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Sample records for performance-aware cpu power

  1. Thermally-aware composite run-time CPU power models

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Matthew J.; Diestelhorst, Stephan; Hansson, Andreas; Balsamo, Domenico; Merrett, Geoff V.; Al-Hashimi, Bashir M.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and stable CPU power modelling is fundamental in modern system-on-chips (SoCs) for two main reasons: 1) they enable significant online energy savings by providing a run-time manager with reliable power consumption data for controlling CPU energy-saving techniques; 2) they can be used as accurate and trusted reference models for system design and exploration. We begin by showing the limitations in typical performance monitoring counter (PMC) based power modelling approaches and illust...

  2. Enhancing Leakage Power in CPU Cache Using Inverted Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Bilal A. Shehada; Ahmed M. Serdah; Aiman Abu Samra

    2013-01-01

    Power consumption is an increasingly pressing problem in modern processor design. Since the on-chip caches usually consume a significant amount of power so power and energy consumption parameters have become one of the most important design constraint. It is one of the most attractive targets for power reduction. This paper presents an approach to enhance the dynamic power consumption of CPU cache using inverted cache architecture. Our assumption tries to reduce dynamic write power dissipatio...

  3. A Bio-inspired Approach for Power and Performance Aware Resource Allocation in Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to cope with increasing demand, cloud market players such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Gogrid, Flexiant, etc. have set up large sized data centers. Due to monotonically increasing size of data centers and heterogeneity of resources have made resource allocation a challenging task. A large percentage of total energy consumption of the data centers gets wasted because of under-utilization of resources. Thus, there is a need of resource allocation technique that improves the utilization of resources with effecting performance of services being delivered to end users. In this work, a bio-inspired resource allocation approach is proposed with the aim to improve utilization and hence the energy efficiency of the cloud infrastructure. The proposed approach makes use of Cuckoo search for power and performance aware allocation of resources to the services hired by the end users. The proposed approach is implemented in CloudSim. The simulation results have shown approximately 12% saving in energy consumption.

  4. CPU time reduction strategies for the Lambda modes calculation of a nuclear power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, V.; Garayoa, J.; Hernandez, V. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Sistemas Informaticos y Computacion; Navarro, J.; Verdu, G.; Munoz-Cobo, J.L. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear; Ginestar, D. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada

    1997-12-01

    In this paper, we present two strategies to reduce the CPU time spent in the lambda modes calculation for a realistic nuclear power reactor.The discretization of the multigroup neutron diffusion equation has been made using a nodal collocation method, solving the associated eigenvalue problem with two different techniques: the Subspace Iteration Method and Arnoldi`s Method. CPU time reduction is based on a coarse grain parallelization approach together with a multistep algorithm to initialize adequately the solution. (author). 9 refs., 6 tabs.

  5. The relationship among CPU utilization, temperature, and thermal power for waste heat utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, Anna M.; Sherbeck, Jon; Phelan, Patrick; Varsamopoulos, Georgios; Gupta, Sandeep K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work graphs a triad relationship among CPU utilization, temperature and power. • Using a custom-built cold plate, we were able capture CPU-generated high quality heat. • The work undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil to directly cool CPUs. • We found that it is possible to use CPU waste energy to power an absorption chiller. - Abstract: This work addresses significant datacenter issues of growth in numbers of computer servers and subsequent electricity expenditure by proposing, analyzing and testing a unique idea of recycling the highest quality waste heat generated by datacenter servers. The aim was to provide a renewable and sustainable energy source for use in cooling the datacenter. The work incorporates novel approaches in waste heat usage, graphing CPU temperature, power and utilization simultaneously, and a mineral oil experimental design and implementation. The work presented investigates and illustrates the quantity and quality of heat that can be captured from a variably tasked liquid-cooled microprocessor on a datacenter server blade. It undertakes a radical approach using mineral oil. The trials examine the feasibility of using the thermal energy from a CPU to drive a cooling process. Results indicate that 123 servers encapsulated in mineral oil can power a 10-ton chiller with a design point of 50.2 kW th . Compared with water-cooling experiments, the mineral oil experiment mitigated the temperature drop between the heat source and discharge line by up to 81%. In addition, due to this reduction in temperature drop, the heat quality in the oil discharge line was up to 12.3 °C higher on average than for water-cooled experiments. Furthermore, mineral oil cooling holds the potential to eliminate the 50% cooling expenditure which initially motivated this project

  6. Promise of a low power mobile CPU based embedded system in artificial leg control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Robert; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Xiaorong; Huang, He; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low power embedded system using mobile processor technology (Intel Atom™ Z530 Processor) specifically tailored for a neural-machine interface (NMI) for artificial limbs. This embedded system effectively performs our previously developed NMI algorithm based on neuromuscular-mechanical fusion and phase-dependent pattern classification. The analysis shows that NMI embedded system can meet real-time constraints with high accuracies for recognizing the user's locomotion mode. Our implementation utilizes the mobile processor efficiently to allow a power consumption of 2.2 watts and low CPU utilization (less than 4.3%) while executing the complex NMI algorithm. Our experiments have shown that the highly optimized C program implementation on the embedded system has superb advantages over existing PC implementations on MATLAB. The study results suggest that mobile-CPU-based embedded system is promising for implementing advanced control for powered lower limb prostheses.

  7. Empirical CPU power modelling and estimation in the gem5 simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Basireddy, Karunakar Reddy; Walker, Matthew; Balsamo, Domenico; Diestelhorst, Stephan; Al-Hashimi, Bashir; Merrett, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Power modelling is important for modern CPUs to inform power management approaches and allow design space exploration. Power simulators, combined with a full-system architectural simulator such as gem5, enable power-performance trade-offs to be investigated early in the design of a system with different configurations (e.g number of cores, cache size, etc.). However, the accuracy of existing power simulators, such as McPAT, is known to be low due to the abstraction and specification errors, a...

  8. CPU Server

    CERN Multimedia

    The CERN computer centre has hundreds of racks like these. They are over a million times more powerful than our first computer in the 1960's. This tray is a 'dual-core' server. This means it effectively has two CPUs in it (eg. two of your home computers minimised to fit into a single box). Also note the copper cooling fins, to help dissipate the heat.

  9. Direct Measurement of Power Dissipated by Monte Carlo Simulations on CPU and FPGA Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albicocco, Pietro; Papini, Davide; Nannarelli, Alberto

    In this technical report, we describe how power dissipation measurements on different computing platforms (a desktop computer and an FPGA board) are performed by using a Hall effectbased current sensor. The chosen application is a Monte Carlo simulation for European option pricing which is a popu...

  10. Direct Measurement of Power Dissipated by Monte Carlo Simulations on CPU and FPGA Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Albicocco, Pietro; Papini, Davide; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe how power dissipation measurements on different computing platforms (a desktop computer and an FPGA board) are performed by using a Hall effectbased current sensor. The chosen application is a Monte Carlo simulation for European option pricing which is a popular algorithm used in financial computations. The Hall effect probe measurements complement the measurements performed on the core of the FPGA by a built-in Xilinxpower monitoring system.

  11. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Y.; Ge, B.H.; Shen, X.; Wang, Y.G.; Yu, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. - Highlights: • STEM image simulation is achieved by hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up the calculation in the personal computer (PC). • In order to fully utilize the calculation power of the PC, the simulation is performed by GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time so efficiency is improved significantly. • GaSb and artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. The results reveal some unintuitive phenomena about the contrast variation with the atom numbers.

  12. STEM image simulation with hybrid CPU/GPU programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Y., E-mail: yaoyuan@iphy.ac.cn; Ge, B.H.; Shen, X.; Wang, Y.G.; Yu, R.C.

    2016-07-15

    STEM image simulation is achieved via hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up calculation on a personal computer (PC). To utilize the calculation power of a PC fully, the simulation is performed using the GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time to significantly improve efficiency. GaSb and an artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. - Highlights: • STEM image simulation is achieved by hybrid CPU/GPU programming under parallel algorithm architecture to speed up the calculation in the personal computer (PC). • In order to fully utilize the calculation power of the PC, the simulation is performed by GPU core and multi-CPU cores at the same time so efficiency is improved significantly. • GaSb and artificial GaSb/InAs interface with atom diffusion have been used to verify the computation. The results reveal some unintuitive phenomena about the contrast variation with the atom numbers.

  13. CPU and GPU (Cuda Template Matching Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldas Borcovas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image processing, computer vision or other complicated opticalinformation processing algorithms require large resources. It isoften desired to execute algorithms in real time. It is hard tofulfill such requirements with single CPU processor. NVidiaproposed CUDA technology enables programmer to use theGPU resources in the computer. Current research was madewith Intel Pentium Dual-Core T4500 2.3 GHz processor with4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU I, NVidia GeForce GT320M CUDAcompliable graphics card (GPU I and Intel Core I5-2500K3.3 GHz processor with 4 GB RAM DDR3 (CPU II, NVidiaGeForce GTX 560 CUDA compatible graphic card (GPU II.Additional libraries as OpenCV 2.1 and OpenCV 2.4.0 CUDAcompliable were used for the testing. Main test were made withstandard function MatchTemplate from the OpenCV libraries.The algorithm uses a main image and a template. An influenceof these factors was tested. Main image and template have beenresized and the algorithm computing time and performancein Gtpix/s have been measured. According to the informationobtained from the research GPU computing using the hardwarementioned earlier is till 24 times faster when it is processing abig amount of information. When the images are small the performanceof CPU and GPU are not significantly different. Thechoice of the template size makes influence on calculating withCPU. Difference in the computing time between the GPUs canbe explained by the number of cores which they have.

  14. GeantV: from CPU to accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amadio, G.; Ananya, A.; Apostolakis, J.; Arora, A.; Bandieramonte, M.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Bianchini, C.; Brun, R.; Canal, P.; Carminati, F.; Duhem, L.; Elvira, D.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Goulas, I.; Iope, R.; Jun, S.; Lima, G.; Mohanty, A.; Nikitina, T.; Novak, M.; Pokorski, W.; Ribon, A.; Sehgal, R.; Shadura, O.; Vallecorsa, S.; Wenzel, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-10-01

    The GeantV project aims to research and develop the next-generation simulation software describing the passage of particles through matter. While the modern CPU architectures are being targeted first, resources such as GPGPU, Intel© Xeon Phi, Atom or ARM cannot be ignored anymore by HEP CPU-bound applications. The proof of concept GeantV prototype has been mainly engineered for CPU's having vector units but we have foreseen from early stages a bridge to arbitrary accelerators. A software layer consisting of architecture/technology specific backends supports currently this concept. This approach allows to abstract out the basic types such as scalar/vector but also to formalize generic computation kernels using transparently library or device specific constructs based on Vc, CUDA, Cilk+ or Intel intrinsics. While the main goal of this approach is portable performance, as a bonus, it comes with the insulation of the core application and algorithms from the technology layer. This allows our application to be long term maintainable and versatile to changes at the backend side. The paper presents the first results of basket-based GeantV geometry navigation on the Intel© Xeon Phi KNC architecture. We present the scalability and vectorization study, conducted using Intel performance tools, as well as our preliminary conclusions on the use of accelerators for GeantV transport. We also describe the current work and preliminary results for using the GeantV transport kernel on GPUs.

  15. GeantV: from CPU to accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amadio, G; Bianchini, C; Iope, R; Ananya, A; Arora, A; Apostolakis, J; Bandieramonte, M; Brun, R; Carminati, F; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Goulas, I; Nikitina, T; Bhattacharyya, A; Mohanty, A; Canal, P; Elvira, D; Jun, S; Lima, G; Duhem, L

    2016-01-01

    The GeantV project aims to research and develop the next-generation simulation software describing the passage of particles through matter. While the modern CPU architectures are being targeted first, resources such as GPGPU, Intel© Xeon Phi, Atom or ARM cannot be ignored anymore by HEP CPU-bound applications. The proof of concept GeantV prototype has been mainly engineered for CPU's having vector units but we have foreseen from early stages a bridge to arbitrary accelerators. A software layer consisting of architecture/technology specific backends supports currently this concept. This approach allows to abstract out the basic types such as scalar/vector but also to formalize generic computation kernels using transparently library or device specific constructs based on Vc, CUDA, Cilk+ or Intel intrinsics. While the main goal of this approach is portable performance, as a bonus, it comes with the insulation of the core application and algorithms from the technology layer. This allows our application to be long term maintainable and versatile to changes at the backend side. The paper presents the first results of basket-based GeantV geometry navigation on the Intel© Xeon Phi KNC architecture. We present the scalability and vectorization study, conducted using Intel performance tools, as well as our preliminary conclusions on the use of accelerators for GeantV transport. We also describe the current work and preliminary results for using the GeantV transport kernel on GPUs. (paper)

  16. A combined PLC and CPU approach to multiprocessor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.J.; Broesch, J.D.; Coon, R.M.

    1995-10-01

    A sophisticated multiprocessor control system has been developed for use in the E-Power Supply System Integrated Control (EPSSIC) on the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC provides control and interlocks for the ohmic heating coil power supply and its associated systems. Of particular interest is the architecture of this system: both a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and a Central Processor Unit (CPU) have been combined on a standard VME bus. The PLC and CPU input and output signals are routed through signal conditioning modules, which provide the necessary voltage and ground isolation. Additionally these modules adapt the signal levels to that of the VME I/O boards. One set of I/O signals is shared between the two processors. The resulting multiprocessor system provides a number of advantages: redundant operation for mission critical situations, flexible communications using conventional TCP/IP protocols, the simplicity of ladder logic programming for the majority of the control code, and an easily maintained and expandable non-proprietary system

  17. Liquid Cooling System for CPU by Electroconjugate Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Sakurai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The dissipated power of CPU for personal computer has been increased because the performance of personal computer becomes higher. Therefore, a liquid cooling system has been employed in some personal computers in order to improve their cooling performance. Electroconjugate fluid (ECF is one of the functional fluids. ECF has a remarkable property that a strong jet flow is generated between electrodes when a high voltage is applied to ECF through the electrodes. By using this strong jet flow, an ECF-pump with simple structure, no sliding portion, no noise, and no vibration seems to be able to be developed. And then, by the use of the ECF-pump, a new liquid cooling system by ECF seems to be realized. In this study, to realize this system, an ECF-pump is proposed and fabricated to investigate the basic characteristics of the ECF-pump experimentally. Next, by utilizing the ECF-pump, a model of a liquid cooling system by ECF is manufactured and some experiments are carried out to investigate the performance of this system. As a result, by using this system, the temperature of heat source of 50 W is kept at 60°C or less. In general, CPU is usually used at this temperature or less.

  18. Thermoelectric mini cooler coupled with micro thermosiphon for CPU cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Yang, Hong-Xing; Tang, Guang-Fa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a thermoelectric mini cooler coupling with a micro thermosiphon cooling system has been proposed for the purpose of CPU cooling. A mathematical model of heat transfer, depending on one-dimensional treatment of thermal and electric power, is firstly established for the thermoelectric module. Analytical results demonstrate the relationship between the maximal COP (Coefficient of Performance) and Q c with the figure of merit. Full-scale experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of thermoelectric operating voltage, power input of heat source, and thermoelectric module number on the performance of the cooling system. Experimental results indicated that the cooling production increases with promotion of thermoelectric operating voltage. Surface temperature of CPU heat source linearly increases with increasing of power input, and its maximum value reached 70 °C as the prototype CPU power input was equivalent to 84 W. Insulation between air and heat source surface can prevent the condensate water due to low surface temperature. In addition, thermal performance of this cooling system could be enhanced when the total dimension of thermoelectric module matched well with the dimension of CPU. This research could benefit the design of thermal dissipation of electronic chips and CPU units. - Highlights: • A cooling system coupled with thermoelectric module and loop thermosiphon is developed. • Thermoelectric module coupled with loop thermosiphon can achieve high heat-transfer efficiency. • A mathematical model of thermoelectric cooling is built. • An analysis of modeling results for design and experimental data are presented. • Influence of power input and operating voltage on the cooling system are researched

  19. The CMSSW benchmarking suite: Using HEP code to measure CPU performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benelli, G

    2010-01-01

    The demanding computing needs of the CMS experiment require thoughtful planning and management of its computing infrastructure. A key factor in this process is the use of realistic benchmarks when assessing the computing power of the different architectures available. In recent years a discrepancy has been observed between the CPU performance estimates given by the reference benchmark for HEP computing (SPECint) and actual performances of HEP code. Making use of the CPU performance tools from the CMSSW performance suite, comparative CPU performance studies have been carried out on several architectures. A benchmarking suite has been developed and integrated in the CMSSW framework, to allow computing centers and interested third parties to benchmark architectures directly with CMSSW. The CMSSW benchmarking suite can be used out of the box, to test and compare several machines in terms of CPU performance and report with the wanted level of detail the different benchmarking scores (e.g. by processing step) and results. In this talk we describe briefly the CMSSW software performance suite, and in detail the CMSSW benchmarking suite client/server design, the performance data analysis and the available CMSSW benchmark scores. The experience in the use of HEP code for benchmarking will be discussed and CMSSW benchmark results presented.

  20. A Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern-Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Lee

    Full Text Available The large quantities of data now being transferred via high-speed networks have made deep packet inspection indispensable for security purposes. Scalable and low-cost signature-based network intrusion detection systems have been developed for deep packet inspection for various software platforms. Traditional approaches that only involve central processing units (CPUs are now considered inadequate in terms of inspection speed. Graphic processing units (GPUs have superior parallel processing power, but transmission bottlenecks can reduce optimal GPU efficiency. In this paper we describe our proposal for a hybrid CPU/GPU pattern-matching algorithm (HPMA that divides and distributes the packet-inspecting workload between a CPU and GPU. All packets are initially inspected by the CPU and filtered using a simple pre-filtering algorithm, and packets that might contain malicious content are sent to the GPU for further inspection. Test results indicate that in terms of random payload traffic, the matching speed of our proposed algorithm was 3.4 times and 2.7 times faster than those of the AC-CPU and AC-GPU algorithms, respectively. Further, HPMA achieved higher energy efficiency than the other tested algorithms.

  1. Online performance evaluation of RAID 5 using CPU utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hai; Yang, Hua; Zhang, Jiangling

    1998-09-01

    Redundant arrays of independent disks (RAID) technology is the efficient way to solve the bottleneck problem between CPU processing ability and I/O subsystem. For the system point of view, the most important metric of on line performance is the utilization of CPU. This paper first employs the way to calculate the CPU utilization of system connected with RAID level 5 using statistic average method. From the simulation results of CPU utilization of system connected with RAID level 5 subsystem can we see that using multiple disks as an array to access data in parallel is the efficient way to enhance the on-line performance of disk storage system. USing high-end disk drivers to compose the disk array is the key to enhance the on-line performance of system.

  2. Porting AMG2013 to Heterogeneous CPU+GPU Nodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samfass, Philipp [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-26

    LLNL's future advanced technology system SIERRA will feature heterogeneous compute nodes that consist of IBM PowerV9 CPUs and NVIDIA Volta GPUs. Conceptually, the motivation for such an architecture is quite straightforward: While GPUs are optimized for throughput on massively parallel workloads, CPUs strive to minimize latency for rather sequential operations. Yet, making optimal use of heterogeneous architectures raises new challenges for the development of scalable parallel software, e.g., with respect to work distribution. Porting LLNL's parallel numerical libraries to upcoming heterogeneous CPU+GPU architectures is therefore a critical factor for ensuring LLNL's future success in ful lling its national mission. One of these libraries, called HYPRE, provides parallel solvers and precondi- tioners for large, sparse linear systems of equations. In the context of this intern- ship project, I consider AMG2013 which is a proxy application for major parts of HYPRE that implements a benchmark for setting up and solving di erent systems of linear equations. In the following, I describe in detail how I ported multiple parts of AMG2013 to the GPU (Section 2) and present results for di erent experiments that demonstrate a successful parallel implementation on the heterogeneous ma- chines surface and ray (Section 3). In Section 4, I give guidelines on how my code should be used. Finally, I conclude and give an outlook for future work (Section 5).

  3. Design improvement of FPGA and CPU based digital circuit cards to solve timing issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Jaeki; Lee, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The digital circuit cards installed at NPPs (Nuclear Power Plant) are mostly composed of a CPU (Central Processing Unit) and a PLD (Programmable Logic Device; these include a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) and a CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device)). This type of structure is typical and is maintained using digital circuit cards. There are no big problems with this device as a structure. In particular, signal delay causes a lot of problems when various IC (Integrated Circuit) and several circuit cards are connected to the BUS of the backplane in the BUS design. This paper suggests a structure to improve the BUS signal timing problems in a circuit card consisting of CPU and FPGA. Nowadays, as the structure of circuit cards has become complex and mass data at high speed is communicated through the BUS, data integrity is the most important issue. The conventional design does not consider delay and the synchronicity of signal and this causes many problems in data processing. In order to solve these problems, it is important to isolate the BUS controller from the CPU and maintain constancy of the signal delay by using a PLD

  4. Design improvement of FPGA and CPU based digital circuit cards to solve timing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Lee, Jaeki; Lee, Kwang-Hyun [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The digital circuit cards installed at NPPs (Nuclear Power Plant) are mostly composed of a CPU (Central Processing Unit) and a PLD (Programmable Logic Device; these include a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) and a CPLD (Complex Programmable Logic Device)). This type of structure is typical and is maintained using digital circuit cards. There are no big problems with this device as a structure. In particular, signal delay causes a lot of problems when various IC (Integrated Circuit) and several circuit cards are connected to the BUS of the backplane in the BUS design. This paper suggests a structure to improve the BUS signal timing problems in a circuit card consisting of CPU and FPGA. Nowadays, as the structure of circuit cards has become complex and mass data at high speed is communicated through the BUS, data integrity is the most important issue. The conventional design does not consider delay and the synchronicity of signal and this causes many problems in data processing. In order to solve these problems, it is important to isolate the BUS controller from the CPU and maintain constancy of the signal delay by using a PLD.

  5. The Effect of NUMA Tunings on CPU Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowell, Christopher; Caramarcu, Costin; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Antonio; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-12-01

    Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) is a memory architecture for symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems where each processor is directly connected to separate memory. Indirect access to other CPU's (remote) RAM is still possible, but such requests are slower as they must also pass through that memory's controlling CPU. In concert with a NUMA-aware operating system, the NUMA hardware architecture can help eliminate the memory performance reductions generally seen in SMP systems when multiple processors simultaneously attempt to access memory. The x86 CPU architecture has supported NUMA for a number of years. Modern operating systems such as Linux support NUMA-aware scheduling, where the OS attempts to schedule a process to the CPU directly attached to the majority of its RAM. In Linux, it is possible to further manually tune the NUMA subsystem using the numactl utility. With the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 6.3, the numad daemon became available in this distribution. This daemon monitors a system's NUMA topology and utilization, and automatically makes adjustments to optimize locality. As the number of cores in x86 servers continues to grow, efficient NUMA mappings of processes to CPUs/memory will become increasingly important. This paper gives a brief overview of NUMA, and discusses the effects of manual tunings and numad on the performance of the HEPSPEC06 benchmark, and ATLAS software.

  6. The Effect of NUMA Tunings on CPU Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollowell, Christopher; Caramarcu, Costin; Strecker-Kellogg, William; Wong, Antonio; Zaytsev, Alexandr

    2015-01-01

    Non-Uniform Memory Access (NUMA) is a memory architecture for symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) systems where each processor is directly connected to separate memory. Indirect access to other CPU's (remote) RAM is still possible, but such requests are slower as they must also pass through that memory's controlling CPU. In concert with a NUMA-aware operating system, the NUMA hardware architecture can help eliminate the memory performance reductions generally seen in SMP systems when multiple processors simultaneously attempt to access memory.The x86 CPU architecture has supported NUMA for a number of years. Modern operating systems such as Linux support NUMA-aware scheduling, where the OS attempts to schedule a process to the CPU directly attached to the majority of its RAM. In Linux, it is possible to further manually tune the NUMA subsystem using the numactl utility. With the release of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 6.3, the numad daemon became available in this distribution. This daemon monitors a system's NUMA topology and utilization, and automatically makes adjustments to optimize locality.As the number of cores in x86 servers continues to grow, efficient NUMA mappings of processes to CPUs/memory will become increasingly important. This paper gives a brief overview of NUMA, and discusses the effects of manual tunings and numad on the performance of the HEPSPEC06 benchmark, and ATLAS software. (paper)

  7. CPU and cache efficient management of memory-resident databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirk, H.; Funke, F.; Grund, M.; Neumann, T.; Leser, U.; Manegold, S.; Kemper, A.; Kersten, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Memory-Resident Database Management Systems (MRDBMS) have to be optimized for two resources: CPU cycles and memory bandwidth. To optimize for bandwidth in mixed OLTP/OLAP scenarios, the hybrid or Partially Decomposed Storage Model (PDSM) has been proposed. However, in current implementations,

  8. CPU and Cache Efficient Management of Memory-Resident Databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Pirk (Holger); F. Funke; M. Grund; T. Neumann (Thomas); U. Leser; S. Manegold (Stefan); A. Kemper (Alfons); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractMemory-Resident Database Management Systems (MRDBMS) have to be optimized for two resources: CPU cycles and memory bandwidth. To optimize for bandwidth in mixed OLTP/OLAP scenarios, the hybrid or Partially Decomposed Storage Model (PDSM) has been proposed. However, in current

  9. A Bio-inspired Approach for Power and Performance Aware Resource Allocation in Clouds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Rajesh; Kumar Ashok; Sharma Anju

    2016-01-01

    In order to cope with increasing demand, cloud market players such as Amazon, Microsoft, Google, Gogrid, Flexiant, etc. have set up large sized data centers. Due to monotonically increasing size of data centers and heterogeneity of resources have made resource allocation a challenging task. A large percentage of total energy consumption of the data centers gets wasted because of under-utilization of resources. Thus, there is a need of resource allocation technique that improves the utilizatio...

  10. Fast multipurpose Monte Carlo simulation for proton therapy using multi- and many-core CPU architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souris, Kevin, E-mail: kevin.souris@uclouvain.be; Lee, John Aldo [Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and ICTEAM Institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium); Sterpin, Edmond [Center for Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy, Institut de Recherche Expérimentale et Clinique, Université catholique de Louvain, Avenue Hippocrate 54, 1200 Brussels, Belgium and Department of Oncology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, O& N I Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Accuracy in proton therapy treatment planning can be improved using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. However the long computation time of such methods hinders their use in clinical routine. This work aims to develop a fast multipurpose Monte Carlo simulation tool for proton therapy using massively parallel central processing unit (CPU) architectures. Methods: A new Monte Carlo, called MCsquare (many-core Monte Carlo), has been designed and optimized for the last generation of Intel Xeon processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. These massively parallel architectures offer the flexibility and the computational power suitable to MC methods. The class-II condensed history algorithm of MCsquare provides a fast and yet accurate method of simulating heavy charged particles such as protons, deuterons, and alphas inside voxelized geometries. Hard ionizations, with energy losses above a user-specified threshold, are simulated individually while soft events are regrouped in a multiple scattering theory. Elastic and inelastic nuclear interactions are sampled from ICRU 63 differential cross sections, thereby allowing for the computation of prompt gamma emission profiles. MCsquare has been benchmarked with the GATE/GEANT4 Monte Carlo application for homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Results: Comparisons with GATE/GEANT4 for various geometries show deviations within 2%–1 mm. In spite of the limited memory bandwidth of the coprocessor simulation time is below 25 s for 10{sup 7} primary 200 MeV protons in average soft tissues using all Xeon Phi and CPU resources embedded in a single desktop unit. Conclusions: MCsquare exploits the flexibility of CPU architectures to provide a multipurpose MC simulation tool. Optimized code enables the use of accurate MC calculation within a reasonable computation time, adequate for clinical practice. MCsquare also simulates prompt gamma emission and can thus be used also for in vivo range verification.

  11. Fast multipurpose Monte Carlo simulation for proton therapy using multi- and many-core CPU architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souris, Kevin; Lee, John Aldo; Sterpin, Edmond

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Accuracy in proton therapy treatment planning can be improved using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. However the long computation time of such methods hinders their use in clinical routine. This work aims to develop a fast multipurpose Monte Carlo simulation tool for proton therapy using massively parallel central processing unit (CPU) architectures. Methods: A new Monte Carlo, called MCsquare (many-core Monte Carlo), has been designed and optimized for the last generation of Intel Xeon processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. These massively parallel architectures offer the flexibility and the computational power suitable to MC methods. The class-II condensed history algorithm of MCsquare provides a fast and yet accurate method of simulating heavy charged particles such as protons, deuterons, and alphas inside voxelized geometries. Hard ionizations, with energy losses above a user-specified threshold, are simulated individually while soft events are regrouped in a multiple scattering theory. Elastic and inelastic nuclear interactions are sampled from ICRU 63 differential cross sections, thereby allowing for the computation of prompt gamma emission profiles. MCsquare has been benchmarked with the GATE/GEANT4 Monte Carlo application for homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Results: Comparisons with GATE/GEANT4 for various geometries show deviations within 2%–1 mm. In spite of the limited memory bandwidth of the coprocessor simulation time is below 25 s for 10"7 primary 200 MeV protons in average soft tissues using all Xeon Phi and CPU resources embedded in a single desktop unit. Conclusions: MCsquare exploits the flexibility of CPU architectures to provide a multipurpose MC simulation tool. Optimized code enables the use of accurate MC calculation within a reasonable computation time, adequate for clinical practice. MCsquare also simulates prompt gamma emission and can thus be used also for in vivo range verification.

  12. Fast multipurpose Monte Carlo simulation for proton therapy using multi- and many-core CPU architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souris, Kevin; Lee, John Aldo; Sterpin, Edmond

    2016-04-01

    Accuracy in proton therapy treatment planning can be improved using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. However the long computation time of such methods hinders their use in clinical routine. This work aims to develop a fast multipurpose Monte Carlo simulation tool for proton therapy using massively parallel central processing unit (CPU) architectures. A new Monte Carlo, called MCsquare (many-core Monte Carlo), has been designed and optimized for the last generation of Intel Xeon processors and Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors. These massively parallel architectures offer the flexibility and the computational power suitable to MC methods. The class-II condensed history algorithm of MCsquare provides a fast and yet accurate method of simulating heavy charged particles such as protons, deuterons, and alphas inside voxelized geometries. Hard ionizations, with energy losses above a user-specified threshold, are simulated individually while soft events are regrouped in a multiple scattering theory. Elastic and inelastic nuclear interactions are sampled from ICRU 63 differential cross sections, thereby allowing for the computation of prompt gamma emission profiles. MCsquare has been benchmarked with the gate/geant4 Monte Carlo application for homogeneous and heterogeneous geometries. Comparisons with gate/geant4 for various geometries show deviations within 2%-1 mm. In spite of the limited memory bandwidth of the coprocessor simulation time is below 25 s for 10(7) primary 200 MeV protons in average soft tissues using all Xeon Phi and CPU resources embedded in a single desktop unit. MCsquare exploits the flexibility of CPU architectures to provide a multipurpose MC simulation tool. Optimized code enables the use of accurate MC calculation within a reasonable computation time, adequate for clinical practice. MCsquare also simulates prompt gamma emission and can thus be used also for in vivo range verification.

  13. Performance analysis of the FDTD method applied to holographic volume gratings: Multi-core CPU versus GPU computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francés, J.; Bleda, S.; Neipp, C.; Márquez, A.; Pascual, I.; Beléndez, A.

    2013-03-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) allows electromagnetic field distribution analysis as a function of time and space. The method is applied to analyze holographic volume gratings (HVGs) for the near-field distribution at optical wavelengths. Usually, this application requires the simulation of wide areas, which implies more memory and time processing. In this work, we propose a specific implementation of the FDTD method including several add-ons for a precise simulation of optical diffractive elements. Values in the near-field region are computed considering the illumination of the grating by means of a plane wave for different angles of incidence and including absorbing boundaries as well. We compare the results obtained by FDTD with those obtained using a matrix method (MM) applied to diffraction gratings. In addition, we have developed two optimized versions of the algorithm, for both CPU and GPU, in order to analyze the improvement of using the new NVIDIA Fermi GPU architecture versus highly tuned multi-core CPU as a function of the size simulation. In particular, the optimized CPU implementation takes advantage of the arithmetic and data transfer streaming SIMD (single instruction multiple data) extensions (SSE) included explicitly in the code and also of multi-threading by means of OpenMP directives. A good agreement between the results obtained using both FDTD and MM methods is obtained, thus validating our methodology. Moreover, the performance of the GPU is compared to the SSE+OpenMP CPU implementation, and it is quantitatively determined that a highly optimized CPU program can be competitive for a wider range of simulation sizes, whereas GPU computing becomes more powerful for large-scale simulations.

  14. Energy consumption optimization of the total-FETI solver by changing the CPU frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, David; Riha, Lubomir; Sojka, Radim; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin; Schuchart, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The energy consumption of supercomputers is one of the critical problems for the upcoming Exascale supercomputing era. The awareness of power and energy consumption is required on both software and hardware side. This paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnect (FETI) based solvers of linear systems, which is an established method for solving real-world engineering problems. We have evaluated the effect of the CPU frequency on the energy consumption of the FETI solver using a linear elasticity 3D cube synthetic benchmark. In this problem, we have evaluated the effect of frequency tuning on the energy consumption of the essential processing kernels of the FETI method. The paper provides results for two types of frequency tuning: (1) static tuning and (2) dynamic tuning. For static tuning experiments, the frequency is set before execution and kept constant during the runtime. For dynamic tuning, the frequency is changed during the program execution to adapt the system to the actual needs of the application. The paper shows that static tuning brings up 12% energy savings when compared to default CPU settings (the highest clock rate). The dynamic tuning improves this further by up to 3%.

  15. Reconstruction of the neutron spectrum using an artificial neural network in CPU and GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez D, V. M.; Moreno M, A.; Ortiz L, M. A.; Vega C, H. R.; Alonso M, O. E.

    2016-10-01

    The increase in computing power in personal computers has been increasing, computers now have several processors in the CPU and in addition multiple CUDA cores in the graphics processing unit (GPU); both systems can be used individually or combined to perform scientific computation without resorting to processor or supercomputing arrangements. The Bonner sphere spectrometer is the most commonly used multi-element system for neutron detection purposes and its associated spectrum. Each sphere-detector combination gives a particular response that depends on the energy of the neutrons, and the total set of these responses is known like the responses matrix Rφ(E). Thus, the counting rates obtained with each sphere and the neutron spectrum is related to the Fredholm equation in its discrete version. For the reconstruction of the spectrum has a system of poorly conditioned equations with an infinite number of solutions and to find the appropriate solution, it has been proposed the use of artificial intelligence through neural networks with different platforms CPU and GPU. (Author)

  16. Heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving targets detection for UAV video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maowen; Tang, Linbo; Han, Yuqi; Yu, Chunlei; Zhang, Chao; Fu, Huiquan

    2017-07-01

    Moving targets detection is gaining popularity in civilian and military applications. On some monitoring platform of motion detection, some low-resolution stationary cameras are replaced by moving HD camera based on UAVs. The pixels of moving targets in the HD Video taken by UAV are always in a minority, and the background of the frame is usually moving because of the motion of UAVs. The high computational cost of the algorithm prevents running it at higher resolutions the pixels of frame. Hence, to solve the problem of moving targets detection based UAVs video, we propose a heterogeneous CPU-GPU moving target detection algorithm for UAV video. More specifically, we use background registration to eliminate the impact of the moving background and frame difference to detect small moving targets. In order to achieve the effect of real-time processing, we design the solution of heterogeneous CPU-GPU framework for our method. The experimental results show that our method can detect the main moving targets from the HD video taken by UAV, and the average process time is 52.16ms per frame which is fast enough to solve the problem.

  17. ITCA: Inter-Task Conflict-Aware CPU accounting for CMP

    OpenAIRE

    Luque, Carlos; Moreto Planas, Miquel; Cazorla Almeida, Francisco Javier; Gioiosa, Roberto; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2010-01-01

    Chip-MultiProcessors (CMP) introduce complexities when accounting CPU utilization to processes because the progress done by a process during an interval of time highly depends on the activity of the other processes it is coscheduled with. We propose a new hardware CPU accounting mechanism to improve the accuracy when measuring the CPU utilization in CMPs and compare it with previous accounting mechanisms. Our results show that currently known mechanisms lead to a 16% average error when it com...

  18. Accelerating Spaceborne SAR Imaging Using Multiple CPU/GPU Deep Collaborative Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR technologies in recent years, the huge amount of remote sensing data brings challenges for real-time imaging processing. Therefore, high performance computing (HPC methods have been presented to accelerate SAR imaging, especially the GPU based methods. In the classical GPU based imaging algorithm, GPU is employed to accelerate image processing by massive parallel computing, and CPU is only used to perform the auxiliary work such as data input/output (IO. However, the computing capability of CPU is ignored and underestimated. In this work, a new deep collaborative SAR imaging method based on multiple CPU/GPU is proposed to achieve real-time SAR imaging. Through the proposed tasks partitioning and scheduling strategy, the whole image can be generated with deep collaborative multiple CPU/GPU computing. In the part of CPU parallel imaging, the advanced vector extension (AVX method is firstly introduced into the multi-core CPU parallel method for higher efficiency. As for the GPU parallel imaging, not only the bottlenecks of memory limitation and frequent data transferring are broken, but also kinds of optimized strategies are applied, such as streaming, parallel pipeline and so on. Experimental results demonstrate that the deep CPU/GPU collaborative imaging method enhances the efficiency of SAR imaging on single-core CPU by 270 times and realizes the real-time imaging in that the imaging rate outperforms the raw data generation rate.

  19. Accelerating Spaceborne SAR Imaging Using Multiple CPU/GPU Deep Collaborative Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Guojun; Li, Wei; Hu, Wei; Hu, Yuxin

    2016-04-07

    With the development of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) technologies in recent years, the huge amount of remote sensing data brings challenges for real-time imaging processing. Therefore, high performance computing (HPC) methods have been presented to accelerate SAR imaging, especially the GPU based methods. In the classical GPU based imaging algorithm, GPU is employed to accelerate image processing by massive parallel computing, and CPU is only used to perform the auxiliary work such as data input/output (IO). However, the computing capability of CPU is ignored and underestimated. In this work, a new deep collaborative SAR imaging method based on multiple CPU/GPU is proposed to achieve real-time SAR imaging. Through the proposed tasks partitioning and scheduling strategy, the whole image can be generated with deep collaborative multiple CPU/GPU computing. In the part of CPU parallel imaging, the advanced vector extension (AVX) method is firstly introduced into the multi-core CPU parallel method for higher efficiency. As for the GPU parallel imaging, not only the bottlenecks of memory limitation and frequent data transferring are broken, but also kinds of optimized strategies are applied, such as streaming, parallel pipeline and so on. Experimental results demonstrate that the deep CPU/GPU collaborative imaging method enhances the efficiency of SAR imaging on single-core CPU by 270 times and realizes the real-time imaging in that the imaging rate outperforms the raw data generation rate.

  20. Using the CPU and GPU for real-time video enhancement on a mobile computer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, AK

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper, the current advances in mobile CPU and GPU hardware are used to implement video enhancement algorithms in a new way on a mobile computer. Both the CPU and GPU are used effectively to achieve realtime performance for complex image enhancement...

  1. Deployment of IPv6-only CPU resources at WLCG sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babik, M.; Chudoba, J.; Dewhurst, A.; Finnern, T.; Froy, T.; Grigoras, C.; Hafeez, K.; Hoeft, B.; Idiculla, T.; Kelsey, D. P.; López Muñoz, F.; Martelli, E.; Nandakumar, R.; Ohrenberg, K.; Prelz, F.; Rand, D.; Sciabà, A.; Tigerstedt, U.; Traynor, D.

    2017-10-01

    The fraction of Internet traffic carried over IPv6 continues to grow rapidly. IPv6 support from network hardware vendors and carriers is pervasive and becoming mature. A network infrastructure upgrade often offers sites an excellent window of opportunity to configure and enable IPv6. There is a significant overhead when setting up and maintaining dual-stack machines, so where possible sites would like to upgrade their services directly to IPv6 only. In doing so, they are also expediting the transition process towards its desired completion. While the LHC experiments accept there is a need to move to IPv6, it is currently not directly affecting their work. Sites are unwilling to upgrade if they will be unable to run LHC experiment workflows. This has resulted in a very slow uptake of IPv6 from WLCG sites. For several years the HEPiX IPv6 Working Group has been testing a range of WLCG services to ensure they are IPv6 compliant. Several sites are now running many of their services as dual-stack. The working group, driven by the requirements of the LHC VOs to be able to use IPv6-only opportunistic resources, continues to encourage wider deployment of dual-stack services to make the use of such IPv6-only clients viable. This paper presents the working group’s plan and progress so far to allow sites to deploy IPv6-only CPU resources. This includes making experiment central services dual-stack as well as a number of storage services. The monitoring, accounting and information services that are used by jobs also need to be upgraded. Finally the VO testing that has taken place on hosts connected via IPv6-only is reported.

  2. Efficient Execution of Microscopy Image Analysis on CPU, GPU, and MIC Equipped Cluster Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, G; Ferreira, R; Teodoro, George; Rocha, Leonardo; Saltz, Joel H; Kurc, Tahsin

    2014-10-01

    High performance computing is experiencing a major paradigm shift with the introduction of accelerators, such as graphics processing units (GPUs) and Intel Xeon Phi (MIC). These processors have made available a tremendous computing power at low cost, and are transforming machines into hybrid systems equipped with CPUs and accelerators. Although these systems can deliver a very high peak performance, making full use of its resources in real-world applications is a complex problem. Most current applications deployed to these machines are still being executed in a single processor, leaving other devices underutilized. In this paper we explore a scenario in which applications are composed of hierarchical data flow tasks which are allocated to nodes of a distributed memory machine in coarse-grain, but each of them may be composed of several finer-grain tasks which can be allocated to different devices within the node. We propose and implement novel performance aware scheduling techniques that can be used to allocate tasks to devices. We evaluate our techniques using a pathology image analysis application used to investigate brain cancer morphology, and our experimental evaluation shows that the proposed scheduling strategies significantly outperforms other efficient scheduling techniques, such as Heterogeneous Earliest Finish Time - HEFT, in cooperative executions using CPUs, GPUs, and MICs. We also experimentally show that our strategies are less sensitive to inaccuracy in the scheduling input data and that the performance gains are maintained as the application scales.

  3. ITCA: Inter-Task Conflict-Aware CPU accounting for CMPs

    OpenAIRE

    Luque, Carlos; Moreto Planas, Miquel; Cazorla, Francisco; Gioiosa, Roberto; Buyuktosunoglu, Alper; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2009-01-01

    Chip-MultiProcessor (CMP) architectures are becoming more and more popular as an alternative to the traditional processors that only extract instruction-level parallelism from an application. CMPs introduce complexities when accounting CPU utilization. This is due to the fact that the progress done by an application during an interval of time highly depends on the activity of the other applications it is co-scheduled with. In this paper, we identify how an inaccurate measurement of the CPU ut...

  4. Reconstruction of the neutron spectrum using an artificial neural network in CPU and GPU; Reconstruccion del espectro de neutrones usando una red neuronal artificial (RNA) en CPU y GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez D, V. M.; Moreno M, A.; Ortiz L, M. A. [Universidad de Cordoba, 14002 Cordoba (Spain); Vega C, H. R.; Alonso M, O. E., E-mail: vic.mc68010@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2016-10-15

    The increase in computing power in personal computers has been increasing, computers now have several processors in the CPU and in addition multiple CUDA cores in the graphics processing unit (GPU); both systems can be used individually or combined to perform scientific computation without resorting to processor or supercomputing arrangements. The Bonner sphere spectrometer is the most commonly used multi-element system for neutron detection purposes and its associated spectrum. Each sphere-detector combination gives a particular response that depends on the energy of the neutrons, and the total set of these responses is known like the responses matrix Rφ(E). Thus, the counting rates obtained with each sphere and the neutron spectrum is related to the Fredholm equation in its discrete version. For the reconstruction of the spectrum has a system of poorly conditioned equations with an infinite number of solutions and to find the appropriate solution, it has been proposed the use of artificial intelligence through neural networks with different platforms CPU and GPU. (Author)

  5. Inhibition of CPU0213, a Dual Endothelin Receptor Antagonist, on Apoptosis via Nox4-Dependent ROS in HK-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Our previous studies have indicated that a novel endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 effectively normalized renal function in diabetic nephropathy. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the nephroprotective role of CPU0213 remain unknown. Methods and Results: In the present study, we first detected the role of CPU0213 on apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cell (HK-2. It was shown that high glucose significantly increased the protein expression of Bax and decreased Bcl-2 protein in HK-2 cells, which was reversed by CPU0213. The percentage of HK-2 cells that showed Annexin V-FITC binding was markedly suppressed by CPU0213, which confirmed the inhibitory role of CPU0213 on apoptosis. Given the regulation of endothelin (ET system to oxidative stress, we determined the role of redox signaling in the regulation of CPU0213 on apoptosis. It was demonstrated that the production of superoxide (O2-. was substantially attenuated by CPU0213 treatment in HK-2 cells. We further found that CPU0213 dramatically inhibited expression of Nox4 protein, which gene silencing mimicked the role of CPU0213 on the apoptosis under high glucose stimulation. We finally examined the role of CPU0213 on ET-1 receptors and found that high glucose-induced protein expression of endothelin A and B receptors was dramatically inhibited by CPU0213. Conclusion: Taken together, these results suggest that this Nox4-dependenet O2- production is critical for the apoptosis of HK-2 cells in high glucose. Endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 has an anti-apoptosis role through Nox4-dependent O2-.production, which address the nephroprotective role of CPU0213 in diabetic nephropathy.

  6. GENIE: a software package for gene-gene interaction analysis in genetic association studies using multiple GPU or CPU cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kai

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene-gene interaction in genetic association studies is computationally intensive when a large number of SNPs are involved. Most of the latest Central Processing Units (CPUs have multiple cores, whereas Graphics Processing Units (GPUs also have hundreds of cores and have been recently used to implement faster scientific software. However, currently there are no genetic analysis software packages that allow users to fully utilize the computing power of these multi-core devices for genetic interaction analysis for binary traits. Findings Here we present a novel software package GENIE, which utilizes the power of multiple GPU or CPU processor cores to parallelize the interaction analysis. GENIE reads an entire genetic association study dataset into memory and partitions the dataset into fragments with non-overlapping sets of SNPs. For each fragment, GENIE analyzes: 1 the interaction of SNPs within it in parallel, and 2 the interaction between the SNPs of the current fragment and other fragments in parallel. We tested GENIE on a large-scale candidate gene study on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Using an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 graphics card, the GPU mode of GENIE achieves a speedup of 27 times over its single-core CPU mode run. Conclusions GENIE is open-source, economical, user-friendly, and scalable. Since the computing power and memory capacity of graphics cards are increasing rapidly while their cost is going down, we anticipate that GENIE will achieve greater speedups with faster GPU cards. Documentation, source code, and precompiled binaries can be downloaded from http://www.cceb.upenn.edu/~mli/software/GENIE/.

  7. DASH-based network performance-aware solution for personalised video delivery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rovcanin, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Video content is an increasingly prevalent contributor of Internet traffic. The proliferation of available video content has been fuelled by both Internet expansion and the growing power and affordability of viewing devices. Such content can be consumed anywhere and anytime, using a variety of technologies. The high data rates required for streaming video content and the large volume of requests for such content degrade network performance when devices compete for finite network bandwidth. Th...

  8. A PC based multi-CPU severe accident simulation trainer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, M.W.; Bienarz, P.P.; Sartmadjiev, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    MELSIM Severe Accident Simulation Trainer is a personal computer based system being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency and Risk Management Associates, Inc. for the purpose of training the operators of nuclear power stations. It also serves for evaluating accident management strategies as well as assessing complex interfaces between emergency operating procedures and accident management guidelines. The system is being developed for the Soviet designed WWER-440/Model 213 reactor and it is plant specific. The Bohunice V2 power station in the Slovak Republic has been selected for trial operation of the system. The trainer utilizes several CPUs working simultaneously on different areas of simulation. Detailed plant operation displays are provided on colour monitor mimic screens which show changing plant conditions in approximate real-time. Up to 28 000 curves can be plotted on a separate monitor as the MELSIM program proceeds. These plots proceed concurrently with the program, and time specific segments can be recalled for review. A benchmarking (limited in scope) against well validated thermal-hydraulic codes and selected plant accident data (WWER-440/213 Rovno NPP, Ukraine) has been initiated. Preliminary results are presented and discussed. (author)

  9. An Investigation of the Performance of the Colored Gauss-Seidel Solver on CPU and GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jong Seon; Choi, Hyoung Gwon; Jeon, Byoung Jin

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the colored Gauss–Seidel solver on CPU and GPU was investigated for the two- and three-dimensional heat conduction problems by using different mesh sizes. The heat conduction equation was discretized by the finite difference method and finite element method. The CPU yielded good performance for small problems but deteriorated when the total memory required for computing was larger than the cache memory for large problems. In contrast, the GPU performed better as the mesh size increased because of the latency hiding technique. Further, GPU computation by the colored Gauss–Siedel solver was approximately 7 times that by the single CPU. Furthermore, the colored Gauss–Seidel solver was found to be approximately twice that of the Jacobi solver when parallel computing was conducted on the GPU.

  10. An Investigation of the Performance of the Colored Gauss-Seidel Solver on CPU and GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jong Seon; Choi, Hyoung Gwon [Seoul Nat’l Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Byoung Jin [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The performance of the colored Gauss–Seidel solver on CPU and GPU was investigated for the two- and three-dimensional heat conduction problems by using different mesh sizes. The heat conduction equation was discretized by the finite difference method and finite element method. The CPU yielded good performance for small problems but deteriorated when the total memory required for computing was larger than the cache memory for large problems. In contrast, the GPU performed better as the mesh size increased because of the latency hiding technique. Further, GPU computation by the colored Gauss–Siedel solver was approximately 7 times that by the single CPU. Furthermore, the colored Gauss–Seidel solver was found to be approximately twice that of the Jacobi solver when parallel computing was conducted on the GPU.

  11. SU-E-J-60: Efficient Monte Carlo Dose Calculation On CPU-GPU Heterogeneous Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, K; Chen, D. Z; Hu, X. S [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Zhou, B [Altera Corp., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: It is well-known that the performance of GPU-based Monte Carlo dose calculation implementations is bounded by memory bandwidth. One major cause of this bottleneck is the random memory writing patterns in dose deposition, which leads to several memory efficiency issues on GPU such as un-coalesced writing and atomic operations. We propose a new method to alleviate such issues on CPU-GPU heterogeneous systems, which achieves overall performance improvement for Monte Carlo dose calculation. Methods: Dose deposition is to accumulate dose into the voxels of a dose volume along the trajectories of radiation rays. Our idea is to partition this procedure into the following three steps, which are fine-tuned for CPU or GPU: (1) each GPU thread writes dose results with location information to a buffer on GPU memory, which achieves fully-coalesced and atomic-free memory transactions; (2) the dose results in the buffer are transferred to CPU memory; (3) the dose volume is constructed from the dose buffer on CPU. We organize the processing of all radiation rays into streams. Since the steps within a stream use different hardware resources (i.e., GPU, DMA, CPU), we can overlap the execution of these steps for different streams by pipelining. Results: We evaluated our method using a Monte Carlo Convolution Superposition (MCCS) program and tested our implementation for various clinical cases on a heterogeneous system containing an Intel i7 quad-core CPU and an NVIDIA TITAN GPU. Comparing with a straightforward MCCS implementation on the same system (using both CPU and GPU for radiation ray tracing), our method gained 2-5X speedup without losing dose calculation accuracy. Conclusion: The results show that our new method improves the effective memory bandwidth and overall performance for MCCS on the CPU-GPU systems. Our proposed method can also be applied to accelerate other Monte Carlo dose calculation approaches. This research was supported in part by NSF under Grants CCF

  12. The effects of carbon nanotubes on CPU cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challa, Sashi Kiran

    Computers today have evolved from being big bulky machines that took up rooms of space into small simple machines for net browsing and into small but complicated multi-core servers and supercomputing architectures. This has been possible due to the evolution of the processors. Today processors have reached 45nm specifications with millions of transistors. Transistors produce heat when they run. Today more than ever we have a growing need for managing this heat efficiently. It is indicated that increasing power density can cause a difficulty in managing temperatures on a chip. It is also mentioned that we need to move to a more temperature aware architecture. In this research we try and address the issue of handling the heat produced by processors in an efficient manner. We have tried to see if the use of carbon nanotubes will prove useful in dissipating the heat produced by the processor in a more efficient way. In the process we have also tried to come up with a repeatable experimental setup as there is not work that we have been able to find describing this exact procedure. The use of carbon nanotubes seemed natural as they have a very high thermal conductivity value. Also one of the uncertain aspects of the experiment is the use of carbon nanotubes as they are still under study and their properties have not been completely understood and there has been some inconsistency in the theoretical values of their properties and the experimental results obtained so far. The results that we got were not exactly what we expected but were close, and were in the right direction indicating that more work in future would show better and consistent results.

  13. Der ATLAS LVL2-Trigger mit FPGA-Prozessoren : Entwicklung, Aufbau und Funktionsnachweis des hybriden FPGA/CPU-basierten Prozessorsystems ATLANTIS

    CERN Document Server

    Singpiel, Holger

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the conception and implementation of the hybrid FPGA/CPU based processing system ATLANTIS as trigger processor for the proposed ATLAS experiment at CERN. CompactPCI provides the close coupling of a multi FPGA system and a standard CPU. The system is scalable in computing power and flexible in use due to its partitioning into dedicated FPGA boards for computation, I/O tasks and a private communication. Main focus of the research activities based on the usage of the ATLANTIS system are two areas in the second level trigger (LVL2). First, the acceleration of time critical B physics trigger algorithms is the major aim. The execution of the full scan TRT algorithm on ATLANTIS, which has been used as a demonstrator, results in a speedup of 5.6 compared to a standard CPU. Next, the ATLANTIS system is used as a hardware platform for research work in conjunction with the ATLAS readout systems. For further studies a permanent installation of the ATLANTIS system in the LVL2 application testbed is f...

  14. CPU SIM: A Computer Simulator for Use in an Introductory Computer Organization-Architecture Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrein, Dale

    1994-01-01

    CPU SIM, an interactive low-level computer simulation package that runs on the Macintosh computer, is described. The program is designed for instructional use in the first or second year of undergraduate computer science, to teach various features of typical computer organization through hands-on exercises. (MSE)

  15. High performance technique for database applicationsusing a hybrid GPU/CPU platform

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.; Bonny, Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    Hybrid GPU/CPU platform. In particular, our technique solves the problem of the low efficiency result- ing from running short-length sequences in a database on a GPU. To verify our technique, we applied it to the widely used Smith-Waterman algorithm

  16. Length-Bounded Hybrid CPU/GPU Pattern Matching Algorithm for Deep Packet Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shan Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since frequent communication between applications takes place in high speed networks, deep packet inspection (DPI plays an important role in the network application awareness. The signature-based network intrusion detection system (NIDS contains a DPI technique that examines the incoming packet payloads by employing a pattern matching algorithm that dominates the overall inspection performance. Existing studies focused on implementing efficient pattern matching algorithms by parallel programming on software platforms because of the advantages of lower cost and higher scalability. Either the central processing unit (CPU or the graphic processing unit (GPU were involved. Our studies focused on designing a pattern matching algorithm based on the cooperation between both CPU and GPU. In this paper, we present an enhanced design for our previous work, a length-bounded hybrid CPU/GPU pattern matching algorithm (LHPMA. In the preliminary experiment, the performance and comparison with the previous work are displayed, and the experimental results show that the LHPMA can achieve not only effective CPU/GPU cooperation but also higher throughput than the previous method.

  17. DSM vs. NSM: CPU Performance Tradeoffs in Block-Oriented Query Processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); N.J. Nes (Niels); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractComparisons between the merits of row-wise storage (NSM) and columnar storage (DSM) are typically made with respect to the persistent storage layer of database systems. In this paper, however, we focus on the CPU efficiency tradeoffs of tuple representations inside the query

  18. Conserved-peptide upstream open reading frames (CPuORFs are associated with regulatory genes in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Upstream open reading frames (uORFs are common in eukaryotic transcripts, but those that encode conserved peptides (CPuORFs occur in less than 1% of transcripts. The peptides encoded by three plant CPuORF families are known to control translation of the downstream ORF in response to a small signal molecule (sucrose, polyamines and phosphocholine. In flowering plants, transcription factors are statistically over-represented among genes that possess CPuORFs, and in general it appeared that many CPuORF genes also had other regulatory functions, though the significance of this suggestion was uncertain (Hayden and Jorgensen, 2007. Five years later the literature provides much more information on the functions of many CPuORF genes. Here we reassess the functions of 27 known CPuORF gene families and find that 22 of these families play a variety of different regulatory roles, from transcriptional control to protein turnover, and from small signal molecules to signal transduction kinases. Clearly then, there is indeed a strong association of CPuORFs with regulatory genes. In addition, 16 of these families play key roles in a variety of different biological processes. Most strikingly, the core sucrose response network includes three different CPuORFs, creating the potential for sophisticated balancing of the network in response to three different molecular inputs. We propose that the function of most CPuORFs is to modulate translation of a downstream major ORF (mORF in response to a signal molecule recognized by the conserved peptide and that because the mORFs of CPuORF genes generally encode regulatory proteins, many of them centrally important in the biology of plants, CPuORFs play key roles in balancing such regulatory networks.

  19. High performance technique for database applicationsusing a hybrid GPU/CPU platform

    KAUST Repository

    Zidan, Mohammed A.

    2012-07-28

    Many database applications, such as sequence comparing, sequence searching, and sequence matching, etc, process large database sequences. we introduce a novel and efficient technique to improve the performance of database applica- tions by using a Hybrid GPU/CPU platform. In particular, our technique solves the problem of the low efficiency result- ing from running short-length sequences in a database on a GPU. To verify our technique, we applied it to the widely used Smith-Waterman algorithm. The experimental results show that our Hybrid GPU/CPU technique improves the average performance by a factor of 2.2, and improves the peak performance by a factor of 2.8 when compared to earlier implementations. Copyright © 2011 by ASME.

  20. Design Patterns for Sparse-Matrix Computations on Hybrid CPU/GPU Platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Cardellini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We apply object-oriented software design patterns to develop code for scientific software involving sparse matrices. Design patterns arise when multiple independent developments produce similar designs which converge onto a generic solution. We demonstrate how to use design patterns to implement an interface for sparse matrix computations on NVIDIA GPUs starting from PSBLAS, an existing sparse matrix library, and from existing sets of GPU kernels for sparse matrices. We also compare the throughput of the PSBLAS sparse matrix–vector multiplication on two platforms exploiting the GPU with that obtained by a CPU-only PSBLAS implementation. Our experiments exhibit encouraging results regarding the comparison between CPU and GPU executions in double precision, obtaining a speedup of up to 35.35 on NVIDIA GTX 285 with respect to AMD Athlon 7750, and up to 10.15 on NVIDIA Tesla C2050 with respect to Intel Xeon X5650.

  1. Heterogeneous Gpu&Cpu Cluster For High Performance Computing In Cryptography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Marks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues associated with distributed computing systems andthe application of mixed GPU&CPU technology to data encryption and decryptionalgorithms. We describe a heterogenous cluster HGCC formed by twotypes of nodes: Intel processor with NVIDIA graphics processing unit and AMDprocessor with AMD graphics processing unit (formerly ATI, and a novel softwareframework that hides the heterogeneity of our cluster and provides toolsfor solving complex scientific and engineering problems. Finally, we present theresults of numerical experiments. The considered case study is concerned withparallel implementations of selected cryptanalysis algorithms. The main goal ofthe paper is to show the wide applicability of the GPU&CPU technology tolarge scale computation and data processing.

  2. Semiempirical Quantum Chemical Calculations Accelerated on a Hybrid Multicore CPU-GPU Computing Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Koslowski, Axel; Thiel, Walter

    2012-07-10

    In this work, we demonstrate that semiempirical quantum chemical calculations can be accelerated significantly by leveraging the graphics processing unit (GPU) as a coprocessor on a hybrid multicore CPU-GPU computing platform. Semiempirical calculations using the MNDO, AM1, PM3, OM1, OM2, and OM3 model Hamiltonians were systematically profiled for three types of test systems (fullerenes, water clusters, and solvated crambin) to identify the most time-consuming sections of the code. The corresponding routines were ported to the GPU and optimized employing both existing library functions and a GPU kernel that carries out a sequence of noniterative Jacobi transformations during pseudodiagonalization. The overall computation times for single-point energy calculations and geometry optimizations of large molecules were reduced by one order of magnitude for all methods, as compared to runs on a single CPU core.

  3. Turbo Charge CPU Utilization in Fork/Join Using the ManagedBlocker

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Fork/Join is a framework for parallelizing calculations using recursive decomposition, also called divide and conquer. These algorithms occasionally end up duplicating work, especially at the beginning of the run. We can reduce wasted CPU cycles by implementing a reserved caching scheme. Before a task starts its calculation, it tries to reserve an entry in the shared map. If it is successful, it immediately begins. If not, it blocks until the other thread has finished its calculation. Unfortunately this might result in a significant number of blocked threads, decreasing CPU utilization. In this talk we will demonstrate this issue and offer a solution in the form of the ManagedBlocker. Combined with the Fork/Join, it can keep parallelism at the desired level.

  4. HEP specific benchmarks of virtual machines on multi-core CPU architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alef, M; Gable, I

    2010-01-01

    Virtualization technologies such as Xen can be used in order to satisfy the disparate and often incompatible system requirements of different user groups in shared-use computing facilities. This capability is particularly important for HEP applications, which often have restrictive requirements. The use of virtualization adds flexibility, however, it is essential that the virtualization technology place little overhead on the HEP application. We present an evaluation of the practicality of running HEP applications in multiple Virtual Machines (VMs) on a single multi-core Linux system. We use the benchmark suite used by the HEPiX CPU Benchmarking Working Group to give a quantitative evaluation relevant to the HEP community. Benchmarks are packaged inside VMs and then the VMs are booted onto a single multi-core system. Benchmarks are then simultaneously executed on each VM to simulate highly loaded VMs running HEP applications. These techniques are applied to a variety of multi-core CPU architectures and VM configurations.

  5. Improving the Performance of CPU Architectures by Reducing the Operating System Overhead (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagan Ionel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The predictable CPU architectures that run hard real-time tasks must be executed with isolation in order to provide a timing-analyzable execution for real-time systems. The major problems for real-time operating systems are determined by an excessive jitter, introduced mainly through task switching. This can alter deadline requirements, and, consequently, the predictability of hard real-time tasks. New requirements also arise for a real-time operating system used in mixed-criticality systems, when the executions of hard real-time applications require timing predictability. The present article discusses several solutions to improve the performance of CPU architectures and eventually overcome the Operating Systems overhead inconveniences. This paper focuses on the innovative CPU implementation named nMPRA-MT, designed for small real-time applications. This implementation uses the replication and remapping techniques for the program counter, general purpose registers and pipeline registers, enabling multiple threads to share a single pipeline assembly line. In order to increase predictability, the proposed architecture partially removes the hazard situation at the expense of larger execution latency per one instruction.

  6. A CFD Heterogeneous Parallel Solver Based on Collaborating CPU and GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jianqi; Tian, Zhengyu; Li, Hua; Pan, Sha

    2018-03-01

    Since Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) has a strong ability of floating-point computation and memory bandwidth for data parallelism, it has been widely used in the areas of common computing such as molecular dynamics (MD), computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and so on. The emergence of compute unified device architecture (CUDA), which reduces the complexity of compiling program, brings the great opportunities to CFD. There are three different modes for parallel solution of NS equations: parallel solver based on CPU, parallel solver based on GPU and heterogeneous parallel solver based on collaborating CPU and GPU. As we can see, GPUs are relatively rich in compute capacity but poor in memory capacity and the CPUs do the opposite. We need to make full use of the GPUs and CPUs, so a CFD heterogeneous parallel solver based on collaborating CPU and GPU has been established. Three cases are presented to analyse the solver’s computational accuracy and heterogeneous parallel efficiency. The numerical results agree well with experiment results, which demonstrate that the heterogeneous parallel solver has high computational precision. The speedup on a single GPU is more than 40 for laminar flow, it decreases for turbulent flow, but it still can reach more than 20. What’s more, the speedup increases as the grid size becomes larger.

  7. Research on the Prediction Model of CPU Utilization Based on ARIMA-BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic deployment technology of the virtual machine is one of the current cloud computing research focuses. The traditional methods mainly work after the degradation of the service performance that usually lag. To solve the problem a new prediction model based on the CPU utilization is constructed in this paper. A reference offered by the new prediction model of the CPU utilization is provided to the VM dynamic deployment process which will speed to finish the deployment process before the degradation of the service performance. By this method it not only ensure the quality of services but also improve the server performance and resource utilization. The new prediction method of the CPU utilization based on the ARIMA-BP neural network mainly include four parts: preprocess the collected data, build the predictive model of ARIMA-BP neural network, modify the nonlinear residuals of the time series by the BP prediction algorithm and obtain the prediction results by analyzing the above data comprehensively.

  8. LHCb: Statistical Comparison of CPU performance for LHCb applications on the Grid

    CERN Multimedia

    Graciani, R

    2009-01-01

    The usage of CPU resources by LHCb on the Grid id dominated by two different applications: Gauss and Brunel. Gauss the application doing the Monte Carlo simulation of proton-proton collisions. Brunel is the application responsible for the reconstruction of the signals recorded by the detector converting them into objects that can be used for later physics analysis of the data (tracks, clusters,…) Both applications are based on the Gaudi and LHCb software frameworks. Gauss uses Pythia and Geant as underlying libraries for the simulation of the collision and the later passage of the generated particles through the LHCb detector. While Brunel makes use of LHCb specific code to process the data from each sub-detector. Both applications are CPU bound. Large Monte Carlo productions or data reconstructions running on the Grid are an ideal benchmark to compare the performance of the different CPU models for each case. Since the processed events are only statistically comparable, only statistical comparison of the...

  9. Parallelized computation for computer simulation of electrocardiograms using personal computers with multi-core CPU and general-purpose GPU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenfeng; Wei, Daming; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Xin; Yuan, Shizhong

    2010-10-01

    Biological computations like electrocardiological modelling and simulation usually require high-performance computing environments. This paper introduces an implementation of parallel computation for computer simulation of electrocardiograms (ECGs) in a personal computer environment with an Intel CPU of Core (TM) 2 Quad Q6600 and a GPU of Geforce 8800GT, with software support by OpenMP and CUDA. It was tested in three parallelization device setups: (a) a four-core CPU without a general-purpose GPU, (b) a general-purpose GPU plus 1 core of CPU, and (c) a four-core CPU plus a general-purpose GPU. To effectively take advantage of a multi-core CPU and a general-purpose GPU, an algorithm based on load-prediction dynamic scheduling was developed and applied to setting (c). In the simulation with 1600 time steps, the speedup of the parallel computation as compared to the serial computation was 3.9 in setting (a), 16.8 in setting (b), and 20.0 in setting (c). This study demonstrates that a current PC with a multi-core CPU and a general-purpose GPU provides a good environment for parallel computations in biological modelling and simulation studies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Accelerating the SCE-UA Global Optimization Method Based on Multi-Core CPU and Many-Core GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyuan Kan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The famous global optimization SCE-UA method, which has been widely used in the field of environmental model parameter calibration, is an effective and robust method. However, the SCE-UA method has a high computational load which prohibits the application of SCE-UA to high dimensional and complex problems. In recent years, the hardware of computer, such as multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs, improves significantly. These much more powerful new hardware and their software ecosystems provide an opportunity to accelerate the SCE-UA method. In this paper, we proposed two parallel SCE-UA methods and implemented them on Intel multi-core CPU and NVIDIA many-core GPU by OpenMP and CUDA Fortran, respectively. The Griewank benchmark function was adopted in this paper to test and compare the performances of the serial and parallel SCE-UA methods. According to the results of the comparison, some useful advises were given to direct how to properly use the parallel SCE-UA methods.

  11. Acceleration of stereo-matching on multi-core CPU and GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Xu; Cockshott, Paul; Oehler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an accelerated version of a\\ud dense stereo-correspondence algorithm for two different parallelism\\ud enabled architectures, multi-core CPU and GPU. The\\ud algorithm is part of the vision system developed for a binocular\\ud robot-head in the context of the CloPeMa 1 research project.\\ud This research project focuses on the conception of a new clothes\\ud folding robot with real-time and high resolution requirements\\ud for the vision system. The performance analysis shows th...

  12. VMware vSphere performance designing CPU, memory, storage, and networking for performance-intensive workloads

    CERN Document Server

    Liebowitz, Matt; Spies, Rynardt

    2014-01-01

    Covering the latest VMware vSphere software, an essential book aimed at solving vSphere performance problems before they happen VMware vSphere is the industry's most widely deployed virtualization solution. However, if you improperly deploy vSphere, performance problems occur. Aimed at VMware administrators and engineers and written by a team of VMware experts, this resource provides guidance on common CPU, memory, storage, and network-related problems. Plus, step-by-step instructions walk you through techniques for solving problems and shed light on possible causes behind the problems. Divu

  13. Simulation of small-angle scattering patterns using a CPU-efficient algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitas, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Small-angle scattering (of neutrons, x-ray or light; SAS) is a well-established experimental technique for structural analysis of disordered systems at nano and micro scales. For complex systems, such as super-molecular assemblies or protein molecules, analytic solutions of SAS intensity are generally not available. Thus, a frequent approach to simulate the corresponding patterns is to use a CPU-efficient version of the Debye formula. For this purpose, in this paper we implement the well-known DALAI algorithm in Mathematica software. We present calculations for a series of 2D Sierpinski gaskets and respectively of pentaflakes, obtained from chaos game representation.

  14. A Robust Ultra-Low Voltage CPU Utilizing Timing-Error Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hiienkari, Markus; Teittinen, Jukka; Koskinen, Lauri; Turnquist, Matthew; Mäkipää, Jani; Rantala, Arto; Sopanen, Matti; Kaltiokallio, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    To minimize energy consumption of a digital circuit, logic can be operated at sub- or near-threshold voltage. Operation at this region is challenging due to device and environment variations, and resulting performance may not be adequate to all applications. This article presents two variants of a 32-bit RISC CPU targeted for near-threshold voltage. Both CPUs are placed on the same die and manufactured in 28 nm CMOS process. They employ timing-error prevention with clock stretching to enable ...

  15. Improvement of CPU time of Linear Discriminant Function based on MNM criterion by IP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuichi Shinmura

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Revised IP-OLDF (optimal linear discriminant function by integer programming is a linear discriminant function to minimize the number of misclassifications (NM of training samples by integer programming (IP. However, IP requires large computation (CPU time. In this paper, it is proposed how to reduce CPU time by using linear programming (LP. In the first phase, Revised LP-OLDF is applied to all cases, and all cases are categorized into two groups: those that are classified correctly or those that are not classified by support vectors (SVs. In the second phase, Revised IP-OLDF is applied to the misclassified cases by SVs. This method is called Revised IPLP-OLDF.In this research, it is evaluated whether NM of Revised IPLP-OLDF is good estimate of the minimum number of misclassifications (MNM by Revised IP-OLDF. Four kinds of the real data—Iris data, Swiss bank note data, student data, and CPD data—are used as training samples. Four kinds of 20,000 re-sampling cases generated from these data are used as the evaluation samples. There are a total of 149 models of all combinations of independent variables by these data. NMs and CPU times of the 149 models are compared with Revised IPLP-OLDF and Revised IP-OLDF. The following results are obtained: 1 Revised IPLP-OLDF significantly improves CPU time. 2 In the case of training samples, all 149 NMs of Revised IPLP-OLDF are equal to the MNM of Revised IP-OLDF. 3 In the case of evaluation samples, most NMs of Revised IPLP-OLDF are equal to NM of Revised IP-OLDF. 4 Generalization abilities of both discriminant functions are concluded to be high, because the difference between the error rates of training and evaluation samples are almost within 2%.   Therefore, Revised IPLP-OLDF is recommended for the analysis of big data instead of Revised IP-OLDF. Next, Revised IPLP-OLDF is compared with LDF and logistic regression by 100-fold cross validation using 100 re-sampling samples. Means of error rates of

  16. Designing of Vague Logic Based 2-Layered Framework for CPU Scheduler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Raheja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy based CPU scheduler has become of great interest by operating system because of its ability to handle imprecise information associated with task. This paper introduces an extension to the fuzzy based round robin scheduler to a Vague Logic Based Round Robin (VBRR scheduler. VBRR scheduler works on 2-layered framework. At the first layer, scheduler has a vague inference system which has the ability to handle the impreciseness of task using vague logic. At the second layer, Vague Logic Based Round Robin (VBRR scheduling algorithm works to schedule the tasks. VBRR scheduler has the learning capability based on which scheduler adapts intelligently an optimum length for time quantum. An optimum time quantum reduces the overhead on scheduler by reducing the unnecessary context switches which lead to improve the overall performance of system. The work is simulated using MATLAB and compared with the conventional round robin scheduler and the other two fuzzy based approaches to CPU scheduler. Given simulation analysis and results prove the effectiveness and efficiency of VBRR scheduler.

  17. Fast CPU-based Monte Carlo simulation for radiotherapy dose calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Pirner, Sven; Kamerling, Cornelis Ph; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-08-01

    Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations are considered to be the most accurate method for calculating dose distributions in radiotherapy. Its clinical application, however, still is limited by the long runtimes conventional implementations of MC algorithms require to deliver sufficiently accurate results on high resolution imaging data. In order to overcome this obstacle we developed the software-package PhiMC, which is capable of computing precise dose distributions in a sub-minute time-frame by leveraging the potential of modern many- and multi-core CPU-based computers. PhiMC is based on the well verified dose planning method (DPM). We could demonstrate that PhiMC delivers dose distributions which are in excellent agreement to DPM. The multi-core implementation of PhiMC scales well between different computer architectures and achieves a speed-up of up to 37× compared to the original DPM code executed on a modern system. Furthermore, we could show that our CPU-based implementation on a modern workstation is between 1.25× and 1.95× faster than a well-known GPU implementation of the same simulation method on a NVIDIA Tesla C2050. Since CPUs work on several hundreds of GB RAM the typical GPU memory limitation does not apply for our implementation and high resolution clinical plans can be calculated.

  18. The “Chimera”: An Off-The-Shelf CPU/GPGPU/FPGA Hybrid Computing Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ra Inta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of modern astronomy means that a number of interesting problems exhibit a substantial computational bound and this situation is gradually worsening. Scientists, increasingly fighting for valuable resources on conventional high-performance computing (HPC facilities—often with a limited customizable user environment—are increasingly looking to hardware acceleration solutions. We describe here a heterogeneous CPU/GPGPU/FPGA desktop computing system (the “Chimera”, built with commercial-off-the-shelf components. We show that this platform may be a viable alternative solution to many common computationally bound problems found in astronomy, however, not without significant challenges. The most significant bottleneck in pipelines involving real data is most likely to be the interconnect (in this case the PCI Express bus residing on the CPU motherboard. Finally, we speculate on the merits of our Chimera system on the entire landscape of parallel computing, through the analysis of representative problems from UC Berkeley’s “Thirteen Dwarves.”

  19. Fast data reconstructed method of Fourier transform imaging spectrometer based on multi-core CPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunchao; Du, Debiao; Xia, Zongze; Song, Li; Zheng, Weijian; Yan, Min; Lei, Zhenggang

    2017-10-01

    Imaging spectrometer can gain two-dimensional space image and one-dimensional spectrum at the same time, which shows high utility in color and spectral measurements, the true color image synthesis, military reconnaissance and so on. In order to realize the fast reconstructed processing of the Fourier transform imaging spectrometer data, the paper designed the optimization reconstructed algorithm with OpenMP parallel calculating technology, which was further used for the optimization process for the HyperSpectral Imager of `HJ-1' Chinese satellite. The results show that the method based on multi-core parallel computing technology can control the multi-core CPU hardware resources competently and significantly enhance the calculation of the spectrum reconstruction processing efficiency. If the technology is applied to more cores workstation in parallel computing, it will be possible to complete Fourier transform imaging spectrometer real-time data processing with a single computer.

  20. An FPGA Based Multiprocessing CPU for Beam Synchronous Timing in CERN's SPS and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Ballester, F J; Gras, J J; Lewis, J; Savioz, J J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    The Beam Synchronous Timing system (BST) will be used around the LHC and its injector, the SPS, to broadcast timing meassages and synchronize actions with the beam in different receivers. To achieve beam synchronization, the BST Master card encodes messages using the bunch clock, with a nominal value of 40.079 MHz for the LHC. These messages are produced by a set of tasks every revolution period, which is every 89 us for the LHC and every 23 us for the SPS, therefore imposing a hard real-time constraint on the system. To achieve determinism, the BST Master uses a dedicated CPU inside its main Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) featuring zero-delay hardware task switching and a reduced instruction set. This paper describes the BST Master card, stressing the main FPGA design, as well as the associated software, including the LynxOS driver and the tailor-made assembler.

  1. Deployment of 464XLAT (RFC6877) alongside IPv6-only CPU resources at WLCG sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froy, T. S.; Traynor, D. P.; Walker, C. J.

    2017-10-01

    IPv4 is now officially deprecated by the IETF. A significant amount of effort has already been expended by the HEPiX IPv6 Working Group on testing dual-stacked hosts and IPv6-only CPU resources. Dual-stack adds complexity and administrative overhead to sites that may already be starved of resource. This has resulted in a very slow uptake of IPv6 from WLCG sites. 464XLAT (RFC6877) is intended for IPv6 single-stack environments that require the ability to communicate with IPv4-only endpoints. This paper will present a deployment strategy for 464XLAT, operational experiences of using 464XLAT in production at a WLCG site and important information to consider prior to deploying 464XLAT.

  2. A Robust Ultra-Low Voltage CPU Utilizing Timing-Error Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hiienkari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To minimize energy consumption of a digital circuit, logic can be operated at sub- or near-threshold voltage. Operation at this region is challenging due to device and environment variations, and resulting performance may not be adequate to all applications. This article presents two variants of a 32-bit RISC CPU targeted for near-threshold voltage. Both CPUs are placed on the same die and manufactured in 28 nm CMOS process. They employ timing-error prevention with clock stretching to enable operation with minimal safety margins while maximizing performance and energy efficiency at a given operating point. Measurements show minimum energy of 3.15 pJ/cyc at 400 mV, which corresponds to 39% energy saving compared to operation based on static signoff timing.

  3. A Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy for Reduced CPU Energy on Cloud Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve energy saving and reduce the total cost of ownership, green storage has become the first priority for data center. Detecting and deleting the redundant data are the key factors to the reduction of the energy consumption of CPU, while high performance stable chunking strategy provides the groundwork for detecting redundant data. The existing chunking algorithm greatly reduces the system performance when confronted with big data and it wastes a lot of energy. Factors affecting the chunking performance are analyzed and discussed in the paper and a new fingerprint signature calculation is implemented. Furthermore, a Bit String Content Aware Chunking Strategy (BCCS is put forward. This strategy reduces the cost of signature computation in chunking process to improve the system performance and cuts down the energy consumption of the cloud storage data center. On the basis of relevant test scenarios and test data of this paper, the advantages of the chunking strategy are verified.

  4. Enhanced round robin CPU scheduling with burst time based time quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indusree, J. R.; Prabadevi, B.

    2017-11-01

    Process scheduling is a very important functionality of Operating system. The main-known process-scheduling algorithms are First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithm, Round Robin (RR) algorithm, Priority scheduling algorithm and Shortest Job First (SJF) algorithm. Compared to its peers, Round Robin (RR) algorithm has the advantage that it gives fair share of CPU to the processes which are already in the ready-queue. The effectiveness of the RR algorithm greatly depends on chosen time quantum value. Through this research paper, we are proposing an enhanced algorithm called Enhanced Round Robin with Burst-time based Time Quantum (ERRBTQ) process scheduling algorithm which calculates time quantum as per the burst-time of processes already in ready queue. The experimental results and analysis of ERRBTQ algorithm clearly indicates the improved performance when compared with conventional RR and its variants.

  5. A hybrid CPU-GPU accelerated framework for fast mapping of high-resolution human brain connectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    Full Text Available Recently, a combination of non-invasive neuroimaging techniques and graph theoretical approaches has provided a unique opportunity for understanding the patterns of the structural and functional connectivity of the human brain (referred to as the human brain connectome. Currently, there is a very large amount of brain imaging data that have been collected, and there are very high requirements for the computational capabilities that are used in high-resolution connectome research. In this paper, we propose a hybrid CPU-GPU framework to accelerate the computation of the human brain connectome. We applied this framework to a publicly available resting-state functional MRI dataset from 197 participants. For each subject, we first computed Pearson's Correlation coefficient between any pairs of the time series of gray-matter voxels, and then we constructed unweighted undirected brain networks with 58 k nodes and a sparsity range from 0.02% to 0.17%. Next, graphic properties of the functional brain networks were quantified, analyzed and compared with those of 15 corresponding random networks. With our proposed accelerating framework, the above process for each network cost 80∼150 minutes, depending on the network sparsity. Further analyses revealed that high-resolution functional brain networks have efficient small-world properties, significant modular structure, a power law degree distribution and highly connected nodes in the medial frontal and parietal cortical regions. These results are largely compatible with previous human brain network studies. Taken together, our proposed framework can substantially enhance the applicability and efficacy of high-resolution (voxel-based brain network analysis, and have the potential to accelerate the mapping of the human brain connectome in normal and disease states.

  6. Performance of the OVERFLOW-MLP and LAURA-MLP CFD Codes on the NASA Ames 512 CPU Origin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, James R.

    2000-01-01

    The shared memory Multi-Level Parallelism (MLP) technique, developed last year at NASA Ames has been very successful in dramatically improving the performance of important NASA CFD codes. This new and very simple parallel programming technique was first inserted into the OVERFLOW production CFD code in FY 1998. The OVERFLOW-MLP code's parallel performance scaled linearly to 256 CPUs on the NASA Ames 256 CPU Origin 2000 system (steger). Overall performance exceeded 20.1 GFLOP/s, or about 4.5x the performance of a dedicated 16 CPU C90 system. All of this was achieved without any major modification to the original vector based code. The OVERFLOW-MLP code is now in production on the inhouse Origin systems as well as being used offsite at commercial aerospace companies. Partially as a result of this work, NASA Ames has purchased a new 512 CPU Origin 2000 system to further test the limits of parallel performance for NASA codes of interest. This paper presents the performance obtained from the latest optimization efforts on this machine for the LAURA-MLP and OVERFLOW-MLP codes. The Langley Aerothermodynamics Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) code is a key simulation tool in the development of the next generation shuttle, interplanetary reentry vehicles, and nearly all "X" plane development. This code sustains about 4-5 GFLOP/s on a dedicated 16 CPU C90. At this rate, expected workloads would require over 100 C90 CPU years of computing over the next few calendar years. It is not feasible to expect that this would be affordable or available to the user community. Dramatic performance gains on cheaper systems are needed. This code is expected to be perhaps the largest consumer of NASA Ames compute cycles per run in the coming year.The OVERFLOW CFD code is extensively used in the government and commercial aerospace communities to evaluate new aircraft designs. It is one of the largest consumers of NASA supercomputing cycles and large simulations of highly resolved full

  7. Design of a Message Passing Model for Use in a Heterogeneous CPU-NFP Framework for Network Analytics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pennefather, S

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available of applications written in the Go programming language to be executed on a Network Flow Processor (NFP) for enhanced performance. This paper explores the need and feasibility of implementing a message passing model for data transmission between the NFP and CPU...

  8. Overtaking CPU DBMSes with a GPU in whole-query analytic processing with parallelism-friendly execution plan optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Agbaria (Adnan); D. Minor (David); N. Peterfreund (Natan); E. Rozenberg (Eyal); O. Rosenberg (Ofer); Huawei Research

    2016-01-01

    textabstractExisting work on accelerating analytic DB query processing with (discrete) GPUs fails to fully realize their potential for speedup through parallelism: Published results do not achieve significant speedup over more performant CPU-only DBMSes when processing complete queries. This

  9. A heterogeneous CPU+GPU Poisson solver for space charge calculations in beam dynamics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Dawei; Rienen, Ursula van [University of Rostock, Institute of General Electrical Engineering (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    In beam dynamics studies in accelerator physics, space charge plays a central role in the low energy regime of an accelerator. Numerical space charge calculations are required, both, in the design phase and in the operation of the machines as well. Due to its efficiency, mostly the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is chosen for the space charge calculation. Then, the solution of Poisson's equation for the charge distribution in the rest frame is the most prominent part within the solution process. The Poisson solver directly affects the accuracy of the self-field applied on the charged particles when the equation of motion is solved in the laboratory frame. As the Poisson solver consumes the major part of the computing time in most simulations it has to be as fast as possible since it has to be carried out once per time step. In this work, we demonstrate a novel heterogeneous CPU+GPU routine for the Poisson solver. The novel solver also benefits from our new research results on the utilization of a discrete cosine transform within the classical Hockney and Eastwood's convolution routine.

  10. Portable implementation model for CFD simulations. Application to hybrid CPU/GPU supercomputers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, Guillermo; Borrell, Ricard; Gorobets, Andrey; Oliva, Assensi

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays, high performance computing (HPC) systems experience a disruptive moment with a variety of novel architectures and frameworks, without any clarity of which one is going to prevail. In this context, the portability of codes across different architectures is of major importance. This paper presents a portable implementation model based on an algebraic operational approach for direct numerical simulation (DNS) and large eddy simulation (LES) of incompressible turbulent flows using unstructured hybrid meshes. The strategy proposed consists in representing the whole time-integration algorithm using only three basic algebraic operations: sparse matrix-vector product, a linear combination of vectors and dot product. The main idea is based on decomposing the nonlinear operators into a concatenation of two SpMV operations. This provides high modularity and portability. An exhaustive analysis of the proposed implementation for hybrid CPU/GPU supercomputers has been conducted with tests using up to 128 GPUs. The main objective consists in understanding the challenges of implementing CFD codes on new architectures.

  11. Discrepancy Between Clinician and Research Assistant in TIMI Score Calculation (TRIAGED CPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor, Brian T.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have attempted to demonstrate that the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk score has the ability to risk stratify emergency department (ED patients with potential acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Most of the studies we reviewed relied on trained research investigators to determine TIMI risk scores rather than ED providers functioning in their normal work capacity. We assessed whether TIMI risk scores obtained by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED differed from those obtained by trained research investigators. Methods: This was an ED-based prospective observational cohort study comparing TIMI scores obtained by 49 ED providers admitting patients to an ED chest pain unit (CPU to scores generated by a team of trained research investigators. We examined provider type, patient gender, and TIMI elements for their effects on TIMI risk score discrepancy. Results: Of the 501 adult patients enrolled in the study, 29.3% of TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers and trained research investigators were generated using identical TIMI risk score variables. In our low-risk population the majority of TIMI risk score differences were small; however, 12% of TIMI risk scores differed by two or more points. Conclusion: TIMI risk scores determined by ED providers in the setting of a busy ED frequently differ from scores generated by trained research investigators who complete them while not under the same pressure of an ED provider. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:24–33.

  12. A Novel CPU/GPU Simulation Environment for Large-Scale Biologically-Realistic Neural Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger V Hoang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Computational Neuroscience is an emerging field that provides unique opportunities to studycomplex brain structures through realistic neural simulations. However, as biological details are added tomodels, the execution time for the simulation becomes longer. Graphics Processing Units (GPUs are now being utilized to accelerate simulations due to their ability to perform computations in parallel. As such, they haveshown significant improvement in execution time compared to Central Processing Units (CPUs. Most neural simulators utilize either multiple CPUs or a single GPU for better performance, but still show limitations in execution time when biological details are not sacrificed. Therefore, we present a novel CPU/GPU simulation environment for large-scale biological networks,the NeoCortical Simulator version 6 (NCS6. NCS6 is a free, open-source, parallelizable, and scalable simula-tor, designed to run on clusters of multiple machines, potentially with high performance computing devicesin each of them. It has built-in leaky-integrate-and-fire (LIF and Izhikevich (IZH neuron models, but usersalso have the capability to design their own plug-in interface for different neuron types as desired. NCS6is currently able to simulate one million cells and 100 million synapses in quasi real time by distributing dataacross these heterogeneous clusters of CPUs and GPUs.

  13. A Programming Framework for Scientific Applications on CPU-GPU Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, John

    2013-03-24

    At a high level, my research interests center around designing, programming, and evaluating computer systems that use new approaches to solve interesting problems. The rapid change of technology allows a variety of different architectural approaches to computationally difficult problems, and a constantly shifting set of constraints and trends makes the solutions to these problems both challenging and interesting. One of the most important recent trends in computing has been a move to commodity parallel architectures. This sea change is motivated by the industry’s inability to continue to profitably increase performance on a single processor and instead to move to multiple parallel processors. In the period of review, my most significant work has been leading a research group looking at the use of the graphics processing unit (GPU) as a general-purpose processor. GPUs can potentially deliver superior performance on a broad range of problems than their CPU counterparts, but effectively mapping complex applications to a parallel programming model with an emerging programming environment is a significant and important research problem.

  14. A high performance image processing platform based on CPU-GPU heterogeneous cluster with parallel image reconstroctions for micro-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yu; Qi Yujin; Zhang Xuezhu; Zhao Cuilan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report the development of a high-performance image processing platform, which is based on CPU-GPU heterogeneous cluster. Currently, it consists of a Dell Precision T7500 and HP XW8600 workstations with parallel programming and runtime environment, using the message-passing interface (MPI) and CUDA (Compute Unified Device Architecture). We succeeded in developing parallel image processing techniques for 3D image reconstruction of X-ray micro-CT imaging. The results show that a GPU provides a computing efficiency of about 194 times faster than a single CPU, and the CPU-GPU clusters provides a computing efficiency of about 46 times faster than the CPU clusters. These meet the requirements of rapid 3D image reconstruction and real time image display. In conclusion, the use of CPU-GPU heterogeneous cluster is an effective way to build high-performance image processing platform. (authors)

  15. SpaceCubeX: A Framework for Evaluating Hybrid Multi-Core CPU FPGA DSP Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Andrew G.; Weisz, Gabriel; French, Matthew; Flatley, Thomas; Villalpando, Carlos Y.

    2017-01-01

    The SpaceCubeX project is motivated by the need for high performance, modular, and scalable on-board processing to help scientists answer critical 21st century questions about global climate change, air quality, ocean health, and ecosystem dynamics, while adding new capabilities such as low-latency data products for extreme event warnings. These goals translate into on-board processing throughput requirements that are on the order of 100-1,000 more than those of previous Earth Science missions for standard processing, compression, storage, and downlink operations. To study possible future architectures to achieve these performance requirements, the SpaceCubeX project provides an evolvable testbed and framework that enables a focused design space exploration of candidate hybrid CPU/FPGA/DSP processing architectures. The framework includes ArchGen, an architecture generator tool populated with candidate architecture components, performance models, and IP cores, that allows an end user to specify the type, number, and connectivity of a hybrid architecture. The framework requires minimal extensions to integrate new processors, such as the anticipated High Performance Spaceflight Computer (HPSC), reducing time to initiate benchmarking by months. To evaluate the framework, we leverage a wide suite of high performance embedded computing benchmarks and Earth science scenarios to ensure robust architecture characterization. We report on our projects Year 1 efforts and demonstrate the capabilities across four simulation testbed models, a baseline SpaceCube 2.0 system, a dual ARM A9 processor system, a hybrid quad ARM A53 and FPGA system, and a hybrid quad ARM A53 and DSP system.

  16. Interactive dose shaping - efficient strategies for CPU-based real-time treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegenhein, P; Kamerling, C P; Oelfke, U

    2014-01-01

    Conventional intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning is based on the traditional concept of iterative optimization using an objective function specified by dose volume histogram constraints for pre-segmented VOIs. This indirect approach suffers from unavoidable shortcomings: i) The control of local dose features is limited to segmented VOIs. ii) Any objective function is a mathematical measure of the plan quality, i.e., is not able to define the clinically optimal treatment plan. iii) Adapting an existing plan to changed patient anatomy as detected by IGRT procedures is difficult. To overcome these shortcomings, we introduce the method of Interactive Dose Shaping (IDS) as a new paradigm for IMRT treatment planning. IDS allows for a direct and interactive manipulation of local dose features in real-time. The key element driving the IDS process is a two-step Dose Modification and Recovery (DMR) strategy: A local dose modification is initiated by the user which translates into modified fluence patterns. This also affects existing desired dose features elsewhere which is compensated by a heuristic recovery process. The IDS paradigm was implemented together with a CPU-based ultra-fast dose calculation and a 3D GUI for dose manipulation and visualization. A local dose feature can be implemented via the DMR strategy within 1-2 seconds. By imposing a series of local dose features, equal plan qualities could be achieved compared to conventional planning for prostate and head and neck cases within 1-2 minutes. The idea of Interactive Dose Shaping for treatment planning has been introduced and first applications of this concept have been realized.

  17. Fast parallel image registration on CPU and GPU for diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamonin, Denis P; Bron, Esther E; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P F; Smits, Marion; Klein, Stefan; Staring, Marius

    2013-01-01

    Nonrigid image registration is an important, but time-consuming task in medical image analysis. In typical neuroimaging studies, multiple image registrations are performed, i.e., for atlas-based segmentation or template construction. Faster image registration routines would therefore be beneficial. In this paper we explore acceleration of the image registration package elastix by a combination of several techniques: (i) parallelization on the CPU, to speed up the cost function derivative calculation; (ii) parallelization on the GPU building on and extending the OpenCL framework from ITKv4, to speed up the Gaussian pyramid computation and the image resampling step; (iii) exploitation of certain properties of the B-spline transformation model; (iv) further software optimizations. The accelerated registration tool is employed in a study on diagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease and cognitively normal controls based on T1-weighted MRI. We selected 299 participants from the publicly available Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Classification is performed with a support vector machine based on gray matter volumes as a marker for atrophy. We evaluated two types of strategies (voxel-wise and region-wise) that heavily rely on nonrigid image registration. Parallelization and optimization resulted in an acceleration factor of 4-5x on an 8-core machine. Using OpenCL a speedup factor of 2 was realized for computation of the Gaussian pyramids, and 15-60 for the resampling step, for larger images. The voxel-wise and the region-wise classification methods had an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 88 and 90%, respectively, both for standard and accelerated registration. We conclude that the image registration package elastix was substantially accelerated, with nearly identical results to the non-optimized version. The new functionality will become available in the next release of elastix as open source under the BSD license.

  18. Fast Parallel Image Registration on CPU and GPU for Diagnostic Classification of Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis P Shamonin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonrigid image registration is an important, but time-consuming taskin medical image analysis. In typical neuroimaging studies, multipleimage registrations are performed, i.e. for atlas-based segmentationor template construction. Faster image registration routines wouldtherefore be beneficial.In this paper we explore acceleration of the image registrationpackage elastix by a combination of several techniques: iparallelization on the CPU, to speed up the cost function derivativecalculation; ii parallelization on the GPU building on andextending the OpenCL framework from ITKv4, to speed up the Gaussianpyramid computation and the image resampling step; iii exploitationof certain properties of the B-spline transformation model; ivfurther software optimizations.The accelerated registration tool is employed in a study ondiagnostic classification of Alzheimer's disease and cognitivelynormal controls based on T1-weighted MRI. We selected 299participants from the publicly available Alzheimer's DiseaseNeuroimaging Initiative database. Classification is performed with asupport vector machine based on gray matter volumes as a marker foratrophy. We evaluated two types of strategies (voxel-wise andregion-wise that heavily rely on nonrigid image registration.Parallelization and optimization resulted in an acceleration factorof 4-5x on an 8-core machine. Using OpenCL a speedup factor of ~2was realized for computation of the Gaussian pyramids, and 15-60 forthe resampling step, for larger images. The voxel-wise and theregion-wise classification methods had an area under thereceiver operator characteristic curve of 88% and 90%,respectively, both for standard and accelerated registration.We conclude that the image registration package elastix wassubstantially accelerated, with nearly identical results to thenon-optimized version. The new functionality will become availablein the next release of elastix as open source under the BSD license.

  19. Joint Optimized CPU and Networking Control Scheme for Improved Energy Efficiency in Video Streaming on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Jo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming service is one of the most popular applications for mobile users. However, mobile video streaming services consume a lot of energy, resulting in a reduced battery life. This is a critical problem that results in a degraded user’s quality of experience (QoE. Therefore, in this paper, a joint optimization scheme that controls both the central processing unit (CPU and wireless networking of the video streaming process for improved energy efficiency on mobile devices is proposed. For this purpose, the energy consumption of the network interface and CPU is analyzed, and based on the energy consumption profile a joint optimization problem is formulated to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device. The proposed algorithm adaptively adjusts the number of chunks to be downloaded and decoded in each packet. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the energy efficiency when compared with the existing algorithms.

  20. Cpu/gpu Computing for AN Implicit Multi-Block Compressible Navier-Stokes Solver on Heterogeneous Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liang; Bai, Hanli; Wang, Fang; Xu, Qingxin

    2016-06-01

    CPU/GPU computing allows scientists to tremendously accelerate their numerical codes. In this paper, we port and optimize a double precision alternating direction implicit (ADI) solver for three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations from our in-house Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software on heterogeneous platform. First, we implement a full GPU version of the ADI solver to remove a lot of redundant data transfers between CPU and GPU, and then design two fine-grain schemes, namely “one-thread-one-point” and “one-thread-one-line”, to maximize the performance. Second, we present a dual-level parallelization scheme using the CPU/GPU collaborative model to exploit the computational resources of both multi-core CPUs and many-core GPUs within the heterogeneous platform. Finally, considering the fact that memory on a single node becomes inadequate when the simulation size grows, we present a tri-level hybrid programming pattern MPI-OpenMP-CUDA that merges fine-grain parallelism using OpenMP and CUDA threads with coarse-grain parallelism using MPI for inter-node communication. We also propose a strategy to overlap the computation with communication using the advanced features of CUDA and MPI programming. We obtain speedups of 6.0 for the ADI solver on one Tesla M2050 GPU in contrast to two Xeon X5670 CPUs. Scalability tests show that our implementation can offer significant performance improvement on heterogeneous platform.

  1. CPU0213, a novel endothelin type A and type B receptor antagonist, protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.Y. Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonists in protecting against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is controversial, and the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPU0123, a novel endothelin type A and type B receptor antagonist, on myocardial I/R injury and to explore the mechanisms involved. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200-250 g were randomized to three groups (6-7 per group: group 1, Sham; group 2, I/R + vehicle. Rats were subjected to in vivo myocardial I/R injury by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and 0.5% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (1 mL/kg was injected intraperitoneally immediately prior to coronary occlusion. Group 3, I/R + CPU0213. Rats were subjected to identical surgical procedures and CPU0213 (30 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally immediately prior to coronary occlusion. Infarct size, cardiac function and biochemical changes were measured. CPU0213 pretreatment reduced infarct size as a percentage of the ischemic area by 44.5% (I/R + vehicle: 61.3 ± 3.2 vs I/R + CPU0213: 34.0 ± 5.5%, P < 0.05 and improved ejection fraction by 17.2% (I/R + vehicle: 58.4 ± 2.8 vs I/R + CPU0213: 68.5 ± 2.2%, P < 0.05 compared to vehicle-treated animals. This protection was associated with inhibition of myocardial inflammation and oxidative stress. Moreover, reduction in Akt (protein kinase B and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation induced by myocardial I/R injury was limited by CPU0213 (P < 0.05. These data suggest that CPU0123, a non-selective antagonist, has protective effects against myocardial I/R injury in rats, which may be related to the Akt/eNOS pathway.

  2. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  3. CPU architecture for a fast and energy-saving calculation of convolution neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Florian J.; Grelcke, Michael; Czymmek, Vitali; Holtorf, Tim; Hussmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    One of the most difficult problem in the use of artificial neural networks is the computational capacity. Although large search engine companies own specially developed hardware to provide the necessary computing power, for the conventional user only remains the state of the art method, which is the use of a graphic processing unit (GPU) as a computational basis. Although these processors are well suited for large matrix computations, they need massive energy. Therefore a new processor on the basis of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) has been developed and is optimized for the application of deep learning. This processor is presented in this paper. The processor can be adapted for a particular application (in this paper to an organic farming application). The power consumption is only a fraction of a GPU application and should therefore be well suited for energy-saving applications.

  4. Towards 100,000 CPU Cycle-Scavenging by Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine a web-centric design using standard tools such as web servers, web browsers, PHP, and mySQL. We also consider the applicability of Information Power Grid tools such as the Globus (no relation to the author) Toolkit. We intend to implement this architecture with JavaGenes running on at least two cycle-scavengers: Condor and United Devices. JavaGenes, a genetic algorithm code written in Java, will be used to evolve multi-species reactive molecular force field parameters.

  5. Leveraging the checkpoint-restart technique for optimizing CPU efficiency of ATLAS production applications on opportunistic platforms

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, David; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Data processing applications of the ATLAS experiment, such as event simulation and reconstruction, spend considerable amount of time in the initialization phase. This phase includes loading a large number of shared libraries, reading detector geometry and condition data from external databases, building a transient representation of the detector geometry and initializing various algorithms and services. In some cases the initialization step can take as long as 10-15 minutes. Such slow initialization, being inherently serial, has a significant negative impact on overall CPU efficiency of the production job, especially when the job is executed on opportunistic, often short-lived, resources such as commercial clouds or volunteer computing. In order to improve this situation, we can take advantage of the fact that ATLAS runs large numbers of production jobs with similar configuration parameters (e.g. jobs within the same production task). This allows us to checkpoint one job at the end of its configuration step a...

  6. Event- and Time-Driven Techniques Using Parallel CPU-GPU Co-processing for Spiking Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveros, Francisco; Garrido, Jesus A; Carrillo, Richard R; Ros, Eduardo; Luque, Niceto R

    2017-01-01

    Modeling and simulating the neural structures which make up our central neural system is instrumental for deciphering the computational neural cues beneath. Higher levels of biological plausibility usually impose higher levels of complexity in mathematical modeling, from neural to behavioral levels. This paper focuses on overcoming the simulation problems (accuracy and performance) derived from using higher levels of mathematical complexity at a neural level. This study proposes different techniques for simulating neural models that hold incremental levels of mathematical complexity: leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF), adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire (AdEx), and Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neural models (ranged from low to high neural complexity). The studied techniques are classified into two main families depending on how the neural-model dynamic evaluation is computed: the event-driven or the time-driven families. Whilst event-driven techniques pre-compile and store the neural dynamics within look-up tables, time-driven techniques compute the neural dynamics iteratively during the simulation time. We propose two modifications for the event-driven family: a look-up table recombination to better cope with the incremental neural complexity together with a better handling of the synchronous input activity. Regarding the time-driven family, we propose a modification in computing the neural dynamics: the bi-fixed-step integration method. This method automatically adjusts the simulation step size to better cope with the stiffness of the neural model dynamics running in CPU platforms. One version of this method is also implemented for hybrid CPU-GPU platforms. Finally, we analyze how the performance and accuracy of these modifications evolve with increasing levels of neural complexity. We also demonstrate how the proposed modifications which constitute the main contribution of this study systematically outperform the traditional event- and time-driven techniques under

  7. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Alignment for Protein Database Search Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme Based on CPU-GPU Collaborative System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Hong, Yang; Lin, Chun-Yuan; Hung, Che-Lun

    2015-01-01

    The Smith-Waterman (SW) algorithm has been widely utilized for searching biological sequence databases in bioinformatics. Recently, several works have adopted the graphic card with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) and their associated CUDA model to enhance the performance of SW computations. However, these works mainly focused on the protein database search by using the intertask parallelization technique, and only using the GPU capability to do the SW computations one by one. Hence, in this paper, we will propose an efficient SW alignment method, called CUDA-SWfr, for the protein database search by using the intratask parallelization technique based on a CPU-GPU collaborative system. Before doing the SW computations on GPU, a procedure is applied on CPU by using the frequency distance filtration scheme (FDFS) to eliminate the unnecessary alignments. The experimental results indicate that CUDA-SWfr runs 9.6 times and 96 times faster than the CPU-based SW method without and with FDFS, respectively.

  8. Hybrid GPU-CPU adaptive precision ray-triangle intersection tests for robust high-performance GPU dosimetry computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, Lancelot; Bodin, Bruno; Chodorge, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Before an intervention on a nuclear site, it is essential to study different scenarios to identify the less dangerous one for the operator. Therefore, it is mandatory to dispose of an efficient dosimetry simulation code with accurate results. One classical method in radiation protection is the straight-line attenuation method with build-up factors. In the case of 3D industrial scenes composed of meshes, the computation cost resides in the fast computation of all of the intersections between the rays and the triangles of the scene. Efficient GPU algorithms have already been proposed, that enable dosimetry calculation for a huge scene (800000 rays, 800000 triangles) in a fraction of second. But these algorithms are not robust: because of the rounding caused by floating-point arithmetic, the numerical results of the ray-triangle intersection tests can differ from the expected mathematical results. In worst case scenario, this can lead to a computed dose rate dramatically inferior to the real dose rate to which the operator is exposed. In this paper, we present a hybrid GPU-CPU algorithm to manage adaptive precision floating-point arithmetic. This algorithm allows robust ray-triangle intersection tests, with very small loss of performance (less than 5 % overhead), and without any need for scene-dependent tuning. (author)

  9. Parallelizing ATLAS Reconstruction and Simulation: Issues and Optimization Solutions for Scaling on Multi- and Many-CPU Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leggett, C; Jackson, K; Tatarkhanov, M; Yao, Y; Binet, S; Levinthal, D

    2011-01-01

    Thermal limitations have forced CPU manufacturers to shift from simply increasing clock speeds to improve processor performance, to producing chip designs with multi- and many-core architectures. Further the cores themselves can run multiple threads as a zero overhead context switch allowing low level resource sharing (Intel Hyperthreading). To maximize bandwidth and minimize memory latency, memory access has become non uniform (NUMA). As manufacturers add more cores to each chip, a careful understanding of the underlying architecture is required in order to fully utilize the available resources. We present AthenaMP and the Atlas event loop manager, the driver of the simulation and reconstruction engines, which have been rewritten to make use of multiple cores, by means of event based parallelism, and final stage I/O synchronization. However, initial studies on 8 andl6 core Intel architectures have shown marked non-linearities as parallel process counts increase, with as much as 30% reductions in event throughput in some scenarios. Since the Intel Nehalem architecture (both Gainestown and Westmere) will be the most common choice for the next round of hardware procurements, an understanding of these scaling issues is essential. Using hardware based event counters and Intel's Performance Tuning Utility, we have studied the performance bottlenecks at the hardware level, and discovered optimization schemes to maximize processor throughput. We have also produced optimization mechanisms, common to all large experiments, that address the extreme nature of today's HEP code, which due to it's size, places huge burdens on the memory infrastructure of today's processors.

  10. Effective electron-density map improvement and structure validation on a Linux multi-CPU web cluster: The TB Structural Genomics Consortium Bias Removal Web Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Vinod; Swanson, Stanley M; Segelke, Brent; Kantardjieff, Katherine A; Sacchettini, James C; Rupp, Bernhard

    2003-12-01

    Anticipating a continuing increase in the number of structures solved by molecular replacement in high-throughput crystallography and drug-discovery programs, a user-friendly web service for automated molecular replacement, map improvement, bias removal and real-space correlation structure validation has been implemented. The service is based on an efficient bias-removal protocol, Shake&wARP, and implemented using EPMR and the CCP4 suite of programs, combined with various shell scripts and Fortran90 routines. The service returns improved maps, converted data files and real-space correlation and B-factor plots. User data are uploaded through a web interface and the CPU-intensive iteration cycles are executed on a low-cost Linux multi-CPU cluster using the Condor job-queuing package. Examples of map improvement at various resolutions are provided and include model completion and reconstruction of absent parts, sequence correction, and ligand validation in drug-target structures.

  11. Finite difference numerical method for the superlattice Boltzmann transport equation and case comparison of CPU(C) and GPU(CUDA) implementations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priimak, Dmitri

    2014-01-01

    We present a finite difference numerical algorithm for solving two dimensional spatially homogeneous Boltzmann transport equation which describes electron transport in a semiconductor superlattice subject to crossed time dependent electric and constant magnetic fields. The algorithm is implemented both in C language targeted to CPU and in CUDA C language targeted to commodity NVidia GPU. We compare performances and merits of one implementation versus another and discuss various software optimisation techniques

  12. Finite difference numerical method for the superlattice Boltzmann transport equation and case comparison of CPU(C) and GPU(CUDA) implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priimak, Dmitri

    2014-12-01

    We present a finite difference numerical algorithm for solving two dimensional spatially homogeneous Boltzmann transport equation which describes electron transport in a semiconductor superlattice subject to crossed time dependent electric and constant magnetic fields. The algorithm is implemented both in C language targeted to CPU and in CUDA C language targeted to commodity NVidia GPU. We compare performances and merits of one implementation versus another and discuss various software optimisation techniques.

  13. Evaluation of the CPU time for solving the radiative transfer equation with high-order resolution schemes applying the normalized weighting-factor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xamán, J.; Zavala-Guillén, I.; Hernández-López, I.; Uriarte-Flores, J.; Hernández-Pérez, I.; Macías-Melo, E. V.; Aguilar-Castro, K. M.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we evaluated the convergence rate (CPU time) of a new mathematical formulation for the numerical solution of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) with several High-Order (HO) and High-Resolution (HR) schemes. In computational fluid dynamics, this procedure is known as the Normalized Weighting-Factor (NWF) method and it is adopted here. The NWF method is used to incorporate the high-order resolution schemes in the discretized RTE. The NWF method is compared, in terms of computer time needed to obtain a converged solution, with the widely used deferred-correction (DC) technique for the calculations of a two-dimensional cavity with emitting-absorbing-scattering gray media using the discrete ordinates method. Six parameters, viz. the grid size, the order of quadrature, the absorption coefficient, the emissivity of the boundary surface, the under-relaxation factor, and the scattering albedo are considered to evaluate ten schemes. The results showed that using the DC method, in general, the scheme that had the lowest CPU time is the SOU. In contrast, with the results of theDC procedure the CPU time for DIAMOND and QUICK schemes using the NWF method is shown to be, between the 3.8 and 23.1% faster and 12.6 and 56.1% faster, respectively. However, the other schemes are more time consuming when theNWFis used instead of the DC method. Additionally, a second test case was presented and the results showed that depending on the problem under consideration, the NWF procedure may be computationally faster or slower that the DC method. As an example, the CPU time for QUICK and SMART schemes are 61.8 and 203.7%, respectively, slower when the NWF formulation is used for the second test case. Finally, future researches to explore the computational cost of the NWF method in more complex problems are required.

  14. Accelerating Smith-Waterman Alignment for Protein Database Search Using Frequency Distance Filtration Scheme Based on CPU-GPU Collaborative System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Smith-Waterman (SW algorithm has been widely utilized for searching biological sequence databases in bioinformatics. Recently, several works have adopted the graphic card with Graphic Processing Units (GPUs and their associated CUDA model to enhance the performance of SW computations. However, these works mainly focused on the protein database search by using the intertask parallelization technique, and only using the GPU capability to do the SW computations one by one. Hence, in this paper, we will propose an efficient SW alignment method, called CUDA-SWfr, for the protein database search by using the intratask parallelization technique based on a CPU-GPU collaborative system. Before doing the SW computations on GPU, a procedure is applied on CPU by using the frequency distance filtration scheme (FDFS to eliminate the unnecessary alignments. The experimental results indicate that CUDA-SWfr runs 9.6 times and 96 times faster than the CPU-based SW method without and with FDFS, respectively.

  15. An efficient implementation of 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data with GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jincheng; Liu, Wei; Wang, Jin; Liu, Linong; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2018-02-01

    De-absorption pre-stack time migration (QPSTM) compensates for the absorption and dispersion of seismic waves by introducing an effective Q parameter, thereby making it an effective tool for 3D, high-resolution imaging of seismic data. Although the optimal aperture obtained via stationary-phase migration reduces the computational cost of 3D QPSTM and yields 3D stationary-phase QPSTM, the associated computational efficiency is still the main problem in the processing of 3D, high-resolution images for real large-scale seismic data. In the current paper, we proposed a division method for large-scale, 3D seismic data to optimize the performance of stationary-phase QPSTM on clusters of graphics processing units (GPU). Then, we designed an imaging point parallel strategy to achieve an optimal parallel computing performance. Afterward, we adopted an asynchronous double buffering scheme for multi-stream to perform the GPU/CPU parallel computing. Moreover, several key optimization strategies of computation and storage based on the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) were adopted to accelerate the 3D stationary-phase QPSTM algorithm. Compared with the initial GPU code, the implementation of the key optimization steps, including thread optimization, shared memory optimization, register optimization and special function units (SFU), greatly improved the efficiency. A numerical example employing real large-scale, 3D seismic data showed that our scheme is nearly 80 times faster than the CPU-QPSTM algorithm. Our GPU/CPU heterogeneous parallel computing framework significant reduces the computational cost and facilitates 3D high-resolution imaging for large-scale seismic data.

  16. Comparison of the CPU and memory performance of StatPatternRecognitions (SPR) and Toolkit for MultiVariate Analysis (TMVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palombo, G.

    2012-01-01

    High Energy Physics data sets are often characterized by a huge number of events. Therefore, it is extremely important to use statistical packages able to efficiently analyze these unprecedented amounts of data. We compare the performance of the statistical packages StatPatternRecognition (SPR) and Toolkit for MultiVariate Analysis (TMVA). We focus on how CPU time and memory usage of the learning process scale versus data set size. As classifiers, we consider Random Forests, Boosted Decision Trees and Neural Networks only, each with specific settings. For our tests, we employ a data set widely used in the machine learning community, “Threenorm” data set, as well as data tailored for testing various edge cases. For each data set, we constantly increase its size and check CPU time and memory needed to build the classifiers implemented in SPR and TMVA. We show that SPR is often significantly faster and consumes significantly less memory. For example, the SPR implementation of Random Forest is by an order of magnitude faster and consumes an order of magnitude less memory than TMVA on Threenorm data.

  17. Implementation and Optimization of GPU-Based Static State Security Analysis in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Static state security analysis (SSSA is one of the most important computations to check whether a power system is in normal and secure operating state. It is a challenge to satisfy real-time requirements with CPU-based concurrent methods due to the intensive computations. A sensitivity analysis-based method with Graphics processing unit (GPU is proposed for power systems, which can reduce calculation time by 40% compared to the execution on a 4-core CPU. The proposed method involves load flow analysis and sensitivity analysis. In load flow analysis, a multifrontal method for sparse LU factorization is explored on GPU through dynamic frontal task scheduling between CPU and GPU. The varying matrix operations during sensitivity analysis on GPU are highly optimized in this study. The results of performance evaluations show that the proposed GPU-based SSSA with optimized matrix operations can achieve a significant reduction in computation time.

  18. Optimization of a Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage Device via a CPU-Efficient Semi-Analytical Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, I K; Zhang, X; Solovyov, V F; Chubar, O; Li, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in second generation (YBCO) high temperature superconducting wire could potentially enable the design of super high performance energy storage devices that combine the high energy density of chemical storage with the high power of superconducting magnetic storage. However, the high aspect ratio and considerable filament size of these wires requires the concomitant development of dedicated optimization methods that account for both the critical current density and ac losses in ...

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediating downregulated StAR and 3-beta-HSD and low plasma testosterone caused by hypoxia is attenuated by CPU86017-RS and nifedipine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gui-Lai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia exposure initiates low serum testosterone levels that could be attributed to downregulated androgen biosynthesizing genes such as StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and 3-beta-HSD (3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in the testis. It was hypothesized that these abnormalities in the testis by hypoxia are associated with oxidative stress and an increase in chaperones of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress and ER stress could be modulated by a reduction in calcium influx. Therefore, we verify that if an application of CPU86017-RS (simplified as RS, a derivative to berberine could alleviate the ER stress and depressed gene expressions of StAR and 3-beta-HSD, and low plasma testosterone in hypoxic rats, these were compared with those of nifedipine. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, hypoxia for 28 days, and hypoxia treated (mg/kg, p.o. during the last 14 days with nifedipine (Nif, 10 and three doses of RS (20, 40, 80, and normal rats treated with RS isomer (80. Serum testosterone (T and luteinizing hormone (LH were measured. The testicular expressions of biomarkers including StAR, 3-beta-HSD, immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (Bip, double-strand RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK and pro-apoptotic transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP were measured. Results In hypoxic rats, serum testosterone levels decreased and mRNA and protein expressions of the testosterone biosynthesis related genes, StAR and 3-beta-HSD were downregulated. These changes were linked to an increase in oxidants and upregulated ER stress chaperones: Bip, PERK, CHOP and distorted histological structure of the seminiferous tubules in the testis. These abnormalities were attenuated significantly by CPU86017-RS and nifedipine. Conclusion Downregulated StAR and 3-beta-HSD significantly contribute to low testosterone in hypoxic rats and is associated with ER stress

  20. hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}: a CPU-GPU Monte Carlo method for modeling indirect x-ray detectors with columnar scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Diksha; Badal, Andreu; Badano, Aldo

    2012-04-01

    The computational modeling of medical imaging systems often requires obtaining a large number of simulated images with low statistical uncertainty which translates into prohibitive computing times. We describe a novel hybrid approach for Monte Carlo simulations that maximizes utilization of CPUs and GPUs in modern workstations. We apply the method to the modeling of indirect x-ray detectors using a new and improved version of the code \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, an open source software tool used for the Monte Carlo simulations of indirect x-ray imagers. We first describe a GPU implementation of the physics and geometry models in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2 (the optical transport model) and a serial CPU version of the same code. We discuss its new features like on-the-fly column geometry and columnar crosstalk in relation to the \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} code, and point out areas where our model provides more flexibility for the modeling of realistic columnar structures in large area detectors. Second, we modify \\scriptsize{{PENELOPE}} (the open source software package that handles the x-ray and electron transport in \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}) to allow direct output of location and energy deposited during x-ray and electron interactions occurring within the scintillator. This information is then handled by optical transport routines in fast\\scriptsize{{DETECT}}2. A load balancer dynamically allocates optical transport showers to the GPU and CPU computing cores. Our hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} approach achieves a significant speed-up factor of 627 when compared to \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and of 35 when compared to the same code running only in a CPU instead of a GPU. Using hybrid\\scriptsize{{MANTIS}}, we successfully hide hours of optical transport time by running it in parallel with the x-ray and electron transport, thus shifting the computational bottleneck from optical to x-ray transport. The new code requires much less memory than \\scriptsize{{MANTIS}} and, as a result

  1. Collaborating CPU and GPU for large-scale high-order CFD simulations with complex grids on the TianHe-1A supercomputer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chuanfu, E-mail: xuchuanfu@nudt.edu.cn [College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Deng, Xiaogang; Zhang, Lilun [College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Fang, Jianbin [Parallel and Distributed Systems Group, Delft University of Technology, Delft 2628CD (Netherlands); Wang, Guangxue; Jiang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Aerodynamics, P.O. Box 211, Mianyang 621000 (China); Cao, Wei; Che, Yonggang; Wang, Yongxian; Wang, Zhenghua; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xinghua [College of Computer Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-12-01

    Programming and optimizing complex, real-world CFD codes on current many-core accelerated HPC systems is very challenging, especially when collaborating CPUs and accelerators to fully tap the potential of heterogeneous systems. In this paper, with a tri-level hybrid and heterogeneous programming model using MPI + OpenMP + CUDA, we port and optimize our high-order multi-block structured CFD software HOSTA on the GPU-accelerated TianHe-1A supercomputer. HOSTA adopts two self-developed high-order compact definite difference schemes WCNS and HDCS that can simulate flows with complex geometries. We present a dual-level parallelization scheme for efficient multi-block computation on GPUs and perform particular kernel optimizations for high-order CFD schemes. The GPU-only approach achieves a speedup of about 1.3 when comparing one Tesla M2050 GPU with two Xeon X5670 CPUs. To achieve a greater speedup, we collaborate CPU and GPU for HOSTA instead of using a naive GPU-only approach. We present a novel scheme to balance the loads between the store-poor GPU and the store-rich CPU. Taking CPU and GPU load balance into account, we improve the maximum simulation problem size per TianHe-1A node for HOSTA by 2.3×, meanwhile the collaborative approach can improve the performance by around 45% compared to the GPU-only approach. Further, to scale HOSTA on TianHe-1A, we propose a gather/scatter optimization to minimize PCI-e data transfer times for ghost and singularity data of 3D grid blocks, and overlap the collaborative computation and communication as far as possible using some advanced CUDA and MPI features. Scalability tests show that HOSTA can achieve a parallel efficiency of above 60% on 1024 TianHe-1A nodes. With our method, we have successfully simulated an EET high-lift airfoil configuration containing 800M cells and China's large civil airplane configuration containing 150M cells. To our best knowledge, those are the largest-scale CPU–GPU collaborative simulations

  2. Collaborating CPU and GPU for large-scale high-order CFD simulations with complex grids on the TianHe-1A supercomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Chuanfu; Deng, Xiaogang; Zhang, Lilun; Fang, Jianbin; Wang, Guangxue; Jiang, Yi; Cao, Wei; Che, Yonggang; Wang, Yongxian; Wang, Zhenghua; Liu, Wei; Cheng, Xinghua

    2014-01-01

    Programming and optimizing complex, real-world CFD codes on current many-core accelerated HPC systems is very challenging, especially when collaborating CPUs and accelerators to fully tap the potential of heterogeneous systems. In this paper, with a tri-level hybrid and heterogeneous programming model using MPI + OpenMP + CUDA, we port and optimize our high-order multi-block structured CFD software HOSTA on the GPU-accelerated TianHe-1A supercomputer. HOSTA adopts two self-developed high-order compact definite difference schemes WCNS and HDCS that can simulate flows with complex geometries. We present a dual-level parallelization scheme for efficient multi-block computation on GPUs and perform particular kernel optimizations for high-order CFD schemes. The GPU-only approach achieves a speedup of about 1.3 when comparing one Tesla M2050 GPU with two Xeon X5670 CPUs. To achieve a greater speedup, we collaborate CPU and GPU for HOSTA instead of using a naive GPU-only approach. We present a novel scheme to balance the loads between the store-poor GPU and the store-rich CPU. Taking CPU and GPU load balance into account, we improve the maximum simulation problem size per TianHe-1A node for HOSTA by 2.3×, meanwhile the collaborative approach can improve the performance by around 45% compared to the GPU-only approach. Further, to scale HOSTA on TianHe-1A, we propose a gather/scatter optimization to minimize PCI-e data transfer times for ghost and singularity data of 3D grid blocks, and overlap the collaborative computation and communication as far as possible using some advanced CUDA and MPI features. Scalability tests show that HOSTA can achieve a parallel efficiency of above 60% on 1024 TianHe-1A nodes. With our method, we have successfully simulated an EET high-lift airfoil configuration containing 800M cells and China's large civil airplane configuration containing 150M cells. To our best knowledge, those are the largest-scale CPU–GPU collaborative simulations

  3. Driving the Power of AIX Performance Tuning on IBM Power

    CERN Document Server

    Milberg, Ken

    2009-01-01

    A concise reference for IT professionals, this book goes beyond the rules and contains the best practices and strategies for solid tuning methodology. Tips based on years of experience from an AIX tuning master show specific steps for monitoring and tuning CPU, virtual memory, disk I/O, and network components. Also offering techniques for tuning Oracle and Linux structures that run on an IBM power system-as well as for the new AIX 6.1-this manual discusses what tools are available, how to best use them to collect historical data, and when to analyze trends and results. The only comprehensive,

  4. BSLD threshold driven power management policy for HPC centers

    OpenAIRE

    Etinski, Maja; Corbalán González, Julita; Labarta Mancho, Jesús José; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a power-aware parallel job scheduler assuming DVFS enabled clusters. A CPU frequency assignment algorithm is integrated into the well established EASY backfilling job scheduling policy. Running a job at lower frequency results in a reduction in power dissipation and accordingly in energy consumption. However, lower frequencies introduce a penalty in performance. Our frequency assignment algorithm has two adjustable parameters in order to enable fine grain energy-perf...

  5. Thermoeconomic cost analysis of CO_2 compression and purification unit in oxy-combustion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Bo; Zhao, Haibo; Zheng, Chuguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoeconomic cost analysis for CO_2 compression and purification unit is conducted. • Exergy cost and thermoeconomic cost occur in flash separation and mixing processes. • Unit exergy costs for flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical. • Multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. • Thermoeconomic performance for optimized CPU is enhanced. - Abstract: High CO_2 purity products can be obtained from oxy-combustion power plants through CO_2 compression and purification unit (CPU) based on phase separation method. To identify cost formation process and potential energy savings for CPU, detailed thermoeconomic cost analysis based on structure theory of thermoeconomics is applied to an optimized CPU (with double flash separators). It is found that the largest unit exergy cost occurs in the first separation process while the multi-stage CO_2 compressor contributes to the minimum unit exergy cost. In two flash separation processes, unit exergy costs for the flash separator and multi-stream heat exchanger are identical but their unit thermoeconomic costs are different once monetary cost for each device is considered. For cost inefficiency occurring in CPU, it mainly derives from large exergy costs and thermoeconomic costs in the flash separation and mixing processes. When compared with an unoptimized CPU, thermoeconomic performance for the optimized CPU is enhanced and the maximum reduction of 5.18% for thermoeconomic cost is attained. To achieve cost effective operation, measures should be taken to improve operations of the flash separation and mixing processes.

  6. SAFARI digital processing unit: performance analysis of the SpaceWire links in case of a LEON3-FT based CPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusi, Giovanni; Liu, Scige J.; Di Giorgio, Anna M.; Galli, Emanuele; Pezzuto, Stefano; Farina, Maria; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2014-08-01

    SAFARI (SpicA FAR infrared Instrument) is a far-infrared imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for the SPICA mission. The Digital Processing Unit (DPU) of the instrument implements the functions of controlling the overall instrument and implementing the science data compression and packing. The DPU design is based on the use of a LEON family processor. In SAFARI, all instrument components are connected to the central DPU via SpaceWire links. On these links science data, housekeeping and commands flows are in some cases multiplexed, therefore the interface control shall be able to cope with variable throughput needs. The effective data transfer workload can be an issue for the overall system performances and becomes a critical parameter for the on-board software design, both at application layer level and at lower, and more HW related, levels. To analyze the system behavior in presence of the expected SAFARI demanding science data flow, we carried out a series of performance tests using the standard GR-CPCI-UT699 LEON3-FT Development Board, provided by Aeroflex/Gaisler, connected to the emulator of the SAFARI science data links, in a point-to-point topology. Two different communication protocols have been used in the tests, the ECSS-E-ST-50-52C RMAP protocol and an internally defined one, the SAFARI internal data handling protocol. An incremental approach has been adopted to measure the system performances at different levels of the communication protocol complexity. In all cases the performance has been evaluated by measuring the CPU workload and the bus latencies. The tests have been executed initially in a custom low level execution environment and finally using the Real- Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS), which has been selected as the operating system to be used onboard SAFARI. The preliminary results of the carried out performance analysis confirmed the possibility of using a LEON3 CPU processor in the SAFARI DPU, but pointed out, in agreement

  7. FY1995 study of low power LSI design automation software with parallel processing; 1995 nendo heiretsu shori wo katsuyoshita shodenryoku LSI muke sekkei jidoka software no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The needs for low power LSIs have rapidly increased recently. For the low power LSI development, not only new circuit technologies but also new design automation tools supporting the new technologies are indispensable. The purpose of this project is to develop a new design automation software, which is able to design new digital LSIs with much lower power than that of conventional CMOS LSIs. A new design automation software for very low power LSIs has been developed targeting the pass-transistor logic SPL, a dedicated low power circuit technology. The software includes a logic synthesis function for pass-transistor-based macrocells and a macrocell placement function. Several new algorithms have been developed for the software, e.g. BDD construction. Some of them are designed and implemented for parallel processing in order to reduce the processing time. The logic synthesis function was tested on a set of benchmarks and finally applied to a low power CPU design. The designed 8-bit CPU was fully compatible with Zilog Z-80. The power dissipation of the CPU was compared with that of commercial CMOS Z-80. At most 82% of power of CMOS was reduced by the new CPU. On the other hand, parallel processing speed up was measured on the macrocell placement function. 34 folds speed up was realized. (NEDO)

  8. First Evaluation of the CPU, GPGPU and MIC Architectures for Real Time Particle Tracking based on Hough Transform at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Halyo, V.; Lujan, P.; Karpusenko, V.; Vladimirov, A.

    2014-04-07

    Recent innovations focused around {\\em parallel} processing, either through systems containing multiple processors or processors containing multiple cores, hold great promise for enhancing the performance of the trigger at the LHC and extending its physics program. The flexibility of the CMS/ATLAS trigger system allows for easy integration of computational accelerators, such as NVIDIA's Tesla Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) or Intel's \\xphi, in the High Level Trigger. These accelerators have the potential to provide faster or more energy efficient event selection, thus opening up possibilities for new complex triggers that were not previously feasible. At the same time, it is crucial to explore the performance limits achievable on the latest generation multicore CPUs with the use of the best software optimization methods. In this article, a new tracking algorithm based on the Hough transform will be evaluated for the first time on a multi-core Intel Xeon E5-2697v2 CPU, an NVIDIA Tesla K20c GPU, and an Intel \\x...

  9. CPU time optimization and precise adjustment of the Geant4 physics parameters for a VARIAN 2100 C/D gamma radiotherapy linear accelerator simulation using GAMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Pedro; Lagares, Juan Ignacio

    2018-02-01

    We have verified the GAMOS/Geant4 simulation model of a 6 MV VARIAN Clinac 2100 C/D linear accelerator by the procedure of adjusting the initial beam parameters to fit the percentage depth dose and cross-profile dose experimental data at different depths in a water phantom. Thanks to the use of a wide range of field sizes, from 2  ×  2 cm2 to 40  ×  40 cm2, a small phantom voxel size and high statistics, fine precision in the determination of the beam parameters has been achieved. This precision has allowed us to make a thorough study of the different physics models and parameters that Geant4 offers. The three Geant4 electromagnetic physics sets of models, i.e. Standard, Livermore and Penelope, have been compared to the experiment, testing the four different models of angular bremsstrahlung distributions as well as the three available multiple-scattering models, and optimizing the most relevant Geant4 electromagnetic physics parameters. Before the fitting, a comprehensive CPU time optimization has been done, using several of the Geant4 efficiency improvement techniques plus a few more developed in GAMOS.

  10. Multi-microprocessor control of the main ring magnet power supply of the 12 GeV KEK proton synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueno, T.; Mikawa, K.; Toda, M.; Toyama, T.; Sato, H.; Matsumoto, S.

    1992-01-01

    A general description of the computer control system of the KEK 12 GeV PS main ring magnet power supply is given, including its peripheral devices. The system consists of the main HIDIC-V90/25 CPU and of the input and output controllers HISEC-04M. The main CPU, supervised by UNIX, provides the man-machine interfacing and implements the repetitive control algorithm to correct for any magnet current deviation from reference. Two sub-CPU's are linked by a LAN and supported by a real time multi-task monitor. The output process controller distributes the control patterns to 16-bit DAC's, at 1.67 ms clock period in synchronism with the 3-phase ac line systems. The input controller logs the magnet current and voltage, via 16-bit ADC's at the same clock rate. (author)

  11. Empirical LTE Smartphone Power Model with DRX Operation for System Level Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mads; Noël, Laurent; Mogensen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    An LTE smartphone power model is presented to enable academia and industry to evaluate users’ battery life on system level. The model is based on empirical measurements on a smartphone using a second generation LTE chipset, and the model includes functions of receive and transmit data rates...... and power levels. The first comprehensive Discontinuous Reception (DRX) power consumption measurements are reported together with cell bandwidth, screen and CPU power consumption. The transmit power level and to some extent the receive data rate constitute the overall power consumption, while DRX proves...

  12. An Integrated Pipeline of Open Source Software Adapted for Multi-CPU Architectures: Use in the Large-Scale Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jayashree

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The large amounts of EST sequence data available from a single species of an organism as well as for several species within a genus provide an easy source of identification of intra- and interspecies single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In the case of model organisms, the data available are numerous, given the degree of redundancy in the deposited EST data. There are several available bioinformatics tools that can be used to mine this data; however, using them requires a certain level of expertise: the tools have to be used sequentially with accompanying format conversion and steps like clustering and assembly of sequences become time-intensive jobs even for moderately sized datasets. We report here a pipeline of open source software extended to run on multiple CPU architectures that can be used to mine large EST datasets for SNPs and identify restriction sites for assaying the SNPs so that cost-effective CAPS assays can be developed for SNP genotyping in genetics and breeding applications. At the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT, the pipeline has been implemented to run on a Paracel high-performance system consisting of four dual AMD Opteron processors running Linux with MPICH. The pipeline can be accessed through user-friendly web interfaces at http://hpc.icrisat.cgiar.org/PBSWeb and is available on request for academic use. We have validated the developed pipeline by mining chickpea ESTs for interspecies SNPs, development of CAPS assays for SNP genotyping, and confirmation of restriction digestion pattern at the sequence level.

  13. Exploring performance and power properties of modern multicore chips via simple machine models

    OpenAIRE

    Hager, Georg; Treibig, Jan; Habich, Johannes; Wellein, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Modern multicore chips show complex behavior with respect to performance and power. Starting with the Intel Sandy Bridge processor, it has become possible to directly measure the power dissipation of a CPU chip and correlate this data with the performance properties of the running code. Going beyond a simple bottleneck analysis, we employ the recently published Execution-Cache-Memory (ECM) model to describe the single- and multi-core performance of streaming kernels. The model refines the wel...

  14. GPScheDVS: A New Paradigm of the Autonomous CPU Speed Control for Commodity-OS-based General-Purpose Mobile Computers with a DVS-friendly Task Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sookyoung

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation studies the problem of increasing battery life-time and reducing CPU heat dissipation without degrading system performance in commodity-OS-based general-purpose (GP) mobile computers using the dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) function of modern CPUs. The dissertation especially focuses on the impact of task scheduling on the effectiveness of DVS in achieving this goal. The task scheduling mechanism used in most contemporary general-purpose operating systems (GPOS) prioritizes t...

  15. The Application of S7-400H redundant PLC in I and C system for waterworks in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces Siemens S7-400H redundant PLC which is employed to implement monitor and control systems for waterworks in nuclear power plant. It focuses on the configuration and realization of the redundant system. The safety and reliability of the system is improved by using redundant CPU, network and server. (authors)

  16. Video coding for decoding power-constrained embedded devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ligang; Sheinin, Vadim

    2004-01-01

    Low power dissipation and fast processing time are crucial requirements for embedded multimedia devices. This paper presents a technique in video coding to decrease the power consumption at a standard video decoder. Coupled with a small dedicated video internal memory cache on a decoder, the technique can substantially decrease the amount of data traffic to the external memory at the decoder. A decrease in data traffic to the external memory at decoder will result in multiple benefits: faster real-time processing and power savings. The encoder, given prior knowledge of the decoder"s dedicated video internal memory cache management scheme, regulates its choice of motion compensated predictors to reduce the decoder"s external memory accesses. This technique can be used in any standard or proprietary encoder scheme to generate a compliant output bit stream decodable by standard CPU-based and dedicated hardware-based decoders for power savings with the best quality-power cost trade off. Our simulation results show that with a relatively small amount of dedicated video internal memory cache, the technique may decrease the traffic between CPU and external memory over 50%.

  17. High currents, low voltages. Low-cost, high efficiency power supply meets the requirements of Intel Mobile Voltage Positioning; Von dicken Stroemen und kleinen Spannungen. Preiswerte Stromversorgung mit hohem Wirkungsgrad erfuellt die Anforderungen des Intel Mobile Voltage Positioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, V.W.; Guan, P.; Chen, D. [Linear Technology, CA (United States)

    2001-12-27

    The increasing demands on notebook computers have clock rates and currents and reduced voltages as CPUs are produced in increasingly smaller structural sizes. This makes high demands on power supply. [German] Die steigende Nachfrage nach Rechenleistung in Notebook-Computern hat zu einem betraechtlichen Anstieg der Taktfrequenzen und der Stromaufnahme der CPUs gefuehrt. Gleichzeitig sind die Versorgungsspannungen erheblich gesunken, da die CPUs in Prozessen mit immer kleineren Strukturgroessen hergestellt werden. Als die CPU-Taktfrequenzen 1 GHz ueberstiegen, hat die Stromaufnahme der CPU erstmals 20 A ueberschritten, und die minimale Versorgungsspannung ist auf unter 1 V gefallen. Dies stellt gewaltige Anforderungen an die Stromversorgungen. (orig.)

  18. Wide-bandwidth low-voltage PLL for powerPC(sup TM) microprocessors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jose; Sanchez, Hector; Gerosa, Gianfranco; Countryman, Roger

    1995-04-01

    A 3.3 V Phase-Locked-Loop (PLL) clock synthesizer implemented in 0.5 micron CMOS technology is described. The PLL supports internal to external clock frequency ratios of 1, 1.5, 2, 3, and 4 as well as numerous static power down modes for PowerPC(sup TM) microprocessors. The CPU clock lock range spans from 6 to 175 MHz. Lock times below 15 mu s, PLL power dissipation below 10mW as well as phase error and jitter below +/- 100 ps have been measured. The total area of the PLL is 0.52 mm(exp 2).

  19. FPGA Design and Verification Procedure for Nuclear Power Plant MMIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yoo, Kawnwoo; Ryoo, Kwangki [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    In this paper, it is shown that it is possible to ensure reliability by performing the steps of the verification based on the FPGA development methodology, to ensure the safety of application to the NPP MMIS of the FPGA run along the step. Currently, the PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) which is being developed is composed of the FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) and CPU (Central Processing Unit). As the importance of the FPGA in the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) MMIS (Man-Machine Interface System) has been increasing than before, the research on the verification of the FPGA has being more and more concentrated recently.

  20. Power-aware load balancing of large scale MPI applications

    OpenAIRE

    Etinski, Maja; Corbalán González, Julita; Labarta Mancho, Jesús José; Valero Cortés, Mateo; Veidenbaum, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Power consumption is a very important issue for HPC community, both at the level of one application or at the level of whole workload. Load imbalance of a MPI application can be exploited to save CPU energy without penalizing the execution time. An application is load imbalanced when some nodes are assigned more computation than others. The nodes with less computation can be run at lower frequency since otherwise they have to wait for the nodes with more computation blocked in MPI calls. A te...

  1. Reducing power usage on demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, G.; Dewhurst, A.

    2016-10-01

    The Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) datacentre provides large- scale High Performance Computing facilities for the scientific community. It currently consumes approximately 1.5MW and this has risen by 25% in the past two years. STFC has been investigating leveraging preemption in the Tier 1 batch farm to save power. HEP experiments are increasing using jobs that can be killed to take advantage of opportunistic CPU resources or novel cost models such as Amazon's spot pricing. Additionally, schemes from energy providers are available that offer financial incentives to reduce power consumption at peak times. Under normal operating conditions, 3% of the batch farm capacity is wasted due to draining machines. By using preempt-able jobs, nodes can be rapidly made available to run multicore jobs without this wasted resource. The use of preempt-able jobs has been extended so that at peak times machines can be hibernated quickly to save energy. This paper describes the implementation of the above and demonstrates that STFC could in future take advantage of such energy saving schemes.

  2. A heterogeneous multi-core platform for low power signal processing in systems-on-chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun; Sparsø, Jens; Haandbæk, Niels

    2002-01-01

    is based on message passing. The mini-cores are designed as parameterized soft macros intended for a synthesis based design flow. A 520.000 transistor 0.25µm CMOS prototype chip containing 6 mini-cores has been fabricated and tested. Its power consumption is only 50% higher than a hardwired ASIC and more......This paper presents a low-power and programmable DSP architecture - a heterogeneous multiprocessor platform consisting of standard CPU/DSP cores, and a set of simple instruction set processors called mini-cores each optimized for a particular class of algorithm (FIR, IIR, LMS, etc.). Communication...

  3. Low-power secure body area network for vital sensors toward IEEE802.15.6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masahiro; Qiu, Shuye; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    Many healthcare/medical services have started using personal area networks, such as Bluetooth and ZigBee; these networks consist of various types of vital sensors. These works focus on generalized functions for sensor networks that expect enough battery capacity and low-power CPU/RF (Radio Frequency) modules, but less attention to easy-to-use privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a commercially-deployable secure body area network (S-BAN) with reduced computational burden on a real sensor that has limited RAM/ROM sizes and CPU/RF power consumption under a light-weight battery. Our proposed S-BAN provides vital data ordering among sensors that are involved in an S-BAN and also provides low-power networking with zero-administration security by automatic private key generation. We design and implement the power-efficient media access control (MAC) with resource-constraint security in sensors. Then, we evaluate the power efficiency of the S-BAN consisting of small sensors, such as an accessory type ECG and ring-type SpO2. The evaluation of power efficiency of the S-BAN using real sensors convinces us in deploying S-BAN and will also help us in providing feedbacks to the IEEE802.15.6 MAC, which will be the standard for BANs.

  4. Computing power on the move

    CERN Multimedia

    Joannah Caborn Wengler

    2012-01-01

    You might sit right next to your computer as you work, use the GRID’s computing power sitting in another part of the world or share CPU time with the Cloud: actual and virtual machines communicate and exchange information, and the place where they are located is a detail of only marginal importance. CERN’s new remote computer centre will open in Hungary in 2013.   Artist's impression of the new Wigner Data Centre. (Image: Wigner). CERN’s computing department has been aiming to minimise human contact with the machines for a while now. “The problem is that people going in creates dust, and simply touching things may cause damage,” explains Wayne Salter, Leader of the IT Computing Facilities Group. A first remote centre on the other side of Geneva was opened in June 2010 and a new one will open in Hungary next year. “Once the centre in Budapest is running, we will not be going there to operate it. As far as possible, w...

  5. Large power supply facilities for fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Akira; Yamamoto, Mitsuyoshi.

    1976-01-01

    The authors had opportunities to manufacture and to operate two power supply facilities, that is, 125MVA computer controlled AC generator with a fly wheel for JIPP-T-2 stellerator in Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University and 3MW trial superconductive homopolar DC generator to the Japan Society for Promotion of Machine Industry. The 125MVA fly-wheel generator can feed both 60MW (6kV x 10kA) DC power for toroidal coils and 20MW (0.5kV x 40kA) DC power for helical coils. The characteristic features are possibility of Bung-Bung control based on Pontrjagin's maximum principle, constant current control or constant voltage control for load coils, and cpu control for routine operation. The 3MW (150V-20000A) homopolar generator is the largest in the world as superconductive one, however, this capacity is not enough for nuclear fusion research. The problems of power supply facilities for large Tokamak devices are discussed

  6. An effortless hybrid method to solve economic load dispatch problem in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourakbari-Kasmaei, M.; Rashidi-Nejad, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We proposed a fast method to get feasible solution and avoid futile search. → The method dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. → Applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 unit. → Superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time is remarkable. - Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach and coding scheme for solving economic dispatch problems (ED) in power systems through an effortless hybrid method (EHM). This novel coding scheme can effectively prevent futile searching and also prevents obtaining infeasible solutions through the application of stochastic search methods, consequently dramatically improves search efficiency and solution quality. The dominant constraint of an economic dispatch problem is power balance. The operational constraints, such as generation limitations, ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones (POZ), network loss are considered for practical operation. Firstly, in the EHM procedure, the output of generator is obtained with a lambda iteration method and without considering POZ and later in a genetic based algorithm this constraint is satisfied. To demonstrate its efficiency, feasibility and fastness, the EHM algorithm was applied to solve constrained ED problems of power systems with 6 and 15 units. The simulation results obtained from the EHM were compared to those achieved from previous literature in terms of solution quality and computational efficiency. Results reveal that the superiority of this method in both aspects of financial and CPU time.

  7. Energy and Power Measurements for Network Coding in the Context of Green Mobile Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paramanathan, Achuthan; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    results for inter-session network coding in Open-Mesh routers underline that the energy invested in performing network coding pays off by dramatically reducing the total energy for the transmission of data over wireless links. We also show measurements for intra-session network coding in three different......This paper presents an in-depth power and energy measurement campaign for inter- and intra-session network coding enabled communication in mobile clouds. The measurements are carried out on different commercial platforms with focus on routers and mobile phones with different CPU capabilities. Our...

  8. Pragmatic power

    CERN Document Server

    Eccles, William

    2008-01-01

    Pragmatic Power is focused on just three aspects of the AC electrical power system that supplies and moves the vast majority of electrical energy nearly everywhere in the world: three-phase power systems, transformers, and induction motors. The reader needs to have had an introduction to electrical circuits and AC power, although the text begins with a review of the basics of AC power. Balanced three-phase systems are studied by developing their single-phase equivalents. The study includes a look at how the cost of ""power"" is affected by reactive power and power factor. Transformers are cons

  9. A study of the laser power online detecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiue; Zhang, Rong; Li, Yongzheng

    2008-12-01

    This article introduced a fundamental of new intelligent instruments. It can be used in laser power online detecting. Based in this theory, we have made a new intelligent mini-power meter. The device adopt SPCE061A MPU to control and process the all detected data, Its CPU core is used 16-bits MPU, it is a perfect unit in industry field. It can process complicated digital signals. Its detecting parts adopt high-speed responding and high-sensitive photoelectric dynatron 3DU13 to detecting the beam's output. It respond spectrum is from 0.4 to 1.1µm, can detect any other laser source's online detecting. Which locate in this spectrum range, optical design is made up of 45 degrees high reflect device and dark body scattering structure. The detector receive a little scatter light, use on-chip ADC to sampling the detector's output. By subsection, insert value linearity, proportion calculate to beam's output powers. And then real-time to displaying by LCD. It can communicate to PC by RS232. By communicate to upper instrument and others, the users can use detected data to achieve laser power's closed-loop control, to control laser source's real time output correctly and calibrating by itself. This mini-power meter need use standard power meter to calibrate in installing, after this process, the device can detect laser power's output from 1 to 200 watts correctly. It error is less than 5 percent.

  10. Power corrupts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacon, H.; Valentine, J.

    1981-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: radiation (hazards associated with nuclear power production); wastes (radioactive wastes); accidents (actual and postulated, resulting in the release of radiation); the FBR and the plutonium cycle; costs (economics of nuclear power); spent fuel transport; civil liberties; doing without nuclear power (UK power demand; low energy strategy; energy policy; government policies; alternative energy sources). (U.K.)

  11. Nuclear power plant pressurizer fault diagnosis using fuzzy signed-digraph method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hyun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2004-01-01

    In this study, The Fuzzy Signed Digraph method which has been researched and applied to the chemical process is improved and applied to the fault diagnosis of the pressurizer in nuclear power plants. The Fuzzy Signed-Digraph (FSD) is the method which applies the fuzzy number to the Signed-Digraph (SDG) method. The current SDG methods have many merits as follows: (1) SDG method can directly use the value of sensors not the alarm to the fault diagnosis. (2) This method can diagnose the fault independent on the pattern. (3) This method can diagnose the faults fastly because the method uses the cause-effect relation instead of the complex control equation among the variables. But, they are not proper to be applied to the diagnosis of the multi-faults and to diagnose faults on real time. It is because the unmeasured nodes in those methods must be connected to each other in order to find out the single fault under the single-fault assumption. These methods need long CPU time and cannot be applied to the multi-faults diagnosis. We propose a method in which the values of the unmeasured nodes are calculated from the relations between the unmeasured nodes and the measured nodes. By using this method, the CPU time for diagnosis can be reduced. This CPU time reduction makes the real-time diagnosis possible. This method can also be applied for the multi-faults diagnosis. This method is applied to the diagnosis of the pressurizer of the nuclear power plant KORI-2 in Korea. (author)

  12. A microprocessor-based power control data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, S.

    1982-10-01

    The project reported deals with one of the aspects of power plant control and management. In order to perform optimal distribution of power and load switching, one has to solve a specific optimization problem. In order to solve this problem one needs to collect current and power expenditure data from a large number of channels and have them processed. This particular procedure is defined as data acquisition and it constitutes the main topic of this project. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system for power management is investigated and developed. The current and power data of about 100 analog channels are sampled and collected in real-time. These data are subsequently processed to calculate the power factor (cos phi) for each channel and the maximum demand. The data is processed by an AMD 9511 Arithmetic Processing Unit and the whole system is controlled by an Intel 8080A CPU. All this information is then transfered to a universal computer through a synchronized communication channel. The optimization computations would be performed by the high level computer. Different ways of performing the search of data over a large number of channels have been investigated. A particular solution to overcome the gain and offset drift of the A/D converter, using software, has been proposed. The 8080A supervises the collection and routing of data in real time, while the 9511 performs calculation, using these data. (Author)

  13. Object-Oriented Economic Power Dispatch of Electrical Power System with minimum pollution using a Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouktir

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents solution of optimal power flow (OPF problem of electrical power system via a genetic algorithm of real type. The objective is to minimize the total fuel cost of generation and environmental pollution caused by fossil based thermal generating units and also maintain an acceptable system performance in terms of limits on generator real and reactive power outputs, bus voltages, shunt capacitors/reactors, transformers tap-setting and power flow of transmission lines. CPU times can be reduced by decomposing the optimization constraints to active constraints that affect directly the cost function manipulated directly the GA, and passive constraints such as generator bus voltages and transformer tap setting maintained in their soft limits using a conventional constraint load flow. The algorithm was developed in an Object Oriented fashion, in the C++ programming language. This option satisfies the requirements of flexibility, extensibility, maintainability and data integrity. The economic power dispatch is applied to IEEE 30-bus model system (6-generator, 41-line and 20-load. The numerical results have demonstrate the effectiveness of the stochastic search algorithms because its can provide accurate dispatch solutions with reasonable time. Further analyses indicate that this method is effective for large-scale power systems.

  14. Fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancox, R.

    1981-01-01

    The principles of fusion power, and its advantages and disadvantages, are outlined. Present research programmes and future plans directed towards the development of a fusion power reactor, are summarized. (U.K.)

  15. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  16. Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    's normative power than any other academic journal, including a special issue on "What Kind of Power?" in 2006. As the leading journal in the debate, this special issue brings together seven normative power articles published in JEPP since the 2006 special issue, together with Ian Manners' ‘Normative power......The social sciences have many different understandings of ‘normative power', but in European Union (EU) studies normative power has three particular meanings. The first meaning of normative power is its emphasis on normative theory, that is, how we judge and justify truth claims in social science...... effects of EU relations with the world in areas ranging from inter-regional relations, through traditional diplomacy, to environmental politics. Research areas of particular interest include the study of the interplay between physical, material and normative forms of power, as well as the constitutive...

  17. Power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, F.P.; Altman, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry [it

  18. Low-power grating detection system chip for high-speed low-cost length and angle precision measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ligang; Luo, Rengui; Wu, Wuchen

    2006-11-01

    This paper forwards a low power grating detection chip (EYAS) on length and angle precision measurement. Traditional grating detection method, such as resister chain divide or phase locked divide circuit are difficult to design and tune. The need of an additional CPU for control and display makes these methods' implementation more complex and costly. Traditional methods also suffer low sampling speed for the complex divide circuit scheme and CPU software compensation. EYAS is an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). It integrates micro controller unit (MCU), power management unit (PMU), LCD controller, Keyboard interface, grating detection unit and other peripherals. Working at 10MHz, EYAS can afford 5MHz internal sampling rate and can handle 1.25MHz orthogonal signal from grating sensor. With a simple control interface by keyboard, sensor parameter, data processing and system working mode can be configured. Two LCD controllers can adapt to dot array LCD or segment bit LCD, which comprised output interface. PMU alters system between working and standby mode by clock gating technique to save power. EYAS in test mode (system action are more frequently than real world use) consumes 0.9mw, while 0.2mw in real world use. EYAS achieved the whole grating detection system function, high-speed orthogonal signal handling in a single chip with very low power consumption.

  19. Power program and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.F.

    1990-01-01

    Main points of the USSR power program and the role of nuclear power in fuel and power complex of the country are considered. Data on dynamics of economic indices of electric power generation at nuclear power plants during 1980-1988 and forecasts till 2000 are presented. It is shown that real cost of 1 kW/h of electric power is equal to 1.3-1.8 cop., and total reduced cost is equal to 1.8-2.4 cop

  20. Power Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They cover a wide spectrum of areas from power supplies to power system ... Ramanarayanan describe the modelling and design of a family of soft transition ... of power when the drive is operating in the braking mode and fast dynamic response. ... time models are extremely important, as they can be included in real time ...

  1. Power Outages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Emergency Alerts Preparedness Portal Preparedness Messaging Calendar Social Media Preparedness Toolkits Preparedness News Languages About Us Build a Kit Close Search Enter Search Term(s): Main Content Home Be Informed Power Outages Power Outages Extended power outages may impact ...

  2. Modeling and Simulation of DC Power Electronics Systems Using Harmonic State Space (HSS) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Jun Bum; Wang, Xiongfei; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    based on the state-space averaging and generalized averaging, these also have limitations to show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulations. This paper presents a modeling and simulation method for a large dc power electronic system by using Harmonic State Space (HSS) modeling......For the efficiency and simplicity of electric systems, the dc based power electronics systems are widely used in variety applications such as electric vehicles, ships, aircrafts and also in homes. In these systems, there could be a number of dynamic interactions between loads and other dc-dc....... Through this method, the required computation time and CPU memory for large dc power electronics systems can be reduced. Besides, the achieved results show the same results as with the non-linear time domain simulation, but with the faster simulation time which is beneficial in a large network....

  3. Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas-Hamilton, J.; Home Robertson, J.; Beith, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this debate the Government's policy on nuclear power is discussed. Government policy is that nuclear power is the safest and cleanest way of generating electricity and is cheap. Other political parties who do not endorse a nuclear energy policy are considered not to be acting in the people's best interests. The debate ranged over the risks from nuclear power, the UK safety record, safety regulations, and the environmental effects of nuclear power. The Torness nuclear power plant was mentioned specifically. The energy policy of the opposition parties is strongly criticised. The debate lasted just over an hour and is reported verbatim. (UK)

  4. Development of a power-assisted lifting device for construction and periodic inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayatsu, M.; Yamada, M.; Takasu, H.; Tagawa, Y.; Kajiwara, K.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the control system design and control performance of a power-assisted lifting device. The device consists of several electric chain-blocks, each controlled by force sensors and a CPU. The mechanism is as follows: (1) Force sensors detect any chain tension changes (by human force), (2) The CPU calculates the required output, (3) Electric chain-blocks move the object in the intended direction. The feature of this device is that it does not require any information related to the suspension points of the electric chain-blocks. The controller was designed using the H method, which considers disturbances and aims to provide robust stability under the operation conditions of construction verified through experiments using a 700 kg steel dummy mass (control object) suspended by four electric chain-blocks. In the experiments, the controller, which was designed using the H method, was compared to the PI controller method, and the effectiveness of the H controller was proven. A control object could be moved, translated, and rotated by human force (of less than 10 kg). Positioning performance errors were suppressed to less than 0.5 mm, and operation time was reduced by about 50%. This device will improve working efficiency and rationalize lifting operations in nuclear power plants. (author)

  5. Development of a power-assisted lifting device for construction and periodic inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayatsu, M.; Yamada, M.; Takasu, H. [Hitachi Plant Engineering and Construction, Chiba-ken (Japan); Tagawa, Y. [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan); Kajiwara, K. [National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    This study focuses on the control system design and control performance of a power-assisted lifting device. The device consists of several electric chain-blocks, each controlled by force sensors and a CPU. The mechanism is as follows: (1) Force sensors detect any chain tension changes (by human force), (2) The CPU calculates the required output, (3) Electric chain-blocks move the object in the intended direction. The feature of this device is that it does not require any information related to the suspension points of the electric chain-blocks. The controller was designed using the H method, which considers disturbances and aims to provide robust stability under the operation conditions of construction verified through experiments using a 700 kg steel dummy mass (control object) suspended by four electric chain-blocks. In the experiments, the controller, which was designed using the H method, was compared to the PI controller method, and the effectiveness of the H controller was proven. A control object could be moved, translated, and rotated by human force (of less than 10 kg). Positioning performance errors were suppressed to less than 0.5 mm, and operation time was reduced by about 50%. This device will improve working efficiency and rationalize lifting operations in nuclear power plants. (author)

  6. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    A standard way to realize communication in microgrid control is to use an external communication network, such as modems for wireless or power-line communication, whose implementation may be inefficient in terms of deployment cost, complexity, and system stability. In this chapter we present......, while its reliability and availability draw on the reliability and availability of the microgrid power transmission system....... a communication solution, denoted as power talk, which is solely based on the use of the existing microgrid power equipment (i.e., power electronics and buses). The pivotal idea is to modulate information in the power-related parameters of the microgrid buses by use of the flexibility of power electronic...

  7. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Arthur.

    1980-01-01

    This chapter of the final report of the Royal Commission on Electric Power Planning in Ontario updates its interim report on nuclear power in Ontario (1978) in the light of the Three Mile Island accident and presents the commission's general conclusions and recommendations relating to nuclear power. The risks of nuclear power, reactor safety with special reference to Three Mile Island and incidents at the Bruce generating station, the environmental effects of uranium mining and milling, waste management, nuclear power economics, uranium supplies, socio-political issues, and the regulation of nuclear power are discussed. Specific recommendations are made concerning the organization and public control of Ontario Hydro, but the commission concluded that nuclear power is acceptable in Ontario as long as satisfactory progress is made in the disposal of uranium mill tailings and spent fuel wastes. (LL)

  8. Power Aware Simulation Framework for Wireless Sensor Networks and Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Weber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The constrained resources of sensor nodes limit analytical techniques and cost-time factors limit test beds to study wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Consequently, simulation becomes an essential tool to evaluate such systems.We present the power aware wireless sensors (PAWiS simulation framework that supports design and simulation of wireless sensor networks and nodes. The framework emphasizes power consumption capturing and hence the identification of inefficiencies in various hardware and software modules of the systems. These modules include all layers of the communication system, the targeted class of application itself, the power supply and energy management, the central processing unit (CPU, and the sensor-actuator interface. The modular design makes it possible to simulate heterogeneous systems. PAWiS is an OMNeT++ based discrete event simulator written in C++. It captures the node internals (modules as well as the node surroundings (network, environment and provides specific features critical to WSNs like capturing power consumption at various levels of granularity, support for mobility, and environmental dynamics as well as the simulation of timing effects. A module library with standardized interfaces and a power analysis tool have been developed to support the design and analysis of simulation models. The performance of the PAWiS simulator is comparable with other simulation environments.

  9. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers` sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  10. Stockholm Power Tech. Power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings from this symposium is presented in six volumes: Invited speakers' sessions; Power systems; Power electronics; High-voltage technology; Electrical machines and drives; and Information and control systems. This report covers the power systems volume. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 141 of the 145 papers in this volume

  11. Power-Energy Simulation for Multi-Core Processors in Bench-marking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abou-Of

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At Microarchitectural level, multi-core processor, as a complex System on Chip, has sophisticated on-chip components including cores, shared caches, interconnects and system controllers such as memory and ethernet controllers. At technological level, architects should consider the device types forecast in the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS. Energy simulation enables architects to study two important metrics simultaneously. Timing is a key element of the CPU performance that imposes constraints on the CPU target clock frequency. Power and the resulting heat impose more severe design constraints, such as core clustering, while semiconductor industry is providing more transistors in the die area in pace with Moore’s law. Energy simulators provide a solution for such serious challenge. Energy is modelled either by combining performance benchmarking tool with a power simulator or by an integrated framework of both performance simulator and power profiling system. This article presents and asses trade-offs between different architectures using four cores battery-powered mobile systems by running a custom-made and a standard benchmark tools. The experimental results assure the Energy/ Frequency convexity rule over a range of frequency settings on different number of enabled cores. The reported results show that increasing the number of cores has a great effect on increasing the power consumption. However, a minimum energy dissipation will occur at a lower frequency which reduces the power consumption. Despite that, increasing the number of cores will also increase the effective cores value which will reflect a better processor performance.

  12. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, P.

    1990-01-01

    Written from the basis of neutrality, neither for nor against nuclear power this book considers whether there are special features of nuclear power which mean that its development should be either promoted or restrained by the State. The author makes it dear that there are no easy answers to the questions raised by the intervention of nuclear power but calls for openness in the nuclear decision making process. First, the need for energy is considered; most people agree that energy is the power to progress. Then the historicalzed background to the current position of nuclear power is given. Further chapters consider the fuel cycle, environmental impacts including carbon dioxide emission and the greenhouse effect, the costs, safety and risks and waste disposal. No conclusion either for or against nuclear power is made. The various shades of opinion are outlined and the arguments presented so that readers can come to their own conclusions. (UK)

  13. Cyber Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    government. Another way of looking at power in the cyber domain is to consider the three faces or aspects of relational power. 1st Face: (A induces B do...power. For example, on the February 2010 anniversary of the Iranian Revolution, the government slowed the internet to prevent protesters sending films ...all but a few government controlled Web sites. The damage to business and tourism was significant, but the Chinese government was more concerned

  14. Star power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the fight over the diminishing supply of fossil fuels and how there could be an unlimited, clean and politically free source of power just over the horizon. Fusion was discovered as a much better, inexhaustable supply of power, it only takes a few atoms to fuse for fusion to take off. Fusion once started will continue until all the fuel is exhausted. It is expected, that with the current rate of progess, in fifty years time scientists will achieve practical fusion power

  15. Development of a Multi-Channel Ultrasonic Testing System for Automated Ultrasonic Pipe Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Jong; Cho, Chan Hee; Cho, Hyun Joon

    2009-01-01

    Currently almost all in-service-inspection techniques, applied in domestic nuclear power plants, are partial to field inspection technique. These kinds of techniques are related to managing nuclear power plants by the operation of foreign-produced inspection devices. There have been so many needs for development of native in-service-inspection device because there is no native diagnosis device for nuclear power plant inspection yet in Korea. In this research, we developed several core techniques to make an automated ultrasonic pipe inspection system for nuclear power plants. A high performance multi-channel ultrasonic pulser/receiver module, an A/D converter module and a digital main CPU module were developed and the performance of the developed modules was verified. The S/N ratio, noise level and signal acquisition performance of the developed modules showed proper level as we designed in the beginning.

  16. Simulation of Oscillations in High Power Klystrons

    CERN Document Server

    Ko, K

    2003-01-01

    Spurious oscillations can seriously limit a klystron's performance from reaching its design specifications. These are modes with frequencies different from the drive frequency, and have been found to be localized in various regions of the tube. If left unsuppressed, such oscillations can be driven to large amplitudes by the beam. As a result, the main output signal may suffer from amplitude and phase instabilities which lead to pulse shortening or reduction in power generation efficiency, as observed during the testing of the first 150MW S-band klystron, which was designed and built at SLAC as a part of an international collaboration with DESY. We present efficient methods to identify suspicious modes and then test their possibility of oscillation. In difference to [3], where each beam-loaded quality-factor Qbl was calculated by time-consuming PIC simulations, now only tracking-simulations with much reduced cpu-time and less sensitivity against noise are applied. This enables the determination of Qbl for larg...

  17. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel communication strategy called Power Talk is introduced to realize the power line communication among the Voltage Source Converters (VSC) of DC MicroGrids (MGs). Each VSC transmits information by changing the control parameters, and receives information by observing the local...

  18. Power Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar; Angjelichinoski, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a novel communication strategy for DC Micro Grids (MGs), termed power talk, in which the devices communicate by modulating the power levels in the DC bus. The information is transmitted by varying the parameters that the MG units use to control the level of the common bus voltage...

  19. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss on nuclear power and its advantages. The concept of nucleus fission, fusion, electric generation are discussed in this chapter. Nuclear power has big potential to become alternative energy to substitute current conventional energy from coal, oil and gas

  20. Power Electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Such real time models are extremely important, as they can be included in real time simulation of sys- tems to evolve control schemes for the converters as well as to study the effect on the power system. In view of the control possibilities offered by the use of power converters and the newly emerging applications, there has ...

  1. Powering Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines Mexico's demand for electricity and the market for independent power generation. The topics discussed in the article include the outlook for the 1990s for growth in Mexico's economy and energy demand, renewable energy, energy conservation, small-scale, off-grid renewable energy systems, and estimates of Mexico's market for electric power generating equipment

  2. Enersave API: Android-based power-saving framework for mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Muharum

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Power consumption is a major factor to be taken into consideration when using mobile devices in the IoT field. Good Power management requires proper understanding of the way in which it is being consumed by the end-devices. This paper is a continuation of the work in Ref. [1] and proposes an energy saving API for the Android Operating System in order to help developers turn their applications into energy-aware ones. The main features heavily used for building smart applications, greatly impact battery life of Android devices and which have been taken into consideration are: Screen brightness, Colour scheme, CPU frequency, 2G/3G network, Maps, Low power localisation, Bluetooth and Wi-Fi. The assessment of the power-saving API has been performed on real Android devices and also compared to the most powerful power-saving applications – DU Battery Saver and Battery Saver 2016 – currently available on the Android market. Comparisons demonstrate that the Enersave API has a significant impact on power saving when incorporated in android applications. While DU Battery Saver and Battery Saver 2016 help saving 22.2% and 40.5% of the battery power respectively, the incorporation of the Enersave API in android applications can help save 84.6% of battery power.

  3. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The key element of our pulsed power program is concentration of power in time and space by suppression of breakdown in dielectrics and in vacuum. Magnetically insulated vacuum transmission lines and magnetic suppression of insulator flashover have continued as the main reserch directions. Vacuum insulated line studies at Physics International have been expanded and a test bed at Sandia, called MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment), is under development. The choice for the baseline EBFA design will depend on the outcome of these studies and should be made in July 1977. The slow and intermediate speed pulsed power approaches to EBFA will be based on Proto I and Proto II results and several of the projected EBFA subsystems are presently being tested in Proto II. A further stage of power concentration, within the vacuum diode itself, would considerably ease the burden on dielectrics; methods of power multiplication involving magnetically imploded plasmas are being considered and tests have begun using the Ripple III apparatus

  4. A novel evolutionary algorithm for dynamic economic dispatch with energy saving and emission reduction in power system integrated wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Gwo-Ching

    2011-01-01

    An optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the economic dispatch problem that includes wind farm using the Chaotic Quantum Genetic Algorithm (CQGA). In addition to the detailed models of economic dispatch introduction and their associated constraints, the wind power effect is also included in this paper. The chaotic quantum genetic algorithm used to solve the economic dispatch process and discussed with real scenarios used for the simulation tests. After comparing the proposed algorithm with several other algorithms commonly used to solve optimization problems, the results show that the proposed algorithm is able to find the optimal solution quickly and accurately (i.e. to obtain the minimum cost for power generation in the shortest time). At the end, the impact to the total cost savings for power generation after adding (or not adding) wind power generation is also discussed. The actual implementation results prove that the proposed algorithm is economical, fast and practical. They are quite valuable for further research. -- Research highlights: → Quantum Genetic Algorithm can effectively improve the global search ability. → It can achieve the real objective of the global optimal solutions. → The CPU computation time is less than that other algorithms adopted in this paper.

  5. Scalability under a Power Bound using the GREMLINs Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiterth, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    With the move towards exascale, system and software developers will have to deal with issues of extreme parallelism. The system properties affected most by the increase in node and core count are the shared resources on node and across the system. The increase in parallelism leads to reduced memory and bandwidth when regarding individual cores. Since power is a limiting factor for supercomputers, and power is not fully utilized in current systems, overprovisioning compute resources is a viable approach to maximized power utilization. To maximize system performance in regard to these changing conditions, it is necessary to understand how resource restrictions impact performance and system behavior. For the purpose of understanding anticipated system properties the GREMLINs Framework was developed. The framework gives the opportunity to add power restrictions, hinder memory properties and introduce faults to study resilience, among others. These features give the opportunity to use current petascale technology to study problems system designers and software developers will have to face when moving towards exascale and beyond. This work describes the initial release of the GREMLINs Framework, developed for this work, and shows how it can be used to study the scaling behavior of proxy applications. These proxy applications represent a selection of HPC workloads important to the scientific community. The proxy applications studied are AMG2013, an algebraic multi-grid linear system solver, CoMD, a classical molecular dynamics proxy application and NEKBONE, an application that uses a high order spectral element method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The main interest of these studies lies in analysis regarding their power behavior at scale under a power bound. These findings show how the GREMLINs Framework can help systems and software designers to attain better application performance and can also be used as basis for CPU power balancing tools to use power more

  6. Scalability under a Power Bound using the GREMLINs Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiterth, Matthias [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)

    2015-02-16

    With the move towards exascale, system and software developers will have to deal with issues of extreme parallelism. The system properties affected most by the increase in node and core count are the shared resources on node and across the system. The increase in parallelism leads to reduced memory and bandwidth when regarding individual cores. Since power is a limiting factor for supercomputers, and power is not fully utilized in current systems, overprovisioning compute resources is a viable approach to maximized power utilization. To maximize system performance in regard to these changing conditions, it is necessary to understand how resource restrictions impact performance and system behavior. For the purpose of understanding anticipated system properties the GREMLINs Framework was developed. The framework gives the opportunity to add power restrictions, hinder memory properties and introduce faults to study resilience, among others. These features give the opportunity to use current petascale technology to study problems system designers and software developers will have to face when moving towards exascale and beyond. This work describes the initial release of the GREMLINs Framework, developed for this work, and shows how it can be used to study the scaling behavior of proxy applications. These proxy applications represent a selection of HPC workloads important to the scientific community. The proxy applications studied are AMG2013, an algebraic multi-grid linear system solver, CoMD, a classical molecular dynamics proxy application and NEKBONE, an application that uses a high order spectral element method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations. The main interest of these studies lies in analysis regarding their power behavior at scale under a power bound. These findings show how the GREMLINs Framework can help systems and software designers to attain better application performance and can also be used as basis for CPU power balancing tools to use power more

  7. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The committee concludes that the nature of the proliferation problem is such that even stopping nuclear power completely could not stop proliferation completely. Countries can acquire nuclear weapons by means independent of commercial nuclear power. It is reasonable to suppose if a country is strongly motivated to acquire nuclear weapons, it will have them by 2010, or soon thereafter, no matter how nuclear power is managed in the meantime. Unilateral and international diplomatic measures to reduce the motivations that lead to proliferation should be high on the foreign policy agenda of the United States. A mimimum antiproliferation prescription for the management of nuclear power is to try to raise the political barriers against proliferation through misuse of nuclear power by strengthening the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and to seek to raise the technological barriers by placing fuel-cycle operations involving weapons-usable material under international control. Any such measures should be considered tactics to slow the spread of nuclear weapons and thus earn time for the exercise of statesmanship. The committee concludes the following about technical factors that should be considered in formulating nuclear policy: (1) rate of growth of electricity use is a primary factor; (2) growth of conventional nuclear power will be limited by producibility of domestic uranium sources; (3) greater contribution of nuclear power beyond 400 GWe past the year 2000 can only be supported by advanced reactor systems; and (4) several different breeder reactors could serve in principle as candidates for an indefinitely sustainable source of energy

  8. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  9. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Khalik Wood

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the following topics related to the nuclear power: nuclear reactions, nuclear reactors and its components - reactor fuel, fuel assembly, moderator, control system, coolants. The topics titled nuclear fuel cycle following subtopics are covered: , mining and milling, tailings, enrichment, fuel fabrication, reactor operations, radioactive waste and fuel reprocessing. Special topic on types of nuclear reactor highlighted the reactors for research, training, production, material testing and quite detail on reactors for electricity generation. Other related topics are also discussed: sustainability of nuclear power, renewable nuclear fuel, human capital, environmental friendly, emission free, impacts on global warming and air pollution, conservation and preservation, and future prospect of nuclear power

  10. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bupp, I.C.

    1991-01-01

    Is a nuclear power renaissance likely to occur in the United States? This paper investigates the many driving forces that will determine the answer to that question. This analysis reveals some frequently overlooked truths about the current state of nuclear technology: An examination of the issues also produces some noteworthy insights concerning government regulations and related technologies. Public opinion will play a major role in the unfolding story of the nuclear power renaissance. Some observers are betting that psychological, sociological, and political considerations will hod sway over public attitudes. Others wager that economic and technical concerns will prevail. The implications for the nuclear power renaissance are striking

  11. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun [PONUTech Co. Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  12. A Study of BUS Architecture Design for Controller of Nuclear Power Plant Using FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongil; Yun, Donghwa; Hwang, Sungjae; Kim, Myeongyun; Lee, Dongyun

    2014-01-01

    CPU (Central Processing Unit) operating speed and communication rate have been more technically improved than before. However, whole system is been a degradation of performance by electronic and structural limitation of parallel bus. Transmission quantity and speed have a limit and need arbiter in order to do arbitration because several boards shared parallel bus. Arbiter is a high complexity in implementing so it increases component per chip. If a parallel bus uses, it will occurs some problems what are reflection noise, power/ground noise (or ground bounce) as SSN (Simultaneous Switching Noise) and crosstalk noise like magnetic coupling. In this paper, in order to solve a problem of parallel bus in controller of NPP (Nuclear Power Plant), proposes the bus architecture design using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) based on LVDS (Low Voltage Differential Signaling)

  13. The Development of Power Detection System Using One-Chip Microcontroller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Sa Hyun; Choi, Nkak II; Lee, Sung Kil; Lim, Yang Su; Cho Geum Bae; Baek, Hyung Lae [Chosun University, Kwangju(Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes on the development of power detection system with one-chop microcontroller. The designed system is composed of power detection circuits and analyzing software. The system detects 3-phases voltage, 3-phases current, external temperature, leakage current and stores in flash memory AT89C52 was used as CPU and AM29F040 was used as memory to store the data. The analysis software was developed to detect the cause of the electrical fire incidents. With a data-compression technology, the data can be stored for the 43.5 days in a normal state, four hours and fifteen minutes in emergency state. (author). 7 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Power'' describes how a reactor works and examines the different designs including Magnox, AGR, RBMK and PWR. It charts the growth of nuclear generation in the world and its contributions to world energy resources. (author)

  15. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  16. Introduction to electrical power and power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2012-01-01

    Power Generation, Distribution, and Utilization AC Power Fundamentals Common Aspects of Power Equipments AC Generator AC and DC Motors Transformer Power Cable Power Distribution Fault Current Analysis System ProtectionEconomic Use of PowerElectrochemical BatteryPower Electronics and Motor Drives Power Electronics Devices DC-DC Converters AC-DC-AC Converters Variable-Frequency Drives Quality of Power Power Converter CoolingAppendixIndex

  17. Analysis of Characteristics of Power Consumption for Context-Aware Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeyeon Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a large portion of smartphone applications (Apps has targeted context-aware services. They aim to perceive users’ real-time context like his/her location, actions, or even emotion, and to provide various customized services based on the inferred context. However, context-awareness in mobile environments has some challenging issues due to limitations of devices themselves. Limited power is regarded as the most critical problem in context-awareness on smartphones. Many studies have tried to develop low-power methods, but most of them have focused on the power consumption of H/W modules of smartphones such as CPU and LCD. Only a few research papers have recently started to present some S/W-based approaches to improve the power consumption. That is, previous works did not consider energy consumed by context-awareness of Apps. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on the power consumption of context-aware Apps. We analyze the characteristics of context-aware Apps in a perspective of the power consumption, and then define two main factors which significantly influence the power consumption: a sort of context that context-aware Apps require for their services and a type of ways that a user uses them. The experimental result shows the reasonability and the possibility to develop low-power methods based on our analysis. That is, our analysis presented in this paper will be a foundation for energy-efficient context-aware services in mobile environments.

  18. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gipe, P.

    2007-01-01

    This book is a translation of the edition published in the USA under the title of ''wind power: renewable energy for home, farm and business''. In the wake of mass blackouts and energy crises, wind power remains a largely untapped resource of renewable energy. It is a booming worldwide industry whose technology, under the collective wing of aficionados like author Paul Gipe, is coming of age. Wind Power guides us through the emergent, sometimes daunting discourse on wind technology, giving frank explanations of how to use wind technology wisely and sound advice on how to avoid common mistakes. Since the mid-1970's, Paul Gipe has played a part in nearly every aspect of wind energy development from installing small turbines to promoting wind energy worldwide. As an American proponent of renewable energy, Gipe has earned the acclaim and respect of European energy specialists for years, but his arguments have often fallen on deaf ears at home. Today, the topic of wind power is cropping up everywhere from the beaches of Cape Cod to the Oregon-Washington border, and one wind turbine is capable of producing enough electricity per year to run 200 average American households. Now, Paul Gipe is back to shed light on this increasingly important energy source with a revised edition of Wind Power. Over the course of his career, Paul Gipe has been a proponent, participant, observer, and critic of the wind industry. His experience with wind has given rise to two previous books on the subject, Wind Energy Basics and Wind Power for Home and Business, which have sold over 50,000 copies. Wind Power for Home and Business has become a staple for both homeowners and professionals interested in the subject, and now, with energy prices soaring, interest in wind power is hitting an all-time high. With chapters on output and economics, Wind Power discloses how much you can expect from each method of wind technology, both in terms of energy and financial savings. The book updated models

  19. Powerfarm: A power and emergency management thread-based software tool for the ATLAS Napoli Tier2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doria, Alessandra; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Merola, Leonardo; Iengo, Salvatore; Ricciardi, Sergio; Staffa, Mariacarla

    2010-01-01

    The large computing power and the storage systems available in a Grid site or in a computing center are composed of several servers and devices, each with its own specific role in the center. A management and fault recovery system is of primary importance for management operations and to preserve the integrity of the systems in case of emergencies, such as power outages or temperature peaks. We developed Powerfarm, a customizable thread-based software system that monitors several parameters such as, for example, the status of power supplies, room and CPU temperatures and it promptly reacts to values out of range with the appropriate actions. Powerfarm enforces hardware and software dependencies between devices and it is able to switch them on/off in the particular order induced by the dependencies, so it's also useful for the site administrator to speed up the management of scheduled downtimes.

  20. Optimizing The Performance of Streaming Numerical Kernels On The IBM Blue Gene/P PowerPC 450

    KAUST Repository

    Malas, Tareq

    2011-07-01

    Several emerging petascale architectures use energy-efficient processors with vectorized computational units and in-order thread processing. On these architectures the sustained performance of streaming numerical kernels, ubiquitous in the solution of partial differential equations, represents a formidable challenge despite the regularity of memory access. Sophisticated optimization techniques beyond the capabilities of modern compilers are required to fully utilize the Central Processing Unit (CPU). The aim of the work presented here is to improve the performance of streaming numerical kernels on high performance architectures by developing efficient algorithms to utilize the vectorized floating point units. The importance of the development time demands the creation of tools to enable simple yet direct development in assembly to utilize the power-efficient cores featuring in-order execution and multiple-issue units. We implement several stencil kernels for a variety of cached memory scenarios using our Python instruction simulation and generation tool. Our technique simplifies the development of efficient assembly code for the IBM Blue Gene/P supercomputer\\'s PowerPC 450. This enables us to perform high-level design, construction, verification, and simulation on a subset of the CPU\\'s instruction set. Our framework has the capability to implement streaming numerical kernels on current and future high performance architectures. Finally, we present several automatically generated implementations, including a 27-point stencil achieving a 1.7x speedup over the best previously published results.

  1. Malaysia power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, Z.A. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1994-09-01

    Describes the organisation of the Malaysian electric power industry and the role of natural gas and coal in power generation in the country. At present, electricity is produced by three utilities: Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) which was fully privatised in May 1992 with the Government holding about 73% of the equity, Sarawak Electricity Supply Corporation (SESCO) which the Government plans to privatise soon, and Sabah Electricity Board (SEB). These have installed capacities of 7000 MW, 400 MW and 350 MW, respectively. Five independent power producers have been given licences to build, own and operate power plants with a total installed capacity of 4000 MW. Natural gas is expected to account for about 72% of Malaysia's power generating fuel by the year 2010, compared to about 50% at present. Malaysia currently has only one coal-fired plant, but its expansion is in the final stage of contract awards. A number of small capacity coal-fired plants are being planned for Sabah and Sarawak where the bulk of Malaysia's coal resources are located. 3 figs., 1 photo.

  2. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    At the end of 2008,the European wind power capacity had risen to 65,247 MW which is a 15,1% increase on 2007. The financial crisis does not appear to have any real consequences of the wind power sector's activity in 2008. At the end of 2008 the European Union accommodated 53,9% of the world's wind power capacity. The top ten countries in terms of installed wind capacities are: 1) Usa with 25,388 MW, 2) Germany with 23,903 MW, 3) Spain with 16,740 MW, 4) China with 12,200 MW, 5) India with 9,645 MW, 6) Italy with 3,736 MW, 7) France with 3,542 MW, 8) U.K. with 3,406 MW, 9) Denmark with 3,166 MW and 10) Portugal with 2,862 MW. (A.C.)

  3. Developing powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Three new reports commissioned by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change examine the electric power sectors in Argentina, Brazil, and China, and the potential impact that energy use in each country has on climate change.In 1999, Argentina voluntarily agreed to lower its greenhouse gas emissions to 2 10% below projected emissions for 2012. The report looks at additional steps that could further reduce emissions, including adopting policies that favor renewable energy sources and nuclear power, and increasing energy efficiency by end-users.

  4. Tidal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This book describes how large tides develop in particular places and how the energy could be extracted by building suitable barrages. The principal features of a barrage and possible methods of operation are described in detail. Although a tidal power barrage would be non-polluting, the resulting changes in the tidal regime would have important environmental effects. These are discussed together with the economics of tidal power. Methods of assessing the likely cost of electricity from any site are set out and applied to possible sites around the world. (author)

  5. A low power biomedical signal processor ASIC based on hardware software codesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Z D; Wang, L; Chen, W G; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y T

    2009-01-01

    A low power biomedical digital signal processor ASIC based on hardware and software codesign methodology was presented in this paper. The codesign methodology was used to achieve higher system performance and design flexibility. The hardware implementation included a low power 32bit RISC CPU ARM7TDMI, a low power AHB-compatible bus, and a scalable digital co-processor that was optimized for low power Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculations. The co-processor could be scaled for 8-point, 16-point and 32-point FFTs, taking approximate 50, 100 and 150 clock circles, respectively. The complete design was intensively simulated using ARM DSM model and was emulated by ARM Versatile platform, before conducted to silicon. The multi-million-gate ASIC was fabricated using SMIC 0.18 microm mixed-signal CMOS 1P6M technology. The die area measures 5,000 microm x 2,350 microm. The power consumption was approximately 3.6 mW at 1.8 V power supply and 1 MHz clock rate. The power consumption for FFT calculations was less than 1.5 % comparing with the conventional embedded software-based solution.

  6. FY17 CSSE L2 Milestone Report: Analyzing Power Usage Characteristics of Workloads Running on Trinity.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedretti, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report summarizes the work performed as part of a FY17 CSSE L2 milestone to in- vestigate the power usage behavior of ASC workloads running on the ATS-1 Trinity plat- form. Techniques were developed to instrument application code regions of interest using the Power API together with the Kokkos profiling interface and Caliper annotation library. Experiments were performed to understand the power usage behavior of mini-applications and the SNL/ATDM SPARC application running on ATS-1 Trinity Haswell and Knights Landing compute nodes. A taxonomy of power measurement approaches was identified and presented, providing a guide for application developers to follow. Controlled scaling study experiments were performed on up to 2048 nodes of Trinity along with smaller scale ex- periments on Trinity testbed systems. Additionally, power and energy system monitoring information from Trinity was collected and archived for post analysis of "in-the-wild" work- loads. Results were analyzed to assess the sensitivity of the workloads to ATS-1 compute node type (Haswell vs. Knights Landing), CPU frequency control, node-level power capping control, OpenMP configuration, Knights Landing on-package memory configuration, and algorithm/solver configuration. Overall, this milestone lays groundwork for addressing the long-term goal of determining how to best use and operate future ASC platforms to achieve the greatest benefit subject to a constrained power budget.

  7. Power electronics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kishore Chatterjee

    This special issue of Sadhana is a compilation of papers selected from those presented at the 7th National Power. Electronics Conference (NPEC), held at the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, on 21–23 December 2015. From among the papers presented in NPEC-2017, selected papers were peer-reviewed for ...

  8. Wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the wind power. It presents the principles, the technology takes off, its applications and technology focus, the global market trends and the outlooks and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  9. Comic Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the growing attention to the politics of comedy in the United States and elsewhere, this article asks what it would mean to think critically about relations of power mobilized through cheerfulness, humor, and laughter. The article shows that existing answers to this question are tainted...

  10. Plug Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, A. [Plug Power Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described Plug Power's GenDrive hydrogen fuel cell unit that supplies the power needs for folk lift trucks used in high-throughput distribution and high-volume manufacturing operations. The system offers an alternative to lead acid batteries, providing maximum performance at all times during use. The system is particularly useful in the material handling industry, where the revenue generated is based on operator uptime and lift truck productivity. The use of the system allows customers to reduce operational costs and expand valuable floor space by eliminating batteries and associated recharging infrastructure. Fuel cell units also reduce the wear on truck motors. Truck operators can easily and safely refuel at hydrogen fueling stations in 1-5 minutes. GenDrive works with all major OEM lift trucks, making the transition seamless. Commercial customers are investing in this solution to improve their current operations. In 2008, Plug Power sold to Wal-Mart, Bridgestone Firestone and Nestle. Most notably, Central Grocers purchased 220 fuel cell units for a new greenfield distribution center. Plug Power currently has more than 380 systems in operation.

  11. Nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The question 'Do we really need nuclear power' is tackled within the context of Christian beliefs. First, an estimate is made of the energy requirements in the future and whether it can be got in conventional ways. The dangers of all the ways of supplying energy (eg coal mining, oil and gas production) are considered scientifically. Also the cost of each source and its environmental effects are debated. The consequences of developing a new energy source, as well as the consequences of not developing it, are considered. Decisions must also take into account a belief about the ultimate purpose of life, the relation of men to each other and to nature. Each issue is raised and questions for discussion are posed. On the whole the book comes down in favour of nuclear power.

  12. Pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Options for EBFA-I were narrowed as data became available from Proto II, MITE and power flow research. The solid dielectric capacitors proposed for intermediate stores have been eliminated for EBFA because of low reliability. Water capacitors based on data from Proto II and Hydra will be used on EBFA. Improved SF-6 switching data from Proto II shows that present parameters are adequate for EBFA. A switch jitter of 3 ns with reliability exceeding 0.986 was demonstrated. Proto II has achieved the design output and is now a user oriented accelerator. Several desirable features of the disc accelerator were proven. Initial magnetic insulation experiments on a 1.5 m-long-triplate show small energy and power losses. Theoretical understanding of magnetic insulation was greatly enhanced and agreement between projections and experiment were obtained

  13. Modeling the Power Variability of Core Speed Scaling on Homogeneous Multicore Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihui Du

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a family of power models that can capture the nonuniform power effects of speed scaling among homogeneous cores on multicore processors. These models depart from traditional ones, which assume that individual cores contribute to power consumption as independent entities. In our approach, we remove this independence assumption and employ statistical variables of core speed (average speed and the dispersion of the core speeds to capture the comprehensive heterogeneous impact of subtle interactions among the underlying hardware. We systematically explore the model family, deriving basic and refined models that give progressively better fits, and analyze them in detail. The proposed methodology provides an easy way to build power models to reflect the realistic workings of current multicore processors more accurately. Moreover, unlike the existing lower-level power models that require knowledge of microarchitectural details of the CPU cores and the last level cache to capture core interdependency, ours are easier to use and scalable to emerging and future multicore architectures with more cores. These attributes make the models particularly useful to system users or algorithm designers who need a quick way to estimate power consumption. We evaluate the family of models on contemporary x86 multicore processors using the SPEC2006 benchmarks. Our best model yields an average predicted error as low as 5%.

  14. Study of time-critical diagnostic method for emergency operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, A.; Yoshikawa, H.; Itoh, K.; Wakabayashi, J.

    1986-01-01

    In order to support the emergency operation of nuclear power plant, the method of time-critical diagnostic plant analyzer has been investigated. The conception of the emergency operation support center is proposed and two types of plant analyzer may be installed in this center. One analyzer is a real-time tracking simulation code using the observed signals and another is a fast trend-prediction code. A real-time tracking code, TOKRAC, has been developed for analyzing the PWR primary loop thermo-hydraulics at SBLOCA, and the applicability of this code was examined by the numerical experiments for the initial phase transient of both TMI-2 accident and 6% coldleg SBLOCA of a Westinghouse-type PWR plant. The results showed that fairly good tracking was carried out by TOKRAC. The CPU time of TOKRAC was about 12-14 percent of real-time

  15. Optimizing the performance of streaming numerical kernels on the IBM Blue Gene/P PowerPC 450 processor

    KAUST Repository

    Malas, Tareq Majed Yasin

    2012-05-21

    Several emerging petascale architectures use energy-efficient processors with vectorized computational units and in-order thread processing. On these architectures the sustained performance of streaming numerical kernels, ubiquitous in the solution of partial differential equations, represents a challenge despite the regularity of memory access. Sophisticated optimization techniques are required to fully utilize the CPU. We propose a new method for constructing streaming numerical kernels using a high-level assembly synthesis and optimization framework. We describe an implementation of this method in Python targeting the IBM® Blue Gene®/P supercomputer\\'s PowerPC® 450 core. This paper details the high-level design, construction, simulation, verification, and analysis of these kernels utilizing a subset of the CPU\\'s instruction set. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by implementing several three-dimensional stencil kernels over a variety of cached memory scenarios and analyzing the mechanically scheduled variants, including a 27-point stencil achieving a 1.7× speedup over the best previously published results. © The Author(s) 2012.

  16. CASPER: Embedding Power Estimation and Hardware-Controlled Power Management in a Cycle-Accurate Micro-Architecture Simulation Platform for Many-Core Multi-Threading Heterogeneous Processors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Ravindran

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the promising performance improvement observed in emerging many-core architectures in high performance processors, high power consumption prohibitively affects their use and marketability in the low-energy sectors, such as embedded processors, network processors and application specific instruction processors (ASIPs. While most chip architects design power-efficient processors by finding an optimal power-performance balance in their design, some use sophisticated on-chip autonomous power management units, which dynamically reduce the voltage or frequencies of idle cores and hence extend battery life and reduce operating costs. For large scale designs of many-core processors, a holistic approach integrating both these techniques at different levels of abstraction can potentially achieve maximal power savings. In this paper we present CASPER, a robust instruction trace driven cycle-accurate many-core multi-threading micro-architecture simulation platform where we have incorporated power estimation models of a wide variety of tunable many-core micro-architectural design parameters, thus enabling processor architects to explore a sufficiently large design space and achieve power-efficient designs. Additionally CASPER is designed to accommodate cycle-accurate models of hardware controlled power management units, enabling architects to experiment with and evaluate different autonomous power-saving mechanisms to study the run-time power-performance trade-offs in embedded many-core processors. We have implemented two such techniques in CASPER–Chipwide Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, and Performance Aware Core-Specific Frequency Scaling, which show average power savings of 35.9% and 26.2% on a baseline 4-core SPARC based architecture respectively. This power saving data accounts for the power consumption of the power management units themselves. The CASPER simulation platform also provides users with complete support of SPARCV9

  17. Power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of renewable energies represents new challenges for electrical systems. The objective: making power grids smarter so they can handle intermittent production. The advent of smart grids will allow flexible operations like distributing energy in a multidirectional manner instead of just one way and it will make electrical systems capable of integrating actions by different users, consumers and producers in order to maintain efficient, sustainable, economical and secure power supplies. Practically speaking, they associate sensors, instrumentation and controls with information processing and communication systems in order to create massively automated networks. Smart grids require huge investments: for example more than 7 billion dollars have been invested in China and in the Usa in 2010 and France is ranked 9. worldwide with 265 million dollars invested. It is expected that smart grids will promote the development of new business models and a change in the value chain for energy. Decentralized production combined with the probable introduction of more or less flexible rates for sales or purchases and of new supplier-customer relationships will open the way to the creation of new businesses. (A.C.)

  18. Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.

    2015-11-01

    We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.

  19. Fiscal 1999 achievement report. Development of technology for reducing power consumption during standby (Research and development of technologies for application of standby power reduction to domestic and office-automation appliances); 1999 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden oyobi OA kiki no taiki denryoku sakugen jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    Efforts are exerted to develop power-efficient modules to be built into electrical products for reduction in power consumption in the standby state for domestic and office-automation appliances. In this study, television sets, audio sets, and air conditioners were selected out of domestic appliances and, out of office-automation appliances, notebook-size and desktop personal computers were selected. The standby power consumption is to be reduced to 3mW for domestic appliances, to 0.2W for notebook-size personal computers, and to 1/10-1/200 of the level being currently consumed in the case of desktop personal computers. For domestic appliances, a power efficient module not insulated from the AC power line was developed, to be built into a CPU-aided appliance to be turned on and off by remote control for the reduction of its standby power to 3mW. For notebook-size personal computers, a power-efficient power source insulated from the AC power line was developed, which consumes but 0.2W of standby power. It was built into a marketed notebook-size personal computer and tested for performance. For desktop personal computers, a 25mW power source insulated from the AC power line was fabricated, and tested for performance. (NEDO)

  20. Control interlock and monitoring system for 80 KW IOT based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Gautam; Deo, R.K.; Jain, M.K.; Bagre, Sunil; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2013-01-01

    For 80 kW inductive output tube (IOT) based RF power amplifier system at 505.812 MHz for Indus-2, a control, interlock and monitoring system is realized. This is to facilitate proper start-up and shutdown of the amplifier system, monitor various parameters to detect any malfunction during its operation and to bring the system in a safe stage, thereby assuring reliable operation of the amplifier system. This high power amplifier system incorporates interlocks such as cooling interlocks, various voltage and current interlocks and time critical RF interlocks. Processing of operation sequence, cooling interlocks and various voltage and current interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make S7-CPU-315-2DP (CPU) based programmable logic controller (PLC) system. While time critical or fast interlocks have been realized by using Siemens make FPGA based Boolean Co-processor FM-352-5 which operates in standalone mode. Siemens make operating panel OP277 6'' is being used as a human machine interface (HMI) device for command, data, alarm generation and process parameter monitoring. (author)

  1. An Adaptive and Integrated Low-Power Framework for Multicore Mobile Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongmoo Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Employing multicore in mobile computing such as smartphone and IoT (Internet of Things device is a double-edged sword. It provides ample computing capabilities required in recent intelligent mobile services including voice recognition, image processing, big data analysis, and deep learning. However, it requires a great deal of power consumption, which causes creating a thermal hot spot and putting pressure on the energy resource in a mobile device. In this paper, we propose a novel framework that integrates two well-known low-power techniques, DPM (Dynamic Power Management and DVFS (Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling for energy efficiency in multicore mobile systems. The key feature of the proposed framework is adaptability. By monitoring the online resource usage such as CPU utilization and power consumption, the framework can orchestrate diverse DPM and DVFS policies according to workload characteristics. Real implementation based experiments using three mobile devices have shown that it can reduce the power consumption ranging from 22% to 79%, while affecting negligibly the performance of workloads.

  2. Wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    This publication describes some of the technical, economic, safety and institutional considerations involved in the selection, installation and evaluation of a wind generation system. This information is presented, where possible, in practical, non-technical terms. The first four sections provide background information, theory, and general knowledge, while the remaining six sections are of a more specific nature to assist the prospective owner of a wind generator in his calculations and selections. Meteorological information is provided relating to the wind regime in Nova Scotia. The section on cost analysis discusses some of the factors and considerations which must be examined in order to provide a logical comparison between the alternatives of electricity produced from other sources. The final two sections are brief summaries of the regulations and hazards pertaining to the use of wind generators. The cost of wind-generated electricity is high compared to present Nova Scotia Power Corporation rates, even on Sable Island, Nova Scotia's highest wind area. However, it may be observed that Sable Island is one of the areas of Nova Scotia which is not presently supplied through the power grid and, particularly if there was a significant increase in the price of diesel oil, wind-generated electricity may well be the most economical alternative in that area. Generally speaking, however, where a consumer can purchase electricity at the normal domestic rate, wind generators are not economical, and they will not become economical unless there is a great reduction in their cost, an great increase in electricity rates, or both. Includes glossary. 23 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Power manager and method for managing power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burchard, A.T.; Kersten, G.; Molnos, A.M.; Milutinovic, A.; Goossens, K.G.W.; Steffens, E.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    A power manager (106) and method for managing the power supplied to an electronic device is provided. Furthermore, a system wherein the power supplied to an electronic device is managed is provided. The power manager (106) is operative to monitor a hardware monitor (104) during a monitoring time

  4. Water Power Research | Water Power | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Power Research Water Power Research NREL conducts water power research; develops design tools ; and evaluates, validates, and supports the demonstration of innovative water power technologies. Photo of a buoy designed around the oscillating water column principle wherein the turbine captures the

  5. Power theories for improved power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Pasko, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Power quality describes a set of parameters of electric power and the load’s ability to function properly under specific conditions. It is estimated that problems relating to power quality costs the European industry hundreds of billions of Euros annually. In contrast, financing for the prevention of these problems amount to fragments of these costs. Power Theories for Improved Power Quality addresses this imbalance by presenting and assessing a range of methods and problems related to improving the quality of electric power supply. Focusing particularly on active compensators and the DSP based control algorithms, Power Theories for Improved Power Quality introduces the fundamental problems of electrical power. This introduction is followed by chapters which discuss: •‘Power theories’ including their historical development and application to practical problems, •operational principles of active compensator’s DSP control based algorithms using examples and results from laboratory research, and •t...

  6. Women, Power, and Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Patricia Glass

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of power in the context of women and the library profession, citing views of power by Max Weber, John Kenneth Galbraith, Letty Cottin Pogrebin, and Rosabeth Moss Kantor. Male power and female submission, defining power, organizing for power, and sharing power are highlighted. A 12-item bibliography is included. (EJS)

  7. Wind Power - A Power Source Enabled by Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2004-01-01

    . The deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in bigger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be very high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change the electrical power production sources from......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. The production, distribution and the use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save energy at the end-user should be set up...... the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy sources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power systems, power production and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging renewable energy source, wind energy, which by means of power...

  8. Wind power - a power source now enabled by power electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Iov, Florin

    2007-01-01

    energy at the end-user should be set up. Deregulation of energy has lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources may be increased in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One is to change......The global electrical energy consumption is still rising and there is a steady demand to increase the power capacity. It is expected that it has to be doubled within 20 years. The production, distribution and use of the energy should be as technological efficient as possible and incentives to save...... the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. Another is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most emerging...

  9. Position Control of a 3-CPU Spherical Parallel Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Callegari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first experimental results on the control of a prototypal robot designed for the orientation of parts or tools. The innovative machine is a spherical parallel manipulator actuated by 3 linear motors; several position control schemes have been tested and compared with the final aim of designing an interaction controller. The relative simplicity of machine kinematics allowed to test algorithms requiring the closed-loop evaluation of both inverse and direct kinematics; the compensation of gravitational terms has been experimented as well.

  10. Super-scalar RAM-CPU cache compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); S. Héman (Sándor); N.J. Nes (Niels); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractHigh-performance data-intensive query processing tasks like OLAP, data mining or scientific data analysis can be severely I/O bound, even when high-end RAID storage systems are used. Compression can alleviate this bottleneck only if encoding and decoding speeds significantly exceed RAID

  11. Super-Scalar RAM-CPU Cache Compression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); S. Héman (Sándor); N.J. Nes (Niels); P.A. Boncz (Peter)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractHigh-performance data-intensive query processing tasks like OLAP, data mining or scientific data analysis can be severely I/O bound, even when high-end RAID storage systems are used. Compression can alleviate this bottleneck only if encoding and decoding speeds significantly exceed RAID

  12. Comparing GPU and CPU in OLAP Cubes Creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, Krzysztof

    GPGPU (General Purpose Graphical Processing Unit) programming is receiving more attention recently because of enormous computations speed up offered by this technology. GPGPU is applied in many branches of science and industry not excluding databases, even if this is not the primary field of expected benefits.

  13. A loss-of -RHR event under the various plant configurations in low power or shutdown conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seul, Kwang Won; Bang, Young Seok; Lee, Suk Ho; Kim, Hho Jung

    1997-01-01

    A present study addresses a loss-of-RHR event as an initiating event under specific low power of shutdown conditions. Two typical plant configurations, cold leg opening case with water-filled steam generators and pressurizer opening case with emptied steam generators, were evaluated using the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The calculation was compared with the experiment conducted at ROSA-IV/LSTF in Japan. As a result, the code was capable of simulating the system transient behavior following the event. Especially, thermal hydraulic transport processes including non-condensable gas behavior were reasonably predicted with an appropriate time step and CPU time. However, there were some code deficiencies such as too large system mass errors and severe flow oscillations in core region

  14. Powering down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, Elisabeth de

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In 1997 and as a result of political developments in the Dutch government's energy policy, the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Dodewaard was forced to stop producing electricity for the national grid. As a consequence, plans for the decommissioning of the NPP were developed. For the Netherlands this is a first-of-a-kind project: so far no nuclear installation has been actually dismantled in this country. GKN, the operator of NPP Dodewaard, started a vast decommissioning project. Four years elapsed before a concept was ready for the licence required to carry out the plans. The scope of activities is as follows. Once all spent fuel has been removed from the site the installation will be brought into a state of so-called Safe Enclosure, which will ensure that all radioactivity remaining inside components and buildings, can be kept safely locked in for a period of 40 years. At the end of this 40 year waiting period, when radiation levels will have dropped considerably in a natural way, the NPP will be dismantled and the grounds on which the complex was built can return to be the green meadow-land they once were. The process of convincing the Dutch government and obtaining approval for these plans took a lot of time and effort from GKN's side. Now - almost five years later - we have reached the stage that the text of the concept licence has been made public to the Dutch citizens who, within a defined period of time, may submit any objections they have, prior to the licence becoming final. In the Netherlands a majority of the people are not exactly enthusiastic about nuclear. Therefore, PR matters related to the Dodewaard NPP are mostly been handled low-key and in a reactive way rather than pro-actively. But with respect to the plans for the future of the Dodewaard plant, operator GKN felt a distinct obligation to inform in a timely and active manner both our government as well as the man in the street. With that objective in mind, we decided to develop an in

  15. A simple model to evaluate the impact of the thermal power plants emissions; Un modelo simple para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodas Grapain, Arturo; Salcido, Alejandro [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    Formulation and validation of a dispersion model for relative plumes are presented in this paper. This model (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimico de Plumas) was developed to assess the environmental impact of power generation. The theoretical formulation if this model is based on the integral form of the mass balance equation. MOTTQUIP can simulate (in two dimensions) the turbulent dispersion and chemical transformation phenomena of a nitrogen oxides (Nox) non-buoyant plume in an ozone (O{sub 3}) atmosphere. The results produced by MOTTQUIP, however, can run in a personal computer consuming relatively short CPU times. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presentan la formulacion y la validacion de un modelo (MOTTQUIP: Modelo de Transporte Turbulento y Quimica de Plumas) para evaluar el impacto de las emisiones de contaminantes reactivos de centrales termoelectricas. Este modelo se formula a partir de la forma integral de la ecuacion de balance de masa, y no de su forma diferencial, como se procede generalmente. MOTTQUIP simula, en dos dimensiones, la dispersion turbulenta y transformacion quimica de una pluma no flotante de oxidos de nitrogeno (Nox), misma que se interna paulatinamente en un ambiente de ozono (O{sub 3}). Los resultados obtenidos son comparados con los de modelos alternos que simulan el mismo sistema reactivo, encontrandose una concordancia bastante aceptable. Una ventaja de MOTTQUIP, sin embargo, es que puede utilizarse en sistemas de computo pequenos, empleando tiempos de CPU relativamente cortos.

  16. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  17. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshihiko; Arita, Setsuo; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Yukihisa; Ishii, Kazuhiko

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor power control device capable of enhancing an operation efficiency while keeping high reliability and safety in a BWR type nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention comprises (1) a means for inputting a set value of a generator power and a set value of a reactor power, (2) a means for controlling the reactor power to either smaller one of the reactor power corresponding to the set value of the generator power and the set value of the reactor power. With such procedures, even if the nuclear power plant is set so as to operate it to make the reactor power 100%, when the generator power reaches the upper limit, the reactor power is controlled with a preference given to the upper limit value of the generator power. Accordingly, safety and reliability are not deteriorated. The operation efficiency of the plant can be improved. (I.S.)

  18. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  19. Rethinking Family Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranichfeld, Marion L.

    1987-01-01

    Men's power is emphasized in the family power literature on marital decision making. Little attention has been paid to women's power, accrued through their deeper embeddedness in intrafamilial roles. Micro-level analysis of family power demonstrates that women's positions in the family power structure rest not on the horizontal marital tie but…

  20. Method of Performance-Aware Security of Unicast Communication in Hybrid Satellite Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhury, Ayan (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method and apparatus utilizes Layered IPSEC (LES) protocol as an alternative to IPSEC for network-layer security including a modification to the Internet Key Exchange protocol. For application-level security of web browsing with acceptable end-to-end delay, the Dual-mode SSL protocol (DSSL) is used instead of SSL. The LES and DSSL protocols achieve desired end-to-end communication security while allowing the TCP and HTTP proxy servers to function correctly.

  1. Students' Performance Awareness, Motivational Orientations and Learning Strategies in a Problem-Based Electromagnetism Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore problem-based learning (PBL) in conjunction with students' confidence in the basic ideas of electromagnetism and their motivational orientations and learning strategies. The 78 first-year geology and geophysics students followed a three-week PBL instruction in electromagnetism. The students' confidence was assessed…

  2. Human performance-aware scheduling and routing of a multi-skilled workforce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, M.L.; Firat, M.; Nuijten, W.P.M.; Sidorova, N.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.

    2017-01-01

    Planning human activities within business processes often happens based on the same methods and algorithms as are used in the area of manufacturing systems. However, human behaviour is quite different from machine behaviour. Their performance depends on a number of factors, including workload,

  3. Human Performance-Aware Scheduling and Routing of a Multi-Skilled Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel L. van Eck

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Planning human activities within business processes often happens based on the same methods and algorithms as are used in the area of manufacturing systems. However, human behaviour is quite different from machine behaviour. Their performance depends on a number of factors, including workload, stress, personal preferences, etc. In this article we describe an approach for scheduling activities of people that takes into account business rules and dynamic human performance in order to optimise the schedule. We formally describe the scheduling problem we address and discuss how it can be constructed from inputs in the form of business process models and performance measurements. Finally, we discuss and evaluate an implementation for our planning approach to show the impact of considering dynamic human performance in scheduling.

  4. Performance awareness execution performance of HEP codes on RISC platforms,issues and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Yaari, R; Yaari, Refael; Jarp, Sverre

    1995-01-01

    The work described in this paper was started during the migration of Aleph's production jobs from the IBM mainframe/CRAY supercomputer to several RISC/Unix workstation platforms. The aim was to understand why Aleph did not obtain the performance on the RISC platforms that was "promised" after a CERN Unit comparison between these RISC platforms and the IBM mainframe. Remedies were also sought. Since the work with the Aleph jobs in turn led to the related task of understanding compilers and their options, the conditions under which the CERN benchmarks (and other benchmarks) were run, kernel routines and frequently used CERNLIB routines, the whole undertaking expanded to try to look at all the factors that influence the performance of High Energy Physics (HEP) jobs in general. Finally, key performance issues were reviewed against the programs of one of the LHC collaborations (Atlas) with the hope that the conclusions would be of long- term interest during the establishment of their simulation, reconstruction and...

  5. Power Burst Facility: power oscillation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lussie, W.G.; Wadkins, R.P.; Wells, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    In late 1973 PBF achieved a power level of 15 MW. During this period of operation fluctuations in reactor power were observed. Many possible causes of these fluctuations were considered and a number of nuclear and non-nuclear tests were conducted. Initial instrumentation installed in the core showed coolant outlet temperature variations of 10 0 F for several fuel cannisters and approximately 10 percent power variations at 15 MW. Power spectral density analysis showed a predominant frequency of 0.05 to 0.06 HZ. The testing program to determine the cause of the power oscillations is described

  6. Wind power in modern power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, wind power is experiencing a rapid growth, and large-scale wind turbines/wind farms have been developed and connected to power systems. However, the traditional power system generation units are centralized located synchronous generators with different characteristics compared...... with wind turbines. This paper presents an overview of the issues about integrating large-scale wind power plants into modern power systems. Firstly, grid codes are introduced. Then, the main technical problems and challenges are presented. Finally, some possible technical solutions are discussed....

  7. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  8. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  9. Convergent Power Series of sech⁡(x and Solutions to Nonlinear Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Al Khawaja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that power series expansion of certain functions such as sech⁡(x diverges beyond a finite radius of convergence. We present here an iterative power series expansion (IPS to obtain a power series representation of sech⁡(x that is convergent for all x. The convergent series is a sum of the Taylor series of sech⁡(x and a complementary series that cancels the divergence of the Taylor series for x≥π/2. The method is general and can be applied to other functions known to have finite radius of convergence, such as 1/(1+x2. A straightforward application of this method is to solve analytically nonlinear differential equations, which we also illustrate here. The method provides also a robust and very efficient numerical algorithm for solving nonlinear differential equations numerically. A detailed comparison with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method and extensive analysis of the behavior of the error and CPU time are performed.

  10. Application of Grey Wolf Optimizer Algorithm for Optimal Power Flow of Two-Terminal HVDC Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Ahmed Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a relatively new optimization method, the Grey Wolf Optimizer (GWO algorithm for Optimal Power Flow (OPF of two-terminal High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC electrical power system. The OPF problem of pure AC power systems considers the minimization of total costs under equality and inequality constraints. Hence, the OPF problem of integrated AC-DC power systems is extended to incorporate HVDC links, while taking into consideration the power transfer control characteristics using a GWO algorithm. This algorithm is inspired by the hunting behavior and social leadership of grey wolves in nature. The proposed algorithm is applied to two different case-studies: the modified 5-bus and WSCC 9-bus test systems. The validity of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by comparing the obtained results with those reported in literature using other optimization techniques. Analysis of the obtained results show that the proposed GWO algorithm is able to achieve shorter CPU time, as well as minimized total cost when compared with already existing optimization techniques. This conclusion proves the efficiency of the GWO algorithm.

  11. Autonomous power networks based power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokic, A.; Van den Bosch, P.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented the concept of autonomous networks to cope with this increased complexity in power systems while enhancing market-based operation. The operation of future power systems will be more challenging and demanding than present systems because of increased uncertainties, less inertia in the system, replacement of centralized coordinating activities by decentralized parties and the reliance on dynamic markets for both power balancing and system reliability. An autonomous network includes the aggregation of networked producers and consumers in a relatively small area with respect to the overall system. The operation of an autonomous network is coordinated and controlled with one central unit acting as an interface between internal producers/consumers and the rest of the power system. In this study, the power balance problem and system reliability through provision of ancillary services was formulated as an optimization problem for the overall autonomous networks based power system. This paper described the simulation of an optimal autonomous network dispatching in day ahead markets, based on predicted spot prices for real power, and two ancillary services. It was concluded that large changes occur in a power systems structure and operation, most of them adding to the uncertainty and complexity of the system. The introduced concept of an autonomous power network-based power system was shown to be a realistic and consistent approach to formulate and operate a market-based dispatch of both power and ancillary services. 9 refs., 4 figs

  12. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This Guide applies to nuclear power plants for which the total power supply comprises normal power supply (which is electric) and emergency power supply (which may be electric or a combination of electric and non-electric). In its present form the Guide provides general guidance for all types of emergency power systems (EPS) - electric and non-electric, and specific guidance (see Appendix A) on the design principles and the features of the emergency electric power system (EEPS). Future editions will include a second appendix giving specific guidance on non-electric power systems. Section 3 of this Safety Guide covers information on considerations that should be taken into account relative to the electric grid, the transmission lines, the on-site electrical supply system, and other alternative power sources, in order to provide high overall reliability of the power supply to the EPS. Since the nuclear power plant operator does not usually control off-site facilities, the discussion of methods of improving off-site reliability does not include requirements for facilities not under the operator's control. Sections 4 to 11 of this Guide provide information, recommendations and requirements that would apply to any emergency power system, be it electric or non-electric

  13. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Data concerning the existing nuclear power plants in the world are presented. The data was retrieved from the SIEN (Nuclear and Energetic Information System) data bank. The information are organized in table forms as follows: nuclear plants, its status and type; installed nuclear power plants by country; nuclear power plants under construction by country; planned nuclear power plants by country; cancelled nuclear power plants by country; shut-down nuclear power plants by country. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Power Service Shops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TVA's Power Service Shops provides expert repair and maintenance of power system components and large industrial equipment. With world-class maintenance facilities...

  15. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  16. Military power requirements and backup power considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botts, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    All US Air Force (USAF) facilities have certain critical power requirements that must be met in order to carry out their mission successfully. Internal USAF studies have shown that the mission can degrade precipitously as the available power decreases below the mission critical level. Now, more than ever before, the military and private industry are finding that certain functions, such as automated data processing and automated process control, respond catastrophically to power reductions. Furthermore, increased reliance on electrical power means, in the case of the Air Force, that critical power requirements are anticipated to increase by half over the next 15 yr. For these reasons and others, the USAF is investigating several means of improving the availability of electric power under adverse conditions above that which can be provided by an off-base supplier. Among the approaches to this problem being pursued at this time are a program to improve all sorts of generator sets on a service-wide basis and the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power (MTP) Program, which is pursuing the design and testing of a small dedicated nuclear power source to provide critical mission power. The purpose of this paper is to provide some insight into some of the issues associated with USAF power programs

  17. Electric power system / emergency power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorn, P.G.

    1980-01-01

    One factor of reliability of reactor safety systems is the integrity of the power supply. The purpose of this paper is a review and a discussion of the safety objectives required for the planning, licensing, manufacture and erection of electrical power systems and components. The safety aspects and the technical background of the systems for - the electric auxiliary power supply system and - the emergency power supply system are outlined. These requirements result specially from the safety standards which are the framework for the studies of safety analysis. The overall and specific requirements for the electrical power supply of the safety systems are demonstrated on a 1300 MW standard nuclear power station with a pressurized water reactor. (orig.)

  18. Power conditioning unit for photovoltaic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, G.; Nguyen Phuoc, V. T.

    Operational features and components of a power conditioning unit for interconnecting solar cell module powers with a utility grid are outlined. The two-stage unit first modifies the voltage to desired levels on an internal dc link, then inverts the current in 2 power transformers connected to a vector summation control to neutralize harmonic distortion up to the 11th harmonic. The system operates in parallel with the grid with extra inductors to absorb line-to-line voltage and phase differences, and permits peak power use from the PV array. Reactive power is gained internally, and a power system controller monitors voltages, frequencies, and currents. A booster preregulator adjusts the input voltage from the array to provide voltage regulation for the inverter, and can commutate 450 amps. A total harmonic distortion of less than 5 percent is claimed, with a rating of 5 kVA, 50/60 Hz, 3-phase, and 4-wire.

  19. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Mabsout, Ramzi; Staveren, Irene

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher female incomes lead to higher bargaining power, which in turn tends to increase women’s relative wellbeing (Quisumbing, 2003). For assets, the empirical literature comes up with similar results, indic...

  20. Nuclear power in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, Ronald E.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Nuclear Energy in the Asian context; Types of nuclear power reactors used in Asia; A survey of nuclear power by country; The economics of nuclear power; Fuels, fuel cycles and reprocessing; Environmental issues and waste disposal; The weapons issues and nuclear power; Conclusions. (Author)

  1. Nuclear power in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Association believes that the CANDU nuclear power generation system can play a major role in achieving energy self-sufficiency in Canada. The benefits of nuclear power, factors affecting projections of electric power demand, risks and benefits relative to other conventional and non-conventional energy sources, power economics, and uranium supply are discussed from a Canadian perspective. (LL)

  2. Human Powered Centrifuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenburg, Gerald M. (Inventor); Vernikos, Joan (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A human powered centrifuge has independently established turntable angular velocity and human power input. A control system allows excess input power to be stored as electric energy in a battery or dissipated as heat through a resistors. In a mechanical embodiment, the excess power is dissipated in a friction brake.

  3. Wind Power Now!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, David Rittenhouse

    1975-01-01

    The government promotes and heavily subsidizes research in nuclear power plants. Federal development of wind power is slow in comparison even though much research with large wind-electric machines has already been conducted. Unless wind power programs are accelerated it will not become a major energy alternative to nuclear power. (MR)

  4. Distributed Power Flow Controller

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, Z.

    2010-01-01

    In modern power systems, there is a great demand to control the power flow actively. Power flow controlling devices (PFCDs) are required for such purpose, because the power flow over the lines is the nature result of the impedance of each line. Due to the control capabilities of different types of

  5. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...

  6. Nuclear power and other thermal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakke, J.

    1978-01-01

    Some philosophical aspects of mortality statistics are first briefly mentioued, then the environmental problems of, first, nuclear power plants, then fossil fuelled power plants are summarised. The effects of releases of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are briefly discussed. The possible health effects of radiation from nuclear power plants and those of gaseous and particulate effluents from fossil fuel plants are also discussed. It is pointed out that in choosing between alternative evils the worst course is to make no choice at all, that is, failure to install thermal power plants will lead to isolated domestic burning of fossil fuels which is clearly the worst situation regarding pollution. (JIW)

  7. The electric power engineering handbook power systems

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Power Systems, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) covers all aspects of power system protection, dynamics, stability, operation, and control. Under the editorial guidance of L.L. Grigsby, a respected and accomplished authority in power engineering, and section editors Andrew Hanson, Pritindra Chowdhuri, Gerry Sheble, and Mark Nelms, this carefully crafted reference includes substantial new and revised contributions from worldwide leaders in the field. This content provides convenient access to overviews and detailed information on a diverse arr

  8. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO [de

  9. D. C. power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, N. Watanabe, Y.; Kitani, M

    1978-04-01

    DC power supplies are for ordinary and emergency use as power sources for various structures such as office buildings, department stores, hotels, and for facilities such as roads, tunnels, dams, power stations, etc. There is strong demand for these dc power supplies to be safe, automated, and maintenance free, and to have high reliability. A dc power supply which meets these demands is described; electric circuit construction is emphasized. (10 figures, 4 tables)

  10. Ultra-low power sensor for autonomous non-invasive voltage measurement in IoT solutions for energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, Clemente; Balsamo, Domenico; Brunelli, Davide; Benini, Luca

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring current and voltage waveforms is fundamental to assess the power consumption of a system and to improve its energy efficiency. In this paper we present a smart meter for power consumption which does not need any electrical contact with the load or its conductors, and which can measure both current and voltage. Power metering becomes easier and safer and it is also self-sustainable because an energy harvesting module based on inductive coupling powers the entire device from the output of the current sensor. A low cost 32-bit wireless CPU architecture is used for data filtering and processing, while a wireless transceiver sends data via the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. We describe in detail the innovative contact-less voltage measurement system, which is based on capacitive coupling and on an algorithm that exploits two pre-processing channels. The system self-calibrates to perform precise measurements regardless the cable type. Experimental results demonstrate accuracy in comparison with commercial high-cost instruments, showing negligible deviations.

  11. Applying dynamic priority scheduling scheme to static systems of pinwheel task model in power-aware scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Ye-In; Kim, Young-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Power-aware scheduling reduces CPU energy consumption in hard real-time systems through dynamic voltage scaling (DVS). In this paper, we deal with pinwheel task model which is known as static and predictable task model and could be applied to various embedded or ubiquitous systems. In pinwheel task model, each task's priority is static and its execution sequence could be predetermined. There have been many static approaches to power-aware scheduling in pinwheel task model. But, in this paper, we will show that the dynamic priority scheduling results in power-aware scheduling could be applied to pinwheel task model. This method is more effective than adopting the previous static priority scheduling methods in saving energy consumption and, for the system being still static, it is more tractable and applicable to small sized embedded or ubiquitous computing. Also, we introduce a novel power-aware scheduling algorithm which exploits all slacks under preemptive earliest-deadline first scheduling which is optimal in uniprocessor system. The dynamic priority method presented in this paper could be applied directly to static systems of pinwheel task model. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm with the algorithmic complexity of O(n) reduces the energy consumption by 10-80% over the existing algorithms.

  12. High power fast ramping power supplies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  13. The power of PowerPoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niamtu , J

    2001-08-01

    Carousel slide presentations have been used for academic and clinical presentations since the late 1950s. However, advances in computer technology have caused a paradigm shift, and digital presentations are quickly becoming standard for clinical presentations. The advantages of digital presentations include cost savings; portability; easy updating capability; Internet access; multimedia functions, such as animation, pictures, video, and sound; and customization to augment audience interest and attention. Microsoft PowerPoint has emerged as the most popular digital presentation software and is currently used by many practitioners with and without significant computer expertise. The user-friendly platform of PowerPoint enables even the novice presenter to incorporate digital presentations into his or her profession. PowerPoint offers many advanced options that, with a minimal investment of time, can be used to create more interactive and professional presentations for lectures, patient education, and marketing. Examples of advanced PowerPoint applications are presented in a stepwise manner to unveil the full power of PowerPoint. By incorporating these techniques, medical practitioners can easily personalize, customize, and enhance their PowerPoint presentations. Complications, pitfalls, and caveats are discussed to detour and prevent misadventures in digital presentations. Relevant Web sites are listed to further update, customize, and communicate PowerPoint techniques.

  14. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  15. Power, stability of power, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, Daniel J.; de Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    Power hierarchies are an essential aspect of social organization, create stability and social order, and provide individuals with incentives to climb the hierarchical ladder. Extending previous work on power and creativity, we put forward that this relationship critically depends on both the

  16. Power, stability of power, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sligte, D.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Power hierarchies are an essential aspect of social organization, create stability and social order, and provide individuals with incentives to climb the hierarchical ladder. Extending previous work on power and creativity, we put forward that this relationship critically depends on both the

  17. Reactive Power Management in Electric Power Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (Ferranti effect) would limit the power transfer and the transmission range in the absence of any compensation measures. Journal of EAEA, Vol 14, 1997. In this paper, the management of the reactive power is explored with the aim of improving the quality and the reliability of the supply in the EELPA's interconnected system ...

  18. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  19. Emergency power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Nuclear Safety Standards programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants (NPPs). The first edition of the present Safety Guide was developed in the early 1980s. The text has now been brought up-to-date, refined in several details and amended to include non-electrical diverse and independent power sources. This Guide applies to NPP for which the total power supply comprises a normal power supply and an emergency power supply (EPS), which may be electrical or a combination of electrical and non-electrical. The Guide provides general guidance for all types of EPS and specific guidance on the design safety requirements and the features of the electrical and non-electrical portions of the EPS. 9 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Power and revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelan, Peter; Weick, Mario; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2014-09-01

    We took an individual differences approach to explain revenge tendencies in powerholders. Across four experimental studies, chronically powerless individuals sought more revenge than chronically powerful individuals following a high power episode (Studies 1 and 2), when striking a powerful pose (Study 3), and when making a powerful hand gesture (Study 4). This relationship vanished when participants were not exposed to incidental power. A meta-analysis revealed that, relative to a lack of power or a neutral context, exposure to incidental power increased vengeance among the chronically powerless and reduced vengeance among the chronically powerful. These findings add to previous research on relations between power and aggression, and underscore the role of individual differences as a determinant of powerholders' destructive responses. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Space power subsystem sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geis, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses a Space Power Subsystem Sizing program which has been developed by the Aerospace Power Division of Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Space Power Subsystem program (SPSS) contains the necessary equations and algorithms to calculate photovoltaic array power performance, including end-of-life (EOL) and beginning-of-life (BOL) specific power (W/kg) and areal power density (W/m 2 ). Additional equations and algorithms are included in the spreadsheet for determining maximum eclipse time as a function of orbital altitude, and inclination. The Space Power Subsystem Sizing program (SPSS) has been used to determine the performance of several candidate power subsystems for both Air Force and SDIO potential applications. Trade-offs have been made between subsystem weight and areal power density (W/m 2 ) as influenced by orbital high energy particle flux and time in orbit

  2. Experimental studies for improvement of thermal effects in a high-power fiber-coupled diode laser module operating at 808 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; Hussein, Khalid; Hassan, Mahmoud F.; Talat, Mahmoud M.

    2012-03-01

    High power diode laser module operating at 808 nm is required for different applications, such as developing an efficient high power Nd3+-doped solid state laser and Tm3+ -doped silica fiber laser, industrial, medical and military applications. Optical and thermal images characterization for a fiber-coupled high power diode laser module is presented experimentally for 6.6 Watt output optical power .An external temperature controller system was designed, which stabilizes the central wavelength at 808 nm at 25°C over a wide range of diode laser driving current from 1A to 6 A. without this cooling system, the wavelength changes by 0.35nm/°C for temperature changes from 20°C to 40°C at the same range of the driving current. In this paper we have present a methodology for temperature reduction of a 808 nm high power diode laser module, based on dynamically thermal control, which is known as dynamic thermal management. Stabilization of the output wavelength has been done by using proportional speed control (PSC) of a CPU cooling fan with certain scheme of straight fins heat sink. Two electronic circuits based on pulse width modulation (PWM) in microcontroller and comparators IC have been used. This technique can be considered as an effective mechanism for reducing temperature and power dissipation to make stabilization of the diode laser output wavelength by preventing heat accumulation from the thermo electric cooling (TEC) inside the diode laser module confirmed by thermal images.

  3. Generalized Power Domination

    OpenAIRE

    Omerzel, Aleš

    2014-01-01

    The power domination problem is an optimization problem that has emerged together with the development of the power networks. It is important to control the voltage and current in all the nodes and links in a power network. Measuring devices are expensive, which is why there is a tendency to place a minimum number of devices in a power network so that the network remains fully supervised. The k-power domination is a generalization of the power domination. The thesis represents the rules of th...

  4. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e

  5. Nuclear power economic database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xiaoming; Li Lin; Zhao Shiping

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear power economic database (NPEDB), based on ORACLE V6.0, consists of three parts, i.e., economic data base of nuclear power station, economic data base of nuclear fuel cycle and economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment. Economic database of nuclear power station includes data of general economics, technique, capital cost and benefit, etc. Economic database of nuclear fuel cycle includes data of technique and nuclear fuel price. Economic database of nuclear power planning and nuclear environment includes data of energy history, forecast, energy balance, electric power and energy facilities

  6. Power Electronics for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid (MG) is a stand-alone or grid-connected hybrid renewable system that uses distributed renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and energy storage systems (ESSs) to supply power to local loads. The system is ordinarily based on power electronics, with interface converters allowing...... a continuous supply of power in the presence of variable RES production. This chapter describes some specific features of DC MGs in terms of power architecture, control, and protection. It also reviews several uncommon power electronic interfaces. Regarding control, operation without critical communication...... are explained in this chapter. The chapter concludes with a review of power electronic intensive protection solutions for DC MGs....

  7. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  8. Nuclear power prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-09-15

    A survey of the nuclear power needs of the less-developed countries and a study of the technology and economics of small and medium scale power reactors are envisioned by the General Conference. Agency makes its services available to Member States to assist them for their future nuclear power plans, and in particular in studying the technical and economic aspects of their power programs. The Agency also undertakes general studies on the economics of nuclear power, including the collection and analysis of cost data, in order to assist Member States in comparing and forecasting nuclear power costs in relation to their specific situations

  9. Shipboard electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, Mukund R

    2011-01-01

    Shipboard Electrical Power Systems addresses new developments in this growing field. Focused on the trend toward electrification to power commercial shipping, naval, and passenger vessels, this book helps new or experienced engineers master cutting-edge methods for power system design, control, protection, and economic use of power. Provides Basic Transferable Skills for Managing Electrical Power on Ships or on LandThis groundbreaking book is the first volume of its kind to illustrate optimization of all aspects of shipboard electrical power systems. Applying author Mukund Patel's rare combina

  10. Small scale power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muoniovaara, M. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    IVO International is a major constructor of biomass power plants in Finland and abroad. As a subsidiary of Imatran Voima Oy, the largest power utility in Finland, it has designed and constructed ten power plants owned by IVO Group or others capable of burning biomasses. Sizes of the plants vary from the world`s largest condensing peat-fired power plant of 155 MWe to a 6 MWe combined heat and power producing unit. This article describes the biomass power plants designed and constructed by IVO Group 3 refs.

  11. Accelerating learning of neural networks with conjugate gradients for nuclear power plant applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The method of conjugate gradients is used to expedite the learning process of feedforward multilayer artificial neural networks and to systematically update both the learning parameter and the momentum parameter at each training cycle. The mechanism for the occurrence of premature saturation of the network nodes observed with the back propagation algorithm is described, suggestions are made to eliminate this undesirable phenomenon, and the reason by which this phenomenon is precluded in the method of conjugate gradients is presented. The proposed method is compared with the standard back propagation algorithm in the training of neural networks to classify transient events in neural power plants simulated by the Midland Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 simulator. The comparison results indicate that the rate of convergence of the proposed method is much greater than the standard back propagation, that it reduces both the number of training cycles and the CPU time, and that it is less sensitive to the choice of initial weights. The advantages of the method are more noticeable and important for problems where the network architecture consists of a large number of nodes, the training database is large, and a tight convergence criterion is desired

  12. A Comparison between Different Meta-Heuristic Techniques in Power Allocation for Physical Layer Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Okati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Node cooperation can protect wireless networks from eavesdropping by using the physical characteristics of wireless channels rather than cryptographic methods. Allocating the proper amount of power to cooperative nodes is a challenging task. In this paper, we use three cooperative nodes, one as relay to increase throughput at the destination and two friendly jammers to degrade eavesdropper’s link. For this scenario, the secrecy rate function is a non-linear non-convex problem. So, in this case, exact optimization methods can only achieve suboptimal solution. In this paper, we applied different meta-heuristic optimization techniques, like Genetic Algorithm (GA, Partial Swarm Optimization (PSO, Bee Algorithm (BA, Tabu Search (TS, Simulated Annealing (SA and Teaching-Learning-Based Optimization (TLBO. They are compared with each other to obtain solution for power allocation in a wiretap wireless network. Although all these techniques find suboptimal solutions, but they appear superlative to exact optimization methods. Finally, we define a Figure of Merit (FOM as a rule of thumb to determine the best meta-heuristic algorithm. This FOM considers quality of solution, number of required iterations to converge, and CPU time.

  13. Genetic search for an optimal power flow solution from a high density cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarnath, R.V. [Hi-Tech College of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad (India); Ramana, N.V. [JNTU College of Engineering, Jagityala (India)

    2008-07-01

    This paper proposed a novel method to solve optimal power flow (OPF) problems. The method is based on a genetic algorithm (GA) search from a High Density Cluster (GAHDC). The algorithm of the proposed method includes 3 stages, notably (1) a suboptimal solution is obtained via a conventional analytical method, (2) a high density cluster, which consists of other suboptimal data points from the first stage, is formed using a density-based cluster algorithm, and (3) a genetic algorithm based search is carried out for the exact optimal solution from a low population sized, high density cluster. The final optimal solution thoroughly satisfies the well defined fitness function. A standard IEEE 30-bus test system was considered for the simulation study. Numerical results were presented and compared with the results of other approaches. It was concluded that although there is not much difference in numerical values, the proposed method has the advantage of minimal computational effort and reduced CPU time. As such, the method would be suitable for online applications such as the present Optimal Power Flow problem. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. Building more powerful less expensive supercomputers using Processing-In-Memory (PIM) LDRD final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Richard C.

    2009-09-01

    This report details the accomplishments of the 'Building More Powerful Less Expensive Supercomputers Using Processing-In-Memory (PIM)' LDRD ('PIM LDRD', number 105809) for FY07-FY09. Latency dominates all levels of supercomputer design. Within a node, increasing memory latency, relative to processor cycle time, limits CPU performance. Between nodes, the same increase in relative latency impacts scalability. Processing-In-Memory (PIM) is an architecture that directly addresses this problem using enhanced chip fabrication technology and machine organization. PIMs combine high-speed logic and dense, low-latency, high-bandwidth DRAM, and lightweight threads that tolerate latency by performing useful work during memory transactions. This work examines the potential of PIM-based architectures to support mission critical Sandia applications and an emerging class of more data intensive informatics applications. This work has resulted in a stronger architecture/implementation collaboration between 1400 and 1700. Additionally, key technology components have impacted vendor roadmaps, and we are in the process of pursuing these new collaborations. This work has the potential to impact future supercomputer design and construction, reducing power and increasing performance. This final report is organized as follow: this summary chapter discusses the impact of the project (Section 1), provides an enumeration of publications and other public discussion of the work (Section 1), and concludes with a discussion of future work and impact from the project (Section 1). The appendix contains reprints of the refereed publications resulting from this work.

  15. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Coomes, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper, based on two levels of technology maturity, applied the power beaming concept to four panned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space-based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations

  16. Land Warrior Power Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanders, David

    2003-01-01

    .... The improvement is incremental; yet the goal of power management for this system is to significantly increase the length of time a single source can supply the system with power without resupply...

  17. Minnesota Power Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and DOJ announced a Clean Air Act settlement with Minnesota Power, an ALLETE company based in Duluth, that will cover its three coal-fired power plants and one biomass-and-coal-fired steam and electricity cogeneration plan

  18. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  19. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  20. Industrial power distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Fehr, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In this fully updated version of Industrial Power Distribution, the author addresses key areas of electric power distribution from an end-user perspective for both electrical engineers, as well as students who are training for a career in the electrical power engineering field. Industrial Power Distribution, Second Edition, begins by describing how industrial facilities are supplied from utility sources, which is supported with background information on the components of AC power, voltage drop calculations, and the sizing of conductors and transformers. Important concepts and discussions are featured throughout the book including those for sequence networks, ladder logic, motor application, fault calculations, and transformer connections. The book concludes with an introduction to power quality, how it affects industrial power systems, and an expansion of the concept of power factor, including a distortion term made necessary by the existence of harmonic.

  1. Laser power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, D.

    1975-01-01

    The laser power supply includes a regulator which has a high voltage control loop based on a linear approximation of a laser tube negative resistance characteristic. The regulator has independent control loops for laser current and power supply high voltage

  2. Reactor power distribution monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoizumi, Atsushi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To grasp the margin for the limit value of the power distribution peaking factor inside the reactor under operation by using the reactor power distribution monitor. Constitution: The monitor is composed of the 'constant' file, (to store in-reactor power distributions obtained from analysis), TIP and thermocouple, lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus, axial output distribution synthesizer and peaking factor synthesizer. The lateral output distribution calibrating apparatus is used to make calibration by comparing the power distribution obtained from the thermocouples to the power distribution obtained from the TIP, and then to provide the power distribution lateral peaking factors. The axial output distribution synthesizer provides the power distribution axial peaking factors in accordance with the signals from the out-pile neutron flux detector. These axial and lateral power peaking factors are synthesized with high precision in the three-dimensional format and can be monitored at any time. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Power control device of an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Shiro; Ito, Takero.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the power controllability of an atomic power plant by improving the controllability, response and stability of the recirculation flow rate. Constitution: The power control device comprises a power detector of the reactor, which detects and operates the reactor power from the thermal power, neutron flux or the process quantity controlling the same, and a deviation detector which seeks deviation between the power signal of the power detector and the power set value of the reactor or power station. By use of the power control device constituted in this manner, the core flow rate is regulated by the power signal of the deviation detector thereby to control the power. (Aizawa, K.)

  4. Wind Power Utilization Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    The expres- sions for the rotor torque for a Darrieus machine can be found in Reference 4.16. The Darrieus wind turbine offers the following... turbine generators, wind -driven turbines , power conditioning, wind power, energy conservation, windmills, economic ana \\sis. 20 ABS 1"ACT (Conti,on... turbines , power conditioning requirements, siting requirements, and the economics of wind power under different conditions. Three examples are given to

  5. Microwave power engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 2: Applications introduces the electronics technology of microwave power and its applications. This technology emphasizes microwave electronics for direct power utilization and transmission purposes. This volume presents the accomplishments with respect to components, systems, and applications and their prevailing limitations in the light of knowledge of the microwave power technology. The applications discussed include the microwave heating and other processes of materials, which utilize the magnetron predominantly. Other applications include microwave ioni

  6. High power communication satellites power systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Peterson, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a DOE-funded study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. This study brings together a preeminent US Industry/Russian team to cooperate on the role of high power communication satellites in the rapidly expanding communications revolution. These high power satellites play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities will be significant

  7. The Pervasive Power of PowerPoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the pervasive role of Microsoft’s presentation software PowerPoint as a genre of professional and organizational communication. Frequently, PowerPoint is not only used for the primary function it was initially designed for, i.e., facilitating live presentations, but also...... for alternative purposes such as project documentation. Its application in a neighboring domain, however, poses a functional dilemma: does the PowerPoint genre preserve the features of its primary function, i.e., presentation, or rather adapt to the new function, i.e., documentation? By drawing on a communication......-centered perspective, this paper examines PowerPoint’s role in the domain of project documentation as a clash between the constitutive affordances of professional and of organizational communication. To investigate this issue empirically, I conducted a case study at a multinational business consulting firm. The study...

  8. Combat Power Analysis is Combat Power Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    Lanchester equations, Weapon Effectiveness Index (WEI), Weighted Unit Value (WUV), Armored Division Equivalents (ADE), and Unit Frontages. The research...6 Lanchester Equations... Lanchester Equations ............................................................................................... 53 Appendix C: Relative Combat Power

  9. Silicon Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Campola, Michael; Ladbury, Raymond; Label, Kenneth; Wilcox, Ted; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Topper, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    Recent work for the NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program Power MOSFET task is presented. The Task technology focus, roadmap, and partners are given. Recent single-event effect test results on commercial, automotive, and radiation hardened trench power MOSFETs are summarized with an emphasis on risk of using commercial and automotive trench-gate power MOSFETs in space applications.

  10. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  11. Italian steam power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    von Rautenkranz, J

    1939-01-01

    A brief history of geothermal power production in Italy is presented. Boric acid has been produced on an industrial scale since 1818. The first electrical power was generated in 1904, and by 1939 the output of geothermal power plants had reached 500 GWh, with major expansion of facilities planned.

  12. Wind power soars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flavin, C. [Worldwatch Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  13. Effectivity and Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karos, Dominik; Peters, Hans

    2016-01-01

    We axiomatically develop a class of power indices for effectivity functions, both for the case where the set of alternatives is finite and where it is infinite. Such power indices make it possible to take the issues under consideration into account, in contrast to power indices defined just for

  14. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  15. Optimization in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Geraldo R.M. da [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses, partially, the advantages and the disadvantages of the optimal power flow. It shows some of the difficulties of implementation and proposes solutions. An analysis is made comparing the power flow, BIGPOWER/CESP, and the optimal power flow, FPO/SEL, developed by the author, when applied to the CEPEL-ELETRONORTE and CESP systems. (author) 8 refs., 5 tabs.

  16. Trim coil power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisler, R.; Peeler, H.; Zajicek, W.

    1985-01-01

    The 18 trim coil power supplies have been constructed and are now in place in the K500 pit and pit mezzanine. Final wiring of the primary power and control power is proceeding along with installation of cooling water supplies. The supplies are expected to be ready for final testing into resistive loads at the beginning of June, 1985

  17. Russia power engineering and power safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'yakov, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Results of work of the International consultative meeting: Russian-Europe: strategy of energy safety is described. The purpose of the meeting consisted in discussion of energy situation in Russia and Europe, prospects for provision of reliability, efficiency and safety of fuel and power supply in Russia and the role of the Russian fuel and power resonances in energy supply of Europe. The reporters at the meeting dealt with various aspects related to energy safety

  18. Transient hardened power FETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawes, W.R. Jr.; Fischer, T.A.; Huang, C.C.C.; Meyer, W.J.; Smith, C.S.; Blanchard, R.A.; Fortier, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    N-channel power FETs offer significant advantages in power conditioning circuits. Similiarily to all MOS technologies, power FET devices are vulnerable to ionizing radiation, and are particularily susceptible to burn-out in high dose rate irradiations (>1E10 rads(Si)/sec.), which precludes their use in many military environments. This paper will summarize the physical mechanisms responsible for burn-out, and discuss various fabrication techniques designed to improve the transient hardness of power FETs. Power FET devices were fabricated with several of these techniques, and data will be presented which demonstrates that transient hardness levels in excess of 1E12 rads(Si)/sec. are easily achievable

  19. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  20. Power without Glory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    This book is about power and language in organizations. Its purpose is, more specifically, to develop and apply a method for exploring power in organizations where organizations are conceptualized by drawing on Wittgenstein’s concept of language games. The method is genealogy and is closely linked...... to Foucault’s conception of power. The book is written with one main purpose—to highlight some aspects of Foucault’s conception of power that, in my opinion, are not sufficiently explored in extant organization studies: Genealogy and the practices of power....

  1. Power source facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro

    1998-09-29

    The present invention concerns a power plant, in which power is supplied from an ordinary system battery to an ordinary DC bus system when all of the AC power sources should be lost and a generator is driven by a steam turbine. A generator is connected with an ordinary system battery charger by way of a channel. If all of power sources should be lost, the ordinary system battery charger is driven by using emergency steam turbine generator facilities, and reactor steams are supplied thereby enabling to supply power to the ordinary system DC bus system for a long period of time. (N.H.)

  2. N-power needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    SA will have to build more nuclear power stations over the next 30 years if the change over from coal-fired stations is to be made successfully. There will have to be substantial growth in nuclear power. If new nuclear power stations are to be built it is likely they are to be on the coast. Studies of the existing and projected population density of the area and the infrastructure have to be done. The next nuclear power stations is likely to use the light water mounted and cooled fission reactor. The present situation with the Koeberg nuclear power plant is also discussed

  3. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  4. Philosophy of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, H.; Joyia, Y.; Qureshi, M.N.; Asif, M.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the huge power demand in future, the capital investment requirements for the development of power projects to meet the future energy requirements are so alarming that public sector alone cannot manage to raise funds and participation of the private sector in power generation development has become imperative. This paper discusses a power generation philosophy based on preference to the exploitation of indigenous resources and participation of private sector. In order to have diversification in generation resources, due consideration has been given to the development of nuclear power and even non-conventional but promising technologies of solar, wind, biomass and geothermal etc. (author)

  5. Public power costs less

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, D.

    1993-01-01

    The reasons why residential customers of public power utilities paid less for power than private sector customers is discussed. Residential customers of investor-owned utilities (IOU's) paid average rates that were 28% above those paid by customers by possibly owned systems during 1990. The reasons for this disparity are that management costs faced by public power systems are below those of private power companies, indicating a greater efficiency of management among public power systems, and customer accounts expenses averaged $33.00 per customer for publicly owned electric utilities compared to $39.00 per customer for private utilities

  6. Multimode power processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  7. China's power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, M.

    2006-01-01

    Whether the People's Republic of China may develop to an economical super-government in future depends on the amount of power and resources of this land. The security of power supply is in an extremely prominent position in the Agenda of the Chinese government. Under this aspect the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the power policy of China. The main aspects of this contribution are: (a) Trends of power consumption, productions and imports of power; (b) Power political targets, measures and instruments of China; (c) Characteristics, national and international impacts of the power policy of China. Due to the economical activities of the chinese oil industry worldwide as well as due to the increasing dependence from imports of petroleum and natural oil, China becomes a global player. Thus, one may expect an intensification of Beijing's economical activities with an increased military component. Nevertheless, the power policy of China is an important factor in the global competition according to fossil resources. In order to understand the future behaviour of China's power policy, one may have to take notice of the strategies relating the power policy and relating to foreign affairs. Furthermore, trends and problematic areas concerning the securitization of the power supply in the national area have to be observed

  8. Fusion-power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Carlson, G.A.; Neef, W.S.; Moir, R.W.; Campbell, R.B.; Botwin, R.; Clarkson, I.R.; Carpenter, T.J.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  9. Wind power takes over

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    All over the industrialized world concentrated efforts are being made to make wind turbines cover some of the energy demand in the coming years. There is still a long way to go, however, towards a 'green revolution' as far as energy is concerned, for it is quite futile to use wind power for electric heating. The article deals with some of the advantages and disadvantages of developing wind power. In Norway, for instance, environmentalists fear that wind power plants along the coast may have serious consequences for the stocks of white-tailed eagle and golden eagle. An other factor that delays the large-scale application of wind power in Norway is the low price of electricity. Some experts, however, maintain that wind power may already compete with new hydroelectric power of intermediate cost. The investment costs are expected to go down with one third by 2020, when wind power may be the most competitive energy source to utilize

  10. Fusion power demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.

    1983-01-01

    As a satellite to the MARS (Mirror Advanced Reactor Study) a smaller, near-term device has been scoped, called the FPD (Fusion Power Demonstration). Envisioned as the next logical step toward a power reactor, it would advance the mirror fusion program beyond MFTF-B and provide an intermediate step toward commercial fusion power. Breakeven net electric power capability would be the goal such that no net utility power would be required to sustain the operation. A phased implementation is envisioned, with a deuterium checkout first to verify the plasma systems before significant neutron activation has occurred. Major tritium-related facilities would be installed with the second phase to produce sufficient fusion power to supply the recirculating power to maintain the neutral beams, ECRH, magnets and other auxiliary equipment

  11. Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majercak, V.; Srenkelova, Z.; Kristak, J.G.

    1997-01-01

    In this brochure the Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina, (VED), subsidiary of the utility Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, plc. Bratislava) are presented. VED is mainly aimed at generating peak-load electrical energy and maintenance of operational equipment. Reaching its goals, company is first of all focused on reliability of production, economy and effectiveness, keeping principles of work safety and industry safety standards and also ecology. VED operates eight hydroelectric power plants, from which PVE Ruzin I and PVE Dobsina I are pump storage ones and they are controlled directly by the Slovak Energy Dispatch Centre located in Zilina thought the system LS 3200. Those power plants participate in secondary regulation of electrical network of Slovakia. They are used to compensate balance in reference to foreign electrical networks and they are put into operation independently from VED. Activity of the branch is focused mainly on support of fulfilment of such an important aim as electric network regulation. Beginnings of the subsidiary Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina are related to the year of 1948. After commissioning of the pump storage Hydroelectric Power Plants Dobsina in 1953, the plant started to carry out its mission. Since that time the subsidiary has been enlarged by other seven power plants, through which it is fulfilling its missions nowadays. The characteristics of these hydroelectric power plants (The pump-storage power plant Dobsina, Small hydroelectric power plant Dobsina II, Small hydroelectric power plant Rakovec, Small hydroelectric power plant Svedlar, Hydroelectric power plant Domasa, The pump-storage power plant Ruzin, and Small hydroelectric power plant Krompachy) are described in detail. Employees welfare and public relations are presented

  12. Human Power Empirically Explored

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, A.J.

    2011-01-18

    Harvesting energy from the users' muscular power to convert this into electricity is a relatively unknown way to power consumer products. It nevertheless offers surprising opportunities for product designers; human-powered products function independently from regular power infrastructure, are convenient and can be environmentally and economically beneficial. This work provides insight into the knowledge required to design human-powered energy systems in consumer products from a scientific perspective. It shows the developments of human-powered products from the first introduction of the BayGen Freeplay radio in 1995 till current products and provides an overview and analysis of 211 human-powered products currently on the market. Although human power is generally perceived as beneficial for the environment, this thesis shows that achieving environmental benefit is only feasible when the environmental impact of additional materials in the energy conversion system is well balanced with the energy demands of the products functionality. User testing with existing products showed a preference for speeds in the range of 70 to 190 rpm for crank lengths from 32 to 95 mm. The muscular input power varied from 5 to 21 W. The analysis of twenty graduation projects from the Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering in the field of human-powered products, offers an interesting set of additional practice based design recommendations. The knowledge based approach of human power is very powerful to support the design of human-powered products. There is substantial potential for improvements in the domains energy conversion, ergonomics and environment. This makes that human power, when applied properly, is environmentally and economically competitive over a wider range of applications than thought previously.

  13. Power quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathi, H.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    The electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances problems. Assessment of power quality is necessary for maintaining accurate operation of sensitive equipment's especially for nuclear installations, it also ensures that unnecessary energy losses in a power system are kept at a minimum which lead to more profits. With advanced in technology growing of industrial / commercial facilities in many region. Power quality problems have been a major concern among engineers; particularly in an industrial environment, where there are many large-scale type of equipment. Thus, it would be useful to investigate and mitigate the power quality problems. Assessment of Power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. The choice of monitoring equipment in a survey is also important to ascertain a solution to these power quality problems. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards); then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. The main objective of the present work is to investigate and mitigate of power quality problems in nuclear installations. Normally electrical power is supplied to the installations via two sources to keep good reliability. Each source is designed to carry the full load. The Assessment of power quality was performed at the nuclear installations for both sources at different operation conditions. The thesis begins with a discussion of power quality definitions and the results of previous studies in power quality monitoring. The assessment determines that one source of electricity was deemed to have relatively good power quality; there were several disturbances, which exceeded the thresholds. Among of them are fifth harmonic, voltage swell, overvoltage and flicker. While the second

  14. Power generation statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    The frost in February increased the power demand in Finland significantly. The total power consumption in Finland during January-February 2001 was about 4% higher than a year before. In January 2001 the average temperature in Finland was only about - 4 deg C, which is nearly 2 degrees higher than in 2000 and about 6 degrees higher than long term average. Power demand in January was slightly less than 7.9 TWh, being about 0.5% less than in 2000. The power consumption in Finland during the past 12 months exceeded 79.3 TWh, which is less than 2% higher than during the previous 12 months. In February 2001 the average temperature was - 10 deg C, which was about 5 degrees lower than in February 2000. Because of this the power consumption in February 2001 increased by 5%. Power consumption in February was 7.5 TWh. The maximum hourly output of power plants in Finland was 13310 MW. Power consumption of Finnish households in February 2001 was about 10% higher than in February 2000, and in industry the increase was nearly zero. The utilization rate in forest industry in February 2001 decreased from the value of February 2000 by 5%, being only about 89%. The power consumption of the past 12 months (Feb. 2000 - Feb. 2001) was 79.6 TWh. Generation of hydroelectric power in Finland during January - February 2001 was 10% higher than a year before. The generation of hydroelectric power in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was nearly 2.7 TWh, corresponding to 17% of the power demand in Finland. The output of hydroelectric power in Finland during the past 12 months was 14.7 TWh. The increase from the previous 12 months was 17% corresponding to over 18% of the power demand in Finland. Wind power generation in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was exceeded slightly 10 GWh, while in 2000 the corresponding output was 20 GWh. The degree of utilization of Finnish nuclear power plants in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was high. The output of these plants was 3.8 TWh, being about 1% less than in Jan. - Feb. 2000. The main cause for the

  15. On power and empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratto, Felicia

    2016-03-01

    This study presents a conceptual analysis of social power. The most common theories of power are social-relational, an approach instantiated in a range of contemporary experiments that give participants the chance to control other people's outcomes. The relational approach is also reflected in various analyses of international relations. In comparing and contrasting relational theories of power, I identify logical inconsistencies and shortcomings in their ability to address empowerment and reductions in inequality. In turn, I propose a new ecological conceptualization of empowerment as the state of being able to achieve one's goals and of power as stemming from a combination of the capacity of the party and the affordances of the environment. I explain how this new conceptualization can describe the main kinds of power social relations, avoid logical contradictions, and moreover, distinguish power from agency and from control. This new conceptualization of power as the possibility of meeting goals, coupled with recognizing survival as the fundamental goal of all living things, implies an absolute and not relative or relational standard for power, namely well-being. It also allows us to conceive of power in ways that help address the many social concerns that have motivated research on power. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Personal power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn-Rankin, Derek; Leal, Elisangela Martins; Walther, David C. [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The lack of compact, efficient, human compatible, lightweight power sources impedes the realization of machine-enhanced human endeavor. Electronic and communication devices, as well as mobile robotic devices, need new power sources that will allow them to operate autonomously for periods of hours. In this work, a personal power system implies an application of interest to an individual person. The human-compatible gravimetric energy density spans the range from 500 to 5000Wh/kg, with gravimetric power density requirements from 10 to 1000W/kg. These requirements are the primary goals for the systems presented here. The review examines the interesting and promising concepts in electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical approaches to small-scale power, as well as their technological and physical challenges and limitations. Often it is the limitations that dominate, so that while the technology to create personal autonomy for communications, information processing and mobility has accelerated, similar breakthroughs for the systems powering these devices have not yet occurred. Fuel cells, model airplane engines, and hummingbird metabolism, are three promising examples, respectively, of electrochemical, thermochemical, and biochemical power production strategies that are close to achieving personal power systems' power demands. Fuel cells show great promise as an energy source when relatively low power density is demanded, but they cannot yet deliver high peak powers nor respond quickly to variable loads. Current small-scale engines, while achieving extraordinary power densities, are too inefficient to achieve the energy density needed for long-duration autonomous operation. Metabolic processes of flying insects and hummingbirds are remarkable biological energy converters, but duplicating, accelerating, and harnessing such power for mobility applications is virtually unexplored. These challenges are significant, and they provide a fertile environment for

  17. High power communication satellites power systems study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josloff, Allan T.; Peterson, Jerry R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses a planned study to evaluate the commercial attractiveness of high power communication satellites and assesses the attributes of both conventional photovoltaic and reactor power systems. These high power satellites can play a vital role in assuring availability of universally accessible, wide bandwidth communications, for high definition TV, super computer networks and other services. Satellites are ideally suited to provide the wide bandwidths and data rates required and are unique in the ability to provide services directly to the users. As new or relocated markets arise, satellites offer a flexibility that conventional distribution services cannot match, and it is no longer necessary to be near population centers to take advantage of the telecommunication revolution. The geopolitical implications of these substantially enhanced communications capabilities can be significant.

  18. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...

  19. A Review of Power Electronics for Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems. Main wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described. The electrical topologies of wind farms with power electronic conversion are discussed. Power electronic applications...

  20. Series active power filter in power conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Power quality has become an important issue nowadays for several reasons, e.g. modern society's growing dependence on electricity and the fact that poor power quality may generate significant economic losses in few moments. Probable power quality problems are, e.g. harmonics, flicker, voltage dips and supply interruptions. The power quality may be improved by using filters and compensators.The purpose of this thesis is to research the operation of the series active power filter (SAPF) in power conditioning. Therefore, this thesis presents a comparison of three series hybrid active power filters (SHAPFs) in current harmonics filtering. In addition to this, it is shown how the voltage dip compensation performance of the SAPF is improved in a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) application.The three SHAPFs included in the comparison are series connected topology (SCT), filter connected topology (FCT) and electrically tuned LC shunt circuit (ETLC). The operating principle of these filters is to direct the harmonic currents produced by the load to flow in the LC shunt circuits instead of the supply. In the case of the SCT this phenomenon is boosted by applying so-called active resistance in the supply branch using the SAPF. In the case of the FCT a similar action is achieved by applying the compensation voltage in series with the LC shunt circuits using the SAPF. In the case of the ETLC the performance of the LC shunt circuit is enhanced by applying so-called active inductances in series with the LC shunt circuit using the SAPF. The SHAPFs are compared by searching for their best current filtering performance using various main circuit and control system configurations and loads. The operation of the SHAPFs is first analysed mathematically. After this, the current filtering performance of the SHAPFs is inspected using simulations and experimental tests. The experimental tests are carried out using SHAPF prototypes. As a result, it is shown that the current

  1. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  2. Solar Power Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Katherine A.; Mentesidi, Konstantina; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    a significant change. Beyond this energy transition, the still declining cost of the solar technology has become an important driving force for more solar-powered systems. However, high penetration of solar-powered systems also brings technical challenges to the entire energy systems. In order to fully address......Solar power is highly abundant, relatively reliable, and not limited to a geographic region, making it one of the most important renewable energy sources. Catering for a clean and green energy system, solar energy will be an active player in the future mixed power grid that is also undergoing...... those issues, the technological properties of solar power should be investigated. Thus, the basics of solar power technology will be introduced and discussed in this chapter....

  3. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Kazuyori.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To automatically control the BWR type reactor power by simple and short-time searching the load pattern nearest to the required pattern at a nuclear power plant side. Constitution: The reactor power is automatically regulated by periodical modifying of coefficients fitting to a reactor core model, according as a required load pattern. When a load requirement pattern is given, a simulator estimates the total power change and the axial power distribution change from a xenon density change output calculated by a xenon dynamic characteristic estimating device, and a load pattern capable of being realized is searched. The amount to be recirculated is controlled on the basis of the load patteren thus searched, and the operation of the BWR type reactor is automatically controlled at the side of the nuclear power plant. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  5. Power and welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kasper

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or ‘empower’ citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  6. Power and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna; Villadsen, Kaspar

    readily evident that power is at stake when institutions educate, counsel or 'empower' citizens. This book offers a framework for understanding and analyzing these complex and implicit forms of power at play in the encounters between citizens and welfare institutions. Taking as its starting point the idea......In the welfare provision of today, power takes both the shape of juridical sanctions and of attractive offers for self-development. When state institutions punish criminals, remove children at risk, or enforce sanctions upon welfare recipients the question of power is immediately urgent. It is less...... that power takes many different shapes, and that different approaches to power may be necessary in the diverse contexts where citizens encounter welfare professionals, the book demonstrates how significant social theorists, spanning from Goffman to Foucault, can be used for inquiries into these encounters...

  7. Power distribution arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    An arrangement and a method for distributing power supplied by a power source to two or more of loads (e.g., electrical vehicular systems) is disclosed, where a representation of the power taken by a particular one of the loads from the source is measured. The measured representation of the amount...... of power taken from the source by the particular one of the loads is compared to a threshold to provide an overload signal in the event the representation exceeds the threshold. Control signals dependant on the occurring of the overload signal are provided such that the control signal decreases the output...... power of the power circuit in case the overload signal occurs...

  8. Power grid complexity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Shengwei; Zhang, Xuemin [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, BJ (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Cao, Ming [Groningen Univ. (Netherlands). Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences

    2011-07-01

    ''Power Grid Complexity'' introduces the complex system theory known as self-organized criticality (SOC) theory and complex network theory, and their applications to power systems. It studies the network characteristics of power systems, such as their small-world properties, structural vulnerability, decomposition and coordination strategies, and simplification and equivalence methods. The book also establishes four blackout models based on SOC theory through which the SOC of power systems is studied at both the macroscopic and microscopic levels. Additionally, applications of complex system theory in power system planning and emergency management platforms are also discussed in depth. This book can serve as a useful reference for engineers and researchers working with power systems. (orig.)

  9. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  10. Power Subscription Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-12-21

    This document lays out the Bonneville Power Administration`s Power Subscription Strategy, a process that will enable the people of the Pacific Northwest to share the benefits of the Federal Columbia river Power System after 2001 while retaining those benefits within the region for future generations. The strategy also addresses how those who receive the benefits of the region`s low-cost federal power should share a corresponding measure of the risks. This strategy seeks to implement the subscription concept created by the Comprehensive Review in 1996 through contracts for the sale of power and the distribution of federal power benefits in the deregulated wholesale electricity market. The success of the subscription process is fundamental to BPA`s overall business purpose to provide public benefits to the Northwest through commercially successful businesses.

  11. 15 theses on power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susen Simon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to contribute to a critical understanding of the multifaceted nature of power, emphasizing its capacity to shape the development of society by permeating constitutive aspects of human reality. To this end, the article proposes an outline of a multidimensional approach to power. It does so by identifying and examining several - arguably universal - features and functions of power. On the basis of 15 theses, it is argued that, within the social world, the power of power derives from the fact that it is (1 ubiquitous, (2 productive, (3 relational, (4 intangible, (5 habitual, (6 discursive, (7 corporeal, (8 polycentric, (9 performative, (10 normative, (11 spatial, (12 temporal, (13 disciplinary, (14 circular, and (15 transcendental. By way of conclusion, the article provides a comprehensive summary of the main insights gained and challenges arising from such a multidimensional approach to power.

  12. Nuclear power in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addinall, E.; Ellington, H.

    1982-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters: (the nature of nuclear power) the atomic nucleus - a potential source of energy; how nuclear reactors work; the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactivity - its nature and biological effects; (why we need nuclear power) use of energy in the non-communist world -the changing pattern since 1950; use of energy - possible future scenarios; how our future energy needs might be met; (a possible long term nuclear strategy) the history of nuclear power; a possible nuclear power strategy for the Western World; (social and environmental considerations) the hazards to workers in the nuclear power industry; the hazards to the general public (nuclear power industry; reactor operation; transport of radioactive materials; fuel reprocessing; radioactive waste disposal; genetic hazards); the threat to democratic freedom and world peace. (U.K.)

  13. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  14. Power system health analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation

  15. Balance of power

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, James Raymond

    2012-01-01

    This Paper argues that the efficiency distribution of players in a game determines how aggressively these players interact. We formalize the idea of balance of power: players fight very inefficient players but play softly versus equally (or more) efficient players. This theory of conduct predicts that entry by new firms leads to a less aggressive outcome if it creates a balance of power. A balance of power is created if more players get technologies that are close to the most efficient techno...

  16. Corrosion in power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The proceedings contain the full texts of 25 papers of which 10 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. They concern the problems of corrosion in WWER type nuclear power plants. The topics include structural materials and equipment of the primary and the secondary circuits of nuclear power plants, components used in disposal of spent nuclear fuel, sodium valves for fast reactors and basic study of the properties of materials used in nuclear power. (Z.M.). 12 figs., 6 tabs., 46 refs

  17. Solar power in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesa, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Solar cells, or photovoltaic units, have provided a useful supply of energy for low-power, non-gridconnected applications in Finland for some years. Applications have included navigational buoys, base stations for mobile phone networks, and appliances in holiday homes. Solar-powered systems have also been used in connection with grid power for over a decade, in Finland and elsewhere, and have proved generally successful - and solar energy is emerging as an increasingly interesting alternative for distributed electricity generation

  18. Nuclear power flies high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power in aircraft, rockets and satellites is discussed. No nuclear-powered rockets or aircraft have ever flown, but ground tests were successful. Nuclear reactors are used in the Soviet Cosmos serles of satellites, but only one American satellite, the SNAP-10A, contained a reactor. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators, many of which use plutonium 238, have powered more than 20 satellites launched into deep space by the U.S.A

  19. Impact of advanced wind power ancillary services on power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    The objective of this report is to illustrate and analyse, by means of simulation test cases, the impact of wind power advanced ancillary services, like inertial response (IR), power oscillation damping (POD) and synchronising power (SP) on the power system. Generic models for wind turbine, wind...... power plant and power system are used in the investigation....

  20. Governance of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.; Carnesale, A.; Zigman, P.; DeRosa, F.

    1981-01-01

    Utility decisions on whether to invest in nuclear power plants are complicated by uncertainties over future power demand, regulatory changes, public perceptions of nuclear power, and capital costs. A review of the issues and obstacles confronting nuclear power also covers the factors affecting national policies, focusing on three institutional questions: regulating the industry, regulating the regulators, and regulatory procedures. The specific recommendations made to improve safety, cost, and public acceptance will still not eliminate uncertainties unless the suggested fundamental changes are made. 29 references

  1. Nuclear power: European report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, nuclear power plants were operated and/or built in eighteen European countries. Thirteen of these countries are members of EU-25. Five of the ten countries joining the European Union on May 1, 2004 operate nuclear power stations. A total of 206 power reactors with a gross power of 181,941 MWe and a net power of 172,699 MWe were in operation at the end of the year. In 2004, one nuclear power plant was commissioned in Russia (Kalinin 3), two (Kmelnitzki 2 and Rowno 4) in Ukraine. Five nuclear power plants were decommissioned in Europe in the course of 2004. As announced in 2000, the Chapelcross 1 to Chapelcross 4 plants in Britain were shut down for economic reasons. In Lithuania, the Ignalina 1 unit was disconnected from the power grid, as had been demanded by the EU Commission within the framework of the negotiations about the country's accession to the EU. As a result of ongoing technical optimization in some plants, involving increases in reactor power or generator power as well as commissioning of plants of higher capacity, nuclear generating capacity increased by approx. 1.5 GW. In late 2004, four nuclear generating units were under construction in Finland (1), Romania (1), and Russia (2). 150 nuclear power plants were operated in thirteen states of the European Union (EU-25), which is sixteen more than the year before as a consequence of the accession of new countries. They had an aggregate gross power of 137,943 MWe and a net power of 131,267 MWe, generating approx. 983 billion gross kWh of electricity in 2003, thus again contributing some 32% to the public electricity supply in the EU-25. In largest share of nuclear power in electricity generation is found in Lithuania (80%), followed by 78% in France, 57% in the Slovak Republic, 56% in Belgium, and 46% in Ukraine. In several countries not operating nuclear power plants of their own, such as Italy, Portugal, and Austria, nuclear power makes considerable contributions to public electricity supply as

  2. Nuclear power in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rim, C.S.

    1990-01-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea

  3. Role of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, S.

    1982-01-01

    A survey of world nuclear installations, the operating experiences of power reactors, and estimates of future nuclear growth leads to the conclusion that nuclear power's share of world electric power supply will grow slowly, but steadily during this decade. This growth will lead advanced countries to use the commercial breeder by the end of the century. Nuclear power is economically viable for most industrialized and many developing countries if public acceptance problems can be resolved. A restructuring of operational safety and regulations must occur first, as well as a resolution of the safeguards and technology transfer issue. 7 figures, 7 tables

  4. Wind power in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report analyses business costs and socio-economic costs in the development of wind power in Norway and policy instruments to encourage such a development. It is founded on an analysis of the development of wind power in other countries, notably U.S.A, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Britain. The report describes the institutional background in each country, the policy instruments that have been used and still are and the results achieved. The various cost components in Norwegian wind power development and the expected market price of wind power are also discussed. The discussion of instruments distinguishes between investment oriented and production oriented instruments. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  6. Nuclear power in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Australian Uranium Association reports that Asia is the only region in the world where electricity generating capacity and specifically nuclear power is growing significantly. In East and South Asia, there are over 109 nuclear power reactors in operation, 18 under construction and plans to build about a further 100. The greatest growth in nuclear generation is expected in China, Japan, South Korea and India. As a member of the SE Asian community, Australia cannot afford to ignore the existence and growth of nuclear power generation on its door step, even if it has not, up to now, needed to utilise this power source

  7. Nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine factors and prospects for a resumption in growth of nuclear power in the United States over the next decade. The focus of analysis on the likelihood that current efforts in the United States to develop improved and safer nuclear power reactors will provide a sound technical basis for improved acceptance of nuclear power, and contribute to a social/political climate more conducive to a resumption of nuclear power growth. The acceptability of nuclear power and advanced reactors to five social/political sectors in the U.S. is examined. Three sectors highly relevant to the prospects for a restart of nuclear power plant construction are the financial sector involved in financing nuclear power plant construction, the federal nuclear regulatory sector, and the national political sector. For this analysis, the general public are divided into two groups: those who are knowledgeable about and involved in nuclear power issues, the involved public, and the much larger body of the general public that is relatively uninvolved in the controversy over nuclear power

  8. Guide to power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    The IAEA's major first scientific publication is the Directory of Power Reactors now in operation or under construction in various parts of the world. The purpose of the directory is to present important details of various power projects in such a way as to provide a source of easy reference for anyone interested in the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy, either at the technical or management level. Six pages have been devoted to each reactor the first of which contains general information, reactor physics data and information about the core. The second and third contain sketches of the fuel element or of the fuel element assembly, and of the horizontal and vertical sections of the reactor. On the fourth page information is grouped under the following heads: fuel element, core heat transfer, control, reactor vessel and over-all dimensions, and fluid flow. The fifth page shows a simplified flow diagram, while the sixth provides information on reflector and shielding, containment and turbo generator. Some information has also been given, when available, on cost estimates and operating staff requirements. Remarks and a bibliography constitute the last part of the description of each reactor. Reactor projects included in this directory are pressurized light water cooled power reactors. Boiling light water cooled power reactors, heavy water cooled power reactors, gas cooled power reactors, organic cooled power reactors liquid metal cooled power reactors and liquid metal cooled power reactors

  9. Nuclear power in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rim, C S [Radioactive Waste Management Centre, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon, Choong-Nam (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-01

    Before addressing the issue of public and utility acceptance of nuclear power in Korea, let me briefly explain the Korean nuclear power program and development plan for a passively safe nuclear power plant in Korea. At present, there are eight PWRs and one CANDU in operation; two PWRs are under construction, and contract negotiations are underway for one more CANDU and two more PWRs, which are scheduled to be completed by 1997,1998 and 1999, respectively. According to a recent forecast for electricity demand in Korea, about fifty additional nuclear power plants with a generating capacity of 1000MWe are required by the year 2030. Until around 2006, Korean standardized nuclear power plants with evolutionary features such as those in the ALWR program are to be built, and a new type of nuclear power plant with passive safety features is expected to be constructed after 2006. The Korean government is making a serious effort to increase public understanding of the safety of nuclear power plants and radioactive waste storage and disposal. In addition, the Korean government has recently introduced a program of benefits for residents near nuclear power plants. By this program, common facilities such as community centers and new roads are constructed, and scholarships are given to the local students. Nuclear power is accepted positively by the utility and reasonably well by the public in Korea.

  10. CSTI High Capacity Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The SP-100 program was established in 1983 by DOD, DOE, and NASA as a joint program to develop the technology necessary for space nuclear power systems for military and civil application. During FY-86 and 87, the NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program was devised to maintain the momentum of promising technology advancement efforts started during Phase 1 of SP-100 and to strengthen, in key areas, the chances for successful development and growth capability of space nuclear reactor power systems for future space applications. In FY-88, the Advanced Technology Program was incorporated into NASA's new Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI). The CSTI Program was established to provide the foundation for technology development in automation and robotics, information, propulsion, and power. The CSTI High Capacity Power Program builds on the technology efforts of the SP-100 program, incorporates the previous NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology project, and provides a bridge to NASA Project Pathfinder. The elements of CSTI High Capacity Power development include Conversion Systems, Thermal Management, Power Management, System Diagnostics, and Environmental Interactions. Technology advancement in all areas, including materials, is required to assure the high reliability and 7 to 10 year lifetime demanded for future space nuclear power systems. The overall program will develop and demonstrate the technology base required to provide a wide range of modular power systems as well as allowing mission independence from solar and orbital attitude requirements. Several recent advancements in CSTI High Capacity power development will be discussed

  11. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  12. Potentials of wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukikh, P.P.; Bezrukikh, P.P.

    2000-01-01

    The ecological advantages of the wind power facilities (WPF) are considered. The possibilities of small WPF, generating the capacity from 40 W up to 10 kW, are discussed. The basic technical data on the national and foreign small WPF are presented. The combined wind power systems are considered. Special attention is paid to the most perspective wind-diesel systems, which provide for all possible versions of the electro-power supply. Useful recommendations and information on the wind power engineering are given for those, who decided to build up a wind facility [ru

  13. Power generation technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The new edition of Power Generation Technologies is a concise and readable guide that provides an introduction to the full spectrum of currently available power generation options, from traditional fossil fuels and the better established alternatives such as wind and solar power, to emerging renewables such as biomass and geothermal energy. Technology solutions such as combined heat and power and distributed generation are also explored. However, this book is more than just an account of the technologies - for each method the author explores the economic and environmental costs and risk factor

  14. Electrical power cable engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thue, William A

    2011-01-01

    Fully updated, Electrical Power Cable Engineering, Third Edition again concentrates on the remarkably complex design, application, and preparation methods required to terminate and splice cables. This latest addition to the CRC Press Power Engineering series covers cutting-edge methods for design, manufacture, installation, operation, and maintenance of reliable power cable systems. It is based largely on feedback from experienced university lecturers who have taught courses on these very concepts.The book emphasizes methods to optimize vital design and installation of power cables used in the

  15. Power System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Haruhito

    Electric power generation that relies on various sources as the primary sources of energy is expected to bring down CO2 emissions levels to support the overall strategy to curb global warming. Accordingly, utilities are moving towards integrating more renewable sources for generation, mostly dispersed, and adopting Smart Grid Technologies for system control. In order to construct, operate, and maintain power systems stably and economically in such background, thorough understanding about the characteristics of power systems and their components is essential. This paper presents modeling and simulation techniques available for the analysis of critical aspects such as thermal capacity, stability, voltage stability, and frequency dynamics, vital for the stable operation of power systems.

  16. Less power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TASR

    2003-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the number of company power plants decreased as against 2001 by two sources. In present time only 35 companies have their own power plants. The companies Slovnaft, Kappa Sturovo, Slovensky hodvab Senica, Matador Puchov, Maytex Liptovsky MikuIas, Kovohuty Krompachy, Chemko Strazske and some Slovak sugar factories belong to the largest company power plants in force of distributing companies. Installed output of present 35 company sources is 531 MW. The largest of separate power plants as Paroplynovy cyklus Bratislava (218 MW) and VD Zilina (72 MW) belong to independent sources. Total installed output of Slovak sources was 8306 MW in the end of last year

  17. Passive Power Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Künzi, R.

    2015-06-15

    Power converters require passive low-pass filters which are capable of reducing voltage ripples effectively. In contrast to signal filters, the components of power filters must carry large currents or withstand large voltages, respectively. In this paper, three different suitable filter struc tures for d.c./d.c. power converters with inductive load are introduced. The formulas needed to calculate the filter components are derived step by step and practical examples are given. The behaviour of the three discussed filters is compared by means of the examples. P ractical aspects for the realization of power filters are also discussed.

  18. Power Markets. Creating a regional power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, K.; Belin, H.

    2009-01-01

    One article and one column in the section 'Power markets'. In the article attention is paid to the leading role of the Netherlands in the pursuit of a fully integrated North West European electricity market. the column 'View from Brussels' focuses on the 'Sustainable Energy Europe' campaign and the related EU Sustainable Energy Week in February 2009

  19. Separation of Powers and the Legislative Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossum, Ralph A.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the contribution of separation of powers and checks and balances in resolving the rival defects of democratic ineptitude and majority tyranny as the Founders framed the Constitution. Contends the Founders structured the government so that the three branches could keep each other in their proper places. Discusses Anti- Federalist…

  20. Peak Power Markets for Satellite Solar Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces first Indonesia, comprises 15,000 islands, has land area of two millions square kilometers. Extending from 95 to 141 degrees East longitude and from 6 degrees North to 11 degrees South latitude. Further the market of the Space Solar Power/SPS must be worldwide, including Indonesia. As we know, it can provide electricity anywhere in the world from the Earth's orbit, mostly Indonesia an equator country. We have to perform case studies of various countries to understand their benefits and disadvantages provided by the SSP, because each country has much different condition on energy from other countries. We are at the moment starting the international collaboration between Indonesia and Japan to carry out the case study for Indonesia. We understand that in Indonesia itself each province has much different micro-climate between one province compared to the other. In Japan, METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) has already organized a committee to investigate the feasibility of Space Solar Power and to make a plan to launch a space demonstration of the SPS. While, Indonesia is quickly developing economy and increasing their energy demand. We are investigating the detailed energy conditions of Indonesia, the benefits and disadvantages of the Space Solar Power for Indonesia. Especially, we will perform the investigation on the receiving system for the Japanese pilot Space Power Satellite.

  1. Wind power: Italian wind power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta, G.; Casale, C.

    2008-01-01

    Trends in the world point a growing wind power sector in the future taking into account the safety of energy supply and environmental issues. Will determine the future scenario of price and availability of conventional energy sources. The current level reached by the price of oil create a win-win situation [it

  2. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  3. Power programmes review: Nuclear power for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    India will require a substantial increase in the generation of electrical power to meet the demands of her developing economy. A survey of available resources has been made in the context of development envisaged under the country's five-year plans and it is felt that atomic energy will have to be used in increasing quantities to supplement conventional fuel resources in order to attain the anticipated power targets in the next two decades. It has, therefore, been decided that a small beginning will be made with the erection and commissioning of anatomic power station of 250 MW (electric) capacity by the end of 1964. The installation of a further 750 MW of nuclear power by the end of the third five-year plan period, i.e. by March 1966, is under consideration. Present Pattern and future demand of energy is discussed, as well as available resources and immediate needs. Concerning nuclear fuel cycle and cost estimates it is stated that India's uranium reserves are not large enough to sustain a very long-term programme of power generation, but the reserves for thorium are. Therefore India's nuclear power production will have to be based primarily on thorium with a rather complicated fuel cycles and first, second and third generation atomic power stations. The Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay is India's national centre for research in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. India's first reactor, Apsara, which is of the swimming pool type, has been in operation for more than three years now and two other research reactors are under construction. These are the Canada-India Reactor, which is being built under the Colombo Plan in collaboration with Canada, and Zerlina, which is being designed and built by Indian scientists and engineers. The Canada-India Reactor will be a versatile high flux research reactor and will have facilities in which various power reactor concepts can be tried out in the so-called loop experiments. In addition, it will produce considerable

  4. Power programmes review: Nuclear power for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-10-15

    India will require a substantial increase in the generation of electrical power to meet the demands of her developing economy. A survey of available resources has been made in the context of development envisaged under the country's five-year plans and it is felt that atomic energy will have to be used in increasing quantities to supplement conventional fuel resources in order to attain the anticipated power targets in the next two decades. It has, therefore, been decided that a small beginning will be made with the erection and commissioning of anatomic power station of 250 MW (electric) capacity by the end of 1964. The installation of a further 750 MW of nuclear power by the end of the third five-year plan period, i.e. by March 1966, is under consideration. Present Pattern and future demand of energy is discussed, as well as available resources and immediate needs. Concerning nuclear fuel cycle and cost estimates it is stated that India's uranium reserves are not large enough to sustain a very long-term programme of power generation, but the reserves for thorium are. Therefore India's nuclear power production will have to be based primarily on thorium with a rather complicated fuel cycles and first, second and third generation atomic power stations. The Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay is India's national centre for research in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. India's first reactor, Apsara, which is of the swimming pool type, has been in operation for more than three years now and two other research reactors are under construction. These are the Canada-India Reactor, which is being built under the Colombo Plan in collaboration with Canada, and Zerlina, which is being designed and built by Indian scientists and engineers. The Canada-India Reactor will be a versatile high flux research reactor and will have facilities in which various power reactor concepts can be tried out in the so-called loop experiments. In addition, it will produce considerable

  5. Solving the inverse heat conduction problem using NVLink capable Power architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Szénási

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The accurate knowledge of Heat Transfer Coefficients is essential for the design of precise heat transfer operations. The determination of these values requires Inverse Heat Transfer Calculations, which are usually based on heuristic optimisation techniques, like Genetic Algorithms or Particle Swarm Optimisation. The main bottleneck of these heuristics is the high computational demand of the cost function calculation, which is usually based on heat transfer simulations producing the thermal history of the workpiece at given locations. This Direct Heat Transfer Calculation is a well parallelisable process, making it feasible to implement an efficient GPU kernel for this purpose. This paper presents a novel step forward: based on the special requirements of the heuristics solving the inverse problem (executing hundreds of simulations in a parallel fashion at the end of each iteration, it is possible to gain a higher level of parallelism using multiple graphics accelerators. The results show that this implementation (running on 4 GPUs is about 120 times faster than a traditional CPU implementation using 20 cores. The latest developments of the GPU-based High Power Computations area were also analysed, like the new NVLink connection between the host and the devices, which tries to solve the long time existing data transfer handicap of GPU programming.

  6. Employing multi-GPU power for molecular dynamics simulation: an extension of GALAMOST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, You-Liang; Pan, Deng; Li, Zhan-Wei; Liu, Hong; Qian, Hu-Jun; Zhao, Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; Sun, Zhao-Yan

    2018-04-01

    We describe the algorithm of employing multi-GPU power on the basis of Message Passing Interface (MPI) domain decomposition in a molecular dynamics code, GALAMOST, which is designed for the coarse-grained simulation of soft matters. The code of multi-GPU version is developed based on our previous single-GPU version. In multi-GPU runs, one GPU takes charge of one domain and runs single-GPU code path. The communication between neighbouring domains takes a similar algorithm of CPU-based code of LAMMPS, but is optimised specifically for GPUs. We employ a memory-saving design which can enlarge maximum system size at the same device condition. An optimisation algorithm is employed to prolong the update period of neighbour list. We demonstrate good performance of multi-GPU runs on the simulation of Lennard-Jones liquid, dissipative particle dynamics liquid, polymer and nanoparticle composite, and two-patch particles on workstation. A good scaling of many nodes on cluster for two-patch particles is presented.

  7. GPU-powered model analysis with PySB/cupSODA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leonard A; Nobile, Marco S; Pino, James C; Lubbock, Alexander L R; Besozzi, Daniela; Mauri, Giancarlo; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Lopez, Carlos F

    2017-11-01

    A major barrier to the practical utilization of large, complex models of biochemical systems is the lack of open-source computational tools to evaluate model behaviors over high-dimensional parameter spaces. This is due to the high computational expense of performing thousands to millions of model simulations required for statistical analysis. To address this need, we have implemented a user-friendly interface between cupSODA, a GPU-powered kinetic simulator, and PySB, a Python-based modeling and simulation framework. For three example models of varying size, we show that for large numbers of simulations PySB/cupSODA achieves order-of-magnitude speedups relative to a CPU-based ordinary differential equation integrator. The PySB/cupSODA interface has been integrated into the PySB modeling framework (version 1.4.0), which can be installed from the Python Package Index (PyPI) using a Python package manager such as pip. cupSODA source code and precompiled binaries (Linux, Mac OS/X, Windows) are available at github.com/aresio/cupSODA (requires an Nvidia GPU; developer.nvidia.com/cuda-gpus). Additional information about PySB is available at pysb.org. paolo.cazzaniga@unibg.it or c.lopez@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Power with heliostats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, A.F.; Vant-Hull, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe the concept of the central receiver and consider the following topics: the plan of their solar thermal power system or ''solar power tower'' based on optical transmission; the history of the solar tower; the receiver subsystem; the design of the heliostats and their placement in a field; thermal storage; environmental concerns; and economics

  9. Play and Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The power of play, so central to psychoanalytic theory and practice, is conjoined to the social psychological or socio-politically coloured concept of power, giving rise to many fruitful discussions of how these concepts manifest themselves in clinical work with children, groups and adults...

  10. Playing with Powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriraman, Bharath; Strzelecki, Pawel

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the wide range of pure mathematics that becomes accessible through the use of problems involving powers. In particular we stress the need to balance an applied and context based pedagogical and curricular approach to mathematics with the powerful pure mathematics beneath the simplicity of easily stated and understandable…

  11. Dictionary of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelzer, W.

    2012-04-01

    The actualized version (April 2012) of the dictionary on nuclear power includes all actualizations and new inputs since the last version of 2001. The original publication dates from 1980. The dictionary includes definitions, terms, measuring units and helpful information on the actual knowledge concerning nuclear power, nuclear facilities, and radiation protection.

  12. Solar Powered Refrigeration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Michael K. (Inventor); Bergeron, David J., III (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A solar powered vapor compression refrigeration system is made practicable with thermal storage and novel control techniques. In one embodiment, the refrigeration system includes a photovoltaic panel, a variable speed compressor, an insulated enclosure, and a thermal reservoir. The photovoltaic (PV) panel converts sunlight into DC (direct current) electrical power. The DC electrical power drives a compressor that circulates refrigerant through a vapor compression refrigeration loop to extract heat from the insulated enclosure. The thermal reservoir is situated inside the insulated enclosure and includes a phase change material. As heat is extracted from the insulated enclosure, the phase change material is frozen, and thereafter is able to act as a heat sink to maintain the temperature of the insulated enclosure in the absence of sunlight. The conversion of solar power into stored thermal energy is optimized by a compressor control method that effectively maximizes the compressor's usage of available energy. A capacitor is provided to smooth the power voltage and to provide additional current during compressor start-up. A controller monitors the rate of change of the smoothed power voltage to determine if the compressor is operating below or above the available power maximum, and adjusts the compressor speed accordingly. In this manner, the compressor operation is adjusted to convert substantially all available solar power into stored thermal energy.

  13. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnatbaum, L.

    2009-01-01

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  14. Claim Your Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents a game which has students interpret Articles I, II, and III of the U.S. Constitution to understand the allocation of powers among the 3 branches of government. The game helps students understand the interaction between the 3 branches of government, stressing the separation of powers and the system of checks and balances. (JDH)

  15. Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  16. Small hydroelectric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgesen, Boerre

    2002-01-01

    Small hydroelectric power plants are power plants of 1 - 10 MW. For a supplier, this is an unnatural limit. A more natural limit involves compact engine design and simplified control system. The article discusses most of the engine and electrotechnical aspects in the development, construction and operation of such a plant

  17. Nuclear power debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard

    2005-01-01

    A recent resurgence of interest in Australia in the nuclear power option has been largely attributed to growing concerns over climate change. But what are the real pros and cons of nuclear power? Have advances in technology solved the sector's key challenges? Do the economics stack up for Australia where there is so much coal, gas and renewable resources? Is the greenhouse footprint' of nuclear power low enough to justify its use? During May and June, the AIE hosted a series of Branch events on nuclear power across Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. In the interest of balance, and at risk of being a little bit repetitive, here we draw together four items that resulted from these events and that reflect the opposing views on nuclear power in Australia. Nuclear Power for Australia: Irrelevant or Inevitable? - a summary of the presentations to the symposium held by Sydney Branch on 8 June 2005. Nuclear Reactors Waste the Planet - text from the flyer distributed by The Greens at their protest gathering outside the symposium venue on 8 June 2005. The Case For Nuclear Power - an edited transcript of Ian Hore-Lacy's presentation to Adelaide Branch on 19 May 2005 and to Perth Branch on 28 June 2005. The Case Against Nuclear Power - an article submitted to Energy News by Robin Chappie subsequent to Mr Hore-Lacy's presentation to Perth Branch

  18. BWR power uprate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, K.K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the program developed by GE Nuclear Energy (GE) to increase the power output of Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs). For the implementation of power uprate, this unique approach reduces the cost, the uncertainty and the level of effort for both the utility and the licensing authority. (author)

  19. Power market competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.

    1998-01-01

    In the Unites States the prospect of greater competition in wholesale power market was immediately eclipsed by talk of retail competition. Attempts to move to retail competition have been costly and complex. Prudent public policy and economic analyses suggest that retail competition not be implemented until it can first be demonstrated that effective competition exists in wholesale power markets [it

  20. Power and leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Morten Kusk; Elmholdt, Claus Westergård

    2016-01-01

    of this contribution is to emphasize the dynamics of power and leadership relations in organizations. Power is traditionally defined as forms of influence based on the execution of control and sanctions (Hatch 2011; Fogsgaard and Elmholdt 2014). However, in relation to leadership, this definition is insufficient...

  1. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  2. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  3. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Avinash

    1980-01-01

    The concept of MHD power generation, principles of operation of the MHD generator, its design, types, MHD generator cycles, technological problems to be overcome, the current state of the art in USA and USSR are described. Progress of India's experimental 5 Mw water-gas fired open cycle MHD power generator project is reported in brief. (M.G.B.)

  5. Reactor power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Mikio; Sano, Yuji; Seki, Eiji; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Ito, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a self-powered long detector having a sensitivity over the entire length of a reactor core as an entire control rod withdrawal range of a BWR type reactor, and a reactor power measuring device using a gamma ray thermometer which scarcely causes sensitivity degradation. That is, a hollow protection pipe is disposed passing through the reactor core from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel. The self-powered long detectors and the gamma ray thermometers are inserted and installed in the protection pipe. An average reactor power in an axial direction of the reactor relative to a certain position in the horizontal cross section of the reactor core is determined based on the power of the self-powered long detector over the entire length of the reactor core. Since the response of the self-powered detector relative to a local power change is rapid, the output is used as an input signal to a safety protection device of the reactor core. Further, a gamma ray thermometer secured in the reactor and having scarce sensitivity degradation is used instead of an incore travelling neutron monitor used for relative calibration of an existent neutron monitor secured in the reactor. (I.S.)

  6. Definition of Power Converters

    CERN Document Server

    Bordry, F

    2015-01-01

    The paper is intended to introduce power conversion principles and to define common terms in the domain. The concept s of sources and switches are defined and classified. From the basic laws of source interconnections, a generic method of power converter synthesis is presented. Some examples illustrate this systematic method. Finally, the commutation cell and soft commuta tion are introduced and discussedd.

  7. Stagings of Divine Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Based on a combination of performativity and historicity royal Danish ceremonilality is analysed with a special regard to coronation ceremonies as a manifestation of the idea of godgiven royal power. Point of departure is the coronation of Christian 4. in 1596 and the theme of stagings of power...

  8. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  9. China and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouquoire-Brillet, E.

    1999-01-01

    This book presents the history of nuclear power development in China from the first research works started in the 1950's for the manufacturing of nuclear weapons to the recent development of nuclear power plants. This study tries to answer the main questions raised by the attitude of China with respect to the civil and military nuclear programs. (J.S.)

  10. Nuclear power status 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document gives statistical information on nuclear power plants status in the world in 1999, including the number of reactors in operation or under construction, the electricity supplied by nuclear power reactors and the respective percentage of electricity produced by nuclear energy in 1999, and the total operating experience to 31 December 1999, by country

  11. Power plant at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling platforms are rather inefficient when it comes to their own power supply. In view of ecotax and their environmental image, the offshore industry particularly the Norwegians is highly committed to changing this situation. An efficient power plant, specially designed for the offshore industry, might just prove to be the answer to their prayers

  12. Interconnected power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassina, E.

    2001-01-01

    The import of electric power from foreign countries at profitable prices is today a determinant factor to prime the competition in a national free trade. It is important to define the power transmission capacity and economic regulations for import forms in 2001 [it

  13. Power from Ocean Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Discussed is the utilization of surface ocean waves as a potential source of power. Simple and large-scale wave power devices and conversion systems are described. Alternative utilizations, environmental impacts, and future prospects of this alternative energy source are detailed. (BT)

  14. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  15. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  16. Power and environmental assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cashmore, Matthew Asa; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The significance of politics and power dynamics has long been recognised in environmental assessment (EA) research, but there has not been sustained attention to power, either theoretically or empirically. The aim of this special issue is to encourage the EA community to engage more consistently...

  17. Fusion Power Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.A.; Ogden, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment

  18. Balakovo nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A key means of improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants is through effective training of plant personnel. The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the training at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant, and the important role that international cooperation programs have played in that progress

  19. N-power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    A recent study by the Markinor market research firm shows the more experience you have with nuclear power stations, the less likely you are to want more. A survey of people's attitudes and levels of awareness of nuclear power was done

  20. Power, plutonium and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1982-01-01

    Distinctions between civil and military nuclear energy activities in the context of the Anglo-American trading relationship are described. Origins of the civil-military divide, the beginning of the nuclear power industry, and the use of British nuclear power stations for military purposes are discussed together with IAEA safeguards and US policies initiated by the Carter and Reagan administrations. (U.K.)

  1. Nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moynet, G.

    1987-01-01

    The economical comparison of nuclear power plants with coal-fired plants in some countries or areas are analyzed. It is not difficult to show that nuclear power will have a significant and expanding role to play in providing economic electricity in the coming decades. (Liu)

  2. Nuclear power revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grear, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues - high capital costs, the risks posed by nuclear wastes and accidents, and the proliferation of nuclear weaponry - that until recently hindered the expansion of nuclear power.

  3. Reactor power control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Mitsutaka

    1997-01-01

    Hardware of an analog nuclear instrumentation system is reformed, a function generator is added to a setting calculation circuit of the nuclear instrumentation system, and each of setting lines of the nuclear instrumentation system is set in parallel with an upper limit curve in an operation region defined by a second order or third order equation. Upon transient change of abnormal power elevation during operation, scram signals are generated by power change in the same state as 100% rated operation due to elevation of reactor thermal power. Since the operation limit value relative to transient change due to power elevation can be made substantially equal with the same as that upon rated operation, the operation limit value for partial power operation state can be kept substantially the same level as that upon rated operation. When transition change caused by abnormal control rod withdrawal occurs during operation, a control rod withdrawal inhibition signal can ensure the power elevation width equal with that upon rated power operation, and since the withdrawal inhibition signal is generated in substantially the same withdrawing state, the operation limit value relative to a partial power operation state can be kept at the same level as that during rated operation. (N.H.)

  4. Nuclear power: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wyk, A.

    1985-01-01

    The use of nuclear power in warfare is viewed from the point of use usefullness, essentiality and demolition. The effects of a H-bomb explosion are discussed as well as the use of nuclear power in warfare, with a Christian ethical background

  5. Private power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Martin

    1999-10-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Introduction; Political and economic background; Energy supply; The Chinese electricity sector; Private power in China; Issues for private investors; Fuel choice in private projects; Private investors in China; Listed Chinese generators; Private power prospects; Implemented private generation projects; Planned private Generation Projects; Plants owned by listed Chinese generators. (Author)

  6. PowerCLI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, Philip

    2015-01-01

    If you are a virtualization professional who wants to unleash the power of automation and combat the complexity of sprawling virtual environments, this book is ideal for you. This book will enhance your skills of administering VMware vSphere and vCloud Director with PowerCLI.

  7. Liberal power Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Union is best understood as a liberal power – as an actor that is composed of liberal democracies whose interests, identities and institutions motivate and constrain its policy. The conceptualization of the EU as a liberal power helps to overcome three shortcomings of alternative

  8. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  9. Power Technologies Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, L.

    2002-09-01

    This report, prepared by NREL's Energy Analysis Office, includes up-to-date information on power technologies, including complete technology profiles. The data book also contains charts on electricity restructuring, power technology forecasts and comparisons, electricity supply, electricity capability, electricity generation, electricity demand, prices, economic indicators, environmental indicators, conversion factors, and selected congressional questions and answers.

  10. Nuclear power prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, K.

    1994-01-01

    The technical, economic and political prospects of nuclear power are described with regard to ecological aspects. The consensus talks, which failed in spite of the fact that they were stripped of emotional elements and in spite of major concessions on the part of the power industry, are discussed with a view to the political and social conditions. (orig.) [de

  11. Nuclear Power Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintra do Prado, L.

    1966-01-01

    The present trend is to construct larger plants: the average power of the plants under construction at present, including prototypes, is 300 MW(e), i.e. three times higher than in the case of plants already in operation. Examples of new large-scale plants ares (a) Wylfa, Anglesey, United Kingdom - scheduled power of 1180 MW(e) (800 MW to be installed by 1967), to be completed in 1968; (b) ''Dungeness B'', United Kingdom - scheduled power of 1200 MW(e); (c) second unit for United States Dresden power plant - scheduled power of 715 MW(e) minimum to almost 800 MW(e). Nuclear plants on the whole serve the same purpose as conventional thermal plants

  12. Resonant High Power Combiners

    CERN Document Server

    Langlois, Michel; Peillex-Delphe, Guy

    2005-01-01

    Particle accelerators need radio frequency sources. Above 300 MHz, the amplifiers mostly used high power klystrons developed for this sole purpose. As for military equipment, users are drawn to buy "off the shelf" components rather than dedicated devices. IOTs have replaced most klystrons in TV transmitters and find their way in particle accelerators. They are less bulky, easier to replace, more efficient at reduced power. They are also far less powerful. What is the benefit of very compact sources if huge 3 dB couplers are needed to combine the power? To alleviate this drawback, we investigated a resonant combiner, operating in TM010 mode, able to combine 3 to 5 IOTs. Our IOTs being able to deliver 80 kW C.W. apiece, combined power would reach 400 kW minus the minor insertion loss. Values for matching and insertion loss are given. The behavior of the system in case of IOT failure is analyzed.

  13. Managing Functional Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Laursen, Per Kyed

    2013-01-01

    How does one manage functional power relations between leading functions in vision driven digital media creation, and this from idea to master during the creation cycle? Functional power is informal, and it is understood as roles, e.g. project manager, that provide opportunities to contribute...... to the product quality. The area of interest is the vision driven digital media industry in general; however, the point of departure is the game industry due to its aesthetic complexity. The article's contribution to the area is a power graph, which shows the functional power of the leading functions according...... to a general digital media creation cycle. This is used to point out potential power conflicts and their consequences. It is concluded that there is normally more conflict potential in vision driven digital media creation than in digital media creation in general or in software development. The method...

  14. Reactor power monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shigehiro.

    1990-01-01

    Among a plurality of power monitoring programs in a reactor power monitoring device, rapid response is required for a scram judging program for the power judging processing of scram signals. Therefore, the scram judging program is stored independently from other power monitoring programs, applied with a priority order, and executed in parallel with other programs, to output scram signals when the detected data exceeds a predetermined value. As a result, the capacity required for the scram judging program is reduced and the processing can be conducted in a short period of time. In addition, since high priority is applied to the scram judging program which is divided into a small capacity, it is executed at higher frequency than other programs when they are executed in parallel. That is, since the entire processings for the power monitoring program are repeated in a short cycle, the response speed of the scram signals required for high responsivity can be increased. (N.H.)

  15. Nuclear power in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    India has now nine years of experience with her in nuclear power generation. The system has been acclaimed on various grounds by the authority concerned with its organization in the country. The present paper intends to examine critically the claim for economic superiority of the nuclear power over the thermal power which is asserted often by the spokesmen for the former. Information about the cost of nuclear power that is available to researchers in India is very meagre. Whatever appears in official publications is hardly adequate for working out reasonable estimates for scrutiny. One is therefore left to depend on the public statements made by dignitaries from time to time to form an idea about the economics of nuclear power. Due to gaps in information we are constrained to rely on the foreign literature and make careful guesses about possible costs applicable to India

  16. Tariffs on power trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Water, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    For optimal use of power systems, transmission services must be independent from production. Moreover the costs of electrical energy transmission should be well known and be paid according to a tariff system approximating to the real network costs. These two conditions for power trading will lead to an optimal power system. In a competitive power production market, the transmission and distribution companies will remain monopolistic because they are the only facilitators of power trading. The pricing signals of the transmission and distribution costs determine the playing field for the competitors. These are production offers and bidders. The transmission pricing must for that reason be simple, correct and based on marginal costs to make optimal use of the system

  17. Antares laser power amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stine, R.D.; Ross, G.F.; Silvernail, C.

    1979-01-01

    The overall design of the Antares laser power amplifier is discussed. The power amplifier is the last stage of amplification in the 100-kJ Antares laser. In the power amplifier a single, cylindrical, grid-controlle, cold-cathode electron gun is surrounded by 12 large-aperture CO 2 electron-beam sustained laser discharge sectors. Each power amplifier will deliver 18 kJ and the six modules used in Antares will produce the required 100 kJ for delivery to the target. A large-scale interaction between optical, mechanical, and electrical disciplines is required to meet the design objectives. Significant component advances required by the power amplifier design are discussed

  18. Power in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca; Pouliot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    , in practice, state representatives translate their skills into actual influence and generate a power politics that eschews structural analysis. We argue that seemingly trivial struggles over diplomatic competence within these three multilateral organizations played a crucial role in the intervention in Libya......How does power work in practice? Much of the “stuff” that state agents and other international actors do, on an everyday basis, remains impenetrable to existing IR theory. This is unfortunate, as the everyday performance of international practices actually helps shape world policy outcomes....... In this article we develop a framework to grasp the concrete workings of power in international politics. The notion of “emergent power” bridges two different understandings of power: as capability or relation. Emergent power refers to the generation and deployment of endogenous resources – social skills...

  19. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  20. Power module assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeremy B [Torrance, CA; Newson, Steve [Redondo Beach, CA

    2011-11-15

    A power module assembly of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicular power inverter, wherein the power inverter has a grounded chassis, is provided. The power module assembly comprises a conductive base layer electrically coupled to the chassis, an insulating layer disposed on the conductive base layer, a first conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, a second conductive node disposed on the insulating layer, wherein the first and second conductive nodes are electrically isolated from each other. The power module assembly also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the first conductive node, and further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically connected to the conductive base layer, and a second electrode electrically connected to the second conductive node.

  1. Nuclear power for beginners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croall, S.; Sempler, K.

    1979-01-01

    Witty, critically, and with expert knowledge, 'Atomic power for beginners' describes the development of nuclear power for military purposes and its 'peaceful uses' against the will of the population. Atomic power, the civil baby of the bomb is not only a danger to our lives - it is enemy to all life as all hard technologies are on which economic systems preoccupied with growth put their hopes. Therefore, 'Atomic power for beginners' does not stop at nuclear engineering but proceeds to investigate its consequences, nationally and with a view to the Third World. And since the consequences are so fatal and it is not enough to say no to nuclear power, it gives some thoughts to a better future - with soft technology and alternative production. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  2. Tuning magnet power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.M.; Karady, G.G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    The particles in a Rapid Cycling Accelerator are accelerated by rf cavities, which are tuned by dc biased ferrite cores. The tuning is achieved by the regulation of bias current, which is produced by a power supply. The tuning magnet power supply utilizes a bridge circuit, supplied by a three phase rectifier. During the rise of the current, when the particles are accelerated, the current is controlled with precision by the bridge which operates a power amplifier. During the fall of the current, the bridge operates in a switching mode and recovers the energy stored in the ferrites. The recovered energy is stored in a capacitor bank. The bridge circuit is built with 150 power transistors. The drive, protection and control circuit were designed and built from commercial component. The system will be used for a rf cavity experiment in Los Alamos and will serve as a prototype tuning power supply for future accelerators. 1 ref., 7 figs

  3. Mobile nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1988-11-01

    This report is meant to present a general survey of the mobile nuclear power systems and not a detailed review of their technical accomplishments. It is based in published material mainly up to 1987. Mobile nuclear power systems are of two fundamentally different kinds: nuclear reactors and isotopic generators. In the reactors the energy comes from nuclear fission and in the isotopic generators from the radioactive decay of suitable isotopes. The reactors are primarily used as power sourves on board nuclear submarines and other warships but have also been used in the space and in remote places. Their thermal power has ranged from 30 kWth (in a satellite) to 175 MWth (on board an aircraft carrier). Isotopic generators are suitable only for small power demands and have been used on board satellites and spaceprobes, automatic weatherstations, lighthouses and marine installations for navigation and observation. (author)

  4. Biomass power in transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.K. [Zurn/NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Electricity production from biomass fuel has been hailed in recent years as an environmentally acceptable energy source that delivers on its promise of economically viable renewable energy. A Wall Street Journal article from three years ago proclaimed wood to be {open_quotes}moving ahead of costly solar panels and wind turbines as the leading renewable energy alternative to air-fouling fossils fuels and scary nuclear plants.{close_quotes} Biomass fuel largely means wood; about 90% of biomass generated electricity comes from burning waste wood, the remainder from agricultural wastes. Biomass power now faces an uncertain future. The maturing of the cogeneration and independent power plant market, restructuring of the electric industry, and technological advances with power equipment firing other fuels have placed biomass power in a competitive disadvantage with other power sources.

  5. Development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    The discussion on the development of nuclear power took place on 28 September 1960 in Vienna. In his opening remarks, Director General Cole referred to the widespread opinion that 'the prospect of cheap electricity derived from nuclear energy offers the most exciting prospect for improving the lot of mankind of all of the opportunities for uses of atomic energy'. He then introduced the four speakers and the moderator of the discussion, Mr. H. de Laboulaye, IAEA Deputy Director General for Technical Operations. n the first part of the discussion the experts addressed themselves in turn to four topics put forward by the moderator. These were: the present technical status of nuclear power, the present costs of nuclear power, prospects for future reductions in the cost of nuclear power, and applications of nuclear power in less-developed areas

  6. Competitive power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrity, T.F.; Stoll, H.G. [GE Power Systems Engineering, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Electric power is essential to economic growth and the improvement in the standard of living in modern societies. Maximizing the overall economic efficiency of electric power production can lead to even stronger economic growth. Overall electricity efficiency can be driven by utilization of the newest and most economically efficient technologies, utilization of the most efficient financial structuring, and efficient integration of coproduction of electricity and process energy. The challenge is to drive the power generation strategy toward maximum economic efficiency while improving the overall country environment emissions. This paper reviews the key power generation technologies available today and in the near future. Of key importance is the capital cost, efficiency, environmental impacts, and reliability of each technology and how these technologies can be integrated with efficient financial structurings to maximize the country power generation economic efficiency. Examples of several countries are used to show recent successes in maximizing economic efficiency.

  7. Optimal Power Flow Pursuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Anese, Emiliano; Simonetto, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    This paper considers distribution networks featuring inverter-interfaced distributed energy resources, and develops distributed feedback controllers that continuously drive the inverter output powers to solutions of AC optimal power flow (OPF) problems. Particularly, the controllers update the power setpoints based on voltage measurements as well as given (time-varying) OPF targets, and entail elementary operations implementable onto low-cost microcontrollers that accompany power-electronics interfaces of gateways and inverters. The design of the control framework is based on suitable linear approximations of the AC power-flow equations as well as Lagrangian regularization methods. Convergence and OPF-target tracking capabilities of the controllers are analytically established. Overall, the proposed method allows to bypass traditional hierarchical setups where feedback control and optimization operate at distinct time scales, and to enable real-time optimization of distribution systems.

  8. Financing nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriffah Noor Khamseah Al-Idid Syed Ahmad Idid

    2009-01-01

    Global energy security and climate change concerns sparked by escalating oil prices, high population growth and the rapid pace of industrialization are fueling the current interest and investments in nuclear power. Globally, a significant number policy makers and energy industry leaders have identified nuclear power as a favorable alternative energy option, and are presently evaluating either a new or an expanded role for nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has reported that as of October 2008, 14 countries have plans to construct 38 new nuclear reactors and about 100 more nuclear power plants have been written into the development plans of governments for the next three decades. Hence as new build is expected to escalate, issues of financing will become increasingly significant. Energy supply, including nuclear power, considered as a premium by government from the socio-economic and strategic perspective has traditionally been a sector financed and owned by the government. In the case for nuclear power, the conventional methods of financing include financing by the government or energy entity (utility or oil company) providing part of the funds from its own resources with support from the government. As national financing is, as in many cases, insufficient to fully finance the nuclear power plants, additional financing is sourced from international sources of financing including, amongst others, Export Credit Agencies (ECAs) and Multilateral Development Institutions. However, arising from the changing dynamics of economics, financing and business model as well as increasing concerns regarding environmental degradation , transformations in methods of financing this energy sector has been observed. This paper aims to briefly present on financing aspects of nuclear power as well as offer some examples of the changing dynamics of financing nuclear power which is reflected by the evolution of ownership and management of nuclear power plants

  9. The development of Chinese power industry and its nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dabin

    2002-01-01

    The achievements and disparity of Chinese power industry development is introduced. The position and function of nuclear power in Chinese power industry is described. Nuclear power will play a role in ensuring the reliable and safe supply of primary energy in a long-term and economic way. The development prospects of power source construction in Chinese power industry is presented. Challenge and opportunity in developing nuclear power in China are discussed

  10. Power from biomass: the power utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafimova, K.; Angele, H.-C.

    2008-01-01

    This article takes a look at possible strategies that electricity utilities in Switzerland could follow in order to be able to make use of biomass as a source of energy. Increasing interest in damp biomass as a relatively cheap, renewable and climate-friendly source of energy is commented on. Strategic choices that energy utilities have to make when they decide to enter into the biomass market are examined. The potentials involved are examined, including biogenic materials from domestic wastes and from agriculture. Figures on potential waste tonnage are quoted. Questions on subsidies and the free market are examined. The setting up of 'virtual power stations' - networks of installations using photovoltaic, wind and biomass - is discussed, as are various strategies that utilities can follow in this area. Examples of such 'virtual power stations' are listed.

  11. TEP Power Partners Project [Tucson Electric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-02-06

    The Arizona Governor’s Office of Energy Policy, in partnership with Tucson Electric Power (TEP), Tendril, and Next Phase Energy (NPE), formed the TEP Power Partners pilot project to demonstrate how residential customers could access their energy usage data and third party applications using data obtained from an Automatic Meter Reading (AMR) network. The project applied for and was awarded a Smart Grid Data Access grant through the U.S. Department of Energy. The project participants’ goal for Phase I is to actively engage 1,700 residential customers to demonstrate sustained participation, reduction in energy usage (kWh) and cost ($), and measure related aspects of customer satisfaction. This Demonstration report presents a summary of the findings, effectiveness, and customer satisfaction with the 15-month TEP Power Partners pilot project. The objective of the program is to provide residential customers with energy consumption data from AMR metering and empower these participants to better manage their electricity use. The pilot recruitment goals included migrating 700 existing customers from the completed Power Partners Demand Response Load Control Project (DRLC), and enrolling 1,000 new participants. Upon conclusion of the project on November 19, 2013; 1,390 Home Area Networks (HANs) were registered; 797 new participants installed a HAN; Survey respondents’ are satisfied with the program and found value with a variety of specific program components; Survey respondents report feeling greater control over their energy usage and report taking energy savings actions in their homes after participating in the program; On average, 43 % of the participants returned to the web portal monthly and 15% returned weekly; and An impact evaluation was completed by Opinion Dynamics and found average participant savings for the treatment period1 to be 2.3% of their household use during this period.2 In total, the program saved 163 MWh in the treatment period of 2013.

  12. Nuclear power and other energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doederlein, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison is made between nuclear power plants, gas-fuelled thermal power plants and oil-fired thermal power plants with respect to health factors, economy, environment and resource exploitation, with special reference to the choice of power source to supplement Norwegian hydroelectric power. Resource considerations point clearly to nuclear power, but, while nuclear power has an overall economic advantage, the present economic situation makes its heavy capital investment a disadvantage. It is maintained that nuclear power represents a smaller environmental threat than oil or gas power. Finally, statistics are given showing that nuclear power involves smaller fatality risks for the population than many other hazards accepted without question. (JIW)

  13. Inductive power transfer: Powering our future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covic, Grant A

    2013-01-01

    The ability to provide power without wires was imagined over a century ago, but assumed commercially impractical and impossible to realise. However for more than two decades the University of Auckland has been at the forefront of developing and commercialising this technology alongside its industrial partners. This research has proven that significant wireless power can be transferred over relatively large air-gaps efficiently and robustly. Early solutions were applied in industrial applications to power moving vehicles in clean room systems, industrial plants, and in theme parks, but more recently this research has helped develop technology that has the ability to impact us directly at home. The seminar will describe some of the early motivations behind this research, and introduce some of the solutions which have been developed by the team of researchers at Auckland over two decades, many of which have found their way into the market. It will also describe how the technology has recently been re-developed to enable battery charging of electric vehicles without the need to plug in, and alongside this how it has the potential to change the way we drive in the future

  14. PowerPal: power up your creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    PowerPal micro-hydro equipment was developed in Vietnam by Asian Phoenix Resources Ltd. of Victoria, BC; a company who aims to help disadvantaged people in less developed countries by making renewable energy devices available to them. The idea for the micro-hydro system was conceived after mineral exploration parties in Vietnam noted that large numbers of poor quality propeller turbines were being used to supply AC power to individual homes. A plan was developed to improve the quality and reliability of low head turbines with better castings, magnets, superior bearings and electronic load controllers. Funding for the program was initially difficult to obtain. However, PowerPal micro-hydro equipment eventually came to the attention of the World Bank as well as other government and non-governmental organizations. Financing for the purchase and installation of larger numbers of units has now been achieved, and missionary groups in various parts of the world have ordered units. European markets have also opened up, and distributors of the micro-hydro equipment have been appointed in various countries. Sales are now strong in Central America, South America, the Caribbean, Australasia, Oceania, Africa and Europe. It was concluded that the surge of interest has coincided with a steep upturn in oil prices. 8 figs

  15. A Practical Framework to Study Low-Power Scheduling Algorithms on Real-Time and Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian (Denny Lin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advanced technology used to design VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration circuits, low-power and energy-efficiency have played important roles for hardware and software implementation. Real-time scheduling is one of the fields that has attracted extensive attention to design low-power, embedded/real-time systems. The dynamic voltage scaling (DVS and CPU shut-down are the two most popular techniques used to design the algorithms. In this paper, we firstly review the fundamental advances in the research of energy-efficient, real-time scheduling. Then, a unified framework with a real Intel PXA255 Xscale processor, namely real-energy, is designed, which can be used to measure the real performance of the algorithms. We conduct a case study to evaluate several classical algorithms by using the framework. The energy efficiency and the quantitative difference in their performance, as well as the practical issues found in the implementation of these algorithms are discussed. Our experiments show a gap between the theoretical and real results. Our framework not only gives researchers a tool to evaluate their system designs, but also helps them to bridge this gap in their future works.

  16. Nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Katumi; Sato, Akira; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Kumano, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation for commercial use in Japan has passed 35 years since beginning of operation in the Tokai Nuclear Power Station in 1966, and has 51 machines of reactor and about 44.92 MW of total output of equipment scale in the 21st century. However, an environment around nuclear energy becomes severer at present, and then so many subjects to be overcome are remained such as increased unreliability of the public on nuclear energy at a chance of critical accident of the JCO uranium processing facility, delay of pull-thermal plan, requirement for power generation cost down against liberalization of electric power, highly aging countermeasure of power plant begun its operation as its Genesis, and so on. Under such conditions, in order that nuclear power generation in Japan survives as one of basic electric source in future, it is necessary not only to pursue safety and reliability of the plant reliable to the public, but also to intend to upgrade its operation and maintenance by positively adopting good examples on operational management method on abroad and to endeavor further upgrading of application ratio of equipments and reduction of generation cost. Here were outlined on operation conditions of nuclear power stations in Japan, and introduced on upgrading of their operational management and maintenance management. (G.K.)

  17. Development of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    An extensive discussion of problems concerning the development of nuclear power took place at the fifth regular session of the IAEA General Conference in September-October 1961. Not only were there many references in plenary meetings to the nuclear power plans of Member States, but there was also a more specific and detailed debate on the subject, especially on nuclear power costs, in the Program, Technical and Budget Committee of the Conference. The Conference had before it a report from the Board of Governors on the studies made by the Agency on the economics of nuclear power. In addition, it had been presented with two detailed documents, one containing a review of present-day costs of nuclear power and the other containing technical and economic information on several small and medium-sized power reactors in the United States. The Conference was also informed of the report on methods of estimating nuclear power costs, prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts convened by the Agency, which was reviewed in the July 1961 issue of this Bulletin

  18. Development of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-01-15

    An extensive discussion of problems concerning the development of nuclear power took place at the fifth regular session of the IAEA General Conference in September-October 1961. Not only were there many references in plenary meetings to the nuclear power plans of Member States, but there was also a more specific and detailed debate on the subject, especially on nuclear power costs, in the Program, Technical and Budget Committee of the Conference. The Conference had before it a report from the Board of Governors on the studies made by the Agency on the economics of nuclear power. In addition, it had been presented with two detailed documents, one containing a review of present-day costs of nuclear power and the other containing technical and economic information on several small and medium-sized power reactors in the United States. The Conference was also informed of the report on methods of estimating nuclear power costs, prepared with the assistance of a panel of experts convened by the Agency, which was reviewed in the July 1961 issue of this Bulletin

  19. 11 World power conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, R.

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented to the 11 World power conference ''Power for our peace'' held in Munich in September, 1980 are shortly surveyed. A few papers were devoted to nuclear power, that represents its present- state-of-the-art in the world. Except for the paper presented by experts of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and a number of others, there is carefulness and realism with respect to nuclear power in the most part of the papers; its forecasted growth rates are rather moderate. Even in the IEA paper the total world nuclear installed capacity in 1985 is evaluated about 550 GW, that is substantially smaller earlier evaluations. It is acknowledged that the primary energy production almost in all countries will increase mainly due to nuclear power and coal. But there are no answers to the problems related to management of the nuclear power development and to the public opinion in many countries. It is underlined that the problems of world power supply can be solved only on an international basis [ru

  20. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  1. Nuclear power controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    Arthur W. Murphy in the introductory chapter cites the issues, pro and con, concerning nuclear power. In assessing the present stance, he first looks back to the last American Assembly on nuclear power, held October 1957 and notes its accomplishments. He summarizes the six papers of this book, which focus on nuclear power to the end of this century. Chapter I, Safety Aspects of Nuclear Energy, by David Bodansky and Fred Schmidt, deals with the technical aspects of reactor safety as well as waste storage and plutonium diversion. Chapter 2, The Economics of Electric Power Generation--1975-2000, by R. Michael Murray, Jr., focuses specifically on coal-fired and nuclear plants. Chapter 3, How Can We Get the Nuclear Job Done, by Fritz Heimann, identifies actions that must take place to develop nuclear power in the U.S. and who should build the reprocessing plants. Chapter 4, by Arthur Murphy, Nuclear Power Plant Regulation, discusses the USNRC operation and the Price-Anderson Act specifically. Chapter 5, Nuclear Exports and Nonproliferation Strategy, by John G. Palfrey, treats the international aspects of the problem with primary emphasis upon the situation of the U.S. as an exporter of technology. Chapter 6, by George Kistiakowsky, Nuclear Power: How Much Is Too Much, expresses doubt about the nuclear effort, at least in the short run

  2. Electric power annual 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-06

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policymakers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. The Electric Power Annual is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. ``The US Electric Power Industry at a Glance`` section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance, and a review of key statistics for the year. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; retail sales; revenue; financial statistics; environmental statistics; electric power transactions; demand-side management; and nonutility power producers. In addition, the appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences in US electricity power systems. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter. Monetary values in this publication are expressed in nominal terms.

  3. Power generating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Toshihiro

    1989-05-02

    The existing power generating device consisting of static components only lacks effective measures to utilize solar energy and maintain power generation, hence it is inevitable to make the device much larger and more complicated in order to utilize it as the primary power source for artificial satellites. In view of the above, in order to offer a power generating device useful for the primary power source for satellites which is simple and can keep power generation by solar energy, this invention proposes a power generating device composed of the following elements: (1) a rectangular parallelopiped No. II superconductor plate; (2) a measure to apply a magnetic field to one face of the above superconductor plate; (3) a measure to provide a temperature difference within the range between the starting temperature and the critical temperature of superconductivity to a pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure; (4) a measure to provide an electrode on each of the other pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure and form a closed circuit by connecting the each electrode above to each of a pair of electrodes of the load respectively; and (5) a switching measure which is installed in the closed circuit prepared by the above measure and shuts off the closed circuit when the direction of the electric current running the above closed circuit is reversed. 6 figs.

  4. Wind power barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide wind power increased by 12.4% in 2013 to reach 318.6 GW but the world market globally decreased by losing 10 GW: only 35.6 GW have been installed in 2013 which is even less than was installed in 2009. This activity contraction is mainly due to the collapse of the American market, American authorities having been late to decide to maintain federal incentives. The European wind power market also contracted in 2013 because of the lack of trust of the investors in the new energy policies of the European governments. In the rest of the world wind energy has kept on growing particularly in China and Canada. At the end of 2013 the cumulated wind power reached 117,73 GW in Europe. About 1.5 MW out of 10 MW of wind power installed in Europe in 2013 come from off-shore wind farms, United-Kingdom and Denmark being the most important players by totalling more than 70% of the off-shore wind power installed at the end of 2013. Various charts and tables give the figures of the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 in different parts of the world: Europe, North America and Asia, the time evolution of the worldwide wind power since 1995, the wind power cumulated and installed in 2013 for the different countries of Europe and the ratio between the cumulated wind power and the country population. A table lists the main manufacturers of wind turbines and gives their turnover and number of employees at the end of 2013

  5. Society and Social Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Harish

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Society is the source of immense power. Over the past few centuries humanity has record­ed phenomenal growth in its collective capacity for accomplishment, as reflected in the 12-fold growth in global per capita income since 1800. The remarkable achievements in living standards, longevity, science, technology, industry, education, democracy, human rights, peace and global governance are the result of the exponential development of the capacity of society to harness human energies and convert them into social power for productive purposes. Today, humanity possesses the power and capabilities needed to fully meet the multi-dimensional challenges confronting global society. The source of this energy is people. Human energy is transformed into social power by the increasing reach, frequency and complexity of human relationships. Society is a complex living network of organized relationships between people. Its power issues from channelizing our collective energies in productive ways by means of organizing principles such as coordination, systems, specialization of function, hierarchy of authority, and integration. This immense social power remains largely underutilized. Social science needs to evolve a comprehensive, trans-disciplinary understanding of the roots of social power and the process by which it is generated, distributed and applied. This knowledge is the essential foundation for formulating effective social policies capable of eradicating forever persistent poverty, unemployment and social inequality. This article is based on a series of lectures delivered by the author in the WAAS-WUC course on “Toward a Trans-disciplinary Science of Society” at Dubrovnik on September 1-3, 2014. It traces the development of social power in different fields to show that human and social capital are inexhaustible in potential. The more we harness them, the more they grow. Unleashing, directing, channeling and converting human potential into social

  6. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  7. Consideration of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, I.

    1982-01-01

    Mr. Smart notes that the optimistic promise of nuclear energy for developing countries has not been met, but feels that nuclear power can still provide a growing share of energy during the transition from oil dependence. He observes that cost-benefit analyses vary for each country, but good planning and management can give nuclear power a positive future for those developing countries which can establish a need for it; have access to the economic, technological, and human resources necessary to develop and operate it; and can make nuclear power compatible with the social, economic, and cultural structure. 11 references

  8. Corrosion in power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventakeshwarlu, K.S.

    1979-01-01

    A brief account of the problem areas encountered as a result of corrosion in the electrical power industry including nuclear power industry is given and some of the measures contemplated and/or implemented to control corrosion are outlined. The corrosion problems in the steam generators and cladding tubes of the nuclear power plant have an added dimension of radioactivation which leads to contamination and radiation field. Importance of monitoring water quality and controlling water chemistry by addition of chemicals is emphasised. (M.G.B.)

  9. Powering Ideas through Expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard; Wigan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    This contribution discusses how ideas are powered through expertise and moral authority. Professionals compete with each other to power ideas by linking claims to expertise, how things best work, to moral claims about how things should be. To show how, we draw on a case of battles over global tax...... reporting multinational corporations should provide to ensure they pay their fair share of tax. Ideas powered by expertise contain shared causal beliefs, as well as principled beliefs about value systems. We demonstrate that professionals can contest the established order when demonstrations of expertise...

  10. Nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Kati, S.L.; Raman, R.; Nanjundeswaran, K.; Nadkarny, G.V.; Verma, R.S.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indian experience pertaining to investment and generation costs of nuclear power stations is reviewed. The causes of investment cost increases are analysed and the increases are apportioned to escalation, design improvements and safety related adders. The paper brings out the fact that PHWR investment costs in India compare favourably with those experienced in developed countries in spite of the fact that the programme and the unit size are relatively much smaller in India. It brings out that in India at current prices a nuclear power station located over 800 km from coal reserves and operating at 75% capacity factor is competitive with thermal power at 60% capacity factor. (author)

  11. Reactor power control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomisawa, Teruaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To restore reactor-power condition in a minimum time after a termination of turbine bypass by reducing the throttling of the reactor power at the time of load-failure as low as possible. Constitution: The transient change of the internal pressure of condenser is continuously monitored. When a turbine is bypassed, a speed-control-command signal for a coolant recirculating pump is generated according as the internal pressure of the condenser. When the signal relating to the internal pressure of the condenser indicates insufficient power, a reactor-control-rod-drive signal is generated. (J.P.N.)

  12. Wind power prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R.; Mcginness, H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations were performed to predict the power available from the wind at the Goldstone, California, antenna site complex. The background for power prediction was derived from a statistical evaluation of available wind speed data records at this location and at nearby locations similarly situated within the Mojave desert. In addition to a model for power prediction over relatively long periods of time, an interim simulation model that produces sample wind speeds is described. The interim model furnishes uncorrelated sample speeds at hourly intervals that reproduce the statistical wind distribution at Goldstone. A stochastic simulation model to provide speed samples representative of both the statistical speed distributions and correlations is also discussed.

  13. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  14. Electric power substations engineering

    CERN Document Server

    McDonald, John D

    2012-01-01

    The use of electric power substations in generation, transmission, and distribution remains one of the most challenging and exciting areas of electric power engineering. Recent technological developments have had a tremendous impact on all aspects of substation design and operation. With 80% of its chapters completely revised and two brand-new chapters on energy storage and Smart Grids, Electric Power Substations Engineering, Third Edition provides an extensive updated overview of substations, serving as a reference and guide for both industry and academia. Contributors have written each chapt

  15. Worldwide nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1981-01-01

    Worldwide nuclear power (WNP) is a companion volume to UPDATE. Our objective in the publication of WNP is to provide factual information on nuclear power programs and policies in foreign countries to U.S. policymakers in the Federal Government who are instrumental in defining the direction of nuclear power in the U.S. WNP is prepared by the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy from reports obtained from foreign Embassies in Washington, U.S. Embassies overseas, foreign and domestic publications, participation in international studies, and personal communications. Domestic nuclear data is included only where its presence is needed to provide easy and immediate comparisons with foreign data

  16. Climate Wind Power Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana M. Berdzenishvili

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Georgia as a whole is characterized by rather rich solar energy resources, which allows to construct alternative power stations in the close proximity to traditional power plants. In this case the use of solar energy is meant. Georgia is divided into 5 zones based on the assessment of wind power resources. The selection of these zones is based on the index of average annual wind speed in the examined area, V> 3 m / s and V> 5 m / s wind speed by the summing duration in the course of the year and V = 0. . . 2 m / s of passive wind by total and continuous duration of these indices per hour.

  17. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun

    1993-06-01

    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  18. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  19. A Review of Power Electronics for Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe CHEN

    2011-01-01

    The paper reviews the power electronic applications for wind energy systems.Main wind turbine systems with different generators and power electronic converters are described.The electrical topologies of wind farms with power electronic conversion are discussed.Power electronic applications for improving the performance of wind turbines and wind farms in power systems have been illustrated.

  20. Impacts of Wind Power on Power System Stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittal, E.; Keane, A.; Slootweg, J.G.; Kling, W.L.; Ackermann, T.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter examines how wind power will impact the stability of power systems. It focuses on the three aspects of power system stability: voltage stability, rotor angle stability and frequency stability. It completes a detailed analysis as to how wind power in power systems will impact the

  1. Power programmes review: Nuclear power in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Several concrete measures have been initiated in Italy for the generation of nuclear power on a substantial scale. Two plants are already under construction and work will start soon on a third. Plans have also been announced for more stations. If the work already initiated is completed on schedule the installed capacity of nuclear power in Italy is likely to exceed 500 mw (electric) in the course of the next four years. This will constitute a sizeable proportion of the total electrical capacity in the country. After the Italian National Committee for Nuclear Research (Comitato Nazionale per le Ricerche Nucleari) was reorganized late in 1956, it prepared what can be described as a nuclear five-year plan for Italy. The plan, designed to cover the period 1957-1962, includes detailed schemes for a comprehensive development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, including a programme for the generation of power. The Comitato Nazionale per le Ricerche Nucleari (CNRN) promotes and co-ordinates the various activities in the field, and within the framework of its general programme certain industrial groups in Italy have formulated specific projects for nuclear power. At a Geneva conference (1958) it was disclosed that several companies were planning to build nuclear power stations in Italy. (1) SELNI (Societa Elettronucleare Italiana), pertaining to the Edison-Volta group, which plans to build a pressurized water reactor. (2) So.R.I.N. (Societa Ricerche Impianti Nucleari), a company founded by the Fiat and Montecatini groups, which is constructing a research centre, with a swimming pool reactor, and various laboratories for chemistry, physics and metallurgy. This centre will also be used for the training of specialized personnel, in view of the company's programme which envisages two 150 mw (e) plants: one operating with enriched uranium, the other with natural uranium. Such a programme will become effective only when the cost of power produced by these plants may actually

  2. The Power of Small

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 12. The Power of Small: Championing the Underdogs of Modern Medicine. Suvasini Ramaswamy Anirban Mitra. General Article Volume 20 Issue 12 December 2015 pp 1136-1153 ...

  3. Philippines revises power plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, D.

    1988-02-01

    Following an unexpected surge in electricity demand the Philippines has revised its medium term power development programme. The sharp increase in electricity consumption follows three years of slack demand due to civil disturbances before the end of the Macros administration and the election of Corazon Aquino as President in 1986. Originally, the Aquino government's medium term power development plans called for about 500MW of generating capacity to be installed between 1986 and 1992. The three proposed plants were scheduled for commissioning in 1991 and 1992. However, a spurt in power demand growth during the past nine months has caused concern among industrialists that power shortages could occur by the end of the decade. So additional capacity will be installed to prevent an anticipated shortfall in electricity supplies by the early 1990s.

  4. Nuclear power training courses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The training of technical manpower for nuclear power projects in developing countries is now a significant part of the IAEA Technical Assistance Programme. Two basic courses are the cornerstones of the Agency's training programme for nuclear power: a course in planning and implementation, and a course in construction and operation management. These two courses are independent of each other. They are designed to train personnel for two distinct phases of project implementation. The nuclear power project training programme has proven to be successful. A considerable number of highly qualified professionals from developing countries have been given the opportunity to learn through direct contact with experts who have had first-hand experience. It is recognized that the courses are not a substitute for on-the-job training, but their purpose is achieved if they have resulted in the transfer of practical, reliable information and have helped developing countries to prepare themselves for the planning, construction and operation management of nuclear power stations

  5. Nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margulova, T.Ch.

    1976-01-01

    The textbook focuses on the technology and the operating characteristics of nuclear power plants equiped with pressurized water or boiling water reactors, which are in operation all over the world at present. The following topics are dealt with in relation to the complete plant and to economics: distribution and consumption of electric and thermal energy, types and equipment of nuclear power plants, chemical processes and material balance, economical characteristics concerning heat and energy, regenerative preheating of feed water, degassing and condenser systems, water supply, evaporators, district heating systems, steam generating systems and turbines, coolant loops and pipes, plant siting, ventilation and decontamination systems, reactor operation and management, heat transfer including its calculation, design of reactor buildings, and nuclear power plants with gas or sodium cooled reactors. Numerous technical data of modern Soviet nuclear power plants are included. The book is of interest to graduate and post-graduate students in the field of nuclear engineering as well as to nuclear engineers

  6. Power to the people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, Sandy.

    1991-01-01

    Canada's new energy pioneers have many ways to generate power-from glacial creeks to urban trash. The problem is, they only have one way to generate profits: Get miserly provincial hydro companies to pay what their output is worth

  7. Electric power annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Power Annual presents a summary of electric utility statistics at the national, regional and State levels. The objective of the publication is to provide industry decisionmakers, government policy-makers, analysts and the general public with historical data that may be used in understanding US electricity markets. ''The Industry at a Glance'' section presents a profile of the electric power industry ownership and performance; a review of key statistics for the year; and projections for various aspects of the electric power industry through 2010. Subsequent sections present data on generating capability, including proposed capability additions; net generation; fossil-fuel statistics; electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour sold; financial statistics; environmental statistics; and electric power transactions. In addition, appendices provide supplemental data on major disturbances and unusual occurrences. Each section contains related text and tables and refers the reader to the appropriate publication that contains more detailed data on the subject matter

  8. Wireless transmission of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, T.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it has been proven by researchers that electrical energy can be propagated around the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at extremely low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. Experiments to data have shown that electromagnetic waves with frequencies in the range of 8 Hz, the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with litter attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity. It is the intent of this research to determine if the Schumann Cavity can be resonated, if the power that is delivered to the cavity propagated with very low losses, and if power can be extracted at other locations within the cavity. Experimental data collected and calculations made in recent years support the hypothesis that wireless power transmission is a viable and practical alternative to the present systems of power transmission

  9. Power Aware Distributed Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schott, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The goal of PADS was to study power aware management techniques for wireless unattended ground sensor applications to extend their operational lifetime and overall capabilities in this battery-constrained environment...

  10. Nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yampolsky, J.S.; Cavallaro, L.; Paulovich, K.F.; Schleicher, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes an inherently safe modular nuclear power system for producing electrical power at acceptable efficiency levels using working fluids at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The system comprising: a reactor module for heating a first fluid; a heat exchanger module for transferring heat from the first fluid to a second fluid; a first piping system effecting flow of the first fluid in a first fluid circuit successively through the reactor module and the heat exchanger module; a power conversion module comprising a turbogenerator driven by the second fluid, and means for cooling the second fluid upon emergence thereof from the turbogenerator; a second piping system comprising means for effecting flow of the second fluid in a second fluid circuit successively through the heat exchanger module and the power conversion module; and a plurality of pits for receiving the modules

  11. Solar Power Use Claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA evaluates partnership metrics annually to determine progress toward programmatic goals.

  12. Bee Power 21

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamberson, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    .... Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) has much to offer the current Naval strategy, and in keeping with its tradition of contribution and service to the fleet, will want to align its strategic plan with the Sea Power 21 vision...

  13. Wind power in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuille, F.; Courtel, J.

    2015-01-01

    After 3 years of steady decreasing, wind power has resumed growth in 2014 in France and the preliminary figures of 2015 confirm this trend. About 1100 MW were installed in 2014 which was almost twice as much as it was installed the year before. This renaissance is mostly due to the implementation of Brottes' law that eases the installations of wind farms by suppressing the wind power development areas (that were interfering with regional wind power schemes) and by suppressing the minimum number of 5 turbines for any new wind farms. Another important incentive measure was the announcement in January 2015 of a new financial support scheme in replacement of the policy of guaranteed purchase price for the electricity produced. In 2014 the total wind power produced in mainland France reached 17 TW which represented 3.1% of the production of electricity. (A.C.)

  14. Power deregulation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMurchy, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of deregulation of the electric power industry in Alberta from the perspective of the natural gas industry was presented with special focus on how the power market can be brought back into balance. The issue of what impacts the deregulated power market will have on natural gas consumption or prices was also reviewed. It was noted that deregulation of the electric power industry will have a definite impact on natural gas consumption but no significant impact on prices. It is estimated that in 1999/2000 gas demand will be 90 million cf/day for incremental electricity generation. However, as long as pipe capacity out of the province exits, this increase in natural gas demand in Alberta is not expected to affect gas prices

  15. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  16. The power tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAYFIELD, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    POWER Tool--Planning, Optimization, Waste Estimating and Resourcing tool, a hand-held field estimating unit and relational database software tool for optimizing disassembly and final waste form of contaminated systems and equipment

  17. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Moreira, Y.M. de.

    1979-01-01

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  18. Economical Radioisotope Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power to...

  19. Danish Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...

  20. Nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulkiewicz, M.; Navratil, J.

    The construction of a nuclear power plant is conditioned on territorial requirements and is accompanied by the disturbance of the environment, land occupation, population migration, the emission of radioactive wastes, thermal pollution, etc. On the other hand, a nuclear power plant makes possible the introduction of district heating and increases the economic and civilization activity of the population. Due to the construction of a nuclear power plant the set limits of negative impacts must not be exceeded. The locality should be selected such as to reduce the unfavourable effects of the plant and to fully use its benefits. The decision on the siting of the nuclear power plant is preceded by the processing of a number of surveys and a wide range of documentation to which the given criteria are strictly applied. (B.H.)