch imprint cytological evaluation improved the diagnostic ability of CT fluoroscopically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  12. Effectiveness of combined use of imprint cytological and histological examination in CT-guided tissue-core biopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Takuji; Yoshimatsu, Rika; Kajiwara, Kenji; Ishikawa, Masaki; Awai, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Kakizawa, Hideaki; Toyoda, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the combination of imprint cytology and histology in tissue-core percutaneous biopsy under real-time computed tomography (CT) fluoroscopic guidance. Between October 2009 and June 2013, 156 percutaneous needle biopsies were performed in our institution. Those obtained by tissue-core biopsy underwent both imprint cytological and histological examinations routinely after touch imprint cytology was performed on site to evaluate the samples' sufficiency for cytological and pathological examination. Final diagnosis was confirmed by independent surgical pathology, independent culture results or clinical follow-up. Rates of adequate specimens and precise diagnosis, by combined cytological and histological examination were 100 % (156/156) and 96.2 % (150/156), by cytology 94.4 % (152/156) and 83.3 % (130/156) and by histology 99.3 % (155/156) and 92.3 % (144/156). Precise diagnosis was achieved by combined examinations in 94.7 % (89/94) of thoracic lesions, 97.6 % (40/41) of musculoskeletal lesions, and 100 % (21/21) of abdominal, pelvic and retroperitoneal lesions. In all 104 lesions diagnosed as malignant by CT-guided biopsy and in 30 of 52 diagnosed as benign, specific cell types could be proved by combined examinations. Combined imprint cytology and histology performed after on-site touch imprint cytological evaluation improved the diagnostic ability of CT fluoroscopically guided biopsy. (orig.)

  13. Computer-aided proximal caries diagnosis: correlation with clinical examination and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol; Scheetz, James P.; Aarman, Allan G.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the performance of the LOGICON Caries Detector using RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors, by comparing results of each detector to the results of clinical and histological examinations. Pairs of extracted teeth were radiographed, and a total of 57 proximal surfaces, which included both carious and non-carious situations, were analyzed. The RVG-4 produced 8-bit images, while the RVG-ui unit produced 12-bit images, which were taken in the high sensitivity mode. The images produced by the LOGICON were evaluated by a trained observer using both automated and manual caries detection software modes. Ground sections of the teeth established the actual absence or existence of caries. LOGICON-aided caries detection and depth discrimination of the RVG-4 and RVG-ui sensors were equally inconsistent irrespective of whether the LOGICON software was set to the automated or manual mode. Sensitivity ranged from 50% to 57% for caries penetration of the enamel-dentin junction. Care needs to be taken when using LOGICON in conjunction with RVG images as an adjunct for treatment planning dental caries. Even when applied by a trained observer, substantial discrepancies exist between the results of the LOGICON software-guided evalutation using RVG images and histologic examination.

  14. Histological examination of the gadolinium-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas on magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Keiichi; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Fukasaku, Kazuaki; Kyoshima, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Shigeaki

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging often demonstrates gadolinium (Gd) enhancement of the dura mater around meningiomas. The Gd-enhanced dura mater was histologically investigated to detect meningioma cells. Gd enhancement of the dura mater occurred in 11 (79%) of the 14 meningiomas studied, and extended as far as 35 mm from the tumor. Histological examination revealed generation of vascular-rich loose connective tissue at the surface of the dura in all five tumors examined. Some clusters of meningothelial cells were distributed in the loose connective tissue in three of the five specimens, and one cluster was obviously neoplastic. These observations suggest that clusters of meningioma cells occur in the Gd-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas. (author)

  15. Histological examination of the gadolinium-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas on magnetic resonance imaging

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    Sakai, Keiichi; Tada, Tsuyoshi; Fukasaku, Kazuaki; Kyoshima, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Shigeaki [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1993-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging often demonstrates gadolinium (Gd) enhancement of the dura mater around meningiomas. The Gd-enhanced dura mater was histologically investigated to detect meningioma cells. Gd enhancement of the dura mater occurred in 11 (79%) of the 14 meningiomas studied, and extended as far as 35 mm from the tumor. Histological examination revealed generation of vascular-rich loose connective tissue at the surface of the dura in all five tumors examined. Some clusters of meningothelial cells were distributed in the loose connective tissue in three of the five specimens, and one cluster was obviously neoplastic. These observations suggest that clusters of meningioma cells occur in the Gd-enhanced dura mater around meningiomas. (author).

  16. In-vivo study and histological examination of laser reshaping of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviridov, Alexander P.; Sobol, Emil N.; Bagratashvili, Victor N.; Omelchenko, Alexander I.; Ovchinnikov, Yuriy M.; Shekhter, Anatoliy B.; Svistushkin, Valeriy M.; Shinaev, Andrei A.; Nikiforova, G.; Jones, Nicholas

    1999-06-01

    The results of recent study of cartilage reshaping in vivo are reported. The ear cartilage of piglets of 8-12 weeks old have been reshaped in vivo using the radiation of a holmium laser. The stability of the shape and possible side effects have been examined during four months. Histological investigation shown that the healing of irradiated are could accompany by the regeneration of ear cartilage. Finally, elastic type cartilage has been transformed into fibrous cartilage or cartilage of hyaline type.

  17. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  18. Use of key performance indicators in histological dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Matthew; Gillibrand, Rachel

    2017-12-01

    Reports into standards in the National Health Service and quality in pathology have focused on the way we work in pathology and how to provide assurance that this is of a high standard. There are a number of external quality assurance schemes covering pathology and histopathology specifically; however, there is no scheme covering the process of histological surgical dissection. This is an area undergoing development, emerging from the sole preserve of medically qualified pathologists to a field populated by a number of highly trained biomedical scientists, but remains without any formal quality assurance. This work builds on Barnes, taking the guidance of the Royal College of Pathologists (RCPath)and Institute of Biomedical Science (IBMS)to form a series of key performance indicators relating to dissection. These were developed for use as an indicator of individual practice, highlighting areas of variation, weakness or strength. Once identified, a feedback event provided opportunities to address these errors and omissions, or to enable areas of strength to be shared. The data obtained from the checklists demonstrate a large variation in practice at the outset of this study. The use of the checklists alone served to reduce this variation in practice, the addition of the training event showed further reduction in variation. The combination of these two tools was an effective method for enhancing standardisation of practice. The results of this work show that training events serve to reduce variation in practice by, and between, dissectors, driving up standards in dissection-directly addressing the needs of the modern pathology service. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Radiological, computertomographic, pathoanatomical and histological examination of the rib cartilage of the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorber, B.

    2000-06-01

    This study was concerned with the representation and description of the rib cartilage of the dog and the abnormalities of such by means of radiological, computer tomographic, pathoanatomical and histological examinations and the comparison of the results of the various examination methods. The study material consisted of 100 ventral thorax walls of dogs of different ages and breeds. In 39 of the subjects, no abnormalities of rib cartilage other than unremarkable calcification were observed. Among the subjects, there were 11 puppies (0-3 months), whose rib cartilage appeared soft tissue dense due to the absence of calcification, 14 juvenile animals (4-18 months), the rib cartilage of which showed a typical finely granulated structure, and 14 adult dogs (over 18 months), whose rib cartilage exhibited a homogeneous to net-like calcified appearance. In the calcified rib cartilage, the histological section showed a centrally located spongiosa rod surrounded by a hyaline cartilage shell. The calcification tendency of the first pair of rib cartilage was remarkable: in 70 dogs, the first pair of rib cartilage remained uncalcified despite calcification of the other rib cartilage. Sixty-one dogs exhibited rib cartilage abnormalities. According to the radiological appearance of the abnormalities, they were divided into groups and their incidence was calculated. Abnormalities seen included interruption in the continuity of the calcified rib cartilage with and without callus formation, enlargement of rib cartilage, cuff formation, and abnormalities on the Articulationes sternocostales (projections in or around articulations, calcified and fractured joint surfaces). In addition, remarkable calcification patterns were observed. By means of CT examination the densities of the tissue forming the various abnormalities was determined. In the course of the pathoanatomical examination, it was shown that the interruptions in continuity with callus and the various enlarged areas of the

  20. Multiparametric evaluation by simultaneous PET-MRI examination in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, Carlo; Romeo, Valeria; Aiello, Marco; Mesolella, Massimo; Iorio, Brigida; Barbuto, Luigi; Cantone, Elena; Nicolai, Emanuele; Covello, Mario

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the relationship between metabolic 18Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG/PET) and morpho-functional parameters derived by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. To assess the clinical impact of PET/MRI examination on patient's staging and treatment planning. 16 patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer were enrolled and underwent whole body PET/CT followed by a dedicated PET/MRI of the head/neck region. Data were separately evaluated by two blinded groups: metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K trans , V e , k ep and iAUC) maps were obtained by positioning regions of interest (ROIs). Tumoral local extension assessed on PET/MRI was compared to endoscopic findings. A good inter-observer agreement was found in anatomical location and local extension of PET/MRI lesions (Cohen's kappa 0.9). PET/CT SUV measures highly correlate with ones derived by PET/MRI (e.g., p=0.96 for measures on VOI). Significant correlations among metabolic, diffusion and perfusion parameters have been detected. PET/MRI had a relevant clinical impact, confirming endoscopic findings (6 cases), helping treatment planning (9 cases), and modifying endoscopic primary staging (1 case). PET/MRI is useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer, allowing simultaneous collection of metabolic and functional data and conditioning the therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Multiparametric evaluation by simultaneous PET-MRI examination in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaliere, Carlo; Romeo, Valeria; Aiello, Marco; Mesolella, Massimo; Iorio, Brigida; Barbuto, Luigi; Cantone, Elena; Nicolai, Emanuele; Covello, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PET/MRI is feasible and useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer. • PET/MRI simultaneously provides morphological, metabolic and functional parameters of tumoral laryngeal lesions. • PET/MRI allows an appropriate tumoral staging in terms of lesion extension with significant impact on therapeutic strategies. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between metabolic 18Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG/PET) and morpho-functional parameters derived by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. To assess the clinical impact of PET/MRI examination on patient’s staging and treatment planning. Methods: 16 patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer were enrolled and underwent whole body PET/CT followed by a dedicated PET/MRI of the head/neck region. Data were separately evaluated by two blinded groups: metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K trans , V e , k ep and iAUC) maps were obtained by positioning regions of interest (ROIs). Tumoral local extension assessed on PET/MRI was compared to endoscopic findings. Results: A good inter-observer agreement was found in anatomical location and local extension of PET/MRI lesions (Cohen’s kappa 0.9). PET/CT SUV measures highly correlate with ones derived by PET/MRI (e.g., p = 0.96 for measures on VOI). Significant correlations among metabolic, diffusion and perfusion parameters have been detected. PET/MRI had a relevant clinical impact, confirming endoscopic findings (6 cases), helping treatment planning (9 cases), and modifying endoscopic primary staging (1 case). Conclusions: PET/MRI is useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer, allowing simultaneous collection of metabolic and functional data and conditioning the therapeutic strategies.

  2. Multiparametric evaluation by simultaneous PET-MRI examination in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, Carlo [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 113-80143, Naples (Italy); Romeo, Valeria, E-mail: valeria.romeo@unina.it [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Aiello, Marco [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 113-80143, Naples (Italy); Mesolella, Massimo; Iorio, Brigida [Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Science, ENT Section, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Barbuto, Luigi [Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Cantone, Elena [Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Science, ENT Section, Federico II University, Naples (Italy); Nicolai, Emanuele; Covello, Mario [IRCCS SDN, Via E. Gianturco, 113-80143, Naples (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • PET/MRI is feasible and useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer. • PET/MRI simultaneously provides morphological, metabolic and functional parameters of tumoral laryngeal lesions. • PET/MRI allows an appropriate tumoral staging in terms of lesion extension with significant impact on therapeutic strategies. - Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between metabolic 18Fluoro-Deoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography (18FDG/PET) and morpho-functional parameters derived by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer. To assess the clinical impact of PET/MRI examination on patient’s staging and treatment planning. Methods: 16 patients with histologically proven laryngeal cancer were enrolled and underwent whole body PET/CT followed by a dedicated PET/MRI of the head/neck region. Data were separately evaluated by two blinded groups: metabolic (SUV and MTV), diffusion (ADC) and perfusion (K{sub trans}, V{sub e}, k{sub ep} and iAUC) maps were obtained by positioning regions of interest (ROIs). Tumoral local extension assessed on PET/MRI was compared to endoscopic findings. Results: A good inter-observer agreement was found in anatomical location and local extension of PET/MRI lesions (Cohen’s kappa 0.9). PET/CT SUV measures highly correlate with ones derived by PET/MRI (e.g., p = 0.96 for measures on VOI). Significant correlations among metabolic, diffusion and perfusion parameters have been detected. PET/MRI had a relevant clinical impact, confirming endoscopic findings (6 cases), helping treatment planning (9 cases), and modifying endoscopic primary staging (1 case). Conclusions: PET/MRI is useful for primary staging of laryngeal cancer, allowing simultaneous collection of metabolic and functional data and conditioning the therapeutic strategies.

  3. Testicular biopsy in psittacine birds (Psittaciformes): comparative evaluation of testicular reproductive status by endoscopic, histologic, and cytologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänse, Maria; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth; Reitemeier, Susanne; Einspanier, Almuth; Schmidt, Volker

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge of the reproductive cycle of male parrots is important for examining the male genital tract and for successful breeding, especially of endangered species. To evaluate different diagnostic methods and criteria concerning the classification of reproductive stages, we examined 20 testicular samples obtained at necropsy in psittacine birds of different species and testicular biopsy samples collected from 9 cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus) and 7 rose-ringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) by endoscopy 4 times over a 12-month period. The testicular reproductive status was assessed histologically and then compared with the macroscopic appearance of the testicles and cytologic results. The histologic examination was nondiagnostic in 19 of 59 testicular biopsy samples. By contrast, the cytologic preparations were diagnostic in 57 of 59 biopsy samples. The results of the cytologic examination coincided with the histologic results in 34 of 38 biopsy samples and 18 of 20 necropsy samples. Macroscopic parameters displayed some differences between reproductive stages but provided an unreliable indication of the reproductive status. These results suggest that microscopic examination of a testicular biopsy sample is a reliable method for evaluating the reproductive status of male parrots and is preferable to the macroscopic evaluation of the testicle. Cytologic examination provides fast preliminary results, even when the histologic preparation is not sufficient for evaluation, but results may be erroneous. Thus, a combination of histologic and cytologic examination is recommended for evaluating testicular reproductive status.

  4. Histological examination of sublethal effects of diazinon on ovary of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, H.M.; Maxwell, L.B.

    2003-01-01

    Sublethal doses of diazinon can alter microscopic anatomy of fish ovary. - The effects of the insecticide, diazinon (an organophosphorous compound), on the ovaries of bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) were studied. Histological preparations of bluegill ovarian tissue was examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following exposure to sublethal doses of diazinon (60 μg/l). The control contained primary follicles with an intact ovigerous lamellae and tunica albuginea. The control also revealed well developed stage IV oocytes with properly distributed provitelline nucleoli. After 24 h of exposure to diazinon, primary follicles began to show adhesion and cytoplasmic retraction in oocyte II occured. Cytoplasmic degeneration and additional adhesion and more retraction were visible at 48 h in oocyte II; 72 h brought forth adhesion, retraction and cytoplamic expulsion from oocyte IV. The number of atretic oocytes increased. Damages to the oocyte IV started to occur after 72 h of exposure. Cytoplasmic retraction and clumping was more visible at 96 h in oocyte IV. Partial destruction of the ovigerous lamellae and vitellogenic membrane occurred after 1 week. Two weeks continued to reveal destruction of follicles. Severe damage of the ovigerous lamellae, increased intrafollicular spaces, vacuolated cytoplasm, extrusion of karyoplasm and necrosis in the cytoplasm were most evident following 3 weeks of exposure. The ovarian wall became frayed and broken. Additionally, a marked increase of atretic follicles, shrinkage, and embedded nucleoli into the surrounding cytoplasm in oocyte II, III and IV were observed at week 3. This study revealed that oocytes at their different stages of maturation get affected differently at various exposure. Based on observations of the ovarian tissue compositional and structural changes following given exposure times, it becomes evident that consistent sublethal doses of diazinon can and will alter microscopic anatomy of the fish ovary

  5. Histological examination of sublethal effects of diazinon on ovary of bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, H.M.; Maxwell, L.B

    2003-01-01

    Sublethal doses of diazinon can alter microscopic anatomy of fish ovary. - The effects of the insecticide, diazinon (an organophosphorous compound), on the ovaries of bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus) were studied. Histological preparations of bluegill ovarian tissue was examined at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks following exposure to sublethal doses of diazinon (60 {mu}g/l). The control contained primary follicles with an intact ovigerous lamellae and tunica albuginea. The control also revealed well developed stage IV oocytes with properly distributed provitelline nucleoli. After 24 h of exposure to diazinon, primary follicles began to show adhesion and cytoplasmic retraction in oocyte II occured. Cytoplasmic degeneration and additional adhesion and more retraction were visible at 48 h in oocyte II; 72 h brought forth adhesion, retraction and cytoplamic expulsion from oocyte IV. The number of atretic oocytes increased. Damages to the oocyte IV started to occur after 72 h of exposure. Cytoplasmic retraction and clumping was more visible at 96 h in oocyte IV. Partial destruction of the ovigerous lamellae and vitellogenic membrane occurred after 1 week. Two weeks continued to reveal destruction of follicles. Severe damage of the ovigerous lamellae, increased intrafollicular spaces, vacuolated cytoplasm, extrusion of karyoplasm and necrosis in the cytoplasm were most evident following 3 weeks of exposure. The ovarian wall became frayed and broken. Additionally, a marked increase of atretic follicles, shrinkage, and embedded nucleoli into the surrounding cytoplasm in oocyte II, III and IV were observed at week 3. This study revealed that oocytes at their different stages of maturation get affected differently at various exposure. Based on observations of the ovarian tissue compositional and structural changes following given exposure times, it becomes evident that consistent sublethal doses of diazinon can and will alter microscopic anatomy of the fish ovary.

  6. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  7. Histological examination and clinical evaluation of the jawbone of an adult patient with cleidocranial dysplasia: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnutenhaus, Sigmar; Luthardt, Ralph G; Rudolph, Heike; Götz, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) is a rare congenital malformation syndrome, inherited autosomal-dominantly. During a course of treatment including surgical, implantological and restorative procedures, an opportunity arose to histologically examine biopsies of the maxilla and mandible of a CCD patient 47 years of age. Case report: The aim of this case report is to present the results of the histological evaluation of the alveolar bone and the surgical pretreatment for and placement of six implants each in the maxilla and the mandible. The implants were inserted in a minimally invasive procedure using 3D template guidance. Following uneventful healing of the implants, ceramically veneered bridges were cemented on individual titanium abutments. Since the patient had not received orthodontic treatment in childhood-which would have been the treatment modality of choice-this implantological and prosthodontic approach was necessary. Biopsies were taken from the maxilla and the mandible before placing the implants. Histological evaluation showed bone with strong, coarsely interconnecting trabeculae, especially in the maxilla. Both the bone and the gingiva otherwise exhibited a normal structure without pathological features or anomalies. Conclusion: The clinical parameters and histological evaluation of this one clinical case suggest that the concepts familiar from general oral implantology in terms of surgical and prosthetic procedures can be adopted for older patients with CCD. PMID:26339428

  8. Correlations between radiographic, magnetic resonance and histological examinations on the degeneration of human lumbar intervertebral discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delio Eulalio Martins

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: There is controversy regarding which imaging method is best for identifying early degenerative alterations in intervertebral discs. No correlations between such methods and histological finds are presented in the literature. The aim of this study was to correlate the thickness of intervertebral discs measured on simple radiographs with the degree of degeneration seen on magnetic resonance images and the histological findings relating to nerve ends inside the discs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional correlation study on the lumbar spines of human cadavers, at Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Ten lumbar spinal columns were extracted from human cadavers and subjected to magnetic resonance imaging and simple radiography. They were classified according to the degree of disc degeneration seen on magnetic resonance, and the thickness of the discs was measured on radiographs. The intervertebral discs were then extracted, embedded in paraffin and analyzed immunohistochemically with protein S100, and the nerve fibers were counted and classified. RESULTS: No correlation was observed between the thickness of the intervertebral discs and the degree of degeneration seen on magnetic resonance images. Only the uppermost lumbar discs (L1/L2 and L2/L3 presented a correlation between their thickness and type I and IV nerve endings. CONCLUSION: Reduced disc thickness is unrelated to increased presence of nerve ends in intervertebral discs, or to the degree of disc degeneration.

  9. Histological examination of the effect of differently fractionated irradiations in rat and mouse organs. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, E.

    1984-01-01

    The spleen of rats was irradiated with 50 Gy dose local X-rays in two different fractionation rhythms, i.e. twice a week given high and daily applied lower fractions of radiation. According to the results of 3 H-thymidine autoradiography made after the last irradiation 24 hours later both in the white and the red pulp the labelling index was less on the effect of twice in a week applied high radiation fractions than in case of daily given lower fractions. This indicate in correlation with the results of earlier analogous histological experiments that the damaging effect of rarely given higher fractions of radiation in the spleen is especially obvious. (orig.) [de

  10. Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using computerised axial tomography with histological and ultrastructural examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toit, Nicole du; Burden, Faith A; Kempson, Sue A; Dixon, Padraic M

    2008-12-01

    Post-mortem examination of 16 donkey cheek teeth (CT) with caries (both peripheral and infundibular) and pulpar exposure were performed using computerised axial tomography (CAT), histology and scanning electron microscopy. CAT imaging was found to be useful to assess the presence and extent of caries and pulp exposure in individual donkey CT. Histology identified the loss of occlusal secondary dentine, and showed pulp necrosis in teeth with pulpar exposure. Viable pulp was present more apically in one exposed pulp horn, with its occlusal aspect sealed off from the exposed aspect of the pulp horn by a false pulp stone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the amelo-cemental junction to be a possible route of bacterial infection in infundibular cemental caries. The basic pathogenesis of dental caries in donkeys appears very similar to its description in other species.

  11. SHOULD EVERY APPENDECECTOMY SPECIMEN BE SUBJECTED TO HISTOPATHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION? A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY OF HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN APPENDICECTOMY SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahanuma Shaik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies with a lifetime risk of 7-8%. The appendicectomy specimens operated upon clinically-suspected appendicitis often appear normal on gross examination, but histopathological evaluation may reveal a diverse underlying pathology. Therefore, for accurate diagnosis, histopathological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory. MATERIALS AND METHODS A retrospective study of 175 appendicectomy cases operated over a period of two years. The clinical data and histopathological reports were reviewed and various histopathological findings are categorised. RESULTS Out of the total 175 appendicectomies, 155 emergency appendicectomy cases were included in the study, while 20 cases of incidental appendicectomy were excluded. The peak incidence was found in the 2nd and 3rd decades with male predominance. Among the 155 specimens, 96.8% had histological features of appendicitis and 1.9% were normal appendix. The unusual histopathological findings were Carcinoid tumour and Enterobius vermicularis. CONCLUSION The definitive diagnoses of appendicitis as well as the unusual incidental findings that were missed intraoperatively are established by histopathological examination. The study supports the histological examination of all resected appendicectomy specimens.

  12. Survey of parasites in threatened stocks of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Oregon by examination of wet tissues and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Jayde A; St-Hilaire, Sophie; Peterson, Tracy S; Rodnick, Kenneth J; Kent, Michael L

    2011-12-01

    We are conducting studies on the impacts of parasites on Oregon coastal coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kistuch). An essential first step is documenting the geographic distribution of infections, which may be accomplished by using different methods for parasite detection. Thus, the objectives of the current study were to (1) identify parasite species infecting these stocks of coho salmon and document their prevalence, density, and geographic distribution; (2) assess the pathology of these infections; and (3) for the first time, determine the sensitivity and specificity of histology for detecting parasites compared with examining wet preparations for muscle and gill infections. We examined 576 fry, parr, and smolt coho salmon in total by histology. The muscle and gills of 219 of these fish also were examined by wet preparation. Fish were collected from 10 different locations in 2006-2007. We identified 21 different species of parasites in these fish. Some parasites, such as Nanophyetus salmincola and Myxobolus insidiosus, were common across all fish life stages from most basins. Other parasites, such as Apophallus sp., were more common in underyearling fish than smolts and had a more restricted geographic distribution. Additional parasites commonly observed were as follows: Sanguinicola sp., Trichodina truttae , Epistylis sp., Capriniana piscium, and unidentified metacercariae in gills; Myxobolus sp. in brain; Myxidium salvelini and Chloromyxum majori in kidney; Pseudocapillaria salvelini and adult digenean spp. in the intestine. Only a few parasites, such as the unidentified gill metacercariae, elicted overt pathologic changes. Histology had generally poor sensitivity for detecting parasites; however, it had relatively good specificity. We recommend using both methods for studies or monitoring programs requiring a comprehensive assessment of parasite identification, enumeration, and parasite-related pathology.

  13. Myocardial perfusion imaging, coronary angiography and histological examination in experimental treatment of Ad-HGF for myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianhua; Feng Jianlin; Cheng Xu; Li Dianfu; Zhang Youfu

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Gene therapy has drawn a great attention. A swine model of adenovirus hepatocyte growth factor(Ad-HGF) treated myocardial infarction(MI) was utilized, with the effect being assessed by rest myocardial perfusion imaging, coronary angiography and histological examination. Methods: Three groups of MI swine treated with Ad-HGF at low dose [n=5, Ad-HGF 10 8 plague forming unit (PFU)/ site], medium dose(n=5, 4 x 10 8 PFU/site), and high dose (n=5, 5 x 10 9 PFU/site), a control group treated with normal saline(NS, n=5) and a blank control group (n=5) underwent rest myocardial perfusion imaging and coronary angiography before and after treatment. The imaging results were analyzed along with histological findings in each group. Results: The state of myocardial perfusion and Rentrop scores remained unchanged in the blank control and NS groups after treatment. Whereas there was a significant improvement in the two variables in all three groups treated with Ad-HGF. The scores of left circumflex coronary artery (LCX) before and after treated were 7.8 ± 1.3 and 16.4 ± 1.1 (low-dose), 8.2 ± 1.6 and 17.6 ± 0.9 (medium-dose), 8.4 ± 1.5 and 19.0 ± 0.7 (high-dose), respectively. No significant differences were noted among the 3 groups. The number of vessels of NS group was markedly less than that of other groups. Conclusion: Myocardial perfusion imaging seems to be more accurate than coronary angiography and histological examination in evaluating the effects of Ad-HGF on myocardial infarction. (authors)

  14. Ultrasound findings and histological features of ductal carcinoma in situ detected by ultrasound examination alone

    OpenAIRE

    Izumori, Ayumi; Takebe, Koji; Sato, Akira

    2009-01-01

    Background With the increasing use of high-resolution ultrasound (US) examination, many breast carcinomas that cannot be identified by mammography (MMG) alone have been detected. Many of these carcinomas are ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and small-sized invasive carcinomas. Until date, DCISs have often been described as palpable masses with calcifications on MMG, but what are the characteristics of DCISs that are detectable by US alone? Methods One hundred fifty cases with DCIS that we expe...

  15. Histological examination of the oral mucosa after fractional diode laser irradiation with different power and pulse duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Ermolaeva, Ludmila A.; Korzhevsky, Dmitriy E.; Sergeeva, Elena S.; Semyashkina, Yulia V.; Antropova, Maria M.; Fedotov, Denis Y.; Zaitseva, Maria A.; Kashina, Tatiana V.

    2018-04-01

    Optical and histological methods were used to examination of influence the power and pulse duration of 980-nm diode laser to the dimensions and morphology of tissue around fractional micro injuries created by the radiation of that laser in the oral mucosa of rats in vivo. The power of laser radiation (P) varied in the range of 1÷21 W, and its pulse duration (tp) - in the range 50÷500 ms. Histological examination showed that in the mucosa of the oral cavity after the laser fractional irradiation, there following effects are found: a tissue defect, a transudate in the lumen of ablative micro injury, stretching and compacting effect of the nuclei of the basal epithelium, the disappearance of granules of the keratohialin, destroying the structure of the connective tissue, erythrocyte stasis in the vessels, the disappearance of transverse striation in the muscle fibers in muscle layer. It has been found that ablative micro injury begins to form up at P = 5 W, tp = 100 ms and affects only the epithelial layer of the mucosa. At P = 7 W, tp = 120 ms, the ratio of width to depth of ablative micro injury is 1 : 1, and at P = 10 W, tp = 100 ms, an ablative micro column with ratio of 1 : 1.5 is formed in the epithelial and submucosal layers of the mucosa. The laser effect with P = 15 W, tp = 200 ms leads to lengthening of the ablation micro-column to 1 : 2, with the bottom of the ablative micro column reaching the muscular layer. With a further growth of laser power or pulse duration, the width of the micro injury increases, and the growth of the micro injury depth is slowed down so that the micro column buildup is ceased.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of vascular corrosion casts and histologic examination of pulmonary microvasculature in dogs with dirofilariosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2002-11-01

    To characterize structural changes in pulmonary vessels of dogs with dirofilariosis. 8 dogs with dirofilariosis and 2 unaffected control dogs. Pulmonary artery pressure was measured in affected dogs, and dogs then were euthanatized. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine vascular corrosion casts of pulmonary vasculature. Tissue sections of pulmonary vasculature were evaluated by use of histologic examination. Pulmonary artery pressure was higher in dogs with severely affected pulmonary vessels. In tissue sections, dilatation, as well as lesions in the tunica intima and proliferative lesions resulting in constriction or obstruction, were frequently observed in branches of the pulmonary artery. Numerous dilated bronchial arteries were observed around affected pulmonary arteries. Hyperplastic venous sphincters were observed in small pulmonary veins and venules. In corrosion casts, affected pulmonary lobar arteries had dilatation, pruning, abnormal tapering, constriction, and obstruction. In small arteries and arterioles, surface structures representing aneurisms and edema were seen. Bronchial arteries were well developed and extremely dilated, and they formed numerous anastomoses with pulmonary arteries at all levels, from the pulmonary trunk to peripheral vessels. Capillaries in the lungs were dilated with little structural change. Small pulmonary veins and venules had irregular annular constrictions that were caused by hyperplastic smooth muscle cells of venous sphincters. Scanning electron microscopy of microvascular casts delineated links between the bronchial and pulmonary circulations in dogs with dirofilariosis. Results of scanning electron microscopy provided a structural explanation for the development of pulmonary circulatory disturbances and pulmonary hypertension in dogs affected by dirofilariosis.

  17. Histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples as a prognostic indicator in dogs undergoing surgical correction of congenital portosystemic shunts: 64 cases (1997-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jacquelyn S; Monnet, Eric; Powers, Barbara E; Twedt, David C

    2008-05-15

    To determine whether results of histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples could be used as an indicator of survival time in dogs that underwent surgical correction of a congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS). Retrospective case series. 64 dogs that underwent exploratory laparotomy for an extrahepatic (n = 39) or intrahepatic (25) congenital PSS. All H&E-stained histologic slides of hepatic biopsy samples obtained at the time of surgery were reviewed by a single individual, and severity of histologic abnormalities (ie, arteriolar hyperplasia, biliary hyperplasia, fibrosis, cell swelling, lipidosis, lymphoplasmacytic cholangiohepatitis, suppurative cholangiohepatitis, lipid granulomas, and dilated sinusoids) was graded. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine whether each histologic feature was associated with survival time. Median follow-up time was 35.7 months, and median survival time was 50.6 months. Thirty-eight dogs were alive at the time of final follow-up; 15 had died of causes associated with the PSS, including 4 that died immediately after surgery; 3 had died of unrelated causes; and 8 were lost to follow-up. None of the histologic features examined were significantly associated with survival time. Findings suggested that results of histologic examination of hepatic biopsy samples obtained at the time of surgery cannot be used to predict long-term outcome in dogs undergoing surgical correction of a PSS.

  18. Liver biopsy performance and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Møller, Axel

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variance of liver biopsy frequency and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis attending 10 medical centres in Denmark. Patients who tested positive for HBsAg or HCV- RNA were retrieved from a national clinical database (DANHEP) and demographic data...... had developed in 23% after 20 y of infection. Age above 40 y was a better predictor of cirrhosis than elevated ALT. National database comparison may identify factors of importance for improved management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis......., laboratory analyses and liver biopsy results were collected. A total of 1586 patients were identified of whom 69.7% had hepatitis C, 28.9% hepatitis B, and 1.5% were coinfected. In total, 771 (48.6%) had a biopsy performed (range 33.3-78.7%). According to the Metavir classification, 29.3% had septal fibrosis...

  19. Liver biopsy performance and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis: a Danish database study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peer Brehm; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Møller, Axel

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the variance of liver biopsy frequency and histological findings among patients with chronic viral hepatitis attending 10 medical centres in Denmark. Patients who tested positive for HBsAg or HCV- RNA were retrieved from a national clinical database (DANHEP) and demographic data...... had developed in 23% after 20 y of infection. Age above 40 y was a better predictor of cirrhosis than elevated ALT. National database comparison may identify factors of importance for improved management of patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null......, laboratory analyses and liver biopsy results were collected. A total of 1586 patients were identified of whom 69.7% had hepatitis C, 28.9% hepatitis B, and 1.5% were coinfected. In total, 771 (48.6%) had a biopsy performed (range 33.3-78.7%). According to the Metavir classification, 29.3% had septal fibrosis...

  20. Histological examination of pancreatic parenchymal changes induced by an experimental fractionated local exposition to X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, L [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Budapest. Orvosradiologiai Kutato Csoport

    1976-11-01

    After exposition to a total dose of 8,000 R delivered with 16 fractions, the pancreatic parenchymal changes in rats were investigated using histological and histochemical techniques. The observations were performed from the first to the 150th day following the last fraction. During the period of acute changes (1st to 15th day), the most part of the acini is morphologically intact, many smaller or greater necrotic foci, however, are to be seen. This is partly due to the enzymes with cytolytic effects, coming from the damaged smaller ducts and from glandular acini. The formation of the other part of the necrobiotic foci originates not only from direct radiation injury, but also from the capillary lesion by radiation. The injury to the wall of greater ducts induces edema, inflammations, dilatation of efferent ductules and stasis, all this leading consequently to an atrophy of the acini associated with the efferent ducts. During the period of chronical changes (50th to 150th day), the number of capillaries diminishes, the necrobiotic foci are multiplied especially in places where no capillaries are visible. This clearly emphasizes the role of the pathological reasons for capillary lesions. The regenerative phenomena occur only to a lesser extent, being confined to the efferent ducts. The extension of the necrotic zones together with the insignificant regeneration leads to a gradual destruction of the tissular substance. It is concluded that the radiosensitivity of the organ can only be determined, if its acute and chronical changes are known.

  1. Improving Vaginal Examinations Performed by Midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda S. Muliira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A vaginal examination (VE is an essential part of midwifery care, and is routinely performed when assessing the progress of labour. As evidence shows that during labour women may find VEs unpleasant,embarrassing and sometimes painful, the aim of this article is to review literature on the use of VEs during labour and to synthesise information from the available literature on how to provide an effective VE. The studies considered were retrieved from three databases (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], SCOPUS and MEDLINE using the following search terms: “VEs in labour”, “midwives and use of VEs” and “women experiences of VEs in labour”. The literature reviewed suggests that midwives are not careful about VEs. Therefore, a concerted effort is needed to pay attention to the frequency of VEs, the management ofpain and distress, information-giving and the preferences of the patient, so that the patient can feel in control during a VE.

  2. An examination of the relationship between the endoscopic appearance of duodenitis and the histological findings in patients with epigastric pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Stephen; Stableforth, William; Awasthi, Rachana; Awasthi, Ashish; Pitts, Narrie; Ottaway, Janet; Sherwood, Anthea; Robertson, Neil; Cochrane, Sean; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The endoscopic appearance of duodenitis is a common finding in patients undergoing endoscopy because of epigastric pain however, the relationship of the visual findings to histology is poorly defined. We set out to ascertain if there was a correlation between the endoscopic and histological appearances of the duodenal mucosa. Consecutive patients with epigastric pain referred for diagnostic gastroduodenoscopy were studied. The visual appearances of 'duodenitis' (erythema, erosions and sub-epithelial haemorrhage) were reported independently by two endoscopists. Duodenal biopsies were taken and assessed for: neutrophil infiltrate, mononuclear infiltrate, gastric metaplasia, villous atrophy and a breach in the mucosa. H pylori status was determined. Of the 93 patients with endoscopic features of duodenitis an increase in histological markers of inflammation was found in 75 (81%). However, histological inflammation was absent or minimal in 68 (73%). Conversely, biopsies from normal-looking mucosa revealed histological evidence of inflammation in 26 (27%). For patients with the endoscopic features of duodenitis the positive & negative predictive value for neutrophilic infiltrate was 39% and 98% respectively. Biopsies from erosions confirmed a breach in the mucosa in only 2 of 40 patients. Neutrophilic infiltrate occurred with NSAI ingestion and infection with H pylori. The endoscopic appearance of the duodenal mucosa is unreliable in determining the presence of histological inflammation. The endoscopic appearance of 'erosions' is not usually associated with a mucosal breach.

  3. Diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted MR imaging for colorectal liver metastases detection in a rat model at 7 T: a comparative study using histological examination as reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Mathilde; Ronot, Maxime; Vilgrain, Valerie; Beers, Bernard E. van [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR 773, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Assistance Publique- Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratory of Physiological and Molecular Imaging of the Abdomen (IPMA) and Department of Radiology, Clichy Cedex (France); Maggiori, Leon; Panis, Yves [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR 773, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Clichy (France); Paradis, Valerie [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, INSERM UMR 773, University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Beaujon, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Department of Pathology, Clichy (France)

    2013-08-15

    To compare diffusion-weighted (DW) and T2-weighted MR imaging in detecting colorectal liver metastases in a rat model, using histological examination as a reference method. Eighteen rats had four liver injections of colon cancer cells. MR examinations at 7 T included FSE-T2-weighted imaging and SE-DW MR imaging (b = 0, 20 and 150 s/mm{sup 2}) and were analysed by two independent readers. Histological examination was performed on 0.4-mm slices. McNemar's test was used to compare the sensitivities and the Wilcoxon matched pairs test to compare the average number of false-positives per rat. One hundred and sixty-six liver metastases were identified on histological examination. The sensitivity in detecting liver metastases was significantly higher on DW MR than on T2-weighted images (99/166 (60 %) (reader 1) and 92/166 (55 %) (reader 2) versus 77/166 (46 %), P {<=} 0.001), without an increase in false-positives per rat (P = 0.773/P = 0.850). After stratification according to metastasis diameter, DW MR imaging had a significantly higher sensitivity than T2-weighted imaging only for metastases with a diameter (0.6-1.2 mm) similar to that of the spatial resolution of MR imaging in the current study. This MR study with histological correlations shows the higher sensitivity of DW relative to T2-weighted imaging at 7 T for detecting liver metastases, especially small ones. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases in cytological examination for breast cancer according to histological type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Rin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously investigated the current status of breast cytology cancer screening at seven institutes in our area of southern Fukuoka Prefecture, and found some differences in diagnostic accuracy among the institutions. In the present study, we evaluated the cases involved and noted possible reasons for their original cytological classification as inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive according to histological type. Methods We evaluated the histological findings in 5693 individuals who underwent cytological examination for breast cancer (including inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases, to determine the most common histological types and/or features in these settings and the usefulness/limitations of cytological examination for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Results Among 1152 cytologically inadequate cases, histology revealed that 75/173 (43.6% cases were benign, including mastopathy (fibrocystic disease in 38.6%, fibroadenoma in 24.0% and papilloma in 5.3%. Ninety-five of 173 (54.9% cases were histologically malignant, with scirrhous growing type, invasive ductal carcinoma (SIDC being significantly more frequent (49.5% than papillotubular growing type (Papi-tub (P P = 0.0001 and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS (P = 0.0001. Among 458 indeterminate cases, 54/139 (38.8% were histologically benign (mastopathy, 30.0%; fibroadenoma, 27.8%; papilloma, 26.0% and 73/139 (52.5% were malignant, with SIDC being the most frequent malignant tumor (37.0%. Among 52 false-negative cases, SIDC was significantly more frequent (42.3% than DCIS (P = 0.0049 and Papi-tub (P = 0.001. There were three false-positive cases, with one each of fibroadenoma, epidermal cyst and papilloma. Conclusions The inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases showed similar histological types, notably SIDC for malignant tumors, and mastopathy, fibroadenoma and papilloma for

  5. Evaluation of inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases in cytological examination for breast cancer according to histological type

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously investigated the current status of breast cytology cancer screening at seven institutes in our area of southern Fukuoka Prefecture, and found some differences in diagnostic accuracy among the institutions. In the present study, we evaluated the cases involved and noted possible reasons for their original cytological classification as inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive according to histological type. Methods We evaluated the histological findings in 5693 individuals who underwent cytological examination for breast cancer (including inadequate, indeterminate, false-negative and false-positive cases), to determine the most common histological types and/or features in these settings and the usefulness/limitations of cytological examination for the diagnosis of breast cancer. Results Among 1152 cytologically inadequate cases, histology revealed that 75/173 (43.6%) cases were benign, including mastopathy (fibrocystic disease) in 38.6%, fibroadenoma in 24.0% and papilloma in 5.3%. Ninety-five of 173 (54.9%) cases were histologically malignant, with scirrhous growing type, invasive ductal carcinoma (SIDC) being significantly more frequent (49.5%) than papillotubular growing type (Papi-tub) (P breast disease. In particular, several inadequate, indeterminate and false-negative cases with samples collected by aspiration were diagnosed as SIDC. These findings should encourage the use of needle biopsy rather than aspiration when this histological type is identified on imaging. Namely, good communication between clinicians and pathological staff, and triple assessment (i.e., clinical, pathological and radiological assessment), are important for accurate diagnosis of aspiration samples. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/7349809170055423 PMID:22607447

  6. Effects of ammonium perchlorate on the reproductive performance and thyroid follicle histology of zebrafish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Wainscott, M.R.; Cruz-Li, E. I.; Balakrishnan, S.; McMurry, C.; Blazer, V.S.; Anderson, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Adult zebrafish were reared up to eight weeks in control water or in water containing ammonium perchlorate (AP) at measured perchlorate concentrations of 18 (environmentally relevant, high) and 677 ppm. Groups of eight females were paired with four males on a weekly basis to assess AP effects on spawned egg volume, an index of reproductive performance. All treatments were applied to four to five spawning replicates. At 677 ppm, spawn volume was reduced within one week and became negligible after four weeks. At 18 ppm, spawn volume was unaffected even after eight weeks. Also, perchlorate at 18 ppm did not affect percentage egg fertilization. Fish were collected at the end of the exposures (677 ppm, four weeks; control and 18 ppm, eight weeks) for whole-body perchlorate content and thyroid histopathological analysis. Fish perchlorate levels were about one-hundredth of those of treatment water levels, indicating that waterborne perchlorate does not accumulate in whole fish. At 677 ppm for four weeks, perchlorate caused thyroid follicle cell (nuclear) hypertrophy and angiogenesis, whereas at 18 ppm for eight weeks, its effects were more pronounced and included hypertrophy, angiogenesis, hyperplasia, and colloid depletion. In conclusion, an eight-week exposure of adult zebrafish to 18 ppm perchlorate (high environmentally relevant concentrations) affected the histological condition of their thyroid follicles but not their reproductive performance. The effect of 677 ppm perchlorate on reproduction may be due to extrathyroidal toxicity. Further research is needed to determine if AP at lower environmentally relevant concentrations also affects the thyroid follicles of zebrafish.

  7. Digital Image Analysis of Ultrasound B-mode images of Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaque: Correlation with Histological Examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Rosendal, Kim; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of how well texture features extracted from B-mode images of atherosclerotic plaque correlates with histological results obtained from the same plaque after carotid endarterectomy. The study reveals that a few second order texture features (diagonal moment, standard...... deviation and autocorrelation) provide good correlation within the training set (p = 0.04); However, the correlation found so far is not so high, that the method can be used in clinical prediction of plaque constituents....

  8. Examining hemodialyzer membrane performance using proteomic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomini, Mario; Pieroni, Luisa; Di Liberato, Lorenzo; Sirolli, Vittorio; Urbani, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The success and the quality of hemodialysis therapy are mainly related to both clearance and biocompatibility properties of the artificial membrane packed in the hemodialyzer. Performance of a membrane is strongly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire during the extracorporeal procedure. Recognition that a number of medium-high molecular weight solutes, including proteins and protein-bound molecules, are potentially toxic has prompted the development of more permeable membranes. Such membrane engineering, however, may cause loss of vital proteins, with membrane removal being nonspecific. In addition, plasma proteins can be adsorbed onto the membrane surface upon blood contact during dialysis. Adsorption can contribute to the removal of toxic compounds and governs the biocompatibility of a membrane, since surface-adsorbed proteins may trigger a variety of biologic blood pathways with pathophysiologic consequences. Over the last years, use of proteomic approaches has allowed polypeptide spectrum involved in the process of hemodialysis, a key issue previously hampered by lack of suitable technology, to be assessed in an unbiased manner and in its full complexity. Proteomics has been successfully applied to identify and quantify proteins in complex mixtures such as dialysis outflow fluid and fluid desorbed from dialysis membrane containing adsorbed proteins. The identified proteins can also be characterized by their involvement in metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular networks, and biologic processes through application of bioinformatics tools. Proteomics may thus provide an actual functional definition as to the effect of a membrane material on plasma proteins during hemodialysis. Here, we review the results of proteomic studies on the performance of hemodialysis membranes, as evaluated in terms of solute removal efficiency and blood-membrane interactions. The evidence collected indicates that the information provided by proteomic

  9. Examining hemodialyzer membrane performance using proteomic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonomini M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bonomini,1 Luisa Pieroni,2 Lorenzo Di Liberato,1 Vittorio Sirolli,1 Andrea Urbani2,3 1Department of Medicine, G. d’Annunzio University, Chieti, 2Proteomic and Metabonomic Units, IRCCS S. Lucia Foundation, Rome, 3Faculty of Medicine, Biochemistry and Clinical Biochemistry Institute, Catholic University of the “Sacred Heart”, Rome, Italy Abstract: The success and the quality of hemodialysis therapy are mainly related to both clearance and biocompatibility properties of the artificial membrane packed in the hemodialyzer. Performance of a membrane is strongly influenced by its interaction with the plasma protein repertoire during the extracorporeal procedure. Recognition that a number of medium–high molecular weight solutes, including proteins and protein-bound molecules, are potentially toxic has prompted the development of more permeable membranes. Such membrane engineering, however, may cause loss of vital proteins, with membrane removal being nonspecific. In addition, plasma proteins can be adsorbed onto the membrane surface upon blood contact during dialysis. Adsorption can contribute to the removal of toxic compounds and governs the biocompatibility of a membrane, since surface-adsorbed proteins may trigger a variety of biologic blood pathways with pathophysiologic consequences. Over the last years, use of proteomic approaches has allowed polypeptide spectrum involved in the process of hemodialysis, a key issue previously hampered by lack of suitable technology, to be assessed in an unbiased manner and in its full complexity. Proteomics has been successfully applied to identify and quantify proteins in complex mixtures such as dialysis outflow fluid and fluid desorbed from dialysis membrane containing adsorbed proteins. The identified proteins can also be characterized by their involvement in metabolic and signaling pathways, molecular networks, and biologic processes through application of bioinformatics tools. Proteomics may

  10. Comparison of celioscopy and histological examinations to assess male gonadal health and functionality in adults and immature wild raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogliero, Andrea; Rossi, Giacomo; Mauthe von Degerfeld, Mitzy; Quaranta, Giuseppe; Rota, Ada

    2017-10-15

    Celioscopy is routinely used in birds for sex determination and diagnostic purposes. Aim of this work was to validate celioscopy for the assessment of male gonads functionality in wild raptors, comparing the results of direct observation with morphometrical and histological characteristics. The work was done at the 'Centro Animali Non Convenzionali' of the University of Turin, Italy, on 31 endoscopically evaluated raptors that died or were euthanized. Through celioscopic observation, the birds were classified in adults or immatures and maturity categories were defined according to the adrenal-gonad size ratio and to the degree of blood filling of testicular vessels. The gonads were removed immediately after death/euthanasia and measured. Albuginea tunic thickness, diameter of seminiferous tubules, number of meiosis figures, tubular development degree, tubular degeneration degree and germinal cells production degree were evaluated. Testicular size tended to increase from immature to adult birds and from 'out of' to 'in' breeding season; albuginea tunic thickness tended to be higher out of the reproductive season while diameter of the seminiferous tubules, germinative epithelium thickness and number of meiosis figures were higher in the breeding season. In season adults generally showed higher values in tubular development and germinal cells production, and lower degrees of tubular cells degeneration and fibrosis. From the interpretation of all the morphometrical and histological aspects, a general reproductive degree of activity was given to the birds and compared with celioscopic results. A perfect concordance was found in 23 out of 31 cases and a good concordance in six ones; histology could describe obviously better sub-clinical conditions undetectable at direct observation. These preliminary results suggest that celioscopy could be a useful tool to assess male gonads functionality in wild raptors, with the future goal to select the better potential semen donors

  11. Quantitative analysis of ultrasound B-mode images of carotid atherosclerotic plaque: correlation with visual classification and histological examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhjelm, Jens E.; Grønholdt, Marie-Louise; Wiebe, Brit

    1998-01-01

    regions of the plaque in still ultrasound images from three orthogonal scan planes and finally a histological analysis of the surgically removed plaque. The quantitative comparison was made with the linear model and with separation of the available data into training and test sets. The comparison......This paper presents a quantitative comparison of three types of information available for 52 patients scheduled for carotid endarterectomy: subjective classification of the ultrasound images obtained during scanning before operation, first- and second-order statistical features extracted from...

  12. Composite resin as an implant material in bone. Histologic, radiologic, microradiologic and oxytetracycline fluorescence examination of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainio, J; Rokkanen, P [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Clinical Sciences; Central Hospital, Tampere (Finland))

    1978-01-01

    The potential of a bis-GMA composite resin as implant material in bone is evaluated. The material is claimed to have mechanical and physical properties superior to those of the bone cements used today. A groove made in the cortex of the tibia in 18 rats was filled with bis-GMA, while a similar was left empty in the contralateral tibia. The reaction of the bone to this material was evaluated by histologic, radiologic, microradiograph and OTC-fluorescence methods. The material was well tolerated by the bone; after 1,3 and 6 weeks no reaction to the material was observed.

  13. Evaluation of Imbrasia belina meal as a fishmeal substitute in Oreochromis mossambicus diets: Growth performance, histological analysis and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mmaditshaba M. Rapatsa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate mopane worm (Imbrasia belina as a protein source in the diet of Oreochromis mossambicus. One thousand five hundred O. mossambicus fingerlings (40 ± 2.5 g were fed five isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets formulated to contain 30% crude protein and 20 MJ/kggross energy (dry matter basis for 51 days. Fifteen indoor rectangular concrete tanks (1.5 m3 connected to a recirculating system were used. Water temperature ranged between 27 and 29 °C. The diets were prepared by replacing fishmeal with mopane worm meal at 10%, 20%, 40% and 60%. The diets were coded D2, D3, D4 and D5 respectively. A control diet with no mopane worm meal was coded D1. The diets were fed to triplicate groups of O. mossambicus twice a day. Specific growth rate (SGR, Thermal-unit growth coefficient (TGC, protein efficiency ratio (PER and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC increased with higher inclusion levels of mopane worm meal. Feed conversion ratio (FCR also improved with higher inclusion levels. However, the highest growth performance (SGR: 3.49%; FCR: 1.29 was recorded in fish fed the fishmeal based control diet. Protease, amylase and lipase activities were determined in the intestines. Both protease and amylase activity were significantly higher (P < 0.05 at high mopane worm inclusion levels. It is suggested that the high protein levels of the mopane worm diet elicited high protease activity. The health status of the fish was evaluated by examining the liver and intestine histology. There were no evident histological alterations of either liver or intestine as mopane worm meal inclusion levels increased. This showed that mopane worm meal may be a good candidate for the replacement of fishmeal in O. mossambicus diets. The highest profit index (1.67 was recorded in the 60% mopane worm inclusion level. The lowest profit index was in the control. More studies on mopane worm meal as a substitute

  14. Virtual microscopy: an evaluation of its validity and diagnostic performance in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Patricia Switten; Lindebjerg, Jan; Rasmussen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Digitization of histologic slides is associated with many advantages, and its use in routine diagnosis holds great promise. Nevertheless, few articles evaluate virtual microscopy in routine settings. This study is an evaluation of the validity and diagnostic performance of virtual microscopy...... in routine histologic diagnosis of skin tumors. Our aim is to investigate whether conventional microscopy of skin tumors can be replaced by virtual microscopy. Ninety-six skin tumors and skin-tumor-like changes were consecutively gathered over a 1-week period. Specimens were routinely processed, and digital...... slides were captured on Mirax Scan (Carl Zeiss MicroImaging, Göttingen, Germany). Four pathologists evaluated the 96 virtual slides and the associated 96 conventional slides twice with intermediate time intervals of at least 3 weeks. Virtual slides that caused difficulties were reevaluated to identify...

  15. Effect of decision making on ultrasonic examination performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.H.

    1992-05-01

    A decision aid was developed to overcome examiner limitations in information processing and decision making during ultrasonic examinations. The aid provided a means of noting signal characteristics as they were observed during the examination, and of presenting them simultaneously for decision making. The aid also served as a way of providing detailed feedback on examination performance during training. The aid was incorporated into worksheets used for the conduct of practice examinations during ultrasonic examination training. To support the introduction and use of the decision aid, one hour of supplementary training was inserted in an existing 64-hour training course on ultrasonic detection of defects. This study represented a modest step in improving the performance of ultrasonic examinations in nuclear power plants. Findings indicated that aided decision making supported by limited training can significantly improve ultrasonic detection performance

  16. Vascular abnormalities of the distal deep digital flexor tendon in 8 draught horses identified on histological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crişan, Melania Ioana; Damian, Aurel; Gal, Adrian; Miclăuş, Viorel; Cernea, Cristina L; Denoix, Jean-Marie

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed description of the vascular changes in the distal part of deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT). Eight isolated forelimbs were collected from 8 horses with DDF tendinopathy diagnosed post-mortem by ultrasound and gross anatomopathological examination. The samples were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, softened in 4% phenol and dehydrated with ethylic alcohol. Goldner's Trichrome staining method was used. The histopathological examination revealed vascular proliferation associated with structural disorders of blood vessels. Angiogenesis, fibroplasia and consecutive hypertrophy of the vascular wall with or without vascular occlusion were the most common findings. Other histopathological findings were: endothelial cell edema, progressive metaplasia from squamous to cubic cells, vascular wall hyalinization, endothelial cells apoptosis/necrosis and endothelial desquamation. These results demonstrated damage of the distal deep digital flexor tendon vasculature which may progressively alter the structural integrity of the tendon and contribute to degenerative lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. PERFORMANCE MEASURES OF STUDENTS IN EXAMINATIONS: A STOCHASTIC APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Goutam Saha; GOUTAM SAHA

    2013-01-01

    Data on Secondary and Higher Secondary examination (science stream) results from Tripura (North-East India) schools are analyzed to measure the performance of students based on tests and also the performance measures of schools based on final results and continuous assessment processes are obtained. The result variation in terms of grade points in the Secondary and Higher Secondary examinations are analysed using different sets of performance measures. The transition probabilities from one g...

  18. Histological correlation of 7 T multi-parametric MRI performed in ex-vivo Achilles tendon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juras, Vladimir [Center of Excellence for High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104, Bratislava (Slovakia); Apprich, Sebastian; Pressl, Christina; Zbyn, Stefan [Center of Excellence for High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, Pavol [Center of Excellence for High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Dubravska cesta 9, 84104, Bratislava (Slovakia); Domayer, Stephan; Hofstaetter, Jochen G. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Vienna General Hospital, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [Center of Excellence for High Field MR, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Introduction: The goal of this in vitro validation study was to investigate the feasibility of biochemical MRI techniques, such as sodium imaging, T{sub 2} mapping, fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP), and reversed FISP (PSIF), as potential markers for collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content in the Achilles tendon. Materials and methods: Five fresh cadaver ankles acquired from a local anatomy department were used in the study. To acquire a sodium signal from the Achilles tendon, a 3D-gradient-echo sequence, optimized for sodium imaging, was used with TE = 7.71 ms and TR = 17 ms. The T{sub 2} relaxation times were obtained using a multi-echo, spin-echo technique with a repetition time (TR) of 1200 ms and six echo times. A 3D, partially balanced, steady-state gradient echo pulse sequence was used to acquire FISP and PSIF images, with TR/TE = 6.96/2.46 ms. MRI parameters were correlated with each other, as well as with histologically assessed glycosaminoglycan and water content in cadaver Achilles tendons. Results: The highest relevant Pearson correlation coefficient was found between sodium SNR and glycosaminoglycan content (r = 0.71, p = 0.007). Relatively high correlation was found between the PSIF signal and T{sub 2} values (r = 0.51, p = 0.036), and between the FISP signal and T{sub 2} values (r = 0.56, p = 0.047). Other correlations were found to be below the moderate level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of progressive biochemical MRI methods for the imaging of the AT. A GAG-specific, contrast-free method (sodium imaging), as well as collagen- and water-sensitive methods (T{sub 2} mapping, FISP, PSIF), may be used in fast-relaxing tissues, such as tendons, in reasonable scan times.

  19. Histological correlation of 7 T multi-parametric MRI performed in ex-vivo Achilles tendon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juras, Vladimir; Apprich, Sebastian; Pressl, Christina; Zbyn, Stefan; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Domayer, Stephan; Hofstaetter, Jochen G.; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The goal of this in vitro validation study was to investigate the feasibility of biochemical MRI techniques, such as sodium imaging, T 2 mapping, fast imaging with steady state precession (FISP), and reversed FISP (PSIF), as potential markers for collagen, glycosaminoglycan and water content in the Achilles tendon. Materials and methods: Five fresh cadaver ankles acquired from a local anatomy department were used in the study. To acquire a sodium signal from the Achilles tendon, a 3D-gradient-echo sequence, optimized for sodium imaging, was used with TE = 7.71 ms and TR = 17 ms. The T 2 relaxation times were obtained using a multi-echo, spin-echo technique with a repetition time (TR) of 1200 ms and six echo times. A 3D, partially balanced, steady-state gradient echo pulse sequence was used to acquire FISP and PSIF images, with TR/TE = 6.96/2.46 ms. MRI parameters were correlated with each other, as well as with histologically assessed glycosaminoglycan and water content in cadaver Achilles tendons. Results: The highest relevant Pearson correlation coefficient was found between sodium SNR and glycosaminoglycan content (r = 0.71, p = 0.007). Relatively high correlation was found between the PSIF signal and T 2 values (r = 0.51, p = 0.036), and between the FISP signal and T 2 values (r = 0.56, p = 0.047). Other correlations were found to be below the moderate level. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the feasibility of progressive biochemical MRI methods for the imaging of the AT. A GAG-specific, contrast-free method (sodium imaging), as well as collagen- and water-sensitive methods (T 2 mapping, FISP, PSIF), may be used in fast-relaxing tissues, such as tendons, in reasonable scan times

  20. Examining Big Brother's Purpose for Using Electronic Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Lynn K.; Nordstrom, Cynthia R.

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether the reason offered for electronic performance monitoring (EPM) influenced participants' performance, stress, motivation, and satisfaction. Participants performed a data-entry task in one of five experimental conditions. In one condition, participants were not electronically monitored. In the remaining conditions, participants…

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia: diagnostic performance compared with contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Da; Liu, Guang-Jian; Xu, Zuo-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Lu, Ming-De; Shen, Shun-Li

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the characterisation of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). CEUS was performed in 85 patients with 85 histologically proven FNHs. Enhancement, centrifugal filling, spoke-wheel arteries, feeding artery and central scarring were reviewed and correlated with lesion size or liver background. Independent factors for predicting FNH from other focal liver lesions (FLLs) were evaluated. Forty-seven FLLs with CECT were randomly selected for comparison of diagnostic performance with CEUS. Centrifugal filling was more common (P = 0.002) and the significant predictor (P = 0.003) in FNHs ≤3 cm. Lesion size or liver background has no significant influence on the detection rate of the spoke-wheel arteries and feeding artery (P > 0.05). Central scarring was found in 42.6 % of FNHs ≥3 cm (P = 0.000). The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity and specificity showed no significant differences between CEUS and CECT (P > 0.05), except that the sensitivity of CEUS was better for reader 1 (P = 0.041). CEUS is valuable in characterising centrifugal filling signs or spoke wheels in small FNHs and should be employed as the first-line imaging technique for diagnosis of FNH. (orig.)

  2. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A., Jr.; Greer, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical…

  3. Introducing a performance-based objective clinical examination into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe how a formative Objective Structured Clinical Examination was applied to fourth year pharmacy students at a university in Northern Cyprus. Methods: A blueprint-guided performance-based objective clinical examination was implemented. Group-prepared case scenarios based on course objectives ...

  4. Effects of varying dietary carbohydrate levels on growth performance, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer fingerlings (Tor tambroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Sairatul Dahlianis; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Ramezani-Fard, Ehsan; Saad, Che Roos; Yusof, Yus Aniza

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the effects of four iso-nitrogenous (40% crude protein) and iso-caloric (17.6 kJ g(-1)) diets with different dietary carbohydrate levels (15%, 20%, 25% and 30%) on the growth performance, feed utilization efficiency, body composition and liver histology of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) fingerlings in a 10-week feeding trial. Fish (initial weight of 0.8?0.1 g; initial total length 4.2?0.1 cm) were fed twice daily at 4% body mass. Dietary carbohydrate level had significant effects (P<0.05) on weight gain, SGR (specific growth rate), FCR (feed conversion rate), PER (protein efficiency rate), survival percentage and all nutrient retention values (PRV, LRV, CRV, ERV). Protein, carbohydrate and gross energy composition of the fish body were also significantly differed (P<0.05) among treatments. Liver histology showed mild hepatic steatosis and hypertrophy for fishes receiving a higher dietary carbohydrate inclusion. In general, treatments with 20% and 25% dietary carbohydrate levels produced better growth results compared to the rest of the treatments. Using a second-order polynomial regression analysis model, the optimal dietary carbohydrate level of 23.4% was estimated for mahseer fingerlings. ?

  5. Histological and Thermometric Examination of Soft Tissue De-Epithelialization Using Digitally Controlled Er:YAG Laser Handpiece: An Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzech-Leśniak, Kinga; Matys, Jacek; Jurczyszyn, Kamil; Ziółkowski, Piotr; Dominiak, Marzena; Brugnera Junior, Aldo; Romeo, Umberto

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was histological and thermometric examination of soft tissue de-epithelialization using digitally controlled laser handpiece (DCLH) - X-Runner. Commonly used techniques for de-epithelialization include scalpel, abrasion with diamond bur, or a combination of the two. Despite being simple, inexpensive and effective, these techniques are invasive and may produce unwanted side effects. It is important to look for alternative techniques using novel tools, which are minimally invasive and effective. 114 porcine samples sized 6 × 6 mm were collected from the attached gingiva (AG) of the alveolar process of the mandible using 15C scalpel blade. The samples were irradiated by means of Er:YAG laser (LightWalker, Fotona, Slovenia), using X-Runner and HO 2 handpieces at different parameters; 80, 100, and 140 mJ/20 Hz in time of 6 or 16 sec, respectively. The temperature was measured with a K-type thermocouple. For the histopathological analysis of efficiency of epithelium removal and thermal injury, 3 random samples were de-epithelialized with an HO 2 handpiece, and 9 random samples with an X-Runner handpiece with different parameters. For the samples irradiated with DCLH, we have used three different settings, which resulted in removing 1 to 3 layers of the soft tissue. The efficiency of epithelium removal and the rise of temperature were analyzed. DCLH has induced significantly lower temperature increase compared with HO 2 at each energy to frequency ratio. The histological examination revealed total epithelium removal when HO 2 handpiece was used at 100 and 140 mJ/20 Hz and when DCLH was used for two- and threefold lasing at 80, 100, and 140 mJ/20 Hz. Er:YAG laser with DCLH handpiece may be an efficient tool in epithelium removal without excessive thermal damage.

  6. The Red Effect, Anxiety, and Exam Performance: A Multistudy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajic, Adnan; Merritt, Stephanie; Banister, Christina; Blinebry, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have established a negative relationship between the color red and academic performance. This research examined whether this effect would generalize to classroom performance and whether anxiety and negative affect might mediate the effect. In two studies, students taking classroom exams were randomly assigned an exam color. We…

  7. Alzheimer's Dementia: Performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Evelyn Lee; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Analyzed the performance of Alzheimer's patients (N=141) on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Performance on all items showed significant negative correlation with the duration of the illness. The most difficult item was "recall," and the improvement in recall was obtained with cuing. (Author/ABB)

  8. Costs of examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Germán Lobos; Palma, Carolina Salas

    2018-01-01

    To determine the total average costs related to laboratory examinations performed in a hospital laboratory in Chile. Retrospective study with data from July 2014 to June 2015. 92 examinations classified in ten groups were selected according to the analysis methodology. The costs were estimated as the sum of direct and indirect laboratory costs and indirect institutional factors. The average values obtained for the costs according to examination group (in USD) were: 1.79 (clinical chemistry), 10.21 (immunoassay techniques), 13.27 (coagulation), 26.06 (high-performance liquid chromatography), 21.2 (immunological), 3.85 (gases and electrolytes), 156.48 (cytogenetic), 1.38 (urine), 4.02 (automated hematological), 4.93 (manual hematological). The value, or service fee, returned to public institutions who perform laboratory services does not adequately reflect the true total average production costs of examinations.

  9. INTRAOPERATIVE MOTIVE FOR PERFORMING A LAPAROSCOPIC APPENDECTOMY ON A POSTOPERATIVE HISTOLOGICAL PROVEN NORMAL APPENDIX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotboom, T.; Hamminga, J. T. H.; Hofker, H. S.; Heineman, E.; Haveman, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic laparoscopy is the ultimate tool to evaluate the appendix. However, the intraoperative evaluation of the appendix is difficult, as the negative appendectomy rate remains 12%-18%. The aim of this study is to analyze the intraoperative motive for performing a laparoscopic

  10. An Examination of Organizatinal Performance Measurement System Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    DeBusk, Gerald Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation provides results of three studies, which examine the utilization of organizational performance measurement systems. Evidence gathered in the first study provides insight into the number of perspectives or components found in the evaluation of an organization's performance and the relative weight placed on those components. The evidence suggests that the number of performance measurement components and their relative composition is situational. Components depend heavily on th...

  11. Diagnostic performance of in vivo 3-T MRI for articular cartilage abnormalities in human osteoarthritic knees using histology as standard of reference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadat, Ehsan; Jobke, Bjoern; Chu, Bill; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.; Ries, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of sagittal in vivo 3-T intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (iwFSE) sequences in the assessment of knee cartilage pathologies using histology as the reference standard in patients undergoing total knee replacement, and (2) to correlate MR imaging findings typically associated with osteoarthritis such as bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) and cartilage swelling with histological findings. Tibial plateaus and femoral condyles of eight knees of seven patients were resected during surgery, and sagittal histological sections were prepared for histology. Preoperative MRI findings were compared to the corresponding region in histological sections for thickness, surface integrity and signal pattern of cartilage, and histological findings in areas of BMEP and swelling were documented. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 72%, 69% and 70% for thickness, 69%, 74% and 73% for surface and 36%, 62% and 45% for intracartilaginous signal pattern. For all cases of BMEP on MRI subchondral ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue and increased bone remodeling were observed. MRI using fat-saturated iwFSE sequences showed good performance in assessing cartilage thickness and surface lesions, while signal changes of cartilage were not suited to characterize the severity of cartilage degeneration as validated by histology. (orig.)

  12. Diagnostic performance of in vivo 3-T MRI for articular cartilage abnormalities in human osteoarthritic knees using histology as standard of reference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saadat, Ehsan [University of California San Francisco, School of Medicine and Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Jobke, Bjoern; Chu, Bill; Lu, Ying; Cheng, Jonathan; Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ries, Michael D. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of this study was (1) to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of sagittal in vivo 3-T intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (iwFSE) sequences in the assessment of knee cartilage pathologies using histology as the reference standard in patients undergoing total knee replacement, and (2) to correlate MR imaging findings typically associated with osteoarthritis such as bone marrow edema pattern (BMEP) and cartilage swelling with histological findings. Tibial plateaus and femoral condyles of eight knees of seven patients were resected during surgery, and sagittal histological sections were prepared for histology. Preoperative MRI findings were compared to the corresponding region in histological sections for thickness, surface integrity and signal pattern of cartilage, and histological findings in areas of BMEP and swelling were documented. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 72%, 69% and 70% for thickness, 69%, 74% and 73% for surface and 36%, 62% and 45% for intracartilaginous signal pattern. For all cases of BMEP on MRI subchondral ingrowth of fibrovascular tissue and increased bone remodeling were observed. MRI using fat-saturated iwFSE sequences showed good performance in assessing cartilage thickness and surface lesions, while signal changes of cartilage were not suited to characterize the severity of cartilage degeneration as validated by histology. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of histologic margin status in low-grade cutaneous and subcutaneous canine mast cell tumours examined by radial and tangential sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, C B; Milovancev, M; Russell, D S

    2018-03-01

    Radial sections are widely used to estimate adequacy of excision in canine cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCTs); however, this sectioning technique estimates only a small fraction of total margin circumference. This study aimed to compare histologic margin status in grade II/low grade MCTs sectioned using both radial and tangential sectioning techniques. A total of 43 circumferential margins were evaluated from 21 different tumours. Margins were first sectioned radially, followed by tangential sections. Tissues were examined by routine histopathology. Tangential margin status differed in 10 of 43 (23.3%) margins compared with their initial status on radial section. Of 39 margins, 9 (23.1%) categorized as histologic tumour-free margin (HTFM) >0 mm were positive on tangential sectioning. Tangential sections detected a significantly higher proportion of positive margins relative to radial sections (exact 2-tailed P-value = .0215). The HTFM was significantly longer in negative tangential margins than positive tangential margins (mean 10.1 vs 3.2 mm; P = .0008). A receiver operating characteristic curve comparing HTFM and tangentially negative margins found an area under the curve of 0.83 (95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.96). Although correct classification peaked at the sixth cut-point of HTFM ≥1 mm, radial sections still incorrectly classified 50% of margins as lacking tumour cells. Radial sections had 100% specificity for predicting negative tangential margins at a cut-point of 10.9 mm. These data indicate that for low grade MCTs, HTFMs >0 mm should not be considered completely excised, particularly when HTFM is <10.9 mm. This will inform future studies that use HTFM and overall excisional status as dependent variables in multivariable prognostic models. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of Coriander Essential Oil on the Performance, Blood Characteristics, Intestinal Microbiota and Histological of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ghazanfari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the dietary supplementation of coriander oil on broiler performance, blood characteristics, microbiota, and small intestine morphology measurements. A number of one-day-old broiler chickens (Ross 308 were allocated to five treatments, with four replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD. Birds were offered either a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control, or the basal diet supplemented with 600 mg/kg of a flavophospholipol antibiotic, 100, 200, or 300 mg/kg coriander essential oil. At 42 days of age, two birds per replicate were selected for blood collection, slaughtered, and its intestinal microbiota and morphology were investigated. The results indicated that weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio significantly improved by the dietary inclusion of the coriander oil and antibiotic compared with the control treatment (p0.05. Birds fed the coriander oil and antibiotic diets had lower populations of Escherichia coli than control group in cecum (p<0.05. The dietary treatments influenced the morphology of small intestinal villi. Birds fed antibiotic and coriander essential oil presented higher villus height and crypt depth compared with those in the control treatment (p<0.01. Coriander essential oil supplementation significantly decreased epithelial thickness and the number of goblet cell of the small intestinal compared with the control treatment (p<0.0001. In conclusion, coriander oil was shown to be an efficient growth promoter. The intestinal health improvement obtained with coriander oil was associated with improvements in broiler growth performance.

  15. Gender and Performance in Accounting Examinations: Exploring the Impact of Examination Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Neal; Everaert, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of whether the increasing use of multiple-choice questions will favour particular student groups, i.e. male or female students. Using data from Belgium, this paper empirically examines the existence of a gender effect by comparing the relative performance of male and female students in both multiple-choice and…

  16. Examining Relationships among Work Ethic, Academic Motivation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriac, John P.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, work ethic was examined as a predictor of academic motivation and performance. A total of 440 undergraduate students completed measures of work ethic and academic motivation, and reported their cumulative grade point average. Results indicated that several dimensions of work ethic were related to academic motivation and academic…

  17. Examining the Factors of Licensure Examination for Teachers Performance for Program Strategy Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januard D. Dagdag

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Passing the Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET has been the ultimate focus of tertiary education institutions in the Philippines to meet the present demand of local and global parties and communities. Hence, various strategies are conducted to increase the likelihood that the prospect will happen. With this, the current study determines the predictors of LET performance of the 146 Bachelor of Secondary Education graduates that could serve as basis for enhancing program strategies for a better LET rating. A descriptive correlational method through the analysis of registration data on LET, grade weighted average, college admission test (CAT scores, and course audit scores was conducted. Descriptive statistics and correlational tests were employed in the analysis of these data. Results showed that low LET performance is influenced by low performances in academics and admission test, and limited course audit units taken. Admission test performance, however, does not predict LET performance in Major. On the other hand, course audit performance can only forecast licensure exam scores in Major. Hence, to increase LET performance, the program should consider benchmarking from LET performing institutions, choose the right faculty to teach a course, secure the validity and/or reliability of instructional materials and assessment tools with LET competencies, strictly implement the admission and retention policy, and assess regularly the efficacy of the course audit in all areas

  18. Pharmacology national board examinations: factors that may influence performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidle, E A; Kahn, N

    1977-12-01

    Data from a survey of pharmacology courses in 60 dental schools were used to determine whether certain teaching variables affect performance in pharmacology National Board examinations. In addition, three-year class-averaged pharmacology scores and, rarely, one-year averaged scores were correlated with several admissions variables. While correlations between some admissions variables and pharmacology scores were quite good, the averaged pharmacology scores were not powerfully affected by course length, placement of the course in the curriculum, length of the curriculum, or the presence of a dentally trained pharmacologist in the department. It is suggested that other factors, related to the student and his capabilities, influence performance on National Boards. Dental pharmacology courses should be designed to given students the best possible exposure to an important basic science, not to make them perform well on National Boards, because student performance on National Boards may be independent of the nature of the didactic courses.

  19. Acute kidney damage induced by low- and iso-osmolar contrast media in rats: Comparison study with physiologic MRI and histologic-gene examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Jiang; Bao, Mei-Ling; Wang, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the physiopathological effects of low- and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) on renal function with physiologic MRI and histologic-gene examination. Forty-eight rats underwent time-course DWI and DCE-MRI at 3.0 Tesla (T) before and 5-15 min after exposure of CM or saline (Iop.370: 370 mgI/mL iopromide; Iod.320: 320 mgI/mL iodixanol; Iod.270: 270 mgI/mL iodixanol; 4 gI/kg body weight). Intrarenal viscosity was reflected by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Renal physiologies were evaluated by DCE-derived glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal blood volume (RBV). Potential acute kidney injury (AKI) was determined by histology and the expression of kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1). Iop.370 mainly increased ADC in inner-medulla (△ADC IM : 12.3 ± 11.1%; P < 0.001). Iod.320 and Iod.270 mainly decreased ADC in outer-medulla (△ADC IM ; Iod.320: 16.8 ± 7.5%; Iod.270: 18.1 ± 9.5%; P < 0.001) and inner-medulla (△ADC IM ; Iod.320: 28.4 ± 9.3%; Iod.270: 30.3 ± 6.3%; P < 0.001). GFR, RBF and RBV were significantly decreased by Iod.320 (△GFR: 45.5 ± 24.1%; △RBF: 44.6 ± 19.0%; △RBV: 35.2 ± 10.1%; P < 0.001) and Iod.270 (33.2 ± 19.0%; 38.1 ± 15.6%; 30.1 ± 10.1%; P < 0.001), while rarely changed by Iop.370 and saline. Formation of vacuoles and increase in Kim-1 expression was prominently detected in group of Iod.320, while rarely in Iod.270 and Iop.370. Iso-osmolar iodixanol, given at high-dose, produced prominent AKI in nonhydrated rats. This renal dysfunction could be assessed noninvasively by physiologic MRI. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:291-302. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Nursing Students' Intrinsic Motivation and Performance on the Licensure Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Michele G

    Unsuccessful attempts at licensure adversely affect graduates, prelicensure nursing education programs, health care agencies, and ultimately, patient safety. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to investigate the relationship between nursing students' intrinsic motivation and performance on the licensure examination. Nursing students responded to 12 questions related to reasons for learning as indicators of motivation type. Results indicated no statistically significant correlations between variables.

  1. Necessity of introducing postencounter note describing history and physical examination at clinical performance examination in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonghoon

    2014-06-01

    Information gathering ability had been evaluated mainly via checklists in clinical performance examinations (CPX). But, it is not proved yet if students write the information correctly in postencounter note (PN), although they asked questions or performed physical examinations (PE) about the information when they interacted with standardized patients in CPX. This study addressed the necessity of introducing PN to evaluate the ability in CPX. After patient encounters, students were instructed to write the findings of history taking and physical examination that they considered as important information in approaching the patient's problems in PN. PNs were scored using answer keys selected from checklist items, which were considered to be recorded in PN by CPX experts. PNs of six CPX cases from 54 students were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between the key-checklist scores and PN scores of six cases were moderate to high (0.52 to 0.79). However, students frequently neglected some cardinal features of chief complains, pertinent findings of past/social history and PE, and pertinent negative findings of associated symptoms in PNs, which were checked as 'done' in the keys of checklists. It is necessary to introduce PN in CPX to evaluate the students' ability of synthesis and integration of patient information.

  2. Smoking habit and gastritis histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, A; Kemona, A; Namiot, Z

    2007-01-01

    Long-term cigarette smoking may increase the risk of digestive tract pathologies, however, what is the influence smoking habit on gastric mucosa histology is still poorly elicited. The aim of the study was to compare histological evaluation of gastritis in smoker and non-smoker groups. A total of 236 patients of various H. pylori status (109 infected, 127 non-infected), clinical diagnosis (107 duodenal ulcer disease, 129 dyspepsia), and smoking habit (92 smokers, 144 non-smokers) were included. Subjects were classified as smokers if they smoked 5 or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years. A histological examination of endoscopically obtained samples was performed by two experienced pathomorphologists blinded to the diagnoses and smoking habit. Microscopic slices of the gastric mucosa were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa. Apart from histological diagnosis, H. pylori status was additionally confirmed by an urease test (CLO-test) at least in one of two gastric locations (antrum or corpus). In the H. pylori infected population, H. pylori density, neutrophils, and mononuclear cells infiltration in the gastric corpus mucosa were lower in smokers than non-smokers, while in the antrum the differences were not significant. In the non-infected population, no significant differences in neutrophils and mononuclear cells infiltration between smokers and non-smokers were found. Since the significant differences in studied parameters of chronic gastritis between smokers and non-smokers were found in the corpus mucosa of H. pylori infected subjects, smoking should be taken into account when a histological evaluation of the gastric mucosa in the H. pylori infected population is performed.

  3. Histological examination of spruce needles from a long-term gas exchange experiment in pure and polluted air in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier-Maercker, U.; Koch, W.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of a 4-year period of gas exchange measurements in a natural stand in the Lower Bavarian Forest, needles of an adult spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] were harvested from two chambers, one with pure air and the other with ambient air. The needles were examined as to their histological properties in the stomatal apparatus and in the bundle sheath. In needles from the polluted air UV absorbance at 280 nm was decreased in the walls of the stomatal apparatus. Simultaneously, the deposition of compounds with an absorption maximum at 310 nm increased within the encrusted plate-like thickenings of the subsidiary cells. The contents of the lumina of hypodermal cells and of the bundle sheath exhibited a greater degree of autofluorescence in ambient-air material than in pure-air leaf organs. Differences between needles exposed to pure and polluted air are gradual. The “damaged” condition is rare in pure air, common in polluted air. The needles from outside the chambers occupied an intermediate position between pure-air and ambient-air needles. This fact is traced to an unnaturally high pollutant load in the liquid phase of the needle surfaces within the ambient-air chamber because in order to compensate pollutant losses within the system, SO 2 and O 3 were added even during periods of irrigation. The reduction of absorption capacity at 280 nm in the walls of the stomatal apparatus is attributed to destruction of lignin due to the high reactivity of the pollutants in the liquid phase on the damp needle surface. The importance of delignification with regard to hydroregulation is discussed

  4. 'Peripheric' pancreatic cysts: performance of CT scan, MRI and endoscopy according to final pathological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duconseil, P; Turrini, O; Ewald, J; Soussan, J; Sarran, A; Gasmi, M; Moutardier, V; Delpero, J R

    2015-06-01

    To assess the accuracy of pre-operative staging in patients with peripheral pancreatic cystic neoplasms (pPCNs). From 2005 to 2011, 148 patients underwent a pancreatectomy for pPCNs. The pre-operative examination methods of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) were compared for their ability to predict the suggested diagnosis accurately, and the definitive diagnosis was affirmed by pathological examination. A mural nodule was detected in 34 patients (23%): only 1 patient (3%) had an invasive pPCN at the final histological examination. A biopsy was performed in 79 patients (53%) during EUS: in 55 patients (70%), the biopsy could not conclude a diagnosis; the biopsy provided the correct and wrong diagnosis in 19 patients (24%) and 5 patients (6%), respectively. A correct diagnosis was affirmed by CT, EUS and pancreatic MRI in 60 (41%), 103 (74%) and 80 (86%) patients (when comparing EUS and MRI; P = 0.03), respectively. The positive predictive values (PPVs) of CT, EUS and MRI were 70%, 75% and 87%, respectively. Pancreatic MRI appears to be the most appropriate examination to diagnose pPCNs accurately. EUS alone had a poor PPV. Mural nodules in a PCN should not be considered an indisputable sign of pPCN invasiveness. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  5. Effects of diet acidification and xylanase supplementation on performance, nutrient digestibility, duodenal histology and gut microflora of broilers fed wheat based diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esmaeilipour, O.; Moravej, H.; Shivazad, M.; Rezaian, M.; Aminzadeh, S.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2012-01-01

    1. The objective of this experiment was to study the influences of xylanase and citric acid on the performance, nutrient digestibility, digesta viscosity, duodenal histology, and gut microflora of broilers fed on a wheat based diet. 2. The experiment was carried out as a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement

  6. A Case of Hydranencephaly in Which Ophthalmic Examinations Were Performed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Eda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We performed ophthalmic examinations, including optical coherence tomography (OCT, on a case diagnosed with hydranencephaly. Case Report: This case involved a female infant born at the gestational age of 35 weeks and 4 days, with the birth weight of 2,152 g, who was one of monochorionic diamniotic twins, and the identical twin died in utero at the gestational age of 24 weeks. After that, examination by fetal echo indicated that she had microcephaly and ventriculomegaly. Postnatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of her head indicated microcephaly and significant enlargement of the lateral ventricle on both sides, with no obvious signs of elevated intracranial pressure. The brain parenchyma of both sides of the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, and occipital lobe had marked thinning, yet that of the temporal lobe, basal ganglia, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum had been maintained. Moreover, no obvious hematoma or neoplastic lesions were observed. Ophthalmic examinations indicated that both of her eyes had slight light reflex, attributed to optic nerve atrophy. Examination by use of a hand-held OCT system indicated a layered structure of the retina and thinning of the ganglion cell layer. Flicker electroretinogram (ERG examination by use of a hand-held ERG system indicated an almost normal wave. However, no clear visual reaction was observed when she was 10 months old. Conclusion: Our findings in this case of hydranencephaly revealed that even though the outer layer functions of the patient’s retina were maintained, extensive damage to her cerebral cortex resulted in poor visual function.

  7. Correlation of United States Medical Licensing Examination and Internal Medicine In-Training Examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose A; Greer, Sharon

    2009-12-01

    The Internal Medicine In-Training Examination (ITE) is administered during residency training in the United States as a self-assessment and program assessment tool. Performance on this exam correlates with outcome on the American Board of Internal Medicine Certifying examination. Internal Medicine Program Directors use the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) to make decisions in recruitment of potential applicants. This study was done to determine a correlation of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 results with ITE scores in each level of Internal Medicine training. A retrospective review of all residents graduating from an Internal Medicine program from 1999 to 2006 was done. Subjects included had data for all USMLE Steps and ITE during all years of training. Thirty-one subjects were included in the study. Correlations of USMLE Steps 1, 2 and 3 were done with ITE scores (percent correct) in each year of training. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was determined for each pairing and a t test to determine statistical significance of the correlation was done. Statistical significance was defined as P value ITE percent correct in PGY I, II and III were 0.46, 0.55 and 0.51 respectively. Corresponding r values for USMLE Step 2 and ITE percent correct were 0.79, 0.70 and 0.72; for USMLE Step 3 these values were 0.51, 0.37 and 0.51 respectively for each training year. USMLE scores are correlated with ITE scores. This correlation was strongest for USMLE Step 2.

  8. An examination of medical linear accelerator ion-chamber performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karolis, C.; Lee, C.; Rinks, A.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The company ( Radiation Oncology Physics and Engineering Services Pty Ltd) provides medical physics services to four radiotherapy centres in NSW with a total of 6 high energy medical linear accelerators manufactured by three different companies. As part of the services, the stability of the accelerator ion chamber system is regularly examined for constancy and periodically for absolute calibration. Each accelerator ion chamber has exhibited undesirable behaviour from time to time, sometimes leading to its replacement. This presentation describes the performance of the ion chambers for some of the linacs over a period of 12-18 months and the steps taken by the manufacturer to address the problems encountered. As part of our commissioning procedure of new linacs, an absolute calibration of the accelerator output (photon and electron beams) is repeated several times over the period following examination of the physical properties of the radiation beams. These calibrations were undertaken in water using the groups calibrated ion chamber/electrometer system and were accompanied by constancy checks using an acrylic phantom and field instruments. Constancy checks were performed daily for a period of 8 weeks during the initial life of the accelerator and thereafter weekly. For one accelerator, the ion chamber was replaced 6 times in the first eighteen months of its life due to severe drifts in output, found to be due to pressure changes in one half of the chamber In another accelerator, erratic swings of 2% were observed for a period of nine months, particularly with the electron beams, before the manufacturer offered to change the chamber with another constructed from different materials. In yet another accelerator the ion chamber has shown consistent erratic behaviour, but this has not been addressed by the manufacturer. In another popular accelerator, the dosimetry was found to be very stable until some changes in the tuning were introduced resulting in small

  9. A LABORATORY TEST FOR THE EXAMINATION OF ALACTIC RUNNING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Kibele

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new testing procedure is introduced to evaluate the alactic running performance in a 10s sprint task with near-maximal movement velocity. The test is performed on a motor-equipped treadmill with inverted polarity that increases mechanical resistance instead of driving the treadmill belt. As a result, a horizontal force has to be exerted against the treadmill surface in order to overcome the resistant force of the engine and to move the surface in a backward direction. For this task, subjects lean with their hands towards the front safety barrier of the treadmill railing with a slightly inclined body posture. The required skill resembles the pushing movement of bobsleigh pilots at the start of a race. Subjects are asked to overcome this mechanical resistance and to cover as much distance as possible within a time period of 10 seconds. Fifteen male students (age: 27.7 ± 4.1 years, body height: 1.82 ± 0.46 m, body mass: 78.3 ± 6.7 kg participated in a study. As the resistance force was set to 134 N, subjects ran 35.4 ± 2.6 m on the average corresponding to a mean running velocity of 3.52 ± 0.25 m·s-1. The validity of the new test was examined by statistical inference with various measures related to alactic performance including a metabolic equivalent to estimate alactic capacity (2892 ± 525 mL O2, an estimate for the oxygen debt (2662 ± 315 ml, the step test by Margaria to estimate alactic energy flow (1691 ± 171 W, and a test to measure the maximal strength in the leg extensor muscles (2304 ± 351 N. The statistical evaluation showed that the new test is in good agreement with the theoretical assumptions for alactic performance. Significant correlation coefficients were found between the test criteria and the measures for alactic capacity (r = 0.79, p < 0.01 as well as alactic power (r = 0.77, p < 0.01. The testing procedure is easy to administer and it is best suited to evaluate the alactic capacity for bobsleigh pilots as well as for

  10. Thought Experiment to Examine Benchmark Performance for Fusion Nuclear Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Isao; Ohta, Masayuki; Kusaka, Sachie; Sato, Fuminobu; Miyamaru, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-01

    There are many benchmark experiments carried out so far with DT neutrons especially aiming at fusion reactor development. These integral experiments seemed vaguely to validate the nuclear data below 14 MeV. However, no precise studies exist now. The author's group thus started to examine how well benchmark experiments with DT neutrons can play a benchmarking role for energies below 14 MeV. Recently, as a next phase, to generalize the above discussion, the energy range was expanded to the entire region. In this study, thought experiments with finer energy bins have thus been conducted to discuss how to generally estimate performance of benchmark experiments. As a result of thought experiments with a point detector, the sensitivity for a discrepancy appearing in the benchmark analysis is "equally" due not only to contribution directly conveyed to the deterctor, but also due to indirect contribution of neutrons (named (A)) making neutrons conveying the contribution, indirect controbution of neutrons (B) making the neutrons (A) and so on. From this concept, it would become clear from a sensitivity analysis in advance how well and which energy nuclear data could be benchmarked with a benchmark experiment.

  11. Thought Experiment to Examine Benchmark Performance for Fusion Nuclear Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murata Isao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many benchmark experiments carried out so far with DT neutrons especially aiming at fusion reactor development. These integral experiments seemed vaguely to validate the nuclear data below 14 MeV. However, no precise studies exist now. The author’s group thus started to examine how well benchmark experiments with DT neutrons can play a benchmarking role for energies below 14 MeV. Recently, as a next phase, to generalize the above discussion, the energy range was expanded to the entire region. In this study, thought experiments with finer energy bins have thus been conducted to discuss how to generally estimate performance of benchmark experiments. As a result of thought experiments with a point detector, the sensitivity for a discrepancy appearing in the benchmark analysis is “equally” due not only to contribution directly conveyed to the deterctor, but also due to indirect contribution of neutrons (named (A making neutrons conveying the contribution, indirect controbution of neutrons (B making the neutrons (A and so on. From this concept, it would become clear from a sensitivity analysis in advance how well and which energy nuclear data could be benchmarked with a benchmark experiment.

  12. Is the performance of MRI in preoperative staging of breast cancer independent of clinical and histological factors? A subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira Gómez, C; Zamora Romero, J; Gil de Miguel, A; Chiva de Agustín, M; Plana Farrás, M N; Martínez González, J

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether preoperative breast MRI is more useful in patients according to their breast density, age, menopausal status, and biopsy findings of carcinoma in situ. We retrospectively studied 264 patients treated for breast cancer who had undergone mammography, ultrasonography, and MRI. We compared the size of the tumor on the three techniques and the sensitivity of the techniques for detecting additional lesions both in the overall group and in subgroups of patients classified according to their breast density, age, menopausal status, and histological findings of intraductal carcinoma. The definitive histological diagnosis was used as the gold standard. MRI was the technique that was most concordant with the histological findings for the size of the lesion, and it was also the technique that detected the most additional lesions. With MRI, we observed no differences in lesion size between the overall group and the subgroups in which MRI provided added value. Likewise, we observed no differences in the number of additional lesions detected in the overall group except for multicentric lesions, which was larger in older patients (P=.02). In the subgroup of patients in which MRI provided added value, the sensitivity for bilateral lesions was higher in patients with fatty breasts (P=.04). Multifocal lesions were detected significantly better in premenopausal patients (P=.03). MRI is better than mammography and better than ultrasonography for establishing the size of the tumor and for detecting additional lesions. Our results did not identify any subgroups in which the technique was more useful. Copyright © 2013 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Conservation Reasoning Ability and Performance on BSCS Blue Version Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.; Nordland, Floyd H.

    Twenty-three high school biology students were individually administered three conservation tasks (weight, volume, volume displacement). During one semester, they were examined over the course material using published Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) Blue Version examination questions which were previously classified as requiring either…

  14. Using Student Performance to Judge the Difficulty of Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roegner, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    This contribution focuses on a scheme developed to characterize the level of difficulty of an examination in the course "Linear Algebra for Engineers" and on the transfer of the underlying idea to a similar scheme for examinations in the course "Analysis I for Engineers". Using these schemes, it is possible to define standards…

  15. Performance Measurement without Benchmarks: An Examination of Mutual Fund Returns.

    OpenAIRE

    Grinblatt, Mark; Titman, Sheridan

    1993-01-01

    This article introduces a new measure of portfolio performance and applies it to study the performance of a large sample of mutual funds. In contrast to previous studies of mutual fund performance, the measure used in this study employs portfolio holdings and does not require the use of a benchmark portfolio. It finds that the portfolio choices of mutual fund managers, particularly those that managed aggressive growth funds, earned significantly positive risk-adjusted returns in the 1976-85 p...

  16. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    OpenAIRE

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi; Reza Aghamousa; Fataneh Alizadeh Meshkani

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate th...

  17. Examining the role of export competitive advantages on export performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeganeh Alimohammadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of export competitive advantage on export performance in food industry. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among 280 randomly selected experts in food industry and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.827. The study has applied factor analysis to find important factors influencing export performance. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity have been performed to validate the results and they both validated the questionnaire. The results of the survey have determined six effective groups including product development, e-commerce, marketing planning, organizational performance, competitiveness and supply chain management.

  18. An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects on Girls' Mathematics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Mingle, Leigh A.; Ryan, Allison M.; Ryan, Katherine; Vasilyeva, Marina; Perry, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Stereotype threat has been proposed as 1 potential explanation for the gender difference in standardized mathematics test performance among high-performing students. At present, it is not entirely clear how susceptibility to stereotype threat develops, as empirical evidence for stereotype threat effects across the school years is inconsistent. In…

  19. Bacteriological, histological and functional examination of rat kidneys during 5-days gentamycin therapy of experimental E. coli pyelonephritis as compared to 9-days therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagemann, I.; Briedigkeit, H.; Strangfeld, D.; Ditscherlein, G.; Schuerer, M.; Pietsch, R.; Kruse, L.; Camu, A.; Blank, W.

    1985-01-01

    Short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended in infections of the lower urinary tract but its effectiveness is questioned in upper urinary tract infections. 5 and 9-days treatment of experimental E. coli 022 pyelonephritis after unilateral nephrectomy in 127 male Wistar rats were compared. 9 mg gentamycin per kg b.w. twice daily were applied. 131 I-hippurate excretion was not decreased during the 5 day treatment but was temporarily diminished during 9-days treatment. Histologically the severe acute pyelonephritis was decreased after 9-days treatment but not after 5 days of treatment. Bacteriologically almost all the kidneys were sterile after 9-days treatment but the majority of the kidneys showed the injected strain of E. coli after 5-days treatment. The results indicated that the shortened treatment was much less effective in acute experimental pyelonephritis. (author)

  20. Examining financial performance indicators for acute care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Jeffrey H; Wheeler, John R C

    2013-01-01

    Measuring financial performance in acute care hospitals is a challenge for those who work daily with financial information. Because of the many ways to measure financial performance, financial managers and researchers must decide which measures are most appropriate. The difficulty is compounded for the non-finance person. The purpose of this article is to clarify key financial concepts and describe the most common measures of financial performance so that researchers and managers alike may understand what is being measured by various financial ratios.

  1. Correlation of histological examination of meniscus with MR images; Focused on high signal intensity of the meniscus not caused by definite meniscal tear and impact on MR diagnosis of tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chun Ai; Kim, Min Ki; Kim, In Hwan; Lee, Ju Hong; Jang, Kyu Yun; Lee, Sang Yong [Chonbuk National University Hospital, Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    To document the causes of high signal intensity of the meniscus which is not caused by definite meniscal tears on MR imaging, through correlation with histological examination. For the correlation between the MR image and histology, we obtained prospectively 31 meniscal specimens from 21 patients. Proton density-weighted turbo spin-echo MR images were used. Minimal tear, thinning of the lamellar layer, degeneration of the central layer, and radial tie fibers were detected upon histological examination, and were correlated with the corresponding MR images. Minimal tear of the lamellar layer was seen in 60 zones out of 100 slides. On MR images, 29 (48.3%) of these 60 zones had high signal intensity. Thinning of the lamellar layer was seen in 24 zones, with 7 (29.2%) having high signal intensity. 57 central zones showed degenerative change in the central layer and high signal intensity on all corresponding MR images. Radial tie fibers in the central layer appeared as high signal intensity areas. Minimal tear and thinning of the lamellar layer, degeneration and radial tie fibers of the central layer of the meniscus cause high signal intensity on MR images.

  2. Examination of Transport Performance and Authenticity on Behavioural Intention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintang Handayani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to scrutinise the transport performance and authenticity as one of the elements in tourism attributes in relation with behavioural intention. Utilising quantitative approach; data collected from survey of 384 overseas tourists were used to clarify the research proposition. The study suggests that transport performance may emerge as one of organic image elements for destination brand identity formation, influences cognitive image of overseas tourist but insignificant on tourist’s behavioural intention. In addition, future spectrum of the transport development in relation with authenticity indicates its importance for not damaging the destination’s overall profile.

  3. Double Pass 595 nm Pulsed Dye Laser Does Not Enhance the Efficacy of Port Wine Stains Compared with Single Pass: A Randomized Comparison with Histological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenxin; Zhu, Jiafang; Wang, Lizhen; Qiu, Yajing; Chen, Yijie; Yang, Xi; Chang, Lei; Ma, Gang; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2018-03-27

    To compare the efficacy and safety of double-pass pulsed dye laser (DWL) and single-pass PDL (SWL) in treating virgin port wine stain (PWS). The increase in the extent of vascular damage attributed to the use of double-pass techniques for PWS remains inconclusive. A prospective, side-by-side comparison with a histological study for virgin PWS is still lacking. Twenty-one patients (11 flat PWS, 10 hypertrophic PWS) with untreated PWS underwent 3 treatments at 2-month intervals. Each PWS was divided into three treatment sites: SWL, DWL, and untreated control. Chromametric and visual evaluation of the efficacy and evaluation of side effects were conducted 3 months after final treatment. Biopsies were taken at the treated sites immediately posttreatment. Chromametric and visual evaluation suggested that DWL sites showed no significant improvement compared with SWL (p > 0.05) in treating PWS. The mean depth of photothermal damage to the vessels was limited to a maximum of 0.36-0.41 mm in both SWL and DWL sides. Permanent side effects were not observed in any patients. Double-pass PDL does not enhance PWS clearance. To improve the clearance of PWS lesions, either the depth of laser penetration should be increased or greater photothermal damage to vessels should be generated.

  4. Improved correlation of histological data with DCE MRI parameter maps by 3D reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of the histological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiessling, Fabian; Le-Huu, Martin; Semmler, Wolfhard; Kunert, Tobias; Thorn, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Vosseler, Silvia; Fusenig, Norbert E.; Schmidt, Kerstin; Hoffend, Johannes

    2005-01-01

    Due to poor correlation of slice thickness and orientation, verification of radiological methods with histology is difficult. Thus, a procedure for three-dimensional reconstruction, reslicing and parameterization of histological data was developed, enabling a proper correlation with radiological data. Two different subcutaneous tumors were examined by MR microangiography and DCE-MRI, the latter being post-processed using a pharmacokinetic two-compartment model. Subsequently, tumors were serially sectioned and vessels stained with immunofluorescence markers. A ray-tracing algorithm performed three-dimensional visualization of the histological data, allowing virtually reslicing to thicker sections analogous to MRI slice geometry. Thick slices were processed as parameter maps color coding the marker density in the depth of the slice. Histological 3D reconstructions displayed the diffuse angioarchitecture of malignant tumors. Resliced histological images enabled specification of high enhancing areas seen on MR microangiography as large single vessels or vessel assemblies. In orthogonally reconstructed histological slices, single vessels were delineated. ROI analysis showed significant correlation between histological parameter maps of vessel density and MR parameter maps (r=0.83, P=0.05). The 3D approach to histology improves correlation of histological and radiological data due to proper matching of slice geometry. This method can be used with any histological stain, thus enabling a multivariable correlation of non-invasive data and histology. (orig.)

  5. Correlating students' educational background, study habits, and resource usage with learning success in medical histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvig, Daniel; Holaday, Louisa W; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Histology is a traditional core basic science component of most medical and dental education programs and presents a didactic challenge for many students. Identifying students that are likely to struggle with histology would allow for early intervention to support and encourage their learning success. To identify student characteristics that are associated with learning success in histology, three first-year medical school classes at the University of Michigan (>440 students) were surveyed about their educational background, attitudes toward learning histology, and their use of histology learning strategies and resources. These characteristics were linked with the students' quiz and examination results in histology. Students who reported previous experience in histology or pathology and hold science or biomedical science college degrees usually did well in histology. Learning success in histology was also positively associated with students' perception that histology is important for their professional career. Other positive indicators were in-person participation in teacher-guided learning experiences, specifically lecture and laboratory sessions. In contrast, students who relied on watching histology lectures by video rather than going to lectures in-person performed significantly worse. These characteristics and learning strategies of students who did well in this very visual and challenging study subject should be of help for identifying and advising students early, who might be at risk of failing a histology course or component. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Performance on the adult rheumatology in-training examination and relationship to outcomes on the rheumatology certification examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Kristine M; Clauser, Amanda; Hess, Brian J; Gelber, Allan C; Valeriano-Marcet, Joanne; Lipner, Rebecca S; Haist, Steven A; Hawley, Janine L; Zirkle, Sarah; Bolster, Marcy B

    2015-11-01

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Adult Rheumatology In-Training Examination (ITE) is a feedback tool designed to identify strengths and weaknesses in the content knowledge of individual fellows-in-training and the training program curricula. We determined whether scores on the ACR ITE, as well as scores on other major standardized medical examinations and competency-based ratings, could be used to predict performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Rheumatology Certification Examination. Between 2008 and 2012, 629 second-year fellows took the ACR ITE. Bivariate correlation analyses of assessment scores and multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine whether ABIM Rheumatology Certification Examination scores could be predicted on the basis of ACR ITE scores, United States Medical Licensing Examination scores, ABIM Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores, fellowship directors' ratings of overall clinical competency, and demographic variables. Logistic regression was used to evaluate whether these assessments were predictive of a passing outcome on the Rheumatology Certification Examination. In the initial linear model, the strongest predictors of the Rheumatology Certification Examination score were the second-year fellows' ACR ITE scores (β = 0.438) and ABIM Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores (β = 0.273). Using a stepwise model, the strongest predictors of higher scores on the Rheumatology Certification Examination were second-year fellows' ACR ITE scores (β = 0.449) and ABIM Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores (β = 0.276). Based on the findings of logistic regression analysis, ACR ITE performance was predictive of a pass/fail outcome on the Rheumatology Certification Examination (odds ratio 1.016 [95% confidence interval 1.011-1.021]). The predictive value of the ACR ITE score with regard to predicting performance on the Rheumatology Certification Examination

  7. Learning and Study Strategies Inventory subtests and factors as predictors of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners Part 1 examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutz, Christine M; Dalton, Leanne; Tepe, Rodger E

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to extend research on the relationship between chiropractic students' learning and study strategies and national board examination performance. Sixty-nine first trimester chiropractic students self-administered the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI). Linear trends tests (for continuous variables) and Mantel-Haenszel trend tests (for categorical variables) were utilized to determine if the 10 LASSI subtests and 3 factors predicted low, medium and high levels of National Board of Chiropractic Examiners (NBCE) Part 1 scores. Multiple regression was performed to predict overall mean NBCE examination scores using the 3 LASSI factors as predictor variables. Four LASSI subtests (Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, Test Strategies) and one factor (Goal Orientation) were significantly associated with NBCE examination levels. One factor (Goal Orientation) was a significant predictor of overall mean NBCE examination performance. Learning and study strategies are predictive of NBCE Part 1 examination performance in chiropractic students. The current study found LASSI subtests Anxiety, Concentration, Selecting Main Ideas, and Test Strategies, and the Goal-Orientation factor to be significant predictors of NBCE scores. The LASSI may be useful to educators in preparing students for academic success. Further research is warranted to explore the effects of learning and study strategies training on GPA and NBCE performance.

  8. Examining the Performance of Indian Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naman SETHI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Exchange traded funds (ETFs are known to be a highly attractive mean of investment in today’s financial markets. The present study is an attempt to explain the risk and return features of Indian ETFs and their trading and expense characteristics. The performance of ETFs is measured and compared with their underlying indices. It is found that they underperformed the indices, the reasons being they load their investors with extra risk than their underlying indices. Further, it is found that tracking error is having a positive relationship with expenses and risk of ETFs. Interestingly, the average number of trades and the lagged return of previous day do not affect the volume of shares. The study uses daily closing prices, intraday high and low prices and the volume of the traded shares of 10 ETFs listed on the National Stock Exchang for the period 1st July, 2010 to 30th June, 2015. The non-included ETFs suffer from the restrictions of non-availability of historical prices for at least five years.

  9. 20 CFR 416.919g - Who we will select to perform a consultative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examination. (a) We will purchase a consultative examination only from a qualified medical source. The medical... training and experience to perform the type of examination or test we will request; the medical source must...

  10. Pulmonary and Critical Care In-Service Training Examination Score as a Predictor of Board Certification Examination Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempainen, Robert R; Hess, Brian J; Addrizzo-Harris, Doreen J; Schaad, Douglas C; Scott, Craig S; Carlin, Brian W; Shaw, Robert C; Duhigg, Lauren; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2016-04-01

    Most trainees in combined pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship programs complete in-service training examinations (ITEs) that test knowledge in both disciplines. Whether ITE scores predict performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Pulmonary Disease Certification Examination and Critical Care Medicine Certification Examination is unknown. To determine whether pulmonary and critical care medicine ITE scores predict performance on subspecialty board certification examinations independently of trainee demographics, program director competency ratings, fellowship program characteristics, and prior medical knowledge assessments. First- and second-year fellows who were enrolled in the study between 2008 and 2012 completed a questionnaire encompassing demographics and fellowship training characteristics. These data and ITE scores were matched to fellows' subsequent scores on subspecialty certification examinations, program director ratings, and previous scores on their American Board of Internal Medicine Internal Medicine Certification Examination. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to identify independent predictors of subspecialty certification examination scores and likelihood of passing the examinations, respectively. Of eligible fellows, 82.4% enrolled in the study. The ITE score for second-year fellows was matched to their certification examination scores, which yielded 1,484 physicians for pulmonary disease and 1,331 for critical care medicine. Second-year fellows' ITE scores (β = 0.24, P ITE odds ratio, 1.12 [95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.16]; Internal Medicine Certification Examination odds ratio, 1.01 [95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.02]). Similar results were obtained for predicting Critical Care Medicine Certification Examination scores and for passing the examination. The predictive value of ITE scores among first-year fellows on the subspecialty certification examinations was comparable to second

  11. Ovarian metastasis in a transposed ovary 10 years after primary cervical cancer: the importance of histologic examination and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse, Julienne A; Sie-Go, Daisy M D S; Schreuder, Henk W R

    2011-06-17

    Cases of cervical carcinoma metastasing to the transposed ovary are rarely reported in the literature. In this report, the authors present the case of a 53-year-old woman with a persisting, unsuspected cyst in the right transposed ovary, 10 years after treatment for adenosquamous carcinoma of the cervix. It is the first report describing a secondary ovarian malignancy originating from a cervical adenosquamous carcinoma in a transposed ovary. In addition, this is the first account of an ovarian metastasis 10 years after primary treatment for cervical cancer. Furthermore, pathologic examination with immunohistochemistry and human papillomavirus genotyping played a key role in the diagnostic process, as the case did not raise suspicion by ultrasound findings neither by cytological examination after cytological aspiration or by appearance during surgery.

  12. Performance on the Cardiovascular In-Training Examination in Relation to the ABIM Cardiovascular Disease Certification Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Julia H; Duhigg, Lauren M; McDonald, Furman S; Lipner, Rebecca S; Rubright, Jonathan D; Haist, Steven A; Botkin, Naomi F; Kuvin, Jeffrey T

    2017-06-13

    The American College of Cardiology In-Training Exam (ACC-ITE) is incorporated into most U.S. training programs, but its relationship to performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine Cardiovascular Disease (ABIM CVD) Certification Examination is unknown. ACC-ITE scores from third-year fellows from 2011 to 2014 (n = 1,918) were examined. Covariates for regression analyses included sex, age, medical school country, U.S. Medical Licensing Examination Step, and ABIM Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores. A secondary analysis examined fellows (n = 511) who took the ACC-ITE in the first and third years. ACC-ITE scores were the strongest predictor of ABIM CVD scores (p ITE scores from first to third year was a strong predictor of the ABIM CVD score (p ITE is strongly associated with performance on the ABIM CVD Certification Examination. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The in-training examination: an analysis of its predictive value on performance on the general pediatrics certification examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Linda A; McGuinness, Gail A

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates the predictive validity of the In-Training Examination (ITE). Although studies have confirmed the predictive validity of ITEs in other medical specialties, no study has been done for general pediatrics. Each year, residents in accredited pediatric training programs take the ITE as a self-assessment instrument. The ITE is similar to the American Board of Pediatrics General Pediatrics Certifying Examination. First-time takers of the certifying examination over a 5-year period who took at least 1 ITE examination were included in the sample. Regression models analyzed the predictive value of the ITE. The predictive power of the ITE in the first training year is minimal. However, the predictive power of the ITE increases each year, providing the greatest power in the third year of training. Even though ITE scores provide information regarding the likelihood of passing the certification examination, the data should be used with caution, particularly in the first training year. Other factors also must be considered when predicting performance on the certification examination. This study continues to support the ITE as an assessment tool for program directors, as well as a means of providing residents with feedback regarding their acquisition of pediatric knowledge.

  14. Perception survey on the introduction of clinical performance examination as part of the national nursing licensing examination in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Jin Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze opinions about the action plan for implementation of clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing examination and presents the expected effects of the performance exam and aspects to consider regarding its implementation. Methods This study used a mixed-methods design. Quantitative data were collected by a questionnaire survey, while qualitative data were collected by focus group interviews with experts. The survey targeted 200 nursing professors and clinical nurses with more than 5 years of work experience, and the focus group interviews were conducted with 28 of professors, clinical instructors, and nurses at hospitals. Results First, nursing professors and clinical specialists agreed that the current written tests have limitations in evaluating examinees’ ability, and that the introduction of a clinical performance exam will yield positive results. Clinical performance exam is necessary to evaluate and improve nurses’ work ability, which means that the implementation of a performance exam is advisable if its credibility and validity can be verified. Second, most respondents chose direct performance exams using simulators or standardized patients as the most suitable format of the test. Conclusion In conclusion, the current national nursing licensing exam is somewhat limited in its ability to identify competent nurses. Thus, the time has come for us to seriously consider the introduction of a performance exam. The prerequisites for successfully implementing clinical performance exam as part of the national nursing licensing exam are a professional training process and forming a consortium to standardize practical training.

  15. 20 CFR 404.1519g - Who we will select to perform a consultative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) We will purchase a consultative examination only from a qualified medical source. The medical source... and experience to perform the type of examination or test we will request; the medical source must not...

  16. Student performance of the general physical examination in internal medicine: an observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Many practicing physicians lack skills in physical examination. It is not known whether physical examination skills already show deficiencies after an early phase of clinical training. At the end of the internal medicine clerkship students are expected to be able to perform a general physical examination in every new patient encounter. In a previous study, the basic physical examination items that should standardly be performed were set by consensus. The aim of the current observational study was to assess whether medical students were able to correctly perform a general physical examination regarding completeness as well as technique at the end of the clerkship internal medicine. Methods One hundred students who had just finished their clerkship internal medicine were asked to perform a general physical examination on a standardized patient as they had learned during the clerkship. They were recorded on camera. Frequency of performance of each component of the physical examination was counted. Adequacy of performance was determined as either correct or incorrect or not assessable using a checklist of short descriptions of each physical examination component. A reliability analysis was performed by calculation of the intra class correlation coefficient for total scores of five physical examinations rated by three trained physicians and for their agreement on performance of all items. Results Approximately 40% of the agreed standard physical examination items were not performed by the students. Students put the most emphasis on examination of general parameters, heart, lungs and abdomen. Many components of the physical examination were not performed as was taught during precourses. Intra-class correlation was high for total scores of the physical examinations 0.91 (p internal medicine clerkship. Possible causes and suggestions for improvement are discussed. PMID:24712683

  17. Effects of dietary symbiotic supplementation on growth performance and duodenum histology of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix Japonica reared in different flooring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Coskun

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary symbiotic supplementation on the growth performance and duodenum histological parameters of quail reared in different flooring systems. A total of 160 mixed-sex healthy quail (47±0.32 g aged 14 days were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experimental design with four replicates, each including five males and five females. Two flooring systems (wire floor as control and wood shavings bedding and two dietary treatments (symbiotic supplementation and no supplementation were tested. Birds were transferred to four-tier cages for the trial. Each kilogram of the commercial diet included 224 g crude protein and 3,080 kcal metabolizable energy. The experiment lasted 21 days. Daily weight gain and gastrointestinal tract weight were statistically higher in the wood shavings and wood shavings + symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control group. Villi length was higher in the wood shavings + symbiotic and symbiotic-supplemented groups than in control and wood shavings groups. The wood shavings groups had longer villi than control group. Villi width was higher in wood shaving + symbiotic-supplemented groups compared with the other treatment groups. The litter system of wood shavings and symbiotic supplementation provide better growth performance to quail by developing their duodenum histomorphological parameters and digestive tract.

  18. Path Analysis Examining Self-Efficacy and Decision-Making Performance on a Simulated Baseball Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between decision-making self-efficacy and decision-making performance in sport. Undergraduate students (N = 78) performed 10 trials of a decision-making task in baseball. Self-efficacy was measured before performing each trial. Decision-making performance was assessed by decision speed and…

  19. Predicting Examination Performance Using an Expanded Integrated Hierarchical Model of Test Emotions and Achievement Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, Dave; Deveney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine an expanded integrative hierarchical model of test emotions and achievement goal orientations in predicting the examination performance of undergraduate students. Achievement goals were theorised as mediating the relationship between test emotions and performance. 120 undergraduate students completed…

  20. Medical Student Psychiatry Examination Performance at VA and Non-VA Clerkship Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Phebe; von Schlageter, Margo Shultes; Park, EunMi; Rosenberg, Emily; Benjamin, Ashley B.; Nawar, Ola

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined the effects of medical student assignment to U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center inpatient and outpatient psychiatry clerkship sites versus other university and community sites on the performance outcome measure of National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) subject examination scores. Methods:…

  1. HistologiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo

    2015-01-01

    HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl.......HistologiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til almen og speciel histologi. Den består af mere end 1400 spørgsmål og over 320 histologiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Genesers Histologi af Annemarie Brüel m.fl....

  2. Association between performance on Neurology In-Training and Certification Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Frederick G.; Gutmann, Laurie; Pascuzzi, Robert M.; Webb, Lynn; Massey, Janice M.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Foertsch, Mary; Faulkner, Larry R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed the relationship between performance on the American Academy of Neurology Residency In-Service Training Examination (RITE) and subsequent performance on the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology (ABPN) Certification Examination. Methods: Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between performance on the RITE and the Certification Examination for 2 cohorts of adult neurologists and 2 cohorts of child neurologists. The 2 cohorts represented test takers for 2008 and 2009. Results: For adult neurologists, the correlation between the total RITE and the Certification Examination scores was 0.77 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.65 (p < 0.01) in 2009. For child neurologists, it was 0.74 (p < 0.01) in 2008 and 0.56 (p < 0.01) in 2009. Discussion: For 2 consecutive years, there was a significant correlation between performance on the RITE and performance on the ABPN Certification Examination for both adult and child neurologists. The RITE is a self-assessment examination, and performance on the test is a positive predictor of future performance on the ABPN Certification Examination. PMID:23296130

  3. Scientific aptitude and academic performance in incoming students of medicine Aptitud científica y rendimiento académico en histología y genética en alumnos de medicina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Vinuesa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Acting scientifically is a competence to be developed by medical students and expressed by them when physicians. The aim of this study was to establish the relationship between scientific aptitude in medical applicants incoming to Rosario Interamerican Open University (UAI and their academic performance in Human Genetics and Histology. Seventy four out of 102 students (29 male and 45 female filled in the aptitude scientific model (ASM designed by D’Ottavio & Bassan (1989. For both, Human Genetics and Histology, performance of the students was considered as satisfactory when they reached a minimum of 85% correct answers in their objective periodic and final examinations. Conversely, lower performance was considered as less than satisfactory. The aforementioned 74 students correctly answered 3.89 ± 1.96 of the 12 ASM problems; average for males was 4.50 ± 1.99 and that for females, 3.48 ± 1.83, (p < 0.025. Students with a satisfactory performance in Histology (n = 34 showed higher scientific aptitude 4.67 ± 2.04 compared with those (n = 40 that had a less than satisfactory one 3.02 ± 1.36 (p <0.001. Significant gender differences were registered: males (n = 14 5.42 ± 2.37 vs. (n = 15 3.20 ± 1.14, p < 0.01, and females (n = 22 4.18 ± 1.56 vs. (n = 23 2.78 ± 1.47, p < 0.01. Concerning Human Genetics, those students with a satisfactory performance (n = 46 revealed higher scientific aptitude: 4.00 ± 2.00 than those with a less than satisfactory one (n = 28: 2.71 ± 1.04, p < 0.01. As in Histology, significant gender differences appeared: males (n = 18 5.22 ± 2.12 vs. (n = 11 3.54 ± 1.21, p < 0.05, and females, (n = 30 3.90 1.70 vs.(n = 15 2.33 ± 1.70, p<0.01. Summing up, in both subject matters students with a satisfactory performance evidenced a higher average of scientific aptitude than that of the studied population. Consequently, we interpret that the degree of scientific aptitude could be a predictive variable of future academic

  4. Examining the Extremes: High and Low Performance on a Teaching Performance Assessment for Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Shea, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    In assessing the teaching practice of preservice teacher candidates, observers, particularly trained observers, will readily identify those who are exceptionally effective or ineffective. The anticipation is that university supervisors and mentor teachers will agree on who demonstrates extraordinary performance for a preservice candidate and who…

  5. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  6. Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ 10: 456-464. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Perception of academic examination stress: effects on serum leptin, cortisol, appetite and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inam, Qurrat-ul-Aen; Shireen, Erum; Haider, Saida; Haleem, Darakhshan Jabeen

    2011-01-01

    Examination stress is a psychological stress that activate hypothalamic-pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis to increase circulating levels of glucocorticoids. The fat derived hormone leptin is also released in response to stress-inducing condition. To workout the role of leptin and cortisol in response to perceived levels of examination stress and their effects on academic performance. The present study was designed to monitor the relationship of self reported perceived levels of examination stress on serum levels of cortisol and leptin in female students going to appear in university examination. Fifty-six female undergraduate students participated in the study. Examination stress, appetite levels were assessed by a questionnaire and blood samples were collected one hour before appearing in the examination. Performance was evaluated from the marks obtained in that particular examination. Serum cortisol levels increased with an increase in the intensity of perceived examination stress. Serum leptin levels increased only in the group under moderate stress while increases in mild and severe stress group were not significant. Mild to moderate stress enhanced performance but severe stress decreased it. The present study shows an inverted U-shaped relationship between self reported different levels of perceived examination stress and academic performance.

  8. Developing a Social Enterprise Performance Scale and Examining the Relationship Between Entrepreneurs’ Personality Traits and Their Perceived Enterprise Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Chao-Tung; Peng, Li-Pei; Yao, Shu-Nung; Liang, Chaoyun

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE) performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, so...

  9. A qualitative examination of wheelchair configuration for optimal mobility performance in wheelchair sports : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; Porcellato, Lorna; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L.

    Objective: To examine wheelchair athletes' perceptions of wheelchair configuration in relation to aspects of mobility performance. Methods: Nine elite wheelchair athletes from wheelchair basketball, wheelchair rugby and wheelchair tennis were interviewed using a semi-structured format. Interview

  10. Examiner Assessments of Clinical Performance: What Do They Tell Us About Clinical Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatsch, Jack L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents and interprets examiner and participant performance data obtained from an experimental field test of the test item and case simulation libraries of the American Board of Emergency Medicine Specialty Certificate Examination. Subjects were 94 medical students, residents, and emergency physicians. (Author/LMO)

  11. Carbonic anhydrase XII expression is associated with histologic grade of cervical cancer and superior radiotherapy outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chong Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Kim, Joo-Young; Shin, Hye-Jin; Lim, Hyunsun; Lee, Sun; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Lim, Myong-Cheol; Song, Yong-Jung

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether expression of carbonic anhydrase XII (CA12) is associated with histologic grade of the tumors and radiotherapy outcomes of the patients with invasive cervical cancer. CA12 expression was examined by immunohistochemical stains in cervical cancer tissues from 183 radiotherapy patients. Histological grading was classified as well (WD), moderately (MD) or poorly differentiated (PD). Oligonucleotide microarray experiment was performed using seven cervical cancer samples to examine differentially expressed genes between WD and PD cervical cancers. The association between CA12 and histological grade was analyzed by chi-square test. CA12 and histological grades were analyzed individually and as combined CA12 and histologic grade categories for effects on survival outcome. Immunohistochemical expression of CA12 was highly associated with the histologic grade of cervical cancer. Lack of CA12 expression was associated with PD histology, with an odds ratio of 3.9 (P = 0.01). Microarray analysis showed a fourfold reduction in CA12 gene expression in PD tumors. CA12 expression was marginally associated with superior disease-free survival. Application of the new combined categories resulted in further discrimination of the prognosis of patients with moderate and poorly differentiated tumor grade. Our study indicates that CA12 may be used as a novel prognostic marker in combination with histologic grade of the tumors

  12. Performance on a Surgical In-Training Examination Varies by Training Year and Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Few studies in surgery have addressed medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. As in-training examinations are ubiquitous educational tools for surgical residents in the United States, insights into examination performance may help fill this void. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between In-Service Examination performance and training characteristics in plastic surgery. This retrospective cohort study reviewed performance data for the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination for the years 2012 to 2015. Comparisons were made both within and between training pathways by means of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Data were available for 1367 independent (37.9 percent) and 2240 integrated residents (62.1 percent). Among integrated residents, performance increased with additional years of training (p 0.05). Similarly, independent resident examination performance increased by year of training (p 0.05). At each level of training (postgraduate years 4 to 6), integrated residents outperformed their independent resident colleagues (postgraduate years 1 to 3) (p < 0.001). Performance on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Examination increases during residency, with integrated residents outperforming independent residents. These findings may have implications for medical knowledge competency training as defined by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education.

  13. SE Marine Mammal Histology/Tissue data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples are collected from stranded marine mammals in the Southeastern United States. These tissue samples are examined histologically and evaluated to...

  14. The Relationship between Learning Capability and Organizational Performance: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Swee C.; Elliott, Catherine; Quon, Tony K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present a meta-analysis of a subset of published empirical research papers that measure learning capability and link it to organizational performance. It also seeks to examine both financial and non-financial performance. Design/methodology/approach: In a search of published research on learning capability…

  15. Development and Examination of an Alternative School Performance Index in South Carolina. REL 2015-097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Sharon; Petscher, Yaacov; Hughes, John

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the measures that make up each of the three separate accountability indices of school performance in South Carolina could be used to create an overall, reliable index of school performance. Data from public elementary, middle, and high schools in 2012/13 were used in confirmatory factor…

  16. Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences Examination as a Predictor of Student Performance during Clinical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, William E.; Campbell, William H.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences Examination (BPSE) results with student performance evaluations in core clerkships, institutional and community externships, didactic and clinical courses, and related basic science coursework revealed the BPSE does not predict student performance during clinical instruction. (MSE)

  17. Students' Demographic, Academic Characteristics and Performance in Registered General Nursing Licensing Examination in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doe, Patience Fakornam; Oppong, Elizabeth Agyeiwaa; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2018-01-01

    The decreasing performance of student nurses in the professional licensure examinations (LE) in Ghana is a major concern to stakeholders, especially at a time when the nurse-patient ratio stands at 1: 1500. The study sought to determine the effect of students' demographic and academic characteristics on performance in the Registered General…

  18. Getting Inside the Black Box: Examining How the Operation of Charter Schools Affects Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Ron; Buddin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, a series of articles have examined the performance of charter schools with mixed results. Some of this research has shown that charter school performance varies by charter type or the age of the school (Bifulco & Ladd, 2006; Buddin & Zimmer, 2005; Hanushek, Kain, & Rivkin, 2002; Sass, 2006). However, this research has…

  19. Examining the Role of Emotional Intelligence between Organizational Learning and Adaptive Performance in Indian Manufacturing Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Rabindra Kumar; Jena, Lalatendu Kesari; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between organisational learning and adaptive performance. Furthermore, the study investigates the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the perspective of organisational learning for addressing adaptive performance of executives employed in manufacturing organisations.…

  20. Effects of dry whey powder and calcium butyrate supplementation of corn/soybean-based diets on productive performance, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocejo, Medelin; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Hurtado, Ana

    2017-06-26

    Campylobacter is the main cause of gastroenteritis in humans in industrialized countries, and poultry is its principal reservoir and source of human infections. Dietary supplementation of broiler feed with additives could improve productive performance and elicit health benefits that might reduce Campylobacter contamination during primary production. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with whey (a prebiotic) and calcium butyrate (a salt of a short-chain fatty acid) on productive traits, duodenal histological integrity, and Campylobacter colonization and dissemination in broiler chickens during the 42-day rearing period. Six hundred one-day-old Ross-308 chickens were placed into 20 ground pens and assigned to one of 4 corn/soybean-based dietary treatments (5 replicates of 30 chicks per treatment) following a randomized complete block design: 1) basal diet with no supplementation as the control, 2) diet supplemented with 6% dry whey powder, 3) diet containing 0.1% coated calcium butyrate, and 4) diet containing 6% whey and 0.1% calcium butyrate. At age 15 days, 6 chickens per pen were experimentally inoculated with Campylobacter jejuni. The results showed that supplementation of the corn/soybean-based diet with 6% whey alone or, preferably, in combination with 0.1% coated calcium butyrate improved growth and feed efficiency, had a beneficial effect on duodenal villus integrity, and decreased mortality. These favourable effects were particularly significant during the starter period. Six days after oral challenge, Campylobacter was widespread in the flock, and the birds remained positive until the end of the rearing period. Although Campylobacter was not isolated from environmental samples, it was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in dust, air filters, and drinkers while birds shed culturable C. jejuni cells. No differences (p > 0.050) in colonization or shedding levels that could be attributed to the diet

  1. Histological image classification using biologically interpretable shape-based features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, Sonal; Phan, John H; Young, Andrew N; Wang, May D

    2013-01-01

    Automatic cancer diagnostic systems based on histological image classification are important for improving therapeutic decisions. Previous studies propose textural and morphological features for such systems. These features capture patterns in histological images that are useful for both cancer grading and subtyping. However, because many of these features lack a clear biological interpretation, pathologists may be reluctant to adopt these features for clinical diagnosis. We examine the utility of biologically interpretable shape-based features for classification of histological renal tumor images. Using Fourier shape descriptors, we extract shape-based features that capture the distribution of stain-enhanced cellular and tissue structures in each image and evaluate these features using a multi-class prediction model. We compare the predictive performance of the shape-based diagnostic model to that of traditional models, i.e., using textural, morphological and topological features. The shape-based model, with an average accuracy of 77%, outperforms or complements traditional models. We identify the most informative shapes for each renal tumor subtype from the top-selected features. Results suggest that these shapes are not only accurate diagnostic features, but also correlate with known biological characteristics of renal tumors. Shape-based analysis of histological renal tumor images accurately classifies disease subtypes and reveals biologically insightful discriminatory features. This method for shape-based analysis can be extended to other histological datasets to aid pathologists in diagnostic and therapeutic decisions

  2. Developing a Social Enterprise Performance Scale and Examining the Relationship Between Entrepreneurs’ Personality Traits and Their Perceived Enterprise Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Tung Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the lack of measurement tools and the research gap regarding social entrepreneurship, three studies were conducted to develop a new measure of social enterprise (SE performance that is empirically valid and easy to administer. The purpose of this measure was to examine the relationship between entrepreneurs’ personality traits and their perceived SE performance. The results indicated that SE performance can be assessed using four dimensions: personal issues, social aspects, business elements, and service programmes. Extraversion positively influenced service programmes, and openness negatively affected service programmes. Neuroticism and conscientiousness positively predicted personal issues and service programmes, and agreeableness positively predicted all dimensions of perceived SE performance. The results also demonstrated the curvilinear relationship of the U-shaped curve between neuroticism and personal issues and the social aspects of SE performance. Furthermore, the results showed the curvilinear relationship of the inverted U-shaped curve between agreeableness and the four dimensions of SE performance.

  3. [Estimating minimum period of time to perform prostate MRI after prostate biopsy: Clinical and histological bleeding risk factors; from a prospective study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradin, M; Lepiney, C; Celhay, O; Delpech, P O; Charles, T; Pillot, P; Bernardeau, S; Tasu, J P; Irani, J

    2018-02-01

    A minimum delay of 4 to 6 weeks between biopsy and multiparametric prostatic MRI (mpMRI) is admitted due to post-biopsy hemorrhage that can impact MRI reading without strong scientific evidence. The objective of the study was to evaluate the best period between prostate biopsy and 3Tesla mpMRI and searching for predictive factors of intraprostatic blood. A prostate biopsy followed by a 4-week prostate MRI (MRIp M1) was performed. In case of hemorrhage, MRI was rescheduled at 8 and 12 weeks (M2/M3). We analyzed the persistant bleeding to identify risk factors: anticoagulant/antiaggregant, post-biopsy side effects, histological criteria. In this prospective, single-center study, we included 40 patients followed for suspected prostate cancer between December 2014 and March 2016. At the MRIpM1, blood was found for 97.5 % of the patients. The rates were 90.9 % and 88.9 % respectively at the M2 and M3 mpMRI. Compared to initial blood volume on MRIpM1, a significant decrease in blood volume was observed between M1 and M2 (55 %; P=0.0091). We showed a 75 % decrease between M1 and M3 (P=0.0003). Low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggesting urinary infection at 4 weeks were significantly correlated with blood volume on MRIpM1 (P=0.0063). The blood volume was higher in case of unconformity between biopsy and mpMRI results for detection of significant tumors (11.3 vs. 2.3; P=0.0051). A minimum of 8-week biopsy and mpMRI period would limit post-biopsy hemorrhage, predicted by LUTS suggesting urinary infection. A delay of 12 weeks would be optimal without delaying the management of the patient. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The relationship between performance on the Infectious Diseases In-Training and Certification Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovsky, Irina; Hess, Brian J; Haist, Steven A; Lipner, Rebecca S; Hawley, Janine L; Woodward, Stephanie; Engleberg, N Cary

    2015-03-01

    The Infectious Diseases Society of America In-Training Examination (IDSA ITE) is a feedback tool used to help fellows track their knowledge acquisition during fellowship training. We determined whether the scores on the IDSA ITE and from other major medical knowledge assessments predict performance on the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Infectious Disease Certification Examination. The sample was 1021 second-year fellows who took the IDSA ITE and ABIM Infectious Disease Certification Examination from 2008 to 2012. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine if ABIM Infectious Disease Certification Examination scores were predicted by IDSA ITE scores, prior United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) scores, ABIM Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores, fellowship director ratings of medical knowledge, and demographic variables. Logistic regression was used to evaluate if these same assessments predicted a passing outcome on the certification examination. IDSA ITE scores were the strongest predictor of ABIM Infectious Disease Certification Examination scores (β = .319), followed by prior ABIM Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores (β = .258), USMLE Step 1 scores (β = .202), USMLE Step 3 scores (β = .130), and fellowship directors' medical knowledge ratings (β = .063). IDSA ITE scores were also a significant predictor of passing the Infectious Disease Certification Examination (odds ratio, 1.017 [95% confidence interval, 1.013-1.021]). The significant relationship between the IDSA ITE score and performance on the ABIM Infectious Disease Certification Examination supports the use of the ITE as a valid feedback tool in fellowship training. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The significance of demonstrating areae gastricae at hypotonic double contrast examination of the stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienmueller, R.

    1980-01-01

    150 patients were examined by the double contrast-technique in drug-induced hypotonia of the stomach. They were examined gastroscopically and at the same time biopsies were taken. Comparison of histological and radiological results was performed. There was found an agreement of 82% in the performance of areae gastricae and the histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis. (orig.) [de

  6. Significance of demonstrating areae gastricae at hypotonic double contrast examination of the stomach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rienmueller, R. (Muenchen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie)

    1980-05-01

    150 patients were examined by the double contrast-technique in drug-induced hypotonia of the stomach. They were examined gastroscopically and at the same time biopsies were taken. Comparison of histological and radiological results was performed. There was found an agreement of 82% in the performance of areae gastricae and the histological diagnosis of chronic gastritis.

  7. An examination of the cohesion-performance relationship in university hockey teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, M R; Sewell, D F

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess, using the Group Environment Questionnaire, whether team cohesion in university-level field hockey was a cause for, or an effect of, successful performance. A quasi-experimental longitudinal design with cross-lagged correlational analysis was adopted and measures of cohesion and performance were taken midway and later in the season. The results of the synchronous correlations showed a positive relationship (with good stationarity) between team cohesion and performance outcome. Although non-significant cross-lagged differentials indicated a circular relationship, the magnitudes of both the cross-lagged correlations and the partial correlations, together with multiple-regression analyses, revealed that the stronger flow was from cohesion to performance. The socially oriented aspects of cohesion, in particular, had significant associations with performance. The results imply that cohesion-performance relationships should be examined within a circular model, in which cohesion and performance are interdependent.

  8. Short communication: final year students' deficits in physical examination skills performance in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Diefenbacher, Katja; Koehl-Hackert, Nadja; Buss, Beate; Nagelmann, Lars; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The physical examination of patients is an important diagnostic competence, but little is known about the examination skills of final-year medical students. To investigate physical examination skills of final-year medical students. In a cross-sectional study, 40 final-year students were asked to perform a detailed physical examination on standardized patients. Their performances were video-recorded and rated by independent video assessors. Video ratings showed a mean success rate of 40.1 % (SD 8.2). As regards accompanying doctor-patient communication, final-year students achieved a mean of no more than 36.7 % (SD 8.9) in the appropriate use of the corresponding communication items. Our study revealed severe deficits among final-year medical students in performing a detailed physical examination on a standardized patient. Thus, physical examination skills training should aim to improve these deficits while also paying attention to communicative aspects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. [Three good reasons to perform a postmortem examination in all cases of juvenile sudden death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Amati, Giulia; di Gioia, Cira R T; Silenzi, Paola F; Gallo, Pietro

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this review is to underline the reasons why a post-mortem examination has to be performed in all cases of juvenile sudden death. Sudden death in children and young adults can be caused by potentially heritable cardiovascular disorders and fatal outcome is often the first symptom in apparently healthy subjects. In these cases, a careful autopsy, performed according to a standardized protocol, becomes the sole diagnostic tool to guide clinical and molecular genetic family screening and to adopt the proper therapeutic and preventive strategies. Thus, a post-mortem examination is a fundamental part of a multidisciplinary approach to the issue of juvenile sudden death.

  10. Relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams: an examination of mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuzé, Jean-Philippe; Raimbault, Nicolas; Fontayne, Paul

    2006-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine mediating effects in the relationships between cohesion, collective efficacy and performance in professional basketball teams. A secondary aim was to examine the correlates of collective efficacy in a professional sport. A total of 154 French and foreign professional players completed French or English versions of questionnaires about cohesion and collective efficacy. Two composite measures of individual performance were used (pre- and post-performance). Individual-level analyses were performed. Regression analyses supported two mediating relationships with collective efficacy as a mediator of the pre-performance - Group integration-task relationship, and Group integration-task as a mediator of the pre-performance - collective efficacy relationship. Statistical analyses indicated that neither Group integration-task nor collective efficacy was a better mediator in the relationship between pre-performance and the other group variables. Results also revealed positive relationships between three dimensions of cohesion (i.e. Individual attractions to the group-task, Group integration-task, Group integration-social) and collective efficacy. These findings suggest that in professional basketball teams, staff members should look after athletes who perform at a lower or below their usual level because their performances might lead them into a downward cohesion - collective efficacy spiral. Staff members should also develop a high quality of group functioning, both on and off the basketball court, given its relationship with collective efficacy.

  11. Examining the impact of business process orientation on organizational performance: the case of Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Ljubica Milanović Glavan; Vesna Bosilj Vukšić

    2017-01-01

    The competitive global market of the new millennium has raised awareness of business processes as the most important management paradigm. Extensive literature on business process management suggests that organizations can enhance their overall performance by adopting a process view of business. However, empirical research in this field is lacking. The aim of this paper is to examine the how business process orientation (BPO) impacts financially and non-financially organizational performance (...

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound, endoscopic sonoelastography, and strain ratio evaluation of lymph nodes with histology as gold standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Hareskov; Fristrup, Claus Wilki; Hansen, Tine Plato

    2012-01-01

    . Endoscopic sonoelastography (ESE) assesses the elasticity of lymph nodes and has been used to differentiate lymph nodes with promising results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS, EUS - FNA, ESE, and ESE-strain ratio using histology as the gold standard. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients......, EUS - FNA and EUS - FNM were performed. The marked lymph node was isolated during surgery for histological examination. RESULTS: The marked lymph node was isolated for separate histological examination in 56 patients, of whom 22 (39 %) had malignant lymph nodes and 34 (61 %) had benign lymph nodes...... - FNM technique enabled the identification of a specific lymph node and thereby the use of histology as gold standard. ESE and ESE-strain ratio were no better than standard EUS in differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes in patients with resectable upper gastrointestinal cancer....

  13. A Cross-cultural Qualitative Examination of Social-networking Sites and Academic Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozer, Ipek; Karpinski, Aryn; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2018-01-01

    Social-networking site (SNS) use, specifically Facebook®, has remained a controversial subject for many educators and media. Recent studies discuss the negative and positive impacts of SNSs on students’ academic performance. This qualitative study examines the impact of SNSs on students’ academic

  14. The More, the Better? Intensity of Involvement in Private Tuition and Examination Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    Private tuition, or "shadow education", has become a prominent feature in many countries internationally. A number of studies have found that such tuition is associated with improved examination performance and enhanced access to tertiary education. However, these studies have generally not taken into account important attitudinal…

  15. Shifting Practices in Teacher Performance Evaluation: A Qualitative Examination of Administrator Change Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spina, Nancy; Buckley, Phillip; Puchner, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions, attitudes and beliefs of administrators and teachers in a Southwestern Illinois School District regarding the recent reforms in teacher performance evaluation. This study uses a qualitative approach and provides data from individual and focus group interviews to determine the extent to which the district is…

  16. Assessment of sand quality on concrete performance : examination of acidic and sulfate/sulfide-bearing sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine how the presence of sulfide- and sulfate-containing : minerals in acidic aggregates may affect the properties of mortar and concrete. Analyses were : performed to compare two sands from a deposit in the Geor...

  17. Vicarious and Persuasive Influences on Efficacy Expectations and Intentions To Perform Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    Tests the impact of symbolic modeling and persuasive efficacy information on self-efficacy beliefs and intentions to perform breast self-examinations among 147 undergraduate students. Assesses the effects of these modes of efficacy induction on fear arousal and response-outcome expectations. Finds symbolic modeling engendered greater efficacy…

  18. Examining Unusual Digit Span Performance in a Population of Postsecondary Students Assessed for Academic Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Allyson G.; Rosenblum, Yoni; Currie, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Methods of identifying poor test-related motivation using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Digit Span subtest are based on identification of performance patterns that are implausible if the test taker is investing full effort. No studies to date, however, have examined the specificity of such measures, particularly when evaluating persons…

  19. Academically Buoyant Students Are Less Anxious about and Perform Better in High-Stakes Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Prior research has shown that test anxiety is negatively related to academic buoyancy, but it is not known whether test anxiety is an antecedent or outcome of academic buoyancy. Furthermore, it is not known whether academic buoyancy is related to performance on high-stakes examinations. Aims: To test a model specifying reciprocal…

  20. Adapting Objective Structured Clinical Examinations to Assess Social Work Students' Performance and Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Regehr, Cheryl; Logie, Carmen; Katz, Ellen; Mylopoulos, Maria; Regehr, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The development of standardized, valid, and reliable methods for assessment of students' practice competence continues to be a challenge for social work educators. In this study, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), originally used in medicine to assess performance through simulated interviews, was adapted for social work to…

  1. Cultural distance, innovation and export performance : An examination of perceived and objective cultural distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Goudarz; Drogendijk, Rian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to examine the relationship between cultural distance (both perceived and objective), innovation and firm export performance. Design/methodology/approach – Hypotheses were tested here by structural equation modeling using data from 186 export ventures into 23 international

  2. The predictive validity of the BioMedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Joanne L; Bell, John F

    2009-06-01

    Some medical courses in the UK have many more applicants than places and almost all applicants have the highest possible previous and predicted examination grades. The BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT) was designed to assist in the student selection process specifically for a number of 'traditional' medical courses with clear pre-clinical and clinical phases and a strong focus on science teaching in the early years. It is intended to supplement the information provided by examination results, interviews and personal statements. This paper reports on the predictive validity of the BMAT and its predecessor, the Medical and Veterinary Admissions Test. Results from the earliest 4 years of the test (2000-2003) were matched to the pre-clinical examination results of those accepted onto the medical course at the University of Cambridge. Correlation and logistic regression analyses were performed for each cohort. Section 2 of the test ('Scientific Knowledge') correlated more strongly with examination marks than did Section 1 ('Aptitude and Skills'). It also had a stronger relationship with the probability of achieving the highest examination class. The BMAT and its predecessor demonstrate predictive validity for the pre-clinical years of the medical course at the University of Cambridge. The test identifies important differences in skills and knowledge between candidates, not shown by their previous attainment, which predict their examination performance. It is thus a valid source of additional admissions information for medical courses with a strong scientific emphasis when previous attainment is very high.

  3. Histologic characterization of canine dilated cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidholm, A; Jönsson, L

    2005-01-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), characterized by chamber dilatation and myocardial systolic and diastolic dysfunction, is one of the most common heart diseases in dogs. The clinical diagnosis is based on findings on echocardiographic and Doppler examinations, with the active exclusion of other acquired or congenital heart diseases. However, the echocardiographic criteria for the diagnosis of DCM are not wholly specific for the disease, and histologic examination may be necessary for final diagnosis. Review of reports on histologic findings in dogs with clinically diagnosed DCM reveals two histologically distinct forms of DCM: 1) cardiomyopathy of Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, corresponding to the "fatty infiltration-degenerative" type and 2) the form seen in many giant, large-, and medium-sized breeds, including some Boxers and Doberman Pinschers, classified as the "attenuated wavy fiber" type of DCM. The histologic changes of the attenuated wavy fiber type of DCM may precede clinical and echocardiographic signs of heart disease, thus indicating an early stage of DCM.

  4. Correlation between the mechanical and histological properties of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarpuzlu, Berkay; Ayyildiz, Mehmet; Tok, Olgu Enis; Aktas, Ranan Gulhan; Basdogan, Cagatay

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain further insight into the mechanisms of tissue damage during the progression of liver diseases as well as the liver preservation for transplantation, an improved understanding of the relation between the mechanical and histological properties of liver is necessary. We suggest that this relation can only be established truly if the changes in the states of those properties are investigated dynamically as a function of post mortem time. In this regard, we first perform mechanical characterization experiments on three bovine livers to investigate the changes in gross mechanical properties (stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness) for the preservation periods of 5, 11, 17, 29, 41 and 53h after harvesting. Then, the histological examination is performed on the samples taken from the same livers to investigate the changes in apoptotic cell count, collagen accumulation, sinusoidal dilatation, and glycogen deposition as a function of the same preservation periods. Finally, the correlation between the mechanical and histological properties is investigated via the Spearman's Rank-Order Correlation method. The results of our study show that stiffness, viscosity, and fracture toughness of bovine liver increase as the preservation period is increased. These macroscopic changes are very strongly correlated with the increase in collagen accumulation and decrease in deposited glycogen level at the microscopic level. Also, we observe that the largest changes in mechanical and histological properties occur after the first 11-17h of preservation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors influencing medical students' self-assessment of examination performance accuracy: A United Arab Emirates study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Sami; Aburawi, Elhadi H; Elzubeir, Khalifa; Elango, Sambandam; El-Zubeir, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of one's academic capabilities is essential to being an effective, self-directed, life-long learner. The primary objective of this study was to analyze self-assessment accuracy of medical students attending the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, by examining their ability to assess their own performance on an MCQ examination. 1 st and 2 nd year medical students (n = 235) self-assessed pre and post-examination performance were compared with objectively measured scores (actual examination performance). Associations between accuracy of score prediction (pre and post assessment), and students' gender, year of education, perceived preparation, confidence and anxiety were also determined. Expected mark correlated significantly with objectively assessed marks (r = 0.407; P self-assessment accuracy. Findings reinforce existing evidence indicating that medical students are poor self-assessors. There are potentially multiple explanations for misjudgment of this multidimensional construct that require further investigation and change in learning cultures. The study offers clear targets for change aimed at optimizing self-assessment capabilities.

  6. Predicting failing performance on a standardized patient clinical performance examination: the importance of communication and professionalism skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Boscardin, Christy; Chou, Calvin L; Loeser, Helen; Hauer, Karen E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose is to determine which assessment measures identify medical students at risk of failing a clinical performance examination (CPX). Retrospective case-control, multiyear design, contingency table analysis, n = 149. We identified two predictors of CPX failure in patient-physician interaction skills: low clerkship ratings (odds ratio 1.79, P = .008) and student progress review for communication or professionalism concerns (odds ratio 2.64, P = .002). No assessments predicted CPX failure in clinical skills. Performance concerns in communication and professionalism identify students at risk of failing the patient-physician interaction portion of a CPX. This correlation suggests that both faculty and standardized patients can detect noncognitive traits predictive of failing performance. Early identification of these students may allow for development of a structured supplemental curriculum with increased opportunities for practice and feedback. The lack of predictors in the clinical skills portion suggests limited faculty observation or feedback.

  7. Effects of basic clinical skills training on objective structured clinical examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jünger, Jana; Schäfer, Sybille; Roth, Christiane; Schellberg, Dieter; Friedman Ben-David, Miriam; Nikendei, Christoph

    2005-10-01

    The aim of curriculum reform in medical education is to improve students' clinical and communication skills. However, there are contradicting results regarding the effectiveness of such reforms. A study of internal medicine students was carried out using a static group design. The experimental group consisted of 77 students participating in 7 sessions of communication training, 7 sessions of skills-laboratory training and 7 sessions of bedside-teaching, each lasting 1.5 hours. The control group of 66 students from the traditional curriculum participated in equally as many sessions but was offered only bedside teaching. Students' cognitive and practical skills performance was assessed using Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) testing and an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), delivered by examiners blind to group membership. The experimental group performed significantly better on the OSCE than did the control group (P < 0.01), whereas the groups did not differ on the MCQ test (P < 0.15). This indicates that specific training in communication and basic clinical skills enabled students to perform better in an OSCE, whereas its effects on knowledge did not differ from those of the traditional curriculum. Curriculum reform promoting communication and basic clinical skills are effective and lead to an improved performance in history taking and physical examination skills.

  8. Establishment and implementation of performance demonstration system for ultrasonic examination in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-sik

    2007-01-01

    Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) and Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) developed Korean Performance Demonstration (KPD) system for ultrasonic examination applicable to pressurized light-water reactor and pressurized heavy-water reactor power plants in accordance with ASME Sec. XI App. VIII. In order to develop the KPD system following works were completed. 1) Surveying the welds on piping of all nuclear power plants in Korea, 2) Surveying the bolting configuration of all nuclear power plant in Korea, 3) Determining the number and type of test specimens, 4)Designing the test and the practice specimens, 5) Developing quality assurance procedures for the fabrication of test specimens and system management, 6) Developing generic procedures for manual ultrasonic test, 7) Fabrication and fingerprint of test specimen. After establishing the KPD system, round robin tests were conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of examination results by comparing traditional ASME code and performance demonstration method. KEPRI/KHNP had successfully developed the KPD system to fulfill the performance demonstration requirements of ASME Sec. XI, Appendix VIII, and are executing the performance demonstration test for ultrasonic examination system. (author)

  9. Round Robin Test for Performance Demonstration System of Ultrasound Examination Personnel in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ho; Yang, Seung Han; Kim, Yong Sik; Yoon, Byung Sik; Lee, Hee Jong

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasound testing performance during in-service inspection for the main components of NPPs is strongly affected by each examination person. Therefore, ASME established a more strict qualification requirement in Sec. XI Appendix VIII for the ultrasound testing personnel in nuclear power plants. The Korean Performance Demonstration (KPD) System according to the ASME code for the ultrasonic testing personnel, equipments, and procedures to apply to the Class 1 and 2 piping ultrasound examination of nuclear power plants in Korea was established. And a round robin test was conducted in order to verify the effectiveness of PD method by comparing the examination results from the method of Performance Demonstration (PD) and a traditional ASME code dB-drop method. The round robin test shows that the reliability of the PD method is better than that of the dB-drop method. As a result, application of the PD method to the in-service inspection of the nuclear power plants will improve the performance of ultrasound testing

  10. Predicting Intention Perform Breast Self-Examination: Application of the Theory of Reasoned Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Triana Kesuma; Zein, Rizqy Amelia

    2017-11-26

    Objective: The present study aimed to examine the applicability of the theory of reasoned action to explain intention to perform breast self-examination (BSE). Methods: A questionnaire was constructed to collect data. The hypothesis was tested in two steps. First, to assess the strength of the correlation among the constructs of theory of reasoned action (TRA), Pearson’s product moment correlations were applied. Second, multivariate relationships among the constructs were examined by performing hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis. Result: The findings supported the TRA model, explaining 45.8% of the variance in the students’ BSE intention, which was significantly correlated with attitude (r = 0.609, p = 0.000) and subjective norms (r = 0.420, p =0 .000). Conclusion: TRA could be a suitable model to predict BSE intentions . Participants who believed that doing BSE regularly is beneficial for early diagnosis of breast cancer and also believed that their significant referents think that doing BSE would significantly detect breast cancer earlier, were more likely to intend to perform BSE regularly. Therefore, the research findings supported the conclusion that promoting the importance of BSE at the community/social level would enhance individuals to perform BSE routinely. Creative Commons Attribution License

  11. Examining applying high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rajab, Murad; Lu, Joan; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    This paper examines the accuracy and efficiency (time complexity) of high performance genetic data feature selection and classification algorithms for colon cancer diagnosis. The need for this research derives from the urgent and increasing need for accurate and efficient algorithms. Colon cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide, hence it is vitally important for the cancer tissues to be expertly identified and classified in a rapid and timely manner, to assure both a fast detection of the disease and to expedite the drug discovery process. In this research, a three-phase approach was proposed and implemented: Phases One and Two examined the feature selection algorithms and classification algorithms employed separately, and Phase Three examined the performance of the combination of these. It was found from Phase One that the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm performed best with the colon dataset as a feature selection (29 genes selected) and from Phase Two that the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm outperformed other classifications, with an accuracy of almost 86%. It was also found from Phase Three that the combined use of PSO and SVM surpassed other algorithms in accuracy and performance, and was faster in terms of time analysis (94%). It is concluded that applying feature selection algorithms prior to classification algorithms results in better accuracy than when the latter are applied alone. This conclusion is important and significant to industry and society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Does a Link Exist Between Examination Performance and Lecture Attendance for First Year Engineering Students ?

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Aidan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine if a link exists between lecture attendance and examination performance of Level 7, Year 1, Electrical Engineering students at Dublin Institute of Technology in the Electrical Systems subject. Lecture attendance was monitored and analysed over four academic years (2007-8, 2008-9, 2009-10 and 2010-11). The average lecture attendance for students in the three academic years from 2007-10 was 55%, increasing noticeably in the 2009-10 academic year. A stat...

  13. An examination of firms’ strategic orientations, innovativeness and performance with large Korean companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohyoun Synthia Shin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - This paper aims to provide an examination of firms’ strategic orientations, innovativeness and performance with large Korean companies. Design/methodology/approach - The authors investigated the impacts of firms’ major key strategic orientations (customer orientation [CO], competitor orientation [PO], technology orientation [TO] and internal/cost orientation [IO] on firm innovativeness (INNO and performance outcomes with large Korean companies. Findings - The results of the analysis showed that CO, PO and TO positively influence the innovativeness, which contributes to firm performance. Originality/value - The authors provide some managerial implications on the multiple roles of strategic orientations on firm INNO and performances, along with limitations of this study and future research directions.

  14. Gastritis: the histology report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice. Copyright © 2011 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. An Examination of Corporate Spin-Offs on Company Performance and Shareholder Value

    OpenAIRE

    Scicluna, Karl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the implications of corporate spin-offs on company performance and shareholder value. The study uses both event study and accounting-based study methodologies to assess the stock price response of parent companies to the announcement of spin-offs, and to analyse the long-run operating performance of spin-offs for both parent and subsidiary companies. The study focuses on UK and US firms between 2001 and 2011. Evidence collected from the ev...

  16. Undergraduate teaching in geriatric medicine using computer-aided learning improves student performance in examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunt, Laura A; Umeonusulu, Patience I; Gladman, John R F; Blundell, Adrian G; Conroy, Simon P; Gordon, Adam L

    2013-07-01

    computer-aided learning (CAL) is increasingly used to deliver teaching, but few studies have evaluated its impact on learning within geriatric medicine. We developed and implemented CAL packages on falls and continence, and evaluated their effect on student performance in two medical schools. traditional ward based and didactic teaching was replaced by blended learning (CAL package combined with traditional teaching methods). Examination scores were compared for cohorts of medical students receiving traditional learning and those receiving blended learning. Control questions were included to provide data on cohort differences. in both medical schools, there was a trend towards improved scores following blended learning, with a smaller number of students achieving low scores (P learning was associated with improvement in student examination performance, regardless of the setting or the methods adopted, and without increasing teaching time. Our findings support the use of CAL in teaching geriatric medicine, and this method has been adopted for teaching other topics in the undergraduate curriculum.

  17. Speech acts and performances of scientific citizenship: Examining how scientists talk about therapeutic cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Nicola J

    2014-07-01

    Scientists play an important role in framing public engagement with science. Their language can facilitate or impede particular interactions taking place with particular citizens: scientists' "speech acts" can "perform" different types of "scientific citizenship". This paper examines how scientists in Australia talked about therapeutic cloning during interviews and during the 2006 parliamentary debates on stem cell research. Some avoided complex labels, thereby facilitating public examination of this field. Others drew on language that only opens a space for publics to become educated, not to participate in a more meaningful way. Importantly, public utterances made by scientists here contrast with common international utterances: they did not focus on the therapeutic but the research promises of therapeutic cloning. Social scientists need to pay attention to the performative aspects of language in order to promote genuine citizen involvement in techno-science. Speech Act Theory is a useful analytical tool for this.

  18. Histological and cytological studies on radiosensitivity of cervical carcinoma according to histological types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Wataru; Kudo, Ryuichi

    1983-01-01

    Morphological investigation were made on the radiosensitivity, according to the histological types; 1 keratinizing(K), 2 large cell nonkeratinizing(LNK), and 3 small cell nonkeratinizing(S) type. The result obtained are as follows. 1) Histological and cytological estimation of irradiated effects were examined at the 7th day after 10 Gray test-irradiation: (i) Histological studies were done with the biopsy specimens (76 cases): There were significance differences among 3 histological types (LNK>K>S, P S, K>S, P<0.05). (iii) There was a correlation between the histological and cytological irradiation effects. 2) DNA histogram patterns were also examined spectrophotometrically. It seemed that the patterns after test-irradiation were broad and these peaks were situated rather to high ploidy in histologically and cytologically highly effective cases. 3) Early ultrastructural findings after test-irradiation were as follows: (i) appearance of intra-nuclear ''pseudoinclusion'', (ii) swelling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and so on. Although these characteristics presented the same sequence of events without regard to their histological types, they were not synchronized. It seemed that they appeared earlier after test-irradiation in histologically high-sensitivity cases than in low-sensitivity cases. (author)

  19. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    OpenAIRE

    McManus, I. C.; Wakeford, R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. DESIGN: Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Phys...

  20. Nondestructive examinations performance demonstration standpoint of the BCCN (Nuclear Construction Inspection Office)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, J.; Novat, J.

    1994-01-01

    The part played by in service non-destructive examinations (NDE) in the safety assessment of French nuclear power plants has developed considerably since startup of the first PWR unit 15 years ago. In 15 years of operation and continued plant construction, defects came to light, revealed either by a non-destructive examination or a leak occurring in operation or during hydrostatic test. It is consequently necessary to operate reactors affected by defects already detected or liable to develop according to a known mechanism. This practice is only acceptable if it can be proved that the defects will remain harmless in all situations. This implies that they can be detected without fail beyond a certain threshold, that they can be characterized and that their propensity to develop can be measured. In some cases, only NDE data can justify the continued operation of a reactor. Maximum guarantees as to the performances and reliability of these examinations are consequently indispensable, since plant safety conclusions will be based on their results. This paper discusses: the advantages of an NDE performance demonstration program; practical assessments role; and NDE performance demonstration stages

  1. [A school-level longitudinal study of clinical performance examination scores].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Hee

    2015-06-01

    This school-level longitudinal study examined 7 years of clinical performance data to determine differences (effects) in students and annual changes within a school and between schools; examine how much their predictors (characteristics) influenced the variation in student performance; and calculate estimates of the schools' initial status and growth. A school-level longitudinal model was tested: level 1 (between students), level 2 (annual change within a school), and level 3 (between schools). The study sample comprised students who belonged to the CPX Consortium (n=5,283 for 2005~2008 and n=4,337 for 2009~2011). Despite a difference between evaluation domains, the performance outcomes were related to individual large-effect differences and small-effect school-level differences. Physical examination, clinical courtesy, and patient education were strongly influenced by the school effect, whereas patient-physician interaction was not affected much. Student scores are influenced by the school effect (differences), and the predictors explain the variation in differences, depending on the evaluation domain.

  2. Performance of X-ray equipment used for conventional radiographic examinations of children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Marco A.S.; Silva, Teogenes A. da; Khoury, Helen J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of X-ray equipment that are used for conventional X-ray examinations of children in four hospitals of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was evaluated. The methodology proposed by the Brazilian authority for radiation protection in diagnostic radiology was adopted. The performance tests were carried out in six X-ray machines and they consisted of measurements and determination of the X-ray tube output, linearity and constancy of radiation output, accuracy and reproducibility of the exposure time and tube potential, half-value layer (HVL), light field / X-ray field alignment and accuracy of the X-ray field indicator. It was observed that only one hospital had the suitable equipment for X-ray examinations of children. Results showed that all six equipment of the four hospitals presented unsatisfactory performance in some quality control tests. Only for some combinations of the exposure parameters, generally employed in pediatric X-ray examinations, some equipment complied with the authority requirements. (author)

  3. Examining the impact of business process orientation on organizational performance: the case of Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Milanović Glavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The competitive global market of the new millennium has raised awareness of business processes as the most important management paradigm. Extensive literature on business process management suggests that organizations can enhance their overall performance by adopting a process view of business. However, empirical research in this field is lacking. The aim of this paper is to examine the how business process orientation (BPO impacts financially and non-financially organizational performance (OP using empirical data from Croatian companies. A questionnaire survey was conducted on a sample of 127 companies in Croatia and propositions were tested using a structural equation model. The results suggest that the BPO practice relates positively to non-financial performance. In addition, the impact of non-financial performance on financial performance has been verified as well. This effect on financial performance is indirectly caused by non-financial factors suggesting that companies should view performance in such terms as well. The paper is valuable for academics and practitioners because the impact of BPO on OP is confirmed. An improved understanding and the clearly demonstrated financial and non-financial benefits of implementing and practicing BPO opens up a wider application of such systems in everyday business, which will eventually lead to their refinement and further development.

  4. Board leadership structure and firm performance: An examination of resource dependence role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzalur Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines if the CEO duality influence the firm economic performance in Bangladesh and the moderating effects of board composition in the form of outside independent directors. While doing so, it examines the relationship between CEO duality and firm performance during the pre appointment of outside independent directors and post appointment of outside independent directors (the role of other corporate governance mechanism as moderating variable. The finding is that there is there is a negative (non-significant relationship between CEO duality and firm performance before appointment of outside independent directors in the board. However, independent leadership structure and firm performance is found to be positively related following the acquisition of resource (outside independent directors in the board supporting the ’resource dependence theory’. The findings of this study partially support the ’agency theory’ and ’resource dependence theory’ but do not support the stewardship theory. This study contributes to the literature on CEO duality in the context of less a developed country.

  5. Status of Breast Self-Examination Performance among Women Referring to Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshbaf-Khalili Azizeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and the second principal cause of deaths from cancer in women. Breast self-examination (BSE is an inexpensive screening method and is carried out by women themselves. The purpose of this study was to examine the status of breast self-examination performance among women referring to health centers of Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a descriptive/ cross-sectional research carried out on 400 women aged 20-50 years. The samples were recruited randomly from among female clients of health centers in Tabriz. A questionnaire and an observational checklist were used to elicit socio-demographic information and status of BSE performance among women. Content validity was used for validation and Cronbach’s alpha was calculated (0.80 for reliability of instrument. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data through SPSS software. Results: The findings of this research showed that only 18.8% of women performed BSE. Among them, 46.67% performed BSE monthly, and 40% at the end of menstruation. The initiation age of BSE in 77% was between 21-30 years of age. It is considerable that 54.7% of them had received no advice on BSE from physicians and midwives. The majority of women did not perform the various steps of BSE. The quality of this screening was very desirable in 2 (0.5 %, desirable in 5 (1.3%, average in 19 (4.8%, undesirable in 36 (9%, and very undesirable in 338 (84.5% women. Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between the quality of BSE performance and level of education, employment, breastfeeding quality, and family history of breast cancer (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings showed that the status of BSE performance was very poor. Therefore, to encourage women to use BSE correctly and regularly, education programs should be performed through various media including television, radio, and leaflets. The role of Health personnel in this

  6. Nursing students' attitudes toward statistics: Effect of a biostatistics course and association with examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Panagiotarou, Aliki; Malja, Alvaro; Tahirai, Daniela; Zykai, Rountina; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-12-01

    Although statistical knowledge and skills are necessary for promoting evidence-based practice, health sciences students have expressed anxiety about statistics courses, which may hinder their learning of statistical concepts. To evaluate the effects of a biostatistics course on nursing students' attitudes toward statistics and to explore the association between these attitudes and their performance in the course examination. One-group quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design. Undergraduate nursing students of the fifth or higher semester of studies, who attended a biostatistics course. Participants were asked to complete the pre-test and post-test forms of The Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics (SATS)-36 scale at the beginning and end of the course respectively. Pre-test and post-test scale scores were compared, while correlations between post-test scores and participants' examination performance were estimated. Among 156 participants, post-test scores of the overall SATS-36 scale and of the Affect, Cognitive Competence, Interest and Effort components were significantly higher than pre-test ones, indicating that the course was followed by more positive attitudes toward statistics. Among 104 students who participated in the examination, higher post-test scores of the overall SATS-36 scale and of the Affect, Difficulty, Interest and Effort components were significantly but weakly correlated with higher examination performance. Students' attitudes toward statistics can be improved through appropriate biostatistics courses, while positive attitudes contribute to higher course achievements and possibly to improved statistical skills in later professional life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Can physician examiners overcome their first impression when examinee performance changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Timothy J; Pugh, Debra; Touchie, Claire; Chan, James; Humphrey-Murto, Susan

    2018-03-20

    There is an increasing focus on factors that influence the variability of rater-based judgments. First impressions are one such factor. First impressions are judgments about people that are made quickly and are based on little information. Under some circumstances, these judgments can be predictive of subsequent decisions. A concern for both examinees and test administrators is whether the relationship remains stable when the performance of the examinee changes. That is, once a first impression is formed, to what degree will an examiner be willing to modify it? The purpose of this study is to determine the degree that first impressions influence final ratings when the performance of examinees changes within the context of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). Physician examiners (n = 29) viewed seven videos of examinees (i.e., actors) performing a physical exam on a single OSCE station. They rated the examinees' clinical abilities on a six-point global rating scale after 60 s (first impression or FIGR). They then observed the examinee for the remainder of the station and provided a final global rating (GRS). For three of the videos, the examinees' performance remained consistent throughout the videos. For two videos, examinee performance changed from initially strong to weak and for two videos, performance changed from initially weak to strong. The mean FIGR rating for the Consistent condition (M = 4.80) and the Strong to Weak condition (M = 4.87) were higher compared to their respective GRS ratings (M = 3.93, M = 2.73) with a greater decline for the Strong to Weak condition. The mean FIGR rating for the Weak to Strong condition was lower (3.60) than the corresponding mean GRS (4.81). This pattern of findings suggests that raters were willing to change their judgments based on examinee performance. Future work should explore the impact of making a first impression judgment explicit versus implicit and the role of context on the

  8. The relationship between internal medicine residency graduate performance on the ABIM certifying examination, yearly in-service training examinations, and the USMLE Step 1 examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Cynthia; Jackson, Jeffrey L; Frank, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 scores, yearly in-service training exam (ITE) scores, and passing the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying examination (ABIM-CE). The authors conducted a retrospective database review of internal medicine residents from the Medical College of Wisconsin from 2004 through 2012. Residents' USMLE Step 1, ITE, and ABIM-CE scores were extracted. Pearson rho, chi-square, and logistic regression were used to determine whether relationships existed between the scores and if Step 1 and ITE scores correlate with passing the ABIM-CE. There were 241 residents, who participated in 728 annual ITEs. There were Step 1 scores for 195 (81%) residents and ABIM-CE scores for 183 (76%). Step 1 and ABIM-CE scores had a modest correlation (rho: 0.59), as did ITE and ABIM-CE scores (rho: 0.48-0.67). Failing Step 1 or being in the bottom ITE quartile during any year of testing markedly increased likelihood of failing the boards (Step 1: relative risk [RR]: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.0-5.9; first-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.6; second-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5; third-year residents' RR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.5). USMLE Step 1 and ITE scores have a modest correlation with board scores. Failing Step 1 or scoring in the bottom quartile of the ITE increased the risk of failing the boards. What effective intervention, if any, program directors may use with at-risk residents is a question deserving further research.

  9. PLAB and UK graduates’ performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Design Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Setting Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. Participants 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18 532, 14 094, and 14 376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14 235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Main outcome measures Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. Results PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two

  10. PLAB and UK graduates' performance on MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations: data linkage study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Wakeford, Richard

    2014-04-17

    To assess whether international medical graduates passing the two examinations set by the Professional and Linguistic Assessments Board (PLAB1 and PLAB2) of the General Medical Council (GMC) are equivalent to UK graduates at the end of the first foundation year of medical training (F1), as the GMC requires, and if not, to assess what changes in the PLAB pass marks might produce equivalence. Data linkage of GMC PLAB performance data with data from the Royal Colleges of Physicians and the Royal College of General Practitioners on performance of PLAB graduates and UK graduates at the MRCP(UK) and MRCGP examinations. Doctors in training for internal medicine or general practice in the United Kingdom. 7829, 5135, and 4387 PLAB graduates on their first attempt at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments from 2001 to 2012 compared with 18,532, 14,094, and 14,376 UK graduates taking the same assessments; 3160 PLAB1 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP AKT during 2007-12 compared with 14,235 UK graduates; and 1411 PLAB2 graduates making their first attempt at the MRCGP CSA during 2010-12 compared with 6935 UK graduates. Performance at MRCP(UK) Part 1, Part 2, and PACES assessments, and MRCGP AKT and CSA assessments in relation to performance on PLAB1 and PLAB2 assessments, as well as to International English Language Testing System (IELTS) scores. MRCP(UK), MRCGP, and PLAB results were analysed as marks relative to the pass mark at the first attempt. PLAB1 marks were a valid predictor of MRCP(UK) Part 1, MRCP(UK) Part 2, and MRCGP AKT (r=0.521, 0.390, and 0.490; all PIELTS scores correlated significantly with later performance, multiple regression showing that the effect of PLAB1 (β=0.496) was much stronger than the effect of IELTS (β=0.086). Changes to PLAB pass marks that would result in international medical graduate and UK medical graduate equivalence were assessed in two ways. Method 1 adjusted PLAB pass marks to equate median performance of PLAB

  11. Simulation Performance and National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses Outcomes: Field Research Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Dana E; Lane, Susan Hayes; Dawson, Tyia; Koontz, Angie

    2017-11-01

    This descriptive field study examines processes used to evaluate simulation for senior-level Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) students in a capstone course, discusses challenges related to simulation evaluation, and reports the relationship between faculty evaluation of student performance and National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) first-time passing rates. Researchers applied seven terms used to rank BSN student performance (n = 41, female, ages 22-24 years) in a senior-level capstone simulation. Faculty evaluation was correlated with students' NCLEX-RN outcomes. Students evaluated as "lacking confidence" and "flawed" were less likely to pass the NCLEX-RN on the first attempt. Faculty evaluation of capstone simulation performance provided additional evidence of student preparedness for practice in the RN role, as evidenced by the relationship between the faculty assessment and NCLEX-RN success. Simulation has been broadly accepted as a powerful educational tool that may also contribute to verification of student achievement of program outcomes and readiness for the RN role.

  12. Academic performance of day scholars versus boarders in pharmacology examinations of a medical school in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Rizwan; Shinwari, Laiyla; Izzat, Saadia

    2016-09-01

    To compare the academic performance of day scholar and boarder students in Pharmacology examinations. This comparative study was conducted at Rehman Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, from June to September, 2015. It comprised third-year medical students of the sessions 2013-14 and 2014-15.The record of the results of examinations, which had already been conducted, were assessed. All the exams had two components, i.e. multiple-choice questions and short-essay questions. Students were categorised into 4 groups according to their academic performance: those who got 80% marks (Group 4). SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 200 students, 159(79.5%) were day scholars and 41(20.5%) were boarders. In multiple-choice questions, 29(70.7%) boarder students were in Group 2, while none of them was in Group 4. In short-essay questions, 11(26.8%) of them were in Group 1 and 17(41.5%) in Group 2. Results of day scholars' multiple-choice questions exams showed 93(58.5%) were in Group 2 and 2(1.3%) in Group 4. In short-essay questions, 63(39.6%) were in Group 2 (p>o.o5 each). No significant difference was found between the academic performance of boarders and day scholars.

  13. Examining the relationships between span of control and manager job and unit performance outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Elliott-Miller, Pat; Laschinger, Heather; Cuddihy, Michael; Meyer, Raquel M; Keatings, Margaret; Burnett, Camille; Szudy, Natalie

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the combination of frontline manager (FLM) personal characteristics and span of control (SOC) on their job and unit performance outcomes. Healthcare downsizing and reform have contributed to larger spans for FLMs in Canadian hospitals and increased concerns about manager workload. Despite a heightened awareness of SOC issues among decision makers, there is limited empirical evidence related to the effects of SOC on outcomes. A non-experimental predictive survey design was used to examine FLM SOC in 14 Canadian academic hospitals. Managers (n = 121) completed an online survey of work characteristics and The Ottawa Hospital (TOH) SOC tool. Unit turnover data were collected from organisational databases. The combination of SOC and core self-evaluation significantly predicted role overload, work control and job satisfaction, but only SOC predicted unit adverse outcomes and neither significantly predicted unit turnover. The findings contribute to an understanding of connections between the combination of SOC and core self-evaluation and manager job and unit performance outcomes. Organisational strategies to create manageable FLM SOC are essential to ensure exemplary job and unit outcomes. Core self-evaluation is a personality characteristic that may enhance manager performance in the face of high spans of control. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Examining the Roles of Reasoning and Working Memory in Predicting Casual Game Performance across Extended Gameplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Michael B; Baniqued, Pauline L; Voss, Michelle W; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kramer, Arthur F

    2017-01-01

    The variety and availability of casual video games presents an exciting opportunity for applications such as cognitive training. Casual games have been associated with fluid abilities such as working memory (WM) and reasoning, but the importance of these cognitive constructs in predicting performance may change across extended gameplay and vary with game structure. The current investigation examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and casual game performance over time by analyzing first and final session performance over 4-5 weeks of game play. We focused on two groups of subjects who played different types of casual games previously shown to relate to WM and reasoning when played for a single session: (1) puzzle-based games played adaptively across sessions and (2) speeded switching games played non-adaptively across sessions. Reasoning uniquely predicted first session casual game scores for both groups and accounted for much of the relationship with WM. Furthermore, over time, WM became uniquely important for predicting casual game performance for the puzzle-based adaptive games but not for the speeded switching non-adaptive games. These results extend the burgeoning literature on cognitive abilities involved in video games by showing differential relationships of fluid abilities across different game types and extended play. More broadly, the current study illustrates the usefulness of using multiple cognitive measures in predicting performance, and provides potential directions for game-based cognitive training research.

  15. Examining the Roles of Reasoning and Working Memory in Predicting Casual Game Performance across Extended Gameplay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranz, Michael B.; Baniqued, Pauline L.; Voss, Michelle W.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2017-01-01

    The variety and availability of casual video games presents an exciting opportunity for applications such as cognitive training. Casual games have been associated with fluid abilities such as working memory (WM) and reasoning, but the importance of these cognitive constructs in predicting performance may change across extended gameplay and vary with game structure. The current investigation examined the relationship between cognitive abilities and casual game performance over time by analyzing first and final session performance over 4–5 weeks of game play. We focused on two groups of subjects who played different types of casual games previously shown to relate to WM and reasoning when played for a single session: (1) puzzle-based games played adaptively across sessions and (2) speeded switching games played non-adaptively across sessions. Reasoning uniquely predicted first session casual game scores for both groups and accounted for much of the relationship with WM. Furthermore, over time, WM became uniquely important for predicting casual game performance for the puzzle-based adaptive games but not for the speeded switching non-adaptive games. These results extend the burgeoning literature on cognitive abilities involved in video games by showing differential relationships of fluid abilities across different game types and extended play. More broadly, the current study illustrates the usefulness of using multiple cognitive measures in predicting performance, and provides potential directions for game-based cognitive training research. PMID:28326042

  16. Examining the effects of rational emotive behavior therapy on performance outcomes in elite paralympic athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A G; Barker, J B; Turner, M J; Sheffield, D

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally a psychotherapeutic intervention, rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is receiving increasing attention within the extant literature as an intervention to enhance the athletic performance and psychological well-being of competitive athletes. Whilst the benefits of REBT on psychological health are established, less is understood about the effects on athletic performance. This study aimed to examine the immediate and maintained effects of REBT on physiological, psychological, and performance outcomes with elite Paralympic athletes. Using a single-case research design, eight athletes recruited from the same Paralympic sport (M=40.12, SD=12.99) received five, one-to-one REBT sessions. Measures of irrational beliefs were collected weekly, whereas the remaining psychological and physiological measures were collected at a pre-, post-, and at a 9-month follow-up time point. Visual and statistical analyzes of the data indicates reductions in irrational beliefs were coupled with reductions in systolic blood pressure indicative of an adaptive physiological response, improved athletic performance during competition simulations, and reductions in avoidance goals. Furthermore, social validation data indicated greater self-awareness, emotional control, and enhanced focus during competition as a result of the REBT intervention. This study contributes to growing literature supporting the efficacy of REBT as an intervention that not only facilitates psychological health but also enhances athletic performance. Results are discussed with reference to theory, limitations, and future recommendations. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Performance in the FRCR (UK) Part 2B examination: Analysis of factors associated with success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawtin, K.E.; Williams, H.R.T.; McKnight, L.; Booth, T.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To assess factors that influence pass rates and examination scores in the Fellowship of the Royal College of Radiologists (FRCR) 2B examination. Materials and methods: 2238 attempts at the FRCR 2B examination were evaluated between Spring 2006 and Spring 2010. Pass rates and examination scores were analysed by gender and ethnicity, and the influence of factors such as radiology training (UK versus non-UK), sitting (Spring versus Autumn), and the presence of an undergraduate or postgraduate degree were examined. Results: 1571 candidates made 2238 examination attempts, with an overall pass rate of 59.4% (63.1% at first attempt). 66.2% entrants were male; 48.8% attempts were by candidates from a UK radiology training scheme. UK candidates were significantly more likely to pass than non-UK candidates (p < 0.0001). White candidates were more likely to pass at first or second attempt than non-white candidates (p < 0.0001), but when restricted to UK entrants ethnicity did not influence success at first attempt. Overall, females were more successful than males (p < 0.001). Presence of an undergraduate (p = 0.19) or postgraduate (p = 0.80) degree did not affect pass rate at first attempt for UK candidates. However, logistic regression demonstrated that the only significant factor influencing pass rates at first attempt was whether radiology training was undertaken in the UK (p < 0.0001). A trend towards increased pass rates in autumn sittings was seen (p = 0.06), but ethnicity (p = 0.99) and gender (p = 0.41) were not significant factors. Conclusion: The FRCR 2B examination is non-discriminatory for UK candidates with respect to gender and ethnicity. Poorer performance of non-UK trained candidates is a consistent outcome in the literature. - Highlights: • Factors influencing pass rates and scores in FRCR 2B examination were assessed. • UK candidates are more likely to pass than non-UK candidates. • There is no effect of gender or ethnicity on UK

  18. An Examination of the Relationship between Online Class Size and Instructor Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Sorensen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With no physical walls, the online classroom has the potential to house a large number of students. A concern by some is what happens to the quality of instruction in courses with high enrollments. The purpose of this research was to examine online class size and its relationship to, and potential influence on, an instructor’s performance. Results were mixed indicating that class size had a positive relationship with some the variables meant to measure online instructor performance and a negative relationship with others. Online class size was seen as having the most concerning relationship and potential influence on an instructor’s ability to provide quality feedback to students and for his/her expertise to be used consistently and effectively.

  19. A comparison of performances of consultant surgeons, NCHDs and medical students in a modified HPAT examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinn, A

    2010-06-01

    Following the implementation of the Fottrell report, entry to medical school in Ireland has undergone significant change. Medical school studentship is now awarded based on a combination of points obtained from the final examination of Irish secondary schools (the leaving certificate) combined with HPAT scores (Health Professions Admissions Test). The HPAT is designed to test a candidate\\'s knowledge in several different fields including problem solving skills, logical and non verbal reasoning. A sample HPAT was administered to a test group composed of consultant surgeons, non consultant hospital doctors, and medical students. Statistical analysis was performed and no significant difference was found between the performances of the groups. This is surprising as it was expected that groups with greater experience at medical problem solving would have translated to higher scores. This exposes a flaw within the HPAT system and a potential weakness in the process of doctor selection.

  20. Measurements of the ionising radiation level at a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, P.; Kowalska, M.; Golnik, N.; Budzynska, A.; Dziuk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radiation level measurements at workplaces in a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/ CT examinations. This study meticulously determines the staff radiation exposure in a PET/CT facility by tracking the path of patient movement. The measurements of the instantaneous radiation exposure were performed using an electronic radiometer with a proportional counter that was equipped with the option of recording the results on line. The measurements allowed for visualisation of the staff's instantaneous exposure caused by a patient walking through the department after the administration of "1"8F-FDG. An estimation of low doses associated with each working step and the exposure during a routine day in the department was possible. The measurements were completed by determining the average radiation level using highly sensitive thermoluminescent detectors. (authors)

  1. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    group (p = 0.45). Moreover, the average mark was higher among the international students (mean = 10.3, on the seven-point grading scale) than in the Danish speaking classes (mean = 9.1). CONCLUSION: The seven-point grading scale seems to motivate students to yield a better performance; hence tiered......INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1......,037 examinations in three medical subjects, we investigated the difference in the test scores between the spring- and autumn semester. In the spring semester, the students could either pass or fail the subject (pass/fail) while in the following autumn semester, the students were assessed by tiered grading (seven...

  2. Assessing clinical reasoning abilities of medical students using clinical performance examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunju Im

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of new clinical performance examination (CPX for assessing clinical reasoning skills and evaluating clinical reasoning ability of the students. Methods: Third-year medical school students (n=313 in Busan-Gyeongnam consortium in 2014 were included in the study. One of 12 stations was developed to assess clinical reasoning abilities. The scenario and checklists of the station were revised by six experts. Chief complaint of the case was rhinorrhea, accompanied by fever, headache, and vomiting. Checklists focused on identifying of the main problem and systematic approach to the problem. Students interviewed the patient and recorded subjective and objective findings, assessments, plans (SOAP note for 15 minutes. Two professors assessed students simultaneously. We performed statistical analysis on their scores and survey. Results: The Cronbach α of subject station was 0.878 and Cohen κ coefficient between graders was 0.785. Students agreed on CPX as an adequate tool to evaluate students’ performance, but some graders argued that the CPX failed to secure its validity due to their lack of understanding the case. One hundred eight students (34.5% identified essential problem early and only 58 (18.5% performed systematic history taking and physical examination. One hundred seventy-three of them (55.3% communicated correct diagnosis with the patient. Most of them had trouble in writing SOAP notes. Conclusion: To gain reliability and validity, interrater agreement should be secured. Students' clinical reasoning skills were not enough. Students need to be trained on problem identification, reasoning skills and accurate record-keeping.

  3. A core competency-based objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) can predict future resident performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallenstein, Joshua; Heron, Sheryl; Santen, Sally; Shayne, Philip; Ander, Douglas

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the ability of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) administered in the first month of residency to predict future resident performance in the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. Eighteen Postgraduate Year 1 (PGY-1) residents completed a five-station OSCE in the first month of postgraduate training. Performance was graded in each of the ACGME core competencies. At the end of 18 months of training, faculty evaluations of resident performance in the emergency department (ED) were used to calculate a cumulative clinical evaluation score for each core competency. The correlations between OSCE scores and clinical evaluation scores at 18 months were assessed on an overall level and in each core competency. There was a statistically significant correlation between overall OSCE scores and overall clinical evaluation scores (R = 0.48, p competencies of patient care (R = 0.49, p competencies. An early-residency OSCE has the ability to predict future postgraduate performance on a global level and in specific core competencies. Used appropriately, such information can be a valuable tool for program directors in monitoring residents' progress and providing more tailored guidance. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. Academic performance of male in comparison with female undergraduate medical students in Pharmacology examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faisal, Rizwan; Shinwari, Laiyla; Hussain, Shahzadi Saima

    2017-02-01

    To compare the academic performance of male and female medical students in Pharmacology examinations. The comparative study was conducted at Rehman Medical College, Peshawar, Pakistan, from March to August 2015. For evaluating the students' academic performance, male and female students of academic sessions 2013-14 and 2014-15 were divided into 4 groups. Group 1: 80% marks. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis. Of the 200 medical students enrolled, 102(51%) were male and 98(41%) were female. There was no significant difference in the academic performance in terms of gender in multiple choice questions (p=0.811) and short essay questions (p=0.515). The effect of attendance was also insignificant (p=0.130). Significant difference was found between the academic records of urban male and female students compared to rural students (p=0.038). Boarder students' results were insignificantly different from those of day scholars (p=0.887). There was no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students.

  5. Is Perceived Control a Critical Factor in Understanding the Negative Relationship between Cognitive Test Anxiety and Examination Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putwain, David W.; Aveyard, Ben

    2018-01-01

    A well established finding is that the cognitive component of test anxiety (worry) is negatively related to examination performance. The present study examined how 3 self-beliefs (academic buoyancy, perceived control, and test competence) moderated the strength of the relationship between worry and examination performance in a sample of 270 final…

  6. Examining the role of policy design and policy interaction in EU automotive emissions performance gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeete, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of the 2015 ‘Dieselgate’ scandal, the US and European governments publicly confronted automakers about their behaviour, which raised concerns about the integrity of the current emissions legislation regimes. In this article, I argue that ‘flexibilities’ within the EU's emissions legislative framework afforded automakers the opportunity to legally sidestep strict performance standards laid out in the law and resulted in a significant performance gap in real world driving emissions. This article provides a timely examination of EU emission legislation policy design and policy interaction within the European Union with the aim of explaining why the EU policy framework failed to regulate the regional automotive industry. Current research is mostly concerned with the typology and effectiveness of individual environmental policy instruments, be it regulatory or economic incentives, that aim to influence industry behaviour. This article approaches the current EU policy regime in a more holistic manner and focuses on the exploitation of weaknesses in the regulatory framework by private firms, which has received little academic attention in the innovation and transition literature. A major contribution of this article therefore is a body of primary qualitative interview data from industry elites concerning relevant emissions policies. - Highlights: • Significant performance gaps exist between stated and real-world car emissions. • Real-world performance gaps exist due to exploitation of flawed EU policy design. • Diesels have the widest performance gaps and are most harmful to air quality. • Policy interaction compounds EU air quality problems and promotes path-dependency. • Closing performance gaps requires policy revisions and more enforcement autonomy.

  7. An examination of the relationship between CSR disclosure and financial performance: The case of Polish banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Matuszak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is twofold. First, this study investigates the trends of corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting and financial performance (FP in commercial banks in Poland. Second, this study examines the impact of the CSR disclosure of the banks on their financial performance (ROA, ROE, NIM. Sample consists of 18 banks. The data from annual reports for the period of 8 years (2008 – 2015 were both hand collected and obtained from Notoria Servis Database. A content analysis is used to measure the level of CSR disclosures and a panel data analysis is employed to examine the CSR-FP relationship. Software: GRETL. Two key findings: (1 Positive relationship between banks’ CSR disclosures and their profitability measured by ROA and ROE. However, the relationship between banks’ CSR disclosures and NIM is negative. Statistical analysis did not report any significant effect of CSR activities on ROA, ROE and NIM ratios. (2 Banks’ CSR activities are not dominant predictor of their profitability as compared with control variables. To our best knowledge this research is the first quantitative analysis regarding banking sector in Poland. Further, this study was conducted in emerging market with different socio-economic context and regulations compared to developed market. The findings contribute to and increase the understanding of the relationship between CSR disclosures and FP. Finally, this study has important implications for policy makers, managers, investors, and others.

  8. Survey of image quality and radiographic technique of pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoury, H.; Mora, P.; Defaz, M.Y.; Blanco, S.; Leyton, F.; Benavente, T.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Ramirez, R.

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the results of a survey of entrance surface air kerma values (K e ), image quality and radiographic exposure parameters used in pediatric chest examinations performed in Latin America. This study is part of the activities of the IAEA Regional Project RLA/9/057 whose objective is to optimize the radiological protection of patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. The survey was performed in nine hospitals in Argentina (1), Brazil (4), Chile (1), Costa Rica (1), Peru (1) and Ecuador (1). The study group consisted of 462 pediatric patients (Group I- from two days to one year, Group II- from four to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination the exposure parameters (kVp, mAs, focal-spot-to-film distance, etc.) and patient information (gender, height, weight and age) were recorded. The radiographic image quality was evaluated by the local radiologist based on the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria for Diagnostic Radiographic Images in Pediatrics. The results showed that the exposure parameters used on newborn patients were in the majority outside the 60-65kV range recommended by the European Guidelines for a good radiographic practice. In the case of examinations of patients with age between 4 to 6 years, 80% were performed with a peak tube voltage within the 60-80 kV range, as recommended by the European Guidelines. It was found that none of countries fully comply with the European Guidelines on Quality Criteria and those criteria No. 2 and No. 3 (reproduction of the chest without rotation) received the lowest scores. Probably this occurs because there are no proper patient immobilization devices. The Ke values, for both patient groups, showed a wide dispersion, ranged from 10 μGy to 160μGy for the newborn patients and from 20μGy to 240μGy for infant patients. It is possible to conclude that, in the participating Latin American countries on this project

  9. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Galvão Vieira Bitencourt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To correlate the results of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results The authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm. Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%. At PET/CT, 53 (89.8% of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5. A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas.

  10. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; Souza, Juliana Alves de; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to correlate the results of 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results: the authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of 18 F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion: PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. (author)

  11. Correlation of USMLE Step 1 scores with performance on dermatology in-training examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fening, Katherine; Vander Horst, Anthony; Zirwas, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Although United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 was not designed to predict resident performance, scores are used to compare residency applicants. Multiple studies have displayed a significant correlation among Step 1 scores, in-training examination (ITE) scores, and board passage, although no such studies have been performed in dermatology. The purpose of this study is to determine if this correlation exists in dermatology, and how much of the variability in ITE scores is a result of differences in Step 1 scores. This study also seeks to determine if it is appropriate to individualize expectations for resident ITE performance. This project received institutional review board exemption. From 5 dermatology residency programs (86 residents), we collected Step 1 and ITE scores for each of the 3 years of dermatology residency, and recorded passage/failure on boards. Bivariate Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess correlation between USMLE and ITE scores. Ordinary least squares regression was computed to determine how much USMLE scores contribute to ITE variability. USMLE and ITE score correlations were highly significant (P ITE in years 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Variability in ITE scores caused by differences in USMLE scores were: ITE first-year residency = 21.8%, ITE second-year residency = 29.3%, and ITE third-year residency = 27.8%. This study had a relatively small sample size, with data from only 5 programs. There is a moderate correlation between USMLE and ITE scores, with USMLE scores explaining ∼26% of the variability in ITE scores. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas V Olijnyk

    Full Text Available This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures; some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state, while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation. Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology

  13. Examination of China's performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olijnyk, Nicholas V

    2018-01-01

    This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China's quantum cryptography (QC) research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001-2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China's QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China's performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China's performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index) are growing. China's H-index (a normalized indicator) has surpassed all other countries' over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China's main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures); some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state), while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation). Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China's QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology policy researchers

  14. Predictive validity of the comprehensive basic science examination mean score for assessment of medical students' performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Behboudi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Medical education curriculum improvements can be achieved bye valuating students performance. Medical students have to pass two undergraduate comprehensive examinations, basic science and preinternship, in Iran. Purpose To measure validity of the students' mean score in comprehensive basic science exam (CBSE for predicting their performance in later curriculum phases. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 95 (38 women and 55 men Guilan medical university students. Their admission to the university was 81% by regional quota and 12% by shaheed and other organizations' share. They first enrolled in 1994 and were able to pass CBS£ at first try. Data on gender, regional quota, and average grades of CBS£, PC, and CPIE were collected by a questionnaire. The calculations were done by SPSS package. Results The correlation coefficient between CBS£ and CPIE mean scores (0.65 was higher than correlation coefficient between CBS£ and PC mean scores (0.49. The predictive validity of CBS£ average grade was significant for students' performance in CPIE; however, the predictive validity of CBSE mean scores for students I pe1jormance in PC was lower. Conclusion he students' mean score in CBSE can be a good denominator for their further admission. We recommend further research to assess the predictive validity for each one of the basic courses. Keywords predictive validity, comprehensive basic exam

  15. Optimal use of acute headache medication: a qualitative examination of behaviors and barriers to their performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Elizabeth K; Holroyd, Kenneth A

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to qualitatively examine the behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication and the barriers to successful performance of these behaviors. The efficacy of drug treatment is partly determined by medication adherence. The adherence literature has focused almost exclusively on the behaviors required to optimally use medications that are taken on a fixed schedule, as opposed to medications taken on an as needed basis to treat acute episodes of symptoms, such as headaches. Twenty-one people with headache and 15 health care providers participated in qualitative phenomenological interviews that were transcribed and coded by a multidisciplinary research team using phenomenological analysis. Interviews revealed 8 behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication, including cross-episode behaviors that people with headache regularly perform to ensure optimal acute headache medication use, and episode-specific behaviors used to treat an individual headache episode. Interviews further revealed 9 barriers that hinder successful performance of these behaviors. Behaviors required to optimally use acute headache medication were numerous, often embedded in a larger chain of behaviors, and were susceptible to disruption by numerous barriers. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  16. Declarations, accusations and judgement: examining conflict of interest discourses as performative speech-acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over conflicts of interest (COI) in academic research and medical practice continue to provoke a great deal of discussion. What is most obvious in this discourse is that when COIs are declared, or perceived to exist in others, there is a focus on both the descriptive question of whether there is a COI and, subsequently, the normative question of whether it is good, bad or neutral. We contend, however, that in addition to the descriptive and normative, COI declarations and accusations can be understood as performatives. In this article, we apply J.L. Austin's performative speech-act theory to COI discourses and illustrate how this works using a contemporary case study of COI in biomedical publishing. We argue that using Austin's theory of performative speech-acts serves to highlight the social arrangements and role of authorities in COI discourse and so provides a rich framework to examine declarations, accusations and judgements of COI that often arise in the context of biomedical research and practice.

  17. Histological grading patterns in patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Ayaz, B.; Shaikh, A.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the histological grading patterns in a cohort of hospitalized patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis. One hundred patients of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL), admitted in dermatology wards at PNS Shifa Hospital, Karachi, were examined. Only admitted patients of all ages and both sexes were included in the study. Patients of CL, who had received or were receiving systemic treatment were excluded. The lesions having marked secondary bacterial infection were also excluded. Initial diagnosis was clinical. History of being to an endemic area supported the diagnosis. The lesions were divided in two groups. Early, with duration less than 03 months and late, with duration between 3 and 12 months. The clinical lesions were noted as nodules, plaques, ulcers, crusted ulcers, lupoid lesions and plaques with scarring. Three types of skin smears (slit skin smear, saline aspirate smear and dab smear) were taken and examined with Giemsa stain. Cultures were performed on Nicolle-Novy-MacNeal (NNN) culture medium from Defense Scientific and Technology Organization (DESTO) Lab., Pakistan. Incisional skin biopsies were done. The biopsy specimens were examined by hemotoxylin and eosin stain (H and E stain). The number of Leishmania Tropica (LT) bodies was graded according to modified Ridley's parasitic index 1983. Clinical features were correlated with the histological patterns. Five histological patterns were identified in current study: 1) diffuse dermal infiltration without necrosis, 2) patchy dermal infiltration, 3) diffuse dermal infiltration with necrosis, 4) early reactive granuloma formation and 5) established epithelioid granuloma formation. LT bodies were identified in 75% of cases. Epidermal features were non-specific. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions showed granuloma formation. Five distinct types of histological patterns of CL have been recognized in this study. The early lesions presented with diffuse infiltrate and late lesions

  18. Climbing Bloom's Taxonomy Pyramid: Lessons from a Graduate Histology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B.; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were…

  19. Use of international foundations of medicine clinical sciences examination to evaluate students' performance in the local examination at the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Nihar Ranjan; Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan; Hussein, Amal

    2017-01-01

    Several medical schools around the world are moving away from isolated, locally developed in-house assessments to the introduction of external examinations into their curriculum. Although the objective varies, it is typically done to evaluate, audit, and compare students' performance to international standards. Similarly, the International Foundations of Medicine-Clinical Sciences Examination (IFOM-CSE) was introduced in the College of Medicine at the University of Sharjah as an external assessment criterion in addition to the existing in-house assessments. The aim of this study was to compare the student performance in this newly introduced IFOM-CSE examination and the existing in-house final examination in the college. The scores of three consecutive final-year undergraduate medical student batches (2013-2015) who took both the IFOM-CSE and the existing in-house final examination were analyzed. Pearson correlation and one-way analysis of variance test were conducted using SPSS 22. The students' scores in the IFOM-CSE and in the final examination prepared locally were highly correlated with Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.787 for batch 2013, 0.827 for batch 2014, and 0.830 for batch 2015 (P correlated with their scores in the IFOM-CSE over all the three batches. Thus, introduction of external examination can be an important evaluation tool to a comprehensive internal assessment system providing evidence of external validity.

  20. What is the impact of commercial test preparation courses on medical examination performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Downing, Steven M; Kubilius, Ramune

    2004-01-01

    Commercial test preparation courses are part of the fabric of U.S. medical education. They are also big business with 2,000 sales for 1 firm listed at nearly $250 million. This article systematically reviews and evaluates research published in peer-reviewed journals and in the "grey literature" that addresses the impact of commercial test preparation courses on standardized, undergraduate medical examinations. Thirteen computerized English language databases were searched using 29 search terms and search concepts from their onset to October 1, 2002. Also manually searched was medical education conference proceedings and publications after the end date; and medical education journal editors were contacted about articles accepted for publication, but not yet in print, that were deemed pertinent to this review. Studies that met three criteria were selected: (a) a commercial test preparation course or service was an educational intervention, (b) the outcome variable was one of several standardized medical examinations, and (c) results are published in a peer-reviewed journal or another outlet that insures scholarly scrutiny. The criteria were applied and data extracted by consensus of 2 reviewers. The search identified 11 empirical studies, of which 10 (8 journal articles, 2 unpublished reports) are included in this review. Qualitative data synthesis and tabular presentation of research methods and outcomes are used. The articles and unpublished reports reveal that current research lacks control and rigor; the incremental validity of the commercial courses on medical examination performance, if any, is extremely small; and evidence in support of the courses is weak or nonexistent; almost no details are given about the form and conduct of the commercial test preparation courses; studies are confined to courses in preparation for the Medical College Admission Test, the former National Board of Medical Examiners Part 1, and the United States Medical Licensing Examination

  1. Design Enhancement and Performance Examination of External Rotor Switched Flux Permanent Magnet Machine for Downhole Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Sulaiman, E.; Soomro, H. A.; Jusoh, L. I.; Bahrim, F. S.; Omar, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    The recent change in innovation and employments of high-temperature magnets, permanent magnet flux switching machine (PMFSM) has turned out to be one of the suitable contenders for seaward boring, however, less intended for downhole because of high atmospheric temperature. Subsequently, this extensive review manages the design enhancement and performance examination of external rotor PMFSM for the downhole application. Preparatory, the essential design parameters required for machine configuration are computed numerically. At that point, the design enhancement strategy is actualized through deterministic technique. At last, preliminary and refined execution of the machine is contrasted and as a consequence, the yield torque is raised from 16.39Nm to 33.57Nm while depreciating the cogging torque and PM weight up to 1.77Nm and 0.79kg, individually. In this manner, it is inferred that purposed enhanced design of 12slot-22pole with external rotor is convenient for the downhole application.

  2. Use of high performance computing to examine the effectiveness of aquifer remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompson, A.F.B.; Ashby, S.F.; Falgout, R.D.; Smith, S.G.; Fogwell, T.W.; Loosmore, G.A.

    1994-06-01

    Large-scale simulation of fluid flow and chemical migration is being used to study the effectiveness of pump-and-treat restoration of a contaminated, saturated aquifer. A three-element approach focusing on geostatistical representations of heterogeneous aquifers, high-performance computing strategies for simulating flow, migration, and reaction processes in large three-dimensional systems, and highly-resolved simulations of flow and chemical migration in porous formations will be discussed. Results from a preliminary application of this approach to examine pumping behavior at a real, heterogeneous field site will be presented. Future activities will emphasize parallel computations in larger, dynamic, and nonlinear (two-phase) flow problems as well as improved interpretive methods for defining detailed material property distributions

  3. Intelligence moderates the benefits of strategy instructions on memory performance: an adult-lifespan examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenmolen, Nikita L; Altgassen, Mareike; Kessels, Renée; de Waal, Marleen M; Hindriksen, Julie-Anne; Verhoeven, Barbara; Fasotti, Luciano; Scheres, Anouk; Kessels, Roy P C; Oosterman, Joukje M

    2017-01-01

    Whether older adults can compensate for their associative memory deficit by using memory strategies efficiently might depend on their general cognitive abilities. This study examined the moderating role of an IQ estimate on the beneficial effects of strategy instructions. A total of 142 participants (aged 18-85 years) received either intentional learning or strategy ("sentence generation") instructions during encoding of word pairs. Whereas young adults with a lower IQ benefited from strategy instructions, those with a higher IQ did not, presumably because they already use strategies spontaneously. Older adults showed the opposite effect: following strategy instructions, older adults with a higher IQ showed a strong increase in memory performance (approximately achieving the level of younger adults), whereas older adults with a lower IQ did not, suggesting that they have difficulties implementing the provided strategies. These results highlight the importance of the role of IQ in compensating for the aging-related memory decline.

  4. [Performance of an abbreviated mini mental examination to detect dementia in older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Daniel; Lavados, Manuel; Rojas, Paula; Henríquez, Claudio; Silva, Fernando; Guillón, Marta

    2017-07-01

    The usefulness of the abbreviated Mini-Mental State Examination included in the Chilean Functional assessment of elderly people (MM-SE-EFAM) to detect Dementia has not been determined. To assess the performance of the MMSE-EFAM to detect dementia. We studied a non-probabilistic sample of subjects older than 65 years who had been assessed by the MMSE-EFAM in a Chilean primary care center during a period of 6 months. Patients underwent clinical evaluation by a neurologist blinded to MMSE-EFAM score, to establish the diagnosis of dementia using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Besides, the full Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was applied. The clinical diagnosis of Dementia was established in 13 of the 54 peoples evaluated. MMSE-EFAM had a sensitivity of 30.8% (95% confidence intervals (CI); 9-61.4) and a specificity of 90.2% (95% CI; 76.9%-97.3%), while MMSE had a sensitivity of 84.6% (95% CI; 54.6-98.1) and a specificity of 58.5% (95% CI; 42.1-73.7). In a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.77 (95% CI; 0.61-0.93) and 0.82 (95% CI; 0.70-0.95) for MMSE-EFAM and MMSE, respectively. Socio-demographic variables did not influence test performance in both cases. MMSE-EFAM has a low sensitivity to detect patients with Dementia and it is not an effective screening tool. These results are in agreement with the evidence and international guidelines that do not support the use of cognitive screening tools to detect dementia in the older general population.

  5. Dosimetric study of mandible examinations performed with three cone-beam computed tomography scanners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Helen J; Andrade, Marcos E; Araujo, Max Well; Brasileiro, Izabela V; Kramer, Richard; Huda, Amir

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the air kerma-area product (PKA) and the skin absorbed dose in the region of the eyes, salivary glands and thyroid of the patient from mandible examinations performed with three cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scanners, i.e. i-CAT classic, Gendex CB-500 and PreXion 3D. For the dosimetric evaluation, an anthropomorphic head phantom (model RS-250) was used to simulate an adult patient. The CBCT examinations were performed using standard and high-resolution protocols for mandible acquisitions for adult patients. During the phantom's exposure, the PKA was measured using an ionising chamber and the absorbed doses to the skin in the region of the eyes, thyroid and salivary glands were estimated using thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) positioned on the phantom's surface. The PKA values estimated with the CBCT scanners varied from 26 to 138 µGy m(2). Skin absorbed doses in the region of the eyes varied from 0.07 to 0.34 mGy; at the parotid glands, from 1.31 to 5.93 mGy; at the submandibular glands, from 1.41 to 6.86 mGy; and at the thyroid, from 0.18 to 2.45 mGy. PKA and absorbed doses showed the highest values for the PreXion 3D scanner due to the use of the continuous exposure mode and a high current-time product. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. How do nurses and teachers perform breast self-examination: are they reliable sources of information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozvurmaz Safiye

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths among women worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine and compare knowledge, behavior and attitudes among female nurses and teachers concerning breast self-examination (BSE. Methods Two-hundred and eighty nine women working in Aydin, Turkey (125 nurses and 164 teachers were included in the study. The data were collected using a questionnaire designed to measure the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of the groups. Analysis involved percentiles, χ2 tests, t tests and factor analysis. Results The knowledge of nurses about BSE was higher than that of teachers (81.5% versus 45.1%; p 0.05, whereas skills in performing self-examination were higher in nurses (p Conclusion We conclude that nurses and teachers should be supported with information enabling them to accomplish their roles in the community. To improve BSE practice, it is crucial to coordinate continuous and planned education.

  7. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tranchina Christopher P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a pre-exercise high energy drink on reaction time and anaerobic power in competitive strength/power athletes. In addition, the effect of the pre-exercise drink on subjective feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus was also explored. Methods Twelve male strength/power athletes (21.1 ± 1.3 y; 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; 88.6 ± 12.1 kg; 17.6 ± 3.3% body fat underwent two testing sessions administered in a randomized and double-blind fashion. During each session, subjects reported to the Human Performance Laboratory and were provided with either 120 ml of a high energy drink (SUP, commercially marketed as Redline Extreme® or 120 ml of a placebo (PL that was similar in taste and appearance but contained no active ingredients. Following consumption of the supplement or placebo subjects rested quietly for 10-minutes prior to completing a survey and commencing exercise. The survey consisted of 4 questions asking each subject to describe their feelings of energy, fatigue, alertness and focus for that moment. Following the completion of the questionnaire subjects performed a 2-minute quickness and reaction test on the Makoto testing device (Makoto USA, Centennial CO and a 20-second Wingate Anaerobic Power test. Following a 10-minute rest subjects repeated the testing sequence and after a similar rest period a third and final testing sequence was performed. The Makoto testing device consisted of subjects reacting to both a visual and auditory stimulus and striking one out of 30 potential targets on three towers. Results Significant difference in reaction performance was seen between SUP and PL in both average number of targets struck (55.8 ± 7.4 versus 51.9 ± 7.4, respectively and percent of targets struck (71.9 ± 10.5% versus 66.8 ± 10.9%, respectively. No significant differences between trials were seen in any anaerobic power measure. Subjective feelings of energy (3.5 ± 0

  8. On the performance of multiuser scheduling with post-examining under non-identical fading

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Radaydeh, Redha M.; Yang, Hong-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the performance of a multiuser downlink access scheme based on a post-selection switch and examine algorithm. The studied scheme sequentially switches over the users that experience independent and non-identically distributed fading conditions, and selects a single user with an acceptable channel quality as compared to a pre-selected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold. If no one of the users can satisfy the target channel quality, the base station (BS) takes the advantage of the knowledge of all users channels and serves the user with the best channel quality among all users. This scheme reduces considerably the feedback load but offers a lower average spectral efficiency (ASE) as compared to that of the full feedback system with instantaneous best user selection. On the other hand, it improves the system performances, such as outage probability and average bit error rate (BER), as compared to a system that is based on a standard switching scheme without post-selection. Numerical results for the ASE average BER, and average feed back load, are presented for the cases of outdated and non-outdated rate-adaptive modulation scheme operating over independent and non-identically distributed users.

  9. On the performance of multiuser scheduling with post-examining under non-identical fading

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine

    2012-06-11

    We investigate the performance of a multiuser downlink access scheme based on a post-selection switch and examine algorithm. The studied scheme sequentially switches over the users that experience independent and non-identically distributed fading conditions, and selects a single user with an acceptable channel quality as compared to a pre-selected signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) threshold. If no one of the users can satisfy the target channel quality, the base station (BS) takes the advantage of the knowledge of all users channels and serves the user with the best channel quality among all users. This scheme reduces considerably the feedback load but offers a lower average spectral efficiency (ASE) as compared to that of the full feedback system with instantaneous best user selection. On the other hand, it improves the system performances, such as outage probability and average bit error rate (BER), as compared to a system that is based on a standard switching scheme without post-selection. Numerical results for the ASE average BER, and average feed back load, are presented for the cases of outdated and non-outdated rate-adaptive modulation scheme operating over independent and non-identically distributed users.

  10. Reliability and prevalence of physical performance examination assessing mobility and balance in older persons in the US: data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostchega, Y; Harris, T B; Hirsch, R; Parsons, V L; Kington, R; Katzoff, M

    2000-09-01

    This report provides reliability and prevalence estimates by sex, age, and race/ethnicity of an observed physical performance examination (PPE) assessing mobility and balance. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) 1988-1994. A cross-sectional nationally representative survey. All persons aged 60 and older (n = 5,403) who performed the PPE either in the mobile examination center (MEC) or in the home during NHANES III (conducted 1988-1994). The PPE included timed chair stand, full tandem stand, and timed 8-foot walk. Timed chair stand and 8-foot timed walk were reliable measurements (Intraclass Correlations > 0.5). Women were significantly slower (P physically limited than men.

  11. Histology of the distal dural ring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffeo, Christopher S; Perry, Avital; Copeland, William R; Raghunathan, Aditya; Link, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    The distal dural ring (DDR) is a conserved intracranial anatomic structure marking the boundary point at which the internal carotid artery (ICA) exits the cavernous sinus (CS) and enters the subarachnoid space. Although the CS has been well described in a range of anatomic studies, to our knowledge no prior study has analyzed the histologic relationship between the ICA and DDR. Correspondingly, our objective was to assess the relationship of the DDR to the ICA and determine whether the DDR can be dissected from the ICA and thus divided, or can only be circumferentially trimmed around the artery. The authors examined ten fresh-frozen, adult cadaveric specimens. A standard frontotemporal craniotomy, orbito-optic osteotomy, and extradural anterior clinoidectomy was performed bilaterally. The cavernous ICA, DDR, and supraclinoid ICA were harvested as an en bloc specimen. Specimens formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded prior to routine histochemical staining with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome. In all specimens, marked microscopic investment of the DDR throughout the ICA adventitia was noted. Dural collagen fibers extensively permeated the arterial layers superficial to the muscularis propria, with no evidence of a clear separation between the DDR and arterial adventitia. Histologic analysis suggests that the ICA and DDR are highly interrelated, continuous structures, and therefore attempted intraoperative dissection between these structures may carry an elevated risk of injury to the ICA. We correspondingly recommend careful circumferential trimming of the DDR in lieu of direct dissection in cases requiring mobilization of the clinoidal ICA. Clin. Anat. 30:742-746, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Factors Influencing Candidates' Performance in English Language and Mathematics at West African Senior School Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alade, O. M.; Kuku, O. O.; Osoba, A.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated influence of some factors on the performance of selected West African Senior School Certificate Examination (WASSCE) candidates. It also examined the relationship between these factors and candidates' performance. Factors investigated include socio-economic background of the candidates (SEB), study hours (SH), attitude…

  13. Histologic Normalization Occurs in Ulcerative Colitis and Is Associated With Improved Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Britt; Hanauer, Stephen B; Erlich, Jonathan; Kassim, Olufemi; Gibson, Peter R; Turner, Jerrold R; Hart, John; Rubin, David T

    2017-10-01

    Mucosal healing, determined by histologic analysis, is a potential therapeutic target for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the histologic features of tissue normalization, as an outcome of treatment, have not been well described. We examined the prevalence and predictive values of normalization of the colonic mucosa, based on histologic analysis (histologic normalization) in patients with UC, and determined its association with risk of clinical relapse, compared with histologic disease quiescence and endoscopic mucosal healing. We performed a retrospective study of 646 patients with confirmed UC who underwent colonoscopy at a tertiary medical center from August 2005 through October 2013. We reviewed reports from pathology analyses of random mucosal biopsies from each colon segment, and categorized them into 3 groups based on histology findings: (1) normalization (completely normal mucosa with no features of chronicity present), (2) quiescence (crypt atrophy or branching without signs of active inflammation including erosions, abscesses, or focal neutrophil infiltration), or (3) active disease (epithelial infiltration by neutrophils, crypt abscesses, erosions, or ulceration). Histology findings were compared with clinical and endoscopic findings. We assessed variables associated with histology findings and, in patients in clinical remission (Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index score ≤2 and subscore of ≤1 for stool frequency or rectal bleeding), predictive values for clinical relapse at follow-up evaluations 6 months later or more were calculated. Of the 646 patients included in the study, 60% had endoscopic mucosal healing, 40% had histologic quiescence, and 10% had histologic normalization. The level of agreement between mucosal and histologic activity was moderate (agreement for 68% of samples; κ = 0.50; P normalization (P = .002). Of 310 patients in clinical remission at initial review, 25% had a clinical relapse, after a median time

  14. Examination of Conservatism in Ground-level Source Release Assumption when Performing Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    One of these assumptions frequently assumed is the assumption of ground-level source release. The user manual of a consequence analysis software HotSpot is mentioning like below: 'If you cannot estimate or calculate the effective release height, the actual physical release height (height of the stack) or zero for ground-level release should be used. This will usually yield a conservative estimate, (i.e., larger radiation doses for all downwind receptors, etc).' This recommendation could be agreed in aspect of conservatism but quantitative examination of the effect of this assumption to the result of consequence analysis is necessary. The source terms of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident have been estimated by several studies using inverse modeling and one of the biggest sources of the difference between the results of these studies was different effective source release height assumed by each studies. It supports the importance of the quantitative examination of the influence by release height. Sensitivity analysis of the effective release height of radioactive sources was performed and the influence to the total effective dose was quantitatively examined in this study. Above 20% difference is maintained even at longer distances, when we compare the dose between the result assuming ground-level release and the results assuming other effective plume height. It means that we cannot ignore the influence of ground-level source assumption to the latent cancer fatality estimations. In addition, the assumption of ground-level release fundamentally prevents detailed analysis including diffusion of plume from effective plume height to the ground even though the influence of it is relatively lower in longer distance. When we additionally consider the influence of surface roughness, situations could be more serious. The ground level dose could be highly over-estimated in short downwind distance at the NPP sites which have low surface roughness such as Barakah site in

  15. Are Histologic Studies of Adenotonsillectomy Really Necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebechi, Giseli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In most ear, nose, and throat services, it is routine to send the material extracted from tonsillectomy for histologic study to research malignancy, to analyze suspect material, or to provide medical-legal documentation. Recent studies have shown that this routine analysis is dispensable. Objective: To evaluate the actual need and perform a cost–benefit analysis of routine histopathologic examination in tonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy. Methods: A retrospective observational study evaluated the charts of patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy, tonsillectomy, or adenoidectomy from January 2008 to September 2009 at the Institute of Otorhinolaryngology CEMA-SP. Costs of this test for the public health system were analyzed and the literature reviewed. Results: We studied 281 patients between 2 and 22 years of age; 142 (50.5% were male and 139 (49.5% were female. Of the surgeries, 201 were adenotonsillectomies (71.5%, 41 were tonsillectomies (14.5%, and 39 were adenoidectomies (14%. The most common indication for surgery was recurrent infection (63.3%. None of study patients had clinical suspicion of malignancy. The tests showed a cost of R$20.03 per tonsil analyzed. Conclusion: Routine histopathologic examination in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy with no signs or symptoms of malignancy is dispensable and increases the cost of the surgeries.

  16. Development of a histologically validated segmentation protocol for the hippocampal body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve, Trevor A; Yasuda, Clarissa L; Coras, Roland; Lail, Mohjevan; Blumcke, Ingmar; Livy, Daniel J; Malykhin, Nikolai; Gross, Donald W

    2017-08-15

    Recent findings have demonstrated that hippocampal subfields can be selectively affected in different disease states, which has led to efforts to segment the human hippocampus with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, no studies have examined the histological accuracy of subfield segmentation protocols. The presence of MRI-visible anatomical landmarks with known correspondence to histology represents a fundamental prerequisite for in vivo hippocampal subfield segmentation. In the present study, we aimed to: 1) develop a novel method for hippocampal body segmentation, based on two MRI-visible anatomical landmarks (stratum lacunosum moleculare [SLM] & dentate gyrus [DG]), and assess its accuracy in comparison to the gold standard direct histological measurements; 2) quantify the accuracy of two published segmentation strategies in comparison to the histological gold standard; and 3) apply the novel method to ex vivo MRI and correlate the results with histology. Ultra-high resolution ex vivo MRI was performed on six whole cadaveric hippocampal specimens, which were then divided into 22 blocks and histologically processed. The hippocampal bodies were segmented into subfields based on histological criteria and subfield boundaries and areas were directly measured. A novel method was developed using mean percentage of the total SLM distance to define subfield boundaries. Boundary distances and subfield areas on histology were then determined using the novel method and compared to the gold standard histological measurements. The novel method was then used to determine ex vivo MRI measures of subfield boundaries and areas, which were compared to histological measurements. For direct histological measurements, the mean percentages of total SLM distance were: Subiculum/CA1 = 9.7%, CA1/CA2 = 78.4%, CA2/CA3 = 97.5%. When applied to histology, the novel method provided accurate measures for CA1/CA2 (ICC = 0.93) and CA2/CA3 (ICC = 0.97) boundaries, but not for the

  17. Country-wide quality control of equipment in Norwegian laboratories performing in vivo nuclear medicine examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skretting, A.; Rootwelt, K.; Berthelsen, T.

    1984-01-01

    The report presents the methods used and the results obtained in quality control tests performd in all Norwegian hospital laboratories performing in vivo nuclear medicine examinations. The tests included activity meters and scintillation cameras. The activity meters were tested by means of calibrated, long-lived radioactive sources. The quality of these instruments were judged to be satisfactory for moderate and high activities, non of them showing a deviation of more than 10% from the calibration value. Deviations were larger at low activities and were for some laboratories unacceptable. The scintillation cameras test included studies of flood field (homogeneity), geometrical resolution and energy resolution, as well as measurements of count rate characteristics and sensitivity. 40% of the cameras were judged to have flood field responses with satisfactory homogeneity, whereas 32% of the cameras had a satisfactory resolution ability. A liver/abdomen phantom test was carried out by the staff of the actual laboratory. This test proved that only 20% of the laboratories had a satisfactory total performance, managing to detect and describe satisfactorily 4 out of 5 simulated defects in the liver phantom. Lack of information density and insufficient number of projections was the main reason for unsatisfactory results with good cameras. It is recommended that quality control equipment as used in the described tests should be made available to Norwegian hospitals for self assessment. Regular quality assurance tests as recommended by the Norwegian Association for Radiation Physics and Norwegian Society of Nuclear Medicine should be implemented in all hospitals. Moreover, a practical training course in quality assurance should be arranged. (RF)

  18. Resitting a high-stakes postgraduate medical examination on multiple occasions: nonlinear multilevel modelling of performance in the MRCP(UK examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McManus IC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure rates in postgraduate examinations are often high and many candidates therefore retake examinations on several or even many times. Little, however, is known about how candidates perform across those multiple attempts. A key theoretical question to be resolved is whether candidates pass at a resit because they have got better, having acquired more knowledge or skills, or whether they have got lucky, chance helping them to get over the pass mark. In the UK, the issue of resits has become of particular interest since the General Medical Council issued a consultation and is considering limiting the number of attempts candidates may make at examinations. Methods Since 1999 the examination for Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK has imposed no limit on the number of attempts candidates can make at its Part 1, Part2 or PACES (Clinical examination. The present study examined the performance of candidates on the examinations from 2002/2003 to 2010, during which time the examination structure has been stable. Data were available for 70,856 attempts at Part 1 by 39,335 candidates, 37,654 attempts at Part 2 by 23,637 candidates and 40,303 attempts at PACES by 21,270 candidates, with the maximum number of attempts being 26, 21 and 14, respectively. The results were analyzed using multilevel modelling, fitting negative exponential growth curves to individual candidate performance. Results The number of candidates taking the assessment falls exponentially at each attempt. Performance improves across attempts, with evidence in the Part 1 examination that candidates are still improving up to the tenth attempt, with a similar improvement up to the fourth attempt in Part 2 and the sixth attempt at PACES. Random effects modelling shows that candidates begin at a starting level, with performance increasing by a smaller amount at each attempt, with evidence of a maximum, asymptotic level for

  19. Resitting a high-stakes postgraduate medical examination on multiple occasions: nonlinear multilevel modelling of performance in the MRCP(UK) examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Ludka, Katarzyna

    2012-06-14

    Failure rates in postgraduate examinations are often high and many candidates therefore retake examinations on several or even many times. Little, however, is known about how candidates perform across those multiple attempts. A key theoretical question to be resolved is whether candidates pass at a resit because they have got better, having acquired more knowledge or skills, or whether they have got lucky, chance helping them to get over the pass mark. In the UK, the issue of resits has become of particular interest since the General Medical Council issued a consultation and is considering limiting the number of attempts candidates may make at examinations. Since 1999 the examination for Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians of the United Kingdom (MRCP(UK)) has imposed no limit on the number of attempts candidates can make at its Part 1, Part 2 or PACES (Clinical) examination. The present study examined the performance of candidates on the examinations from 2002/2003 to 2010, during which time the examination structure has been stable. Data were available for 70,856 attempts at Part 1 by 39,335 candidates, 37,654 attempts at Part 2 by 23,637 candidates and 40,303 attempts at PACES by 21,270 candidates, with the maximum number of attempts being 26, 21 and 14, respectively. The results were analyzed using multilevel modelling, fitting negative exponential growth curves to individual candidate performance. The number of candidates taking the assessment falls exponentially at each attempt. Performance improves across attempts, with evidence in the Part 1 examination that candidates are still improving up to the tenth attempt, with a similar improvement up to the fourth attempt in Part 2 and the sixth attempt at PACES. Random effects modelling shows that candidates begin at a starting level, with performance increasing by a smaller amount at each attempt, with evidence of a maximum, asymptotic level for candidates, and candidates showing variation in starting

  20. Examining postconcussion symptoms of dizziness and imbalance on neurocognitive performance in collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Lester, Houston F; Patterson, Jessie N; Jones, Sherri M

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the effects of symptom reports of dizziness and imbalance on cognitive function in concussed collegiate football players. Retrospective, descriptive. University athletic medicine facility. Twenty-seven collegiate football players were included in the final analysis: 16 with symptoms of dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion and 11 without dizziness/imbalance resulting from concussion. Participants completed the Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) at baseline, at 1 to 2 days postconcussion and 5 to 7 days postconcussion. The ImPACT neurocognitive assessment consists of 6 modules, yielding 4 composite scores: verbal memory, visual memory, visual-motor processing speed, and reaction time. In addition, it includes a postconcussion symptom scale total score. Results revealed that participants with reports of dizziness and imbalance had significantly lower scores on the ImPACT composite scores; however, these individuals also had an overall higher symptom inventory. When accounting for the additional postconcussion symptoms, time was the only significant effect. Dizziness and imbalance are common symptoms postconcussion; however, these symptoms did not predict performance on acute ImPACT scores. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms causing postconcussion symptoms, including symptoms of dizziness and imbalance, and influence on outcomes postconcussion.

  1. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Time Constraints on Student Performance in Accounting Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects, if any, of time constraints on the success of accounting students completing exams. This study examined how time allowed to take exams affected the grades on examinations in three different accounting classes. Two were sophomore classes and one was a senior accounting class. This limited pilot…

  2. An Investigation of Music Teacher Candidates' Performance Anxiety Levels in Piano Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliç, Deniz Beste Çevik

    2018-01-01

    Examination anxiety in piano education, one of the important courses in music education, can negatively affect both success in examinations and the education of students. This study aimed to determine the anxiety levels of students in the music education departments of universities in western Turkey regarding their piano examinations and their…

  3. Examining the scope of multibusiness health care firms: implications for strategy and financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorein Inamdar, S

    2007-08-01

    Use theory and data to examine the scope of corporate strategies for multibusiness health care firms, also known as organized or integrated health care delivery systems. Data are from the 2000 HIMSS Analytics Annual Survey of integrated health care delivery systems (IHDS), which provides complete information on businesses owned by IHDS. Scope defined as the breadth and type of businesses in which a firm chooses to compete is measured across seven separate business areas: (1) health plans, (2) ambulatory, (3) acute, (4) subacute, (5) home health, (6) other related nonpatient care businesses, and (7) external collaborations. Theories on strategy and organizational configurations along with measures of scope and a novel dataset were used to classify 796 firms into five mutually exclusive groups. The bases for classification were two competitive dimensions of scope: (1) breadth of businesses and (2) mix of existing core businesses versus new noncore businesses. Unit of analysis is the multibusiness health care firm. Sample consists of 796 firms, defined as nonprofit organizations that own two or more direct patient care businesses in two or more separate areas across the health care value chain. Firms were clustered into five mutually exclusive organizational configurations with unique scope characteristics revealing a new taxonomy of corporate strategies. Analysis of the scope variables revealed five strategic types (along with the number of firms and distinguishing features of each strategy) defined as follows: (1) Core Service Provider (340 firms with the smallest scope providing core set of patient care services), (2) Mission Based (52 firms with the next smallest scope offering core set of services to underserved populations), (3) Contractor (266 firms with medium scope and contracting with physician groups), (4) Health Plan Focus (83 firms with large scope and providing health plans), and (5) Entrepreneur (55 firms with the largest scope offering both a core set

  4. Evaluation of bone marrow examinations performed by an advanced nurse practitioner: an extended role within a haematology service.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Mary

    2012-01-31

    PURPOSE: Traditionally, medical personnel have undertaken bone marrow (BM) examination. However, specially trained nurses in advanced practice roles are increasingly undertaking this role. This paper presents the findings from an audit of BM examinations undertaken by an advanced nurse practitioner (ANP) at a regional haematology specialist centre. METHODS: The audit evaluated the quality of BM examinations performed by the ANP over the past two years (September 2007-September 2009). Over the two year period, 324 BM examinations were performed at the centre of which 156 (48.1%) were performed by the ANP. A random sample of 30 BM examinations undertaken by the ANP were analysed by the consultant haematologist. RESULTS: All 30 BM examinations undertaken by the ANP were sufficient for diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The ANP is capable and competent to obtain BM samples which are of a sufficient quality to permit diagnosis.

  5. Femoral neck buttressing: a radiographic and histologic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, T.; Benjamin, J.; Lund, P.; Graham, A.; Krupinski, E.

    2000-01-01

    Objective. To examine the incidence, radiographic and histologic findings of medial femoral neck buttressing in a consecutive group of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.Design. Biomechanical parameters were evaluated on standard anteroposterior pelvic radiographs of 113 patients prior to hip replacement surgery. Demographic information on all patients was reviewed and histologic evaluation was performed on specimens obtained at the time of surgery.Results. The incidence of medial femoral neck buttressing was found to be 50% in a consecutive series of patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. The incidence was slightly higher in women (56% vs 41%). Patients with buttressing had increased neck-shaft angles and smaller femoral neck diameters than were seen in patients without buttressing. Histologic evaluation demonstrated that the buttress resulted from deposition bone by the periosteum on the femoral neck in the absence of any evidence of femoral neck fracture.Conclusion. It would appear that femoral neck buttressing occurs in response to increased joint reactive forces seen at the hip being transmitted through the femoral neck. The increased joint reactive force can be related to the increased neck shaft angle seen in patients with buttressing. (orig.)

  6. Association Between American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination Scores and Resident Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Juliet J; Sznol, Joshua A; Teisch, Laura F; Meizoso, Jonathan P; Allen, Casey J; Namias, Nicholas; Pizano, Louis R; Sleeman, Danny; Spector, Seth A; Schulman, Carl I

    2016-01-01

    The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) is designed to measure progress, applied medical knowledge, and clinical management; results may determine promotion and fellowship candidacy for general surgery residents. Evaluations are mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education but are administered at the discretion of individual institutions and are not standardized. It is unclear whether the ABSITE and evaluations form a reasonable assessment of resident performance. To determine whether favorable evaluations are associated with ABSITE performance. Cross-sectional analysis of preliminary and categorical residents in postgraduate years (PGYs) 1 through 5 training in a single university-based general surgery program from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2014, who took the ABSITE. Evaluation overall performance and subset evaluation performance in the following categories: patient care, technical skills, problem-based learning, interpersonal and communication skills, professionalism, systems-based practice, and medical knowledge. Passing the ABSITE (≥30th percentile) and ranking in the top 30% of scores at our institution. The study population comprised residents in PGY 1 (n = 44), PGY 2 (n = 31), PGY 3 (n = 26), PGY 4 (n = 25), and PGY 5 (n = 24) during the 4-year study period (N = 150). Evaluations had less variation than the ABSITE percentile (SD = 5.06 vs 28.82, respectively). Neither annual nor subset evaluation scores were significantly associated with passing the ABSITE (n = 102; for annual evaluation, odds ratio = 0.949; 95% CI, 0.884-1.019; P = .15) or receiving a top 30% score (n = 45; for annual evaluation, odds ratio = 1.036; 95% CI, 0.964-1.113; P = .33). There was no difference in mean evaluation score between those who passed vs failed the ABSITE (mean [SD] evaluation score, 91.77 [5.10] vs 93.04 [4.80], respectively; P = .14) or between those who

  7. Examining the Relationship between Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) and Objective Performance within Higher Education: An Exploratory Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Tim O.; Aikens, Shontarius D.

    2017-01-01

    While the common suggestion in leader-member exchange (LMX) research is that there is a strong relationship between LMX and performance, a closer look at these studies reveal that the performance measures in the majority of studies are primarily subjective in nature such as performance reviews. Relatively few studies examine the LMX-objective…

  8. Multi-modal image registration: matching MRI with histology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alic, Lejla; Haeck, Joost C.; Klein, Stefan; Bol, Karin; van Tiel, Sandra T.; Wielopolski, Piotr A.; Bijster, Magda; Niessen, Wiro J.; Bernsen, Monique; Veenland, Jifke F.; de Jong, Marion

    2010-03-01

    Spatial correspondence between histology and multi sequence MRI can provide information about the capabilities of non-invasive imaging to characterize cancerous tissue. However, shrinkage and deformation occurring during the excision of the tumor and the histological processing complicate the co registration of MR images with histological sections. This work proposes a methodology to establish a detailed 3D relation between histology sections and in vivo MRI tumor data. The key features of the methodology are a very dense histological sampling (up to 100 histology slices per tumor), mutual information based non-rigid B-spline registration, the utilization of the whole 3D data sets, and the exploitation of an intermediate ex vivo MRI. In this proof of concept paper, the methodology was applied to one tumor. We found that, after registration, the visual alignment of tumor borders and internal structures was fairly accurate. Utilizing the intermediate ex vivo MRI, it was possible to account for changes caused by the excision of the tumor: we observed a tumor expansion of 20%. Also the effects of fixation, dehydration and histological sectioning could be determined: 26% shrinkage of the tumor was found. The annotation of viable tissue, performed in histology and transformed to the in vivo MRI, matched clearly with high intensity regions in MRI. With this methodology, histological annotation can be directly related to the corresponding in vivo MRI. This is a vital step for the evaluation of the feasibility of multi-spectral MRI to depict histological groundtruth.

  9. Early detection of abnormality by a logistic analysis of atomic bomb survivor's serially performed examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Toyoda, Shigeki; Morikawa, Akira.

    1986-01-01

    It is important to establish a method of using periodic medical examination results for disease screening. A method is described of logistically analyzing results from four or more periodic examinations for the early detection of abnormality. This method was applied to 308 patients who died of gastric cancer and 3,002 normal controls. The logistic analysis showed that the ability to differentiate normal from abnormal findings was better when using the results of the periodic examinations than when using the data of the one particular examination. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Examining the link between HRM Practices and Employees’ performance in Nigerian public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Tabiu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving employee and organizational performance has been the main concern of many organizations for decades and several factors have also been studied as predictors of employee performance in organizations. However, studies that comprehensively measured all the dimensions of employee performance that enhance organizational effectiveness are limited. This paper explored the influence of HRM practices on the employee performance in the Nigerian public sector. Using cross sectional method on 265 participants from local government areas, the findings revealed that HRM practices such as job rotation, job autonomy and career planning had a significant and positive influence on all the three dimensions of employee performance (task, contextual and adaptive performance.

  11. The Effects of Features of Examination Questions on the Performance of Students with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Victoria; Johnson, Martin; Novakovic, Nadezda

    2012-01-01

    This research investigated whether features of examination questions influence students with dyslexia differently to others, potentially affecting whether they have a fair opportunity to show their knowledge, understanding and skills. A number of science examination questions were chosen. For some questions two slightly different versions were…

  12. Subspecialty Exposure in a Psychiatry Clerkship Does Not Improve Student Performance in the Subject Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamero, Carolina; Ramchandani, Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the NBME subject examination scores and subspecialty profiles of 3rd-year medical students who were assigned to psychiatry subspecialties during their clerkship with those who were not. Method: The authors collated and analyzed the shelf examination scores, the clinical grades, and the child psychiatry and emergency…

  13. Performance testing of a system for remote ultrasonic examination of the Hanford double-shell waste storage tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, D.C.; Somers, T.; Berger, A.D.

    1995-02-01

    A mobile robotic inspection system is being developed for remote ultrasonic examination of the double wall waste storage tanks at Hanford. Performance testing of the system includes demonstrating robot mobility within the tank annulus, evaluating the accuracy of the vision based navigation process, and verifying ultrasonic and video system performance. This paper briefly describes the system and presents a summary of the plan for performance testing of the ultrasonic testing system. Performance test results will be presented at the conference

  14. In vivo imaging of the airway wall in asthma: fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy in relation to histology and lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bel Elisabeth H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is a feature of asthma including fragmentation of elastic fibres observed in the superficial elastin network of the airway wall. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM is a new and non-invasive imaging technique performed during bronchoscopy that may visualize elastic fibres, as shown by in vitro spectral analysis of elastin powder. We hypothesized that FCFM images capture in vivo elastic fibre patterns within the airway wall and that such patterns correspond with airway histology. We aimed to establish the concordance between the bronchial elastic fibre pattern in histology and FCFM. Second, we examined whether elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM were different between asthmatic subjects and healthy controls. Finally, the association between these patterns and lung function parameters was investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional study comprising 16 subjects (8 atopic asthmatic patients with controlled disease and 8 healthy controls spirometry and bronchoscopy were performed, with recording of FCFM images followed by endobronchial biopsy at the airway main carina. Elastic fibre patterns in histological sections and FCFM images were scored semi-quantitatively. Agreement between histology and FCFM was analysed using linearly weighted kappa κw. Results The patterns observed in histological sections and FCFM images could be divided into 3 distinct groups. There was good agreement between elastic fibre patterns in histology and FCFM patterns (κw 0.744. The semi-quantitative pattern scores were not different between asthmatic patients and controls. Notably, there was a significant difference in post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted between the different patterns by histology (p = 0.001 and FCFM (p = 0.048, regardless of asthma or atopy. Conclusion FCFM captures the elastic fibre pattern within the airway wall in humans in vivo. The association between post-bronchodilator FEV1 %predicted and

  15. Performance Volatility and Wage Elasticity: An Examination of Listed Chinese A-share Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Chen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of future financial risk on the part of managers and changes in firm finances are two of the fundamental reasons for upward and downward rigidity of wages. The proxy variable for firm financial risk is volatility, the past performance of which is among the principal indicators of wage rigidity. In firms whose current performance is on the upswing, the greater the volatility in past performance, the smaller the elasticity ratio and the more acute the upward rigidity; the more stable past performance, the larger the elasticity ratio and the more acute the upward elasticity. In firms in which current performance is declining, greater past performance volatility leads to a larger elasticity ratio and more acute downward rigidity, whereas more stable such performance leads to a smaller elasticity ratio and more acute downward rigidity.

  16. The impact of high performance work systems in Irish companies: an examination of company and employee outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mkamwa, Thadeus F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) on company and employee-level performance outcomes. At the company level, the study examines the outcomes of HPWS usage on innovation, productivity and turnover. The study uses data collected from 132 companies in Ireland who participated in a general manager (GM) and human resource (HR) manager survey conducted in 2006. This study shows that an extensive application ...

  17. Perceived Influencers of the Decline on Performance of Students in Botswana General Certificate of Secondary Education's Agriculture Examination Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibanda, Clyde; Hulela, Keba; Tselaesele, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate factors perceived to contribute to the decline of students' performance in the Botswana's General Certificate of Secondary Education (BGCSE) agriculture results. Ninety-one agriculture examiners were randomly sampled out of 100 teachers who were invited to mark the 2012 end of year examination scripts. A…

  18. Memory functions in chronic pain: examining contributions of attention and age to test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Joukje M; Derksen, Laura C; van Wijck, Albert J M; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Kessels, Roy P C

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain, mediate the decline in memory. Finally, previous studies have focused on middle-aged adults, and a possible detrimental effect of aging on memory performance in chronic pain patients has been commonly disregarded. This study, therefore, aimed at describing the pattern of semantic, working, and visual and verbal episodic memory performance in participants with chronic pain, while testing for possible contributions of attention and age to task performance. Thirty-four participants with chronic pain and 32 pain-free participants completed tests of episodic, semantic, and working memory to assess memory performance and a test of attention. Participants with chronic pain performed worse on tests of working memory and verbal episodic memory. A decline in attention explained some, but not all, group differences in memory performance. Finally, no additional effect of age on the diminished task performance in participants with chronic pain was observed. Taken together, the results indicate that chronic pain significantly affects memory performance. Part of this effect may be caused by underlying attentional dysfunction, although this could not fully explain the observed memory decline. An increase in age in combination with the presence of chronic pain did not additionally affect memory performance.

  19. Effect of private tutoring on university entrance examination performance in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Bircan, Fatma

    2005-01-01

    There is an excess demand for university education in Turkey. Highly competitive university entrance examination which rations the available places at university programs is very central to the lives of young people. In order to increase the chances of success of their children in the university entrance examination parents spend large sums of money on private tutoring (dersane) of their children. In this study, we investigate the factors that determine participation in private tutoring and t...

  20. Number of X-ray examinations performed on paediatric and geriatric patients compared with adult patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroua, A.; Bochud, F. O.; Valley, J. F.; Vader, J. P.; Verdun, F. R.

    2007-01-01

    The age of the patient is of prime importance when assessing the radiological risk to patients due to medical X-ray exposures and the total detriment to the population due to radiodiagnostics. In order to take into account the age-specific radiosensitivity, three age groups are considered: children, adults and the elderly. In this work, the relative number of examinations carried out on paediatric and geriatric patients is established, compared with adult patients, for radiodiagnostics as a whole, for dental and medical radiology, for 8 radiological modalities as well as for 40 types of X-ray examinations. The relative numbers of X-ray examinations are determined based on the corresponding age distributions of patients and that of the general population. Two broad groups of X-ray examinations may be defined. Group A comprises conventional radiography, fluoroscopy and computed tomography; for this group a paediatric patient undergoes half the number of examinations as that of an adult, and a geriatric patient undergoes 2.5 times more. Group B comprises angiography and interventional procedures; for this group a paediatric patient undergoes a one-fourth of the number of examinations carried out on an adult, and a geriatric patient undergoes five times more. (authors)

  1. Discriminant analysis of Social Work’s performance in licensure examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel R. Alonzo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many research studies have examined academic factors as predictors of success in licensure examination. The purpose of this descriptive discriminant analysis was to explore possible factors in passing social work licensure examination. Data were examined from academic records of 69 (37 passed and 32 failed Social Work graduates of the University of Mindanao who took Social Work Licensure Examination 2014. This can be used as a basis of Social Work program in planning and administering strategies to improve its national passing rates. Discriminant analysis was employed along five academic factors which are Human Behavior and Social Environment (HBSE, Social Work Programs and Policies (SWPP, Social Work Methods (SWM, Field Practice (FP and Grade Point Average (GPA. The analysis generated three significant predictors accounting for 76.22% of between group variability. The function had a hit ratio of 100%. Structure matrix revealed that three cluster subjects were identified as good factors of passing the social work licensure examination: HBSE, SWPP and SWM had a correlation value of 0.713, 0.768 and 0.840, respectively.

  2. Performance feedback: An exploratory study to examine the acceptability and impact for interdisciplinary primary care teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This mixed methods study was designed to explore the acceptability and impact of feedback of team performance data to primary care interdisciplinary teams. Methods Seven interdisciplinary teams were offered a one-hour, facilitated performance feedback session presenting data from a comprehensive, previously-conducted evaluation, selecting highlights such as performance on chronic disease management, access, patient satisfaction and team function. Results Several recurrent themes emerged from participants' surveys and two rounds of interviews within three months of the feedback session. Team performance measurement and feedback was welcomed across teams and disciplines. This feedback could build the team, the culture, and the capacity for quality improvement. However, existing performance indicators do not equally reflect the role of different disciplines within an interdisciplinary team. Finally, the effect of team performance feedback on intentions to improve performance was hindered by a poor understanding of how the team could use the data. Conclusions The findings further our understanding of how performance feedback may engage interdisciplinary team members in improving the quality of primary care and the unique challenges specific to these settings. There is a need to develop a shared sense of responsibility and agenda for quality improvement. Therefore, more efforts to develop flexible and interactive performance-reporting structures (that better reflect contributions from all team members) in which teams could specify the information and audience may assist in promoting quality improvement. PMID:21443806

  3. Histologic changes in previously irradiated thyroid glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdiserri, R.O.; Borochovitz, D.

    1980-03-01

    Thyroid tissue from 90 patients with a history of therapeutic irradiation to the head and neck in childhood and adolescence was examined microscopically. In addition to the well-known observation that these individuals have an increased incidence of primary thyroid carcinoma, it was also demonstrated that they have an increased incidence of benign histologic changes. These changes represent a spectrum from nonspecific hyperplastic lesions to benign neoplasis and thyroidltis.

  4. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument

    OpenAIRE

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H.; Ruiz, Saul; Rodriguez-Sosa, Jos? R.; Hall, Margaret I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granul...

  5. Success, Failure and Emotions: Examining the Relationship between Performance Feedback and Emotions in Diagnostic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Amanda; Harley, Jason M.; Lajoie, Susanne; Naismith, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Students experience a variety of emotions following achievement outcomes which stand to influence how they learn and perform in academic settings. However, little is known about the link between student outcome emotions and dimensions of performance feedback in computer-based learning environments (CBLEs). Understanding the dynamics of this…

  6. Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

  7. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  8. How Does Satisfaction Translate into Performance? An Examination of Commitment and Cultural Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to add new insights into the mechanism through which job satisfaction relates to job performance. Affective commitment was tested as a potential mediator between job satisfaction and job performance, and traditionality was used as a potential moderator between job satisfaction and affective commitment. A survey study…

  9. Human Performance Technology (HPT): An Examination of Definitions through Dependent and Independent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbeck, Sonja A.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a chronological perspective of human performance technology (HPT) definitions and an evaluation of them in terms of independent and dependent variables. Discusses human competence and performance technology and compares the definitions with the goals that have been articulated for HPT. (Author/LRW)

  10. Examining the Relationship between Employee Satisfaction and Organizational Performance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusing, Roger P.

    2017-01-01

    Organizations, regardless of industry/sector, should consistently evaluate and improve organizational performance. Higher education institutions have come under increasing pressures to control costs while improving outcomes and would benefit from strategies that improve the performance of their employees leading to improved organizational…

  11. A Study of Gender and Performance on Advanced Placement History Examinations. College Board Report No. 91-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Hunter M.; And Others

    Several studies have shown that, on average, women perform slightly better than men on free-response tests, while men perform slightly better on multiple-choice tests. Two advanced placement examinations, United States History (USH) and European History (EH), were chosen for study because previous studies have shown that sex differences on the…

  12. Frequency of paediatric medical imaging examinations performed at a European teaching hospital over a 7-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portelli, Jonathan L.; Bezzina, Paul [University of Malta, Department of Radiography, Faculty of Health Sciences, Msida (Malta); McNulty, Jonathan P.; Rainford, Louise [University College Dublin, Diagnostic Imaging, School of Medicine and Medical Science, Dublin (Ireland)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to gain an insight into frequencies by which a range of medical imaging (MI) examinations were performed on paediatric patients at the main acute general teaching hospital in Malta between 2008 and 2014. Frequency data of MI examinations performed on paediatric patients were retrospectively collected from relevant information systems. All data was coded accordingly to facilitate data analysis. A total of 95,805 MI examinations were performed on 39,707 unique paediatric patients (<18 years) between 2008 and 2014. Overall, the total number of paediatric MI examinations performed decreased over time, with use varying depending on modality type and paediatric age. Coincidentally the use of ultrasound and MRI increased year after year. Some paediatric patients underwent at least three MI examinations involving the same anatomical region being scanned, and which may collectively contribute to effective doses exceeding 10 mSv. Knowledge of how MI examinations are used within the paediatric population can help practices evaluate and address any trends highlighted for particular examinations or age category of paediatric patients. Furthermore, awareness of current trends of MI in children can be helpful for the planning of future paediatric radiology departments. (orig.)

  13. Frequency of paediatric medical imaging examinations performed at a European teaching hospital over a 7-year period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portelli, Jonathan L.; Bezzina, Paul; McNulty, Jonathan P.; Rainford, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to gain an insight into frequencies by which a range of medical imaging (MI) examinations were performed on paediatric patients at the main acute general teaching hospital in Malta between 2008 and 2014. Frequency data of MI examinations performed on paediatric patients were retrospectively collected from relevant information systems. All data was coded accordingly to facilitate data analysis. A total of 95,805 MI examinations were performed on 39,707 unique paediatric patients (<18 years) between 2008 and 2014. Overall, the total number of paediatric MI examinations performed decreased over time, with use varying depending on modality type and paediatric age. Coincidentally the use of ultrasound and MRI increased year after year. Some paediatric patients underwent at least three MI examinations involving the same anatomical region being scanned, and which may collectively contribute to effective doses exceeding 10 mSv. Knowledge of how MI examinations are used within the paediatric population can help practices evaluate and address any trends highlighted for particular examinations or age category of paediatric patients. Furthermore, awareness of current trends of MI in children can be helpful for the planning of future paediatric radiology departments. (orig.)

  14. Assessment of performance measures and learning curves for use of a virtual-reality ultrasound simulator in transvaginal ultrasound examination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M E; Konge, L; Nørgaard, L N

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of performance measures, develop credible performance standards and explore learning curves for a virtual-reality simulator designed for transvaginal gynecological ultrasound examination. METHODS: A group of 16 ultrasound novices, along with a group......-6), corresponding to an average of 219 min (range, 150-251 min) of training. The test/retest reliability was high, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93. CONCLUSIONS: Competence in the performance of gynecological ultrasound examination can be assessed in a valid and reliable way using virtual-reality...

  15. Alliance Concentration in Multinational Companies : Examining Alliance Portfolios, Firm Structure, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Brenda; Faems, Dries; Noseleit, Florian

    Research summary: This article explores the distribution of alliances across firms' internal structure. Focusing on multinational companies, we examine the impact of alliance portfolio concentrationi.e., the extent to which alliances are concentrated within a limited number of geographic unitson

  16. An Examination of the Effects of Argument Mapping on Students' Memory and Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Christopher P.; Hogan, Michael J.; Stewart, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Argument mapping (AM) is a method of visually diagramming arguments to allow for easy comprehension of core statements and relations. A series of three experiments compared argument map reading and construction with hierarchical outlining, text summarisation, and text reading as learning methods by examining subsequent memory and comprehension…

  17. Alliance Concentration in Multinational Companies : Examining Alliance Portfolios, Firm Structure, and Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Brenda; Faems, Dries; Noseleit, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Research summary: This article explores the distribution of alliances across firms' internal structure. Focusing on multinational companies, we examine the impact of alliance portfolio concentrationi.e., the extent to which alliances are concentrated within a limited number of geographic unitson

  18. Intelligence moderates the benefits of strategy instructions on memory performance: An adult-lifespan examination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankenmolen, N.L.; Altgassen, A.M.; Kessels, R.M.H.; Waal, M.M. de; Hindriksen, J.A.; Verhoeven, B.W.H.; Fasotti, L.; Scheres, A.P.J.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Oosterman, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Whether older adults can compensate for their associative memory deficit by using memory strategies efficiently might depend on their general cognitive abilities. This study examined the moderating role of an IQ estimate on the beneficial effects of strategy instructions. A total of 142 participants

  19. Performance of Physical Examination Skills in Medical Students during Diagnostic Medicine Course in a University Hospital of Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Li, Na; Han, Qunying; He, Shuixiang; Bae, Ricard S.; Liu, Zhengwen; Lv, Yi; Shi, Bingyin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of physical examination (PE) skills during our diagnostic medicine course and analyze the characteristics of the data collected to provide information for practical guidance to improve the quality of teaching. Seventy-two fourth-year medical students were enrolled in the study. All received an assessment of PE skills after receiving a 17-week formal training course and systematic teaching. Their performance was evaluated and recorded in detail using a checklist, which included 5 aspects of PE skills: examination techniques, communication and care skills, content items, appropriateness of examination sequence, and time taken. Error frequency and type were designated as the assessment parameters in the survey. The results showed that the distribution and the percentage in examination errors between male and female students and among the different body parts examined were significantly different (pexaminations was higher than in abdominal (0.867) and head, neck and nervous system examinations (0.917). Female students had a lower average error frequency than males in cardiac examinations (p = 0.041). Additionally, error in examination techniques was the highest type of error among the 5 aspects of PE skills irrespective of participant gender and assessment content (pexaminations and examination techniques may be included in the main focus of improving the teaching of diagnostics in these medical students. PMID:25329685

  20. An examination of the impact of executive compensation disparity on corporate social performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, T.A.; David, P.; Shao, F.; Fox, C.J.; Westermann-Behaylo, M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between top management team compensation disparity and corporate social performance. We argue that pay structures with high disparity are reflective of transactional, individualistic organizations that foster a shareholder orientation. In contrast, pay structures with

  1. The effects of alignments: examining group faultlines, organizational cultures, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukova, Katerina; Thatcher, Sherry M B; Jehn, Karen A; Spell, Chester S

    2012-01-01

    By integrating literature on group faultlines, organizational cultures, and value congruence, this research presents a framework that explains how cultural alignment across organizational levels may influence the relationship between faultlines and performance. The hypotheses were tested using representatively sampled multisource qualitative and quantitative data on 138 teams from a Fortune 500 company. The present findings demonstrate that although informational faultlines were detrimental for group performance, the negative relationship between faultlines and performance was reversed when cultures with a strong emphasis on results were aligned, was lessened when cultures with a weak emphasis on results were aligned, and remained negative when cultures were misaligned with respect to their results orientation. These findings show the importance of recognizing alignments not only within groups (group faultlines) but also outside groups (cultural alignments between the group and departments) when considering their implications for group performance.

  2. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  3. [Breast cancer: histological prognosis from biopsy material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veith, F; Picco, C

    1977-01-01

    Two histological factors to be taken into consideration for prognosis in pretreatment schedules of breast cancer have been studied on a group of 352 cases treated by non-mutilating therapeutics at the Fondation Curie between 1960 and 1970. The tumour material the slides of which we have reexamined "blindly", i.e. ignoring the evolution of the case had been obtained mostly by drill-biopsy. Histological groups and types have been determined following an analytical classification for computer purpose. The degree of malignancy was calculated with the method of Scarff-Bloom-Richardson. The analyzed data have been memorized on computer and then confronted with the elements of the T.N.M. classification and the survival of the patients involved. It appeared that if drill-biopsie have been performed correctly the histological type may be defined in eighty percent of cases. And it is likewise possible to calculate the histological grade of malignancy for each mammary cancer. With such a material the value for prognosis by means of the Scarff-Bloom-Richardson method still remains if applied only to adenocarcinoma of the "common infiltrating type".

  4. Histologic findings of femoral heads from patients with Gaucher disease treated with enzyme replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Ehud; Elstein, Deborah; Peleg, Ariel; Reinus, Constantine; Zimran, Ari; Amir, Gail

    2013-07-01

    To assess correlations of patient demographics, including enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with bone histology, to facilitate decisions of whether and when to perform hip replacement surgery in patients with Gaucher disease. We examined the histology of surgically removed femoral heads and categorized findings by the presence or extent of osteonecrosis, Gaucher cell (GC) infiltration, and bone regeneration qualifiers using a tripartite histology-based scoring system. Twenty-two patients with 26 bone specimens were evaluated. Seventeen patients (77%) were splenectomized, 16 (73%) received ERT, and 12 (55%) had the putatively milder genotype (N370S/N370S), with the rest putatively at increased risk for skeletal disease (N370S/other). The 3 histology subscores were applicable to all specimens. Osteonecrotic bone was seen in 19 of 26 (73%); osteoarthritis was seen in all cartilage specimens. Gaucher cell infiltration was not correlated with demographics or disease severity. A trend was noted between reduced GC infiltration and ERT (ρ = 0.407), but regeneration qualifiers were not correlated with ERT or other features. Histologic findings of GC infiltration and bone regeneration qualifiers did not correlate with demographics or with exposure to ERT. Most specimens unexpectedly showed good regenerative responses to osteonecrosis despite heavy GC infiltration.

  5. Early magnetic resonance imaging and histologic findings in a model of avascular necrosis of femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Takuya [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1997-12-01

    The present study was performed to examine early MR images and histologic findings using a canine model of avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH). The ANFH model was surgically induced. At three days, 1, 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the proximal femurs were excised. MR images were obtained in 4 dogs at 3 days and 7 dogs at each of the other intervals. Histologic examinations were performed on 7 dogs at each interval. Three days after surgery, MR showed almost no abnormal findings. Histologic changes included edematous bone marrow and bleeding in the bone marrow in some regions. One week after surgery, empty lacunae in trabecular bones and immature fibrous tissues in the bone marrow were seen in some cases, but appositional bone was not yet apparent. In only one case, abnormal MR findings -a ringlike pattern- were seen. Two weeks after surgery, 4 cases showed appositional bones on histology and abnormalities on MR images. Four weeks after surgery, fibrous tissues had matured and appositional bones had increased. Therefore, all 7 cases showed MR imaging abnormalities. Abnormal MR images included a ringlike pattern, and homogeneous and inhomogeneous patterns. These results indicated that MR imaging shows abnormality 2 weeks after surgery at the latest. (author)

  6. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Hinton

    Full Text Available The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674 of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  7. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Daniel P; Higson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  8. Organizational learning and continuous quality improvement: examining the impact on nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Kent V; Wagar, Terry H

    2002-01-01

    Interest is growing in learning more about the ability of total quality management and continuous quality improvement (TQM/CQI) initiatives to contribute to the performance of healthcare organizations. A major factor in the successful implementation of TQM/CQI is the seminal contribution of an organization's culture. Many implementation efforts have not succeeded because of a corporate culture that failed to stress broader organizational learning. This may help to explain why some TQM/CQI programs have been unsuccessful in improving healthcare organization performance. Organizational performance variables and organizational learning orientation were assessed in a sample of 181 Canadian long-term care organizations that had implemented a formal TQM/CQI program. Categorical regression analysis shows that, in the absence of a strong corporAte culture that stresses organizational learning and employee development, few performance enhancements are reported. The results of the assessment suggest that a TQM/CQI program without the backing of a strong organizational learning culture may be insufficient to achieve augmented organizational performance.

  9. An Examination of the Performance Based Building Code on the Design of a Commercial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Greenwood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Building Code of Australia (BCA is the principal code under which building approvals in Australia are assessed. The BCA adopted performance-based solutions for building approvals in 1996. Performance-based codes are based upon a set of explicit objectives, stated in terms of a hierarchy of requirements beginning with key general objectives. With this in mind, the research presented in this paper aims to analyse the impact of the introduction of the performance-based code within Western Australia to gauge the effect and usefulness of alternative design solutions in commercial construction using a case study project. The research revealed that there are several advantages to the use of alternative designs and that all parties, in general, are in favour of the performance-based building code of Australia. It is suggested that change in the assessment process to streamline the alternative design path is needed for the greater use of the performance-based alternative. With appropriate quality control measures, minor variations to the deemed-to-satisfy provisions could easily be managed by the current and future building surveying profession.

  10. Maltese CT doses for commonly performed examinations demonstrate alignment with published DRLs across europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarb, F.; McEntee, M.; Rainford, L.

    2012-01-01

    This work recommends dose reference levels (DRLs) for abdomen, chest and head computerised tomography (CT) examinations in Malta as the first step towards national CT dose optimisation. Third quartiles volume CT dose index values for abdomen: 12.1 mGy, chest: 13.1 mGy and head: 41 mGy and third quartile dose-length product values for abdomen: 539.4, chest: 492 and head: 736 mGy cm -1 are recommended as Maltese DRLs derived from this first Maltese CT dose survey. These values compare well with DRLs of other European countries indicating that CT scanning in Malta is consistent with standards of good practice. Further work to minimise dose without affecting image quality and extending the establishment of DRLs for other CT examinations is recommended. (authors)

  11. Qualitative and quantitative examination of the performance of regional air quality models representing different modeling approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhumralkar, C.M.; Ludwig, F.L.; Shannon, J.D.; McNaughton, D.

    1985-04-01

    The calculations of three different air quality models were compared with the best available observations. The comparisons were made without calibrating the models to improve agreement with the observations. Model performance was poor for short averaging times (less than 24 hours). Some of the poor performance can be traced to errors in the input meteorological fields, but error exist on all levels. It should be noted that these models were not originally designed for treating short-term episodes. For short-term episodes, much of the variance in the data can arise from small spatial scale features that tend to be averaged out over longer periods. These small spatial scale features cannot be resolved with the coarse grids that are used for the meteorological and emissions inputs. Thus, it is not surprising that the models performed for the longer averaging times. The models compared were RTM-II, ENAMAP-2 and ACID. (17 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Correlation between ICDAS and histology: Differences between stereomicroscopy and microradiography with contrast solution as histological techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara de Azevedo Gomes Campos

    Full Text Available Detection of occlusal caries with visual examination using ICDAS correlates strongly with histology under stereomicroscopy (SM, but dentin aspects under SM are ambiguous regarding mineral content. Thus, our aim was to test two null hypotheses: SM and microradiography result in similar correlations between ICDAS and histology; SM and microradiography result in similar positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV of ICDAS cut-off 1-2 (scores 0-2 as sound with histological threshold D3 (demineralization in the inner third of dentin. Occlusal surfaces of extracted permanent teeth (n = 115 were scored using ICDAS. Undemineralized ground sections were histologically scored using both SM without contrast solution and microradiography after immersion in Thoulet's solution 1.47 for 24 h (MRC. Correlation between ICDAS and histology differed from SM (0.782 to MRC (0.511 (p = 0.0002, with a large effect size "q" of 0.49 (95% CI: 0.638/0.338. For ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and D3, PPV from MRC (0.56 was higher than that from SM (0.28 (p< 0.00001; effect size h = 0.81, and NPV from MRC (0.72 was lower than that from SM (1,00 (p < 0.00001; effect size h = 1.58. In conclusion, SM overestimated the correlation between ICDAS and lesion depth, and underestimated the number of occlusal surfaces with ICDAS cut-off 1-2 and deep dentin demineralization.

  13. Motivated to do well: an examination of the relationships between motivation, effort, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foussias, G; Siddiqui, I; Fervaha, G; Mann, S; McDonald, K; Agid, O; Zakzanis, K K; Remington, G

    2015-08-01

    The uncertain relationship between negative symptoms, and specifically motivational deficits, with cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is in need of further elucidation as it pertains to the interpretation of cognitive test results. Findings to date have suggested a possible mediating role of motivational deficits on cognitive test measures, although findings from formal examinations of effort using performance validity measures have been inconsistent. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between motivation, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance in schizophrenia. Sixty-nine outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were evaluated for psychopathology, severity of motivational deficits, effort exerted during cognitive testing, and cognitive performance. Motivation and degree of effort exerted during cognitive testing were significantly related to cognitive performance, specifically verbal fluency, verbal and working memory, attention and processing speed, and reasoning and problem solving. Further, effort accounted for 15% of the variance in cognitive performance, and partially mediated the relationship between motivation and cognitive performance. Examining cognitive performance profiles for individuals exerting normal or reduced effort revealed significant differences in global cognition, as well as attention/processing speed and reasoning and problem solving. These findings suggest that cognitive domains may be differentially affected by impairments in motivation and effort, and highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between motivation and cognitive performance deficits, which may guide the appropriate selection of symptom targets for promoting recovery in patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Student Application for Special Consideration for Examination Performance Following a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, David; Garrill, Ashley; Johnston, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Universities have a long-established tradition of granting students special consideration when circumstances beyond their control negatively affect performance in assessments. Typically, such situations affect only one student (e.g. medical emergencies) but we consider the impact of a natural disaster that led to all students being eligible for…

  15. Memory functions in chronic pain: examining contributions of attention and age to test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,

  16. Geographic and temporal validity of prediction models: Different approaches were useful to examine model performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Austin (Peter); D. van Klaveren (David); Y. Vergouwe (Yvonne); D. Nieboer (Daan); D.S. Lee (Douglas); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Validation of clinical prediction models traditionally refers to the assessment of model performance in new patients. We studied different approaches to geographic and temporal validation in the setting of multicenter data from two time periods. Study Design and Setting: We

  17. English Value-Added Measures: Examining the Limitations of School Performance Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Value-added "Progress" measures are to be introduced for all English schools in 2016 as "headline" measures of school performance. This move comes despite research highlighting high levels of instability in value-added measures and concerns about the omission of contextual variables in the planned measure. This article studies…

  18. Examining the Relationship between Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall: The Effect of Concurrent Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatarah, Parveen; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2006-01-01

    In 3 experiments, participants saw lists of 16 words for free recall with or without a 6-digit immediate serial recall (ISR) task after each word. Free recall was performed under standard visual silent and spoken-aloud conditions (Experiment 1), overt rehearsal conditions (Experiment 2), and fixed rehearsal conditions (Experiment 3). The authors…

  19. Major Difference: An Examination of Student Writing Performance by Major and Its Implications for Business Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmar, Lucia S.; Hynes, Geraldine E.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the writing performance levels of 352 students to determine the extent to which business students are achieving written communication competency and whether differences exist among the business majors. Although most students met or exceeded expectations in format and content on a common writing task, students were weakest in…

  20. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants’ hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. Results The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Conclusions Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. PMID:25710968

  1. A Qualitative Multi-Site Case Study: Examining Principals' Leadership Styles and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyear, Loukisha

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multi-site case study was to explore the impact of principals' leadership styles on student academic achievement in a high-poverty low-performing school district in Louisiana. A total of 17 participants, principals and teachers, from this school district were used in this study. Data source triangulation of…

  2. The effect of two grading systems on the performance of medical students during oral examinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ba-Ali, Shakoor; Jemec, Gregor B E; Sander, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Either a pass/fail approach or a seven-point grading scale are used to evaluate students at the Danish universities. The aim of this study was to explore any effect of the assessment methods on student performances during oral exams. METHODS: In a prospective study including 1,037 e...

  3. Memory Functions in Chronic Pain Examining Contributions of Attention and Age to Test Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterman, J.M.; Derksen, L.C.; Wijck, A.J.M. van; Veldhuijzen, D.S.; Kessels, R.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have revealed that memory performance is diminished in chronic pain patients. Few studies, however, have assessed multiple components of memory in a single sample. It is currently also unknown whether attentional problems, which are commonly observed in chronic pain,

  4. A Longitudinal Examination of Rater and Ratee Effects in Performance Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Robert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the consistency and loci of leniency, halo, and range restriction effects in performance ratings in a longitudinal study. Policy supervisors (N=90) rated 350 subordinates on five occasions. Concluded that reliable variance in mean ratings is partly attributable to ratees, but mainly introduced by raters. (JAC)

  5. Examining Writing Performance and Self-Perception for Low Socioeconomic Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Toni-Ann; Sinatra, Richard; Eschenauer, Robert; Brasco, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The present case study investigated the impact of a short-term summer literacy approach on writing performance and self-perception of writing for young adolescents of low-income families residing in urban housing projects. The approach offered intensive literacy engagement to offset summer achievement loss; assisted ethnic-minority, low…

  6. A systematic review of the diagnostic performance of orthopedic physical examination tests of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Labib Ataur; Adie, Sam; Naylor, Justine Maree; Mittal, Rajat; So, Sarah; Harris, Ian Andrew

    2013-08-30

    Previous reviews of the diagnostic performances of physical tests of the hip in orthopedics have drawn limited conclusions because of the low to moderate quality of primary studies published in the literature. This systematic review aims to build on these reviews by assessing a broad range of hip pathologies, and employing a more selective approach to the inclusion of studies in order to accurately gauge diagnostic performance for the purposes of making recommendations for clinical practice and future research. It specifically identifies tests which demonstrate strong and moderate diagnostic performance. A systematic search of Medline, Embase, Embase Classic and CINAHL was conducted to identify studies of hip tests. Our selection criteria included an analysis of internal and external validity. We reported diagnostic performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios. Likelihood ratios were used to identify tests with strong and moderate diagnostic utility. Only a small proportion of tests reported in the literature have been assessed in methodologically valid primary studies. 16 studies were included in our review, producing 56 independent test-pathology combinations. Two tests demonstrated strong clinical utility, the patellar-pubic percussion test for excluding radiologically occult hip fractures (negative LR 0.05, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.03-0.08) and the hip abduction sign for diagnosing sarcoglycanopathies in patients with known muscular dystrophies (positive LR 34.29, 95% CI 10.97-122.30). Fifteen tests demonstrated moderate diagnostic utility for diagnosing and/or excluding hip fractures, symptomatic osteoarthritis and loosening of components post-total hip arthroplasty. We have identified a number of tests demonstrating strong and moderate diagnostic performance. These findings must be viewed with caution as there are concerns over the methodological quality of the primary studies from which we have extracted our

  7. The relationship between educational preparation and performance on the ARRT examination in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Mark R.; Washington, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if graduates of different types of educational programs obtain similar scores on the Examination in Radiation Therapy administered by the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists. The results will help inform discussions regarding educational requirements for radiation therapists. Methods and Materials: Test scores were obtained for 531 candidates who had taken the examination for the first time in 1997, 1998, or 1999. Candidates were divided into the following three categories, based on the type of educational program attended: hospital-based certificate, associate's degree, or bachelor's degree. To determine if test scores were related to the type of educational preparation, analyses of variance were conducted separately to test for differences in total scores and section scores, and scores on test questions intended to measure critical thinking skills. Results: Candidates with an associate's degree scored slightly lower than candidates with a bachelor's degree on the total test (p<0.10) and lower than candidates with either a certificate or bachelor's degree on Section B of the examination (Treatment Planning and Delivery, p<0.10). Baccalaureate candidates did not obtain higher scores than those prepared in certificate programs. On critical thinking questions, candidates with certificates scored higher than those with associate's degrees (p<0.10). Some evidence suggested that candidates with a certificate scored higher on critical thinking than those with a bachelor's degree (p<0.10), and that candidates with a bachelor's degree scored higher than candidates with an associate's degree (p<0.10). Conclusions: Although some of the differences in the mean test scores among the three educational groups were statistically significant, all differences were small and do not support one type of educational preparation over another

  8. An Examination of Mediators of the Transfer of Cognitive Speed of Processing Training to Everyday Functional Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Jerri D.; Ruva, Christine L.; O’Brien, Jennifer L.; Haley, Christine B.; Lister, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (Edwards, Wadley, Vance, Roenker, & Ball, 2005). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 communit...

  9. Training Program for Cardiology Residents to Perform Focused Cardiac Ultrasound Examination with Portable Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Vicente N; Mancuso, Frederico J N; Campos, Orlando; De Paola, Angelo A; Carvalho, Antonio C; Moises, Valdir A

    2015-10-01

    Training requirements for general cardiologists without echocardiographic expertise to perform focused cardiac ultrasound (FCU) with portable devices have not yet been defined. The objective of this study was to evaluate a training program to instruct cardiology residents to perform FCU with a hand-carried device (HCD) in different clinical settings. Twelve cardiology residents were subjected to a 50-question test, 4 lectures on basic echocardiography and imaging interpretation, the supervised interpretation of 50 echocardiograms and performance of 30 exams using HCD. After this period, they repeated the written test and were administered a practical test comprising 30 exams each (360 patients) in different clinical settings. They reported on 15 parameters and a final diagnosis; their findings were compared to the HCD exam of a specialist in echocardiography. The proportion of correct answers on the theoretical test was higher after training (86%) than before (51%; P = 0.001). The agreement was substantial among the 15 parameters analyzed (kappa ranging from 0.615 to 0.891; P < 0.001). The percentage of correct interpretation was lower for abnormal (75%) than normal (95%) items, for valve abnormalities (85%) compared to other items (92%) and for graded scale (87%) than for dichotomous (95%) items (P < 0.0001, for all). For the final diagnoses, the kappa value was higher than 0.941 (P < 0.001; 95% CI [0.914, 0.955]). The training proposed enabled residents to perform FCU with HCD, and their findings were in good agreement with those of a cardiologist specialized in echocardiography. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-07-01

    Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees' perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants' hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods: At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and m...

  12. Examining gender differences on FCI performance in algebra and calculus based physics courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Kimberley; Boudreaux, Andrew

    2009-05-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has been widely used to asses student understanding of Newtonian principles. Studies have shown a marked difference in the performance of men and women on both pre- and post-tests [1,2] and also indicate that experiential based instruction may lead to a reduction in this gender gap [1,3]. This poster presents FCI data collected at Western Washington University. Initial analysis of gender differences are consistent with those reported nationally. We also discuss factors that may contribute to the differences in performance and propose instructional strategies that are designed to address the gender gap. [4pt] [1] M. Lorenzo, et. al., ``Reducing the gender gap in the physics classroom,'' AJP 74(2), 118-122 (2006) [0pt] [2] J. Docktor and K. Heller, ``Gender Differences in Both Force Concept Inventory and Introductory Physics Performance,'' Proceedings at the 2008 PERC [0pt] [3] S. Pollack, et. al., ``Reducing the gender gap in the physics classroom: How sufficient is interactive engagement?'' PRST-PER 3 (2007)

  13. Examining Vision and Attention in Sports Performance Using a Gaze-Contingent Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyun Ryu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In time-constrained activities, such as competitive sports, the rapid acquisition and comprehension of visual information is vital for successful performance. Currently our understanding of how and what visual information is acquired and how this changes with skill development is quite rudimentary. Interpretation of eye movement behaviour is limited by uncertainties surrounding the relationship between attention, line-of-gaze data, and the mechanism of information pick-up from different sectors of the visual field. We used gaze-contingent display methodology to provide a selective information presentation to the central and peripheral parts of the visual field while performing a decision-making task. Eleven skilled and 11 less-skilled players watched videos of basketball scenarios under three different vision conditions (tunnel, masked, and full vision and in a forced-choice paradigm responded whether it was more appropriate for the ball carrier to pass or drive. In the tunnel and mask conditions vision was selectively restricted to, or occluded from, 5o around the line of gaze respectively. The skilled players showed significantly higher response accuracy and faster response times compared to their lesser skilled counterparts irrespective of the vision condition, demonstrating the skilled players' superiority in information extraction irrespective of the segment of visual field they rely on. Findings suggest that the capability to interpret visual information appears to be the key limiting factor to expert performance rather than the sector of the visual field in which the information is detected.

  14. Examination of relationship between 30 second wingate test performance and spirometric respiratory functions in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Arslan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work has been planed to investigate whether the correlation between one of the important component of the sports performance spirometric respiratory function (SRF and 30 s Wingate Test (WT parameters of young adults who have different physical fitness level. Materials and Methods: This work included a total of 166 subjects those are 98 young boys (20.30±1.93 and 68 young girls (19.65±2.18. The subjects were divided into two groups namely regular exercises group (EG who make a regular exercises during 4.0±1.50 years and sedentary groups (SG. Both group’s subjects have similar age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI kg/m2. All the subjects were performed spirometric respiratory function test and WT power performance test. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS computer program and the groups were compared to each other by using Independent Samples t test calculation and the correlation relation levels were calculated by using linear regression analysis. Results: In the view of physical peculiarities, it has not been found any difference between research groups that EG and SG (P>0.05. In the meaning of the measured spirometric respiratory functions and WT power performance, with the advantage of making regular sports, according to SG groups, the boys and girls EG groups showed differences (P<0.05. The correlational relationship between the spirometric and WT power parameters; it has been observed significant correlation between peak power (PP, mean power (MP, peak power/weight (PP/Wkg, mean power/weight (MP/Wkg form WT parameters and VC, FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (% FEF25-75, PEF and MVV form respiration function (P<0.05 and P<0.001. On the other hand, it has not been found any significant correlation between WT anaerobic fatigue index (AFI % and respiratory functions (P<0.05. Conclusion: In this work, the tested spirometric respiratory functions have got an active role in the WT power parameters. It has been confirmed that

  15. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  16. Evolutionary Patterns of Bone Histology and Bone Compactness in Xenarthran Mammal Long Bones

    OpenAIRE

    Straehl, Fiona; Scheyer, Torsten; Forasiepi, Analia Marta; Macphee, Ross; Sanchez-Villagra, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Bone microstructure reflects physiological characteristics and has been shown to contain phylogenetic and ecological signals. Although mammalian long bone histology is receiving increasing attention, systematic examination of the main clades has not yet been performed. Here we describe the long bone microstructure of Xenarthra based on thin sections representing twenty-two species. Additionally, patterns in bone compactness of humeri and femora are investigated. The primary bone tissue of xen...

  17. Examining implementation and preliminary performance indicators of veterans treatment courts: The Kentucky experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa M; Birdwhistell, Shira; Hulbig, Shelia K; Jones, Afton Jackson; Newell, Jennifer; Payne, Connie

    2017-08-01

    Veterans' Treatment Courts (VTCs) are posited as a solution to offer rehabilitation for veterans involved in the criminal justice system. Despite the pervasive implementation of VTCs, there is little research focused specifically on VTC implementation and outcomes, which are based on other problem-solving court models such as drug court. The current study presents qualitative process evaluation data from key stakeholders (n=21) and veteran participants (n=4) to show accomplishments, challenges, and lessons learned during first-year implementation at two VTC sites. Quantitative performance data is also presented on veteran participants (n=19) served during the first year to show: types of services, monitoring, judicial interaction, sanctions/therapeutic responses, and rewards, as well as preliminary data on recidivism. Qualitative data, from both key stakeholders and veteran participants, suggests that offering rehabilitation via various program components, services/referrals, and accountability are critical to the success of the VTC. Data also provides valuable lessons learned for VTC implementation including communication, collaboration, information/protocols, and resources. Performance data shows that a variety of services are utilized and that frequent judicial interaction, drug testing, and sanctions are cornerstones of the VTC. Implications and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Examining techniques for measuring the effects of nutrients on mental performance and mood state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; Dye, Louise; Siobhan Mitchell, E; Layé, Sophie; Saunders, Caroline; Boyle, Neil; Schuermans, Jeroen; Sijben, John

    2016-09-01

    Intake of specific nutrients has been linked to mental states and various indices of cognitive performance although the effects are often subtle and difficult to interpret. Measurement of so-called objective variables (e.g. reaction times) is often considered to be the gold standard for assessing outcomes in this field of research. It can, however, be argued that data on subjective experience (e.g. mood) are also important and may enrich existing objective data. The aim of this review is to evaluate methods for measuring mental performance and mood, considering the definition of subjective mood and the validity of measures of subjective experience. A multi-stakeholder expert group was invited by ILSI Europe to come to a consensus around the utility of objective and subjective measurement in this field, which forms the basis of the paper. Therefore, the present review reflects a succinct overview of the science but is not intended to be a systematic review. The proposed approach extends the traditional methodology using standard 'objective' measurements to also include the consumers' subjective experiences in relation to food. Specific recommendations include 1) using contemporary methods to capture transient mood states; 2) using sufficiently sensitive measures to capture effects of nutritional intervention; 3) considering the possibility that subjective and objective responses will occur over different time frames; and 4) recognition of the importance of expectancy and placebo effects for subjective measures. The consensus reached was that the most informative approach should involve collection and consideration of both objective and subjective data.

  19. Examining significant factors in micro and small enterprises performance: case study in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkos, Tomas; Zegeye, Muluken; Tilahun, Shimelis; Avvari, Muralidhar

    2017-07-01

    Furniture manufacturing micro and small enterprises are confronted with several factors that affect their performance. Some enterprises fail to sustain, some others remain for long period of time without transforming, and most are producing similar and non-standard products. The main aim of this manuscript is on improving the performance and contribution of MSEs by analyzing impact of significant internal and external factors. Data was collected via a questionnaire, group discussion with experts and interviewing process. Randomly selected eight representative main cities of Amhara region with 120 furniture manufacturing enterprises are considered. Data analysis and presentation was made using SPSS tools (correlation, proximity, and T test) and impact-effort analysis matrix tool. The correlation analysis shows that politico-legal with infrastructure, leadership with entrepreneurship skills and finance and credit with marketing factors are those factors, which result in high correlation with Pearson correlation values of r = 0.988, 0.983, and 0.939, respectively. The study investigates that the most critical factors faced by MSEs are work premises, access to finance, infrastructure, entrepreneurship and business managerial problems. The impact of these factors is found to be high and is confirmed by the 50% drop-out rate in 2014/2015. Furthermore, more than 25% work time losses due to power interruption daily and around 65% work premises problems challenged MSEs. Further, an impact-effort matrix was developed to help the MSEs to prioritize the affecting factors.

  20. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D; Resch, F; Duelli, R; Möltner, A; Huber, J; Karimian Jazi, K; Amr, A; Eckart, W; Herzog, W; Nikendei, C

    2014-01-01

    Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations.

  1. Examination performances of German and international medical students in the preclinical studying-term – A descriptive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhn, D.; Resch, F.; Duelli, R.; Möltner, A.; Huber, J.; Karimian Jazi, K.; Amr, A.; Eckart, W.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Medical students with a migration background face several specific problems during their studies. International surveys show first indications that this group of students performs worse in written, oral or practical exams. However, so far, nothing is known about the performance of international students in written pre-clinical tests as well as in pre-clinical State Examinations for German-speaking countries. Method: A descriptive, retrospective analysis of the exam performances of medical students in the pre-clinical part of their studies was conducted at the Faculty of Medicine of Heidelberg in for the year 2012. Performance in written tests of the final exams in the second (N=276), third (N=292) and fourth semester (N=285) were compared between German students, students from EU countries and students from non-EU countries. Same comparison was drawn for the performance in the oral exam of the First State Examination in the period from 2009 - 2012 (N=1137). Results: German students performed significantly better than students with a non-EU migration background both in all written exams and in the oral State Examination (all pstudents with an EU migration background was significantly better than that of students with a non-EU background in the written exam at the end of the third and fourth semester (pstudents completed the oral exam of the First State Examination significantly earlier than students with a non-EU migration background (students with a country of origin outside of the European Union has to be seen as a high-risk group among students with a migration background. For this group, there is an urgent need for early support to prepare for written and oral examinations. PMID:25228931

  2. Predictive value of histologic tumor necrosis after radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Taghian, A G; Rosenberg, A E; O'Connell, J; Okunieff, P; Suit, H D

    2001-12-20

    Postsurgical evaluation of histologic changes of tumors after preoperative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy has been a routine clinical practice of pathologists and oncologists. There appears to be secure evidence that the extent of tumor necrosis vs. viable tumor cells postchemotherapy is a clinically useful predictor of outcome. The significance of histologic tumor necrosis after radiotherapy, however, has not been clearly established and deserves further investigation. We investigated the correlation between histological extent of tumor necrosis, survival of tumor transplants, and radiation doses in an experimental model using three human tumor xenografts. Three human tumor cell lines were investigated: STS-26, SCC-21, and HGL-21. Tumors were grown subcutaneously in athymic nude mice and received external beam radiation of different doses. Tumors were excised 2 weeks postirradiation. One-half of the tumor was divided into 1-mm(3) fragments and transplanted to naive mice. The other half was examined for histologic tumor necrosis. Transplant survival was strongly correlated with radiation dose, TCD(p) (radiation dose that results in local tumor control in proportion, p, to irradiated tumors). In contrast, there was no clear association between transplant survival rate and the extent of tumor necrosis. The experimental model demonstrated a strong inverse correlation between radiation doses and tumor transplant survival. Histologic tumor necrosis did not correlate well with radiation doses or transplant survival rates. Despite common practices in histologic examination of tumors posttherapy, clinical interpretations and implications of histologic tumor necrosis after radiotherapy should be considered with caution. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Examination of Performance Levels of Wheelchair Basketball Players Playing in Different Leagues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Yüksel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to examine the anthropometric and biometric features of the elite wheelchair basketball players in different league levels, and to evaluate them with regards to field tests particular to wheelchair basketball. A sample of 21 male players volunteered to participate in the research with similar classification points, 12 of whom were from Turkey Wheelchair Basketball First League and 9 of whom were from the Second League. Anthropometric measurements, biometric features of the players and their skill test scores particular to wheelchair basketball were detected. The anthropometric measurements were taken over dominant extremity. SPSS 21.0 program was used in the analysis of the data, and minimum, maximum, arithmetic mean, and standard deviation values were determined. Intergroup differences were determined with Mann–Whitney U analysis. Significance level was admitted as p < 0.05. As a conclusion, it was determined that wheelchair basketball players had similar anthropometric features in the First and Second League levels, and that there was no difference based on the league level they were playing, and moreover, that bio-motor features and skills particular to wheelchair basketball were decisive on the levels of the leagues the players were taking part.

  4. Why is Mini-Mental state examination performance correlated with estimated premorbid cognitive ability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykiert, D; Der, G; Starr, J M; Deary, I J

    2016-09-01

    Tests requiring the pronunciation of irregular words are used to estimate premorbid cognitive ability in patients with clinical diagnoses, and prior cognitive ability in normal ageing. However, scores on these word-reading tests correlate with scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a widely used screening test for possible cognitive pathology. This study aimed to test whether the word-reading tests' correlations with MMSE scores in healthy older people are explained by childhood IQ or education. Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), National Adult Reading Test (NART), MMSE scores and information about education were obtained from 1024 70-year-olds, for whom childhood intelligence test scores were available. WTAR and NART were positively correlated with the MMSE (r ≈ 0.40, p < 0.001). The shared variance of WTAR and NART with MMSE was significantly attenuated by ~70% after controlling for childhood intelligence test scores. Education explained little additional variance in the association between the reading tests and the MMSE. MMSE, which is often used to index cognitive impairment, is associated with prior cognitive ability. MMSE score is related to scores on WTAR and NART largely due to their shared association with prior ability. Obtained MMSE scores should be interpreted in the context of prior ability (or WTAR/NART score as its proxy).

  5. Examining the Performance of Statistical Downscaling Methods: Toward Matching Applications to Data Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, K. W.; Lanzante, J. R.; Adams-Smith, D.

    2017-12-01

    Several challenges exist when seeking to use future climate model projections in a climate impacts study. A not uncommon approach is to utilize climate projection data sets derived from more than one future emissions scenario and from multiple global climate models (GCMs). The range of future climate responses represented in the set is sometimes taken to be indicative of levels of uncertainty in the projections. Yet, GCM outputs are deemed to be unsuitable for direct use in many climate impacts applications. GCM grids typically are viewed as being too coarse. Additionally, regional or local-scale biases in a GCM's simulation of the contemporary climate that may not be problematic from a global climate modeling perspective may be unacceptably large for a climate impacts application. Statistical downscaling (SD) of climate projections - a type of post-processing that uses observations to inform the refinement of GCM projections - is often used in an attempt to account for GCM biases and to provide additional spatial detail. "What downscaled climate projection is the best one to use" is a frequently asked question, but one that is not always easy to answer, as it can be dependent on stakeholder needs and expectations. Here we present results from a perfect model experimental design illustrating how SD method performance can vary not only by SD method, but how performance can also vary by location, season, climate variable of interest, amount of projected climate change, SD configuration choices, and whether one is interested in central tendencies or the tails of the distribution. Awareness of these factors can be helpful when seeking to determine the suitability of downscaled climate projections for specific climate impacts applications. It also points to the potential value of considering more than one SD data product in a study, so as to acknowledge uncertainties associated with the strengths and weaknesses of different downscaling methods.

  6. Association of volume of patient encounters with residents' in-training examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Christopher P; Stenerson, Matthew B; Halvorsen, Andrew J; Homme, Jason H; McDonald, Furman S

    2013-08-01

    Patient care and medical knowledge are Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies. The correlation between amount of patient contact and knowledge acquisition is not known. To determine if a correlation exists between the number of patient encounters and in-training exam (ITE) scores in internal medicine (IM) and pediatric residents at a large academic medical center. Retrospective cohort study Resident physicians at Mayo Clinic from July 2006 to June 2010 in IM (318 resident-years) and pediatrics (66 resident-years). We tabulated patient encounters through review of clinical notes in an electronic medical record during post graduate year (PGY)-1 and PGY-2. Using linear regression models, we investigated associations between ITE score and number of notes during the previous PGY, adjusted for previous ITE score, gender, medical school origin, and conference attendance. For IM, PGY-2 admission and consult encounters in the hospital and specialty clinics had a positive linear association with ITE-3 % score (β = 0.02; p = 0.004). For IM, PGY-1 conference attendance is positively associated with PGY-2 ITE performance. We did not detect a correlation between PGY-1 patient encounters and subsequent ITE scores for IM or pediatric residents. No association was found between IM PGY-2 ITE score and inpatient, outpatient, or total encounters in the first year of training. Resident continuity clinic and total encounters were not associated with change in PGY-3 ITE score. We identified a positive association between hospital and subspecialty encounters during the second year of IM training and subsequent ITE score, such that each additional 50 encounters were associated with an increase of 1 % correct in PGY-3 ITE score after controlling for previous ITE performance and continuity clinic encounters. We did not find a correlation for volume of encounters and medical knowledge for IM PGY-1 residents or the pediatric cohort.

  7. US Medical Student Performance on the NBME Subject Examination in Internal Medicine: Do Clerkship Sequence and Clerkship Length Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wenli; Cuddy, Monica M; Swanson, David B

    2015-09-01

    Prior to graduation, US medical students are required to complete clinical clerkship rotations, most commonly in the specialty areas of family medicine, internal medicine, obstetrics and gynecology (ob/gyn), pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery. Within a school, the sequence in which students complete these clerkships varies. In addition, the length of these rotations varies, both within a school for different clerkships and between schools for the same clerkship. The present study investigated the effects of clerkship sequence and length on performance on the National Board of Medical Examiner's subject examination in internal medicine. The study sample included 16,091 students from 67 US Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME)-accredited medical schools who graduated in 2012 or 2013. Student-level measures included first-attempt internal medicine subject examination scores, first-attempt USMLE Step 1 scores, and five dichotomous variables capturing whether or not students completed rotations in family medicine, ob/gyn, pediatrics, psychiatry, and surgery prior to taking the internal medicine rotation. School-level measures included clerkship length and average Step 1 score. Multilevel models with students nested in schools were estimated with internal medicine subject examination scores as the dependent measure. Step 1 scores and the five dichotomous variables were treated as student-level predictors. Internal medicine clerkship length and average Step 1 score were used to predict school-to-school variation in average internal medicine subject examination scores. Completion of rotations in surgery, pediatrics and family medicine prior to taking the internal medicine examination significantly improved scores, with the largest benefit observed for surgery (coefficient = 1.58 points; p value internal medicine subject examination performance. At the school level, longer internal medicine clerkships were associated with higher scores on the internal medicine

  8. An Examination of Mastery- and Performance-Based Orientations in Strategic Communication Syllabi and Suggestions for Rhetorical and Pedagogical Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Elise M.; Gibson, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated syllabi (N = 87) from introductory advertising and public relations courses to examine to what extent and how stated course goals and assignments signal the overall learning orientation of a course and which type of learning orientation--mastery or performance--was most common. Mastery orientations emphasize intrinsic rewards,…

  9. Probabilistic Approaches to Examining Linguistic Features of Test Items and Their Effect on the Performance of English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses validity and fairness in the testing of English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are developing English as a second language. It discusses limitations of current approaches to examining the linguistic features of items and their effect on the performance of ELL students. The article submits that…

  10. The relationship between line manager behavior, perceived HRM practices and individual performance : Examining the mediating role of engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alfes, K.; Truss, C.; Soane, E.; Rees, C.; Gatenby, M.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the role played by line managers in the link between HRM practices and individual performance outcomes. Drawing on social exchange theory, the authors test a mediated model linking perceived line manager behavior and perceived human resource management practices with employee

  11. Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation/Completion of Episodic Information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimone, James Bradley [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betty, Rita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Using High Performance Computing to Examine the Processes of Neurogenesis Underlying Pattern Separation/Completion of Episodic Information - Sandia researchers developed novel methods and metrics for studying the computational function of neurogenesis, thus generating substantial impact to the neuroscience and neural computing communities. This work could benefit applications in machine learning and other analysis activities.

  12. Ranking Spain's medical schools by their performance in the national residency examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valcarcel, B G; Ortún, V; Barber, P; Harris, J E; García, B

    2013-12-01

    Medical school graduates in Spain must take a uniform national exam (called "examen MIR") in order to enter postgraduate training in a specialty. Its results offer a unique opportunity to rank medical schools according to this exam. We measured differences in the MIR exam results among Spanish medical schools and assessed the stability of the MIR-based rankings for the period 2003-2011. In the year 2011 a total of 6873 residency positions nationwide were offered by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. These positions covered 47 specialties distributed over 231 training centers. A total of 11,550 medical graduates (including 1997 foreign graduates) took the MIR examination. Marked differences among medical schools were evident. The median graduate from medical school #1 and #29 occupied the positions 1477 and 5383, respectively. These figures correspond to a standardized ranking of 21 out of 100 for medical school #1 (that is, 1477/6873; half of medical school #1 obtained better [below position 21%] and half worse [over position 21%] results) and a standardized ranking of 70 out of 100 for medical school #29. While 81% of the medical school #1 graduates were amongst the best 3000 MIR exams and only 5% above the 5000 position the corresponding figures for medical school #29 graduates were 21% and 44%, respectively. The ranking position of the 29 medical schools was very stable between the years 2003 and 2011. There are marked differences in medical schools in Spain and these differences are very consistent over the years 2003-2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Michèle; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-10-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  14. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kind, Michele; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel

    2009-01-01

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  15. Histology and imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Michele [Departement d' Imagerie Medicale, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)], E-mail: kind@bergonie.org; Stock, Nathalie; Coindre, Jean Michel [Departement de Pathologie, Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l' Argonne, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France); Universite Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2, 146 rue Leo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex (France)

    2009-10-15

    Imaging and histology are two complementary morphological techniques which play a fundamental role in the diagnosis and management of soft tissue sarcomas. Imaging allows to identify some pseudosarcomatous benign lesions such as myositis ossificans, intramuscular hemangioma, angiomyolipoma, intramuscular lipoma, giant cell tumour of tendon sheath, desmoid tumour and elastofibroma. There is no formal criterion for diagnosing a sarcoma on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but malignancy is strongly suspected with the presence of necrosis and vascular, bone or joint invasion. Imaging may also suggest some histological types of sarcoma such as well-differentiated liposarcoma, dedifferentiated liposarcoma, synovial sarcoma or extraskeletal osteosarcoma. Imaging is also extremely helpful in determining the appropriate kind of sampling to carry out and in guiding the performance of a microbiopsy. The appearance observed on imaging should always be taken into consideration for the interpretation of the microbiopsy by the pathologist.

  16. Measurements of diagnostic examination performance using quantitative apparent diffusion coefficient and proton MR spectroscopic imaging in the preoperative evaluation of tumor grade in cerebral gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, Andres; Kulle, Bettina; Gadmar, Oystein B.; Josefsen, Roger; Kumar, Theresa; Nakstad, Per H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor grading is very important both in treatment decision and evaluation of prognosis. While tissue samples are obtained as part of most therapeutic approaches, factors that may result in inaccurate grading due to sampling error (namely, heterogeneity in tissue sampling, as well as tumor-grade heterogeneity within the same tumor specimen), have led to a desire to use imaging better to ascertain tumor grade. The purpose in our study was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), area under the curve (AUC), and accuracy of diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) or both in grading primary cerebral gliomas. Materials and methods: We performed conventional MR imaging (MR), DWI, and MRSI in 74 patients with newly diagnosed brain gliomas: 59 patients had histologically verified high-grade gliomas: 37 glioblastomas multiform (GBM) and 22 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), and 15 patients had low-grade gliomas. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of tumor and peritumoral edema, and ADC ratios (ADC in tumor or peritumoral edema to ADC of contralateral white matter, as well as ADC in tumor to ADC in peritumoral edema) were determined from three regions of interest. The average of the mean, maximum, and minimum for ADC variables was calculated for each patient. The metabolite ratios of Cho/Cr and Cho/NAA at intermediate TE were assessed from spectral maps in the solid portion of tumor, peritumoral edema and contralateral normal-appearing white matter. Tumor grade determined with the two methods was then compared with that from histopathologic grading. Logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed to determine optimum thresholds for tumor grading. Measures of diagnostic examination performance, such as sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, AUC, and accuracy for identifying high-grade gliomas were also calculated

  17. Examination of the Properties of a Spent Fuel based Electricity Generation System - Scintillator Performance Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Gammavoltaic was proposed by Karl Scharf in 1960. The low efficiency resulted in gammavoltaic being used as a radiation detector. In the 1990s the efficiency of gammavoltaic increased by the use of a scintillator. Gammavoltaic was further studied as a power source for spent fuel transportation and a nuclear battery in the 2000s Haneol Lee and Man-Sung Yim also suggested electricity generation system based on spent fuel stored inside the fuel pool of a nuclear power plant. This study proposed the systematic design of an electricity conversion system using CsI(Tl) scintillator and a-Si photovoltaic cell. As such, this study is selected to be a reference paper. The results of this paper indicate a self-absorption effect from the reference model. This effect is negligible while the irradiation degradation has to be considered. Two main ways to reduce radiation induced degradation are scintillator shielding and replacing scintillator material with a material having higher radiation resistance. The analysis of the scintillator used in the 'electricity generation system using gamma radiation from spent fuel' was performed to evaluate the ideal electricity generation in the reference research.

  18. A RESEARCH ON EXAMINATION OF SWIMMER CLOTHING FOR INCREASING SPORTSMAN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ÖLÇER

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to present the problems of swimmers about swimming clothing in trainings or competitions and their expectations from swimming clothing for increasing their performan ce . Descriptive method was used in the research . Survey was developed as a data collection tool on clothing comfort parameters and functional design p roperties that swimming clothing should have . The universe of the r esearch is composed of male and female swimmers interested in swimming sport in T urkey, in the province of Çorum. And the sample is composed of 50 swimmers who participate in the research v oluntarily among the members of Olympic Indoor Swimming Pool serving in Çorum Provincial Directorate of Youth Services and Spor ts . The findings were analyzed in Statistics Package Program in Social Sciences (SPSS. As a result of the r esearch ; it was determined that the problems experienced with the clothing were quick deform ation, restriction of movements, and the fact that fabric texture and sewing properties discomfort the skin and expectations from clothing were durability, ease of movement , to accord with the body and easy maintenance . It is considered that r esearch results shall be a guide for research and development activities to be performed about clothing comfort on both academic and sector basis for increasing sportive performan ce in running sport and protection of sportsmen health .

  19. Examination of the Properties of a Spent Fuel based Electricity Generation System - Scintillator Performance Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Gammavoltaic was proposed by Karl Scharf in 1960. The low efficiency resulted in gammavoltaic being used as a radiation detector. In the 1990s the efficiency of gammavoltaic increased by the use of a scintillator. Gammavoltaic was further studied as a power source for spent fuel transportation and a nuclear battery in the 2000s Haneol Lee and Man-Sung Yim also suggested electricity generation system based on spent fuel stored inside the fuel pool of a nuclear power plant. This study proposed the systematic design of an electricity conversion system using CsI(Tl) scintillator and a-Si photovoltaic cell. As such, this study is selected to be a reference paper. The results of this paper indicate a self-absorption effect from the reference model. This effect is negligible while the irradiation degradation has to be considered. Two main ways to reduce radiation induced degradation are scintillator shielding and replacing scintillator material with a material having higher radiation resistance. The analysis of the scintillator used in the 'electricity generation system using gamma radiation from spent fuel' was performed to evaluate the ideal electricity generation in the reference research

  20. Productivity standards for histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2010-04-01

    The information from 221 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and 104 from 24 other countries with workloads from 600 to 116 000 cases per year was used to calculate productivity standards for 23 technical and 27 nontechnical tasks and for 4 types of work flow indicators. The sample includes 254 human, 40 forensic, and 31 veterinary pathology services. Statistical analyses demonstrate that most productivity standards are not different between services or worldwide. The total workload for the US human pathology histolabs averaged 26 061 cases per year, with 54% between 10 000 and less than 30 000. The total workload for 70% of the histolabs from other countries was less than 20 000, with an average of 15 226 cases per year. The fundamental manual technical tasks in the histolab and their productivity standards are as follows: grossing (14 cases per hour), cassetting (54 cassettes per hour), embedding (50 blocks per hour), and cutting (24 blocks per hour). All the other tasks, each with their own productivity standards, can be completed by auxiliary staff or using automatic instruments. Depending on the level of automation of the histolab, all the tasks derived from a workload of 25 cases will require 15.8 to 17.7 hours of work completed by 2.4 to 2.7 employees with 18% of their working time not directly dedicated to the production of diagnostic slides. This article explains how to extrapolate this productivity calculation for any workload and different levels of automation. The overall performance standard for all the tasks, including 8 hours for automated tissue processing, is 3.2 to 3.5 blocks per hour; and its best indicator is the value of the gross work flow productivity that is essentially dependent on how the work is organized. This article also includes productivity standards for forensic and veterinary histolabs, but the staffing benchmarks for histolabs will be the subject of a separate article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining nocturnal railway noise and aircraft noise in the field: sleep, psychomotor performance, and annoyance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmenhorst, Eva-Maria; Pennig, Sibylle; Rolny, Vinzent; Quehl, Julia; Mueller, Uwe; Maaß, Hartmut; Basner, Mathias

    2012-05-01

    Traffic noise is interfering during day- and nighttime causing distress and adverse physiological reactions in large parts of the population. Railway noise proved less annoying than aircraft noise in surveys which were the bases for a so called 5 dB railway bonus regarding noise protection in many European countries. The present field study investigated railway noise-induced awakenings during sleep, nighttime annoyance and the impact on performance the following day. Comparing these results with those from a field study on aircraft noise allowed for a ranking of traffic modes concerning physiological and psychological reactions. 33 participants (mean age 36.2 years ± 10.3 (SD); 22 females) living alongside railway tracks around Cologne/Bonn (Germany) were polysomnographically investigated. These data were pooled with data from a field study on aircraft noise (61 subjects) directly comparing the effects of railway and aircraft noise in one random subject effects logistic regression model. Annoyance was rated in the morning evaluating the previous night. Probability of sleep stage changes to wake/S1 from railway noise increased significantly from 6.5% at 35 dB(A) to 20.5% at 80 dB(A) LAFmax. Rise time of noise events had a significant impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise led to significantly higher awakening probabilities than aircraft noise, partly explained by the different rise times, whereas the order was inversed for annoyance. Freight train noise compared to passenger train noise proved to have the most impact on awakening probability. Nocturnal railway noise had no effect on psychomotor vigilance. Nocturnal freight train noise exposure in Germany was associated with increased awakening probabilities exceeding those for aircraft noise and contrasting the findings of many annoyance surveys and annoyance ratings of our study. During nighttime a bonus for railway noise seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Histological evaluation of drill fragments obtained during osteoid osteoma radiofrequency ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhlaghpoor, Shahram; Aziz Ahari, Alireza; Ahmadi, Seyed Ali; Gohari Moghaddam, Katayoun; Arjmand Shabestari, Abbas; Alinaghizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2010-01-01

    Osteoid osteoma (OO) is a benign bone tumor diagnosed mainly on the basis of the patient's history and radiological data. Histological evaluation may not be available before treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of a histological evaluation of the bone fragments obtained during radiofrequency ablation (RFA). During a 2-year period, 39 patients diagnosed clinically with OO were entered into this study. The procedure was performed under computed tomography (CT) guidance. An 11-gauge needle was initially placed as a coaxial guide. After drill removal, RFA was performed. Bone fragments collected from the drill were examined by two experienced pathologists, independently. There was strong association between pathologists' reports (P <0.001). In 27 cases (69.2%) this diagnosis was confirmed pathologically. No significant relationship was found between nidus diameter and positive histological findings (P = 0.35). Histological confirmation of OO based on drill fragments is similarly frequent as previously reported for standard bone biopsy. (orig.)

  3. Histological evaluation of AMPK signalling in primary breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadad, Sirwan M; Hardie, David G; Fleming, Stewart; Thompson, Alastair M; Baker, Lee; Quinlan, Philip R; Robertson, Katherine E; Bray, Susan E; Thomson, George; Kellock, David; Jordan, Lee B; Purdie, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as a cellular fuel gauge that responds to energy stress by suppressing cell growth and biosynthetic processes, thus ensuring that energy-consuming processes proceed only if there are sufficient metabolic resources. Malfunction of the AMPK pathway may allow cancer cells to undergo uncontrolled proliferation irrespective of their molecular energy levels. The aim of this study was to examine the state of AMPK phosphorylation histologically in primary breast cancer in relation to clinical and pathological parameters. Immunohistochemistry was performed using antibodies to phospho-AMPK (pAMPK), phospho-Acetyl Co-A Carboxylase (pACC) an established target for AMPK, HER2, ERα, and Ki67 on Tissue Micro-Array (TMA) slides of two cohorts of 117 and 237 primary breast cancers. The quick score method was used for scoring and patterns of protein expression were compared with clinical and pathological data, including a minimum 5 years follow up. Reduced signal, compared with the strong expression in normal breast epithelium, using a pAMPK antibody was demonstrated in 101/113 (89.4%) and 217/236 (91.9%) of two cohorts of patients. pACC was significantly associated with pAMPK expression (p = 0.007 & p = 0.014 respectively). For both cohorts, reduced pAMPK signal was significantly associated with higher histological grade (p = 0.010 & p = 0.021 respectively) and axillary node metastasis (p = 0.061 & p = 0.039 respectively). No significant association was found between pAMPK and any of HER2, ERα, or Ki67 expression, disease-free survival or overall survival. This study extends in vitro evidence through immunohistochemistry to confirm that AMPK is dysfunctional in primary breast cancer. Reduced signalling via the AMPK pathway, and the inverse relationship with histological grade and axillary node metastasis, suggests that AMPK re-activation could have therapeutic potential in breast cancer

  4. Histological Examination of Phytophthora ramorum in Notholithocarpus densiflorus Bark Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Botts

    2010-01-01

    Colonization of N. densiflorus tissues by P. ramorum is not well understood. The pathogen is able to colonize nearly all tissues of this host but it is unclear how a tree is ultimately killed. Because this is such a destructive invasive pathogen, it is important to investigate its pathogenic strategy. Microscopic investigation of xylem colonization has been conducted,...

  5. An evaluation of the performance in the UK Royal College of Anaesthetists primary examination by UK medical school and gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowhay, Andrew R; Watmough, Simon D

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been comparatively little consideration of the impact that the changes to undergraduate curricula might have on postgraduate academic performance. This study compares the performance of graduates by UK medical school and gender in the Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) section of the first part of the Fellowship of the Royal College of Anaesthetists (FRCA) examination. Methods Data from each sitting of the MCQ section of the primary FRCA examination from June 1999 to May 2008 were analysed for performance by medical school and gender. Results There were 4983 attempts at the MCQ part of the examination by 3303 graduates from the 19 United Kingdom medical schools. Using the standardised overall mark minus the pass mark graduates from five medical schools performed significantly better than the mean for the group and five schools performed significantly worse than the mean for the group. Males performed significantly better than females in all aspects of the MCQ – physiology, mean difference = 3.0% (95% CI 2.3, 3.7), p < 0.001; pharmacology, mean difference = 1.7% (95% CI 1.0, 2.3), p < 0.001; physics with clinical measurement, mean difference = 3.5% (95% CI 2.8, 4.1), p < 0.001; overall mark, mean difference = 2.7% (95% CI 2.1, 3.3), p < 0.001; and standardised overall mark minus the pass mark, mean difference = 2.5% (95% CI 1.9, 3.1), p < 0.001. Graduates from three medical schools that have undergone the change from Traditional to Problem Based Learning curricula did not show any change in performance in any aspects of the MCQ pre and post curriculum change. Conclusion Graduates from each of the medical schools in the UK do show differences in performance in the MCQ section of the primary FRCA, but significant curriculum change does not lead to deterioration in post graduate examination performance. Whilst females now outnumber males taking the MCQ, they are not performing as well as the males. PMID:19563655

  6. Prediction Models for Licensure Examination Performance using Data Mining Classifiers for Online Test and Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy M. Tarun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focuse d on two main points: the generation of licensure examination performan ce prediction models; and the development of a Decision Support System. In this study, data mining classifiers were used to generate the models using WEKA (Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis. These models were integrated into the Decision Support System as default models to support decision making as far as appropriate interventions during review sessions are concerned. The system developed mainly involves the repeated generation of MR models for performance prediction and also provides a Mock Boar d Exam for the reviewees to take. From the models generated, it is established that the General Weighted Average of the reviewees in their General Education subjects, the result of the Mock Board Exam and the instance when the reviewee is conducting a sel f - review are good predictors of the licensure examination performance. Further , it is concluded that the General Weighted Average of the reviewees in their Major or Content courses is the best predictor of licensure examination performance. Based from the evaluation results of the system , the system satisfied its implied functions and is efficient, usable, reliable and portable. Hence, it can already be used not as a substitute to the face - to - face review sessions but to enhance the reviewees’ licensure exa mination review and allow initial identification of those who are likely to have difficulty in passing the licensure examination, therefore providing sufficient time and opportunities for appropriate interventions.

  7. Family-centered rounds and medical student performance on the NBME pediatrics subject (shelf) examination: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Tiffany N; Heh, Victor; Wijesooriya, N Romesh; Ryan, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between family-centered rounds (FCR) and medical student knowledge acquisition as assessed by the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) pediatric subject (shelf) exam. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of third-year medical students who graduated from Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine between 2009 and 2014. This timeframe represented the transition from 'traditional' rounds to FCR on the pediatric inpatient unit. Data collected included demographics, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores, and NBME subject examinations in pediatrics (PSE), medicine (MSE), and surgery (SSE). Eight hundred and sixteen participants were included in the analysis. Student performance on the PSE could not be statistically differentiated from performance on the MSE for any year except 2011 (z-score=-0.17, p=0.02). Average scores on PSE for years 2009, 2010, 2013, and 2014 were significantly higher than for SSE, but not significantly different for all other years. The PSE was highly correlated with USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 examinations (correlation range 0.56-0.77) for all years. Our results showed no difference in PSE performance during a time in which our institution transitioned to FCR. These findings should be reassuring for students, attending physicians, and medical educators.

  8. Further examination of embedded performance validity indicators for the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Brief Test of Attention in a large outpatient clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharland, Michael J; Waring, Stephen C; Johnson, Brian P; Taran, Allise M; Rusin, Travis A; Pattock, Andrew M; Palcher, Jeanette A

    2018-01-01

    Assessing test performance validity is a standard clinical practice and although studies have examined the utility of cognitive/memory measures, few have examined attention measures as indicators of performance validity beyond the Reliable Digit Span. The current study further investigates the classification probability of embedded Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) within the Brief Test of Attention (BTA) and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II), in a large clinical sample. This was a retrospective study of 615 patients consecutively referred for comprehensive outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. Non-credible performance was defined two ways: failure on one or more PVTs and failure on two or more PVTs. Classification probability of the BTA and CPT-II into non-credible groups was assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were derived to identify clinically relevant cut-off scores. When using failure on two or more PVTs as the indicator for non-credible responding compared to failure on one or more PVTs, highest classification probability, or area under the curve (AUC), was achieved by the BTA (AUC = .87 vs. .79). CPT-II Omission, Commission, and Total Errors exhibited higher classification probability as well. Overall, these findings corroborate previous findings, extending them to a large clinical sample. BTA and CPT-II are useful embedded performance validity indicators within a clinical battery but should not be used in isolation without other performance validity indicators.

  9. Student Engagement with a Flipped Classroom Teaching Design Affects Pharmacology Examination Performance in a Manner Dependent on Question Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidu, Som; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Short, Jennifer L.; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E.; Larson, Ian C.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between student engagement with the key elements of a flipped classroom approach (preparation and attendance), their attitudes to learning, including strategy development, and their performance on two types of examination questions (knowledge recall and providing rational predictions when faced with novel scenarios). Methods. This study correlated student engagement with the flipped classroom and student disposition to learning with student ability to solve novel scenarios in examinations. Results. Students who both prepared for and attended classes performed significantly better on examination questions that required analysis of novel scenarios compared to students who did not prepare and missed classes. However, there was no difference for both groups of students on examination questions that required knowledge and comprehension. Student motivation and use of strategies correlated with higher examination scores on questions requiring novel scenario analysis. Conclusion. There is a synergistic relationship between class preparation and attendance. The combination of preparation and attendance was positively correlated to assessment type; the relationship was apparent for questions requiring students to solve novel problems but not for questions requiring knowledge or comprehension. PMID:29302082

  10. Student Engagement with a Flipped Classroom Teaching Design Affects Pharmacology Examination Performance in a Manner Dependent on Question Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Paul J; Naidu, Som; Yuriev, Elizabeth; Short, Jennifer L; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E; Larson, Ian C

    2017-11-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between student engagement with the key elements of a flipped classroom approach (preparation and attendance), their attitudes to learning, including strategy development, and their performance on two types of examination questions (knowledge recall and providing rational predictions when faced with novel scenarios). Methods. This study correlated student engagement with the flipped classroom and student disposition to learning with student ability to solve novel scenarios in examinations. Results. Students who both prepared for and attended classes performed significantly better on examination questions that required analysis of novel scenarios compared to students who did not prepare and missed classes. However, there was no difference for both groups of students on examination questions that required knowledge and comprehension. Student motivation and use of strategies correlated with higher examination scores on questions requiring novel scenario analysis. Conclusion. There is a synergistic relationship between class preparation and attendance. The combination of preparation and attendance was positively correlated to assessment type; the relationship was apparent for questions requiring students to solve novel problems but not for questions requiring knowledge or comprehension.

  11. To outsource or not to outsource: Examining the effects of outsourcing IT functions on financial performance in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Burkhardt, Jeffrey; Shewchuk, Richard; Burke, Darrell; Brooks, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing of information technology (IT) functions is a popular strategy with both potential benefits and risks for hospitals. Anecdotal evidence, based on case studies, suggests that outsourcing may be associated with significant cost savings. However, no generalizable evidence exists to support such assertions. This study examines whether outsourcing IT functions is related to improved financial performance in hospitals. Primary survey data on IT outsourcing behavior were combined with secondary data on hospital financial performance. Regression analyses examined the relationship between outsourcing and various measures of financial performance while controlling for bed size, average patient acuity, geographic location, and overall IT adoption. Complete data from a total of 83 Florida hospitals were available for analyses. Findings suggest that the decision to outsource IT functions is not related to any of the hospital financial performance measures that were examined. Specifically, outsourcing of IT functions did not correlate with net inpatient revenue, net patient revenue, hospital expenses, total expenses, cash flow ratio, operating margin, or total margin. In most cases, IT outsourcing is not necessarily a cost-lowering strategy, but instead, a cost-neutral manner in which to accomplish an organizational strategy.

  12. [Performance on the Board of Pediatrics certification examination by the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, 2001-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Fernando; Yulitta, Horacio; Molina, María Paz; Valli, Raúl

    2011-08-01

    Professional certification guarantees professional's performance, but the examination tool must be periodically evaluated. To describe the result of the pediatric certifying examination (PCE) of the Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría (SAP), between 2001-2010 analyzing the impact of the age and the elapsed time since the graduation and to describe the performance of training institutions in this period. Cross-section study. Data were obtained from the records of Board of Pediatrics of the SAP. The results of the PCE, were analyzed assessing examination pass rate and training institutions (2001-2010), and age and elapsed time since graduation of the examined professionals (2001-2005). Of 2527 professionals from 138 institutions, 69.6% passed. Those that passed were younger (31.7 ± 4.1 vs. 35.6 ± 6.2 years; p <0.0001) and had less years since graduation (6.3 ± 4.0 vs. 9.0 ± 5.9; p <0.0001) than those who did not pass. The examination pass rate was higher in institutions accredited by SAP (78.4% vs. 48.8%; OR= 3,8 IC95%= 3,1-4,7; p <0.001). The pass rate was significantly higher in institutions with accredited programs for 5 years than those not accredited (78.4% vs. 48.8%, OR= 3.8 95% CI= 3.1 to 4.7, p <0.001). The pass rate at accredited institutions for 3 years (53.7%) and 1 year (48.7%) showed no statistically significant differences with non-accredited institutions. The certifying examination pass rate was 68.5%. Younger professionals with fewer years since graduation, and trained in SAP 5 years accredited programs were significantly more likely to pass the examination.

  13. Desmoplastic fibroma of the distal tibia: A case report of a minimally invasive histological diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levrini, Gabriele; Pattacini, Pierpaolo

    2016-01-01

    Desmoplastic fibroma (DF) is a benign, rare fibroblastic intraosseous neoplasm histologically resembling a desmoid soft tissue tumor. Although classified as benign, DF frequently exhibits an aggressive behavior, has a moderate-to-high recurrence rate, and often causes pathological fractures and extensive bone destruction. This case report presents an incidentally detected DF of the tibia, which was diagnosed using a minimally invasive approach. A 36-year-old African female patient was referred to the Department of Diagnostic Imaging of Arcispedale Santa Maria Nuova-IRCCS (Reggio Emilia, Italy), to be examined by a computed tomography scan on an outpatient basis, after an x-ray examination of the tibia, which was performed after an injury to exclude the presence of a fracture, revealed a hyperlucency of unknown origin. The aim of this study was to discuss the clinical, histological, immunohistochemical and radiographic characteristics of this rare neoplasm, with a focus on image-guided bone biopsy. PMID:27882239

  14. Hidradenocarcinoma: a histological and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Christine J; Cochran, Alistair J; Eng, William; Binder, Scott W

    2006-11-01

    The diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma is difficult due to a combination of factors including inconsistent nomenclature/ classification, rarity of the neoplasm, and variable morphology of cells composing the neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry has not been previously performed on a series of hidradenocarcinomas. We evaluated six cases of hidradenocarcinoma histologically and immunohistochemically using antibodies to gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), S-100 protein, keratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 5/6, p53, bcl-1, bcl-2, and Ki67. Histology suggested concurrent eccrine and apocrine differentiation of the cases. Ki67 and p53 staining was strongly positive in five of six tumors. The neoplasms stained with antibodies to CEA, S-100 protein, GCDFP-15, EMA, bcl-1, and bcl-2 in no consistent pattern. All tumors studied stained positively for keratin AE1/3 and cytokeratin 5/6. In making the diagnosis of hidradenocarcinoma, it may be unnecessary to separate hidradenocarcinoma into eccrine and apocrine categories, and although Ki67 and p53 may be helpful, histological parameters remain paramount.

  15. The relationships between pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Edward F

    2013-01-01

    Regression analysis was used to estimate and test for relationships between urinary pesticide metabolites and neurobehavioral test performance in adults, 20 to 59 years old, participating in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The 12 pesticide metabolites included 2 naphthols, 8 phenols, a phenoxyacetic acid, and a pyridinol. The 3 neurobehavioral tests included in the survey were simple reaction time, symbol-digit substitution, and serial digit learning. As the 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol, and the pentachlorophenol concentrations increased, performance on the serial digit learning test improved. As the 2,5-dichlorophenol concentration increased, performance on the symbol-digit substitution test improved. At low concentrations, the parent compounds of these metabolites may act at acetylcholine and γ-aminobutyric acid synapses in the central nervous system to improve neurobehavioral test performance.

  16. ENGLISH IN INDONESIAN ISLAMIC HIGHER EDUCATION: Examining The Relationship between Performance in The Yes/No Test and Reading Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahiruddin Sahiruddin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between performance in the Yes/No test of English recognition vocabulary and reading skills in Indonesian Islamic learners of English as a foreign language (EFL. Participants in the study were 83 Indonesian undergraduate students, comprising an Advanced group (n=41 and Intermediate group (n=42 of EFL learners enrolled in the English department at the State Islamic University (UIN of Malang, Indonesia. All participants completed both tests. The results reveal that the hits accuracy performance between the Advanced EFL group and the Intermediate EFL group was statistically significant, indicating that Yes/No test performance, in context of hits accuracy, did discriminate between levels of English proficiency. However, the differences disappeared with corrected scores since both groups indicated a high false alarm rate. In addition, this study also reveals that there was no evidence of a relationship between Yes/No performance and reading scores. Several pedagogical implications for EFL language teachers are discussed.

  17. Reordering Histology to Enhance Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amerongen, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In redesigning the preclinical curriculum and shifting from a discipline-based approach to an organ system-based approach, faculty at the University of Arizona College of Medicine in Tucson took the opportunity to restructure the sequence of introductory histology content to make it more engaging and relevant. In this article, the author describes…

  18. Comparison of the diagnostic performance of microscopic examination with nested polymerase chain reaction for optimum malaria diagnosis in Upper Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moe, Mya; Lee, Jinyoung; Jun, Hojong; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Kim, Tae Im; Pak, Jhang Ho; Myint, Moe Kyaw; Lin, Khin; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2017-03-16

    Accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium infection is crucial for prompt malaria treatment and surveillance. Microscopic examination has been widely applied as the gold standard for malaria diagnosis in most part of malaria endemic areas, but its diagnostic value has been questioned, particularly in submicroscopic malaria. In this study, the diagnostic performance of microscopic examination and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was evaluated to establish optimal malaria diagnosis method in Myanmar. A total of 1125 blood samples collected from residents in the villages and towns located in Naung Cho, Pyin Oo Lwin, Tha Beik Kyin townships and Mandalay of Upper Myanmar were screened by microscopic examination and species-specific nested PCR method. Among the 1125 blood samples, 261 samples were confirmed to be infected with malaria by microscopic examination. Evaluation of the 1125 samples by species-specific nested PCR analysis revealed that the agreement between microscopic examination and nested PCR was 87.3% (261/299). Nested PCR successfully detected 38 Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infections, which were missed in microscopic examination. Microscopic examinations also either misdiagnosed the infected Plasmodium species, or did not detect mixed infections with different Plasmodium species in 31 cases. The nested PCR method is more reliable than conventional microscopic examination for the diagnosis of malaria infections, and this is particularly true in cases of mixed infections and submicroscopic infections. Given the observed higher sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR, the molecular method holds enormous promise in malaria diagnosis and species differentiation, and can be applied as an effective monitoring tool for malaria surveillance, control and elimination in Myanmar.

  19. Does a Weekly Didactic Conference Improve Resident Performance on the Pediatric Domain of the Orthopaedic In-Training Examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Corinna C; Bosch, Patrick P; Grudziak, Jan S; Dede, Ozgur; Ramirez, Rey N; Mendelson, Steven A; Ward, W Timothy; Brooks, Maria; Kenkre, Tanya; Lubahn, John D; Deeney, Vincent F; Roach, James W

    2017-03-01

    Performance on the Orthopaedic In-training Examination (OITE) has been correlated with performance on the written portion of the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery examination. Herein we sought to discover whether adding a regular pediatric didactic lecture improved residents' performance on the OITE's pediatric domain. In 2012, a didactic lecture series was started in the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Hamot Orthopaedic Residency Program (Hamot). This includes all topics in pediatric orthopaedic surgery and has teaching faculty present, and occurs weekly with all residents attending. A neighboring program [UMPC Pittsburgh (Pitt)] shares in these conferences, but only during their pediatric rotation. We sought to determine the effectiveness of the conference by comparing the historic scores from each program on the pediatric domain of the OITE examination to scores after the institution of the conference, and by comparing the 2 programs' scores. Both programs demonstrated improvement in OITE scores. In 2008, the mean examination score was 19.6±4.3 (11.0 to 30.0), and the mean percentile was 57.7±12.6 (32.0 to 88.0); in 2014, the mean examination score was 23.5±4.2 (14.0 to 33.0) and the mean percentile was 67.1±12.1 (40.0 to 94.0). OITE scores and percentiles improved with post graduate year (Pdidactic pediatric lecture improved residents' scores on the OITE and indirectly suggests that more frequent attendance is associated with better scores. Level III-retrospective case-control study.

  20. Management strategies to improve the academic performance of previously disadvantaged secondary schools in the grade 12 examination.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The importance of secondary school education in moulding learners into responsible citizens of tomorrow cannot be ignored or undermined. Secondary school education is the stepping stone for unlimited opportunities for learners to explore the career choices that they have to pursue further in their lives. Every year the performance of secondary schools in the matric examination come under spotlight as soon as the results are published. Many schools in the previously disadvantaged communities p...

  1. Improvement of a three-dimensional atmospheric dynamic model and examination of its performance over complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Yamazawa, Hiromi

    1994-11-01

    A three-dimensional atmospheric dynamic model (PHYSIC) was improved and its performance was examined using the meteorological data observed at a coastal area with a complex terrain. To introduce synoptic meteorological conditions into the model, the initial and boundary conditions were improved. By this improvement, the model can predict the temporal change of wind field for more than 24 hours. Moreover, the model successfully simulates the land and sea breeze observed at Shimokita area in the summer of 1992. (author)

  2. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Båth, Magnus; Söderman, Christina; Svalkvist, Angelica

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  3. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Båth, Magnus, E-mail: magnus.bath@vgregion.se; Svalkvist, Angelica [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45, Sweden and Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden); Söderman, Christina [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-413 45 (Sweden)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis.

  4. A simple method to retrospectively estimate patient dose-area product for chest tomosynthesis examinations performed using VolumeRAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Båth, Magnus; Svalkvist, Angelica; Söderman, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present work was to develop and validate a method of retrospectively estimating the dose-area product (DAP) of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system (GE Healthcare, Chalfont St. Giles, UK) from digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data available in the scout image. Methods: DICOM data were retrieved for 20 patients undergoing chest tomosynthesis using VolumeRAD. Using information about how the exposure parameters for the tomosynthesis examination are determined by the scout image, a correction factor for the adjustment in field size with projection angle was determined. The correction factor was used to estimate the DAP for 20 additional chest tomosynthesis examinations from DICOM data available in the scout images, which was compared with the actual DAP registered for the projection radiographs acquired during the tomosynthesis examination. Results: A field size correction factor of 0.935 was determined. Applying the developed method using this factor, the average difference between the estimated DAP and the actual DAP was 0.2%, with a standard deviation of 0.8%. However, the difference was not normally distributed and the maximum error was only 1.0%. The validity and reliability of the presented method were thus very high. Conclusions: A method to estimate the DAP of a chest tomosynthesis examination performed using the VolumeRAD system from DICOM data in the scout image was developed and validated. As the scout image normally is the only image connected to the tomosynthesis examination stored in the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) containing dose data, the method may be of value for retrospectively estimating patient dose in clinical use of chest tomosynthesis

  5. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination given in July to intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training examination scores, a predictor of performance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Hiller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM administers the in-training examination (ITE. In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE, an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents’ knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. Methods: This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EMACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression were performed. Results: Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4. The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]. For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores, only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (p<0.05. We observed significant colinearity

  6. Correlation of the National Board of Medical Examiners Emergency Medicine Advanced Clinical Examination Given in July to Intern American Board of Emergency Medicine in-training Examination Scores: A Predictor of Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine; Franzen, Doug; Heitz, Corey; Emery, Matthew; Poznanski, Stacy

    2015-11-01

    There is great variation in the knowledge base of Emergency Medicine (EM) interns in July. The first objective knowledge assessment during residency does not occur until eight months later, in February, when the American Board of EM (ABEM) administers the in-training examination (ITE). In 2013, the National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) released the EM Advanced Clinical Examination (EM-ACE), an assessment intended for fourth-year medical students. Administration of the EM-ACE to interns at the start of residency may provide an earlier opportunity to assess the new EM residents' knowledge base. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the NBME EM-ACE, given early in residency, with the EM ITE. Secondary objectives included determination of the correlation of the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 or 2 scores with early intern EM-ACE and ITE scores and the effect, if any, of clinical EM experience on examination correlation. This was a multi-institutional, observational study. Entering EM interns at six residencies took the EM-ACE in July 2013 and the ABEM ITE in February 2014. We collected scores for the EM-ACE and ITE, age, gender, weeks of clinical EM experience in residency prior to the ITE, and USMLE Step 1 and 2 scores. Pearson's correlation and linear regression were performed. Sixty-two interns took the EM-ACE and the ITE. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between the ITE and the EM-ACE was 0.62. R-squared was 0.5 (adjusted 0.4). The coefficient of determination was 0.41 (95% CI [0.3-0.8]). For every increase of one in the scaled EM-ACE score, we observed a 0.4% increase in the EM in-training score. In a linear regression model using all available variables (EM-ACE, gender, age, clinical exposure to EM, and USMLE Step 1 and Step 2 scores), only the EM-ACE score was significantly associated with the ITE (pcorrelation with ITE. Clinical EM experience prior to the in-training exam did not affect the

  7. Association of the 2011 ACGME resident duty hour reform with general surgery patient outcomes and with resident examination performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Ravi; Chung, Jeanette W; Jones, Andrew T; Cohen, Mark E; Dahlke, Allison R; Ko, Clifford Y; Tarpley, John L; Lewis, Frank R; Hoyt, David B; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2014-12-10

    In 2011, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) restricted resident duty hour requirements beyond those established in 2003, leading to concerns about the effects on patient care and resident training. To determine if the 2011 ACGME duty hour reform was associated with a change in general surgery patient outcomes or in resident examination performance. Quasi-experimental study of general surgery patient outcomes 2 years before (academic years 2009-2010) and after (academic years 2012-2013) the 2011 duty hour reform. Teaching and nonteaching hospitals were compared using a difference-in-differences approach adjusted for procedural mix, patient comorbidities, and time trends. Teaching hospitals were defined based on the proportion of cases at which residents were present intraoperatively. Patients were those undergoing surgery at hospitals participating in the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP). General surgery resident performance on the annual in-training, written board, and oral board examinations was assessed for this same period. National implementation of revised resident duty hour requirements on July 1, 2011, in all ACGME accredited residency programs. Primary outcome was a composite of death or serious morbidity; secondary outcomes were other postoperative complications and resident examination performance. In the main analysis, 204,641 patients were identified from 23 teaching (n = 102,525) and 31 nonteaching (n = 102,116) hospitals. The unadjusted rate of death or serious morbidity improved during the study period in both teaching (11.6% [95% CI, 11.3%-12.0%] to 9.4% [95% CI, 9.1%-9.8%], P adverse outcome. Mean (SD) in-training examination scores did not significantly change from 2010 to 2013 for first-year residents (499.7 [ 85.2] to 500.5 [84.2], P = .99), for residents from other postgraduate years, or for first-time examinees taking the written or oral board

  8. Relationships between study habits, burnout, and general surgery resident performance on the American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeds, Matthew R; Thrush, Carol R; McDaniel, Faith K; Gill, Roop; Kimbrough, Mary K; Shames, Brian D; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Galante, Joseph M; Wittgen, Catherine M; Ansari, Parswa; Allen, Steven R; Nussbaum, Michael S; Hess, Donald T; Knight, David C; Bentley, Frederick R

    2017-09-01

    The American Board of Surgery In-Training Examination (ABSITE) is used by programs to evaluate the knowledge and readiness of trainees to sit for the general surgery qualifying examination. It is often used as a tool for resident promotion and may be used by fellowship programs to evaluate candidates. Burnout has been associated with job performance and satisfaction; however, its presence and effects on surgical trainees' performance are not well studied. We sought to understand factors including burnout and study habits that may contribute to performance on the ABSITE examination. Anonymous electronic surveys were distributed to all residents at 10 surgical residency programs (n = 326). Questions included demographics as well as study habits, career interests, residency characteristics, and burnout scores using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, which assesses burnout because of both exhaustion and disengagement. These surveys were then linked to the individual's 2016 ABSITE and United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) step 1 and 2 scores provided by the programs to determine factors associated with successful ABSITE performance. In total, 48% (n = 157) of the residents completed the survey. Of those completing the survey, 48 (31%) scored in the highest ABSITE quartile (≥75th percentile) and 109 (69%) scored less than the 75th percentile. In univariate analyses, those in the highest ABSITE quartile had significantly higher USMLE step 1 and step 2 scores (P shop compared with at home; P < 0.04), and used active rather than passive study strategies (P < 0.04). Gender, marital status, having children, and debt burden had no correlation with examination success. Backward stepwise multiple regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of ABSITE scores: study location (P < 0.0001), frequency of reading (P = 0.0001), Oldenburg Burnout Inventory exhaustion (P = 0.02), and USMLE step 1 and 2 scores (P = 0.007 and 0

  9. Examination of the gamma equilibrium point hypothesis when applied to single degree of freedom movements performed with different inertial loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellomo, A; Inbar, G

    1997-01-01

    One of the theories of human motor control is the gamma Equilibrium Point Hypothesis. It is an attractive theory since it offers an easy control scheme where the planned trajectory shifts monotionically from an initial to a final equilibrium state. The feasibility of this model was tested by reconstructing the virtual trajectory and the stiffness profiles for movements performed with different inertial loads and examining them. Three types of movements were tested: passive movements, targeted movements, and repetitive movements. Each of the movements was performed with five different inertial loads. Plausible virtual trajectories and stiffness profiles were reconstructed based on the gamma Equilibrium Point Hypothesis for the three different types of movements performed with different inertial loads. However, the simple control strategy supported by the model, where the planned trajectory shifts monotonically from an initial to a final equilibrium state, could not be supported for targeted movements performed with added inertial load. To test the feasibility of the model further we must examine the probability that the human motor control system would choose a trajectory more complicated than the actual trajectory to control.

  10. Re-Examining High-Fat Diets for Sports Performance: Did We Call the 'Nail in the Coffin' Too Soon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Louise M

    2015-11-01

    During the period 1985-2005, studies examined the proposal that adaptation to a low-carbohydrate (60 % energy) diet (LCHF) to increase muscle fat utilization during exercise could enhance performance in trained individuals by reducing reliance on muscle glycogen. As little as 5 days of training with LCHF retools the muscle to enhance fat-burning capacity with robust changes that persist despite acute strategies to restore carbohydrate availability (e.g., glycogen supercompensation, carbohydrate intake during exercise). Furthermore, a 2- to 3-week exposure to minimal carbohydrate (strategies by competitive athletes in conventional sports. Recent re-emergence of interest in LCHF diets, coupled with anecdotes of improved performance by sportspeople who follow them, has created a need to re-examine the potential benefits of this eating style. Unfortunately, the absence of new data prevents a different conclusion from being made. Notwithstanding the outcomes of future research, there is a need for better recognition of current sports nutrition guidelines that promote an individualized and periodized approach to fuel availability during training, allowing the athlete to prepare for competition performance with metabolic flexibility and optimal utilization of all muscle substrates. Nevertheless, there may be a few scenarios where LCHF diets are of benefit, or at least are not detrimental, for sports performance.

  11. An examination of mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to everyday functional performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jerri D; Ruva, Christine L; O'Brien, Jennifer L; Haley, Christine B; Lister, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of these analyses was to examine mediators of the transfer of cognitive speed of processing training to improved everyday functional performance (J. D. Edwards, V. G. Wadley,, D. E. Vance, D. L. Roenker, & K. K. Ball, 2005, The impact of speed of processing training on cognitive and everyday performance. Aging & Mental Health, 9, 262-271). Cognitive speed of processing and visual attention (as measured by the Useful Field of View Test; UFOV) were examined as mediators of training transfer. Secondary data analyses were conducted from the Staying Keen in Later Life (SKILL) study, a randomized cohort study including 126 community dwelling adults 63 to 87 years of age. In the SKILL study, participants were randomized to an active control group or cognitive speed of processing training (SOPT), a nonverbal, computerized intervention involving perceptual practice of visual tasks. Prior analyses found significant effects of training as measured by the UFOV and Timed Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TIADL) Tests. Results from the present analyses indicate that speed of processing for a divided attention task significantly mediated the effect of SOPT on everyday performance (e.g., TIADL) in a multiple mediation model accounting for 91% of the variance. These findings suggest that everyday functional improvements found from SOPT are directly attributable to improved UFOV performance, speed of processing for divided attention in particular. Targeting divided attention in cognitive interventions may be important to positively affect everyday functioning among older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Repeating hemorrhage after radiotherapy for glioma. Radiological and histological observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Hirokazu [Miyakonojo Medical Association Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan); Wakisaka, Shinichiro; Kubota, Toshihiko; Hosotani, Kazuo

    1998-02-01

    A case of radiation necrosis which was observed six years after radiotherapy for a glioma in the right parietal lobe is reported. This patient developed hemiparesis, and radiological examinations showed similar findings consisted with recurrent glioma. Histological examination disclosed that the lesion is correspond to the radiation necrosis. (author)

  13. Examination of Performance Management Targets in Case of an International Corporation’s Eastern Hungarian Operating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemeth Zoltan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, due to the social and economic changes, the human is already the main resource which determines the successfulness of corporations. The expertise in managing the human resources is a key factor of competitiveness therefore it has become a strategic question. Primary aim of the treatise is to outline the most important principles, targets and peculiarities of performance management system, which is a central element of human resource management, as well as its interconnectedness with the individual performance evaluation and human resource development through the mirror of one of today’s biggest Hungarian economic corporations. We aimed to explore, by means of document analysis as well as methods of case study and interview, how the targets of performance management are used for increasing the economic productivity, preserving the competitiveness, retaining and enhancing the satisfaction of workers. It can be stated that the PM system was continuously improved in case of the organization examined because the corporate goals and the expected performances were adjusted to the changing market demands over time but, at the same time the goal of differentiation has remained unchanged. Each worker evaluates his/her performance individually, the base of which is the extent of contribution to the corporate results. Based on the results, it can overall be stated that such a well-functioning performance management system is applied in the operating unit of the corporation examined which is strongly supported by the organizational culture and which contributes to the joint fulfilment of personal as well as organizational goals.

  14. A histological atlas of the tissues and organs of neotenic and metamorphosed axolotl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircan, Turan; İlhan, Ayşe Elif; Aytürk, Nilüfer; Yıldırım, Berna; Öztürk, Gürkan; Keskin, İlknur

    2016-09-01

    Axolotl (Ambystoma Mexicanum) has been emerging as a promising model in stem cell and regeneration researches due to its exceptional regenerative capacity. Although it represents lifelong lasting neoteny, induction to metamorphosis with thyroid hormones (THs) treatment advances the utilization of Axolotl in various studies. It has been reported that amphibians undergo anatomical and histological remodeling during metamorphosis and this transformation is crucial for adaptation to terrestrial conditions. However, there is no comprehensive histological investigation regarding the morphological alterations of Axolotl organs and tissues throughout the metamorphosis. Here, we reveal the histological differences or resemblances between the neotenic and metamorphic axolotl tissues. In order to examine structural features and cellular organization of Axolotl organs, we performed Hematoxylin & Eosin, Luxol-Fast blue, Masson's trichrome, Alcian blue, Orcein and Weigart's staining. Stained samples from brain, gallbladder, heart, intestine, liver, lung, muscle, skin, spleen, stomach, tail, tongue and vessel were analyzed under the light microscope. Our findings contribute to the validation of the link between newly acquired functions and structural changes of tissues and organs as observed in tail, skin, gallbladder and spleen. We believe that this descriptive work provides new insights for a better histological understanding of both neotenic and metamorphic Axolotl tissues. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Activating thyrotropin receptor mutations in histologically heterogeneous hyperfunctioning nodules of multinodular goiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonacchera, M; Vitti, P; Agretti, P; Giulianetti, B; Mazzi, B; Cavaliere, R; Ceccarini, G; Fiore, E; Viacava, P; Naccarato, A; Pinchera, A; Chiovato, L

    1998-07-01

    Activating thyrotropin (TSH) receptor mutations have been found in toxic adenomas and in hot nodules contained in toxic multinodular goiter. The typical feature of multinodular goiter is the heterogeneity in morphology and function of different follicles within the same enlarged gland. In this report we describe a patient with a huge multinodular goiter, normal free triiodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) serum values, and subnormal TSH serum concentration. Thyroid scintiscan showed two hot areas corresponding to the basal and apical nodules of the left lobe. The right lobe was poorly visualized by the radioisotope. The patient underwent thyroidectomy, and histological examination of the tissue was performed. Genomic DNA was extracted from the tissue specimen and direct sequencing of the TSH receptor and Gs alpha genes was done. At histology, one hyperfunctioning nodule had the typical microscopic structure of thyroid adenomas, and the other contained multiple macrofollicular areas not confined by a capsule. In spite of this histological difference, both hyperfunctioning nodules harbored a mutation of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHr) gene: an isoleucine instead of a threonine in position 632 (T632I) in the first nodule and a methionine instead of an isoleucine in position 486 (I486M) in the second nodule. In conclusion, our findings show for the first time that gain-of-function TSHr mutations are not only present in hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules with the histological features of the true thyroid adenomas, but also in hyperfunctioning hyperplastic nodules contained in the same multinodular goiter.

  16. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Michael C; Eley, Diann S; Schafer, Jennifer; Davies, Leo

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA) for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM) Clinical Science Examination (CSE). A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence. Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53) and international status (B: -37.40; 95% CI: -57.85 to -16.96) from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82) and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78) were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners' International Standard of Competence.

  17. Morphological Characters and Histology of Pheretima darnleiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDY DARMAWAN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pheretima darnleiensis is a native earthworm of Southeast Asia, India, and Japan. Although it is commonly found in Indonesia, the earthworm has never been studied well. This study was aimed to examine the morphological characters and structure of its several organs for an identification purpose, which is important for the earthworm culture. Earthworms were collected in a plot of 55-150 × 55-150 cm width and 20 cm depth at Bogor Agricultural University in Darmaga and Baranangsiang Campuses by hand sorting method. Examinations were carried out on its external as well as internal characters. The histology of the organs was studied using paraffin method. The observed characters on P. darnleiensis were the presence of prostate gland, one pair of male pores on segment XVIII, a cylindrical body with perichaetine setae, caeca on segment XXVII, copulatory pouches without diverticula and stalked glands, bithecal spermatheca with nephridia, and the first spermathecal pore on segment 4/5. In addition, other characters found on P. darnleiensis were the presence of an annular clitellum on segment XIV-XVI, an epilobus prostomium with open base, approximately 40 single pointed setae on segment XIII, one midventral female pore on segment XIV, one pair of lateroventral male pores on segment XVIII, four pairs of lateroventral spermathecal pores on segment 4/5, 5/6, 6/7, 7/8, and the first middorsal dorsal pore on segment 12/13. The histology of P. darnleiensis showed basic structure as found in other earthworms.

  18. Adapting lean to histology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesa, René J

    2009-10-01

    Histology laboratories (histolabs) can increase productivity and reduce turnaround time and errors by using any one of several available management tools. After a few years of operation, all histolabs develop workflow problems. Histology laboratories handling more than 20,000 cases per year benefit the most from implementing management tools, as occurred in the 25 facilities summarized in this article. Discontinuous workflow, lack of "pulling" between steps, accepting unavoidable waiting times while working with small batches within work cells, and a workflow with an uneven rate of completion, are some of the adaptations required by the Lean system when it is used in histology because 70% of the tasks are manual and the flow has to be interrupted to add value to the pieces of tissue during tissue processing, no matter how short that step is. After all these adaptations are incorporated, the histolab becomes as "Lean" as it can be, and the qualifier is also a recognition of the effort and personnel involvement in the implementation. Given its service nature, productivity increments do not expand the histolab customer base and could lead to staffing reductions. This is one of the causes of reluctance by some employees for implementing these techniques which are mostly driven by cost reductions sought by insurance companies and administrators, and not necessarily because of a real medical need to reduce the turnaround time. Finally, any histolab wanting to improve its workflow can follow some easy steps presented here as a guide to accomplish that objective. These steps stress the need for the supervisors to insure that the personnel in the histology laboratory are being paid at a comparable rate as other histolabs in the area.

  19. Exploring personality dimensions that influence practice and performance of a simulated laparoscopic task in the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neha; Poolton, Jamie M; Wilson, Mark R; Leung, Gilberto; Zhu, Frank; Fan, Joe K M; Masters, Rich S W

    2015-01-01

    Surgical educators have encouraged the investigation of individual differences in aptitude and personality in surgical performance. An individual personality difference that has been shown to influence laparoscopic performance under time pressure is movement specific reinvestment. Movement specific reinvestment has 2 dimensions, movement self-consciousness (MS-C) (i.e., the propensity to consciously monitor movements) and conscious motor processing (CMP) (i.e., the propensity to consciously control movements), which have been shown to differentially influence laparoscopic performance in practice but have yet to be investigated in the context of psychological stress (e.g., the objective structured clinical examination [OSCE]). This study investigated the role of individual differences in propensity for MS-C and CMP in practice of a fundamental laparoscopic skill and in laparoscopic performance during the OSCE. Furthermore, this study examined whether individual differences during practice of a fundamental laparoscopic skill were predictive of laparoscopic performance during the OSCE. Overall, 77 final-year undergraduate medical students completed the movement specific reinvestment scale, an assessment tool that quantifies the propensity for MS-C and CMP. Participants were trained to proficiency on a fundamental laparoscopic skill. The number of trials to reach proficiency was measured, and completion times were recorded during early practice, later practice, and the OSCE. There was a trend for CMP to be negatively associated with the number of trials to reach proficiency (p = 0.064). A higher propensity for CMP was associated with fewer trials to reach proficiency (β = -0.70, p = 0.023). CMP and MS-C did not significantly predict completion times in the OSCE (p > 0.05). Completion times in early practice (β = 0.05, p = 0.016) and later practice (β = 0.47, p personality differences and individual differences in ability during practice could help inform the

  20. Assessment of Student Performance for Course Examination Using Rasch Measurement Model: A Case Study of Information Technology Fundamentals Course

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    Amir Mohamed Talib

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a measurement model that is used to measure the student performance in the final examination of Information Technology (IT Fundamentals (IT280 course in the Information Technology (IT Department, College of Computer & Information Sciences (CCIS, Al-Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU. The assessment model is developed based on students’ mark entries of final exam results for the second year IT students, which are compiled and tabulated for evaluation using Rasch Measurement Model, and it can be used to measure the students’ performance towards the final examination of the course. A study on 150 second year students (male = 52; female = 98 was conducted to measure students’ knowledge and understanding for IT280 course according to the three level of Bloom’s Taxonomy. The results concluded that students can be categorized as poor (10%, moderate (42%, good (18%, and successful (24% to achieve Level 3 of Bloom’s Taxonomy. This study shows that the students’ performance for the set of IT280 final exam questions was comparatively good. The result generated from this study can be used to guide us to determine the appropriate improvement of teaching method and the quality of question prepared.

  1. Bone marrow evaluation in small cell carcinoma of the lung. [Radiographic and nuclear medical examinations also performed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giaccone, G.; Ciuffreda, L.; Donadio, M.; Ferrati, P.; Risio, M.; Leria, G.; Bonardi, G.; Calciati, A.

    1987-01-01

    Bone marrow examination is commonly included in the staging of small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). We reviewed marrow samples of 103 patients. Marrow examination was mainly performed by unilateral or bilateral biopsy of iliac crests, using a Jamshidi needle. Only 6 of 97 evaluable cases (6.2%) were positive for marrow metastases at staging, and in 3 cases (3%) bone marrow was the only metastatic site. No focal metastases were found in additional sections made from the blocks of negative samples. In our experience bone marrow biopsy was of little value in staging SCLC. Bilateral biopsy plus aspirate, with the addition of more sophisticated staining techniques might, however, provide a higher yield of positive marrow involvement.

  2. When machine vision meets histology: A comparative evaluation of model architecture for classification of histology sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Cheng; Han, Ju; Borowsky, Alexander; Parvin, Bahram; Wang, Yunfu; Chang, Hang

    2017-01-01

    Classification of histology sections in large cohorts, in terms of distinct regions of microanatomy (e.g., stromal) and histopathology (e.g., tumor, necrosis), enables the quantification of tumor composition, and the construction of predictive models of genomics and clinical outcome. To tackle the large technical variations and biological heterogeneities, which are intrinsic in large cohorts, emerging systems utilize either prior knowledge from pathologists or unsupervised feature learning for invariant representation of the underlying properties in the data. However, to a large degree, the architecture for tissue histology classification remains unexplored and requires urgent systematical investigation. This paper is the first attempt to provide insights into three fundamental questions in tissue histology classification: I. Is unsupervised feature learning preferable to human engineered features? II. Does cellular saliency help? III. Does the sparse feature encoder contribute to recognition? We show that (a) in I, both Cellular Morphometric Feature and features from unsupervised feature learning lead to superior performance when compared to SIFT and [Color, Texture]; (b) in II, cellular saliency incorporation impairs the performance for systems built upon pixel-/patch-level features; and (c) in III, the effect of the sparse feature encoder is correlated with the robustness of features, and the performance can be consistently improved by the multi-stage extension of systems built upon both Cellular Morphmetric Feature and features from unsupervised feature learning. These insights are validated with two cohorts of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) and Kidney Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Multi-Disciplinary Examination of Psycho-Physiological Performance Among Youth and Junior Ball Sport Athletes: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    József Márton Pucsok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The primary purpose of our review was to systematically review the evolution of psycho-physiological performance analysis. Our secondary aim was to investigate the role of specific, multi-disciplinary performance indicators to identify future talents in the sport of soccer, handball and basketball. Methods A review protocol was set up in order to avoid individual bias and ensure an efficient searching prodedure. This enabled a search strategy to define which literature was to be included or excluded from our research. Certain inclusion criteria were identified, before performing a search using three electronic databases (Web of Science, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar and reference lists for English-language articles, published from the year 1980 till 2017. Results The comprehensive search yielded 82 documents to be relevant to our purpose of the study, according to our inclusion criteria criteria, 58 were fully-reviewed and referred to in our study. As we previously expected, the review of related literature resulted investigations involving mostly soccer and basketball players, studies conducted on handball players are significantly fewer. The majority of those studies examined physical performance characteristics via various field test. Conclusions We concluded that further analysis is necessary to identify relevant psycho-physiological performance indicators, in order to properly enhance sports performance in the younger athlete population and in general too. Vienna Test System protocols may offer a great potential to provide valuable information for athletes and their coaches to enhance athletic performance. Future research should focus on specifically identify Vienna Test System test protocols that may be linked to each particular sport.

  4. Forensic examination of ink by high-performance thin layer chromatography--the United States Secret Service Digital Ink Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Cedric; Ramotowski, Robert; Genessay, Thibault

    2011-05-13

    Forensic examinations of ink have been performed since the beginning of the 20th century. Since the 1960s, the International Ink Library, maintained by the United States Secret Service, has supported those analyses. Until 2009, the search and identification of inks were essentially performed manually. This paper describes the results of a project designed to improve ink samples' analytical and search processes. The project focused on the development of improved standardization procedures to ensure the best possible reproducibility between analyses run on different HPTLC plates. The successful implementation of this new calibration method enabled the development of mathematical algorithms and of a software package to complement the existing ink library. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of peer education, social support and self esteem on breast self examination performance and knowledge level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malak, Arzu Tuna; Bektash, Murat; Turgay, Ayshe San; Tuna, Asli; Genç, Rabia Ekti

    2009-01-01

    To estimate associations among peer education, social support and self-esteem and their influences on performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Seven volunteer peer educators were given the BSE training programme and in turn educated 65 women students in the university. BSE knowledge evaluation forms developed by Maurer were applied for evaluation. Other data were collected with questionnaires for the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Scale of Perceived Social Support over three months. Knowledge level points of students and the BSE practice ratio were increased by peer support. There was a positive relationship between average BSE knowledge points and social support and self-esteem. The results showed positive relationships among BSE knowledge, social support and self-esteem, these affecting the BSE performance level.

  6. Assessment of communication, professionalism, and surgical skills in an objective structured performance-related examination (OSPRE): a psychometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponton-Carss, Alicia; Hutchison, Carol; Violato, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of a performance assessment of communication, professionalism, and surgical skills competencies for surgery residents. Fourteen residents from the general surgery program of the University of Calgary were assessed in 7 surgical simulation stations that included communication and professionalism skills. The internal consistency reliability of the checklists and global rating scales combined was adequate for communication (α = .75-.92) and surgical skills (α = .86-.96), but not for professionalism (α = 0). There was evidence of validity as surgical skills performance improved as a function of postgraduate year level but not for the professionalism checklist. Surgical skills and communication correlated in the 2 stations assessed (r = .55 and .57; P communication skills. Further instrument development is required to assess professionalism in a structured examination context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Racial difference in histologic subtype of renal cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olshan, Andrew F; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Matthew E; Purdue, Mark P; Rathmell, W Kimryn

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has rapidly increased in incidence for over two decades. The most common histologic subtypes of RCC, clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe have distinct genetic and clinical characteristics; however, epidemiologic features of these subtypes have not been well characterized, particularly regarding any associations between race, disease subtypes, and recent incidence trends. Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, we examined differences in the age-adjusted incidence rates and trends of RCC subtypes, including analysis focusing on racial differences. Incidence rates increased over time (2001–2009) for all three subtypes. However, the proportion of white cases with clear cell histology was higher than among blacks (50% vs. 31%, respectively), whereas black cases were more likely than white cases to have papillary RCC (23% vs. 9%, respectively). Moreover, papillary RCC incidence increased more rapidly for blacks than whites (P < 0.01) over this period. We also observed that increased incidence of papillary histology among blacks is not limited to the smallest size strata. We observed racial differences in proportionate incidence of RCC subtypes, which appear to be increasing over time; this novel finding motivates further etiologic, clinical, molecular, and genetic studies. Using national data, we observed a higher proportion of black renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cases with papillary histology compared to Caucasian cases. We also observed time trends in black-white incidence differences in histologic RCC subtypes, with rapid increases in the disproportionate share of black cases with papillary histology

  8. Examining the influence of acute instructional approaches on the decision-making performance of experienced team field sport players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Farrow, Damian; Kemp, Justin

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of instructions on decision-making accuracy using video simulations of game-specific scenarios in Australian football. Skilled performers (average age of 23.4 ± 4.2 years) differing in experience (range 0 to 339 Australian Football League (AFL) matches) assumed the role of the key attacker and verbally indicated their kicking decision. Participants were randomly stratified into three groups: (1) LOOSE (n = 15)--instructed to "keep the ball away from the loose defender"; (2) TTF (n = 15) - instructed to "take the first option"; and (3) NI (control) (n = 16)--given no instructions. Gaze behaviour for a subset of participants (n = 20) was recorded. In the scenarios with an even number of attacking and defensive players, the decision-making accuracy of LOOSE was greater than TTF. This difference was most evident for lesser experienced performers, highlighting that lesser experienced performers are more affected by instructional foci than experienced performers. Gaze behaviour was not affected by instructional foci, but visual search rate was greater in scenarios of greater player number and complexity.

  9. Effects of Job Burnout and Emotional Labor on Objective Structured Clinical Examination Performance Among Interns and Residents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Jen-De; Wang, Chih-Hung; Wang, Jong-Yi; Tai, Chih-Jaan; Hsieh, Tsu-Yi; Chen, Der-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Medical education faces challenges concerning job burnout and emotional labor among junior physicians, which poses a potential threat to the quality of medical care. Although studies have investigated job burnout and emotional labor among physicians, empirical research on the association between job burnout, emotional labor, and clinical performance is lacking. This study investigated the effects of job burnout and emotional labor on clinical performance by using the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores of interns and residents. Specifically, this cross-sectional study utilized the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Emotional Labor Questionnaire as measurement instruments. A total of 225 interns and residents in central Taiwan answered structured questionnaires before beginning their OSCE. The major statistical analysis method employed was logistic regression. After adjustment for covariates, first-year residents were less likely than other residents to obtain high OSCE scores. The odds of high OSCE performance among interns and residents with high interaction component scores in emotional labor were significantly higher than those with low interaction scores. A high score in the interaction dimension of emotional labor was associated with strong clinical performance. The findings suggest that interventions which motivate positive attitudes and increase interpersonal interaction skills among physicians should receive higher priority.

  10. The Effect of Prior Task Success on Older Adults' Memory Performance: Examining the Influence of Different Types of Task Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; Hughes, Matthew L; Miller, Tyler M; De Forrest, Ross L

    2016-01-01

    Negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. Yet, memory performance can be improved if older adults have a single successful experience on a cognitive test prior to participating in a memory experiment (Geraci & Miller, 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 340-345). The current study examined the effects of different types of prior task experience on subsequent memory performance. Before participating in a verbal free recall experiment, older adults in Experiment 1 successfully completed either a verbal or a visual cognitive task or no task. In Experiment 2, they successfully completed either a motor task or no task before participating in the free recall experiment. Results from Experiment 1 showed that relative to control (no prior task), participants who had prior success, either on a verbal or a visual task, had better subsequent recall performance. Experiment 2 showed that prior success on a motor task, however, did not lead to a later memory advantage relative to control. These findings demonstrate that older adults' memory can be improved by a successful prior task experience so long as that experience is in a cognitive domain.

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of the Effects of Computer Self-efficacy Growth on Performance during Technology Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Downey

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology training in the classroom is critical in preparing students for upper level classes as well as professional careers, especially in fields such as technology. One of the key enablers to this process is computer self-efficacy (CSE, which has an extensive stream of empirical research. Despite this, one of the missing pieces is how CSE actually changes during training, and how such change is related to antecedents and performance outcomes. Measuring change requires repeated data gathering and the use of latent growth modeling, a relatively new statistical technique. This study examines CSE (specifically general CSE or GCSE growth over time during training, and how this growth is influenced by anxiety and gender and influences performance, using a semester-long lab course covering three applications. The use of GCSE growth more accurately models how students actually learn in a technology classroom. It provides novel clarity in the interaction of gender, anxiety, GCSE, specific CSEs, and performance during training. The study finds that the relationship between anxiety and self-efficacy decreases over time during training, becoming non-significant; it clarifies the significant role gender plays in influencing GCSE at the start of and during training. It finds GCSE influences application performance only through specific CSEs.

  12. The Influence of Parkinson’s Disease Motor Symptom Asymmetry on Hand Performance: An Examination of the Grooved Pegboard Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M. Scharoun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of motor symptom asymmetry in Parkinson’s disease (PD on Grooved Pegboard (GP performance in right-handed participants. The Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale was used to assess motor symptoms and separate participants with PD into two groups (right-arm affected, left-arm affected for comparison with a group of healthy older adults. Participants completed the place and replace GP tasks two times with both hands. Laterality quotients were computed to quantify performance differences between the two hands. Comparisons among the three groups indicated that when the nonpreferred hand is affected by PD motor symptoms, superior preferred hand performance (as seen in healthy older adults is further exaggerated in tasks that require precision (i.e., place task. Regardless of the task, when the preferred hand is affected, there is an evident shift to superior left-hand performance, which may inevitably manifest as a switch in hand preference. Results add to the discussion of the relationship between handedness and motor symptom asymmetry in PD.

  13. Linking payment to health outcomes: a taxonomy and examination of performance-based reimbursement schemes between healthcare payers and manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Josh J; Sullivan, Sean D; Garrison, Louis P; Neumann, Peter J; Veenstra, David L

    2010-08-01

    To identify, categorize and examine performance-based health outcomes reimbursement schemes for medical technology. We performed a review of performance-based health outcomes reimbursement schemes over the past 10 years (7/98-010/09) using publicly available databases, web and grey literature searches, and input from healthcare reimbursement experts. We developed a taxonomy of scheme types by inductively organizing the schemes identified according to the timing, execution, and health outcomes measured in the schemes. Our search yielded 34 coverage with evidence development schemes, 10 conditional treatment continuation schemes, and 14 performance-linked reimbursement schemes. The majority of schemes are in Europe and Australia, with an increasing number in Canada and the U.S. These schemes have the potential to alter the reimbursement and pricing landscape for medical technology, but significant challenges, including high transaction costs and insufficient information systems, may limit their long-term impact. Future studies regarding experiences and outcomes of implemented schemes are necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Academic performance of ethnic minority candidates and discrimination in the MRCGP examinations between 2010 and 2012: analysis of data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmail, Aneez; Roberts, Chris

    2013-09-26

    To determine the difference in failure rates in the postgraduate examination of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP) by ethnic or national background, and to identify factors associated with pass rates in the clinical skills assessment component of the examination. Analysis of data provided by the Royal College of General Practitioners and the General Medical Council. Cohort of 5095 candidates sitting the applied knowledge test and clinical skills assessment components of the MRCGP examination between November 2010 and November 2012. A further analysis was carried out on 1175 candidates not trained in the United Kingdom, who sat an English language capability test (IELTS) and the Professional and Linguistic Assessment Board (PLAB) examination (as required for full medical registration), controlling for scores on these examinations and relating them to pass rates of the clinical skills assessment. United Kingdom. After controlling for age, sex, and performance in the applied knowledge test, significant differences persisted between white UK graduates and other candidate groups. Black and minority ethnic graduates trained in the UK were more likely to fail the clinical skills assessment at their first attempt than their white UK colleagues (odds ratio 3.536 (95% confidence interval 2.701 to 4.629), PIELTS, and PLAB examinations (adjusted odds ratio 1.580 (95% confidence interval 0.878 to 2.845), P=0.127). Subjective bias due to racial discrimination in the clinical skills assessment may be a cause of failure for UK trained candidates and international medical graduates. The difference between British black and minority ethnic candidates and British white candidates in the pass rates of the clinical skills assessment, despite controlling for prior attainment, suggests that subjective bias could also be a factor. Changes to the clinical skills assessment could improve the perception of the examination as being biased against black and minority ethnic

  15. Performance of low-educated elders with depression on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ace-r) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckert, Michele; Loureiro, Fernanda; Menta, Caroline; Mello, Elisa Fasolin; Nogueira, Eduardo L; von Gunten, Armin; Gomes, Irênio

    2016-01-01

    Along with cognitive disorders, depression has been a concern for mental health services due to its highly debilitating effect on the functioning and quality of life of the elderly. However, there is still little understanding of the cognitive alterations resulting from depression or of the difficult differential diagnosis with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). It is known that performance on cognitive tests is strongly influenced by education but few studies have been conducted involving low-educated populations. To evaluate the performance of elders with low education and no dementia on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) test and its cognitive domains, and compare patients with Current Major Depressive Episode (CMDE) against those without depressive symptoms. A retrospective, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted based on medical files of patients treated at the Cerebral Aging Clinic of the Hospital São Lucas of the PUCRS. The study included 116 individuals with low education (Examination, and the five cognitive domains. There was also no difference between the groups on separate analyses of results on the clock drawing test, the categorical verbal and phonological fluency test, and the naming test. The results of this study showed that depressive symptoms did not influence scores on the ACE-R tests conducted in elders with low education.

  16. The role of self-regulated learning in explaining examination performance of college students in first-semester general chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Scott

    Many college students struggle with first-semester general chemistry. Prior studies have shown that a student's prior knowledge of chemistry, a cognitive factor, does not account for the total variance when measured by examination scores. This study explored the role of self-regulated learning (SRL) to identify the degree of success or failure of students with two outcome variables (i.e., American Chemical Society Comprehensive First-Term General Chemistry Examination (Form 2009) and hour-examination averages). The SRL construct consists of three interrelated components (i.e., cognitive, metacognitive, and motivational). SRL theory focuses on the idea of reciprocal determinism, in which the impact of one component of self-regulation affects the other two components. In the quantitative portion of this mixed methods study, eight measures of SRL were used to determine the `level' of self-regulation for each student. SRL variables were used in regression analysis and provided additional and unique variances. Cluster analysis techniques identified two distinct groups of students (i.e., adaptive and maladaptive). Generally, adaptive learners were associated with higher levels of SRL and success in the course; maladaptive learners had lower levels of SRL and struggled with the course demands. For the qualitative portion of the study, student volunteers (n = 8) were interviewed to gauge their views on the role of instruction in influencing their examination performances. The findings indicated that perceptions of teaching methods, demands of the course, course structure, feedback, and assessments were associated with the students' levels of self-regulation. Interviews revealed four SRL styles. Rote memorizers tended to fragment instruction and then memorize each fragment, while algorithmic memorizers tended to imitate the step-by-step problem-solving strategies of the instructor or the textbook. Globalizers were intrinsically motivated to learn the material but tended to

  17. Hidradenocarcinoma presenting as soft tissue mass: Case report with cytomorphologic description, histologic correlation, and differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnah, Alexander H; Emory, Cynthia L; Mai, Nicholas H; Bergman, Simon; Salih, Ziyan T

    2016-05-01

    Hidradenocarcinoma (HAC) is a rare adenexal tumor with a propensity for the head and neck region and extremities. We report a case of hidradenocarcinnoma in a 56-year-old woman with a mass on her right palm sampled by fine-needle aspiration and later confirmed on histological examination. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed a dual population of cells including polyhedral eosinophilic cells and glycogen containing cells with pale/clear cytoplasm. The nuclei were pleomorphic with prominent nucleoli. Occassional papillary structures were identified on the cell block material. A series of immunohistochemical stains were performed and an adnexal neoplasm was suggested. The mass was resected. On histologic sections, infiltration into the adjacent soft tissue was identified. After an additional series of immunohistochemical stains, the diagnosis was confirmed as a HAC. Herein, we present our findings and discuss the differential diagnoses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The Effect of Breast Self Examination Educational Program on the Knowledge and Performance of Women in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Yoshany

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer and one of the major causes of cancer deaths in women. Early diagnosis leads to significant reduction of mortality from breast cancer, in other words it can increase the lifespan of people with this cancer. This study aimed to determine the effect of education on knowledge and performance of 20-60 year old women in Yazd city about Breast Self Examination (BSE. Materials & Methods: In this study, 100 women aged from 20 to 60 years old who referred to Yazd health centers were selected. They were matched in terms of cultural, social, and economical aspects. In this quasi-experimental study, data was collected through administration of questionnaires before and after training in two stages. The collected information were then analyzed using the statistical software SPSS (version 18 by T-tests and ANOVA. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: The results of statistical analyses revealed a significant difference between participants' knowledge and performance scores before and after training (0.05> p. In this study, age, marital status, education level, history of breastfeeding, and its duration had a significant relationship with  participants' knowledge; also, positive family history of breast cancer had a significant relationship with their performance (0.05> p. Between the subjects' performance was a significant difference in two groups with negative and positive family history of Brest cancer before and after two months of educational program. (0.05> p. Conclusion: According to the achieved results and the positive impact of education on the increase of knowledge and performance, educational programs in the field of breast cancer and its screening methods are recommended to be held for all age groups. In order to promote women's health from puberty to menopause more attention should be paid to the follow-up and training.

  19. Examination of Communication Delays on Team Performance: Utilizing the International Space Station (ISS) as a Test Bed for Analog Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeton, K. E.; Slack, K, J.; Schmidt, L. L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Baskin, P.; Leveton, L. B.

    2011-01-01

    Operational conjectures about space exploration missions of the future indicate that space crews will need to be more autonomous from mission control and operate independently. This is in part due to the expectation that communication quality between the ground and exploration crews will be more limited and delayed. Because of potential adverse effects on communication quality, both researchers and operational training and engineering experts have suggested that communication delays and the impact these delays have on the quality of communications to the crew will create performance decrements if crews are not given adequate training and tools to support more autonomous operations. This presentation will provide an overview of a research study led by the Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) of the NASA Human Research Program that examines the impact of implementing a communication delay on ISS on individual and team factors and outcomes, including performance and related perceptions of autonomy. The methodological design, data collection efforts, and initial results of this study to date will be discussed . The results will focus on completed missions, DRATS and NEEMO15. Lessons learned from implementing this study within analog environments will also be discussed. One lesson learned is that the complexities of garnishing a successful data collection campaign from these high fidelity analogs requires perseverance and a strong relationship with operational experts. Results of this study will provide a preliminary understanding of the impact of communication delays on individual and team performance as well as an insight into how teams perform and interact in a space-like environment . This will help prepare for implementation of communication delay tests on the ISS, targeted for Increment 35/36.

  20. Examining the relationship between child maltreatment and school performance in public schools in Saudi Arabia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamimi, Dana; Almuneef, Maha; Albuhairan, Fadia; Saleheen, Hassan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between child maltreatment (CM) and school performance among adolescents in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in 2014. The enrolment criteria included both male and female Saudi students ( n=674; 52.7% male) aged 12-19 years ( M age =15.6±1.6 years), attending intermediate and secondary schools belonging to the Ministry of National Guard. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on different forms of abuse that had occurred in the past or were currently occurring. Poor school performance was more likely in students who lived among substance-use family members or guardians compared with those who did not (33.3% vs. 11.4%; p<0.01), those with an imprisoned family member compared with those without (26.5% vs. 11.2%; p<0.01), those who were psychologically abused compared with those who were not abused (21.0% vs. 10.1%; p<0.01), those who were physically abused compared with those who were not abused (18.9% vs. 9.3%; p<0.01), and those suffering multiple forms of abuse compared with those not abused (23.4% vs. 9.7%; p<0.01). Logistic regression analysis showed that household dysfunction was the most predisposing factor to poor performance in school, and included living among substance-use family members or guardians (odds ratio=4.0; 95% confidence interval=1.7-9.5) and living with imprisoned family member (odds ratio=3.1, 95% confidence interval=1.5-6.3). CM, along with family structure and dynamics, has an adverse relationship with students' school performance. These findings highlight the importance of increasing awareness of the impact of CM on school performance among families, schools and the community.

  1. Relation between histological prostatitis and lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Taiki; Hiramatsu, Ippei; Aoki, Yusuke; Shimoyama, Hirofumi; Nozaki, Taiji; Shirai, Masato; Lu, Yan; Horie, Shigeo; Tsujimura, Akira

    2017-09-01

    Chronic prostatitis (CP) significantly worsens a patient's quality of life (QOL), but its etiology is heterogeneous. Although the inflammatory process must be associated with CP symptoms, not all patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia and histological prostatitis complain of CP symptoms. The relation between the severity of histological inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and erectile function is not fully understood. This study comprised 26 men with suspected prostate cancer but with no malignant lesion by pathological examination of prostate biopsy specimens. LUTS were assessed by several questionnaires including the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), QOL index, Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS), and the National Institutes of Health-Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI), and erectile function was assessed by the Sexual Health Inventory for Men. Prostate volume (PV) measured by transabdominal ultrasound, maximum flow rate by uroflowmetry, and serum concentration of prostate-specific antigen were also evaluated. All data collections were performed before prostate biopsy. Histological prostatitis was assessed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-CD45 antibody as the Quick score. The relation between the Quick score and several factors was assessed by Pearson correlation coefficient and a multivariate linear regression model after adjustment for PV. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed a correlation between the Quick score and several factors including PV, IPSS, QOL index, OABSS, and NIH-CPSI. A multivariate linear regression model after adjustment for PV showed only the NIH-CPSI to be associated with the Quick score. The relation between the Quick score and each domain score of the NIH-CPSI showed only the subscore of urinary symptoms to be an associated factor. We found a correlation only between histological prostatitis and LUTS, but not erectile dysfunction. Especially, the subscore of urinary symptoms

  2. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearance of the caecum in clinically healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Harriet; Freiche, Valérie; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loïc; Le Poder, Sophie; Servely, Jean-Luc; Laloy, Eve; Pey, Pascaline

    2017-02-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to describe the ultrasonographic and endoscopic appearance and characteristics of the caecum in asymptomatic cats, and to correlate these findings with histology. Methods Ex vivo ultrasonographic and histologic evaluations of a fresh caecum were initially performed. Then, 20 asymptomatic cats, privately owned or originating from a reproductive colony, were recruited. All cats had an ultrasonographic examination of the ileocaecocolic junction, where the thickness of the caecal wall, ileocolic lymph nodes and the echogenicity of the local fat were assessed. They all underwent a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the mucosa and biopsies for histology. Results An ultrasonographic hypoechoic nodular inner layer, which corresponded to the coalescence of multiple lymphoid follicles originating from the submucosa and protruding in the mucosa on histology, was visible in all parts of the caecum. The combined mucosa and submucosa was measured ultrasonographically and defined as the follicular layer. Although all cats were asymptomatic, 3/19 cats showed mild caecal inflammation on histology. The most discriminatory ultrasonographic parameter in assessing this subclinical inflammation was the thickness of the follicular layer at the entrance of the caecum, with a cut-off value of 2.0 mm. All cats (20/20) showed some degree of macroscopic 'dimpling' of the caecal mucosa on endoscopy. Conclusions and relevance Lymphoid follicles in the caecal mucosa and submucosa constitute a unique follicular layer on ultrasound. In asymptomatic cats, a subtle, non-clinically relevant inflammation may exist and this is correlated with an increased thickness of the follicular layer on ultrasound. On endoscopy, a 'dimpled aspect' to the caecal mucosa is a normal finding in the asymptomatic cat.

  3. Are preoperative histology and MRI useful for classification of endometrial cancer risk?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Body, Noemie; Lavoué, Vincent; De Kerdaniel, Olivier; Foucher, Fabrice; Henno, Sébastien; Cauchois, Aurélie; Laviolle, Bruno; Leblanc, Marc; Levêque, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The 2010 guidelines of the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) classify patients with endometrial cancer into three risk groups for lymph node invasion and recurrence on the basis of MRI and histological analysis of an endometrial specimen obtained preoperatively. The classification guides therapeutic choices, which may include pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of preoperative assessment to help identify intermediate- or high-risk patients requiring lymphadenectomy. The study included all patients who underwent surgery for endometrial cancer between January 2010 and December 2013 at either Rennes University Hospital or Vannes Regional Hospital. The criteria for eligibility included a preoperative assessment with MRI and histological examination of an endometrial sample. A histological comparison was made between the preoperative and surgical specimens. Among the 91 patients who underwent a full preoperative assessment, the diagnosis of intermediate- or high-risk endometrial cancer was established by MRI and histology with a sensitivity of 70 %, specificity of 82 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 87 %, negative predictive value (NPV) of 61 %, positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 3.8 and negative likelihood ratio (LR-) of 0.3. The risk group was underestimated in 32 % of patients and overestimated in 7 % of patients. MRI underestimated endometrial cancer stage in 20 % of cases, while endometrial sampling underestimated the histological type in 4 % of cases and the grade in 9 % of cases. The preoperative assessment overestimated or underestimated the risk of recurrence in nearly 40 % of cases, with errors in lesion type, grade or stage. Erroneous preoperative risk assessment leads to suboptimal initial surgical management of patients with endometrial cancer

  4. Relationship of chronic histologic prostatic inflammation in biopsy specimens with serum isoform [-2]proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA, and prostate health index in men with a total prostate-specific antigen of 4-10 ng/ml and normal digital rectal examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Massimo; Abrate, Alberto; Lughezzani, Giovanni; Gadda, Giulio Maria; Freschi, Massimo; Mistretta, Francesco; Lista, Giuliana; Fossati, Nicola; Larcher, Alessandro; Kinzikeeva, Ella; Buffi, Nicolòmaria; Dell'Acqua, Vincenzo; Bini, Vittorio; Montorsi, Francesco; Guazzoni, Giorgio

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum [-2]proPSA (p2PSA) and derivatives with chronic histologic prostatic inflammation (CHPI) in men undergoing prostate biopsy for suspected prostate cancer (PCa). This nested case-control study resulted from an observational prospective trial for the definition of sensibility, specificity, and accuracy of p2PSA, %p2PSA, and Beckman Coulter Prostate Health Index (PHI), in men undergoing prostate biopsy, with a total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) of 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. CHPI was the outcome of interest and defined as the presence of moderate to large infiltration of lymphomononuclear cells with interstitial and/or glandular disruption in absence of PCa. p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were considered the index tests and compared with the established biomarker reference standard tests: tPSA, fPSA, %fPSA. Of 267 patients subjected to prostate biopsy, 73 (27.3%) patients were diagnosed with CHPI. Comparing CHPI with PCa patients, %p2PSA and PHI were found to be significantly lower, whereas fPSA and %fPSA were significantly higher. %p2PSA and PHI were the most accurate predictors of CHPI at biopsy, significantly outperforming tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA. On the contrary, no significant differences were found in PSA, p2PSA, and derivatives between CHPI and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients. Our findings showed that p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI values might discriminate PCa from CHPI or BPH, but not CHPI from BPH, in men with a total PSA 4-10 ng/mL and normal digital rectal examination. p2PSA isoform and its derivatives could be useful in clinical decision making to avoid unnecessary biopsies in patients with CHPI and elevated tPSA value. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role Playing for Improving Women’s Knowledge of Breast Cancer Screening and Performance of Breast Self-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savabi-Esfahani, Mitra; Taleghani, Fariba; Noroozi, Mahnaz; Tabatabaeian, Maryam

    2017-09-27

    Background: To enhance knowledge and performance of screening as a strategy to control breast cancer, use of effective teaching methods is necessary. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of role-playing on knowledge of breast cancer screening and performance of breast self-examination (BSE). Methods: A quasi experimental design was used. Women enrolled in community cultural centers (n=314) were randomly divided into two educational groups: role playing (intervention) and lecture (control). Data were collected using a structured questionnaire before and after intervention. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined as 0.80 by Cronbach’s alpha. The women were followed up regarding performance of BSE one month later. Results: Of the 314 women, 113 (36%) and 132 (42%) had low and medium levels of knowledge, respectively. More than a third (38.2%) reported that TV and radio were the most important information sources for breast cancer and screening. There were significant differences between mean scores of knowledge before and after the intervention in both groups, but change was greater with role playing (31.3±1.9 as compared to 23.5±1.3) (P=0.001). After a month of educational intervention, 75.7% and 69.8% of those in role playing and control groups had undergone BSE. Conclusion: It appears that application of a role playing method by providers improves women’s knowledge and behavior with respect to breast cancer screening. Creative Commons Attribution License

  6. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 6, appendices A, B, and C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events (including internal flooding, but excluding internal fire). The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, reviewed the WE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. In particular, these results are assessed in relation to the design and operational characteristics of the various reactor and containment types, and by comparing the IPEs to probabilistic risk assessment characteristics. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants

  7. Comparative histology of mouse, rat, and human pelvic ligaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Ritsuko; Orlicky, David J; Arnett, Jameson; Guess, Marsha K; Hurt, K Joseph; Connell, Kathleen A

    2016-11-01

    The uterosacral (USL) and cardinal ligaments (CL) provide support to the uterus and pelvic organs, and the round ligaments (RL) maintain their position in the pelvis. In women with pelvic organ prolapse (POP), the connective tissue, smooth muscle, vasculature, and innervation of the pelvic support structures are altered. Rodents are commonly used animal models for POP research. However, the pelvic ligaments have not been defined in these animals. In this study, we hypothesized that the gross anatomy and histological composition of pelvic ligaments in rodents and humans are similar. We performed an extensive literature search for anatomical and histological descriptions of the pelvic support ligaments in rodents. We also performed anatomical dissections of the pelvis to define anatomical landmarks in relation to the ligaments. In addition, we identified the histological components of the pelvic ligaments and performed quantitative analysis of the smooth muscle bundles and connective tissue of the USL and RL. The anatomy of the USL, CL, and RL and their anatomical landmarks are similar in mice, rats, and humans. All species contain the same cellular components and have similar histological architecture. However, the cervical portion of the mouse USL and RL contain more smooth muscle and less connective tissue compared with rat and human ligaments. The pelvic support structures of rats and mice are anatomically and histologically similar to those of humans. We propose that both mice and rats are appropriate, cost-effective models for directed studies in POP research.

  8. Histology of the first fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M.P.; Sansom, I.J.; Repetski, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    THE first description of Anatolepis Bockelie & Fortey was from early Ordovician sediments of Ny Friesland, Spitsbergen1,2, but the genus is now known from many localities in North America and Greenland, ranging in age from the Late Cambrian period to the Early Ordovician3-6. Although initially interpreted as an agnathan fish2,3 that predated other representatives7, this has been widely disputed because the available histological data were unconvincing6,8-10 and the scales fell outside the known morphological range of other accepted early vertebrates9-11. Further doubt was cast upon the vertebrate affinity of Anatolepis when specimens from East Greenland were interpreted as the cuticular fragments of aglaspid arthropods6, although this interpretation has also been refuted12. Here we report on the morphology and histology of large collections of Anatolepis, and demonstrate the presence of dentine, a tissue unique to vertebrates, confirming that the taxon is both a vertebrate and the oldest known fish.

  9. Histological Evaluation of Allium sativum Oil as a New Medicament for Pulp Treatment of Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Shukry Gamal; Raheel, Syed Ahmed; Baroudi, Kusai

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the histo pathology effects of two medicaments Allium sativum oil and formocresol on the remaining pulp tissue of the permanent teething children. A total of 18 premolars were included in this study. Two sound premolars were extracted and subjected to histological examination to show the normal pulp tissue. Pulpo tomy procedure was performed in the rest of the remaining 16 premolars; half of them using Allium sativum oil and the rest of the tested premolars were medicated using formocresol and all were sealed with suitable restoration. Then, premolars extracted at variable intervals (48 hours, 2 weeks, 1 month, 2 months), stained using hemotoxylin and eosin etain (H&E) and prepared for histopathology examination. Histological evaluation seemed far more promising for Allium sativum oil than formocresol. Histological evaluation revealed that teeth treated with Allium sativa oil showed infammatory changes that had been resolved in the end of the study. On the contrary, the severe chronic infammation of pulp tissue accompanied with formocresol eventually produced pulp necrosis with or without fibrosis. In addition, pulp calcification was evidenced in certain cases. Allium sativum oil is a biocompatible material that is compatible with vital human pulp tissue. It offers a good healing potential, leaving the remaining pulp tissue healthy and functioning.

  10. Clinical and histologic outcomes of calcium sulfate in the treatment of postextraction sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruga, Emanuele; Gallesio, Cesare; Chiusa, Luigi; Boffano, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the clinical and histologic outcomes obtained with calcium sulfate (CS) used as a filler material in fresh premolar and molar postextraction sockets. Sixty premolar or molar postextraction sockets were filled with CS. Among the 60 grafted sockets, after 3 months, 50 underwent implant placement and clinical assessment. The removal of a sample core of newly generated intrasocket tissue was performed in 19 sockets. Collected samples were sent for histologic examination. The percentage of vital bone, nonvital bone, residual CS, amorphous material, and connective areas in every sample was calculated and recorded. Fifty postextraction regenerated sockets that underwent implant placement 3 months after tooth removal were included in this study.A partial postoperative exposition of the graft was observed in 12 of 50 sockets. At the surgical reentry, the augmented extraction sockets were completely filled by a hard material with an adequate alveolar crest in 41 cases. Histologic examination of the cores revealed that 63.16% of the intrasocket tissue was new vital bone, 2.1% was nonvital bone, 4.74% was fibrous tissue, and 30% was amorphous material. No residual CS was identified in bone cores. This study confirmed that CS is an ideal grafting material. The clinical adequacy aspect of filled sockets at surgical reentry seemed to be indicative of a qualitatively better bone regeneration. Postoperative exposition of graft material after a first intervention seemed to constitute an important risk factor for a worse bone regeneration.

  11. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  12. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Part 1: Final summary report; Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC's overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively

  13. Individual plant examination program: Perspectives on reactor safety and plant performance. Parts 2--5: Final report; Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report provides perspectives gained by reviewing 75 Individual Plant Examination (IPE) submittals pertaining to 108 nuclear power plant units. IPEs are probabilistic analyses that estimate the core damage frequency (CDF) and containment performance for accidents initiated by internal events. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviewed the IPE submittals with the objective of gaining perspectives in three major areas: (1) improvements made to individual plants as a result of their IPEs and the collective results of the IPE program, (2) plant-specific design and operational features and modeling assumptions that significantly affect the estimates of CDF and containment performance, and (3) strengths and weaknesses of the models and methods used in the IPEs. These perspectives are gained by assessing the core damage and containment performance results, including overall CDF, accident sequences, dominant contributions to component failure and human error, and containment failure modes. Methods, data, boundary conditions, and assumptions used in the IPEs are considered in understanding the differences and similarities observed among the various types of plants. This report is divided into three volumes containing six parts. Part 1 is a summary report of the key perspectives gained in each of the areas identified above, with a discussion of the NRC`s overall conclusions and observations. Part 2 discusses key perspectives regarding the impact of the IPE Program on reactor safety. Part 3 discusses perspectives gained from the IPE results regarding CDF, containment performance, and human actions. Part 4 discusses perspectives regarding the IPE models and methods. Part 5 discusses additional IPE perspectives. Part 6 contains Appendices A, B and C which provide the references of the information from the IPEs, updated PRA results, and public comments on draft NUREG-1560 respectively.

  14. Physical examination tests of the shoulder: a systematic review and meta-analysis of diagnostic test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gismervik, Sigmund Ø; Drogset, Jon O; Granviken, Fredrik; Rø, Magne; Leivseth, Gunnar

    2017-01-25

    Physical examination tests of the shoulder (PETS) are clinical examination maneuvers designed to aid the assessment of shoulder complaints. Despite more than 180 PETS described in the literature, evidence of their validity and usefulness in diagnosing the shoulder is questioned. This meta-analysis aims to use diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) to evaluate how much PETS shift overall probability and to rank the test performance of single PETS in order to aid the clinician's choice of which tests to use. This study adheres to the principles outlined in the Cochrane guidelines and the PRISMA statement. A fixed effect model was used to assess the overall diagnostic validity of PETS by pooling DOR for different PETS with similar biomechanical rationale when possible. Single PETS were assessed and ranked by DOR. Clinical performance was assessed by sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood ratio. Six thousand nine-hundred abstracts and 202 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility; 20 articles were eligible and data from 11 articles could be included in the meta-analysis. All PETS for SLAP (superior labral anterior posterior) lesions pooled gave a DOR of 1.38 [1.13, 1.69]. The Supraspinatus test for any full thickness rotator cuff tear obtained the highest DOR of 9.24 (sensitivity was 0.74, specificity 0.77). Compression-Rotation test obtained the highest DOR (6.36) among single PETS for SLAP lesions (sensitivity 0.43, specificity 0.89) and Hawkins test obtained the highest DOR (2.86) for impingement syndrome (sensitivity 0.58, specificity 0.67). No single PETS showed superior clinical test performance. The clinical performance of single PETS is limited. However, when the different PETS for SLAP lesions were pooled, we found a statistical significant change in post-test probability indicating an overall statistical validity. We suggest that clinicians choose their PETS among those with the highest pooled DOR and to assess validity to their own specific clinical

  15. [Ovarian cancer. II. Procedures, histology, and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowski, M; Nowak, M; Malinowski, A; Romanowicz, H; Wieczorek, A; Szpakowski, A; Raczkowska, Z; Władziński, J; Wilczyński, J R; Kamiński, T; Maciołek-Blewniewska, G

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyse the operative procedures and complications in patients operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. A retrospective review of patients' charts with ovarian cancer operated at the Department of Gynaecological Surgery of Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital-Research Institute in 1990-1999 was conducted. We analysed the data of women operated for the first time for this disease. In every case we tried to perform radical operation consisted of hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy (if needed), and additionally optimal debulking in advanced cancer. Between January 1990 and December 1999, 107 patients were operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. FIGO staging was as follows: I--13.1%, II--14.95%, III--59.8%, IV--12.15%. The most frequent findings on histology were serous (39.3%), endometrioid (26.2%), undifferentiated (11.2%) and clear cell cancers (10.7%). In 60.7% of cases we performed hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, in 15.0% bilateral adnexectomy, in 4.7% of patients cytoreductive tumorectomy, and in 19.6% of cases only excisions for histology were taken. 69.0% of patients underwent also omentectomy and 42.6% appendectomy. In 58.9% of patients we performed radical operation; its incidence significantly decreased with the increase of FIGO staging: I--100%, II--87.5%, III--51.6%, IV--15.4% (p serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer. The great majority of patients was diagnosed to late and operated in III and IV stage of the disease, but in almost 60% of cases radical operation was performed.

  16. Evoked fear and effects of appeals on attitudes to performing breast self-examination: an information-processing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, R A; Kok, G; Verplanken, B; Brug, J

    2001-06-01

    The effect of fear arousal on attitude toward participating in early detection activities [i.e. breast self-examination (BSE)] was studied from an information-processing perspective. It was hypothesized that fear arousal motivates respondents to more argument-based processing of fear-relevant persuasive information. Respondents first read information about breast cancer in which fear was manipulated. After measuring fear arousal, respondents read a persuasive message about performing BSE. Analyses with reported fear, but not manipulated fear, found support for the hypothesis. Respondents who reported mild fear of breast cancer based their attitude toward BSE more on the arguments provided than respondents who reported low fear of breast cancer. This finding suggests that the use of fear arousal may be an efficient tool in health education practice. However, alternative interpretations are provided, in addition to the suggestion to be careful with using fear arousal in health education messages.

  17. The examination of the effects of the flow baffle on the thermal hydraulic performance of IHX shell side

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. K.; Sim, Y. S.; Kim, S. O.; Baek, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of the flow baffle on the thermal hydraulic performance of IHX shell side has been examined using ASTEEPL, 2DHX code for the variation of baffle distance, baffle cut and baffle flow hole design data. When KALIMER design data were selected as a base for the study, a shell baffle structures does not influence on a total heat transfer rate and it is better to reduce baffle distance rather than baffle flow hole size from the view of pressure loss in the IHX. Radial thermal imbalance between tubes was reduced to 6 .deg. C when the number of baffle is beyond 13. And thermal imbalance decreased also when flow hole size decreases. If flow hole clogs perfectly, thermal imbalance can be reduced up to 2 .deg. C

  18. Performance of low-educated elders with depression on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ace-r test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Beckert

    Full Text Available Along with cognitive disorders, depression has been a concern for mental health services due to its highly debilitating effect on the functioning and quality of life of the elderly. However, there is still little understanding of the cognitive alterations resulting from depression or of the difficult differential diagnosis with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. It is known that performance on cognitive tests is strongly influenced by education but few studies have been conducted involving low-educated populations. Objective : To evaluate the performance of elders with low education and no dementia on Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R test and its cognitive domains, and compare patients with Current Major Depressive Episode (CMDE against those without depressive symptoms. Methods : A retrospective, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted based on medical files of patients treated at the Cerebral Aging Clinic of the Hospital São Lucas of the PUCRS. The study included 116 individuals with low education (< 8 years of education aged between 60 and 84 (69.6 ± 6.4 years, with MCDE (N = 41 and controls (N = 75. Results : No significant difference was observed between control and MCDE groups in median scores on the ACE-R, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the five cognitive domains. There was also no difference between the groups on separate analyses of results on the clock drawing test, the categorical verbal and phonological fluency test, and the naming test. Conclusion : The results of this study showed that depressive symptoms did not influence scores on the ACE-R tests conducted in elders with low education.

  19. Postirradiation examination of JOYO MK-II control rod (CRM601). Irradiation performance of shroud type absorber pin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Kikuchi, Shin; Katsuyama, Kozo; Nagamine, Tsuyoshi; Mitsugi, Takeshi; Uto, Manabu; Tatebe, Kazuaki; Onose, Shoji; Maruyama, Tadashi

    1998-10-01

    This paper describes the results of postirradiation examination and analysis by CORAL code for irradiation performance of CRM601 control rod, which was the 6th reloaded control rod with shroud type absorber pins for use in JOYO MK-II core. The detailed visual examination indicated that there was no cladding breach in absorber pins. However, sodium ingress from the vent tube was observed in four absorber pins among seven pins. While a remarkable oval deformation occurred in cladding tube of helium bonded absorber pins, a little or no diametral change was observed in the absorber pins in which sodium ingress took place. From metallurgical observations and the analysis by CORAL code, it was estimated that the shroud tube installed in helium bonded absorber pins were irradiated at 720degC, and those in sodium bonded absorber pins were irradiated at 420degC. It was confirmed that diametral change of cladding depended on the initial gap between shroud and cladding tube. The results of present investigation indicate that it is desirable to use the materials with low thermal expansion coefficient for shroud tubes, and that sodium bonded absorber pins were advantageous for obtaining long life control rods. (author)

  20. The reproductive biology and the histological and ultrastructural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-04-26

    Apr 26, 2010 ... characterized by “appearance of isolated follicular epithelial cells around the oocyte and the formation ... Sea. Murua and Motos (2004) studied reproductive biology and histological examination of European hake. (Merluccius merluccius) in the Bay of ... female M. merluccius in the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Radiation diagnosis in fibroadenomas of various histological structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.P.; Rozhkova, N.I.; Meskikh, E.V.

    1999-01-01

    To improve the efficiency of preoperational diagnosis of fibroadenomas of different histological structure the results of examination of 500 women with mammary gland diseases are generalized. Manifestations of fibroadenomas depending on different diagnostic techniques used are studied as well as their morphological features. Potentialities and results of surgical treatment are analysed [ru

  2. Histological Effect of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor on Chronic Vocal Fold Scarring in a Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Sohn, Jin-Ho; Bless, Diane M

    2016-03-01

    Vocal fold scarring is one of the most challenging laryngeal disorders to treat and there are currently no consistently effective treatments available. Our previous studies have shown the therapeutic potential of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) for vocal fold scarring. However, the histological effects of bFGF on scarred vocal fold have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine the histological effects of bFGF on chronic vocal fold scarring. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into phosphate buffered saline (sham) and bFGF groups. Unilateral vocal fold stripping was performed and the drug was injected into the scarred vocal fold for each group 2 months postoperatively. Injections were performed weekly for 4 weeks. Two months after the last injection, larynges were harvested and histologically analyzed. A significant increase of hyaluronic acid was observed in the vocal fold of the bFGF group compared with that of the sham group. However, there was no remarkable change in collagen expression nor in vocal fold contraction. Significant increase of hyaluronic acid by local bFGF injection was thought to contribute to the therapeutic effects on chronic vocal fold scarring.

  3. Clinical and histological study of radiation-resistant cancer of the larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1979-02-01

    In its early stage, cancer of the larynx is treated mainly by irradiation. A clinical and histological study of the radiation-resistant cancer of the larynx is reported. From 1958 to 1976, 1190 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx were treated at the Department of Otolaryngology, Osaka University Hospital. Among them, 597 patients (50.2%) were treated by radiation therapy. In 180 patients who had developed local recurrence after initial irradiation, partial or total laryngectomies were performed and 5-year crude survival rates were 71.3%. Gross examination of the specimens and histological studies were performed on these cases, as well as microangiography. The majority of recurrent glottic cancers were located at the anterior commissure and had some subglottic extention. In the supraglottic cancers, marked invasion to the pre-epiglottic space, perichondritis, and edema of the arytenoids were observed. These findings suggested that the unsuccessful radiation therapy was due to the diagnostic failure of the tumor extention. Fixation of the affected vocal cords and ulcer formation were also observed. Histologically, cancer cells invaded deeply the surrounding tissues as scattered cancer nests with marked hypoxic stromal reaction. This study suggests that radiation therapy should be the initial but non-repetitive treatment of choice for earlystage laryngeal cancers.

  4. Histological spectrum of angiofibroma of soft tissue: histological and genetic analysis of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Kohashi, Kenichi; Ishii, Takeaki; Iura, Kunio; Maekawa, Akira; Bekki, Hirofumi; Otsuka, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Kyoko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Tsubasa; Mukai, Munenori; Shirakawa, Atsuko; Shinnou, Yoko; Jinno, Mari; Yanai, Hiroyuki; Taguchi, Kenichi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Oda, Yosinao

    2016-09-01

    Angiofibroma of soft tissue (AFST) is a rare soft tissue neoplasm characterized by a fibroblastic cytomorphology and a prominent vascular structure. AFSTs possess a novel fusion gene, i.e. NCOA2-AHRR/AHRR-NCOA2 or GTF2I-NCOA2, providing a useful approach to diagnosing AFST. Morphologically, AFSTs span a wide spectrum, making diagnosis a challenge. The aim of this study was to review AFST cases and to report previously unknown histological features, which we confirmed by genetic analysis. We reviewed 276 cases diagnosed as solitary fibrous tumours/haemangiopericytomas (232 cases), unclassified tumours of fibroblastic differentiation (36 cases), and recently diagnosed AFSTs (eight cases), and retrieved 13 cases compatible with AFST. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for these cases, all 13 of which were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in-situ hybridization. The histological findings were as follows: amianthoid fibres, extravasation of red blood cells, haemosiderin deposition, aggregates of foamy histiocytes, cystic change, necrosis, and haemorrhage. Immunohistochemically, the tumour cells were positive for epithelial membrane antigen (four of 13 cases), desmin (six of 13 cases), CD163 (13 of 13 cases), CD68 (seven of 13 cases), oestrogen receptor (13 of 13 cases), progesterone receptor (three of 13 cases), and STAT6 (one of 13 cases, weak nuclear staining), but they were negative for CD34, α-smooth muscle actin, muscle-specific actin, S100, pan-cytokeratin, MDM2, and CDK4. The AHRR-NCOA2 fusion gene was detected in eight cases, and NCOA2 gene rearrangement in nine cases. We revealed the previously unreported histological variation and immunohistochemical findings of AFST, and confirmed them by using genetic methods. The results suggested that AFST should be considered in the diagnosis of fibrous or fibrohistiocytic tumours with the above histological features. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: correlation with gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and tumour histology.

    OpenAIRE

    Wee, A; Kang, J Y; Teh, M

    1992-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between Helicobacter pylori, histological gastritis, and intestinal metaplasia in gastric cancers of different histological types. A total of 169 gastrectomy specimens received in one pathology department were studied. Altogether 156 were adenocarcinomas (intestinal type 87, diffuse type 50, mixed type 19). Gastritis occurred in 137 of 163 body specimens (84%) and in 126 of 131 antral specimens (96%). Its presence was unrelated to tumour histology. ...

  6. Risk assessment of student performance in the International Foundations of Medicine Clinical Science Examination by the use of statistical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David MC

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Michael C David,1 Diann S Eley,2 Jennifer Schafer,2 Leo Davies,3 1School of Public Health, 2School of Medicine, The University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, 3Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to assess the predictive validity of cumulative grade point average (GPA for performance in the International Foundations of Medicine (IFOM Clinical Science Examination (CSE. A secondary aim was to develop a strategy for identifying students at risk of performing poorly in the IFOM CSE as determined by the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International Standard of Competence. Methods: Final year medical students from an Australian university medical school took the IFOM CSE as a formative assessment. Measures included overall IFOM CSE score as the dependent variable, cumulative GPA as the predictor, and the factors age, gender, year of enrollment, international or domestic status of student, and language spoken at home as covariates. Multivariable linear regression was used to measure predictor and covariate effects. Optimal thresholds of risk assessment were based on receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Results: Cumulative GPA (nonstandardized regression coefficient [B]: 81.83; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 68.13 to 95.53 and international status (B: –37.40; 95% CI: –57.85 to –16.96 from 427 students were found to be statistically associated with increased IFOM CSE ­performance. Cumulative GPAs of 5.30 (area under ROC [AROC]: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.72 to 0.82 and 4.90 (AROC: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.78 were identified as being thresholds of significant risk for domestic and international students, respectively. Conclusion: Using cumulative GPA as a predictor of IFOM CSE performance and accommodating for differences in international status, it is possible to identify students who are at risk of failing to satisfy the National Board of Medical Examiners’ International

  7. Examination of China’s performance and thematic evolution in quantum cryptography research using quantitative and computational techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study performed two phases of analysis to shed light on the performance and thematic evolution of China’s quantum cryptography (QC) research. First, large-scale research publication metadata derived from QC research published from 2001–2017 was used to examine the research performance of China relative to that of global peers using established quantitative and qualitative measures. Second, this study identified the thematic evolution of China’s QC research using co-word cluster network analysis, a computational science mapping technique. The results from the first phase indicate that over the past 17 years, China’s performance has evolved dramatically, placing it in a leading position. Among the most significant findings is the exponential rate at which all of China’s performance indicators (i.e., Publication Frequency, citation score, H-index) are growing. China’s H-index (a normalized indicator) has surpassed all other countries’ over the last several years. The second phase of analysis shows how China’s main research focus has shifted among several QC themes, including quantum-key-distribution, photon-optical communication, network protocols, and quantum entanglement with an emphasis on applied research. Several themes were observed across time periods (e.g., photons, quantum-key-distribution, secret-messages, quantum-optics, quantum-signatures); some themes disappeared over time (e.g., computer-networks, attack-strategies, bell-state, polarization-state), while others emerged more recently (e.g., quantum-entanglement, decoy-state, unitary-operation). Findings from the first phase of analysis provide empirical evidence that China has emerged as the global driving force in QC. Considering China is the premier driving force in global QC research, findings from the second phase of analysis provide an understanding of China’s QC research themes, which can provide clarity into how QC technologies might take shape. QC and science and technology

  8. Histologic effects of resurfacing lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Joshua R; Greene, Ryan M; Green, Jeremy B

    2014-02-01

    By utilizing resurfacing lasers, physicians can significantly improve the appearance of sun-damaged skin, scars, and more. The carbon dioxide and erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet lasers were the first ablative resurfacing lasers to offer impressive results although these earlier treatments were associated with significant downtime. Later, nonablative resurfacing lasers such as the neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser proved effective, after a series of treatments with less downtime, but with more modest results. The theory of fractional photothermolysis has revolutionized resurfacing laser technology by increasing the safety profile of the devices while delivering clinical efficacy. A review of the histologic and molecular consequences of the resurfacing laser-tissue interaction allows for a better understanding of the devices and their clinical effects. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. A multistate examination of partnership activity among local public health systems using the National Public Health Performance Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Priscilla A; Curtis, Amy B; Hall-Downey, Laura; Moonesinghe, Ramal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether partnership-related measures in the second version of the National Public Health Performance Standards (NPHPS) are useful in evaluating level of activity as well as identifying latent constructs that exist among local public health systems (LPHSs). In a sample of 110 LPHSs, descriptive analysis was conducted to determine frequency and percentage of 18 partnership-related NPHPS measures. Principal components factor analysis was conducted to identify unobserved characteristics that promote effective partnerships among LPHSs. Results revealed that 13 of the 18 measures were most frequently reported at the minimal-moderate level (conducted 1%-49% of the time). Coordination of personal health and social services to optimize access (74.6%) was the most frequently reported measure at minimal-moderate levels. Optimal levels (conducted >75% of the time) were reported most frequently in 2 activities: participation in emergency preparedness coalitions and local health departments ensuring service provision by working with state health departments (67% and 61% of respondents, respectively) and the least optimally reported activity was review partnership effectiveness (4% of respondents). Factor analysis revealed categories of partnership-related measures in 4 domains: resources and activities contributing to relationship building, evaluating community leadership activities, research, and state and local linkages to support public health activities. System-oriented public health assessments may have questions that serve as proxy measures to examine levels of interorganizational partnerships. Several measures from the NPHPS were useful in establishing a national baseline of minimal and optimal activity levels as well as identifying factors to enhance the delivery of the 10 essential public health services among organizations and individuals in public health systems.

  10. CT in neuromuscular disorders: A comparison of CT and histology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, A.M. van der; Thijssen, H.O.M.; Merx, J.L.; Joosten, E.

    1988-01-01

    The value of CT-examination of the muscles compared to histology was studied in a retrospective analysis of 30 patients with clinical suspicion of neuromuscular disorder. In the evaluation of the CT-results descriptive criteria were used. The histologic diagnosis came from needle-biopsies taken from the quadriceps muscle. Considering the whole group of neuromuscular disorders, CT has an overall accuracy of 84.8%, a positive predictive value of 95.5% and a negative predictive value of 63.6%. This makes the use of CT as a diagnostic tool in neuromuscular disorders a reliable examination technique. In patients with a polymyositis there is even a 100% correlation between CT findings and biopsy results. Discrepancy between the biopsy results is remarkable of the quadriceps muscle and the CT findings: The number of abnormal histological findings is twice the number of abnormal CT findings. Using the more proximal gluteal region as a biopsy site would have decreased this discrepancy and would therefore have given a better correlation between CT and histology. The choice of protocol in determining the levels to be scanned is of great importance in achieving good reproducability in follow-up CT examinations. (orig.)

  11. Management of Patients With Histologic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Nishitha M

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of histological transformation is up to 30% over a period of 10 years. This risk persists even beyond the initial decade of diagnosis of an indent lymphoma. In this era of emerging novel therapies, one could hope for an improved survival. There are currently no randomized trials guiding therapy for transformed lymphoma. Treatment recommendations are based on observational studies or non-randomized single arm clinical trials. To that extent, although routinely recommended and performed at transplant centers, voluminous evidence to suggest the timing or type (autologous or allogeneic) of transplant is lacking. In this article, we discuss the clinical features, treatment approach and role of stem cell transplant in transformed lymphoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Examining the online reading behavior and performance of fifth-graders: evidence from eye-movement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ting eSung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Online reading is developing at an increasingly rapid rate, but the debate concerning whether learning is more effective when using hypertexts than when using traditional linear texts is still persistent. In addition, several researchers stated that online reading comprehension always starts with a question, but little empirical evidence has been gathered to investigate this claim. This study used eye-tracking technology and retrospective think aloud technique to examine online reading behaviors of fifth-graders (N = 50. The participants were asked to read four texts on the website. The present study employed a three-way mixed design: 2 (reading ability: high vs. low  2 (reading goals: with vs. without  2 (text types: hypertext vs. linear text. The dependent variables were eye-movement indices and the frequencies of using online reading strategy. The results show that fifth-graders, irrespective of their reading ability, found it difficult to navigate the nonlinear structure of hypertexts when searching for and integrating information. When they read with goals, they adjusted their reading speed and the focus of their attention. Their offline reading ability also influenced their online reading performance. These results suggest that online reading skills and strategies have to be taught in order to enhance the online reading abilities of elementary-school students.

  13. Examining Impulse-Variability Theory and the Speed-Accuracy Trade-Off in Children's Overarm Throwing Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Sergio L; Stodden, David F

    2018-04-01

    This study examined variability in throwing speed and spatial error to test the prediction of an inverted-U function (i.e., impulse-variability [IV] theory) and the speed-accuracy trade-off. Forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children were instructed to throw at a specified percentage of maximum speed (45%, 65%, 85%, and 100%) and hit the wall target. Results indicated no statistically significant differences in variable error across the target conditions (p = .72), failing to support the inverted-U hypothesis. Spatial accuracy results indicated no statistically significant differences with mean radial error (p = .18), centroid radial error (p = .13), and bivariate variable error (p = .08) also failing to support the speed-accuracy trade-off in overarm throwing. As neither throwing performance variability nor accuracy changed across percentages of maximum speed in this sample of children as well as in a previous adult sample, current policy and practices of practitioners may need to be reevaluated.

  14. Complementary or competing climates? Examining the interactive effect of service and ethical climates on company-level financial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Adam T; Thoroughgood, Christian N; Mohammed, Susan

    2016-08-01

    By bending rules to please their customers, companies with high service climates may be less ethical but ultimately more profitable. In this article, we pose the question of whether being ethical comes at a cost to profits in customer-oriented firms. Despite the organizational reality that multiple climates coexist at a given time, research has largely ignored these types of questions, and the simultaneous analysis of multiple climate dimensions has received little empirical attention to date. Given their scientific and practical importance, this study tested complementary and conflicting perspectives regarding interactions between service (outcome-focused) and ethical (process-focused) climates on company-level financial performance. Drawing on a sample of 16,862 medical sales representatives spread across 77 subsidiary companies of a large multinational corporation in the health care product industry, we found support for a complementary view. More precisely, results revealed that profitability was enhanced, not diminished, in service-oriented firms that also stressed the importance of ethics. Results suggest studying the interactive effects of multiple climates is a more fruitful approach than examining main effects alone. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Examination of the use of continuum versus discontinuum models for design and performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, M.

    1989-08-01

    This report examines the use of continuum and discontinuum numerical methods for analysis of the thermomechanical response of the rock mass at Yucca Mountain. Continuum numerical methods consider the rock to be a solid, unfractured body, whereas the discontinuum method is formulated specifically to account for the effects of discrete fractures. The fractures within the rock introduce overall non-linear material response due to slip and separation of rock blocks. Continuum models attempt to simulate this response through the use of non-linear constitutive laws. Discontinuum methods attempt to simulate the true response of the rock mass by correctly modeling the behavior of the joints as well as the deformability of the intact rock blocks. It is shown that, as the joint spacing, s, becomes small with respect to the size of the excavations, the behavior of the jointed rock approaches that of a solid with a form of elasto-plastic constitutive behavior. It is concluded that a continuum model with a form of ''ubiquitous'' or ''compliant joint'' plasticity law is probably sufficient for analysis of the thermomechanical response of excavations in welded tuff. However, one of the questions concerning Yucca Mountain which remains is the effect of fault structures on the stability performance of the repository, particularly under thermal and dynamic loads. Here, a true discontinuum approach seems necessary. 45 refs., 42 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Examining the online reading behavior and performance of fifth-graders: evidence from eye-movement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Wu, Ming-Da; Chen, Chun-Kuang; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Online reading is developing at an increasingly rapid rate, but the debate concerning whether learning is more effective when using hypertexts than when using traditional linear texts is still persistent. In addition, several researchers stated that online reading comprehension always starts with a question, but little empirical evidence has been gathered to investigate this claim. This study used eye-tracking technology and retrospective think aloud technique to examine online reading behaviors of fifth-graders (N = 50). The participants were asked to read four texts on the website. The present study employed a three-way mixed design: 2 (reading ability: high vs. low) × 2 (reading goals: with vs. without) × 2 (text types: hypertext vs. linear text). The dependent variables were eye-movement indices and the frequencies of using online reading strategy. The results show that fifth-graders, irrespective of their reading ability, found it difficult to navigate the non-linear structure of hypertexts when searching for and integrating information. When they read with goals, they adjusted their reading speed and the focus of their attention. Their offline reading ability also influenced their online reading performance. These results suggest that online reading skills and strategies have to be taught in order to enhance the online reading abilities of elementary-school students. PMID:26074837

  17. Evaluation of entrance skin air kerma in digital and conventional pediatric chest examinations performed in Parana-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ana L.R.; Schelin, Hugo R.; Lunelli, Neuri; Paschuk, Sergei; Tilly Jr, Joao G.; Rogacheski, Enio; Khoury, Helen J.; Ferreira, Jose R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In pediatric radiology it is important to evaluate patient exposure due to the high sensitivity of his/her tissue and his/her relatively longer life expectancy, which may increase the chance of radiogenic cancer development. Special attention is necessary when digital systems are used since a high dosage level for the patient may go unnoticed because the resulting image is not overexposed. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK) in pediatric patients submitted to digital and conventional chest examinations performed in the State of Parana, located in the Southern region of Brazil. The survey was performed in two hospitals, one located in Curitiba, the Capital of the State (A) and the other in the city of Cascavel (B). Hospital A uses a conventional image system and Hospital B uses a CR digital system. The study group consisted of 50 patients (from 2 days to six years of age) undergoing chest PA/AP examinations. At the time of the examination, the exposure parameters (kV, mAs, focal-film distance, etc) and the gender, height, weight and age of the patient were recorded. To evaluate the Entrance Skin Air Kerma (ESAK), two TLD-100 dosimeters were packaged in a polyethylene case, heat sealed and placed on the surface of each patient. The TLDs were calibrated the Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation of the Federal University of Pernambuco. The TLDs were processed on a Victoreen readout system model 2800M. The results showed that the kilovoltage values used in Hospital A are in the range of 46 to 65 kV with the average value of 51,7 kV, while the ones in Hospital B are in the range of 65 to 80 kV. On the other hand, even though hospital B uses the CR system, the mAs used for the chest exams are 4 times higher than the ones used in Hospital A. For Hospital A, the mean ESAK value was 0.044 mGy (min: 0.08 and max 0.146 mGy), and for Hospital B the mean ESAK value was 0.368 mGy (min: 0.021 and max 1.21mGy). The results made

  18. An Examination of Muscle Activation and Power Characteristics While Performing the Deadlift Exercise With Straight and Hexagonal Barbells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Kevin D; Coburn, Jared W; Dunnick, Dustin D; Brown, Lee E; Galpin, Andrew J; Costa, Pablo B

    2016-05-01

    The deadlift exercise is commonly performed to develop strength and power, and to train the lower-body and erector spinae muscle groups. However, little is known about the acute training effects of a hexagonal barbell vs. a straight barbell when performing deadlifts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the hexagonal barbell in comparison with the straight barbell by analyzing electromyography (EMG) from the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and erector spinae, as well as peak force, peak power, and peak velocity using a force plate. Twenty men with deadlifting experience volunteered to participate in the study. All participants completed a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test with each barbell on 2 separate occasions. Three repetitions at 65 and 85% 1RM were performed with each barbell on a third visit. The results revealed that there was no significant difference for 1RM values between the straight and hexagonal barbells (mean ± SD in kg = 181.4 ± 27.3 vs. 181.1 ± 27.6, respectively) (p > 0.05). Significantly greater normalized EMG values were found from the vastus lateralis for both the concentric (1.199 ± 0.22) and eccentric (0.879 ± 0.31) phases of the hexagonal-barbell deadlift than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (0.968 ± 0.22 and 0.559 ± 1.26), whereas the straight-barbell deadlift led to significantly greater EMG values from the bicep femoris during the concentric phase (0.835 ± 0.19) and the erector spinae (0.753 ± 0.28) during the eccentric phase than the corresponding values for the hexagonal-barbell deadlift (0.723 ± 0.20 and 0.614 ± 0.21) (p ≤ 0.05). In addition, the hexagonal-barbell deadlift demonstrated significantly greater peak force (2,553.20 ± 371.52 N), peak power (1,871.15 ± 451.61 W), and peak velocity (0.805 ± 0.165) values than those of the straight-barbell deadlift (2,509.90 ± 364.95 N, 1,639.70 ± 361.94 W, and 0.725 ± 0.138 m·s, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that the barbells led

  19. Nondestructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mletzko, U.

    1980-01-01

    Visual examination is treated as a method for the control of size and shape of components, surface quality and weld performance. Dye penetrant, magnetic particle and eddy current examinations are treated as methods for the evaluation of surface defects and material properties. The limitations to certain materials, defect sizes and types are shown. (orig./RW)

  20. PIONEERING WORK IN COMPUTER VISION FOR HISTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei Daniel Timofte; Irina-Draga Căruntu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of computer-assisted training was firstly implemented in UMF Iasi in 1997, through the development of two pioneering digital instruments, namely the Histology Album and the Oral Histology Album. Both were built for learning purposes and became available, at that time, as Internet resources worldwide visible. The application of this particular e-learning method was dictated by the importance of well-defined visual images in acquiring basic histologic principles. Thus, t...

  1. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  2. Comparison between Radiographic (2-dimensional and 3-dimensional) and Histologic Findings of Periapical Lesions Treated with Apical Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Michael M; Bingisser, Andreas C; Reichart, Peter A; Sendi, Pedram; Bosshardt, Dieter D; von Arx, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance of 2- and 3-dimensional radiography and histopathology in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Patients were consecutively enrolled in this study provided that preoperative periapical radiography (PR) and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging of the tooth to be treated with apical surgery were performed. The periapical lesional tissue was histologically analyzed by 2 blinded examiners. The final histologic diagnosis was compared with the radiographic assessments of 4 blinded observers. The initial study material included 62 teeth in the same number of patients. Four lesions had to be excluded during processing, resulting in a final number of 58 evaluated cases (31 women and 27 men, mean age = 55 years). The final histologic diagnosis of the periapical lesions included 55 granulomas (94.8%) and 3 cysts (5.2%). Histologic analysis of the tissue samples from the apical lesions exhibited an almost perfect agreement between the 2 experienced investigators with an overall agreement of 94.83% (kappa = 0.8011). Radiographic assessment overestimated cysts by 28.4% (cone-beam computed tomographic imaging) and 20.7% (periapical radiography), respectively. Comparing the correlation of the radiographic diagnosis of 4 observers with the final histologic diagnosis, 2-dimensional (kappa = 0.104) and 3-dimensional imaging (kappa = 0.111) provided only minimum agreement. To establish a final diagnosis of an apical radiolucency, the tissue specimen should be evaluated histologically and specified as a granuloma (with/without epithelium) or a cyst. Analysis of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional radiographic images alike results only in a tentative diagnosis that should be confirmed with biopsy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Histologic correlation of MR signal intensity in parathyroid adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumancik, W.M.; Khan, A.; Mir, R.N.; Attie, J.N.; Davis, J.E.; Ashtari, M.; Herman, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    The classic MR signal intensity pattern of parathyroid adenoma (PTA) is bright enhancement on T2-weighted images. However, variations in SI pattern have been observed in clinical practice. The purpose of this report is to describe the histologic characteristics of surgically removed PTAs as correlated with their in vivo MR imaging appearance. From May 1987 to April 1988, 51 consecutive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism were evaluated with MR imaging for preoperative localization of PTA. Surgical confirmation was obtained in all patients, with histologic evaluation available in 40. MR imaging was performed on 1.0-T system (Siemens, Magnetom) using a Helmhotz surface coil positioned at the neck. Spin-echo T1-weighted and T2-weighted multisection images were evaluated retrospectively. Signal intensities of PTA, adjacent thyroid, fat, and skeletal muscle were obtained (1) from direct region of interest determinations, and (2) visually as respective relationships of PTA to thyroid, fat, and muscle. Histologic classification was graded for (1) predominant cell type (i.e., chief or oxyphil cells), (2) acinar or solid growth pattern, (3) cystic change, (4) presence or absence of residual fat, (5) cell count per high power field, (6) heterogeneous histology, (7) gland weight, and (8) giant size (≥3 cm). The relationship of MR signal intensity to histology appears multifactorial

  4. Cognitive dysfunction and histological findings in adult rats one year after whole brain irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Katsuhiko; Tanaka, Ryuichi; Sato, Mitsuya; Takeda, Norio

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction and histological changes in the brain were investigated following irradiation in 20 Fischer 344 rats aged 6 months treated with whole brain irradiation (WBR) (25 Gy/single dose), and compared with the same number of sham-irradiated rats as controls. Performance of the Morris water maze task and the passive avoidance task were examined one year after WBR. Finally, histological and immunohistochemical examinations using antibodies to myelin basic protein (MBP), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neurofilament (NF) were performed of the rat brains. The irradiated rats continued to gain weight 7 months after WBR whereas the control rats stopped gaining weight. Cognitive functions in both the water maze task and the passive avoidance task were lower in the irradiated rats than in the control rats. Brain damage consisting of demyelination only or with necrosis was found mainly in the body of the corpus callosum and the parietal white matter near the corpus callosum in the irradiated rats. Immunohistochemical examination of the brains without necrosis found MBP-positive fibers were markedly decreased in the affected areas by irradiation; NF-positive fibers were moderately decreased and irregularly dispersed in various shapes in the affected areas; and GFAP-positive fibers were increased, with gliosis in those areas. These findings are similar to those in clinically accelerated brain aging in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Binswanger's disease, and multiple sclerosis. (author)

  5. Amnioinfusion in preterm PROM: effects on amnion and cord histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, A; Andreani, M; Ghidini, A; Verderio, M; Pizzardi, A; Vergani, P; Salafia, C M

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the effects of transabdominal amnioinfusion (TA) on the histology of amnion (A) and umbilical cord (UC). From a cohort of 56 singleton pregnancies with premature rupture of membranes (PROM) at performed with normal saline solution. Women who consented to TA underwent a median of three procedures had a gestational age at PROM of 18.7 weeks and at delivery of 26.1 weeks, with a latency of 50 days. Compared with subjects who declined the procedure, TA had a beneficial effect on clinical variables, mediated primarily by a longer latency. TA was not associated with identifiable effects on the histologic features of A or UC. A and UC histology is not significantly affected by exposure to saline solution even for prolonged periods of time.

  6. Histological features of the placenta and their relation to the gross and data from Thoroughbred mares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda M. Pazinato

    Full Text Available Abstract: The placenta is a transitory organ that originates from maternal and fetal tissues, the function of which is transporting nutrients from the mother to the fetus. The aim of this study was describe the histological features of placentas in healthy Thoroughbred mares at foaling and evaluate their relation with the gross placental and data of these mares. For this study 188 Thoroughbred mares were used. It was performed clinical observation for signs of placentitis during daily health checks and ultrasonic examination monthly to assess the fetus and placenta. All of the mares that exhibited clinical signs of placentitis were treated during gestation. The parturition was assisted, the placentas were grossly evaluated and samples were collected immediately after expulsion. The following data were considered for each mare: age, gestational age, number of parturition, time for placental expulsion, umbilical-cord length, placental weight and clinical signs of placentitis. Histological evaluation of the placentas revealed extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization of the epithelial areolar cells, presence of inflammatory infiltrates and hypoplasia-atrophy of the microcotyledons. Most of the gross placental findings were consistent with the histological results. In conclusion the mares with a vacuolated placental chorionic epithelium were older and had experienced a larger number of births. Great part of the mares with inflammatory infiltrates did not showed any clinical signs of placentitis during gestation.

  7. [Histologic assessment of tissue healing of hyaline cartilage by use of semiquantitative evaluation scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasović, Andreja; Ivković, Alan; Jezek, Davor; Cerovecki, Ivan; Vnuk, Drazen; Kreszinger, Mario; Hudetz, Damir; Pećina, Marko

    2011-01-01

    Articular cartilage is an avascular and aneural tissue lacking lymph drainage, hence its inability of spontaneous repair following injury. Thus, it offers an interesting model for scientific research. A number of methods have been suggested to enhance cartilage repair, but none has yet produced significant success. The possible application of the aforementioned methods has brought about the necessity to evaluate their results. The objective of this study was to analyze results of a study of the effects of the use of TGF-beta gene transduced bone marrow clot on articular cartilage defects using ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The research was conducted on 28 skeletally mature sheep that were randomly assigned to four groups and surgically inflicted femoral chondral defects. The articular surfaces were then treated with TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot (TGF group), GFP transduced bone marrow clot (GFP group), untransduced bone marrow clot (BM group) or left untreated (NC group). The analysis was performed by visual examination of cartilage samples and results were obtained using ICRS visual histological assessment scale. The results were subsequently subjected to statistical assessment using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Kruskal-Wallis test yielded statistically significant difference with respect to cell distribution. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference between TGF and NC groups (P = 0.002), as well as between BM and NC groups (P = 0.002 with Bonferroni correction). Twenty-six of the twenty-eight samples were subjected to histologic and subsequent statistical analysis; two were discarded due to faulty histology technique. Our results indicated a level of certainty as to the positive effect of TGF-beta1 gene transduced bone marrow clot in restoration of articular cartilage defects. However, additional research is necessary in the field. One of the significant drawbacks on histologic assessment of cartilage

  8. Osteoarthritis - histology and pathogenetic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulzbacher, I.

    2000-01-01

    Osteoarthitis is the most common joint disease affecting over 60% of the elderly population. It is characterized by the progressive erosion of articular cartilage leading to incapacity of movement. In the great majority of instances, osteoarthritis appears insidiously, without apparent initiating cause. This primary form is usually oligoarticular involving hip, knee, cervical vertebrae, interphalangeal joints of the fingers or tarsometatarsal joints of the feet. In case of an underlying systemic diasease or local injury the cartilage destruction is considered as secondary osteoarthritis. The pathogenesis of primary osteoarthritis suggests an intrinsic disease of cartilage in which biochemical and metabolic alterations result in its breakdown. Within the last decades different models were stablished which also concentrated on other joint structures such as bone or ligaments. Changes of the subchondral bone were found to precide cartilage damage suggesting a primary alteration of the subchondral region. Other studies concentrated on the metabolic activity of chondrocytes in healthy cartilage of osteoarthritis patients. The precise event that leads to these changes is still not clear. This review concentrates on the histological features in the course of the disease and tries to provide a summary on different pathogenetic concepts. (orig.) [de

  9. The spinoglenoid ligament. Anatomy, morphology, and histological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plancher, Kevin D; Peterson, Robert K; Johnston, Jack C; Luke, Timothy A

    2005-02-01

    Dysfunction of the distal branch of the suprascapular nerve has been reported in athletes involved in throwing or overhead sports. The consistent presence of a dynamic anatomic structure, the spinoglenoid ligament, overlying the nerve in the spinoglenoid notch may be a contributing factor to the dysfunction of this nerve. The purpose of this study was to report the anatomy, morphology, and histological characteristics of the spinoglenoid ligament. The spinoglenoid ligaments of fifty-eight fresh-frozen cadaver shoulders were dissected to evaluate their anatomic dimensions, histological characteristics, and relationship to the suprascapular nerve, the posterior part of the capsule, and the glenoid rim. The spinoglenoid ligament was harvested, with its insertions on the scapular spine and on the capsule and glenoid left intact, for the histological analysis. Dissection revealed that a spinoglenoid ligament was present in all specimens. The ligament was found to form an irregular quadrangular shape. On gross examination, the deep fibers of the ligament extended from the lateral aspect of the scapular spine to the posterior part of the glenoid and the superficial fibers blended with the posterior aspect of the shoulder capsule. Histological sections demonstrated Sharpey fibers inserting into bone at the scapular spine and blending with the posterior aspect of the shoulder capsule to insert into the posterior surface of the glenoid, findings that confirmed the ligamentous nature of this structure. This study revealed the presence of the spinoglenoid ligament in all of the shoulders that were examined, with some variation in the size of the ligament.

  10. Patho-morphology of bone tumors (radiology and histology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, P.

    1982-01-01

    Using the example of osteosarcoma, the article shows some findings and phenomena which are interpreted as epiphenomena of tumours and could lead to a ''wrong-positive'' diagnosis due to the radiological findings as bone destruction is misinterpreted as tumour destruction and the reactive or degenerative mineralisation as tumour mineralisation. Histological findings are also shown, for example the differences in the tumour type and the maximal size of a bone tumour which cannot be recognized definitely by means of radiology. An important practical example of interdisciplinary cooperation is a patient with a Ewing-sarcoma: for the histological examination, a thin layer of bone tissue was chiselled off twice. Each time, only a reactive bone formation was recognized as the tumour located deeper was not detected. Here, the radiologist must know that the histological recognition of reactive bones does not exclude the Ewing sarcoma; the surgeon must know that, in accordance with the X-ray findings, deeper located tissue must be taken for histological examination and the pathologist, cooperating with the radiologist and knowing the radiological changes, must point out that reactive bone formations do not exclude a deeper-located sarcoma, especially a Ewing sarcoma, and that they can even be typical side symptoms of a Ewing sarcoma. (orig./APR) [de

  11. Selected Musculoskeletal and Performance Characteristics of Members of a Women's Professional Football Team: Application of a Pre-participation Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nett, Beth; Brosky, Joseph A; Velarde, Lynnuel; Pariser, David P; Boyce, David A

    2010-02-01

    Although it is common practice to administer pre-participation examinations (PPE) of athletes prior to training, there are no clearly established formats. Elements integral to the PPE fall within the scope of physical therapist practice, and are often categorized as a form of primary prevention for musculoskeletal disorders as defined in the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice. The purpose of this study is to describe the design and implementation of a PPE for a women's professional (gridiron) football team. The results and findings from this PPE provide one of the first musculoskeletal profiles and information about selected physical characteristics from members of a female professional football team. Players from the Kentucky Karma women's football team, a member of the National Women's Football League (NWFA), volunteered to participate in a PPE. Of twenty-five eligible team members, thirteen consented to participate. The PPE consisted of a health history questionnaire, a musculoskeletal screening, and a series of physical performance and agility tests. The players' average (± SD) age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage were 29.6 (± 5.6) yrs., 1.66 (± .05) m, 66.8 (± 12.6) kg, 24.1 (± 3.7), and 27.4 (± 6.6) %, respectively. Commonly reported injuries were similar to those reported in men's collegiate football. This is one of the first papers to report on a model PPE for a women's professional football team. Future research is needed to establish a standard PPE, recognize common injuries, and develop prevention strategies unique to women's professional football.

  12. Examining the Operational Effectiveness and Accountability of Federal Agencies as Indicated in the Performance and Accountability Reports Required by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caron, Lenn E; Farricker, Daniel A; Underwood, Jeffrey R

    2007-01-01

    .... The agencies chosen were performing at different levels of effectiveness, according to the performance and accountability scorecard produced by the Mercatus Center at George Mason University, a non...

  13. Don't Judge a Book by its Cover: Examiner Expectancy Effects Predict Neuropsychological Performance for Individuals Judged as Chronic Cannabis Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodos, Louise M; Hirst, Rayna B; Watson, Jessica; Vaughn, Dylan

    2018-01-12

    The experimenter expectancy effect confound remains largely unexplored in neuropsychological research and has never been investigated among cannabis users. This study investigated whether examiner expectancies of cannabis user status affected examinees' neuropsychological performance. Participants included 41 cannabis users and 20 non-users. Before testing, examiners who were blind to participant user status privately rated whether they believed the examinee was a cannabis user or non-user. Examiners then administered a battery of neuropsychological and performance validity measures. Multiple regression analyses compared performance between examinees judged as cannabis users (n = 37) and those judged as non-users (n = 24). Examiners' judgments of cannabis users were 75% accurate; judgments of non-users were at chance. After controlling for age, gender, and actual user status, examiner judgments of cannabis user status predicted performance on two measures (California Verbal Learning Test-II, and Trail Making Test B; p users obtained lower scores than those judged as non-users. Examiners' judgments of cannabis user status predicted performance even after controlling for actual user status, indicating vulnerability to examiner expectancy effects. These findings have important implications for both research and clinical settings, as scores may partially reflect examiners' expectations regarding cannabis effects rather than participants' cognitive abilities. These results demonstrate the need for expectancy effect research in the neuropsychological assessment of all populations, not just cannabis users. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Chronic Glaucoma in Dogs: Relationships Between Histologic Lesions and the Gonioscopic Diagnosis of Pectinate Ligament Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, B S; Sandmeyer, L S; Philibert, H; Feng, C X; Grahn, B H

    2016-11-01

    Pectinate ligament dysplasia (PLD) is a common cause of canine glaucoma and the definitive clinical diagnosis is based on gonioscopy. Although the histologic lesions of PLD have been described, it has not been determined whether these changes are specific for PLD or if similar histologic changes can develop as a consequence of secondary glaucoma. The filtration angles of 61 enucleated canine globes with chronic glaucoma were evaluated with light microscopy by 3 examiners who were masked to the clinical history, signalment, and gonioscopic results. A histologic diagnosis of PLD versus non-PLD was determined by each examiner based on previously reported morphologic criteria and compared with the clinical gonioscopic diagnosis. Of the 61 enucleated glaucomatous eyes, 40 were clinically diagnosed with PLD. For all 3 examiners, a histologic diagnosis of PLD corresponded poorly with the clinical diagnosis of PLD (range of kappa score: 0.149-0.269; range of AUC: 0.592-0.621). There was no difference between examiners in their ability to correctly diagnose PLD histologically (P = .978). A fair degree of agreement was noted among examiners in obtaining their suspected histologic diagnosis of PLD (kappa score 0.256). No individual or sets of histologic ICA features were consistent with clinical PLD. The results indicate the histologic ICA changes proposed to be characteristic of PLD are also noted in canine globes affected with chronic secondary glaucoma. Therefore, using routine histologic evaluation, a histologic diagnosis of PLD is not possible in the face of chronic canine glaucoma. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Histological characteristics of diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuperus, JS; Westerveld, L Anneloes; Rutges, Joost A; Alblas, Jacqueline; van Rijen, Mattie H; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Oner, F Cumhur; Verlaan, JJ

    Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a predominantly radiographic diagnosis and histological knowledge of DISH is limited. The aim of this study was to describe the histological characteristics of DISH in the spinal column and to study the relation between DISH and intervertebral disc

  16. Histological identification of H. pylori stained by hematoxylin-eosin and Giemsa: review for quality control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela S. Boldt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several special staining methods are available for H. pylori (Hp identification in histological sections of chronic gastritis (CG, including the routine hematoxylin-eosin (HE method. Some reports suggest that ancillary stains are not always needed to establish the diagnosis of Hp infection. In addition, the benefit of using them, when biopsies show minimal inflammation, is not clear. Objective: We performed a retrospective study to compare the usefulness of HE with Giemsa method for the histopathological diagnosis of Hp in tissue sections. Methods: Histological sections from 390 consecutive patients were reviewed. The patients were registered in the histopathology laboratory of Instituto Alfa de Gastroenterologia, Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brasil. They were divided in 4 groups according to the gastric inflammatory changes as follows: Group I, gastric mucosa with normal morphology or minimal inflammatory changes (n = 146; Group II, chronic gastritis (CG with mild inflammatory activity (n = 101; Group III, CG with patent inflammatory activity (n = 123; Group IV, patients with atrophic body gastritis (n = 20. All histological sections were carefully evaluated by 2 examiners at the oil immersion objective (1000×. Results: The identification of Hp was positive by Giemsa and HE, respectively at: Group III, 111 (90.2% and 93 (75.6% patients (p < 0.01; Group II, 43 (42.6% and 29 (28.7% patients (p < 0.05. Hp was negative in Groups I and IV. Conclusion: The results show that Giemsa stain is superior to HE for histological identification of Hp in CG. Although Hp could be identified by HE stain in the majority of CG cases, a significant number of infected patients may be neglected, regardless the intensity of the inflammatory response.

  17. Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsies in Children: Study of Cytological-Histological Correlation and Immunostaining with Thyroid Peroxidase Monoclonal Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Andrew

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Context. There is limited data comparing results of fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs to histological diagnosis in children. Design. FNABs were performed in 707 children and cytological results were compared to histology in 165 cases. The usefulness of immunostaining with anti-TPO monoclonal antibodies (MoAb47 on FNAB samples was examined in 54 operated patients. Results. Among unsatisfactory, benign, suspicious, and malignant FNAB, the histological diagnoses were benign in 12/12 (100%, 69/70 (98.5%, 40/50 (80.0%, and 0/33 (0%, respectively. After surgery, malignancy was established in 44/165 (26.6% cases. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 95.4%, 55.8%, 61.7%, and 95% with standard FNAB; and 100%, 75%, 73.3, and 100% with MoAb47. Among suspicious FNAB, positive MoAb47 staining was a reliable marker for exclusion of malignancy. Conclusion. Benign and malignant FNAB accurately predict histological diagnosis. In suspicious FNAB, MoAb47 immunostaining may be a useful adjunct to standard cytology.

  18. Verification of computed tomographic estimates of cochlear implant array position: a micro-CT and histologic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymouri, Jessica; Hullar, Timothy E; Holden, Timothy A; Chole, Richard A

    2011-08-01

    To determine the efficacy of clinical computed tomographic (CT) imaging to verify postoperative electrode array placement in cochlear implant (CI) patients. Nine fresh cadaver heads underwent clinical CT scanning, followed by bilateral CI insertion and postoperative clinical CT scanning. Temporal bones were removed, trimmed, and scanned using micro-CT. Specimens were then dehydrated, embedded in either methyl methacrylate or LR White resin, and sectioned with a diamond wafering saw. Histology sections were examined by 3 blinded observers to determine the position of individual electrodes relative to soft tissue structures within the cochlea. Electrodes were judged to be within the scala tympani, scala vestibuli, or in an intermediate position between scalae. The position of the array could be estimated accurately from clinical CT scans in all specimens using micro-CT and histology as a criterion standard. Verification using micro-CT yielded 97% agreement, and histologic analysis revealed 95% agreement with clinical CT results. A composite, 3-dimensional image derived from a patient's preoperative and postoperative CT images using a clinical scanner accurately estimates the position of the electrode array as determined by micro-CT imaging and histologic analyses. Information obtained using the CT method provides valuable insight into numerous variables of interest to patient performance such as surgical technique, array design, and processor programming and troubleshooting.

  19. Subclassification of autoimmune pancreatitis: a histologic classification with clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Vikram; Gupta, Rajib; Sainani, Nisha; Sahani, Dushyant V; Virk, Renu; Ferrone, Cristina; Khosroshahi, Arezou; Stone, John H; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Examination of pancreatic resection specimens from patients with AIP has shown that there are 2 subclasses of this disease. However, there is no widely accepted pathologic classification scheme and the clinical significance of such a classification remains to be established. In this study, we revisited the subclassification of AIP and examine whether this provides clinically and prognostically meaningful information. We evaluated 29 pancreatic resection specimens from patients with AIP. Demographic, clinical, and imaging data were recorded, as was evidence of extrapancreatic manifestations. In addition to a detailed and semiquantitative histologic evaluation, immunohistochemistry for IgG4 was performed on pancreatic and extrapancreatic tissues. We also evaluated 48 consecutive cases of chronic pancreatitis, not otherwise specified. The resected specimens could readily be subclassified into 2 subtypes: type 1 (n=11) and type 2 (n=18). In comparison with patients with type 2 disease, patients with type 1 disease were significantly more likely to be males (P=0.09), older (P=0.02), and present with jaundice (P=0.01), and less likely to be associated with abdominal pain (P=0.04). On imaging, the pancreatic tail cut-off sign was exclusively seen in patients with type 2 disease (4 of 10 cases). Hypercellular inflamed interlobular stroma was unique to type 1 pattern (91%), whereas significant ductal injury in the form of microabscesses and ductal ulceration was almost exclusively seen in type 2 pattern (78%). Eight of 10 patients with a type 1 pattern had evidence of a systemic disease. Three patients with type 2 disease had recurrent episodes of pancreatitis after their pancreatic resection. In comparison with the cohort of chronic pancreatitis, not otherwise specified, type 2 AIP cases were less likely to be associated with a history of alcohol abuse, and showed significantly more foci of

  20. Academic performance of ethnic minority candidates and discrimination in the MRCGP examinations between 2010 and 2012: analysis of data

    OpenAIRE

    Esmail, Aneez; Roberts, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the difference in failure rates in the postgraduate examination of the Royal College of General Practitioners (MRCGP) by ethnic or national background, and to identify factors associated with pass rates in the clinical skills assessment component of the examination. Design Analysis of data provided by the Royal College of General Practitioners and the General Medical Council. Participants Cohort of 5095 candidates sitting the applied knowledge test and clinical skills a...

  1. Detailed histological investigation of the female urethra: application to radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinata, Nobuyuki; Murakami, Gen; Abe, Shin-ichi; Honda, Masashi; Isoyama, Tadahiro; Sejima, Takehiro; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2012-02-01

    We histologically examined the urethral anatomy to assess whether the surgical procedure for radical cystectomy should be modified in females. Anatomical and histological studies were performed on 20 adult female cadavers. Semiserial sections were processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry. To assess the clinical value of the antegrade approach we examined blood loss and function in 12 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy by this approach. Vaginal wall smooth muscle contributed to urethral wall formation, in addition to a thin layer of proper urethral smooth muscle, particularly when the bladder detrusor was poorly developed or degenerated. The middle urethra was attached tightly to the vaginal smooth muscles with abundant veins running at the interface. The urethral sphincter and its inferoposterior continuation (urethrovaginal sphincter) were embedded in the elastic fiber rich perineal membrane. The membrane was U shaped, wrapping around the anterior aspect of the middle urethra and extending posterior along the distal vagina to end at the lateral extension of the perineal body near the external anal sphincter. Mean estimated blood loss was 965 ml. Of patients who received a neobladder hypercontinence was observed in 14.3% and 57.1% achieved continence. There is topographical variation in the anatomy of tissues surrounding the female urethra. Care should be taken when dissecting the tissues dorsal or lateral to the urethra. The antegrade approach is useful since the urethra can be dissected under direct vision and traction can be applied to these structures. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Histologic and Immunohistochemical Study of Autopsy Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terayama, Noboru; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Gabata, Toshifumi; Miyayama, Shiro; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Isao; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the histologic findings associated with stenosed and occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) tracts. Methods: Four TIPS tracts within three autopsy livers were histologically studied for vascular components by routine staining and immunohistochemical staining. TIPS had been performed for bleeding from esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Results: Two TIPS, examined on days 4 and 53, showed occlusion by fibrin thrombus. In the former, no endothelial cells were detected, but coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes was found in the surrounding liver. In the latter, bile pigments were seen on the luminal surface. In the two other TIPS without tract occlusion, examined on days 49 and 293, a layer of endothelial cells, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and deposition of an extracellular matrix such as collagen were confirmed. In the tract examined on day 293, there was protrusion of hepatocytes into the lumen through the stent wires. Conclusion: Short- and midterm TIPS occlusions were caused by thrombus forming after necrosis of hepatocytes and bile leakage, respectively. Long-term TIPS stenosis was associated with a combination of pseudointimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of hepatocytes

  3. Examining gray matter structure associated with academic performance in a large sample of Chinese high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Song Wang; Ming Zhou; Taolin Chen; Xun Yang; Guangxiang Chen; Meiyun Wang; Qiyong Gong

    2017-01-01

    Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphome...

  4. Examination of the LED Source in Traffic Lights and the Effect of Airborne Dirt on its Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Softić

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The performed evaluation consisted of two phases: measurement of the illumination levels of (new LED system and carrying out the public opinion poll on the subjective visual performance of LED in traffic lights. The results of the measured levels of illumination show that deposition of dirt considerably affects its values. The survey results confirm an overall positive impression on LED performances in traffic lights.

  5. Histologic evaluation of pulpotomy performed with ethyl-cyanoacrylate and calcium hydroxide Avaliação histológica de pulpotomia realizada com etil-cianoacrilato e com hidróxido de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Santana de Albuquerque

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate histological aspects of the pulp-dentin complex of dogs submitted to pulpotomy and capped with ethyl-cyanoacrylate and calcium hydroxide. Thirty dog teeth were divided into 2 groups of 15 as follows: Group 1 - ethyl-cyanoacrylate; Group 2 - calcium hydroxide. The pulpotomies were carried out following all of the treatment precautions recommended for dogs. After 30 days the specimens were submitted to histological preparation and were then blindly evaluated by a histologist. Data were analyzed statistically by the Fisher exact test, comparing the two groups. After 30 days, the presence of a hard tissue barrier was observed in 83.3% of Group 1, and in 100% of Group 2 (p = 0.478. A continuous hard tissue barrier was observed in 50% of the ethyl-cyanoacrylate group and 75% of the calcium hydroxide group (p = 0.652. It can be concluded that both materials induced hard tissue barrier formation, but Group 2 had a higher percentage than Group 1, with no significant statistical differences; the differences observed between the different barriers (continuous/non-continuous were not significant between groups and there was no pulpal necrosis in either group.O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o aspecto histológico do complexo dentino-pulpar de cachorros quando capeado após a pulpotomia com etil-cianoacrilato e hidróxido de cálcio. Trinta dentes de cães foram divididos em 2 grupos de 15 da seguinte forma: Grupo 1 - Etil-cianoacrilato; Grupo 2 - Hidróxido de cálcio. A pesquisa foi realizada tomando-se todos os cuidados recomendados para o tratamento com os cães. Após 30 dias do procedimento realizado os espécimes foram submetidos ao preparo histológico e logo após foram avaliados de forma cega por um histologista. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente através do Teste Exato de Fisher. No grupo 1, 83,3% e no grupo 2, 100% dos dentes apresentaram a barreira de tecido duro (p = 0,478. A barreira

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux disease. Scintigraphic, endoscopic and histologic considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kault, B.; Halvorsen, T.; Petersen, H.; Grette, K.; Myrvold, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    Radionucleotide scintigraphy and esophagoscopy with biopsy were carried out in 101 patients with symptoms strongly suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease. GER was visualized by scintigraphy in 86.1% of the patients. Endoscopic and histologic esophagitis were found in 68.1% and 58.4% of the patients, respectively, whereas both examinations taken together showed evidence of esophagitis in 82%. Histologic evidence of esophagitis was found in nearly all patients with severe endoscopic changes, and in 43.7% of the patients with no endoscopic abnormality. Scintigraphic reflux was demonstrated more frequently in the patients with severe endoscopic esophagitis (97.5%) than in those with no or only mild endoscopic changes (78.6%). Scintigraphic reflux was found in 91.5% and 78.5% of the patients with and without histologic evidence of esophagitis. 15 of the 18 patients (83.3%) without endoscopic and histologic abnormalities in the esophagus had scintigraphic evidence of reflux. The present study strongly supports the clinical significance of scintigraphy in GER disease and confirms that esophageal biopsy specimens increase the sensitivity of endoscopic evaluation. 31 refs.

  7. Comparative histological and transcriptional analysis of maize kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides infect maize kernels and contaminate them with the mycotoxins aflatoxin and fumonisin, respectively. Combined histological examination of fungal colonization and transcriptional changes in maize kernels at 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours post inoculation (...

  8. The role of public service motivation in performance : Examining the potentials and pitfalls through an institutional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, N.M.

    2015-01-01

    Does feeling a motivational drive to contribute to society matter for the performance of public employees? This dissertation shows it does: employees that are highly public service motivated perform better in their job, are more likely to help their colleagues and work units with highly public

  9. Why Rural Community Day Secondary Schools Students' Performance in Physical Science Examinations Is Poor in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlangeni, Angstone Noel J. Thembachako; Chiotha, Sosten Staphael

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate factors that affect students' poor performance in physical science examinations at Malawi School Certificate of Education and Junior Certificate of Education levels in Community day secondary schools (CDSS) in Lilongwe Rural West Education District in Malawi. Students' performance was collected from schools'…

  10. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey H Plochocki

    Full Text Available In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers. The epidermal-dermal junction was characterized by abundant papillary folds increasing surface contact between integument layers. Most of the dermal thickness consisted of organized collagen bundles with scattered elastic fibers. Collagen fiber bundles were thickest in the flank (210.9 μm followed by shoulder, rump and cheek. Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.

  11. Histological study of white rhinoceros integument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Ruiz, Saul; Rodriguez-Sosa, José R; Hall, Margaret I

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report findings from a microscopic analysis of the white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) integumentary ultrastructure. Skin samples from the cheek, shoulder, flank and rump were taken from a 46-year-old female southern white rhinoceros and examined using H&E and elastic histological stains. The epidermis was thickest in the flank (1.003 mm) followed by the rump, cheek and shoulder. The stratum corneum comprised more than half the epidermal thickness. Numerous melanin granules were found in the basal and spinosum layers. The epidermal-dermal junction was characterized by abundant papillary folds increasing surface contact between integument layers. Most of the dermal thickness consisted of organized collagen bundles with scattered elastic fibers. Collagen fiber bundles were thickest in the flank (210.9 μm) followed by shoulder, rump and cheek. Simple coiled sweat glands were present in the dermis, but hair and sebaceous glands were absent. Together, these data suggest the white rhinoceros has a unique integumentary system among large terrestrial herbivores.

  12. Examining gray matter structure associated with academic performance in a large sample of Chinese high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Wang, Meiyun; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-04-18

    Achievement in school is crucial for students to be able to pursue successful careers and lead happy lives in the future. Although many psychological attributes have been found to be associated with academic performance, the neural substrates of academic performance remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the relationship between brain structure and academic performance in a large sample of high school students via structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach. The whole-brain regression analyses showed that higher academic performance was related to greater regional gray matter density (rGMD) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which is considered a neural center at the intersection of cognitive and non-cognitive functions. Furthermore, mediation analyses suggested that general intelligence partially mediated the impact of the left DLPFC density on academic performance. These results persisted even after adjusting for the effect of family socioeconomic status (SES). In short, our findings reveal a potential neuroanatomical marker for academic performance and highlight the role of general intelligence in explaining the relationship between brain structure and academic performance.

  13. The Power of Belief: Spanish Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Student Performance on the National Spanish Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Pete

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the researcher investigated Spanish teachers' sense of efficacy as it relates to their students' achievement on the AATSP National Spanish Examinations. Results suggest that there is a link between Spanish teacher efficacy and students' scores on the exams. That is, the higher one's belief about his or her…

  14. Predicting Performance on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification Examination From Grade Point Average and Number of Clinical Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemas, David A.; Manning, James M.; Gazzillo, Linda M.; Young, John

    2001-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether grade point average, hours of clinical education, or both are significant predictors of performance on the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Certification examination and whether curriculum and internship candidates' scores on the certification examination can be differentially predicted. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data collection forms and consent forms were mailed to the subjects to collect data for predictor variables. Subject scores on the certification examination were obtained from Columbia Assessment Services. SUBJECTS: A total of 270 first-time candidates for the April and June 1998 certification examinations. MEASUREMENTS: Grade point average, number of clinical hours completed, sex, route to certification eligibility (curriculum or internship), scores on each section of the certification examination, and pass/fail criteria for each section. RESULTS: We found no significant difference between the scores of men and women on any section of the examination. Scores for curriculum and internship candidates differed significantly on the written and practical sections of the examination but not on the simulation section. Grade point average was a significant predictor of scores on each section of the examination and the examination as a whole. Clinical hours completed did not add a significant increment for any section but did add a significant increment for the examination overall. Although no significant difference was noted between curriculum and internship candidates in predicting scores on sections of the examination, a significant difference by route was found in predicting whether candidates would pass the examination as a whole (P =.047). Proportion of variance accounted for was less than R(2) = 0.0723 for any section of the examination and R(2) = 0.057 for the examination as a whole. CONCLUSIONS: Potential predictors of performance on the certification examination can be useful to athletic training educators in

  15. The relationship between human resource investments and organizational performance: a firm-level examination of equilibrium theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Mahesh; Krause, Nicole; Norton, Jacqueline; Burns, Gary N

    2008-07-01

    It is commonly believed that human resource investments can yield positive performance-related outcomes for organizations. Utilizing the theory of organizational equilibrium (H. A. Simon, D. W. Smithburg, & V. A. Thompson, 1950; J. G. March & H. A. Simon, 1958), the authors proposed that organizational inducements in the form of competitive pay will lead to 2 firm-level performance outcomes--labor productivity and customer satisfaction--and that financially successful organizations would be more likely to provide these inducements to their employees. To test their hypotheses, the authors gathered employee-survey and objective performance data from a sample of 126 large publicly traded U.S. organizations over a period of 3 years. Results indicated that (a) firm-level financial performance (net income) predicted employees' shared perceptions of competitive pay, (b) shared pay perceptions predicted future labor productivity, and (c) the relationship between shared pay perceptions and customer satisfaction was fully mediated by employee morale.

  16. The relationship between employees' perceptions of human resource systems and organizational performance: examining mediating mechanisms and temporal dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piening, Erk P; Baluch, Alina M; Salge, Torsten Oliver

    2013-11-01

    Given the limited understanding of temporal issues in extant theorizing about the link between human resource management (HRM) and performance, in this study we aim to shed light on how, when, and why HR interventions affect organizational performance. On the basis of longitudinal, multi-informant and multisource data from public hospital services in England, we provide new insights into the complex interplay between employees' perceptions of HR systems, job satisfaction, and performance outcomes over time. The dynamic panel data analyses provide support for changes in employees' experience of an HR system being related to subsequent changes in customer satisfaction, as mediated by changes in job satisfaction, albeit these effects decrease over time. Moreover, our longitudinal analyses highlight the importance of feedback effects in the HRM-performance chain, which otherwise appears to evolve in a cyclical manner. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Factors Influencing Academic Performance Of Standard Eight Girls In National Examinations In Public Primary Schools A Case Of Matungu Division.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oparanya Wamukoya Windrick

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTARCT This study is designed to establish the factors influencing academic of standard eight girls in public primary schools in National exams in Matungu division. The researcher aimed at finding out why there is increased low performance of girls in public schools despite the fact that they are assessed through periodic performance tests do continuous assessment tests CATS midterm carry out tuition and the provision of free primary education which is aimed at improving academic performance. This study adapted a descriptive survey design as a major method of research where data was collected by the researcher members of a population under study. The target population comprised of Head teachers teachers pupils parents and parent schools representatives. Purposive sampling and simple random technique were used. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview guides. Data was analyzed by use of descriptive statistics constituting frequencies and percentages.The study established that girls were exposed to harsh school environmental conditions they walked long distances to school schools lacked facilities like toilets libraries and were exposed to male pest teachers. There were also teacher factors like training teacher shortage and motivation that affected girls performance.The study came up with recommendations for improvement of girls academic performance. More public schools should be build to reduce on distance and also overpopulation. The ministry of Education should monitor and evaluate the academic performance of girls in rural areas. The government should put up strict rules on pest teachers. The ministry should hire more teachers.

  18. Histology of periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Malte; von Arx, Thomas; Altermatt, Hans Jörg; Bosshardt, Dieter

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this was to evaluate the histology of periapical lesions in teeth treated with periapical surgery. After root-end resection, the root tip was removed together with the periapical pathological tissue. Histologic sectioning was performed on calcified specimens embedded in methylmethacrylate (MMA) and on demineralized specimens embedded in LR White (Fluka, Buchs, Switzerland). The samples were evaluated with light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The histologic findings were classified into periapical abscesses, granulomas, or cystic lesions (true or pocket cysts). The final material comprised 70% granulomas, 23% cysts and 5% abscesses, 1% scar tissues, and 1% keratocysts. Six of 125 samples could not be used. The cystic lesions could not be subdivided into pocket or true cysts. All cysts had an epithelium-lined cavity, two of them with cilia-lined epithelium. These results show the high incidence of periapical granulomas among periapical lesions obtained during apical surgery. Periapical abscesses were a rare occasion. The histologic findings from samples obtained during apical surgery may differ from findings obtained by teeth extractions. A determination between pocket and true apical cysts is hardly possible when collecting samples by apical surgery.

  19. Detection of histological anaplasia in gliomas with oligodendroglial components using positron emission tomography with (18)F-FDG and (11)C-methionine: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Kenji; Shiga, Tohru; Tanaka, Shinya; Murata, Junichi; Terasaka, Shunsuke

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are regionally heterogeneous tumors. Positron emission tomography (PET) with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and (11)C-methionine (MET) evaluates the heterogeneity of histological malignancy within the tumor. We present two patients with oligodendrocytic tumors that showed discrepancies in the highest uptake areas with these two tracers. PET studies with MET and FDG were performed on the same day, 2 weeks before surgery. In both cases, biopsy specimens were separately obtained from the highest MET and FDG uptake areas guided by intraoperative neuronavigation. Histological examinations demonstrated that the specimens from the highest MET uptake area revealed low-grade oligoastrocytoma or oligodendroglioma, whereas histological anaplasias were contained in the specimens from the highest FDG uptake area. With gliomas with oligodendroglial components, the MET uptake ratio does not always correspond to histological anaplasia, which can be detected only by FDG PET. Sole application of MET PET for preoperative evaluation may lead to misunderstanding of histological heterogeneity in gliomas, especially those with oligodendroglial components. FDG and MET tracers play complementary roles in preoperative evaluation of gliomas.

  20. Scala tympani cochleostomy II: topography and histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adunka, Oliver F; Radeloff, Andreas; Gstoettner, Wolfgang K; Pillsbury, Harold C; Buchman, Craig A

    2007-12-01

    To assess intracochlear trauma using two different round window-related cochleostomy techniques in human temporal bones. Twenty-eight human temporal bones were included in this study. In 21 specimens, cochleostomies were initiated inferior to the round window (RW) annulus. In seven bones, cochleostomies were drilled anterior-inferior to the RW annulus. Limited cochlear implant electrode insertions were performed in 19 bones. In each specimen, promontory anatomy and cochleostomy drilling were photographically documented. Basal cochlear damage was assessed histologically and electrode insertion properties were documented in implanted bones. All implanted specimens showed clear scala tympani electrode placements regardless of cochleostomy technique. All 21 inferior cochleostomies were atraumatic. Anterior-inferior cochleostomies resulted in various degrees of intracochlear trauma in all seven bones. For atraumatic opening of the scala tympani using a cochleostomy approach, initiation of drilling should proceed from inferior to the round window annulus, with gradual progression toward the undersurface of the lumen. While cochleostomies initiated anterior-inferior to the round window annulus resulted in scala tympani opening, many of these bones displayed varying degrees of intracochlear trauma that may result in hearing loss. When intracochlear drilling is avoided, the anterior bony margin of the cochleostomy remains a significant intracochlear impediment to in-line electrode insertion.

  1. Correlation between PET/CT results and histological and immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinomas; Correlacao entre resultado do PET/CT e achados histologicos e imuno-histoquimicos em carcinomas mamarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitencourt, Almir Galvao Vieira; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira; Chojniak, Rubens; Marques, Elvira Ferreira; Souza, Juliana Alves de; Graziano, Luciana; Andrade, Wesley Pereira; Osorio, Cynthia Aparecida Bueno de Toledo, E-mail: almirgvb@yahoo.com.br [A.C.Camargo Cancer Center, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Objective: to correlate the results of {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) performed with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts with histological/immunohistochemical findings in breast carcinoma patients. Materials and methods: cross-sectional study with prospective data collection, where patients with biopsy-confirmed breast carcinomas were studied. The patients underwent PET/CT examination in prone position, with a specific protocol for assessment of breasts. PET/CT findings were compared with histological and immunohistochemical data. Results: the authors identified 59 malignant breast lesions in 50 patients. The maximum diameter of the lesions ranged from 6 to 80 mm (mean: 32.2 mm). Invasive ductal carcinoma was the most common histological type (n = 47; 79.7%). At PET/CT, 53 (89.8%) of the lesions demonstrated anomalous concentrations of {sup 18}F-FDG, with maximum SUV ranging from 0.8 to 23.1 (mean: 5.5). A statistically significant association was observed between higher values of maximum SUV and histological type, histological grade, molecular subtype, tumor diameter, mitotic index and Ki-67 expression. Conclusion: PET/CT performed with specific protocol for assessment of breasts has demonstrated good sensitivity and was associated with relevant histological/immunohistochemical factors related to aggressiveness and prognosis of breast carcinomas. (author)

  2. 媒体绩效考评指标体系建构探析%Construction and Analysis of Media Performance Examination and Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅笑冬; 陈小康

    2014-01-01

    Media performance examination and evaluation is to use qualitative and quantitative methods to examine media per-formance and make comprehensive evaluation, however, media performance examination and evaluation is different from the ex-amination and evaluation on a general enterprise and a general public organization and is more than the examination and evaluation on the individual of the organization employees, as a result, the examination and evaluation should take care of both social benefit and economic benefit. This paper constructs three primary examination indicators such as “the potential of resources and assets, business management capacity and result benefit capacity” and 18 secondary examination indicators in media performance exami-nation and evaluation by using Delphi Method, analytic hierarchy process, and comprehensive index method and so on.%媒体绩效考评,是指运用定性和定量的方法,对媒体绩效进行考核并作出综合评定、评价。媒体的绩效考评不同于一般企业和一般公共组织,更不同于对组织员工个人的考评。对它的考评,既要关心其社会效益,也要关心其经济效益。本文运用德菲尔法、层级分析法、综合指数法等方法,构建了媒体绩效考评的“资源资产潜力、经营管理能力、结果效益实力”3项一级考核指标和18项二级考评指标。

  3. Preoptometry and optometry school grade point average and optometry admissions test scores as predictors of performance on the national board of examiners in optometry part I (basic science) examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J E; Yackle, K A; Yuen, M T; Voorhees, L I

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate preoptometry and optometry school grade point averages and Optometry Admission Test (OAT) scores as predictors of performance on the National Board of Examiners in Optometry NBEO Part I (Basic Science) (NBEOPI) examination. Simple and multiple correlation coefficients were computed from data obtained from a sample of three consecutive classes of optometry students (1995-1997; n = 278) at Southern California College of Optometry. The GPA after year two of optometry school was the highest correlation (r = 0.75) among all predictor variables; the average of all scores on the OAT was the highest correlation among preoptometry predictor variables (r = 0.46). Stepwise regression analysis indicated a combination of the optometry GPA, the OAT Academic Average, and the GPA in certain optometry curricular tracks resulted in an improved correlation (multiple r = 0.81). Predicted NBEOPI scores were computed from the regression equation and then analyzed by receiver operating characteristic (roc) and statistic of agreement (kappa) methods. From this analysis, we identified the predicted score that maximized identification of true and false NBEOPI failures (71% and 10%, respectively). Cross validation of this result on a separate class of optometry students resulted in a slightly lower correlation between actual and predicted NBEOPI scores (r = 0.77) but showed the criterion-predicted score to be somewhat lax. The optometry school GPA after 2 years is a reasonably good predictor of performance on the full NBEOPI examination, but the prediction is enhanced by adding the Academic Average OAT score. However, predicting performance in certain subject areas of the NBEOPI examination, for example Psychology and Ocular/Visual Biology, was rather insubstantial. Nevertheless, predicting NBEOPI performance from the best combination of year two optometry GPAs and preoptometry variables is better than has been shown in previous studies predicting optometry GPA from the best

  4. A preliminary examination of neurocognitive performance and symptoms following a bout of soccer heading in athletes wearing protective soccer headbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbin, R J; Beatty, Amanda; Covassin, Tracey; Schatz, Philip; Hydeman, Ana; Kontos, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    This study compared changes in neurocognitive performance and symptom reports following an acute bout of soccer heading among athletes with and without protective soccer headgear. A total of 25 participants headed a soccer ball 15 times over a 15-minute period, using a proper linear heading technique. Participants in the experimental group completed the heading exercise while wearing a protective soccer headband and controls performed the heading exercise without wearing the soccer headband. Neurocognitive performance and symptom reports were assessed before and after the acute bout of heading. Participants wearing the headband showed significant decreases on verbal memory (p = 0.02) compared with the no headband group, while the no headband group demonstrated significantly faster reaction time (p = 0.03) than the headband group following the heading exercise. These findings suggest that protective soccer headgear likely does not mitigate the subtle neurocognitive effects of acute soccer heading.

  5. Histologic progression in non-hodgkin's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, S.M.; Chabner, B.A.; DeVita, V.T. Jr.; Simon, R.; Berard, C.W.; Jones, R.B.; Garvin, A.J.; Canellos, G.P.; Osborne, C.K.; Young, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical course and biopsy specimens from 515 consecutive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients was evaluated retrospectively in an attempt to determine the clinical importance of documented changes in histology over time. Two-hundred and five of these patients has an initial diagnosis of nodular lymphoma and were reviewed for this anaysis. Sixty-three underwent a repeat biopsy greater than 6 mo after initial diagnosis. In 23 patients, these repeat biopsies revealed a change in histology to a diffuse pattern and/or a change to a larger ''histiocytic'' cell type, while repeat biopsies for the other 40 (63%) disclosd persistence of a nodular pattern and no clear change in basic cell type. Progression from nodular lymphoma to diffuse histiocytic, mixed, or undifferentiated types of lymphomas of Rappaport was found in repeate biopsies obtained from 19 patients (30%). Prognosis for survival following a biopsy that demonstrated histologic change was related to the histology demonstrated at the most recent biopsy and to the response to subsequent drug treatment. Survival following repeat biopsy for these 19 patients was significantly shorter than for the 40 patients whose histology remained nodular (p < 0.001). However, attainment of a complete remission with intensive combination chemotherapy was associated with prolonged survival in eight patients and prolonged disease-free survival in one patient. Since prior treatment may compromise the ability to achieve a complete response to chemotherapy in patients with nodular lymphoma who develop an aggressive diffuse histology, the likelihood of histologic progression must be considered in the design of future clinical trials in nodular lymphoma. Histologic progression does not preclude attainment of a complete response to intensive chemotherapy

  6. A meta-analytic investigation of conscientiousness in the prediction of job performance: examining the intercorrelations and the incremental validity of narrow traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicole M; Orvis, Karin A; Lebiecki, Justin E; Cortina, José M

    2006-01-01

    Researchers of broad and narrow traits have debated whether narrow traits are important to consider in the prediction of job performance. Because personality-performance relationship meta-analyses have focused almost exclusively on the Big Five, the predictive power of narrow traits has not been adequately examined. In this study, the authors address this question by meta-analytically examining the degree to which the narrow traits of conscientiousness predict above and beyond global conscientiousness. Results suggest that narrow traits do incrementally predict performance above and beyond global conscientiousness, yet the degree to which they contribute depends on the particular performance criterion and occupation in question. Overall, the results of this study suggest that there are benefits to considering the narrow traits of conscientiousness in the prediction of performance. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Examination of Information Technology (IT) Certification and the Human Resources (HR) Professional Perception of Job Performance: A Quantitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, Neal O.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative survey study was to test the Leontief input/output theory relating the input of IT certification to the output of the English-speaking U.S. human resource professional perceived IT professiona