WorldWideScience

Sample records for performance workplace misconduct

  1. Does Worker Wellbeing Affect Workplace Performance?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryson, Alex; Forth, John; Stokes, Lucy

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses linked employer-employee data to investigate the relationship between employees' subjective well-being and workplace performance in Britain. The analyses show a clear, positive and statistically-significant relationship between the average level of job satisfaction at the workplace and workplace performance. This finding is present in both cross-sectional and panel analyses and is robust to various estimation methods and model specifications. In contrast, we find no associatio...

  2. Research misconduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, F.J.; Denison, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    Good research practice is important to the scientific community. An awareness of what constitutes poor practice is important. Various types of research misconduct are defined in this article. The extent of research misconduct in the field of radiology has been assessed by contacting five English language radiology journals. Redundant or duplicate publication has been reported infrequently, Radiology (1), American Journal of Roentgenology (3), Clinical Radiology (3), British Journal of Radiology (2) and European Radiology (1). The issue of how the radiology community might tackle research misconduct is discussed with reference to guidance from the Medical Research Council, the Wellcome Trust and the Committee of Publication Ethics

  3. Graduates Performance in the Workplace: Employers‟ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel M. Plantilla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an assessment of the employers feedback on the performance of business graduates of University of Rizal System Pililla from batch 2010 – 2014 in the workplace with respect to knowledge and understanding, skills and personal qualities. The researcher used descriptive method of research utilizing the employers and managers of employed graduates as key informants of the study. The findings revealed that employers were very much satisfied on the performance of graduates in terms of knowledge and understanding of the job, general skills, specialized skills and personal qualities demonstrated in the workplace. There was significant difference on the performance of graduates in terms of positions and length of service as revealed by the variations on the level of satisfaction of the employers on graduates’ performance in work. Relationship exists between the degree of importance of the four aspects of job performance and the level of satisfaction on the performance of business graduates. Employers placed a strong preference to the business graduates of the campus. There is no mismatch of knowledge and skills of graduates and what the employers are expecting among the business graduates.

  4. Improving Job Performance: Workplace Learning Is the First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daryoush, Younes; Silong, Abu Daud; Omar, Zohara; Othman, Jamilah

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to contribute new knowledge to the existing literature on workplace learning and job performance. Particularly, the study analyzes contemporary literature on workplace learning and job performance, specifically formal and informal learning as well as employee task performance and contextual performance. The study…

  5. The Effects of a Parenting Program on Parenting Practices and Student Misconduct in a Low Performing Elementary School in the Northeastern Region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louissaint, Guirlene

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a parent-training program on parenting practices and children's misconduct in a predominately low performing school in the Northeastern region of the United States. The study included 26 parents of children in kindergarten through third grade. The participants were predominately African…

  6. New workplace practices and firm performance:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristini, Annalisa; Pozzoli, Dario

    Using data from the 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey on British establishments and two surveys on manufacturing firms located in the North of Italy, we look at the diffusion of new workplace practices in the two countries and at their impact on the firm's value added. We find...

  7. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15–20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored

  8. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Li-Ming, E-mail: LLo@cdc.gov [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Tsai, Candace S.-J. [Purdue University (United States); Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (United States); Ellenbecker, Michael [University of Massachusetts Lowell (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15–20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  9. New workplace practices and firm performance in manufacturing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Cristini, Annalisa

    Using data from the 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey on British establishments and two surveys on manufacturing firms located in the North of Italy, we look at the diffusion of new workplace practices in the two countries and at their impact on the firm's performance. We find that the Ita......Using data from the 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey on British establishments and two surveys on manufacturing firms located in the North of Italy, we look at the diffusion of new workplace practices in the two countries and at their impact on the firm's performance. We find...... that the Italian and British samples differ more in terms of composition of the set practices than in terms of overall incidence, but the statistical associations between some of the practices and the firm's performance are robust across countries. The counterfactual analysis shows that could the Italian firms...

  10. TEPC performance in the CANDU workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waker, A.J.; Szornel, K.; Nunes, J.

    1997-01-01

    Tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCs) have a number of features that make them an attractive option for neutron monitoring around power reactors. These features are principally the ability of the TEPC to operate in a mixed field environment, the direct determination of the dose equivalent from first principles and a reasonably well-understood response to the wide range of neutron energy encountered. A spherical TEPC from Far West Technology (5'' in diameter) and a commercial, TEPC-based, neutron monitor (REM 500) have been used to map the neutron fields at different locations in a CANDU 6 (Canadian Deuterium Uranium) power reactor operated by New Brunswick Power. Neutron ambient dose equivalent rates ranged between 8 μSv.h -1 and 500 μSv.h -1 as measured with a multisphere spectrometer and photon dose equivalent rates from 40 μSv.h -1 to 1.2 mSv.H -1 as determined with a TEPC. It is shown that, for the CANDU workplace, the energy response of TEPCs is still not known accurately enough to enable field correction factors to be derived from neutron fluence measurements or to avoid the the need for more appropriate calibration procedures based on simulated 'workplace' neutron fields. The sensitivity of TEPCs is sufficient for workplace monitoring, but needs consideration when counters of 2'' diameter or smaller are proposed for use. For mixed-field work, the use of a TEPC for photon dosimetry as opposed to photon discrimination requires attention to count rates and instrument dead time. (author)

  11. Inside the VA: How Workplace Training Evaluation Impacts Employee Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Timica F.

    2017-01-01

    Employee performance and patient satisfaction are strong indicators of the current state of a healthcare organization. Workplace training programs are used to teach employees the knowledge and skills necessary to effectively perform on the job. Instructor-led, online, blended and independent learning events are produced to address learning needs…

  12. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior and Cheating Justifications to Predict Academic Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Thomas H.; Jawahar, I. M.; Kisamore, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show that academic misconduct appears to be on the rise; some research has linked academic misconduct to unethical workplace behaviors. Unlike previous empirically-driven research, this theory-based study seeks to examine the usefulness of a modification of Ajzen's theory of planned behavior to predict…

  13. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, M.J.; Wiel, M.W.J. van de; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using

  14. Cross-Cultural Training and Workplace Performance. Support Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This document was produced by the author(s) based on their research for the report "Cross- Cultural Training and Workplace Performance" (ED503402). It contains the following materials related to the report: (1) Primary approach letters; (2) Tests for statistical significance; (3) Survey of current cross-cultural training practice; (4)…

  15. Workplace for analysis of task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J; Mulder, LJM; van Ouwerkerk, RJ; Maarse, FJ; Akkerman, AE; Brand, AN; Mulder, LJM

    2003-01-01

    In current research on mental workload and task performance a large gap exists between laboratory based studies and research projects in real life working practice. Tasks conducted within a laboratory environment often lack a strong resemblance with real life working situations. This paper presents

  16. Workplace rights: a popular theater performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Meryl; Rabin, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Theater acting can help build the social skills needed for effective communication at work and in the wider community. The following short play is about workers fighting for their rights at a textile factory in the early 20th century. It was written by an adult education teacher, performed by her students and attended by the school's students and teachers.

  17. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee’s performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. Performance measurement methods which include an integrated perspective of performance have become essential. In addition, it has been realised that corporate real estate can contribute to organisational performance (Nourse and Roulac, 1993, De Vries et al., 2008, Lindholm, 2008, Den Heijer, 2011, Jensen et al., 2012. For this reason, worldwide organisations started to implement new ways of working in a more open and flexible work environment. Although there are various objectives and drivers of workplace change, the common objectives are to reduce costs and to increase efficiency. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the increasing demand for talented knowledge workers and changing work patterns, have led to the development of new offices that can promote social networks and interaction among employees. The new workplace does not only aim at achieving cost efficiency, but it should also support employee satisfaction and productivity. This PhD research focuses on both themes i.e. performance measurement of workplace change. The aim of this research is to provide a conceptual framework that visualises the impact of workplace change on employees’ responses to the new work environment and to present guidelines on performance measurement of workplace

  18. Moderated Mediation Model of Interrelations between Workplace Romance, Wellbeing, and Employee Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aamir Shafique Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, first we examined the effect of workplace romance on employee job performance, and the mediatory role of psychological wellbeing in the relationship between workplace romance and employee performance. Then we tested the moderating effects of gender and workplace romance type – lateral or hierarchical – on the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance. Based on a survey of 311 doctors from five government teaching hospitals in Pakistan, we used structural equation modeling and bootstrapping to test these relationships. This study reveals that psychological wellbeing significantly fully mediates the positive relationship between workplace romance and job performance. Moreover, multi-group analysis shows that gender moderates the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance, where the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance is stronger for male participants. This study carries important implications, particularly for the policy makers and managers of healthcare sector organizations.

  19. Moderated Mediation Model of Interrelations between Workplace Romance, Wellbeing, and Employee Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir Shafique; Jianguo, Du; Usman, Muhammad; Ahmad, Malik I

    2017-01-01

    In this study, first we examined the effect of workplace romance on employee job performance, and the mediatory role of psychological wellbeing in the relationship between workplace romance and employee performance. Then we tested the moderating effects of gender and workplace romance type - lateral or hierarchical - on the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance. Based on a survey of 311 doctors from five government teaching hospitals in Pakistan, we used structural equation modeling and bootstrapping to test these relationships. This study reveals that psychological wellbeing significantly fully mediates the positive relationship between workplace romance and job performance. Moreover, multi-group analysis shows that gender moderates the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance, where the indirect effect of workplace romance on employee performance is stronger for male participants. This study carries important implications, particularly for the policy makers and managers of healthcare sector organizations.

  20. The Influence of Investment in Workplace Learning on Learning Outcomes and Organizational Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoonhee; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of workplace learning has been recognized in research and practice, there is little empirical support that describes how workplace learning, including both formal and informal learning, is linked to organizational performance. This study investigated the influence of investment in workplace learning on learning outcomes and…

  1. Scientific misconducts and authorship conflicts: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohanchandra Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a narrative review about how appropriate authorship can be achieved, a brief mention about various scientific misconducts, the reason and consequences of such misconducts and finally, the policies to be adopted by the aspiring authors to avert these problems. The literature search was performed in the Google and PubMed using ′scientific misconduct′, ′honorary/ghost authorship′, ′publish-or-perish′, ′plagiarism′ and other related key words and phrases. More than 300 free full-text articles published from 1990 to 2015 were retrieved and studied. Many consensus views have been presented regarding what constitutes authorship, the authorship order and different scientific misconducts. The conflicts about authorship issues related to publication of dissertation, the area of the grey zone have been discussed. Suggestions from different authorities about improving the existing inappropriate authorship issues have been included.

  2. The role of training and innovation in workplace performance

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Laplagne; Leonie Bensted

    2002-01-01

    This paper uses workplace-level data from the Australian Workplace Industrial Relations Survey to examine the extent to which the use of training and/or innovation by a workplace increases the likelihood that is has higher labour productivity than its competitiors, and experiences high labour productivity growth.

  3. 77 FR 54917 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... monkeys were able to understand communicative gestures performed by a human. Specifically, (1) in the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... RR003640-13, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), NIH, grant 5 R01...

  4. Energy performance certification as a signal of workplace quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, Aidan; De Jong, Robert; Cooke, Alison; Guthrie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Energy performance labelling and certification have been introduced widely to address market failures affecting the uptake of energy efficient technologies, by providing a signal to support decision making during contracting processes. The UK has recently introduced the Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) as a signal of building energy performance. The aims of this article are: to evaluate how valid EPC’s are signals of occupier satisfaction with office facilities; and to understand whether occupant attitudes towards environmental issues have affected commercial office rental values. This was achieved by surveying occupant satisfaction with their workplaces holistically using a novel multi-item rating scale which gathered 204 responses. Responses to this satisfaction scale were matched with the corresponding EPC and rental value of occupier’s workplaces. The satisfaction scale was found to be both a reliable and valid measure. The analysis found that EPC asset rating correlates significantly with occupant satisfaction with all facility attributes. Therefore, EPC ratings may be considered valid signals of overall facility satisfaction within the survey sample. Rental value was found to correlate significantly only with facility aesthetics. No evidence suggests rental value has been affected by occupants' perceptions towards the environmental impact of facilities. - Highlights: • A novel, internally consistent, and valid measure of office facility satisfaction. • EPC’s found to be a valid signal of overall facility satisfaction. • Historic rental value found to be an invalid measure of overall facility satisfaction. • No evidence suggests rental value has been affected by occupants' perceptions towards the environmental impact of facilities. • Occupants with stronger ties to landlords found to be more satisfied with office facilities

  5. [Academic misconduct of graduates and the credit education].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaoyan; Tang, Xiaoya; Fan, Xuegong

    2011-10-01

    Nowadays the phenomenon of academic misconduct (such as plagiarism, fabrication, falsification, etc.) is very frequent. The reasons for academic misconduct are involved in the problems in graduate education system, social environment and students themselves. Therefore, colleges and universities should place great emphasis on constructing a healthy school environment and academic atmosphere for failure tolerance with the help of high-tech modern means. It also needs to improve the academic supervision and evaluation system, strengthen the punishments for academic misconduct and enhance the mentor's exemplary role in education. The eventual goal for our education is to obtain innovative talents who are integrity, respect science and truth, and are good samples for academic performances.

  6. The impact of workplace conditions on firm performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, Ioan Sebastian; Cottini, Elena; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    This paper estimates the impact of work environment health and safety practice on firm performance, and examines which firm-characteristic factors are associated with good work conditions. We use Danish longitudinal register matched employer-employee data, merged with firm business accounts...... and detailed cross-sectional survey data on workplace conditions. This enables us to address typical econometric problems such as omitted variables bias or endogeneity in estimating i) standard production functions augmented with work environment indicators and aggregate employee characteristics and ii) firm...... mean wage regressions on the same explanatory variables. Our findings suggest that improvement in some of the physical dimensions of the work health and safety environment (speci.cally, "internal climate" and "repetitive and strenuous activity") strongly impacts the firm productivity, whereas "internal...

  7. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J B; Van de Wiel, M W J; Schuwirth, L W T; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Muijtjens, A M M

    2013-08-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person perception, we explored raters' implicit performance theories, use of task-specific performance schemas and the formation of person schemas during WBA. We used think-aloud procedures and verbal protocol analysis to investigate schema-based processing by experienced (N = 18) and inexperienced (N = 16) raters (supervisor-raters in general practice residency training). Qualitative data analysis was used to explore schema content and usage. We quantitatively assessed rater idiosyncrasy in the use of performance schemas and we investigated effects of rater expertise on the use of (task-specific) performance schemas. Raters used different schemas in judging trainee performance. We developed a normative performance theory comprising seventeen inter-related performance dimensions. Levels of rater idiosyncrasy were substantial and unrelated to rater expertise. Experienced raters made significantly more use of task-specific performance schemas compared to inexperienced raters, suggesting more differentiated performance schemas in experienced raters. Most raters started to develop person schemas the moment they began to observe trainee performance. The findings further our understanding of processes underpinning judgment and decision making in WBA. Raters make and justify judgments based on personal theories and performance constructs. Raters' information processing seems to be affected by differences in rater expertise. The results of this study can help to improve rater training, the design of assessment instruments and decision making in WBA.

  8. Perspectives on academic misconduct: implications for education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainberg, Marilyn B; McCrink, Andrea; Eckardt, Patricia; Schecter, Rose; Bongiorno, Anne; Sedhom, Laila

    2014-01-01

    From Harvard to high school, concern related to academic misconduct, specifically cheating and its impact on societal issues, has become a great concern for educational communities. While a significant number of studies on ethical behaviors in practice in other professions such as business have been published, little research exists on registered nurses in practice. Even fewer studies have, for registered nurses, addressed if there is an association between perceived academic misconduct as students and perceived unethical behaviors in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perceptions of registered professional nurses' (RNs) current workplace behaviors and the RNs' retrospective perceptions of their academic misconduct as students. A convenience sample of 1 66 RNs enrolled in master's degree programs at four university schools of nursing completed questionnaires regarding their beliefs and behaviors. The outcome of this study was significant. Results revealed a strong relationship between unethical behaviors of the RN in practice and their prior academic misconduct when they were students.

  9. The Effect of Work Stress and Workplace Conflict on Job Performance at PT. Tirta Investama, Airmadidi

    OpenAIRE

    Massie, Patricia Magda Yull

    2013-01-01

    Many companies are trying to avoid the workplace stress, since it could effects the performance of employee. That's why negative effects of work stress and workplace conflict also become a concern of HR manager. Since those things can bring so many problem like cardiovascular problem, depression and increase the possibility to catch another disease. Work Stress is the adverse reaction people have to exercise pressures and Workplace Conflict contains a variety of personalities that can someth...

  10. A Performance-Oriented Approach to E-Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minhong; Ran, Weijia; Liao, Jian; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the ever-increasing practice of using e-learning in the workplace, most of the applications perform poorly in motivating employees to learn. Most workplace e-learning applications fail to meet the needs of learners and ultimately fail to serve the organization's quest for success. To solve this problem, we need to examine what workplace…

  11. Training, job satisfaction and workplace performance in Britain: evidence from WERS 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Melanie K.; Jones, Richard J.; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between training, job satisfaction and workplace performance using the British 2004 Workplace Employee Relations Survey (WERS). Several measures of performance are analysed including absence, quits, financial performance, labour productivity and product quality. While there is clear evidence that training is positively associated with job satisfaction, and job satisfaction in turn is positively associated with most measures of performance, the relationship...

  12. Relationships between academic performance of medical students and their workplace performance as junior doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sandra E; Celenza, Antonio; Puddey, Ian B; Lake, Fiona

    2014-07-30

    Little recent published evidence explores the relationship between academic performance in medical school and performance as a junior doctor. Although many forms of assessment are used to demonstrate a medical student's knowledge or competence, these measures may not reliably predict performance in clinical practice following graduation. This descriptive cohort study explores the relationship between academic performance of medical students and workplace performance as junior doctors, including the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, clinical attachment, assessment type and summary score measures (grade point average) on performance in the workplace as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. There were two hundred participants. There were significant correlations between performance as a Junior Doctor (combined overall score) and the grade point average (r = 0.229, P = 0.002), the score from the Year 6 Emergency Medicine attachment (r = 0.361, P gender or ethnicity on the overall combined score of performance of the junior doctor. Performance on integrated assessments from medical school is correlated to performance as a practicing physician as measured by the Junior Doctor Assessment Tool. These findings support the value of combining undergraduate assessment scores to assess competence and predict future performance.

  13. Image manipulation as research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Debra; Noonan, Bridget

    2009-06-01

    A growing number of research misconduct cases handled by the Office of Research Integrity involve image manipulations. Manipulations may include simple image enhancements, misrepresenting an image as something different from what it is, and altering specific features of an image. Through a study of specific cases, the misconduct findings associated with image manipulation, detection methods and those likely to identify such manipulations, are discussed. This article explores sanctions imposed against guilty researchers and the factors that resulted in no misconduct finding although relevant images clearly were flawed. Although new detection tools are available for universities and journals to detect questionable images, this article explores why these tools have not been embraced.

  14. Making robust assessments of specialist trainees' workplace performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J M; Castanelli, D J; Chen, Y; Jolly, B

    2017-02-01

    Workplace-based assessments should provide a reliable measure of trainee performance, but have met with mixed success. We proposed that using an entrustability scale, where supervisors scored trainees on the level of supervision required for the case would improve the utility of compulsory mini-clinical evaluation exercise (CEX) assessments in a large anaesthesia training program. We analysed mini-CEX scores from all Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists trainees submitted to an online database over a 12-month period. Supervisors' scores were adjusted for the expected supervision requirement for the case for trainees at different stages of training. We used generalisability theory to determine score reliability. 7808 assessments were available for analysis. Supervision requirements decreased significantly (P  0.7) with a feasible number of assessments. Adjusting scores against the expected supervision requirement considerably improved reliability, with G > 0.8 achieved with only nine assessments. Three per cent of trainees generated average mini-CEX scores below the expected standard. Using an entrustment scoring system, where supervisors score trainees on the level of supervision required, mini-CEX scores demonstrated moderate reliability within a feasible number of assessments, and evidence of validity. When scores were adjusted against an expected standard, underperforming trainees could be identified, and reliability much improved. Taken together with other evidence on trainee ability, the mini-CEX is of sufficient reliability for inclusion in high stakes decisions on trainee progression towards independent specialist practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The Workplace Literacy System Project (WLS). Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Bruce R.

    The Workplace Literacy System Project (WLS) prepared interactive CD-ROM discs containing about 50 hours of instruction and drill in basic skills presented within the context of the textile/apparel manufacturing industry. The project was conducted at a Sara Lee knit products plant in North Carolina. During the project, literacy task analyses were…

  16. In Their Own Words: Research Misconduct from the Perspective of Researchers in Malaysian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Angelina P; Amin, Latifah; Mahadi, Zurina

    2017-12-16

    Published data and studies on research misconduct, which focuses on researchers in Malaysia, is still lacking, therefore, we decided that this was an area for investigation. This study provides qualitative results for the examined issues through series of in-depth interviews with 21 researchers and lecturers in various universities in Malaysia. The aims of this study were to investigate the researchers' opinions and perceptions regarding what they considered to be research misconduct, their experience with such misconduct, and the factors that contribute to research misconduct. Our findings suggest that the most common research misconducts that are currently being witnessed in Malaysian universities are plagiarism and authorship disputes, however, researchers seldom report incidents of research misconduct because it takes too much time, effort and work to report them, and some are just afraid of repercussions when they do report it. This suggests possible loopholes in the monitoring system, which may allow some researchers to bypass it and engage in misconduct. This study also highlights the structural and individual factors as the most influential factors when it comes to research misconduct besides organizational, situational and cultural factors. Finally, this study highlights the concerns of all participants regarding the 'publish or perish' pressure that they believe would lead to a hostile working environment, thus enhancing research misconduct, as researchers tend to think about their own performance rather than that of whole team or faculty. Consequently this weakens the interpersonal relationships among researchers, which may compromise the teaching and supervision of junior researchers and research students.

  17. Workplace Flexibility Practices in SMEs: Relationship with Performance via Redundancies, Absenteeism, and Financial Turnover

    OpenAIRE

    Whyman, Philip B; Petrescu, Alina

    2015-01-01

    This workplace flexibility study uses primary data on private sector small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Lancashire, United Kingdom, collected in 2009 during the recent “credit crunch” recession. Key features include: (1) objective measures of SME performance; (2) a focus on the previously relatively neglected relationship between workplace flexibility practices (WFPs) and three SME performance indicators, namely, redundancies, absenteeism, and financial turnover; and (3) a timely co...

  18. Workplace bullying and task performance: A study on salespeople in retail industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Min Chia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational stress has been known as a major cause of safety and health issues among sales people in retail organizations. Despite this, numerous studies have indicated the importance of factors and outcomes of occupational stress in several occupations, a knowledge gap on occupational stress remains a hot topic of interest for academics and practitioners. This study aims to examine the workplace bullying as a factor and task performance as the outcome of occupational stress among salespeople in the retail industry in Malaysia. Questionnaires were distributed to salespeople in the large-scale retail organization. Data from 222 salespeople suggest that workplace bullying was positively related to occupational stress and in turn, it affects employee performance. These findings contribute to understanding how workplace bullying affects the occupational stress and how stress may affect the performance of salespeople. Implications were presented for employers and employees who should be viewed with caution, in turn, to reduce the occupational stress at the workplace.

  19. Plagiarism: an egregious form of misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-02-01

    Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as "fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results." Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being "theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work." Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders.

  20. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.” Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders. PMID:25789254

  1. Implications And Legal Consequences Of Administrative Misconduct Law: Analysis Of The Performance Of The 3rd Prosecution Mprn Of Justice In The Circuit Court Of Caicó-Rn In Period 2010 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston de Araújo Teixeira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze and obtain data regarding the performance of the Public Ministry of RN meet the demands of improper conduct and how is the processing of these actions aiming to verify whether, in fact, Law Nº. 8.429/92 (of Misconduct Law administrative, it is an effective mechanism to combat and reprimand corruption. For this we used the historical-deductive method. He employed the documentary research held at the 3rd Prosecutor's Office of the District of Caicó / RN, combined with the data found on the website of the Court of Justice of Rio Grande do Norte state.

  2. Job anxiety, work-related psychological illness and workplace performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Melanie; Latreille, Paul L.; Sloane, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses matched employee-employer data from the British Workplace Employment Relations Survey (WERS) 2004 to examine the determinants of employee job anxiety and work-related psychological illness. Job anxiety is found to be strongly related to the demands of the job as measured by factors such as occupation, education and hours of work. Average levels of employee job anxiety, in turn, are positively associated with work-related psychological illness among the workforce as reported by...

  3. Analysis of citations to biomedical articles affected by scientific misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; Dailey, Rhonda K; Abrams, Judith

    2010-06-01

    We describe the ongoing citations to biomedical articles affected by scientific misconduct, and characterize the papers that cite these affected articles. The citations to 102 articles named in official findings of scientific misconduct during the period of 1993 and 2001 were identified through the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database. Using a stratified random sampling strategy, we performed a content analysis of 603 of the 5,393 citing papers to identify indications of awareness that the cited articles affected by scientific misconduct had validity issues, and to examine how the citing papers referred to the affected articles. Fewer than 5% of citing papers indicated any awareness that the cited article was retracted or named in a finding of misconduct. We also tested the hypothesis that affected articles would have fewer citations than a comparison sample; this was not supported. Most articles affected by misconduct were published in basic science journals, and we found little cause for concern that such articles may have affected clinical equipoise or clinical care.

  4. Incorporating Workplace Injury to Measure the Safety Performance of Industrial Sectors in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ting Yeh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of workplace injuries varies by industry. Information on workplace injuries can enable firms and governments to effectively improve their safety performance based on the specific contexts of each industry. Incorporating the three workplace injury rates (being wounded or ill, disability, and death, a data envelopment analysis (DEA model is developed to evaluate the safety performance of 17 industrial sectors in Taiwan. The results suggest that the Taiwanese government should pay particular attention to the mining and quarrying industry, which has the lowest safety performance. Additionally, the results provide abundant information for the Taiwanese government to design industry safety regulations in a way that may prompt firms to develop a sustainable economy by improving their health and safety practices and enhancing their overall safety performance.

  5. [The effect of humor in the workplace on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Junichi; Fuji, Kei

    2016-04-01

    In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.

  6. Workplace Stress: Implications for Organizational Performance in a Nigerian Public University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotayo A. Osibanjo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the implications of workplace stress on organizational performance in a Nigerian Public University. The survey method was deployed in sampling one hundred and seventy (170 staff members of the University. The Structural Equation Modelling was adopted using AMOS to establish fitness. Results of the analyses indicate that role congruence, equity, recognition, and distance, have significant influence on organizational performance. This makes it imperative for organizations to invest necessary resources in developing strategies and interventions to reduce workplace stress. If this is achieved, there will be endless opportunities in terms of increased performance and overall sustainability.

  7. Issues in developing valid assessments of speech pathology students' performance in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle; Ferguson, Alison; McAllister, Lindy

    2010-01-01

    Workplace-based learning is a critical component of professional preparation in speech pathology. A validated assessment of this learning is seen to be 'the gold standard', but it is difficult to develop because of design and validation issues. These issues include the role and nature of judgement in assessment, challenges in measuring quality, and the relationship between assessment and learning. Valid assessment of workplace-based performance needs to capture the development of competence over time and account for both occupation specific and generic competencies. This paper reviews important conceptual issues in the design of valid and reliable workplace-based assessments of competence including assessment content, process, impact on learning, measurement issues, and validation strategies. It then goes on to share what has been learned about quality assessment and validation of a workplace-based performance assessment using competency-based ratings. The outcomes of a four-year national development and validation of an assessment tool are described. A literature review of issues in conceptualizing, designing, and validating workplace-based assessments was conducted. Key factors to consider in the design of a new tool were identified and built into the cycle of design, trialling, and data analysis in the validation stages of the development process. This paper provides an accessible overview of factors to consider in the design and validation of workplace-based assessment tools. It presents strategies used in the development and national validation of a tool COMPASS, used in an every speech pathology programme in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore. The paper also describes Rasch analysis, a model-based statistical approach which is useful for establishing validity and reliability of assessment tools. Through careful attention to conceptual and design issues in the development and trialling of workplace-based assessments, it has been possible to develop the

  8. The Impact of Active Workstations on Workplace Productivity and Performance: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Samson O; Bailey, Daniel P; Chater, Angel M; Hewson, David J

    2018-02-27

    Active workstations have been recommended for reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace. It is important to understand if the use of these workstations has an impact on worker productivity. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of active workstations on workplace productivity and performance. A total of 3303 articles were initially identified by a systematic search and seven articles met eligibility criteria for inclusion. A quality appraisal was conducted to assess risk of bias, confounding, internal and external validity, and reporting. Most of the studies reported cognitive performance as opposed to productivity. Five studies assessed cognitive performance during use of an active workstation, usually in a single session. Sit-stand desks had no detrimental effect on performance, however, some studies with treadmill and cycling workstations identified potential decreases in performance. Many of the studies lacked the power required to achieve statistical significance. Three studies assessed workplace productivity after prolonged use of an active workstation for between 12 and 52 weeks. These studies reported no significant effect on productivity. Active workstations do not appear to decrease workplace performance.

  9. The Impact of Active Workstations on Workplace Productivity and Performance: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson O. Ojo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Active workstations have been recommended for reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace. It is important to understand if the use of these workstations has an impact on worker productivity. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of active workstations on workplace productivity and performance. A total of 3303 articles were initially identified by a systematic search and seven articles met eligibility criteria for inclusion. A quality appraisal was conducted to assess risk of bias, confounding, internal and external validity, and reporting. Most of the studies reported cognitive performance as opposed to productivity. Five studies assessed cognitive performance during use of an active workstation, usually in a single session. Sit-stand desks had no detrimental effect on performance, however, some studies with treadmill and cycling workstations identified potential decreases in performance. Many of the studies lacked the power required to achieve statistical significance. Three studies assessed workplace productivity after prolonged use of an active workstation for between 12 and 52 weeks. These studies reported no significant effect on productivity. Active workstations do not appear to decrease workplace performance.

  10. Differences in the performance of health officers at the workplace according to their qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Lee, Wanhyung; Kim, Jihyun; Lim, Sung-Shil; Won, Jong-Uk

    2018-01-01

    Health officers are an integral part of the occupational health service, and there have been studies to identify and improve the role of health officers in the workplace in order to improve the level of health care in the workplace. This study aimed to determine the contribution of health officers to the role of a health officer as prescribed by law and the percentage of health management work performed during work according to their qualifications. Questionnaires were distributed to a total of 4584 workplaces where health officers were hired, and a total of 806 copies (17.58%) were returned. Of these, 336 questionnaires were finally analyzed, after excluding questionnaires missing the main variables. Using the data, the difference of role contributions and the percentage of health care work performed during the whole day according to the qualification of the health officer was analyzed. Nurses were highly rated in the field of medical care, and industrial hygienists and air environmental engineers were highly rated in terms of chemicals and risk factor management. The percentage of health care work performed during the whole day differed according to the size of the workplace and industrial classification, but it was generally the lowest among air environmental engineers. Health officers play a very different role in the workplace depending on their qualification, and they need support for areas of other qualification. In order to effectively manage the health of the staff at a workplace, it is necessary to consider the development of a support system for small- and medium-sized enterprises and adjust the conditions of employment of the health officer according to the law.

  11. How does workplace stress affect job performance? An employee’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Matthew; Cachia, Moira

    2018-01-01

    This study looks at the effect of perceived stress upon employees within the workplace environment and how it impacts their operating performance. Qualitative methodology was applied to gather in-depth information about the participants’ experience of employment and associated factors that induce stress. This article reports the research outcome, relating the results to previous research on the topic.

  12. Workplace innovation and its relations with organisational performance and employee commitment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.; Vergeer, R.; Pot, F.

    2012-01-01

    According to some theoretical approaches workplace innovation is the implementation of new and combined interventions in work organisation, HRM and supportive technologies, and a strategy that improves the performance of organisations and the quality of jobs. Using data from a large-scale survey

  13. Workplace Innovation and Consequences for Employees and Organisational Performance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Kraan, K.O.; Dhondt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on ‘Netherlands Employer Work Survey’(NEWS) data this paper investigates the consequences of workplace innovation for employee and organisational performance in The Netherlands. The NEWS is a unique, two-yearly held survey among 5.000 establishments of public and private organisations on

  14. Workplace Violence and Job Performance among Community Healthcare Workers in China: The Mediator Role of Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Quan; Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Le-Xin; Zhang, Sheng-Chao; Jing, Meng-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Luo, Jia-Li; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the impact of workplace violence on job performance and quality of life of community healthcare workers in China, especially the relationship of these three variables. Methods: From December 2013 to April 2014, a total of 1404 healthcare workers were recruited by using the random cluster sampling method from Community Health Centers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The workplace violence scale, the job performance scale and the quality of life scale (SF-36) were self-administered. The structural equation model constructed by Amos 17.0 was employed to assess the relationship among these variables. Results: Our study found that 51.64% of the respondents had an experience of workplace violence. It was found that both job performance and quality of life had a negative correlation with workplace violence. A positive association was identified between job performance and quality of life. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = −0.243) of workplace violence on job performance consisted of a direct effect (β = −0.113) and an indirect effect (β = −0.130), which was mediated by quality of life. Conclusions: Workplace violence among community healthcare workers is prevalent in China. The workplace violence had negative effects on the job performance and quality of life of CHCs’ workers. The study suggests that improvement in the quality of life may lead to an effective reduction of the damages in job performance caused by workplace violence. PMID:26610538

  15. Workplace Violence and Job Performance among Community Healthcare Workers in China: The Mediator Role of Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei-Quan; Wu, Jiang; Yuan, Le-Xin; Zhang, Sheng-Chao; Jing, Meng-Juan; Zhang, Hui-Shan; Luo, Jia-Li; Lei, Yi-Xiong; Wang, Pei-Xi

    2015-11-20

    To explore the impact of workplace violence on job performance and quality of life of community healthcare workers in China, especially the relationship of these three variables. From December 2013 to April 2014, a total of 1404 healthcare workers were recruited by using the random cluster sampling method from Community Health Centers in Guangzhou and Shenzhen. The workplace violence scale, the job performance scale and the quality of life scale (SF-36) were self-administered. The structural equation model constructed by Amos 17.0 was employed to assess the relationship among these variables. Our study found that 51.64% of the respondents had an experience of workplace violence. It was found that both job performance and quality of life had a negative correlation with workplace violence. A positive association was identified between job performance and quality of life. The path analysis showed the total effect (β = -0.243) of workplace violence on job performance consisted of a direct effect (β = -0.113) and an indirect effect (β = -0.130), which was mediated by quality of life. Workplace violence among community healthcare workers is prevalent in China. The workplace violence had negative effects on the job performance and quality of life of CHCs' workers. The study suggests that improvement in the quality of life may lead to an effective reduction of the damages in job performance caused by workplace violence.

  16. Performance measurement of workplace change: in two different cultural contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiwat Riratanaphong

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, organisations must cope with the pressure of cost reduction and efficiency in order to succeed in a highly competitive business environment. However, drivers to improve social interaction and employee’s performance and as such to contribute to organisational goals and objectives make it necessary to be concerned with other performance criteria as well, such as effectiveness, flexibility, employee satisfaction, productivity and creativity. There is a growing need for performance mana...

  17. Musical theatre: the hazards of the performer's workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Jennie

    2015-03-01

    Being a musical theatre performer requires excellence in the combined skills of dancing, singing, and acting, and artists undergo rigorous training in these disciplines in order to achieve the professional standards expected by a discerning audience. However, the performer has more to do than just execute the choreography, vocal repertoire, and dialogue--he or she will also be navigating the often highly complex on-stage and off-stage areas which are fraught with hazards. This article seeks to highlight the challenges that lie beyond the visible part of the performance and to raise questions of how best to equip our musical theatre performers to safely negotiate these issues.

  18. Improving the scientific misconduct hearing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D M

    The overturning and withdrawal of several of the Office of Research Integrity's (ORI's) findings of scientific misconduct have called its role into question. The contested findings of scientific misconduct that have been tried before the hearing body have been based on lengthy and expensive ORI investigations. How could ORI have failed to prove its findings of scientific misconduct after the commitment of substantial resources that far exceed those devoted during institutional investigations? One reason may be that the current hearing process makes it difficult or impossible for ORI, institutions, or individuals to prove scientific misconduct. The hearing process has been criticized by discouraged whistleblowers who believe that their allegations of scientific misconduct should have been upheld, and by the accused for the expensive and protracted nature of the proceedings. The following article examines problems in the scientific misconduct hearing process and suggests that the process could be improved by letting administrative law judges, patent attorneys, and a scientific majority decide these cases.

  19. Research Misconduct: A Report from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadem-Rezaiyan, Majid; Dadgarmoghaddam, Maliheh

    2017-10-01

    Cheating rate is rising and engages newer methods. This study performed to estimate the rate of research misconduct in the thesis of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students in 2015. In this cross sectional study, all undergraduate and postgraduate medical students graduated during the study period in 2015, from the School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran were asked to fill a small checklist anonymously. It consisted of two demographic questions and two other ones for estimation of research misconduct. All three major types of research misconduct were explained in the checklist. We used the Randomized Response Technique for sensitive question in this survey. We asked the respondent to choose one question randomly and answer to it. The probability of selection of each question was equal. There were 149 filled questionnaires out of which 44 (31%) were graduated for General Practitioner, 63 (44%) for Residency, 31(21%) for Master Degree and 6 (4%) for Ph.D. Fifty-two percent (75) were male. More than half of participants were graduated between 2011 and 2012. The majority of participants were native (104, 81%). Undergraduate students had an estimation of 19% research misconduct in performing the thesis while this was 26% of postgraduate students. Males were nearly two times comparing to females in this issue (30% vs. 16%). This high estimation must be considered in future policy making about observing strictly on researches.

  20. Performance measurement of workplace change in two different cultural contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for performance management and performance measurement that not only covers all aspects of an organisation, but which can be applied to various situations in a changing internal and external environment. The changing organisational and external contexts, such as the

  1. Impact of workplace based assessment on doctors' education and performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alice; Archer, Julian

    2010-09-24

    To investigate the literature for evidence that workplace based assessment affects doctors' education and performance. Systematic review. The primary data sources were the databases Journals@Ovid, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and ERIC. Evidence based reviews (Bandolier, Cochrane Library, DARE, HTA Database, and NHS EED) were accessed and searched via the Health Information Resources website. Reference lists of relevant studies and bibliographies of review articles were also searched. Review methods Studies of any design that attempted to evaluate either the educational impact of workplace based assessment, or the effect of workplace based assessment on doctors' performance, were included. Studies were excluded if the sampled population was non-medical or the study was performed with medical students. Review articles, commentaries, and letters were also excluded. The final exclusion criterion was the use of simulated patients or models rather than real life clinical encounters. Sixteen studies were included. Fifteen of these were non-comparative descriptive or observational studies; the other was a randomised controlled trial. Study quality was mixed. Eight studies examined multisource feedback with mixed results; most doctors felt that multisource feedback had educational value, although the evidence for practice change was conflicting. Some junior doctors and surgeons displayed little willingness to change in response to multisource feedback, whereas family physicians might be more prepared to initiate change. Performance changes were more likely to occur when feedback was credible and accurate or when coaching was provided to help subjects identify their strengths and weaknesses. Four studies examined the mini-clinical evaluation exercise, one looked at direct observation of procedural skills, and three were concerned with multiple assessment methods: all these studies reported positive results for the educational impact of workplace based assessment tools

  2. Workplace Stress: Implications for Organizational Performance in a Nigerian Public University

    OpenAIRE

    Osibanjo, Omotayo; Salau, Odunayo P.; Falola, Hezekiah; Oyewunmi, Adebukola E.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the implications of workplace stress on organizational performance in a Nigerian Public University. The survey method was deployed in sampling one hundred and seventy (170) staff members of the University. The Structural Equation Modelling was adopted using AMOS to establish fitness. Results of the analyses indicate that role congruence, equity, recognition, and distance, have significant influence on organizational performance. This makes it imperative for organizatio...

  3. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance

    OpenAIRE

    Abednego Feehi Okoe; Henry Boateng; Tiniwah Deborah Mensah

    2016-01-01

    The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A tot...

  4. Perceptions of Chinese Biomedical Researchers Towards Academic Misconduct: A Comparison Between 2015 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qing-Jiao; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Fan, Yu-Chen; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Bai, Yu; Eslick, Guy D; He, Xing-Xiang; Zhang, Shi-Bing; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; He, Hua

    2018-04-01

    Publications by Chinese researchers in scientific journals have dramatically increased over the past decade; however, academic misconduct also becomes more prevalent in the country. The aim of this prospective study was to understand the perceptions of Chinese biomedical researchers towards academic misconduct and the trend from 2010 to 2015. A questionnaire comprising 10 questions was designed and then validated by ten biomedical researchers in China. In the years 2010 and 2015, respectively, the questionnaire was sent as a survey to biomedical researchers at teaching hospitals, universities, and medical institutes in mainland China. Data were analyzed by the Chi squared test, one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey post hoc test, or Spearman's rank correlation method, where appropriate. The overall response rates in 2010 and 2015 were 4.5% (446/9986) and 5.5% (832/15,127), respectively. Data from 15 participants in 2010 were invalid, and analysis was thus performed for 1263 participants. Among the participants, 54.7% thought that academic misconduct was serious-to-extremely serious, and 71.2% believed that the Chinese authorities paid no or little attention to the academic misconduct. Moreover, 70.2 and 65.2% of participants considered that the punishment for academic misconduct at the authority and institution levels, respectively, was not appropriate or severe enough. Inappropriate authorship and plagiarism were the most common forms of academic misconduct. The most important factor underlying academic misconduct was the academic assessment system, as judged by 50.7% of the participants. Participants estimated that 40.1% (39.8 ± 23.5% in 2010; 40.2 ± 24.5% in 2015) of published scientific articles were associated with some form of academic misconduct. Their perceptions towards academic misconduct had not significantly changed over the 5 years. Reform of the academic assessment system should be the fundamental approach to tackling this problem in

  5. Employee workplace representation in Belgium : effects on firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Annette; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Van der Brempt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether works councils (WCs) in Belgium have a positive effect on firm performance, notably productivity and profitability, while taking the role of trade unions into account. Design/methodology/approach: The authors first introduce the typical

  6. The Impact of Workplace Conditions on Firm Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.S. Buhai (Sebastian); E. Cottini (Elena); N. Westergaard-Nielsen

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper estimates the impact of work environment health and safety practice on firm performance, and examines which firm-characteristic factors are associated with good work conditions. We use Danish longitudinal register matched employer-employee data, merged with firm business

  7. The effects of job satisfaction, employee commitment, workplace friendship and team culture on service recovery performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abednego Feehi Okoe

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature has called for more studies to be conducted on how human resource activities affect service recovery performance. This study therefore ascertains the effects of Job Satisfaction, employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture on Service Recovery Performance. The survey research design was used in this study. The participants were frontline employees from the various service sectors in Ghana. The convenience sampling was used as the sampling technique. A total of 372 responses were used in the final analysis. The scale items were adapted from the existing literature. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the fit of the model. Multiple linear regression was used to test the hypotheses. The findings indicate that Job Satisfaction, Employee Commitment, Workplace Friendship and Team Culture significantly exerts positive influence on Service Recovery Performance of frontline employees. The findings from the study imply that there are several antecedents to Service Recovery Performance. Team Culture, Workplace Commitment, and Employee Commitment can influence Job Satisfaction which in turn will affect Service Recovery Performance resulting in customer satisfaction and retention.

  8. Selecting team players: Considering the impact of contextual performance and workplace deviance on selection decisions in the National Football League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Steven W; Maynes, Timothy D

    2016-04-01

    Contextual performance and workplace deviance likely influence team functioning and effectiveness and should therefore be considered when evaluating job candidates for team-based roles. However, obtaining this information is difficult given a lack of reliable sources and the desire of job applicants to present themselves in a favorable light. Thus, it is unknown whether those selecting employees for teams incorporate prior contextual performance and workplace deviance into their evaluations, or whether doing so improves the quality of selection decisions. To address these issues, we examined the impact of prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance on National Football League (NFL) decision maker (organizational insider) and external expert (organizational outsider) evaluations of college football players in the NFL draft, using a content analysis methodology to generate measures of contextual performance and workplace deviance. Our findings indicate that insiders value contextual performance more than outsiders, which is likely because of differing interests and goals that lead to different levels of motivation and/or ability to acquire information about prior contextual performance. We also propose that prior task performance, contextual performance, and workplace deviance will predict player performance in the NFL. Our results support this prediction for task and contextual performance. In addition, we investigated the quality of insider and outsider judgments using Brunswik's (1952) lens model. Implications of our findings for the team selection, contextual performance, and workplace deviance literatures are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants’ hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. Results The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Conclusions Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. PMID:25710968

  10. Chronic Conditions, Workplace Safety, And Job Demands Contribute To Absenteeism And Job Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinnett, Kimberly; Schwatka, Natalie; Tenney, Liliana; Brockbank, Claire V S; Newman, Lee S

    2017-02-01

    An aging workforce, increased prevalence of chronic health conditions, and the potential for longer working lives have both societal and economic implications. We analyzed the combined impact of workplace safety, employee health, and job demands (work task difficulty) on worker absence and job performance. The study sample consisted of 16,926 employees who participated in a worksite wellness program offered by a workers' compensation insurer to their employers-314 large, midsize, and small businesses in Colorado across multiple industries. We found that both workplace safety and employees' chronic health conditions contributed to absenteeism and job performance, but their impact was influenced by the physical and cognitive difficulty of the job. If employers want to reduce health-related productivity losses, they should take an integrated approach to mitigate job-related injuries, promote employee health, and improve the fit between a worker's duties and abilities. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Workplace bullying and task performance: A study on salespeople in retail industry

    OpenAIRE

    Shi Min Chia; Daisy Mui Hung Kee

    2018-01-01

    Occupational stress has been known as a major cause of safety and health issues among sales people in retail organizations. Despite this, numerous studies have indicated the importance of factors and outcomes of occupational stress in several occupations, a knowledge gap on occupational stress remains a hot topic of interest for academics and practitioners. This study aims to examine the workplace bullying as a factor and task performance as the outcome of occupational stress among salespeopl...

  12. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping

    OpenAIRE

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees’ perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. Methods: At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and m...

  13. 75 FR 52346 - Findings of Scientific Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Scientific Misconduct... professor of genetics and medical genetics, UW-M, engaged in scientific misconduct while her research was...: Falsified Figures 5A and 5B by reusing figures from two of her earlier published papers and falsely labeling...

  14. 75 FR 4566 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science... of HHS, issued a final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science findings of the Office..., School of Nursing, TSU, committed misconduct in science and research misconduct in research supported by...

  15. 75 FR 24703 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science... of HHS, issued a final notice of debarment based on the misconduct in science findings of the Office... Retrovirology Pathogenesis Laboratory, UW, committed misconduct in science (scientific misconduct) in research...

  16. Workplace bullying and relationships with health and performance among a sample of New Zealand veterinarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, D H; Rasmussen, W

    2018-03-01

    To examine the relationships between workplace bullying, destructive leadership and team conflict, and physical health, strain, self-reported performance and intentions to quit among veterinarians in New Zealand, and how these relationships could be moderated by psychological capital and perceived organisational support. Data were collected by means of an online survey, distributed to members of the New Zealand Veterinary Association. Participation was voluntary and all responses were anonymous and confidential. Scores for the variables measured were based on responses to questions or statements with responses categorised on a linear scale. A series of regression analyses were used to assess mediation or moderation by intermediate variables on the relationships between predictor variables and dependent variables. Completed surveys were provided by 197 veterinarians, of which 32 (16.2%) had been bullied at work, i.e. they had experienced two or more negative acts at least weekly over the previous 6 months, and nine (4.6%) had experienced cyber-bullying. Mean scores for workplace bullying were higher for female than male respondents, and for non-managers than managers (pbullying were positively associated with scores for destructive leadership and team conflict, physical health, strain, and intentions to quit (pbullying and team conflict mediated the relationship between destructive leadership and strain, physical health and intentions to quit. Perceived organisational support moderated the effects of workplace bullying on strain and self-reported job performance (pbullied. The negative effects of destructive leadership on strain, physical health and intentions to quit were mediated by team conflict and workplace bullying. It should be noted that the findings of this study were based on a survey of self-selected participants and the findings may not represent the wider population of New Zealand veterinarians.

  17. Workplace ostracism, self-regulation, and job performance: Moderating role of intrinsic work motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbauer, Robert; Renn, Robert W; Chen, H Shawna; Rhew, Nicholas

    2018-01-08

    Drawing from a self-regulation perspective, we examine how intrinsic work motivation changes the relation between workplace ostracism and employee job performance via self-leadership. We test a moderated mediated model with data collected from 101 employees at two points in time. Results provide support for the hypothesis that ostracized employees who are more intrinsically motivated use self-leadership strategies to a greater degree to improve their job performance than their counterparts who are not intrinsically motivated. The findings contribute to research regarding boundary conditions of ostracism theory and have important practical implications.

  18. Prefrontal cognitive ability, intelligence, Big Five personality, and the prediction of advanced academic and workplace performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daniel M; Peterson, Jordan B; Pihl, Robert O; Lee, Alice G M

    2007-08-01

    Studies 1 and 2 assessed performance on a battery of dorsolateral prefrontal cognitive ability (D-PFCA) tests, personality, psychometric intelligence, and academic performance (AP) in 2 undergraduate samples. In Studies 1 and 2, AP was correlated with D-PFCA (r=.37, ppersonality. Studies 3 and 4 assessed D-PFCA, personality, and workplace performance among (a) managerial-administrative workers and (b) factory floor workers at a manufacturing company. Prefrontal cognitive ability correlated with supervisor ratings of manager performance at values of r ranging from .42 to .57 (ps<.001), depending on experience, and with factory floor performance at pr=.21 (p=.02), after controlling for experience, age, and education. Conscientiousness correlated with factory floor performance at r=.23.

  19. Evidence for validity within workplace assessment: the Longitudinal Evaluation of Performance (LEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott-Clements, Linda; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Schuwirth, Lambert W T; Hurst, Yvonne; Rennie, James S

    2008-05-01

    The drive towards valid and reliable assessment methods for health professions' training is becoming increasingly focused towards authentic models of workplace performance assessment. This study investigates the validity of such a method, longitudinal evaluation of performance (LEP), which has been implemented in the assessment of postgraduate dental trainees in Scotland. Although it is similar in format to the mini-CEX (mini clinical evaluation exercise) and other tools that use global ratings for assessing performance in the workplace, a number of differences exist in the way in which the LEP has been implemented. These include the use of a reference point for evaluators' judgement that represents the standard expected upon completion of the training, flexibility, a greater range of cases assessed and the use of frequency scores within feedback to identify trainees' progress over time. A range of qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analysed from 2 consecutive cohorts of trainees in Scotland (2002-03 and 2003-04). There is rich evidence supporting the validity, educational impact and feasibility of the LEP. In particular, a great deal of support was given by trainers for the use of a fixed reference point for judgements, despite initial concerns that this might be demotivating to trainees. Trainers were highly positive about this approach and considered it useful in identifying trainees' progress and helping to drive learning. The LEP has been successful in combining a strong formative approach to continuous assessment with the collection of evidence on performance within the workplace that (alongside other tools within an assessment system) can contribute towards a summative decision regarding competence.

  20. Measurement of hearing protection devices performance in the workplace during full-shift working operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nélisse, Hugues; Gaudreau, Marc-André; Boutin, Jérôme; Voix, Jérémie; Laville, Frédéric

    2012-03-01

    The effectiveness of hearing protection devices (HPDs), when used in workplace conditions, has been shown over the years to be usually lower than the labeled values obtained under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Causes for such discrepancies have been listed and discussed by many authors. This study is an attempt to understand the issues in greater details and quantify some of these factors by looking at the performance of hearing protectors as a function of time during full work shift conditions. A non-invasive field microphone in the real ear (F-MIRE)-based method has been developed for measuring the effectiveness of different HPDs as a function of time in the workplace. Details of the test procedures, the equipment used, and the post-processing operations are presented and discussed. The methodology was developed in such a way that a complete time and frequency representation are possible. The system was used on a total of 24 workers in eight different companies. Work shifts of up to 9-h long were recorded. Various types of earmuffs and one type of molded earplugs were tested. Attenuation data reported as a function of time showed, for most workers tested, considerable fluctuations over entire work shift periods. Parts of these fluctuations are attributed to variations in the low-frequency content in the noise (in particular for earmuffs) as well as poor insertion and/or fitting of earplugs. Lower performances than laboratory-based ones were once again observed for most cases tested but also, important left and right ear differences were obtained for many individuals. When reported as a function of frequency, the attenuation results suggested that the few approximations used to relate the measurements to subjective real-ear-attenuation-at-threshold (REAT) data were realistic. The use of individualized attenuation data and performance ratings for HPDs as well as a good knowledge of the ambient noise in the workplace are key ingredients when evaluating the

  1. A structural equation modelling approach examining the pathways between safety climate, behaviour performance and workplace slipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swedler, David I; Verma, Santosh K; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Lombardi, David A; Chang, Wen-Ruey; Brennan, Melayne; Courtney, Theodore K

    2015-07-01

    Safety climate has previously been associated with increasing safe workplace behaviours and decreasing occupational injuries. This study seeks to understand the structural relationship between employees' perceptions of safety climate, performing a safety behaviour (ie, wearing slip-resistant shoes) and risk of slipping in the setting of limited-service restaurants. At baseline, we surveyed 349 employees at 30 restaurants for their perceptions of their safety training and management commitment to safety as well as demographic data. Safety performance was identified as wearing slip-resistant shoes, as measured by direct observation by the study team. We then prospectively collected participants' hours worked and number of slips weekly for the next 12 weeks. Using a confirmatory factor analysis, we modelled safety climate as a higher order factor composed of previously identified training and management commitment factors. The 349 study participants experienced 1075 slips during the 12-week follow-up. Confirmatory factor analysis supported modelling safety climate as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. In a structural equation model, safety climate indirectly affected prospective risk of slipping through safety performance, but no direct relationship between safety climate and slips was evident. Results suggest that safety climate can reduce workplace slips through performance of a safety behaviour as well as suggesting a potential causal mechanism through which safety climate can reduce workplace injuries. Safety climate can be modelled as a higher order factor composed of safety training and management commitment. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ..., former Research Assistant and Data Base Manager, CU, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by... present responsibility to be a steward of Federal funds. 2 CFR 180.125, 180.800(d), 376.10. The following...

  3. Geophysicists adopt new approach to misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Geophysicists found guilty of harassment, discrimination or bullying could be expelled from the American Geophysical Union (AGU) after it updated its ethics policy to define these misdemeanours as scientific misconduct.

  4. 77 FR 38632 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), NIH. ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by... animal model of Parkinson's disease, 2006 (``manuscript''). Specifically, ORI finds that the Respondent...

  5. Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

    1999-10-11

    Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

  6. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  7. 76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., Ph.D., St. Jude Children's Research Hospital: Based on the findings of an investigation report by St... oversight review, ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude, engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National...

  8. Health and fitness benefits of a resistance training intervention performed in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavanela, Plinio M; Crewther, Blair T; Lodo, Leandro; Florindo, Alex A; Miyabara, Elen H; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effects of a workplace-based resistance training intervention on different health-, fitness-, and work-related measures in untrained men (bus drivers). The subjects were recruited from a bus company and divided into a training (n = 48) and control (n = 48) groups after initial prescreening. The training group performed a 24-week resistance training program, whereas the control group maintained their normal daily activities. Each group was assessed for body composition, blood pressure (BP), pain incidence, muscular endurance, and flexibility before and after the 24-week period. Work absenteeism was also recorded during this period and after a 12-week follow-up phase. In general, no body composition changes were identified in either group. In the training group, a significant reduction in BP and pain incidence, along with improvements in muscle endurance and flexibility were seen after 24 weeks (p workplace improved different aspects of health and fitness in untrained men, thereby potentially providing other work-related benefits. Thus, both employers and employees may benefit from the setup, promotion, and support of a work-based physical activity program involving resistance training.

  9. Workplace Performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management Interns of West Visayas State University, Calinog Iloilo, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno, Ma. Nellie L. Mapa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the workplace performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management practicum students of West Visayas State University – Calinog Campus as perceived by the interns’ themselves and the supervisors in different hospitality establishments in Iloilo City where students were deployed for on-the-job training in relation to industry-site internship / practicum program for academic year 2013-2014.The result of the study serves as the basis for designing a proposed education or training program in enhancing the workplace performance of Hotel and Restaurant Management Students. The study surveyed 35 practicum students and 23 supervisors in different hospitality establishments in Iloilo City using survey questionnaire based from Competency Standards for hospitality related courses of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED Memorandum Order No.30 series of 2006. Findings revealed that both supervisor and student respondents agreed on the satisfactory performance of the interns in terms of Higher Order Thinking Skills and very satisfactory rating on Personal Qualities . With regard to the Basic Skills (e.g., numerical computation, oral and written communications, the students rated themselves Very Satisfactory while supervisors gave a Satisfactory rating. The same Very Satisfactory performance rating was achieved on Professional Competencies by both respondents. Of the five common competencies, Interpersonal and Technological skills of the interns were rated very satisfactory by both respondents on Interpersonal Skills and on Technological Skills. Also the same satisfactory rating was given on Information skills by both the supervisor and interns. Whereas for the Resources Skills, the interns rated themselves Very Satisfactory rating while the supervisors rated them Satisfactory. It is recommended to continue the review and upgrade industry training in the curriculum and consistently redefine the curricular focus to meet the

  10. Decision-making processes in the workplace : how exhaustion, lack of resources and job demands impair them and affect performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschi, A.; Demerouti, E.; Sartori, R.; Weller, J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been

  11. Decision-making processes in the workplace : How exhaustion, lack of resources and job demands impair them and affect performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been

  12. Scientific misconduct: also an issue in nursing science?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fierz, K.; Gennaro, S.; Dierickx, K.; Achterberg, T. van; Morin, K.H.; Geest, S. de

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Scientific misconduct (SMC) is an increasing concern in nursing science. This article discusses the prevalence of SMC, risk factors and correlates of scientific misconduct in nursing science, and highlights interventional approaches to foster good scientific conduct. METHODS: Using the

  13. 42 CFR 93.316 - Completing the research misconduct process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Completing the research misconduct process. 93.316... POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of Institutions The Institutional Investigation § 93.316 Completing the research misconduct process. (a) ORI expects institutions to carry inquiries and...

  14. Performance of office workers under various enclosure conditions in state-of-the-art open workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Heakyung Cecilia

    The objective of this thesis is to more firmly establish the importance of physical attributes of workstations on the performance of workers undertaking a range of complex tasks while subjected to the visual and noise distractions prevalent in state-of-the-art North American office settings. This study investigates objective and subjective evaluations of noise and performance given a range of current physical work environments. The study provides criteria for architects, interior designers and managers, to select distraction-free office environments to deliver better performance. The concluding chapter helps to establish the importance of designing more acoustically responsible work settings in state-of-the-art office projects. With 102 subjects (23 native speakers of English per each of three workstation types), controlled experiments were completed over a six month testing period in three different work settings---four foot partitions on two sides, seated privacy with six foot partitions on three sides, and a closed office with eight foot partitions, a door and a ceiling, with two acoustic environments (office sounds with and without speech at a controlled 45 dBA level at the receiver), the experimental results were statistically significant. Another finding was the lack of a significant effect of background sound variations on simple or complex task performance. That implies the current acoustical evaluation tool, the Articulation Index, may not be an appropriate tool to adequately and conclusively assess the acoustic impact of open workplaces on individual performance. Concerning the impact of acoustic conditions on occupant performance from the experiments, Articulation Index values do not reflect the potential relation of workstation designs and subjects' performance and moods. However, NIC connected with speech privacy rating has the potential to be a better evaluation tool than AI for open workplaces. From the results of this thesis, it is predicted that

  15. Workplace stress, job satisfaction, job performance, and turnover intention of health care workers in rural Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ming-Che; Jou, Rong-Chang; Liao, Cing-Chu; Kuo, Chung-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Workplace stress (WS) has been found to affect job satisfaction (JS), performance, and turnover intentions (TIs) in developed countries, but there is little evidence from other countries and especially rural areas. In rural Taiwan, especially, there is an insufficient health care workforce, and the situation is getting worse. To demonstrate the relationship, we used a cross-sectional structured questionnaire, and data from 344 licensed professionals in 1 rural regional hospital were analyzed using the structural equation model. The results showed that WS had a positive effect on both TI and job performance (JP) but a negative effect on satisfaction. JS did improve performance. For the staff with an external locus of control, stress affected JP and satisfaction significantly. For the staff with lower perceived job characteristics, JS affected performance significantly. The strategies to decrease stress relating to work load, role conflict, family factors, and working environment should be focused and implemented urgently to lower the turnover rate of health care workers in rural Taiwan. © 2013 APJPH.

  16. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...

  17. Professional misconduct: the Bristol case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsin, S N

    1998-10-05

    In June 1998, the Professional Conduct Committee of the General Medical Council of the United Kingdom (the body which regulates British doctors) concluded the longest-running case it has considered this century. Three medical practitioners were accused to serious professional misconduct relating to 29 deaths (and four survivors with brain damage) in 53 paediatric cardiac operations undertaken at the Bristol Royal Infirmary between 1988 and 1995. All three denied the charges but, after 65 days of evidence over eight months (costing 2.2 Pounds million), all were found guilty. The doctors concerned are Mr James Wisheart, a paediatric and adult cardiac surgeon (appointed in 1976, now retired), and the former Medical Director of the United Bristol Healthcare Trust (the hospital group that includes the Bristol Royal Infirmary); Mr Janardan Dhasmana, paediatric and adult cardiac surgeon (appointed in 1986); and Dr John Roylance, a former radiologist, and Chief Executive of the Trust from its creation in 1991 until his retirement in 1995. The central allegations were that the Chief Executive and the Medical Director of the Trust allowed to be carried out, and the two paediatric cardiac surgeons carried out, operations on children knowing that the mortality rates for these operations, in the hands of these surgeons, were high. Furthermore, the surgeons were accused of not communicating to the parents the correct risk of death for these operations in their hands. Stephen Bolsin, a cardiac anaesthetist, "blew the whistle" and then had the courage to follow through until a full investigation was carried out. The process took over six years. Here he tells his story.

  18. Stakeholder perspectives on workplace-based performance assessment: towards a better understanding of assessor behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Laury P J W M; Timmerman, Angelique A; Govaerts, Marjan J B; Muris, Jean W M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Kramer, Anneke W M; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2017-12-01

    Workplace-Based Assessment (WBA) plays a pivotal role in present-day competency-based medical curricula. Validity in WBA mainly depends on how stakeholders (e.g. clinical supervisors and learners) use the assessments-rather than on the intrinsic qualities of instruments and methods. Current research on assessment in clinical contexts seems to imply that variable behaviours during performance assessment of both assessors and learners may well reflect their respective beliefs and perspectives towards WBA. We therefore performed a Q methodological study to explore perspectives underlying stakeholders' behaviours in WBA in a postgraduate medical training program. Five different perspectives on performance assessment were extracted: Agency, Mutuality, Objectivity, Adaptivity and Accountability. These perspectives reflect both differences and similarities in stakeholder perceptions and preferences regarding the utility of WBA. In comparing and contrasting the various perspectives, we identified two key areas of disagreement, specifically 'the locus of regulation of learning' (i.e., self-regulated versus externally regulated learning) and 'the extent to which assessment should be standardised' (i.e., tailored versus standardised assessment). Differing perspectives may variously affect stakeholders' acceptance, use-and, consequently, the effectiveness-of assessment programmes. Continuous interaction between all stakeholders is essential to monitor, adapt and improve assessment practices and to stimulate the development of a shared mental model. Better understanding of underlying stakeholder perspectives could be an important step in bridging the gap between psychometric and socio-constructivist approaches in WBA.

  19. 78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National... peptide, and by falsely inserting a band in lane 3 to represent the [alpha]VBS peptide, in Figure 4B of...

  20. Plagiarism – A Noble Misconduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Rezwanur Rahman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In science, writing is the most important means of communicating research findings. In most cases, authors of the scientific fraternity report the results of their research activities in scientific journals rather than in a standard scientific paper format.1 Scientific writing includes presentation of a number of documents that consists research related topics, new evidence based guidelines and protocols, case presentations, and review articles, which help in educating, promoting and sharing information to the professionals and also to general public. In modern days of wide availability of resources a rising misconduct by the apparently ‘noble’ writers of scientific papers is ‘plagiarism’. The word plagiarism is derived from Latin ‘Plagiare’ which means to kidnap.2 Most academic researchers reach a consensus that plagiarism is a serious breach of publication ethics.3 The World Association of Medical Editors (WAME defines plagiarism as – ‘the use of others published and unpublished ideas or words (or other intellectual property without attribution or permission, and presenting them as new and original rather than derived from and existing source’.2,4 In simple words, plagiarism is the use of others’ ideas or work without any credit to the original authors whether intentionally or unintentionally.2 Plagiarism dates back to the foundation of science communication as a discipline. According to the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME strict definition, plagiarism is when six consecutive words are copied, or 7 to 11 words are overlapping in a set of 30 letters. 5-7 Plagiarism has different forms but can be categorized into two general distinct categories – plagiarism of ideas and plagiarism of text (verbatim. No doubt, plagiarism of ideas is a blatant act of misconduct. Plagiarism of text and recycling of words are also a serious fault in humanities and literature where the essence of work and novelty are wordings and

  1. Misconduct Policies, Academic Culture and Career Stage, Not Gender or Pressures to Publish, Affect Scientific Integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Fanelli

    Full Text Available The honesty and integrity of scientists is widely believed to be threatened by pressures to publish, unsupportive research environments, and other structural, sociological and psychological factors. Belief in the importance of these factors has inspired major policy initiatives, but evidence to support them is either non-existent or derived from self-reports and other sources that have known limitations. We used a retrospective study design to verify whether risk factors for scientific misconduct could predict the occurrence of retractions, which are usually the consequence of research misconduct, or corrections, which are honest rectifications of minor mistakes. Bibliographic and personal information were collected on all co-authors of papers that have been retracted or corrected in 2010-2011 (N=611 and N=2226 papers, respectively and authors of control papers matched by journal and issue (N=1181 and N=4285 papers, respectively, and were analysed with conditional logistic regression. Results, which avoided several limitations of past studies and are robust to different sampling strategies, support the notion that scientific misconduct is more likely in countries that lack research integrity policies, in countries where individual publication performance is rewarded with cash, in cultures and situations were mutual criticism is hampered, and in the earliest phases of a researcher's career. The hypothesis that males might be prone to scientific misconduct was not supported, and the widespread belief that pressures to publish are a major driver of misconduct was largely contradicted: high-impact and productive researchers, and those working in countries in which pressures to publish are believed to be higher, are less-likely to produce retracted papers, and more likely to correct them. Efforts to reduce and prevent misconduct, therefore, might be most effective if focused on promoting research integrity policies, improving mentoring and training

  2. 77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... fellow, Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research misconduct in... regulate ageing and rejuventation of blood stem cell niches.'' Nature 463:495-500, 2010. Mayack, S.R., & Wagers, A.J. ``Osteolineage niche cells initiate hemotopoietic stem cell mobilization.'' Blood 112:519...

  3. 77 FR 22320 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... have injected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells obtained from Rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Peter J. Francis, M.D., Ph.D...

  4. Friendship Group Composition and Juvenile Institutional Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Shannon E

    2017-02-01

    The present study examines both the patterns of friendship networks and how these network characteristics relate to the risk factors of institutional misconduct for incarcerated youth. Using friendship networks collected from males incarcerated with California's Division of Juvenile Justice (DJJ), latent profile analysis was utilized to create homogeneous groups of friendship patterns based on alter attributes and network structure. The incarcerated youth provided 144 egocentric networks reporting 558 social network relationships. Latent profile analysis identified three network profiles: expected group (67%), new breed group (20%), and model citizen group (13%). The three network profiles were integrated into a multiple group analysis framework to examine the relative influence of individual-level risk factors on their rate of institutional misconduct. The analysis finds variation in predictors of institutional misconduct across profile types. These findings suggest that the close friendships of incarcerated youth are patterned across the individual characteristics of the youth's friends and that the friendship network can act as a moderator for individual risk factors for institutional misconduct.

  5. Business Students' Ethical Evaluations of Faculty Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Sean; Kidwell, Roland E.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to gauge business school student perceptions of the academic conduct of college professors, to determine students' ethical evaluations of certain potential faculty behaviors. The relationships between perceived faculty misconduct and several student demographic characteristics including sex and academic classification were…

  6. 77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH, grant R56 DK063025, and National... Physiol. 291(6):C1271-8, 2006 Am J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 294(1):C295-305, 2008 J. Lipid Res. 42:1444...

  7. 78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... compared to wild type NE in Figure 4A, NEM, Figure 6A, CMA, Figure 8, HL73063-01, and Figure 7, HL79615-01.... Respondent agreed not to appeal the ORI findings of research misconduct set forth above. He has agreed...

  8. 78 FR 8148 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of... Philosophy, August 2009; hereafter referred to as the ``Dissertation.'' Doreian, B.W., Fulop, T.G...

  9. Demarcating misconduct from misinterpretations and mistakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    debated how to define scientific misconduct. Most definitions centered on falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism (the so-called FFP definition), but suggestions were also made for definitions that were broader and more open-ended, such as the 1995 suggestion from the US Commission of Research...

  10. 42 CFR 93.103 - Research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research misconduct. 93.103 Section 93.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH...

  11. 75 FR 39530 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... retinal gene profile data that he purportedly obtained from three-week old normal dogs and dogs with X... normal dogs and dogs with X-linked progressive retinal atrophy in abstracts and poster presentations for...

  12. Supervisor descriptions of veterinary student performance in the clinical workplace: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, E J

    2017-06-10

    This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.

  13. The World is Flat: Modeling Educators’ Misconduct with Cellular Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Osipian, Ararat

    2008-01-01

    Misconduct in education is a serious problem internationally. As the education sector grows, so does the scale of misconduct. The large bureaucratic apparatus, overregulation, outdated and unclear rules, and poor audit create opportunities for abuse. The blending of public sector, private firms, and personal interests of educators and education bureaucrats leads to collusion and evolvement of different forms of misconduct, especially widespread in large university systems and school districts...

  14. Chief officer misconduct in policing: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Hales, Gavin; May, Tiggey; Belur, J.; Hough, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Key findings\\ud This study has examined cases of alleged misconduct involving chief police officers and staff.\\ud The aim was to describe the nature of cases that have come to light, examine the perceived\\ud pathways that led to misconduct, and suggest ways of mitigating the risks of misconduct. The\\ud study is based on interviews with key stakeholders and with investigating officers in chief\\ud officer misconduct cases since April 2008. These cases involved only a small minority of chief\\ud ...

  15. Scientific misconduct: a brief introduction to its various aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, J.U.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific misconduct has various causes, from mere ignorance of authors to the outright deceptive tendencies of perpetrators. It thrives in an atmosphere of indifference, collusion, secrecy and lack of accountability. It is necessary to acquaint the public of the numerous guises, in which scientific misconduct is affecting good and authentic research in a plethora of irrelevant and misleading ones. Among the most common kinds of misconduct are: fabrication, manipulation and plagiarism. With the passage of time, the exact nature of academic fraud has become subtle and is often very difficult to detect. This paper touches upon various aspects of scientific misconduct and briefly suggests possible solutions. (author)

  16. Fraud and Misconduct in Medical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moghtaderi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last year we had observed different types of misconduct in the submitted manuscripts into the editorial office. Those are included attempted theft of data, presence of ghost authors, gift authorship, dual submissions, salami publications, falsification and some other types of fraud. Our analysis in the editorial office led us to conclude that research fraud is an important issue and should be discussed clearly. The emphasis on competition and pressure to produce published materials, while internal intention to discover the scientific truth may foster a conflict between personal career goals and human intellectual motivation; finally may induce research misconduct. Having accurate and good knowledge in this field is mandatory for researchers especially the younger ones. In the first part of this article we will discuss a short but important part of the history of this problem and in the second part definition and editorial response will be reviewed

  17. National Workplace Literacy Program (NWLP) at Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ivy Au

    The Chinatown Manpower Project continued as the education partner in a Workplace Literacy Program (WLP) for the Chinese garment workers in New York City. Local 23-25, Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees, was the union partner; the Greater Blouse, Skirt & Undergarment Association, Inc., and the Continental Garment Manufacturers…

  18. National Workplace Literacy Program (NWL) at Chinatown Manpower Project, Inc. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Ivy Au

    The Chinatown Manpower Workplace Literacy Program was funded by the United States Department from November 1, 1993 to April 30, 1995. The program consisted of three 18-week cycles, each comprised of 50 hours of instruction of garment-related English and English as a Second Language aimed at upgrading the literacy level of Chinese workers;…

  19. Taking Blame for Other People's Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Jennifer; Madon, Stephanie; Curran, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Taking blame for another person's misconduct may occur at relatively high rates for less serious crimes. The authors examined individual differences and situational factors related to this phenomenon by surveying college students (n = 213) and men enrolled in substance abuse treatment programs (n = 42). Among college students, conscientiousness and delinquency predicted their likelihood of being in a situation in which it was possible to take the blame for another person's misconduct. Situational factors, including the relationship with the perpetrator, the seriousness of the offense, feelings of responsibility for the offense, and differential consequences between the offender and the blame taker, were associated with college students' decisions to take the blame. Among substance abuse treatment participants, individuals who took the blame for another person's misconduct were more extraverted, reported feeling more loyalty toward the true perpetrator, and indicated more incentives to take the blame than individuals who did not take the blame. Links between theories of helping behavior and situational factors that predict blame taking are discussed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Misconduct Policies in High-Impact Biomedical Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier; Hernández, Cristina; Pericas, Juan M.; Doti, Pamela; Marušić, Ana

    2012-01-01

    Background It is not clear which research misconduct policies are adopted by biomedical journals. This study assessed the prevalence and content policies of the most influential biomedical journals on misconduct and procedures for handling and responding to allegations of misconduct. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of misconduct policies of 399 high-impact biomedical journals in 27 biomedical categories of the Journal Citation Reports in December 2011. Journal websites were reviewed for information relevant to misconduct policies. Results Of 399 journals, 140 (35.1%) provided explicit definitions of misconduct. Falsification was explicitly mentioned by 113 (28.3%) journals, fabrication by 104 (26.1%), plagiarism by 224 (56.1%), duplication by 242 (60.7%) and image manipulation by 154 (38.6%). Procedures for responding to misconduct were described in 179 (44.9%) websites, including retraction, (30.8%) and expression of concern (16.3%). Plagiarism-checking services were used by 112 (28.1%) journals. The prevalences of all types of misconduct policies were higher in journals that endorsed any policy from editors’ associations, Office of Research Integrity or professional societies compared to those that did not state adherence to these policy-producing bodies. Elsevier and Wiley-Blackwell had the most journals included (22.6% and 14.8%, respectively), with Wiley journals having greater a prevalence of misconduct definition and policies on falsification, fabrication and expression of concern and Elsevier of plagiarism-checking services. Conclusions Only a third of top-ranking peer-reviewed journals had publicly-available definitions of misconduct and less than a half described procedures for handling allegations of misconduct. As endorsement of international policies from policy-producing bodies was positively associated with implementation of policies and procedures, journals and their publishers should standardize their policies globally in order to

  1. Misconduct policies in high-impact biomedical journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bosch

    Full Text Available It is not clear which research misconduct policies are adopted by biomedical journals. This study assessed the prevalence and content policies of the most influential biomedical journals on misconduct and procedures for handling and responding to allegations of misconduct.We conducted a cross-sectional study of misconduct policies of 399 high-impact biomedical journals in 27 biomedical categories of the Journal Citation Reports in December 2011. Journal websites were reviewed for information relevant to misconduct policies.Of 399 journals, 140 (35.1% provided explicit definitions of misconduct. Falsification was explicitly mentioned by 113 (28.3% journals, fabrication by 104 (26.1%, plagiarism by 224 (56.1%, duplication by 242 (60.7% and image manipulation by 154 (38.6%. Procedures for responding to misconduct were described in 179 (44.9% websites, including retraction, (30.8% and expression of concern (16.3%. Plagiarism-checking services were used by 112 (28.1% journals. The prevalences of all types of misconduct policies were higher in journals that endorsed any policy from editors' associations, Office of Research Integrity or professional societies compared to those that did not state adherence to these policy-producing bodies. Elsevier and Wiley-Blackwell had the most journals included (22.6% and 14.8%, respectively, with Wiley journals having greater a prevalence of misconduct definition and policies on falsification, fabrication and expression of concern and Elsevier of plagiarism-checking services.Only a third of top-ranking peer-reviewed journals had publicly-available definitions of misconduct and less than a half described procedures for handling allegations of misconduct. As endorsement of international policies from policy-producing bodies was positively associated with implementation of policies and procedures, journals and their publishers should standardize their policies globally in order to increase public trust in the

  2. Analysis of Workplace Ergonomics on Employee Performance in PT. Bni (Persero) Tbk. Main Branch Office Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Manggo, Isra

    2014-01-01

    As the worldwide business competition gets tougher every year, companies have to compound their strategies in keeping their best talents within the organization. One of the essential keys in keeping their best employees is through the consideration of ergonomic aspects for the office design. One of the advantages of following ergonomic workplace is that it aids to minimize the harmful effects of carelessness, damage to equipment, or even injury to death to employees. The main objectives of th...

  3. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period.

  4. Workplace Variation in Fatherhood Wage Premiums: Do Formalization and Performance Pay Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Sylvia; Cooke, Lynn

    2018-01-01

    Parenthood contributes substantially to broader gender wage inequality. The intensification of gendered divisions of paid and unpaid work after the birth of a child create unequal constraints and expectations such that, all else equal, mothers earn less than childless women, but fathers earn a wage premium. The fatherhood wage premium, however, varies substantially among men. Analyses of linked workplace-employee data from Canada reveal how organizational context conditions educational, occup...

  5. Enhancement of human performance with developing ergonomic workplace environment and providing work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Tamas Forgacs,; Henrietta Finna

    2010-01-01

    Ergonomy aims at creating a work place that suits the employee’s needs. A well-developed office does not only increase work efficiency but it can also significantly reduce costs. This study researches and reveals the specific personal attributes and the factors of workplace environment, which have an effect on the efficiency of the workforce. We were searching for studies, where the core work wasn’t changed -the increase in work efficiency was reached only by changing the work environment.

  6. A framework for performing workplace hazard and risk analysis: a participative ergonomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morag, Ido; Luria, Gil

    2013-01-01

    Despite the unanimity among researchers about the centrality of workplace analysis based on participatory ergonomics (PE) as a basis for preventive interventions, there is still little agreement about the necessary of a theoretical framework for providing practical guidance. In an effort to develop a conceptual PE framework, the authors, focusing on 20 studies, found five primary dimensions for characterising an analytical structure: (1) extent of workforce involvement; (2) analysis duration; (3) diversity of reporter role types; (4) scope of analysis and (5) supportive information system for analysis management. An ergonomics analysis carried out in a chemical manufacturing plant serves as a case study for evaluating the proposed framework. The study simultaneously demonstrates the five dimensions and evaluates their feasibility. The study showed that managerial leadership was fundamental to the successful implementation of the analysis; that all job holders should participate in analysing their own workplace and simplified reporting methods contributed to a desirable outcome. This paper seeks to clarify the scope of workplace ergonomics analysis by offering a theoretical and structured framework for providing practical advice and guidance. Essential to successfully implementing the analytical framework are managerial involvement, participation of all job holders and simplified reporting methods.

  7. Ethical Misconduct of Business Students: Some New Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Satish P.; Joseph, Jacob; Berry, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines ethical misconduct of 193 business students in four universities in the United States. In addition to self-reported ethical behavior, two dimensions of emotional intelligence (self-emotions appraisal and others emotions appraisal) significantly impacted student misconduct. None of the other dimensions of emotional intelligence…

  8. 32 CFR 776.68 - Reporting professional misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... professional misconduct: (1) A covered attorney having knowledge that another covered attorney has committed a... with the procedures set forth in subpart C of this part. (2) A covered attorney having knowledge that a... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting professional misconduct. 776.68...

  9. Exploring Academic Misconduct: Some Insights into Student Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Academic research and newspaper stories suggest that academic misconduct, including plagiarism, is on the increase. This apparent increase coupled with new internet enterprises selling "pass" papers and customized research are worrying trends. Academic misconduct is deeply harmful in a number of ways by devaluing awards, frustrating…

  10. 75 FR 73084 - Findings of Misconduct in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Misconduct in Science..., former graduate student, Department of Chemistry, CU, engaged in misconduct in science in research funded by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), grant...

  11. Teacher Sexual Misconduct: Grooming Patterns and Female Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James

    2010-01-01

    Educator sexual misconduct has received increasing attention over the past decade. The attention has exposed a number of concerning issues, including a lack of formal research in the area and difficulties in recognizing and prosecuting cases. Public responses to high profile cases of sexual misconduct involving female teachers suggest that…

  12. Investigating the Reliability and Factor Structure of Kalichman's "Survey 2: Research Misconduct" Questionnaire: A Post Hoc Analysis Among Biomedical Doctoral Students in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Søren; Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-10-01

    A precondition for reducing scientific misconduct is evidence about scientists' attitudes. We need reliable survey instruments, and this study investigates the reliability of Kalichman's "Survey 2: research misconduct" questionnaire. The study is a post hoc analysis of data from three surveys among biomedical doctoral students in Scandinavia (2010-2015). We perform reliability analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using a split-sample design as a partial validation. The results indicate that a reliable 13-item scale can be formed (Cronbach's α = .705), and factor analysis indicates that there are four reliable subscales each tapping a different construct: (a) general attitude to misconduct (α = .768), (b) attitude to personal misconduct (α = .784), (c) attitude to whistleblowing (α = .841), and (d) attitude to blameworthiness/punishment (α = .877). A full validation of the questionnaire requires further research. We, nevertheless, hope that the results will facilitate the increased use of the questionnaire in research.

  13. Percived ethical misconduct: a survey of Neuropsychology professionals in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in the practice of neuropsychology in Mexico. Method: One hundred fourteen psychologists answered a survey which assessed perceptions of ethical misconduct in four areas of professional practice in the field of neuropsychology. Results: The area of professional training contained the highest percentage of perception of ethical misconduct, followed by research and publications, clinical care, and professional relationships. Conclusion: The high frequency of ethical misconduct perceived by neuropsychology professionals in Mexico is a cause for concern. The results suggest the need to create and implement a system to make sure that professionals follow the ethics standards required by the profession, and to provide consequences for those who fail to do so. The profession of neuropsychology and training of professionals in the field must be regularized in the country, to reduce the frequency of future ethical misconducts.

  14. 77 FR 44439 - Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ..., and Space Act agreements with external entities, including the private sector; nonprofit and academic..., falsification, or plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reviewing research, or in reporting research results...

  15. 45 CFR 689.5 - Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... regulation. (c) If OIG determines that alleged research misconduct involves potential civil or criminal... FOUNDATION RESEARCH MISCONDUCT § 689.5 Initial NSF handling of misconduct matters. (a) NSF staff who learn of... awardee institution of the alleged research misconduct and encourage it to undertake an inquiry; (2) Defer...

  16. Modeling Academic Dishonesty: The Role of Student Perceptions and Misconduct Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter; Bisping, Timothy O.; Patron, Hilde; Roskelley, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    The authors explore academic misconduct in various forms and consider the role of student perceptions. They gather data from students in introductory economics courses regarding 31 types of misconduct. They estimate the relevance of various determinants of misconduct, acknowledging that they may vary across misconduct type and that students'…

  17. Research integrity and misconduct: a clarification of the concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanyile, T D; Duma, S; Fakude, L P; Mbombo, N; Daniels, F; Sabone, M S

    2006-03-01

    The commercialization of research and the ever changing scientific environment has led scholars to shift the focus from promoting research integrity to regulating misconduct. As a result, most literature explains research integrity in terms of avoidance of misconduct. The purpose of the paper is to stimulate reflection and discussion on research integrity and research misconduct. This article explores the meaning of research integrity and research misconduct, and how research integrity can be promoted to ensure safer research and scholarship. We believe that the discussion can help clarify some hazy areas in the research and publication processes, and appreciate some crucial aspects that they may have seen taken for granted. The purpose of this article is to share with the readers some clarification or analysis of the two concepts namely: research integrity and misconduct. The objectives are: (1) To explore and analyse the concepts of research integrity and research misconduct from the educational or developmental perspective and not the legal perspective as others in literature have done. (2) To stimulate the reflection and discussion on strategies to promote research integrity and thus prevent research misconduct Literature review and concept analysis was undertaken to clarify the two concepts. We argue that the two concepts can be viewed along a continuum, i.e. where research integrity ends, research misconduct starts. We also argue that it is the responsibility of the research community at large to always ensure that the scientific ethics balance is maintained throughout the research process to ensure research integrity and avoid research misconduct. We also argue that research integrity is interlinked with morality while misconduct is interlinked with immorality.

  18. Work-Life Balance Practices, Performance-Related Pay, and Gender Equality in the Workplace: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KATO Takao; KODAMA Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses unique firm-level panel data from Japan and provides new evidence on the possible impact on gender equality in the workplace of human resources management (HRM) practices. Specifically we consider a number of work-life balance (WLB) practices that are developed in part to enhance gender equality as well as performance-related pay (PRP) that is one of the most often discussed changes in the Japanese HRM system in recent years. Our fixed effect estimates indicate that daycare se...

  19. Responsibility for scientific misconduct in collaborative papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesson, Gert; Eriksson, Stefan

    2017-12-08

    This paper concerns the responsibility of co-authors in cases of scientific misconduct. Arguments in research integrity guidelines and in the bioethics literature concerning authorship responsibilities are discussed. It is argued that it is unreasonable to claim that for every case where a research paper is found to be fraudulent, each author is morally responsible for all aspects of that paper, or that one particular author has such a responsibility. It is further argued that it is more constructive to specify what task responsibilities come with different roles in a project and describe what kinds of situations or events call for some kind of action, and what the appropriate actions might be.

  20. Millennials in the Workplace: A Communication Perspective on Millennials’ Organizational Relationships and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaghiani, Kamyab

    2010-01-01

    Stereotypes about Millennials, born between 1979 and 1994, depict them as self-centered, unmotivated, disrespectful, and disloyal, contributing to widespread concern about how communication with Millennials will affect organizations and how they will develop relationships with other organizational members. We review these purported characteristics, as well as Millennials’ more positive qualities—they work well in teams, are motivated to have an impact on their organizations, favor open and frequent communication with their supervisors, and are at ease with communication technologies. We discuss Millennials’ communicated values and expectations and their potential effect on coworkers, as well as how workplace interaction may change Millennials. PMID:20502509

  1. Millennials in the Workplace: A Communication Perspective on Millennials' Organizational Relationships and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Karen K; Sadaghiani, Kamyab

    2010-06-01

    Stereotypes about Millennials, born between 1979 and 1994, depict them as self-centered, unmotivated, disrespectful, and disloyal, contributing to widespread concern about how communication with Millennials will affect organizations and how they will develop relationships with other organizational members. We review these purported characteristics, as well as Millennials' more positive qualities-they work well in teams, are motivated to have an impact on their organizations, favor open and frequent communication with their supervisors, and are at ease with communication technologies. We discuss Millennials' communicated values and expectations and their potential effect on coworkers, as well as how workplace interaction may change Millennials.

  2. Evaluating Workplace Education Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Don

    The Workplace Project (WPP) at Alpena Community College, in Michigan, uses a range of assessment instruments to measure learner performance in workplace classes. The Test of Adult Basic Education is administered at the beginning of the course to establish a baseline standardized test score, and again at the end of course to measure gains. Also,…

  3. Work climate and the mediating role of workplace bullying related to job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability: A study among hospital nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Espen; Bjaalid, Gunhild; Mikkelsen, Aslaug

    2017-11-01

    To increase understanding of workplace bullying and its relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses. Examine a proposed bullying model including both job resource and job demands, as well as nurse outcomes reflected in job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability. Workplace bullying has been identified as some of the most damaging mechanisms in workplace settings. It is important to increase understanding of workplace bullying in relation to work climate and different outcomes among nurses. This study adopted a cross-sectional web based survey design. A sample of 2946 Registered Nurses from four public Norwegian hospitals were collected during October 2014. We analysed data using descriptive statistics, correlations, Cronbach's alpa, confirmatory factor analyses, and structural equation modelling. The majority of work climate characteristics confirmed to influence workplace bullying, and additionally had direct influence on nurse outcomes; job performance, job satisfaction, and work ability. Bullying had a mediational role between most of the work climate dimensions and nurse outcomes. This study increases our understanding of organizational antecedent of bullying among nurses. Workplace bullying among nurses functions as a mediator between the majority of work climate dimensions and outcomes related to job satisfaction and work ability. Strategies to reduce bullying should look at the study finding and specifically job resources and job demands that influence bullying and nurse outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Corruption and misconduct: A behavioural reflection from investigative reports into local government

    OpenAIRE

    Aquinas J. Purcell

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers a local government perspective on the behavioural factors which can be the precursors for corruption and misconduct and those factors which can prevent corruption and misconduct. The investigation centred on corruption and misconduct evidenced from local government investigation reports in Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. A corruption and misconduct taxonomy was developed and the role of the audit committee in the oversight of corruption and misconduct allegati...

  5. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...

  6. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  7. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy) and decision environment management (DEM). Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role) and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  8. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy and decision environment management (DEM. Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  9. European Universities' Guidance on Research Integrity and Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert Bonn, Noémie; Godecharle, Simon; Dierickx, Kris

    2017-02-01

    Research integrity is imperative to good science. Nonetheless, many countries and institutions develop their own integrity guidance, thereby risking incompatibilities with guidance of collaborating institutions. We retrieved guidance for academic integrity and misconduct of 18 universities from 10 European countries and investigated accessibility, general content, principles endorsed, and definitions of misconduct. Accessibility and content differ substantially between institutions. There are general trends of common principles of integrity and definitions of misconduct, yet differences remain. Parallel with previous research, we distinguish different approaches in integrity guidance; one emphasizes broad values of integrity, and the other details negative behaviors of misconduct. We propose that a balance between both approaches is necessary to preserve trust, meaning, and realism of guidance on research integrity.

  10. Moral Credentialing and the Rationalization of Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan P.; Tamborski, Michael; Wang, Xiaoqian; Barnes, Collin D.; Mumford, Michael D.; Connelly, Shane; Devenport, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies lead to the paradoxical conclusion that the act of affirming one’s egalitarian or pro-social values and virtues might subsequently facilitate prejudiced or self-serving behavior, an effect previously referred to as “moral credentialing.” The present study extends this paradox to the domain of academic misconduct and investigates the hypothesis that such an effect might be limited by the extent to which misbehavior is rationalizable. Using a paradigm designed to investigate deliberative and rationalized forms of cheating (von Hippel, Lakin, & Shakarchi, 2005), we found that when participants had credentialed themselves (versus a non-close acquaintance) via a set of hypothetical moral dilemmas, they were more likely to cheat on a subsequent math task, but only if cheating was highly rationalizable. When cheating was difficult to rationalize, moral credentialing had almost no impact on cheating. PMID:21503267

  11. Linking Workplace Health Promotion Best Practices and Organizational Financial Performance: Tracking Market Performance of Companies With Highest Scores on the HERO Scorecard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmeier, Jessica; Fabius, Ray; Flynn, Jennifer P; Noeldner, Steven P; Fabius, Dan; Goetzel, Ron Z; Anderson, David R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the stock performance of publicly traded companies that received high scores on the HERO Employee Health Management Best Practices Scorecard in Collaboration with Mercer© based on their implementation of evidence-based workplace health promotion practices. A portfolio of companies that received high scores in a corporate health and wellness self-assessment was simulated based on past market performance and compared with past performance of companies represented on the Standard and Poor's (S&P) 500 Index. Stock values for a portfolio of companies that received high scores in a corporate health and wellness self-assessment appreciated by 235% compared with the S&P 500 Index appreciation of 159% over a 6-year simulation period. Robust investment in workforce health and well-being appears to be one of multiple practices pursued by high-performing, well-managed companies.

  12. Research misconduct definitions adopted by U.S. research institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Neal, Talicia; Raymond, Austin; Kissling, Grace E

    2015-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. federal government adopted a uniform definition of research misconduct as fabrication, falsification, or plagiarism (FFP), which became effective in 2001. Institutions must apply this definition of misconduct to federally-funded research to receive funding. While institutions are free to adopt definitions of misconduct that go beyond the federal standard, it is not known how many do. We analyzed misconduct policies from 183 U.S. research institutions and coded them according to thirteen different types of behavior mentioned in the misconduct definition. We also obtained data on the institution's total research funding and public vs. private status, and the year it adopted the definition. We found that more than half (59%) of the institutions in our sample had misconduct policies that went beyond the federal standard. Other than FFP, the most common behaviors included in definitions were "other serious deviations" (45.4%), "significant or material violations of regulations" (23.0%), "misuse of confidential information" (15.8%), "misconduct related to misconduct" (14.8%), "unethical authorship other than plagiarism" (14.2%), "other deception involving data manipulation" (13.1%), and "misappropriation of property/theft" (10.4%). Significantly more definitions adopted in 2001 or later went beyond the federal standard than those adopted before 2001 (73.2% vs. 26.8%), and significantly more definitions adopted by institutions in the lower quartile of total research funding went beyond the federal standard than those adopted by institutions in the upper quartiles. Public vs. private status was not significantly associated with going beyond the federal standard.

  13. Improving biomedical journals' ethical policies: the case of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Scientific journals may incur scientific error if articles are tainted by research misconduct. While some journals' ethical policies, especially those on conflicts of interest, have improved over recent years, with some adopting a uniform approach, only around half of biomedical journals, principally those with higher impact factors, currently have formal misconduct policies, mainly for handling allegations. Worryingly, since a response to allegations would reasonably require an a priori definition, far fewer journals have publicly available definitions of misconduct. While some journals and editors' associations have taken significant steps to prevent and detect misconduct and respond to allegations, the content, visibility of and access to these policies varies considerably. In addition, while the lack of misconduct policies may prompt and maintain a de novo approach for journals, potentially causing stress, publication delays and even legal disputes, the lack of uniformity may be a matter of contention for research stakeholders such as editors, authors and their institutions, and publishers. Although each case may need an individual approach, I argue that posting highly visible, readily accessible, comprehensive, consistent misconduct policies could prevent the publication of fraudulent papers, increase the number of retractions of already published papers and, perhaps, reduce research misconduct. Although legally problematic, a concerted approach, with sharing of information between editors, which is clearly explained in journal websites, could also help. Ideally, journals, editors' associations, and publishers should seek consistency and homogenise misconduct policies to maintain public confidence in the integrity of biomedical research publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Using design to drive organizational performance and innovation in the corporate workplace: implications for interprofessional environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Andrew; Bacevice, Peter Anthony

    2013-09-01

    Learning and working are increasingly inseparable social processes characterized by a mix of routine and non-routine activities, which are meant to sustain an optimal balance of creative risk taking, idea exploration and development of professional mastery. Learning and working are embedded in broader social institutions such as universities, academic medical centers, professional organizations and business firms. The future of learning and working is witnessing a blurring of these institutional boundaries, and consequently, a spanning of disciplines and professions that have traditionally assimilated and oriented people around knowledge domains. Learning and working practices are increasingly less defined by bureaucratic controls and are, instead, more collaborative, fluid and interdisciplinary. One of the most tangible manifestations of this shift is in the spaces and places where learning and working activities happen and where people interact and organize. This article explores these learning and working paradigm shifts by discussing recent developments in the corporate workplace and exploring how such changes inform the future of interprofessional education.

  15. Scientific misconduct and research integrity for the bench scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, C B

    2000-09-01

    This paper describes the role of the Office of Research Integrity (ORI), a component of the Public Health Service (PHS), in defining scientific misconduct in research supported with PHS funds and in establishing standards for responding to allegations of misconduct. The principal methods by which ORI exercises its responsibilities in this area are defining what types of behaviors undertaken by research investigators constitute misconduct, overseeing institutional efforts to investigate and report misconduct, and recommending to the Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) PHS administrative actions when misconduct is identified. ORI also takes affirmative steps to promote research integrity through education, training, and other initiatives. The role of the research institution in responding to misconduct and promoting research integrity is complementary and overlapping with ORI's efforts but, as the employer of research investigators and front-line manager of the research, the institution has a greater opportunity to promote the highest standards of integrity in the day-to-day conduct of research. Finally, legal precedent established through civil litigation has played an important role in defining the standards that apply in determining when a breach of research integrity has occurred.

  16. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  17. Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Akella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.

  18. Perceptions of Deviant Behaviour in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Carvalho Wilks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee misconduct in the workplace is relatively common and may be counterproductivein social and material terms. To identify which undesirable behavioursare considered acceptable is the first step to develop ways to reducedeviance in organizational settings. The purpose of this study was to examinethe perceived acceptability of deviant behaviour in the workplace, and to analysethe relation between the degree of such acceptance with organizationalcommitment, job satisfaction, and organizational tenure. Data was obtainedfrom 223 adults employed full-time. Results suggest a positive relationshipbetween the degree of acceptability of certain forms of deviant behaviour andorganizational commitment, but not with job satisfaction. They further indicatethat tenure was the factor having the most impact on the acceptanceof deviant behaviours. Implications of the findings for the management arediscussed.

  19. Liquid Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofma, Christian Casper; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    workplaces we are going from a more collective to individual feeling of presence in the workplace. The first contribution is to close the knowledge gap that exists in the academic literature on IVEs in a work context. Second, practitioners will have a better understanding of the changes IVEs have...

  20. Performing Gender in the Workplace: Gender Socialization, Power, and Identity among Women Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Organizational cultures shape and reinforce socially appropriate roles for men and women. Drawing on a performativity framework, which assumes that gender is socially constructed through gendered "performances," this study employs interviews with and observations of six women faculty members to examine how dominant discourses define and maintain…

  1. Performance measurement of workplace change : A comparative analysis of data from Thailand, The Netherlands and Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riratanaphong, C.; van der Voordt, Theo; van der Voordt, DJM; Jensen, PA; Coenen, C

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A) to record Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that are used in performance measurementin practice; B) to investigate the influence of the work environment on employee satisfaction and perceived productivity, and to explore the impact of culture on employees’ appraisal of their work

  2. Dealing with professional misconduct by colleagues in home care: a survey among nursing staff.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, E.E.M.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Francke, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background<\\strong> Professional misconduct in healthcare, a (generally) lasting situation in which patients are at risk or actually harmed, can jeopardise the health and well-being of patients and the quality of teamwork. Two types of professional misconduct can be distinguished: misconduct

  3. Dealing with professional misconduct by colleagues in home care : A nationwide survey among nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurits, Erica E M; de Veer, Anke J E; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Francke, Anneke L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professional misconduct in healthcare, a (generally) lasting situation in which patients are at risk or actually harmed, can jeopardise the health and well-being of patients and the quality of teamwork. Two types of professional misconduct can be distinguished: misconduct associated with

  4. Loving yourself abundantly: relationship of the narcissistic personality to self- and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Timothy A; LePine, Jeffery A; Rich, Bruce L

    2006-07-01

    The authors report results from 2 studies assessing the extent to which narcissism is related to self- and other ratings of leadership, workplace deviance, and task and contextual performance. Study 1 results revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced self-ratings of leadership, even when controlling for the Big Five traits. Study 2 results also revealed that narcissism was related to enhanced leadership self-perceptions; indeed, whereas narcissism was significantly positively correlated with self-ratings of leadership, it was significantly negatively related to other ratings of leadership. Study 2 also revealed that narcissism was related to more favorable self-ratings of workplace deviance and contextual performance compared to other (supervisor) ratings. Finally, as hypothesized, narcissism was more strongly negatively related to contextual performance than to task performance. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Workplace Incivility and Conflict Management Styles: Predicting Job Performance, Organizational Commitment and Turnover Intent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.; Trudel, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relations among conflict management styles and target and instigator incivility and job performance, organizational commitment, and turnover intent. Data from 270 employees suggested that experiencing and instigating uncivil behavior occurred frequently. Using an integrative conflict management style…

  6. High-performance workplace practices in nursing homes: an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Christine E

    2014-02-01

    To develop implications for research, practice and policy, selected economics and human resources management research literature was reviewed to compare and contrast nursing home culture change work practices with high-performance human resource management systems in other industries. The organization of nursing home work under culture change has much in common with high-performance work systems, which are characterized by increased autonomy for front-line workers, self-managed teams, flattened supervisory hierarchy, and the aspiration that workers use specific knowledge gained on the job to enhance quality and customization. However, successful high-performance work systems also entail intensive recruitment, screening, and on-going training of workers, and compensation that supports selective hiring and worker commitment; these features are not usual in the nursing home sector. Thus despite many parallels with high-performance work systems, culture change work systems are missing essential elements: those that require higher compensation. If purchasers, including public payers, were willing to pay for customized, resident-centered care, productivity gains could be shared with workers, and the nursing home sector could move from a low-road to a high-road employment system.

  7. Performance evaluation of mobile downflow booths for reducing airborne particles in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Hocker, Braden; Steltz, Austin E; Kremer, John; Feng, H Amy

    2017-11-01

    Compared to other common control measures, the downflow booth is a costly engineering control used to contain airborne dust or particles. The downflow booth provides unidirectional filtered airflow from the ceiling, entraining released particles away from the workers' breathing zone, and delivers contained airflow to a lower level exhaust for removing particulates by filtering media. In this study, we designed and built a mobile downflow booth that is capable of quick assembly and easy size change to provide greater flexibility and particle control for various manufacturing processes or tasks. An experimental study was conducted to thoroughly evaluate the control performance of downflow booths used for removing airborne particles generated by the transfer of powdered lactose between two containers. Statistical analysis compared particle reduction ratios obtained from various test conditions including booth size (short, regular, or extended), supply air velocity (0.41 and 0.51 m/s or 80 and 100 feet per minute, fpm), powder transfer location (near or far from the booth exhaust), and inclusion or exclusion of curtains at the booth entrance. Our study results show that only short-depth downflow booths failed to protect the worker performing powder transfer far from the booth exhausts. Statistical analysis shows that better control performance can be obtained with supply air velocity of 0.51 m/s (100 fpm) than with 0.41 m/s (80 fpm) and that use of curtains for downflow booths did not improve their control performance.

  8. Educator Sexual Misconduct and Texas Educator Discipline Database Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Catherine E; Thompson, David P

    2018-05-24

    The purpose of this research is to describe Texas educator sexual misconduct (ESM) by examining 8 years of sanctions issued to educators (N = 1415) for either sexual misconduct or inappropriate relationships with students or minors. We first examine Texas ESM from the perspective of quality database construction and then describe the demographic characteristics of educators sanctioned for ESM between 2008 and 2016. Differences in the demographic characteristics of educators sanctioned for ESM vary according to the definition of ESM employed by the state education agency. Younger and early career educators are more likely to engage in inappropriate relationships with students or minors, whereas older and later-career teachers are more likely to engage in sexual misconduct as that term is defined by the state education agency. Over one-third of educators sanctioned for ESM were either new to the profession or new to their school district when sanctioned. Recommendations are offered for database construction, policy, and practice.

  9. [How to avoid research misconduct - recommendations for surgeons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitak-Arnnop, P; Schouman, T; Bertrand, J-C; Hervé, C

    2008-01-01

    Research misconduct is defined by the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh as any behaviour by a researcher, whether intentional or not, that fails to scrupulously respect high scientific and ethical standards. Various types of research misconduct include fabrication or falsification of data, plagiarism, problematic data presentation or analysis, failure to obtain ethical approval by a research ethics committee or to obtain the subject's informed consent, inappropriate claims of authorship, duplicated publication, and undisclosed conflicts of interest. These can result in patient injury, deterioration of the patient-physician relationship, loss of public trust in biomedical research, as well as pollution/degradation of the medical literature. Surgical research malfeasance has been underreported, and no practical guidelines for good research and publication have appeared to date in French surgical journals. In an attempt to uphold the scientific integrity of our profession, we discuss research misconduct and emphasise preventive measures and considerations for surgeons.

  10. Adaptability in the workplace: development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulakos, E D; Arad, S; Donovan, M A; Plamondon, K E

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a taxonomy of adaptive job performance and examine the implications of this taxonomy for understanding, predicting, and training adaptive behavior in work settings. Two studies were conducted to address this issue. In Study 1, over 1,000 critical incidents from 21 different jobs were content analyzed to identify an 8-dimension taxonomy of adaptive performance. Study 2 reports the development and administration of an instrument, the Job Adaptability Inventory, that was used to empirically examine the proposed taxonomy in 24 different jobs. Exploratory factor analyses using data from 1,619 respondents supported the proposed 8-dimension taxonomy from Study 1. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses on the remainder of the sample (n = 1,715) indicated a good fit for the 8-factor model. Results and implications are discussed.

  11. Quality Management, Job-related Contentment and Performance: an empirical analysis of British workplaces

    OpenAIRE

    de Menezes, L. M.; Wood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This article investigates whether a quality management philosophy underlies the joint use of operations and human resource management practices, and the relationships with job-related contentment and performance.\\ud \\ud Design/ methodology/approach - Data from an economy-wide survey is used to test hypotheses via latent variable analyses (latent trait and latent class models) and structural equation models. The sensitivity of each path is then assessed using regression models.\\ud \\u...

  12. The joint effects of personality and workplace social exchange relationships in predicting task performance and citizenship performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Dishan; Van Dyne, Linn

    2007-09-01

    This field study examines the joint effects of social exchange relationships at work (leader-member exchange and team-member exchange) and employee personality (conscientiousness and agreeableness) in predicting task performance and citizenship performance. Consistent with trait activation theory, matched data on 230 employees, their coworkers, and their supervisors demonstrated interactions in which high quality social exchange relationships weakened the positive relationships between personality and performance. Results demonstrate the benefits of consonant predictions in which predictors and outcomes are matched on the basis of specific targets. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. (c) 2007 APA.

  13. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regular employee meetings. What protections does OSHA offer? The Occupational Safety and Health Act’s ( OSH Act ) General Duty Clause requires employers to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all workers covered by the OSH Act . ...

  14. The visibility of scientific misconduct: A review of the literature on retracted journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmann, Felicitas; Graf, Verena; Schmidt, Marion; Reinhart, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Retractions of scientific articles are becoming the most relevant institution for making sense of scientific misconduct. An increasing number of retracted articles, mainly attributed to misconduct, is currently providing a new empirical basis for research about scientific misconduct. This article reviews the relevant research literature from an interdisciplinary context. Furthermore, the results from these studies are contextualized sociologically by asking how scientific misconduct is made visible through retractions. This study treats retractions as an emerging institution that renders scientific misconduct visible, thus, following up on the sociology of deviance and its focus on visibility. The article shows that retractions, by highlighting individual cases of misconduct and general policies for preventing misconduct while obscuring the actors and processes through which retractions are effected, produce highly fragmented patterns of visibility. These patterns resemble the bifurcation in current justice systems.

  15. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Aromaa, Mikko; Koponen, Ismo K.; Fransman, Wouter; Jensen, Keld A.; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10 6 cm −3 . During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO 2 or Cu x O y nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10 6 to 40 × 10 6 cm −3 , and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm −3 . However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm −3 . The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10 6 , which is more than 40 × 10 3 times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly

  16. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, Antti J., E-mail: jok@nrcwe.dk [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Aromaa, Mikko [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Koponen, Ismo K. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Fransman, Wouter [TNO (Netherlands); Jensen, Keld A. [National Research Centre for the Working Environment (Denmark); Mäkelä, Jyrki M. [Tampere University of Technology, Department of Physics (Finland); Hämeri, Kaarle J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2015-04-15

    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}. During such conditions, it is essential that the occupants in the room wear highly reliable high-performance respirators to prevent inhalation exposure. Here we have studied the in-use program protection factor (PPF) of loose-fitting powered air purifying respirators, while workers were coating components with TiO{sub 2} or Cu{sub x}O{sub y} nanoparticles under a hood using a liquid flame spray process. The PPF was measured using condensation particle counters, an electrical low pressure impactor, and diffusion chargers. The room particle concentrations varied from 4 × 10{sup 6} to 40 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −3}, and the count median aerodynamic diameter ranged from 32 to 180 nm. Concentrations inside the respirator varied from 0.7 to 7.2 cm{sup −3}. However, on average, tidal breathing was assumed to increase the respirator concentration by 2.3 cm{sup −3}. The derived PPF exceeded 1.1 × 10{sup 6}, which is more than 40 × 10{sup 3} times the respirator assigned protection factor. We were unable to measure clear differences in the PPF of respirators with old and new filters, among two male and one female user, or assess most penetrating particle size. This study shows that the loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator provides very efficient protection against nanoparticle inhalation exposure if used properly.

  17. Competence and the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, Nico W.; Elliot, Andrew J.; Dweck, Carol S.; Yeager, David S.

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this chapter on competence at the workplace is on workers’ willingness to perform, which is defined as individuals’ psychological characteristics that affect the degree to which they are inclined to perform their tasks. People may be motivated by either the positive, appetitive

  18. Effect of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace (ACTIVE OFFICE on sitting time, performance and physiological parameters: protocol for a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Schwartz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged sitting is ubiquitous in modern society and linked to several diseases. Height-adjustable desks are being used to decrease worksite based sitting time (ST. Single-desk sit-to-stand workplaces exhibit small ST reduction potential and short-term loss in performance. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of an ACTIVE OFFICE trial. Design The study was a 1-year three-arm, randomized controlled trial in 18 healthy Austrian office workers. Allocation was done via a regional health insurance, with data collection during Jan 2014 – March 2015. Participants were allocated to either an intervention or control group. Intervention group subjects were provided with traditional or two-desk sit-to-stand workstations in either the first or the second half of the study, while control subjects did not experience any changes during the whole study duration. Sitting time and physical activity (IPAQ-long, cognitive performance (text editing task, Stroop-test, d2R test of attention, workload perception (NASA-TLX and physiological parameters (salivary cortisol, heartrate variability and body weight were measured pre- and post-intervention (23 weeks after baseline for intervention and control periods. Postural changes and sitting/standing time (software logger were recorded at the workplace for the whole intervention period. Discussion This study evaluates the effects of a novel two-desk sit-to-stand workplace on sitting time, physical parameters and work performance of healthy office based workers. If the intervention proves effective, it has a great potential to be implemented in regular workplaces to reduce diseases related to prolonged sitting. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02825303 , July 2016 (retrospectively registered.

  19. 48 CFR 1252.235-70 - Research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research misconduct. 1252.235-70 Section 1252.235-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CLAUSES... recommendations from the investigation phase and determining appropriate corrective actions. Complainant is the...

  20. 48 CFR 952.235-71 - Research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research misconduct. 952.235-71 Section 952.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... recommendations made to the Contractor's adjudicating official, the adjudicating official's decision and...

  1. 38 CFR 3.301 - Line of duty and misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the point of addiction will be considered willful misconduct. Where drugs are used to enjoy or... for therapeutic purposes or where use of drugs or addiction thereto, results from a service-connected... ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Ratings and Evaluations; Basic...

  2. Building a Culture of Respect across Genders: Eliminating Sexual Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Stewart E.; Dranger, Paula N.

    2018-01-01

    Clinical staff members at virtually all college counseling centers provide therapy for victims of sexual misconduct experiences such as sexual assault, sexual harassment, relationship violence, and stalking. A number of college counseling center counselors are also involved in primary, secondary, and tertiary sexual assault prevention efforts.…

  3. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Academic Misconduct among Nursing Students: A Multivariate Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Larry G.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Using Maslow's Need-Goal Motivation Model, data from 190 nursing students showed moderately high correlation between perceptions of peers' maturity, commitment, and neutralizing attitude and perceptions of peers' engagement in academic misconduct. Neutralization (rationalizing behavior) was the strongest predictor. (SK)

  5. Publication misconduct and plagiarism retractions: a systematic, retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stretton, Serina; Bramich, Narelle J; Keys, Janelle R; Monk, Julie A; Ely, Julie A; Haley, Cassandra; Woolley, Mark J; Woolley, Karen L

    2012-10-01

    To investigate whether plagiarism is more prevalent in publications retracted from the medical literature when first authors are affiliated with lower-income countries versus higher-income countries. Secondary objectives included investigating other factors associated with plagiarism (e.g., national language of the first author's country affiliation, publication type, journal ranking). Systematic, controlled, retrospective, bibliometric study. Retracted publications dataset in MEDLINE (search filters: English, human, January 1966-February 2008). Retracted misconduct publications were classified according to the first author's country affiliation, country income level, and country national language, publication type, and ranking of the publishing journal. Standardised definitions and data collection tools were used; data were analysed (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence limits [CL], chi-squared tests) by an independent academic statistician. Of the 213 retracted misconduct publications, 41.8% (89/213) were retracted for plagiarism, 52.1% (111/213) for falsification/fabrication, 2.3% (5/213) for author disputes, 2.3% (5/213) for ethical issues, and 1.4% (3/213) for unknown reasons. The OR (95% CL) of plagiarism retractions (other misconduct retractions as reference) were higher (P 1 retraction) with publications retracted for plagiarism (11.5%, 9/78) than other types of misconduct (28.9%, 24/83). This is the first study to demonstrate that publications retracted for plagiarism are significantly associated with first authors affiliated with lower-income countries. These findings have implications for developing appropriate evidence-based strategies and allocation of resources to help mitigate plagiarism misconduct.

  6. Workplace Counselling: Implications For Enhanced Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It further presents a model of workplace counseling and concludes that increase in work related trauma and stress, accidents at the workplace, harassment and bullying, absenteeism, low productivity/poor performance and labour turnover will be nipped in the bud if counseling service is provided at the workplace.

  7. Workplace suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.

    2009-01-01

    The adaptation of workplaces can be defined as an integral service aimed at adapting all work areas to current legislation. At present, these activities involve the restoration of the areas and equipment in all the disciplines, achieving substantial improvements in terms of quality, safety, radiation protection and maintenance. The integral workplace adaptation service has been implemented in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power plant for more than five years and has succeeded in adapting a third of all the cubicles to current legislation. The goal is to continue with these activities until adaption of 100% of the plant cubicles is completed. (Author)

  8. The workplace window view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lottrup, Lene Birgitte Poulsen; Stigsdotter, Ulrika K.; Meilby, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Office workers’ job satisfaction and ability to work are two important factors for the viability and competitiveness of most companies, and existing studies in contexts other than workplaces show relationships between a view of natural elements and, for example, student performance...... satisfaction, and that high view satisfaction was related to high work ability and high job satisfaction. Furthermore, the results indicated that job satisfaction mediated the effect of view satisfaction on work ability. These findings show that a view of a green outdoor environment at the workplace can...... be an important asset in workforce work ability and job satisfaction....

  9. Changing Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on changing workplaces. "Women Entrepreneurs: Maintaining Business Success through Human Resource Development" (Dominic G. Kamau , Gary N. McLean, Alexander Ardishvili) investigates contributions of human resource development (HRD) to business success and reports the following: (1) women can be…

  10. Changing Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the changing workplace and its relationship to human resource development (HRD). In "Globalization, Immigration and Quality of Life Dynamics for Reverse Brain Drains" (Ben-Chieh Liu, Maw Lin Lee, Hau-Lien), the factors responsible for the brain drain from Taiwan to the United States…

  11. Performance of a PADC personal neutron dosemeter at simulated and real workplace fields of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiechtner, A.; Boschung, M.; Wernli, C.

    2007-01-01

    In the framework of the EVIDOS (Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields) project, funded by the EC, measurements with PADC personal neutron dosemeters were carried out at several workplace fields of the nuclear industry and at simulated workplace fields. The measured personal neutron dose equivalents of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are compared with values that were assessed within the EVIDOS project by other partners. The detection limits for different spectra types are given. In cases were the neutron dose was too low to be measured by the PADC personal neutron dosemeter, the response is estimated by convoluting the responses to monoenergetic neutrons with the dose energy distribution measured within EVIDOS. The advantages and limitations of the PADC personal neutron dosemeter are discussed. (authors)

  12. Peer Groups as a Context for School Misconduct: The Moderating Role of Group Interactional Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy; Zarbatany, Lynne; Chen, Xinyin; Kinal, Megan; Boyko, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Peer group interactional style was examined as a moderator of the relation between peer group school misconduct and group members' school misconduct. Participants were 705 students (M[subscript age] = 11.59 years, SD = 1.37) in 148 peer groups. Children reported on their school misconduct in fall and spring. In the winter, group members were…

  13. Workplace incivility: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures.

  14. 45 CFR 630.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 630.635 Section 630.635... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  15. 29 CFR 1472.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1472.635 Section 1472.635 Labor... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1472.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at...

  16. 14 CFR 1260.38 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1260.38 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.38 Drug-free workplace. Drug-Free Workplace October 2000 (a) Definitions... use of any controlled substance. Drug-free workplace means the site(s) for the performance of work...

  17. 2 CFR 182.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 182.635 Section 182.635... Reserved GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 182.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection...

  18. 38 CFR 48.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 48...) GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 48.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  19. 15 CFR 29.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 29.635 Section 29... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 29.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at which...

  20. 13 CFR 147.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 147.635... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 147.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at which...

  1. 40 CFR 36.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 36.635 Section 36... GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 36.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  2. 24 CFR 21.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug-free workplace. 21.635 Section... Development GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 21.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific...

  3. 22 CFR 312.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 312.635 Section 312.635 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  4. 36 CFR 1212.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1212.635... RULES GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1212.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection...

  5. 32 CFR 26.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 26.635 Section 26.635... REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 26.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection...

  6. 22 CFR 1008.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Drug-free workplace. 1008.635 Section 1008.635 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1008.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance...

  7. 7 CFR 3021.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 3021.635 Section 3021.635..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 3021.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done...

  8. 45 CFR 1155.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1155.635 Section 1155.635... HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1155.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance...

  9. 29 CFR 94.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drug-free workplace. 94.635 Section 94.635 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in...

  10. 14 CFR 1267.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug-free workplace. 1267.635 Section 1267... FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1267.635 Drug-free workplace. Drug-free workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at which...

  11. Whistleblowing and scientific misconduct: renewing legal and virtue ethics foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Jefferys, Susannah

    2007-09-01

    Whistleblowing in relation to scientific research misconduct, despite the benefits of increased transparency and accountability it often has brought to society and the discipline of science itself, remains generally regarded as a pariah activity by many of the most influential relevant organizations. The motivations of whistleblowers and those supporting them continued to be questioned and their actions criticised by colleagues and management, despite statutory protections for reasonable disclosures appropriately made in good faith and for the public interest. One reason for this paradoxical position, explored here, is that whistle blowing concerning scientific misconduct lacks the policy support customarily derived from firm bioethical and jurisprudential foundations. Recommendations are made for altering this situation in the public interest.

  12. When accepting a gift can be professional misconduct and theft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Richard

    2016-07-01

    Gifts are often given as tokens of gratitude by grateful patients to district nurses. However, there are circumstances where the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC), as the professional regulator, and the courts, have held that accepting gifts, large or small, from vulnerable adults is dishonest and amounts to professional misconduct and even theft. Richard Griffith discusses the circumstances where a district nurse who accepts a gift can face a fitness-to-practise investigation and an allegation of theft.

  13. Perception of ethical misconduct by neuropsychology professionals in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabarrieta-Landa, Laiene; Romero, Alfonso Caracuel; Panyavin, Ivan; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of perceived ethical misconduct in clinical practice, teaching, and research in the field of neuropsychology in Spain. Two hundred and fifteen self-identified mental health professionals who engage in neuropsychology practice in Spain completed an online survey from July to December of 2013. In the ethics section of the survey, participants were asked to identify if neuropsychologists they know who work in their country engaged in specific kinds of ethical misconduct. 41% reported receiving formal training in professional ethics. The clinical findings are as follows. The highest rate of perceived misconduct was found in the area of professional training and expertise, with an average of 40.7%, followed by research/publications (25.6%), clinical care (23.9%), and professional relationships (8.8%). Specifically, regarding training, over half of respondents (56.7%) know professionals who claim themselves to be neuropsychologists, even though they lack proper training or expertise and 46.0% know professionals in the field who do not have adequate training for experience to be working in the field. Regarding research/publications, 41.9% of respondents know professionals who appear as authors on publications where they have not made a significant contribution. Regarding clinical care, over one third of respondents endorse knowing professionals who (1) provide results of neuropsychological evaluations in such a way that patients or other professionals are not likely to understand (37.2%) and (2) do not have the skills or training to work with patients who are culturally different from them (34.9%). Less than half of survey respondents reported receiving ethics training. It is possible that introducing more or improved ethics courses into pre-graduate and/or graduate school curriculums, and/or requiring continuing ethics education certification may reduce perceived ethical misconduct among neuropsychological professionals in Spain.

  14. Personal goals, group performance and ‘social’ networks: participants’ negotiation of virtual and embodied relationships in the ‘Workplace Challenge’ physical activity programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Carter, Alice; Middleton, Geoff

    2016-01-01

    -structured interviews were conducted with a total of seventeen participants recruited from one public and one private sector workplace and from a sample of participants registered as individuals. Two programme planners employed by the CSP also took part. A figurational framework was utilised to investigate participants...... in professional I–We identities, whereas virtual networks sometimes highlighted participants’ isolation. Moreover, emphasis upon competition within and between teams caused some participants to question their performance. Often, competition motivated engagement. For less active participants, constant comparison...

  15. Workshop III: Improving the Workplace Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gledhill, Igle; Butcher, Gillian

    2015-12-01

    Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop of the 5th IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics, participants heard about initiatives taking place in Canada, the UK, Japan, and India to improve the workplace environment and shared good practices from around the world. Some of the less tangible aspects of the workplace environment, such as unconscious bias and accumulation of advantage and disadvantage, were explored.

  16. Is Playing in the Pit Really the Pits?: Pain, Strength, Music Performance Anxiety, and Workplace Satisfaction in Professional Musicians in Stage, Pit, and Combined Stage/Pit Orchestras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Dianna T; Driscoll, Tim; Ackermann, Bronwen J

    2016-03-01

    Typically, Australian orchestral musicians perform on stage, in an orchestra pit, or in a combination of both workplaces. This study explored a range of physical and mental health indicators in musicians who played in these different orchestra types to ascertain whether orchestra environment was a risk factor affecting musician wellbeing. Participants comprised 380 full-time orchestral musicians from the eight major state orchestras in Australia comprised of two dedicated pit orchestras, three stage-only symphonic orchestras, and three mixed stage/pit orchestras. Participants completed a physical assessment and a range of self-report measures assessing performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMD), physical characteristics including strength and perceived exertion, and psychological health, including music performance anxiety (MPA), workplace satisfaction, and bullying. Physical characteristics and performance-related musculoskeletal profiles were similar for most factors on the detailed survey completed by orchestra members. The exceptions were that pit musicians demonstrated greater shoulder and elbow strength, while mixed-workload orchestra musicians had greater flexibility Significantly more exertion was reported by pit musicians when rehearsing and performing. Stage/pit musicians reported less physical exertion when performing in the pit compared with performing on stage. Severity of MPA was significantly greater in pit musicians than mixed orchestra musicians. Pit musicians also reported more frequent bullying and lower job satisfaction compared with stage musicians. There were few differences in the objective physical measures between musicians in the different orchestra types. However, pit musicians appear more psychologically vulnerable and less satisfied with their work than musicians from the other two orchestra types. The physical and psychological characteristics of musicians who perform in different orchestra types have not been adequately

  17. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  18. Associations between psychological distress, workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates associations between psychological distress and workplace accidents, workplace failures and workplace successes. The Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was distributed to employees of 58 large employers. A total of 60,556 full-time employees were eligible for analysis. The HPQ probed whether the respondent had, in the past 30-days, a workplace accident, success or failure ("yes" or "no"). Psychological distress was quantified using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale and categorised into low, moderate and high psychological distress. Three binomial logistic regressions were performed with the dependent variables being workplace accident, success or failure. Covariates in the models were K6 category, gender, age, marital status, education level, job category, physical health and employment sector. Accounting for all other variables, moderate and high psychological distress significantly (P work failures and decrease the OR of workplace successes at similar levels. As the prevalence of moderate psychological distress is approximately double that of high psychological distress moderate distress consequentially has a greater workplace impact.

  19. Health promotion in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiv...

  20. Visual ergonomics in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshel, Jeffrey R

    2007-10-01

    This article provides information about visual function and its role in workplace productivity. By understanding the connection among comfort, health, and productivity and knowing the many options for effective ergonomic workplace lighting, the occupational health nurse can be sensitive to potential visual stress that can affect all areas of performance. Computer vision syndrome-the eye and vision problems associated with near work experienced during or related to computer use-is defined and solutions to it are discussed.

  1. The Effect of Drug Treatment on Inmate Misconduct in Federal Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, Neal P.; Pelissier, Bernadette M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates the Federal Bureau of Prisons' substance abuse treatment program's effectiveness in reducing prisoner misconduct. Results show that program graduates are 74 percent less likely to engage in misconduct over a 14-month period than a comparison group. This benefit is shared by male and female inmates alike. (Contains 25 references and 2…

  2. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  3. Managing Workplace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.

  4. Preventing School Employee Sexual Misconduct: An Outcome Survey Analysis of Making Right Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, Glenn; Grant, Billie-Jo; Mueller, Jessica; Sonnich, Steve

    2018-05-30

    This treatment-only study examines the impact of Making Right Choices, an online course prevention program designed to promote the knowledge, awareness, and prevention of school employee sexual misconduct. The sample included 13,007 school employee participants who took the Making Right Choices course between May 6, 2011, and March 12, 2017, in California and New York. The 20-item measure, Preventing Misconduct Assessment, was administered to participants at the end of the online course; completion of the measure was voluntary. Descriptive statistics revealed that a large majority of participants reported increasing their knowledge and awareness of school employee sexual misconduct because of their participation in the Making Right Choices online course. This study yields important findings regarding the impact of a sexual misconduct prevention program and, specifically, the difference it may make for non-licensed school employees. These findings indicate that school employees are accepting of sexual misconduct training programs and rate them as having value.

  5. How frequently do allegations of scientific misconduct occur in ecology and evolution, and what happens afterwards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Rueda, Gregorio

    2013-03-01

    Scientific misconduct obstructs the advance of knowledge in science. Its impact in some disciplines is still poorly known, as is the frequency in which it is detected. Here, I examine how frequently editors of ecology and evolution journals detect scientist misconduct. On average, editors managed 0.114 allegations of misconduct per year. Editors considered 6 of 14 allegations (42.9%) to be true, but only in 2 cases were the authors declared guilty, the remaining being dropped for lack of proof. The annual rate of allegations that were probably warranted was 0.053, although the rate of demonstrated misconduct was 0.018, while the rate of false or erroneous allegations was 0.024. Considering that several cases of misconduct are probably not reported, these findings suggest that editors detect less than one-third of all fraudulent papers.

  6. Scientific misconduct encountered by APAME journals: an online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Lai-Meng; Wong, Li Xuan; Koh, Cing Chai

    2015-12-01

    In June 2015, invitations were sent by email to 151 APAME journals to participate in an online survey with an objective of gaining insight into the common publication misconduct encountered by APAME editors. The survey, conducted through SurveyMonkey over a 20-day-period, comprised 10 questions with expansions to allow anecdotes limited to 400 characters, estimated to take less than 10 minutes to complete. Only one invitation was issued per journal, targeting (in order of priority) editors, editorial board members and editorial staff, and limited by email availability. 54 (36%) journals responded. 98% of respondents held Editor or Editorial Board positions. All respondent journals have editorial policies on publication ethics and 96% provide instructions related to ethics. 45% use anti-plagiarism software to screen manuscripts, the most popular being iThenticate, CrossCheck and Turnitin. Up to 50% of journals had encountered studies without IRB approval. Author misconduct encountered were (in rank order): plagiarism (75%), duplicate publication (58%), unjustified authorship (39%), authorship disputes (33%), data falsification (29%), data/image manipulation (27%), conflict of interest (25%), copyright violation (17%) and breach of confidentiality (10%). Reviewer misconduct encountered were: conflict of interest (19%), plagiarism (17%), obstructive behavior (17%), abusive language (13%) and breach of confidentiality (13%). Notwithstanding the limitations of the survey and the response rate, a few insights have been gained: (1) the need for strengthening the ethical culture of researchers/authors and reviewers, (2) anti-plagiarism software can improve plagiarism detection by about 15%, and (3) the need for technical support to detect plagiarism, duplicate publication and image manipulation.

  7. Plagiarism and ghostwriting: The rise in academic misconduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawren Singh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review the current situation regarding plagiarism and ghostwriting, and to stimulate debate about how universities should respond to the rise in these forms of academic misconduct. The apparent upsurge in academic misconduct means that universities today face one of the greatest challenges to academic integrity they have had to deal with ever since the university system came into existence some 800 years ago. Plagiarism and ghostwriting are undermining the integrity of university degrees to an extent not seen before. Academia and fraud are not strangers. Universities have a long history of cheating of one sort or another, often associated with examinations, but also with research. In the past this cheating involved activities such as smuggling notes (commonly called "crib sheets" into examinations, and consulting them even under the watchful eyes of invigilators. It also involved students obtaining sight of an examination paper in advance. The fraudulent creation of research results has also been an issue. However, in the 21st century, the opportunities for cheating have exploded. This has resulted in universities becoming more concerned about ensuring the integrity of their examination processes and the degrees they award. Our paper focuses on cheating in the writing of dissertations or theses required at undergraduate or postgraduate level, with an emphasis on plagiarism and ghostwriting. We do not propose a simple solution to these problems, as preventing or stopping cheating is not just a matter of catching the wrongdoers. Cheating is endogenous to the current university education system, and needs to be addressed in terms of not only prevention and detection but also how people who are found to engage in such misconduct are treated. We suggest that creative ways of promoting learning would help to minimise cheating at universities. It is also important to ensure that the issue is discussed openly among students

  8. [Gender differences in workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, P; Punzi, Silvia; Carissimi, Emanuela; Gilioli, R

    2006-01-01

    Despite the attention that international Agencies give to the gender issue in situations of workplace bullying, few investigations have been performed on this topic. The aim of the study is describe the gender differences in victims of workplace bullying observed in an Italian survey. A total of 243 subjects (124 males and 119 females) were examined at the Centre for Occupational Stress and Harassment of the "Clinica del Lavoro Luigi Devoto" (University of Milan and IRCCS Foundation); they were selected among patients who met the criteria for being considered victims of negative actions at work leading to workplace bullying. Data regarding the person, workplace and the workplace bullying situation were collected by means of an ad hoc questionnaire. Analysis of the data, compared with those of IS-TAT 2002, showed a higher prevalence of females subjected to negative actions at work. In women, the risk of being subjected to negative actions leading to workplace bullying was shown to increase in the 34-44 age range and to decrease in higher age ranges; in men the risk remained elevated also after 55 years of age. In general, women were victims of negative actions regarding personal values related to emotional-relational factors, while men were attacked on their work performance. Sexual harassment, may mark the onset of other types of psychological harassment or can be one of its components.

  9. Motivation in a multigenerational radiologic science workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalar, Traci

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in history, radiologic science (RS) workplaces consist of 4 generational cohorts. As each cohort possess their own attitudes, values, work habits, and expectations, motivating a generational diverse workplace is challenging. Through the understanding of generational differences, managers are better able to accommodate individual as well as generational needs and help create a more productive and higher performing workplace. The purpose of this paper is to assist managers in the understanding and utilization of generational differences to effectively motivate staff in an RS workplace. Generational cohorts will be defined and discussed along with an in-depth discussion on each of the generations performing in today's RS workplace. Motivators and how they impact the different generational cohorts will be addressed along with how to best motivate a multigenerational RS workplace.

  10. Application of high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) for determination of chromium compounds in the air at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislawska, Magdalena; Janasik, Beata; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2013-12-15

    The toxicity and bioavailability of chromium species are highly dependable on the form or species, therefore determination of total chromium is insufficient for a complete toxicological evaluation and risk assessment. An analytical method for determination of soluble and insoluble Cr (III) and Cr (VI) compounds in welding fume at workplace air has been developed. The total chromium (Cr) was determined by using quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC(®)). Soluble trivalent and hexavalent chromium compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). A high-speed, reversed-phase CR C8 column (PerkinElmer, Inc., Shelton, CT, USA) was used for the speciation of soluble Cr (III) and soluble Cr (VI). The separation was accomplished by interaction of the chromium species with the different components of the mobile phase. Cr (III) formed a complex with EDTA, i.e. retained on the column, while Cr (VI) existed in the solutions as dichromate. Alkaline extraction (2% KOH and 3% Na2CO3) and anion exchange column (PRP-X100, PEEK, Hamilton) were used for the separation of the total Cr (VI). The results of the determination of Cr (VI) were confirmed by the analysis of the certified reference material BCR CRM 545 (Cr (VI) in welding dust). The results obtained for the certified material (40.2±0.6 g kg(-1)) and the values recorded in the examined samples (40.7±0.6 g kg(-1)) were highly consistent. This analytical method was applied for the determination of chromium in the samples in the workplace air collected onto glass (Whatman, Ø 37 mm) and membrane filters (Sartorius, 0.8 μm, Ø 37 mm). High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a remarkably powerful and versatile technique for determination of chromium species in welding fume at workplace air. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by

  11. 77 FR 76491 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... rat plasma, and similarly in Figure 3(c), the Respondent claimed that the HPLC chromatogram was of a... conjugate with glycine linker in rat plasma and liver by high-performance liquid chromatography and its... misrepresenting HPLC data that he had plagiarized, originally generated prior to the Respondent's arrival in the...

  12. Perspectives on Bullying Among Children Who Present to the Emergency Department With Behavioral Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Robbins, Laura; Gonzalez, Rita; Vargas, Steven; Peterson, Janey C.

    2015-01-01

    The problem of bullying is an increasing public health threat encountered by emergency physicians especially in inner city emergency departments (EDs). Bullying may result in emotional disturbances and psychological trauma in children. Many children sent to the ED because of behavioral misconduct require immediate stabilization and treatment. The emergency physician performs an initial assessment and stabilization. Emergency departments are increasingly on the frontline of the bullying problem. Objectives Our objective was to explore children's perspective of bullying and their views of potential solutions. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a cohort of 50 children (age, 8–17 years),who were referred to the ED from school because of their behavioral misconduct. An interview survey tool about bullying was administered. It focused on what bullying meant to them and what advice they have for a child who is bullied. They were also asked what advice they would have for adults who try to help. We used grounded theory to analyze the data. Similar concepts were grouped, and the categories with similar properties and dimensions were defined. Common themes were then identified. Results We interviewed 50 children, of whom 27 were boys and 23 were girls. Their mean (SD) age was 12.5 (2.12) years (range, 8–17 years). Bullying was identified by children as including physical, verbal, and emotional actions. Several themes emerged. First, a power imbalance between a bully and victim may render an individual vulnerable to bullying. Being different and weak also increases the risk of being bullied. Second, bullying is wrong, and the bully should be punished. Third, children should learn how to handle bullying situations and develop resilience against bullying. Finally, adults need to be more proactive to prevent or stop bullying. Conclusions Our results provide insights into the perceptions of children regarding bullying. We have garnered a better understanding of what

  13. The Demographics of Deception: What Motivates Authors Who Engage in Misconduct?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grant Steen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that scientific misconduct (data fabrication or falsification is goal-directed behavior. This hypothesis predicts that papers retracted for misconduct: are targeted to journals with a high impact factor (IF; are written by authors with additional papers withdrawn for misconduct; diffuse responsibility across many (perhaps innocent co-authors; and are retracted slower than papers retracted for other infractions. These hypotheses were initially tested and confirmed in a database of 788 papers; here we reevaluate these hypotheses in a larger database of 2,047 English-language papers. Journal IF was higher for papers retracted for misconduct (p < 0.0001. Roughly 57% of papers retracted for misconduct were written by a first author with other retracted papers; 21% of erroneous papers were written by authors with >1 retraction (p < 0.0001. Papers flawed by misconduct diffuse responsibility across more authors (p < 0.0001 and are withdrawn more slowly (p < 0.0001 than papers retracted for other reasons. Papers retracted for unknown reasons are unlike papers retracted for misconduct: they are generally published in journals with low IF; by authors with no other retractions; have fewer authors listed; and are retracted quickly. Papers retracted for unknown reasons appear not to represent a deliberate effort to deceive.

  14. Assessing learning at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    • Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion

  15. [Workplace mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljan, Ivana; Josipović-Jelić, Zeljka; Jelić Kis, I Anita

    2008-03-01

    Workplace mobbing is a hostile and unethical communication, systematically aimed from one or more individuals towards mostly one individual, who are forced into a helpless position and are held in it by constant bullying. This article describes some of the most important characteristics of mobbing: offensive behaviour, organizational and non-organizational causes of this behaviour, the victim and the consequences. Modern business environment is complex, dynamic, volatile, and requires better ability to adjust. Constant changes are a part of organizational reality, but they also produce an ideal environment for all kinds of conflicts. Conflicts are inevitable in every organization, but the task of its management is to identify them and resolve before they affect the workforce, productivity and costs. The idea is to avert psychological abuse and aberrant behaviour such as mobbing which that may cause physical and mental disorders. Mobbing is a problem of the modern society; as a violation of human rights it is relatively new and unrecognised in Croatia. Abuse is mostly psychological: it affects the victim's health and life, quality of work, productivity, profitability, and may lead to significant economic losses in the community. Mobbing can be averted by joint forces that would involve employee and management, medical and legal professionals, and even community as a whole. The more an organization pursues excellence based on trust and business ethics, the higher the probability that mobbing will be averted or stopped.

  16. A rhetorical analysis of apologies for scientific misconduct: do they really mean it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souder, Lawrence

    2010-03-01

    Since published acknowledgements of scientific misconduct are a species of image restoration, common strategies for responding publicly to accusations can be expected: from sincere apologies to ritualistic apologies. This study is a rhetorical examination of these strategies as they are reflected in choices in language: it compares the published retractions and letters of apology with the letters that charge misconduct. The letters are examined for any shifts in language between the charge of misconduct and the response to the charge in order to assess whether the apology was sincere or ritualistic. The results indicate that although most authors' published acknowledgments of scientific misconduct seem to minimize culpability by means of the strategic use of language, their resulting ritualistic apologies often still satisfy in some way the accusers' (and thus their community's) concerns.

  17. Leak testing. Environment and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Workplaces specified for leak testing are divided into clean workplaces of the 1st degree, clean workplaces of the second degree, clean workplaces of the third degree and semi-clean workplaces. Clean workplaces are further subdivided into permanent and temporary workplaces. For all said types of workplaces the standard sets the following provisions: basic equipment, machines and instrumentation, permitted and prohibited working activities and principles for maintenance and inspection. (E.S.)

  18. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proactive approach to these issues by educating our customers on prevention of the repetitive stress injuries that ... workplaces, environments, job tasks, equipment, and processes in relationship to human capabilities and interactions in the workplace. ...

  19. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  20. Evaluating the effect of work-family conflict and emotional intelligence in workplace: review to increase employees’ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, E.

    2018-03-01

    Work-family conflict appeared as a form of women emancipation that made them commit two roles simultaneously, as a house wife and as a worker. This kind of situation created an issue about the impact of the role conflict experienced by women employees towards the level of their emotional control and performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate the impact of work-family conflict and emotional intelligence towards married women employees’ job performance. This study also proposed a mediating effect of emotional intelligence. This study used a structured questionnaires to gather the required data. There were 54 married women employees in PT Telkom Regional I participated in this study. The result of this study showed that the model could explain 14,6% variance in employees’ performance. Role conflict experienced by a woman burdened her mind and affected her emotional intelligence negatively. There was no effect of work-family conflict on employees’ performance; however, the conflict significantly affected employees performance in an indirect path. The performance would lower through the decrease of employees’ emotional intelligence as the result of the conflict happened. The most important aspect increasing employees’ performance was improving their emotional intelligence while maintaining their work-family conflict.

  1. Health promotion in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan T Al-Otaibi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review was to describe the scientific evidence for coordinating health promotion at the workplace and to discuss the required future research in this field. Literature review from March 1990 to November 2014 was performed. Using the keywords ′health, promotion, worksite and workplace′, literature was searched in the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar; with no time limit. There is emerging evidence that workplace health promotion enhances the effectiveness of effort to promote and protect workers′ health. It proves both cost-effective and cost-beneficial to health promotion at the worksite and subsequently further reduces absenteeism. However, future research is needed to identify the impact of other factors such as age, gender and race on workers′ exposure. There is also a need to develop valid tests to measure the outcome of these programmes at the workplace. Health promotion should be central to workplace planning and should be recognised as an integral part of proactive occupational health. Indeed, the workplace is viewed as one of the most popular venues for promoting health and preventing diseases among employees.

  2. A personalized healthy workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  3. Workplace phobia, workplace problems, and work ability among primary care patients with chronic mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Linden, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Work-related anxieties are frequent and have a negative effect on the occupational performance of patients and absence due to sickness. Most important is workplace phobia, that is, panic when approaching or even thinking of the workplace. This study is the first to estimate the prevalence of workplace phobia among primary care patients suffering from chronic mental disorders and to describe which illness-related or workplace-specific context factors are associated with workplace phobia. A convenience sample of 288 primary care patients with chronic mental disorders (70% women) seen by 40 primary care clinicians in Germany were assessed using a standardized diagnostic interview about mental disorders and workplace problems. Workplace phobia was assessed by the Workplace Phobia Scale and a structured Diagnostic and Statical Manual of Mental Disorders-based diagnostic interview. In addition, capacity and participation restrictions, illness severity, and sick leave were assessed. Workplace phobia was found in 10% of patients with chronic mental disorders, that is, approximately about 3% of all general practice patients. Patients with workplace phobia had longer durations of sick leave than patients without workplace phobia and were impaired to a higher degree in work-relevant capacities. They also had a higher degree of restrictions in participation in other areas of life. Workplace phobia seems to be a frequent problem in primary care. It may behoove primary care clinicians to consider workplace-related anxiety, including phobia, particularly when patients ask for a work excuse for nonspecific somatic complaints. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  4. The multiple reals of workplace learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Harman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The multiple reals of workplace learning are explored in this paper. Drawing on a Foucauldian conceptualisation of power as distributed, relational and productive, networks that work to produce particular objects and subjects as seemingly natural and real are examined. This approach enables different reals of workplace learning to be traced. Data from a collaborative industry-university research project is used to illustrate the approach, with a focus on the intersecting practices of a group of professional developers and a group of workplace learning researchers. The notion of multiple reals holds promise for research on workplace learning as it moves beyond a view of reality as fixed and singular to a notion of reality as performed in and through a diversity of practices, including the practices of workplace learning researchers.

  5. Wages and salaries as a motivational tool for enhancing organizational performance. A survey of selected Nigerian workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji Eniola SULE

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how the organisation’s human capital was compensated and see whether the compensation even serves as a motivational tool to enhance organisational performance. Seven research questions and two hypotheses were postulated to find solutions to the problems of the study. One hundred and twenty personnel formed the sample size from six organisations. A self-designed instrument labeled Wages and Salaries as a Motivational Tool Questionnaire 2 (WASAMOTOQ2 containing seven sections was used in the collection of data. The findings of the study revealed those factors that militate against adequate compensation to include labour market conditions, the ability of the organisation to pay adequate compensation and the existing country/nation’s present cost of living; what makes up good and adequate compensation include recognition of individual performance and taking care of individual incentives and it shows the relationship between compensation and motivation. It further established the consequential effect of inadequate compensation and motivation on the organisational development. Based on the findings, the following recommendations were proffered that there should be wages/salaries scale and schedule; such should be based on identified indices in the study; that disparity between two identical workers should not be based purely on ‘paper’ qualification but the ability to ‘deliver’; and that wages/salaries should display equality, no ‘sacred cow’.

  6. Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthy individuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garasic, Mirko D; Lavazza, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The use of pharmaceuticals cognitive enhancers (PCE) has been stirring growing interest, not only in the scientific domain but also in the popular media, and has probably had some increase recently in academic, professional and military quarters. So this phenomenon is deemed as a normal procedure aimed at improving the performance of an individual as well as the overall standards of an organization. Although the vast majority of countries have some kind of restrictions to reduce the wide non-medical usage of PCE, these can be overcome quite easily. In arguing for our explicit claim that, in many contexts, the use of cognitive enhancers should be disclosed-as a moral and socially relevant duty-we maintain that PCE present typical, or at least not rare, properties. The features are the following: (a) the enhancer has acute and/or chronic effects. In the first case, shortly after taking the drug the performance is significantly better than average; in the second case, there is a growing or lasting effect, which, however, is poised to diminish when one stops taking the drug; (b) those effects are significant (there is a difference in the outcome considered between taking and not taking the drug) and sometimes dramatic; and (c) a third feature, not directly related to enhancers as such, is their varying safety, availability, and legal permissibility, which might either induce people to take them or refrain them from doing so. We will consider the issue of fairness due to "unenhanced" people as well as the potentially dysfunctional social consequences of an undisclosed PCE use.

  7. Performance enhancement in the workplace: why and when healthyindividuals should disclose their reliance on pharmaceutical cognitive enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko D. Garasic

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pharmaceuticals cognitive enhancers (PCE have been stirring growing interest, not only in the scientific domain but also in the popular media, and has probably had some increase recently in academic, professional and military quarters, although such increase is very difficult to assess. In line with an attitude of general acceptance towards – at least some of – the practical implementations of Human Enhancement (HE, this phenomenon is deemed as a normal procedure aimed at improving the performance of an individual as well as the overall standards of an organization. Although the vast majority of countries have some kind of restrictions to reduce the wide non-medical usage of PCE, these can be overcome quite easily. Our main objective in this theoretical paper is to underline the tension between the bio-liberal motto the use of PCE is a freely eligible personal choice, and the practical context in which its secret or concealed implementation might lead to potential dysfunctional or dangerous interpersonal or social consequences.

  8. Misconduct as the main cause for retraction. A descriptive study of retracted publications and their authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Varela, Isabel; Ruano-Raviña, Alberto

    2018-06-05

    To analyze the causes of retracted publications and the main characteristics of their authors. A descriptive cross-sectional study was designed including all retracted publications from January 1st, 2013-December 31st, 2016 indexed in PubMed. The causes of retraction were classified as: data management, authorship issues, plagiarism, unethical research, journal issues, review process, conflict of interest, other causes, and unknown reasons. Then, misbehaviour was classified as misconduct, suspicion of misconduct or no misconduct suspicion. 1,082 retracted publications were identified. The retraction rate for the period was 2.5 per 10,000 publications. The main cause of retraction was misconduct (65.3%), and the leading reasons were plagiarism, data management and compromise of the review process. The highest proportion of retracted publications corresponded to Iran (15.52 per 10,000), followed by Egypt and China (11.75 and 8.26 per 10,000). Currently, misconduct is the main cause of retraction. Specific strategies to limit this phenomenon must be implemented. It would be useful to standardize reasons and procedures for retraction. The development of a standard retraction form to be permanently indexed in a database might be relevant. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Academic Misconduct: An Investigation into Male Students' Perceptions, Experiences & Attitudes towards Cheating and Plagiarism in a Middle Eastern University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayan, Bilal M.

    2017-01-01

    Academic misconduct in many educational institutions in the Middle East is an inherent problem. This has been particularly true amongst the university student population. The proliferation of the Internet and the ownership of mobile and electronic devices, have, in part, witnessed rates of cheating, plagiarism and academic misconduct cases…

  10. Investigating the Effect of Academic Procrastination on the Frequency and Variety of Academic Misconduct: A Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrzek, Justine; Sattler, Sebastian; van Veen, Floris; Grunschel, Carola; Fries, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In prior studies, academic procrastination has been discussed as an influencing factor of academic misconduct. However, empirical studies were conducted solely cross-sectionally and investigated only a few forms of academic misconduct. This large scale web-based study examined the responses of between 1359 and 2207 participants from different…

  11. Researching workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both...

  12. Workplace Preparedness for Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ursano, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive workplace preparedness for terrorism must address and integrate the psychological and behavioral aspects of terrorism preparedness and response in order to address issues of human continuity...

  13. How Productive Is Workplace Health and Safety?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhai, I. Sebastian; Cottini, Elena; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the causal impact of workplace health and safety practices on firm performance, using Danish longitudinal matched employer–employee data merged with unique cross-sectional representative firm survey data on work environment conditions. We estimate standard production...... functions, augmented with workplace environment indicators, addressing both time-invariant and time-varying potentially relevant unobservables in the production process. We find positive and large productivity effects of improved physical dimensions of the health and safety environment, specifically...

  14. Trudności w wykonywaniu pracy na stanowisku pielęgniarki pediatrycznej = Difficulties in performing work at the workplace of a paediatric nurse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Dorota Kulczycka

    2016-10-01

    indywidualne możliwości pielęgniarek umożliwiając im właściwe wykonanie obowiązków służbowych. Należy kształtować odpowiednie środowisko pracy jak i zwiększać świadomość pracowników dotyczącą czynników powodujących nadmierne obciążenie pracą fizyczną w celu ochrony ich zdrowia i zwiększania efektywności wykonywanej pracy.      Abstract Ergonomics deals with the study of relationships between an employee, workplace, and the occupational environment. This science is interested mainly in seeking the best solutions possible which allow the optimization of the work process, and the adjustment of these solutions to the biological properties of man. Health risk at the workplace of a paediatric nurse is a serious problem, both medical and social. The factors which create difficulty while performing occupational activity often lead to an excessive load. The objective of the study is the indication of factors causing physical load in nurses employed in paediatric wards. Material and methods: The study was conducted in a group of 110 nurses employed in there paediatric wards during the period from February – April 2015. The research instrument was a modified questionnaire for the examination of the IMDS load and the quantitative measurement of the QWI load. Analysis was performed using STATISTICA PL 10, and EXCELL; P<=0.05. Research part. Non-physiological positions assumed at work, and activities performed twisting, in a crouching position, and with loading the upper extremities are the primary difficulties. Nurses perceive their workspace as too small, and body restraint while performing tasks on behalf of patients.  Conclusions:  The planning of tasks and their assignment should consider a proper pace of work and work load, as well as individual capabilities of nurses, enabling them the proper performance of duty services. It is necessary to shape an adequate work environment and increase the awareness of employees concerning the factors which

  15. Intervention as Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how workplace interventions may benefit from a simultaneous focus on individuals' learning and knowledge and on the situatedness of workplaces in the wider world of changing professional knowledge regimes. This is illustrated by the demand for evidence-based practice in health care.…

  16. The internationalised workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Bakel, Marian

    2017-01-01

    The Danish workplace is becoming more and more international. Not only has the number of foreign employees living and working in Denmark increased over the past few years, there is also a significant number of commuters crossing the border every day to go to their workplace in Denmark. In total...

  17. Canadian Chefs' Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier-MacBurnie, Paulette; Doyle, Wendy; Mombourquette, Peter; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs' learning strategies and outcomes as well as the barriers to and facilitators of their workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is based on in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured…

  18. Voices from the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benseman, John, Comp.

    This publication focuses on the stories of learners in workplace literacy programs in New Zealand. Nine adults give their perspectives on the changing nature of work, their attitude toward and experience of formal schooling, and the impetus that led them to participate in literacy learning opportunities established in their workplace. They talk…

  19. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markkanen, M.; Annanmaeki, M.; Oksanen, E.

    2000-01-01

    The EU Member States have to implement the new Basic Safety Standards Directive (BSS) by May 2000. The Title VII of the Directive applies in particular to radon in workplaces. The Member States are required to identify workplaces which may be of concern, to set up appropriate means for monitoring radon exposures in the identified workplaces and, as necessary, to apply all or part of the system of radiological protection for practices or interventions. The BSS provisions on natural radiation are based on the ICRP 1990 recommendations. These recommendations were considered in the Finnish radiation legislation already in 1992, which resulted in establishing controls on radon in all types of workplaces. In this paper issues are discussed on the practical implementation of the BSS concerning occupational exposures to radon basing on the Finnish experiences in monitoring radon in workplaces during the past seven years. (orig.) [de

  20. Perspectives on bullying among children who present to the emergency department with behavioral misconduct: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Robbins, Laura; Gonzalez, Rita; Vargas, Steven; Peterson, Janey C

    2014-11-01

    The problem of bullying is an increasing public health threat encountered by emergency physicians especially in inner city emergency departments (EDs). Bullying may result in emotional disturbances and psychological trauma in children. Many children sent to the ED because of behavioral misconduct require immediate stabilization and treatment. The emergency physician performs an initial assessment and stabilization. Emergency departments are increasingly on the frontline of the bullying problem. Our objective was to explore children's perspective of bullying and their views of potential solutions. A qualitative study was conducted in a cohort of 50 children (age, 8-17 years), who were referred to the ED from school because of their behavioral misconduct. An interview survey tool about bullying was administered. It focused on what bullying meant to them and what advice they have for a child who is bullied. They were also asked what advice they would have for adults who try to help. We used grounded theory to analyze the data. Similar concepts were grouped, and the categories with similar properties and dimensions were defined. Common themes were then identified. We interviewed 50 children, of whom 27 were boys and 23 were girls. Their mean (SD) age was 12.5 (2.12) years (range, 8-17 years). Bullying was identified by children as including physical, verbal, and emotional actions. Several themes emerged. First, a power imbalance between a bully and victim may render an individual vulnerable to bullying. Being different and weak also increases the risk of being bullied. Second, bullying is wrong, and the bully should be punished. Third, children should learn how to handle bullying situations and develop resilience against bullying. Finally, adults need to be more proactive to prevent or stop bullying. Our results provide insights into the perceptions of children regarding bullying. We have garnered a better understanding of what these children feel adults should do to

  1. Pregnancy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, H M; Myers, J; August, E M

    2012-03-01

    Women constitute a large percentage of the workforce in industrialized countries. As a result, addressing pregnancy-related health issues in the workplace is important in order to formulate appropriate strategies to promote and protect maternal and infant health. To explore issues affecting pregnant women in the workplace. A systematic literature review was conducted using Boolean combinations of the terms 'pregnant women', 'workplace' and 'employment' for publications from January 1990 to November 2010. Studies that explicitly explored pregnancy in the workplace within the UK, USA, Canada or the European Union were included. Pregnancy discrimination was found to be prevalent and represented a large portion of claims brought against employers by women. The relationship between environmental risks and exposures at work with foetal outcomes was inconclusive. In general, standard working conditions presented little hazard to infant health; however, pregnancy could significantly impact a mother's psychosocial well-being in the workplace. Core recommendations to improve maternal and infant health outcomes and improve workplace conditions for women include: (i) shifting organizational culture to support women in pregnancy; (ii) conducting early screening of occupational risk during the preconception period and (iii) monitoring manual labour conditions, including workplace environment and job duties.

  2. Workplace deviance: strategies for modifying employee behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulich, Marcia; Tourigny, Louise

    2004-01-01

    More than ever, today's health care employees must perform their jobs as efficiently and effectively as possible. Job performance must integrate both technical and necessary soft skills. Workplace deviant behaviors are counterproductive to good job performance. Various deviant behaviors are examined. Areas and strategies of managerial intervention are reviewed which will enable the prevention or modification of undesired employee behaviors.

  3. School Social Workers' Roles Involving Teacher-Student Sexual Misconduct and Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Cedrina M.

    2017-01-01

    Incidents of sexual misconduct by educators continue to become more prevalent in the United States, resulting in negative social, emotional, and psychological effects on many students. School social workers are professionals with backgrounds in prevention, intervention, and advocacy; however, very little literature has examined the roles of school…

  4. Medical students' and teachers' perceptions of sexual misconduct in the student-teacher relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Snoek, Jos W; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen - Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Teachers are important role models for the development of professional behaviour of young trainee doctors. Unfortunately, sometimes they show unprofessional behaviour. To address misconduct in teaching, it is important to determine where the thresholds lie when it comes to inappropriate behaviours

  5. A Cross-Cultural Study of Family and Peer Correlates of Adolescent Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen; Lester, Julia; Dong, Qi; Guo, Miaw-Sheue

    1998-01-01

    Groups of early adolescents (European Americans, Chinese Americans, Chinese from Taiwan, Chinese from Beijing) completed questionnaires about their involvement in misconduct and about family and peer characteristics. Mothers completed questionnaire about their relationships with their adolescents. Groups reported significantly different mean…

  6. Gangkill: An Exploratory Empirical Assessment of Gang Membership, Homicide Offending, and Prison Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Alan J.; DeLisi, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Extant research indicates that inmates with street gang history are prone for prison misconduct but that inmates convicted of homicide offenses are less likely to be noncompliant. No research has explored the interaction between street gang history and homicide offending. Based on official infraction data from 1,005 inmates selected from the…

  7. Medical students' and teachers' perceptions of sexual misconduct in the student-teacher relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Hanke; Snoek, Jos W; Schonrock-Adema, Johanna; van der Molen, Thys; Cohen - Schotanus, Janke

    Teachers are important role models for the development of professional behaviour of young trainee doctors. Unfortunately, sometimes they show unprofessional behaviour. To address misconduct in teaching, it is important to determine where the thresholds lie when it comes to inappropriate behaviours

  8. Workplace design: Conceptualizing and measuring workplace characteristics for motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M.; Michaelides, George

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE – Although both job design and its broader context are likely to drive motivation, little is known about the specific workplace characteristics that are important for motivation. The purpose of this paper is to present the Workplace Characteristics Model, which describes the workplace characteristics that can foster motivation, and the corresponding multilevel Workplace Design Questionnaire.\\ud \\ud DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The model is configured as nine workplace attributes desc...

  9. Workplace ostracism And workplace behaviors: A moderated mediation model of perceived stress and psychological empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yang Woon

    2018-05-01

    Workplace ostracism research has examined numerous underlying mechanisms to understand the link between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes. Ostracism has been suggested to be an interpersonal stressor; however, research has not investigated workplace ostracism from a stress perspective. Therefore, the study investigated the mediating effect of perceived stress for the relationships between workplace ostracism and helping behavior, voicing behavior, and task performance. The study also investigated the moderating effect of psychological empowerment for the relationships between perceived stress and behavioral outcomes. The study design was a three-wave self-reported questionnaire. The study sampled 225 full-time employees in South Korea and regression analyses with bootstrapping were conducted to test the moderated mediation models. The bootstrapped 95% CI around the indirect effects did not contain zero; therefore, perceived stress mediated the relationship between workplace ostracism and helping behavior (-.06), voicing behavior (-.07), and task performance (-.07). Further, the moderated mediation analyses found perceived stress mediated the relationships between workplace ostracism and behavioral outcomes only when individuals perceived low levels of psychological empowerment. The findings suggest that workplace ostracism is a stressor and psychological empowerment can mitigate the negative effects of ostracism on behavioral outcomes.

  10. Workplaces slow to start

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutilainen, A.; Oksanen, E.

    1992-01-01

    Regulations on radon in workplaces are based on the Radiation Act, which came into force in Finland at the beginning of 1992. An employer is required to have the working conditions investigated if it is suspected that the radon concentration exceeds the maximum. The annual average in regular work must not exceed 400 becquerels per cubic metre. Employers have shown so little interest in radon measurements that the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety has had to send letters prompting employers in the worst radon areas to conduct measurements at workplaces. According to preliminary estimates, thousands of workplaces have concentrations exceeding the permissible maximum. (orig.)

  11. Depression, women, and the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollersheim, J P

    1993-01-01

    Depression is a highly prevalent disorder that causes much personal distress and difficulties in functioning at home and in the workplace. In the workplace, as elsewhere, depression can manifest as a variation in normal mood, as a symptom, as a disorder, or as a disease. Occupational health professionals are more concerned with clinical depression, a term used to signify any type of depression that causes significant personal distress and/or problems in functioning. Clinical depression is manifest in the workplace and adversely affects the employee's work satisfaction and performance. For most types of depression, women are at a higher risk than men. A number of events and variables related to women and depression were reviewed. Although the effects of some of these events, such as menopause, can be manifest in the workplace, they are not associated with an increased incidence of clinical depression. Other events, such as victimization (e.g., childhood sexual abuse or battering by an intimate partner), are associated with higher risks of depression in women. Women derive substantial satisfaction from interpersonal relationships but also are at greater risk for depression when strains and conflicts in these relationships occur. In the workplace women who have no difficulty in arranging for child care and whose spouses share in the care of children show lower rates of depression. When marriages are unhappy, women are three times as likely as men to be depressed. These findings speak to the importance of relationships to women. In the workplace, when women are depressed, problems with relationships are likely to be involved. Clinically depressed women are not difficult to identify in work settings. Dejected mood and loss of interest in usual activities are noticeable, along with numerous other symptoms that accompany depression. The effective treatment of depression depends on careful diagnosis and assessment. Both drug therapy and the more structured psychotherapies

  12. Handling of pastoral misconduct and discipline: Evidence from the Apostolic Faith Mission in Zimbabwe church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Chivasa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Misconduct has permeated almost every community across the globe and Christian churches have not been spared either. The two basic questions that the current study addresses were what are some of the reported behaviours of male pastors that constitute misconduct in the Apostolic Faith Mission (AFM in Zimbabwe church?; and is there any policy framework in the AFM in Zimbabwe designed to repair distressed relationships between offending pastors and the church? Results showed that in the AFM in Zimbabwe, pastoral misconduct is seen as a negative force that militates against sustaining harmony in the church. As such, whenever a male pastor commits an act of misconduct, disciplinary action is taken against him. It was also found that constructive dialogue to address misconduct is still a blind spot in the church under review. And because there is no policy framework to amend distressed relationships after administering discipline, social interactions between offending pastors and the church remain antagonistic. In view of the identified problem, this study proposed that the AFM in Zimbabwe might need to embrace a peace building framework because it has the propensity to repair broken relationships and to build friendships, social networks and trust between people. This framework can be instrumental in repairing distressed relations between offending pastors and the church at large. The strength of peace building lies in the values of brotherly love, forgiveness, reconciliation and relationship building, which are compatible with Christianity.

  13. Sexual harassment in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, Joni

    2015-01-01

    Workplace sexual harassment is internationally condemned as sex discrimination and a violation of human rights, and more than 75 countries have enacted legislation prohibiting it. Sexual harassment in the workplace increases absenteeism and turnover and lowers workplace productivity and job satisfaction. Yet it remains pervasive and underreported, and neither legislation nor market incentives have been able to eliminate it. Strong workplace policies prohibiting sexual harassment, workplace tr...

  14. MRSA and the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the Workplace NIH Research on MRSA Handwashing Posters from Washington Department of Health PubMed search for Community-Associated MRSA ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple ...

  15. Airflow patterns in complex workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, J.; Selby, J.M.; Lynch, T.P.; Langer, G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    There are many considerations in obtaining an accurate evaluation of aerosols. One aspect that has been neglected is the study of airflow patterns within the workplace. In many nuclear facilities, the operations performed required extensive equipment (e.g., glove boxes, piping) that create complex arrangements of physical barriers to flow. To provide samples of the airborne materials, particularly particles, knowledge of these complex airflow patterns is required for sampler placement. Recent studies have shown that materials introduced into the air flow within a workplace act as plumes embedded in major airflow streams. Portions of the plumes can recycle through the ventilated area, be lost to dead air pockets, or exhaust through unusual, unexpected outlets. Unusual flow patterns are observed even in relatively uncomplicated arrangements of equipment. This behavior must be factored into sampling/monitoring programs for evaluation of the airborne hazard to personnel within the workplace consistent with the objective of the program. Other factors that also must be considered to provide valid samples of airborne particulate materials are objectives of the sampling program, characteristics of the airborne particulate materials, nonsegregatory transport for the extracted materials, and requirements for the measurement techniques used

  16. The Relationship between the Workplace Adjustments of People with Intellectual Disabilities and Workplace Supports: A survey of people with intellectual disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    若林, 功; 八重田, 淳

    2016-01-01

    The importance of support in the workplace for persons with disabilities to adjust to working life has long been recognized in the literature. However, the effects of workplace support on the work adjustment of persons with disabilities have not been well documented. This paper examines whether workplace support is related to job satisfaction, performance (as evaluated by employers), organizational commitment, workplace integration, and their intention to quit their jobs. A survey of people w...

  17. From Wounded Warrior To Civilian Employee: A Workplace Reference Guide For Managers And Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    employees to other specialized professionals. Other types of personal issues which may adversely impact employee performance and/or conduct that would...encourages employees to live healthy lives and maintain balance in their family and worklife . It is DON policy to provide safe and comfortable work...relations practitioners also provide advice and guidance to supervisors on how to address poor performance and employee misconduct. Due to the

  18. Challenges and opportunities for preventing depression in the workplace: a review of the evidence supporting workplace factors and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couser, Gregory P

    2008-04-01

    To explore the literature regarding prevention of depression in the workplace. Literature review of what the author believes are seminal articles highlighting workplace factors and interventions in preventing depression in the workplace. Employees can help prevent depression by building protective factors such as better coping and stress management skills. Employees may be candidates for depression screening if they have certain risk factors such as performance concerns. Organizational interventions such as improving mental health literacy and focusing on work-life balance may help prevent depression in the workplace but deserve further study. A strategy to prevent depression in the workplace can include developing individual resilience, screening high-risk individuals and reducing that risk, improving organizational literacy, and integrating workplace and health care systems to allow access to proactive quality interventions.

  19. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichelt, A.; Lehmann, K.-H.; Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.; Schwedt, J.; Streil, T.

    2000-01-01

    The radiological assessment of the results of radon measurements in dwellings is not automatically applicable to workplaces due to different forms of utilization, constructional conditions, time of exposure, heating and ventilation conditions, additional aerosol sources, aerosol parameters, chemical substances, etc. In order to investigate the peculiarities of the radon situation in workplaces located inside buildings compared with that in dwellings, long-time recordings of radon, attached radon progeny and unattached radon progeny concentrations ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi) are carried out at several categories of workplaces (e.g. offices, social establishments, schools, production rooms, workshops, kitchens, agricultural facilities). 36 workplaces have been investigated. There have been carried out at least 2-3 long-time recordings for each workplace during different seasons. At the same time the gamma dose rate, meteorological conditions, aerosol particle concentrations have been registered. Many special dates from the workplaces and the buildings have been recorded. Activity size distribution of the aerosol-attached and unattached fraction of short-lived radon decay products have been determinated in 20 workplaces. Mainly the following measurement systems were used: Radon- and Radon Progeny Monitor EQF 3020, SARAD GmbH, Germany. Alpha-Track Radon Detectors, BfS Berlin, Germany. Screen Diffusion Batteries with Different Screens, University of Goettingen, Germany. Low-Pressure Cascade Impactor, Type BERNER. Condensation Nuclei Counter, General Electric, USA. PAEC-f p -Rn-Monitor, University of Goettingen, Germany. Through the measurements, many peculiarities in the course of the radon-concentration, the equilibrium factor F, the unattached fraction f p and the activity size distribution have been determined. These amounts are influenced mainly by the working conditions and the working intervals. The influence of these peculiarities in workplaces on the dose have

  20. Educator Sexual Misconduct: Exposing or Causing Learners to Be Exposed to Child Pornography or Pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coetzee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he law recognises that non-contact sexual offences can cause harm and several offences were created to regulate non-contact sexual child abuse offences. Several of these offences deal with the exposure or causing exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Sexual grooming of children and the “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” are criminalised in sections 18(2 and 19 of the Criminal Law (Sexual Offences and Related Matters Amendment Act 32 of 2007. And offences in relation to exposing children to disturbing, harmful and age-inappropriate materials are criminalised in sections 24A(2 and (4 of the Films and Publications Act 65 of 1996. In this article the author considered the content of the offences of “Exposure or display of or causing exposure or display of child pornography or pornography to children” in relation to the other offences dealing with exposure of children to child pornography or pornography. Benchmarked against these criminal offences the author then conceptualised exposing learners, or causing the exposure of learners to child pornography or pornography as forms of educator misconduct. The seriousness that should be attached to these forms of misconduct was considered in light of the various criminal offences. The review of the criminal offences and the forms of educator misconduct brought the ineffectiveness of current forms of serious educator misconduct to the fore. There is no form of serious misconduct that covers the transgression of educators who expose learners to child pornography or pornography that can be classified as “XX”. In conclusion a suggestion is made with regard to how a new form of serious misconduct could be worded so as to cover this gap, eg An educator must be dismissed if he or she is found guilty of – (g exposing a learner to or causing exposure of a learner to material classified as “Refused” or

  1. Workplace-Based Management of Retinitis Pigmentosa: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herse, Peter; Yapp, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the workplace-based accommodations that allowed a 45-year-old Southeast Asian woman with a moderate hearing deficit, who was diagnosed with retinitis pigmentosa, to continue to perform her duties as a checkout operator. Emphasizes the importance of conducting workplace evaluations before providers offer advice on vocational matters. (CR)

  2. Social media in the workplace: no employer is immune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Misti

    2012-01-01

    The "traditional" notion of social media in the workplace as employees logging on to Facebook for personal use from their desks is long gone. Social media, in some form or another, is now present in virtually every workplace, regardless of where employees perform their work.

  3. 31 CFR 20.635 - Drug-free workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug-free workplace. 20.635 Section 20.635 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE... workplace means a site for the performance of work done in connection with a specific award at which...

  4. Diabetes screening in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulley, Tauna; Boggs, Dusta; Mullins, Rebecca; Brock, Emily

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has increased worldwide and the pathophysiological problems associated with diabetes increase the potential for employees' physical disabilities. These complications, including neuropathy, nephropathy, and visual impairment, negatively impact the job performance of employees and compromise workplace safety. Occupational health nurses can provide diabetes screening programs to employees and identify chronic disease risk factors early. This article describes an occupational diabetes screening program at a major corporation in Belize, Central America, defines diabetes, outlines the diabetes teaching plan, and presents the demographics of the participants and results of the screening. Cultural considerations and recommendations for future occupational diabetes screenings are proposed. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Tightrope Walkers and Solidarity Sisters: Critical Workplace Educators in the Garment Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex negotiations of critical workplace educators positioned amongst contradictory agendas and discourses in the workplace. While philosophically aligned with critical pedagogical agendas of transformation and collective action for workplace change, these educators perform an array of pedagogic articulations in…

  6. Simulated workplace neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, V.; Taylor, G.; Rottger, S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of simulated workplace neutron fields, which aim at replicating radiation fields at practical workplaces, is an alternative solution for the calibration of neutron dosemeters. They offer more appropriate calibration coefficients when the mean fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients of the simulated and practical fields are comparable. Intensive Monte Carlo modelling work has become quite indispensable for the design and/or the characterization of the produced mixed neutron/photon fields, and the use of Bonner sphere systems and proton recoil spectrometers is also mandatory for a reliable experimental determination of the neutron fluence energy distribution over the whole energy range. The establishment of a calibration capability with a simulated workplace neutron field is not an easy task; to date only few facilities are available as standard calibration fields. (authors)

  7. A comparison study between radon concentration in schools and other workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouvas, A.; Xanthos, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Nuclear Technology Laboratory of the Aristotle Univ. of Thessaloniki has since 1999 an open research project of indoor radon measurements in Greek workplaces. Since now 1380 measurements in 690 workplaces have been performed. Most (75 %) of the workplaces were offices in schools. The remaining 25 % were offices, mainly in public buildings. In the present study, a possible correlation between radon concentration in schools and other workplaces is investigated and discussed. (authors)

  8. [The fate of scientific articles when errors and scientific misconduct are detected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Siri; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-20

    When a minor error is noted in a scientific article, the publishing journal should issue a correction. Issuing an expression of concern is relevant when scientific misconduct is suspected. If the suspicion proves to be well founded, the journal should retract the article. The number of retractions is increasing, and this emphasizes the need for unequivocal concepts and guidelines. The reason a given article is corrected or retracted should be unambiguous and articles as well as notices should be indexed properly.

  9. Workplace photon radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.H.; Bartlett, D.T.; Ambrosi, P.

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of workplace radiation fields is essential for measures in radiation protection. Information about the energy and directional distribution of the incident photon radiation was obtained by several devices developed by the National Radiation Protection Board, United Kingdom, by the Statens Stralskyddsinstitut, Sweden, together with EURADOS and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany. The devices are described and some results obtained at workplaces in nuclear industry, medicine and science in the photon energy range from 20 keV to 7 MeV are given. (author)

  10. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  11. Women and the Violent Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Beckett, Sharon Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Globally workplace violence is a pressing concern. It is an ever increasing problem and thus an extensive field to research. Despite an increase in interest, there are specific areas of workplace violence that remain relatively unexplored, and this is further compounded because workplace violence is not clearly defined and neither is it readily understood (Dolan 2000, Webster et al 2007). Women’s experiences of workplace violence have been overlooked, primarily because women exist within a...

  12. Workplace bullying, working environment and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Elofsson, Stig; Gjerde, Maria; Magnusson Hanson, Linda; Theorell, Töres

    2012-01-01

    Improved work organisation could be of importance for decreased bullying in workplaces. Participants in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH) responded to questions about work and workplace and whether they had been bullied during the past year in 2006. Those in worksites with at least five employees who did not report that they had been bullied in 2006 and without workplace change between 2006 and 2008 constituted the final sample (n=1,021 men and 1,182 women). Work characteristics and workplace factors in 2006 were used in multiple logistic regression as predictors of bullying in 2008. Separate analyses were performed for work characteristics and workplace factors respectively. Adjustments for demographic factors were made in all analyses. The question used for bullying was: "Are you exposed to personal persecution by means of vicious words or actions from your superiors or your workmates?" Such persecution any time during the past year was defined as bullying. For both genders organisational change and conflicting demands were identified as risk factors, and good decision authority as a protective factor. Dictatorial leadership, lack of procedural justice and attitude of expendability were male and lack of humanity a female risk factor for bullying.

  13. Malaysian researchers talk about the influence of culture on research misconduct in higher learning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Angelina P; Amin, Latifah; Mahadi, Zurina

    2017-01-01

    Based on a previous survey by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in the USA, a considerable number of foreign research scientists have been found guilty of research misconduct. However, it remains unclear as to whether or not cultural factors really contribute to research misconduct. This study is based on a series of interviews with Malaysian researchers from the local universities regarding their own professional experiences involving working with researchers or research students from different countries or of different nationalities. Most of the researchers interviewed agreed that cultures do shape individual character, which influences the way that such individuals conduct research, their decision-making, and their style of academic writing. Our findings also showed that working culture within the institution also influences research practices, as well as faculty mentorship of the younger generation of researchers. Given the fact such misconduct might be due to a lack of understanding of research or working cultures or practices within the institution, the impact on the scientific community and on society could be destructive. Therefore, it is suggested that the institution has an important role to play in orienting foreign researchers through training, mentoring, and discussion with regard to the "does" and "don'ts" related to research, and to provide them with an awareness of the importance of ethics when it comes to conducting research.

  14. Teacher learning as workplace learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imants, J.; Van Veen, K.

    2010-01-01

    Against the background of increasing attention in teacher professional development programs for situating teacher learning in the workplace, an overview is given of what is known in general and in educational workplace learning literature on the characteristics and conditions of the workplace.

  15. Altruism, Conformism, and Incentives in the Workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tichem (Jan)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractPerformance pay can motivate employees, but money is not the only motivation in the workplace. Altruism, which means that someone enjoys the well-being of someone else, can also provide a powerful motivation. The first part of this thesis studies theoretically how altruism between an

  16. Diversity in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996

    This document contains three papers presented at a symposium on diversity in the workplace moderated by Sandra Johnson at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Diversity and Development: An Assessment of Equal Opportunities and the Role of HRD in the Police Service" (Rashmi Biswas, Penny Dick) examines…

  17. Radon in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, Tracy

    1995-01-01

    The naturally occurring radioactive gas radon has been found at excessive levels in many workplaces other than mines throughout the country. Prolonged exposure to radon and its decay products increases the risk of developing lung cancer, and controls to protect employees from excessive exposure are included in the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985. The control of occupational exposure to radon is discussed here. (author)

  18. COPEWORK - COPESTRESS Workplace Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Yun Katrine; Netterstrøm, Bo; Langer, Roy

    2012-01-01

    "COPEWORK – COPESTRESS Workplace Study" er en undersøgelse af hvad der sker på arbejdspladser, når en medarbejder sygemeldes med stress. I undersøgelsen indgik 64 ledere og arbejdsmiljørepræsentanter fra fra 38 danske arbejdspladser. Alle arbejdspladser havde haft minimum én stresssygemeldt...

  19. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  20. Workplace Safety and Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on four important issues for women at work: job stress, work schedules, reproductive health, and workplace violence.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women's Health (OWH) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  1. Workplace Communication: Meaningful Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Lisa; Watkins, Lisa

    This learning module emphasizes workplace communication skills with a special focus on the team environment. The following skills are addressed: speaking with clarity, maintaining eye contact, listening carefully, responding to questions with patience and an open mind, showing a willingness to understand, giving instructions clearly, and…

  2. Environmental Workplace Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental workplace assessments as tools in developing customized training, highlighting the group process and individual interview techniques. Suggests that, by assessing the cultural climate of an organization, education providers can gather essential baseline information on an organization and thereby provide a guide for further…

  3. Making the Workplace Work

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-01

    This podcast demonstrates the importance of workplace support in managing diabetes in a corporate diabetes program.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/8/2007.

  4. [Concept analysis of workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.

  5. Predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students using an augmented Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajah-Kanagasabai, Camilla J.; Roberts, Lynne D.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior model, augmented by descriptive norms and justifications, for predicting self-reported research misconduct and questionable research practices in university students. A convenience sample of 205 research active Western Australian university students (47 male, 158 female, ages 18–53 years, M = 22, SD = 4.78) completed an online survey. There was a low level of engagement in research misconduct, with approximately one in seven students reporting data fabrication and one in eight data falsification. Path analysis and model testing in LISREL supported a parsimonious two step mediation model, providing good fit to the data. After controlling for social desirability, the effect of attitudes, subjective norms, descriptive norms and perceived behavioral control on student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices was mediated by justifications and then intention. This revised augmented model accounted for a substantial 40.8% of the variance in student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices, demonstrating its predictive utility. The model can be used to target interventions aimed at reducing student engagement in research misconduct and questionable research practices. PMID:25983709

  6. Workplace ageism: discovering hidden bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Sanna; Johnston, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Research largely shows no performance differences between older and younger employees, or that older workers even outperform younger employees, yet negative attitudes towards older workers can underpin discrimination. Unfortunately, traditional "explicit" techniques for assessing attitudes (i.e., self-report measures) have serious drawbacks. Therefore, using an approach that is novel to organizational contexts, the authors supplemented explicit with implicit (indirect) measures of attitudes towards older workers, and examined the malleability of both. This research consists of two studies. The authors measured self-report (explicit) attitudes towards older and younger workers with a survey, and implicit attitudes with a reaction-time-based measure of implicit associations. In addition, to test whether attitudes were malleable, the authors measured attitudes before and after a mental imagery intervention, where the authors asked participants in the experimental group to imagine respected and valued older workers from their surroundings. Negative, stable implicit attitudes towards older workers emerged in two studies. Conversely, explicit attitudes showed no age bias and were more susceptible to change intervention, such that attitudes became more positive towards older workers following the experimental manipulation. This research demonstrates the unconscious nature of bias against older workers, and highlights the utility of implicit attitude measures in the context of the workplace. In the current era of aging workforce and skill shortages, implicit measures may be necessary to illuminate hidden workplace ageism.

  7. Women in the Workplace and Management Practices: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Takao; Kodama, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    We review recent studies on management practices and their consequences for women in the workplace. First, the High Performance Work System (HPWS) is associated with greater gender diversity in the workplace while there is little evidence that the HPWS reduces the gender pay gap. Second, work-life balance practices with limited face-to-face interactions with coworkers may hamper women’s career advancement. Third, individual incentive linking pay to objective performance may enhance gender div...

  8. Workplace drug testing in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, A G; Pierce, A

    2001-09-15

    Not much information is available on workplace drug testing (WDT) in Europe. There is no specific legislation and there are no generally accepted guidelines. Many companies establish a drug policy with little or no provisions for drug testing. Often, testing is performed on-site by occupational physicians, with little or no quality control, no systematic confirmation of positives, no chain of custody and no adulteration testing. In some parts of Europe, e.g. in the United Kingdom and some Scandinavian countries, WDT is increasing in importance, but it is not as widespread as in USA. The most frequently performed tests are amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates and alcohol. The percentage of positives is variable, but seems to decrease with the years following the introduction of WDT. Cannabis is the drug that is most frequently found.Recently, the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS) was founded, with the aims to ensure that WDT in Europe is performed to a defined quality standard and in a legally secured way and to provide an independent forum for all aspects of WDT.A working group in the United Kingdom has recently finalised the United Kingdom laboratory guidelines for legally defensible WDT and discussions are under way with the EWDTS to establish common guidelines. Many efforts will be needed to establish WDT as an accepted part of a company policy on drugs: establishing and maintaining the confidence in the results of the laboratory, establishing the legal status of WDT, preserving the privacy and rights of the employees, proving the cost-effectiveness of WDT in a European context, finding a balance between strict guidelines and enough flexibility to tailor testing to the changing needs. It is hoped that the exchange of experience between different countries will contribute to reaching these goals.

  9. Interventions to prevent misconduct and promote integrity in research and publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ana; Wager, Elizabeth; Utrobicic, Ana; Rothstein, Hannah R; Sambunjak, Dario

    2016-04-04

    Improper practices and unprofessional conduct in clinical research have been shown to waste a significant portion of healthcare funds and harm public health. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational or policy interventions in research integrity or responsible conduct of research on the behaviour and attitudes of researchers in health and other research areas. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS and CINAHL health research bibliographical databases, as well as the Academic Search Complete, AGRICOLA, GeoRef, PsycINFO, ERIC, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. We performed the last search on 15 April 2015 and the search was limited to articles published between 1990 and 2014, inclusive. We also searched conference proceedings and abstracts from research integrity conferences and specialized websites. We handsearched 14 journals that regularly publish research integrity research. We included studies that measured the effects of one or more interventions, i.e. any direct or indirect procedure that may have an impact on research integrity and responsible conduct of research in its broadest sense, where participants were any stakeholders in research and publication processes, from students to policy makers. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, such as controlled before-and-after studies, with comparisons of outcomes in the intervention versus non-intervention group or before versus after the intervention. Studies without a control group were not included in the review. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. To assess the risk of bias in non-randomized studies, we used a modified Cochrane tool, in which we used four out of six original domains (blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, other sources of bias) and two additional domains (comparability of groups and confounding factors). We categorized our primary outcome into the following levels: 1) organizational change

  10. Managing disclosure of research misconduct by a graduate student to a university mental health professional during a clinical counseling session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Holly A; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    This case looks at the question of how to consider obligations of confidentiality by a mental health professional who works for an institution and learns that a student has been using a drug intended for an animal research project. Dr. Paul Appelbaum, MD, a psychiatrist at Columbia University, examines the issue of the limits of confidentiality. Nicholas Steneck, PhD, a scholar in research misconduct at the University of Michigan, explores the obligations to report research misconduct. Walter Limehouse, MD, an ethicist at the Medical University of South Carolina, considers the systems issues raised by this case and offers some suggestions that might change the institutional environment.

  11. Workplace flexibility across the lifespan

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Pieter; Jansen, Paul G W

    2016-01-01

    As demographic changes impact the workplace, governments, organizations and workers arelooking for ways to sustain optimal working lives at higher ages. Workplace flexibility has beenintroduced as a potential way workers can have more satisfying working lives until theirretirement ages. This paper presents a critical review of the literature on workplace flexibilityacross the lifespan. It discusses how flexibility has been conceptualized across differentdisciplines, and postulates a definitio...

  12. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Sánchez, A.; Torre Pérez, J. de la; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.; Naranjo Correa, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. - Highlights: ► More than 200 measurements were performed in about 130 working places. ► Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. ► The exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. ► Geological characteristics of the soil influence the indoor radon levels.

  13. Plagiarism and registered health professionals: navigating the borderlands between scholarly and professional misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jon

    2013-12-01

    As access to published materials becomes more readily available, the ability to plagiarise material, deliberately or unwittingly has become easier than ever. This article explores important recent decisions in Australia and the United Kingdom regarding registered health practitioners who have engaged in plagiarism, both related and unrelated to their clinical practice, and explores the ways in which regulatory authorities in these countries have viewed scholarly misconduct committed by registered health professionals. This article also examines the implications of plagiarism for the registered health professions, and makes suggestions for strategies to reduce its influence and incidence in modern clinical practice.

  14. Workplace Based Assessment in Psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Devrim Basterzi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Workplace based assessment refers to the assessment of working practices based on what doctors actually do in the workplace, and is predominantly carried out in the workplace itself. Assessment drives learning and it is therefore essential that workplace-based assessment focuses on important attributes rather than what is easiest to assess. Workplacebased assessment is usually competency based. Workplace based assesments may well facilitate and enhance various aspects of educational supervisions, including its structure, frequency and duration etc. The structure and content of workplace based assesments should be monitored to ensure that its benefits are maximised by remaining tailored to individual trainees' needs. Workplace based assesment should be used for formative and summative assessments. Several formative assessment methods have been developed for use in the workplace such as mini clinical evaluation exercise (mini-cex, evidence based journal club assesment and case based discussion, multi source feedback etc. This review discusses the need of workplace based assesments in psychiatry graduate education and introduces some of the work place based assesment methods.

  15. Workplace Innovations as Reflected in the Romanian Economic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Leovaridis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace innovations are designed to optimize production processes in firms and improve employees’ working conditions; few researches on this topic have shown that workplace innovations increased employees’ job satisfaction, as well as a sense of responsibility and autonomy, but also employees’ overall well-being, especially regarding to work–life balance and health. Workplace innovation includes aspects regarding work organization (job autonomy, self-managed teams, flexible working etc., organizational structure and systems (devolution of decision-making to employees, fairness and equality, supporting employee initiative etc., learning and development (high involvement innovation, staff learning and development, shared knowledge and experience etc., workplace partnership (social dialogue, representative participation, involvement in change, openness and communication, integrating tacit and strategic knowledge etc.. This paper aims to highlight the main characteristics of workplace innovations in Romanian firms, as they are presented in some economical, business and academic, journals in our country. The research methodology consisted of a content analysis performed on four Romanian economic journals two from academic area (Management and Marketing and Management Dynamics in Knowledge Economy and two from business area (Cariere and Biz. The dimensions of content analysis included the different types of workplace innovations and their effects on organizational performance as well as on employees’ quality of life at the workplace, the size and the source of capital and economic sector of firms that innovate in human resource management, barriers and drivers to the implementation of workplace innovations etc. The period for journals content analysis was 1 year, between January 1 and December 31, 2013. The paper contains a case study for each journal, including abstracts of the most relevant articles on the workplace innovations and

  16. Learning in the workplace: the role of Nurse Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Margaret; Trede, Franziska; Patterson, Carmel

    2016-06-01

    Objective This research explores Nurse Managers' (NMs') influence on workplace learning. The facilitation of staff learning has implications for the role of NMs, who are responsible for the quality and safety of patient care. However, this aspect of their work is implicit and there is limited research in the area. Methods This paper discusses the findings from one hospital as part of a broader philosophical hermeneutic study conducted in two public hospitals over a 20-month timeframe. NMs participated in interviews, a period of observation, follow-up interviews and a focus group. Transcribed data was thematically analysed. Eraut's 'Two triangle theory of workplace learning' was used to interpret participants' accounts of how they facilitated workplace learning. Findings The analysis found that NMs worked to positively influence staff performance through learning in three domains: orientating new staff, assessing staff performance and managing underperformance. Conclusions This study purports that NMs influence workplace learning in ways that are seldom recognised. A more conscious understanding of the impact of their role can enable NMs to more purposefully influence workplace learning. Such understanding also has implications for the professional preparation of NMs for their role in the context of workplace learning, facilitating learning for change and enabling the advancement of quality and safety in healthcare. What is known about the topic? Studies exploring the influence of Nurse Managers in workplace learning have been limited to their role in the facilitation of formal learning. There is a paucity of research that examines their role in influencing informal learning. What does this paper add? The findings of this study draw on Eraut's 'Two triangle theory of workplace learning' to further define the interdependent relationship between management and educational practices. What are the implications for practitioners? NMs' awareness and deliberate use of

  17. Experienced teachers' informal workplace learning and perceptions of workplace conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of

  18. A reinforcement-based therapeutic workplace for the treatment of drug abuse: six-month abstinence outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, K; Svikis, D; Robles, E; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E

    2001-02-01

    This study evaluated a novel drug abuse treatment, the Therapeutic Workplace. In this treatment, patients are paid to perform jobs or to participate in job training. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients to provide drug-free urine samples to gain access to the workplace. Pregnant and postpartum drug abuse patients (N = 40) were randomly assigned to a Therapeutic Workplace or usual care control group. Therapeutic Workplace participants were invited to work 3 hr every weekday for 6 months and could earn up to $4,030 in vouchers for abstinence, workplace attendance, and performance. On average, 45% of participants attended the workplace per day. Relative to controls, the Therapeutic Workplace nearly doubled patients' abstinence from opiates and cocaine (33% vs. 59% of thrice-weekly urine samples drug negative, respectively, p Workplace can effectively treat heroin and cocaine abuse in pregnant and postpartum women.

  19. Workplace rehabilitation and supportive conditions at work: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Linda; Hagberg, Mats; Dellve, Lotta

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the impact of rehabilitation measures on work ability and return to work (RTW), specifically the association between workplace rehabilitation/supportive conditions at work and work ability and RTW over time, among women on long-term sick leave. Questionnaire data were collected (baseline, 6 and 12 months) from a cohort of women (n = 324). Linear mixed models were used for longitudinal analysis of the repeated measurements of work ability index (WAI), work ability score and working degree. These analyses were performed with different models; the explanatory variables for each model were workplace rehabilitation, supportive conditions at work and time. The individuals provided with workplace rehabilitation and supportive conditions (e.g. influence at work, possibilities for development, degree of freedom at work, meaning of work, quality of leadership, social support, sense of community and work satisfaction) had significantly increased WAI and work ability score over time. These individuals scored higher work ability compared to those individuals having workplace rehabilitation without supportive conditions, or neither. Additionally, among the individuals provided with workplace rehabilitation and supportive conditions, working degree increased significantly more over time compared to those individuals with no workplace rehabilitation and no supportive conditions. The results highlight the importance of integrating workplace rehabilitation with supportive conditions at work in order to increase work ability and improve the RTW process for women on long-term sick leave.

  20. International perspectives on workplace bullying among nurses: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S L

    2009-03-01

    This article examines the nursing literature on workplace bullying with the aim of reaching a better understanding of the phenomenon. Workplace bullying occurs in many occupations and workplaces, including nursing. The following databases were used for the literature review: CINAHL, PubMed, Pro Quest and EBSCO host. Only articles in English were used. Articles from outside the nursing literature were also examined to gain a broader understanding of workplace bullying. Workplace bullying is more than a simple conflict between two individuals. It is a complex phenomenon that can only be understood through an examination of social, individual and organizational factors. Workplace bullying has been shown to impact the physical and psychological health of victims, as well as their performance at work. Workplace bullying impacts the organization through decreased productivity, increased sick time and employee attrition. More nurse-specific research is needed in this area. Research needs to be conducted in a systematic and uniform manner so that generalizations across studies can be made. The ultimate goal of this research should be to generate an understanding of this phenomenon so that solutions can be found.

  1. Workplace Bullying in Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Mary; Young, Christopher J; Shepherd, Heather L; Mak, Cindy; Saw, Robyn P M

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent and nature of workplace bullying among General Surgery trainees and consultants in Australia. An online questionnaire survey of General Surgery trainees and consultant surgeons in Australia was conducted between March and May 2012. Prevalence of bullying was measured using both a definition of workplace bullying and the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire (NAQ-R). Sources of bullying were also examined, as well as the barriers and outcomes of formal reporting of bullying. The response rate was 34 % (370/1084) with 41 % (n = 152) of respondents being trainees. Overall, 47 % (n = 173) of respondents reported having been bullied to some degree and 68 % (n = 250) reported having witnessed bullying of surgical colleagues in the last 12 months. The prevalence of bullying was significantly higher in trainees and females, with 64 % of trainees and 57 % of females experiencing some degree of bullying. The majority of respondents (83 %) had experienced at least one negative behavior in the last 12 months, but 38 % experienced at least one negative behavior on a weekly or daily basis. The persistent negative behaviors that represent work-related bullying most commonly experienced were 'having opinions ignored' and 'being exposed to an unmanageable workload.' Consultant surgeons were the most common source of bullying for both trainees and consultants, with administration the next common source. Of those who reported being bullied, only 18 % (n = 32) made a formal complaint. Despite increased awareness and interventions, workplace bullying remains a significant problem within General Surgery in Australia. The findings in this study serve as a baseline for future questionnaires to monitor the effectiveness of implemented anti-bullying interventions.

  2. Violating the Sacred Trust: Sexual Misconduct in Initial Entry Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-25

    sexual harassment . Quid pro quo occurs when a supervisor or superior bases an employment benefit or continuing employment...extent of interfering with their job performance.15 In the IET environment, the quid pro quo type of sexual harassment is more prevalent than the... quid pro quo type of sexual harassment , since drill sergeants exercise total control over the recruits. The second condition that

  3. WORKPLACE HARASSMENT. MOBBING PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ezer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moral harassment at the workplace has become in the last period a very often met phenomenon that severely affects the work relations and represents a significant health and safety danger. This problem has become in the last period an important issue for the European Union which has initiated a series of studie for analyzing the consequences of this pehenomenon on the normal process of the work relations, that has lead, in its turn to an awareness of this new dimenion of harassment between the employees at the internal level.

  4. Work Life Balance Programs at Workplaces in the US (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    KUROSAWA Masako

    2011-01-01

    With the very limited policy intervention, work-life balance (WLB) enhancing programs available at workplaces in the US are not as prevalent as those observed in most continental European countries. Nevertheless, starting in the late 80s, firms began to introduce WLB enhancing programs, mostly in terms of flexible schedules, as ways to help workers and improve firm performance. The availability of workplace flexibility, however, has been mostly limited to highly skilled workers. This paper sh...

  5. Influence of Self-Efficacy on Compliance to Workplace Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mette Merete; Zebis, Mette K; Jørgensen, Henning Langberg

    2013-01-01

    the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to workplace physical exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the influence of exercise-specific self-efficacy on compliance to specific strength exercises during working hours for laboratory technicians. METHODS: We performed a cluster...... of compliance to exercises during 20 weeks, but found self-efficacy to be a predictor of compliance in a private sector setting. Workplace-specific differences might be present and should be taken into account....

  6. Exposure Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Biphenyl in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyeon-Yeong; Shin, Sae-Mi; Ham, Miran; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to assess exposure to and the risk caused by biphenyl in the workplace. Biphenyl is widely used as a heat transfer medium and as an emulsifier and polish in industry. Vapor or high levels of dust inhalation and dermal exposure to biphenyl can cause eye inflammation, irritation of respiratory organs, and permanent lesions in the liver and nervous system. In this study, the workplace environment concentrations were assessed as central tendency exposure and reasonable ma...

  7. Changing behaviour: successful environmental programmes in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Young, CW; Davis, M; McNeill, IM; Malhotra, B; Russell, S; Unsworth, K; Clegg, CW

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing focus on improving the pro-environmental attitudes, behaviour and habits of individuals whether at home, in education, traveling, shopping or in the workplace. This article focuses on the workplace by conducting a multi-disciplinary literature review of research that has examined the influence of organisation-based behaviour change initiatives. The review includes only research evidence that measured actual environmental performance (e.g. energy use) rather than solely ...

  8. Ethical modernization: research misconduct and research ethics reforms in Korea following the Hwang affair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongyoung; Park, Kibeom

    2013-06-01

    The Hwang affair, a dramatic and far reaching instance of scientific fraud, shocked the world. This collective national failure prompted various organizations in Korea, including universities, regulatory agencies, and research associations, to engage in self-criticism and research ethics reforms. This paper aims, first, to document and review research misconduct perpetrated by Hwang and members of his research team, with particular attention to the agencies that failed to regulate and then supervise Hwang's research. The paper then examines the research ethics reforms introduced in the wake of this international scandal. After reviewing American and European research governance structures and policies, policy makers developed a mixed model mindful of its Korean context. The third part of the paper examines how research ethics reform is proactive (a response to shocking scientific misconduct and ensuing external criticism from the press and society) as well as reactive (identification of and adherence to national or international ethics standards). The last part deals with Korean society's response to the Hwang affair, which had the effect of a moral atomic bomb and has led to broad ethical reform in Korean society. We conceptualize this change as ethical modernization, through which the Korean public corrects the failures of a growth-oriented economic model for social progress, and attempts to create a more trustworthy and ethical society.

  9. The role of facial appearance on CEO selection after firm misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomulya, David; Wong, Elaine M; Ormiston, Margaret E; Boeker, Warren

    2017-04-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-10684-001). The wrong figure files were used. All versions of this article have been corrected.] We investigate a particular aspect of CEO successor trustworthiness that may be critically important after a firm has engaged in financial misconduct. Specifically, drawing on prior research that suggests that facial appearance is one critical way in which trustworthiness is signaled, we argue that leaders who convey integrity, a component of trustworthiness, will be more likely to be selected as successors after financial restatement. We predict that such appointments garner more positive reactions by external observers such as investment analysts and the media because these CEOs are perceived as having greater integrity. In an archival study of firms that have announced financial restatements, we find support for our predictions. These findings have implications for research on CEO succession, leadership selection, facial appearance, and firm misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Emotion in the library workplace

    CERN Document Server

    Matteson, Miriam; Hines, Samantha Schmehl

    2017-01-01

    Authors explore application of the study of emotion in the library workplace and look at future trends in the area. Library managers will take away knowledge about how the library workplace can and should operate with consideration toward emotion, and will glean ideas for implementation with their own staff and services.

  11. Adult Learning in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on adult learning in the workplace. "The Relationship between Workplace Learning and Employee Satisfaction in Small Businesses" (Robert W. Rowden, Shamsuddin Ahmad) reports the results of a study of the nature and extent of HRD, level of job satisfaction among workers, and correlation between…

  12. The Toll of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killoren, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Bullying may be more common than most people think. According to a study commissioned by the Workplace Bullying Institute, one in three employees experience bullying in the workplace either as a victim or as a witness suffering collateral damage. Bullying is a serious problem. Directors, managers, and staff members need to ensure that it does not…

  13. Information Literacy in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Inskip, C.

    2015-01-01

    This talk aims to provide an overview of thinking and practice in workplace information literacy, an important developing area. It will consider the semantic gap between education and workplace settings and identify key issues around the challenges to library and information professionals in bridging that gap.

  14. Transformational leadership and workplace injury and absenteeism: analysis of a National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doohee; Coustasse, Alberto; Sikula, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership (TL) has long been popular among management scholars and health services researchers, but no research studies have empirically tested the association of TL with workplace injuries and absenteeism among nursing assistants (NAs). This cross-sectional study seeks to explore whether TL is associated with workplace injuries and absenteeism among NAs. We analyzed the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey data (n = 2,882). A multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to test the role of TL in the context of workplace performances. Results reveal that the TL model was positively linked to workplace injury in the level of NAs. Injury-related absenteeism was also associated with the TL style, indicating that TL behaviors may help address workplace absence among NAs. Findings suggest that introducing TL practices may benefit NAs in improving workplace performances.

  15. Crew factors in the aerospace workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanki, Barbara G.; Foushee, H. C.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of technological change in the aerospace workplace on pilot performance are discussed. Attention is given to individual and physiological problems, crew and interpersonal problems, environmental and task problems, organization and management problems, training and intervention problems. A philosophy and conceptual framework for conducting research on these problems are presented and two aerospace studies are examined which investigated: (1) the effect of leader personality on crew effectiveness and (2) the working undersea habitat known as Aquarius.

  16. Altruism, Conformism, and Incentives in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Tichem, Jan

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractPerformance pay can motivate employees, but money is not the only motivation in the workplace. Altruism, which means that someone enjoys the well-being of someone else, can also provide a powerful motivation. The first part of this thesis studies theoretically how altruism between an employee and his superior affects the optimal use of monetary incentives. Among others, the analysis reveals how altruism influences the credibility of monetary incentive schemes, and how altruist...

  17. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  18. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  19. Research Misconduct in National Science Foundation Funded Research: A Mixed-Methods Analysis of 2007-2011 Research Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Research is an important aspect of academic institutions as it brings funding, reputation, and other benefits to the associated establishment. Research misconduct in the form of plagiarism, fabrication, and falsification can occur in association with research, along with subsequent penalties. The problem of the poorly established prevalence of the…

  20. Workplace Bullying and Work Engagement: A Self-Determination Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodboy, Alan K; Martin, Matthew M; Bolkan, San

    2017-06-01

    This study modeled motivational mechanisms that explain the negative effects of workplace bullying on work engagement. Guided by self-determination theory, workplace bullying was predicted to decrease worker engagement indirectly, due to the denial of employees' basic psychological needs and their intrinsic motivation to work. From a sample of 243 full-time employees, serial multiple mediation models revealed that the indirect relationships between workplace bullying and work engagement (i.e., vigor, dedication, absorption) were serially mediated by basic psychological needs and intrinsic motivation to work. In support of self-determination theory, this study revealed that workplace bullying indirectly disengages employees from their work by denying them of their autonomy and relatedness needs and thwarting their motivation to perform work in a fulfilling way.

  1. Workplace Violence and Components of a Psychologically Healthy Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rod; Heybrock, Denise

    2017-01-01

    As episodes of workplace-centered violence have increased in the United States, a focus on emotional and mental health matters is more essential than ever. It is imperative for organizations to be proactive about violence prevention and have a plan that is supported by top management and understood by all managers and employees. Employers can take a number of steps in collaboration with a comprehensive violence prevention plan to promote a supportive and safe work environment. This article addresses workplace violence, risk factors and the components of a violence prevention plan as well as the importance of building a psychologically healthy workplace.

  2. Opinions of Polish occupational medicine physicians on workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowska, Elzbieta; Pyzalski, Jacek; Wojtaszczyk, Patrycja

    2005-01-01

    According to the current Polish legislation on occupational health services, occupational medicine physicians should perform workplace health promotion (WHP) activities as a part of their professional work. The concept of workplace health promotion or health promotion programs, however, has not been defined in this legislation in any way. Therefore, two essential questions arise. First, what is the physicians' attitude towards workplace health issues and second, what is actually carried out under the label of health promotion? The main objective of the research described in this paper was to answer these questions. The survey was carried out by the National Center for Workplace Health Promotion in 2002. A questionnaire prepared by the Center for the purpose of this survey was sent to a random sample of occupational medicine physicians. The results of the survey showed that 53% of occupational medicine physicians consider WHP just as a new name for prophylactics. On the other hand almost all of the respondents (94%) agree that occupational medicine physicians should perform WHP activities and find them useful in improving patients' health (78%). The main obstacle for the development of this activity in the perception of physicians is the lack of interest in workplace health promotion among employers (86%). In the modern understanding of workplace health promotion concept this type of intervention includes not only safety measures and health education, but also a profound organizational change that allows employers, employees and social partners to improve wellbeing of people at work. Each of such projects should facilitate changes necessary to create a health promoting workplace. It also needs a skilled leader--well trained and aware of a multidisciplinary dimension of WHP interventions. Occupational medicine specialists should become natural partners of employers and employees. The majority of the occupational medicine physicians, however, are not sufficiently

  3. [Workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Paolo; Conway, Paul Maurice; Neri, Luca; Punzi, Silvia; Camerino, Donatella; Costa, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    To assess the relationship between workplace bullying and sickness absenteeism in a large sample of Italian workers. A cross-sectional study conducted by means of questionnaires. In all, 8,992 subjects filled in a questionnaire to detect workplace bullying, the presence of work stress factors and days of sickness absence in the last year. Workplace bullying and psychosocial stressor were measured by the means of the CDL 2.0 questionnaire. Days of sickness absence reported by the subjects. On average, days of sickness absence were 7.4, and 7.2% of the respondents were defined as bullied. Results from logistic regression analyses showed that a workplace bullying was associated with more days of sickness absence after controlling for gender, age, professional qualification, company sector and juridical nature and other psychosocial factors (men: OR =1.62; women: OR =2.15). The present study confirms that workers exposed to a workplace bullying reported higher sickness absenteeism as compared with non-exposed subjects, also when a potentially highly stressful work environment is considered. The results of the present study support that workplace bullying may be viewed as an extreme stressful condition. Interventions to avoid workplace bullying not only favoure workers' health, but also avoid the company costs associated with workers' sickness absenteeism.

  4. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  5. Misconduct by researchers and authors Malas prácticas de investigadores y autores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Marcovitch

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most scientific research is conducted properly and reported honestly but a few authors invent or manipulate data to reach fraudulent conclusions. Other types of misconduct include deliberately providing incomplete or improperly processed data, failure to follow ethical procedures, failure to obtain informed consent, breach of patient confidentiality, improper award or denial of authorship, failure to declare competing interests, duplicate submission and plagiarism. Editors, peer reviewers and publishers may also act wrongly. Good practice guidelines are available from the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (The Vancouver Group and the Council of Science Editors, amongst others. The Committee on Publication Ethics provides flowcharts to assist editors deal with authorial misconduct. Examples are provided of cases involving epidemiological or public health research, reported to COPE over the last 9 years. Suggestions are offered as to how misconduct might be handled in future.Aunque la mayor parte de la investigación científica se realiza y comunica de manera honesta, algunos pocos autores inventan o manipulan los datos para obtener conclusiones fraudulentas. Hay, además, otros tipos de malos comportamientos, como proporcionar deliberadamente información incompleta o mal procesada, vulnerar la confidencialidad de los pacientes, atribuir o denegar improcedentemente la autoría, no declarar algún conflicto de interés, publicar de forma duplicada y el plagio. Los editores y revisores externos también pueden actuar erradamente. El Comité Internacional de Directores de Revistas Médicas (el Grupo de Vancouver y el Consejo de Editores Científicos han elaborado guías de buena práctica. El Comité de Ética en Publicación proporciona diagramas para ayudar a los editores a afrontar los casos de mal comportamiento. En este trabajo se comentan algunos casos prácticos de mala práctica en investigación en epidemiología y salud p

  6. Understanding good practice in workplace coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumpopoulou, Dimitra

    2017-01-01

    Workplace coaching is growing rapidly and many organisations use it as a way to motivate and support their employees in their careers. This paper is a theoretical paper that draws upon the authors' experiences of workplace coaching. The author discusses the main aspects of successful workplace coaching while it summarises the most important behaviours and attitudes of an effective workplace coach.

  7. Workplace Learning as a Cultural Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Nicky

    2001-01-01

    Despite the raised status of learning in workplace culture, workplace learning may be experienced as oppressive or disempowering when it must conform to cultural norms or learner differences are made invisible. Workplace educators should understand culture as an evolving entity and challenge oppressive workplace practices. (Contains 16…

  8. Workplace bullying: the effectiveness of a workplace program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Sharon J; Sheridan, Daniel J; Jones, Ruth A; Speroni, Karen Gabel

    2013-08-01

    Workplace bullying can not only cost thousands of dollars to replace an affected nurse, but also have detrimental economic effects on health care organizations. Occupational health nurses can provide leadership in preventing or eliminating workplace bullying. This pilot study determined that attendance at a cognitive rehearsal program decreased workplace bullying. The study used an Internet-based survey administered 6 months after nurses completed the 2-hour cognitive rehearsal program. Half of the nurses reported witnessing bullying behaviors since attending the program; 70% of the nurses reported changing their own behaviors following the course; and 40% of the nurses reported a decrease in bullying behaviors during the past 6 months. Although 70% of the nurses believed they could intervene in bullying situations, only 16% reported they responded to bullying at the time of occurrence. This study illuminates the need to continue searching for other effective methods to prevent and manage workplace bullying. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Antiferromagnetic character of workplace stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Jun-Ichiro; Akitomi, Tomoaki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo

    2011-07-01

    We study the nature of workplace stress from the aspect of human-human interactions. We investigated the distribution of Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale scores, a measure of the degree of stress, in workplaces. We found that the degree of stress people experience when around other highly stressed people tends to be low, and vice versa. A simulation based on a model describing microlevel human-human interaction reproduced this observed phenomena and revealed that the energy state of a face-to-face communication network correlates with workplace stress macroscopically.

  10. ESP Learners’ Needs Related Learning for the Workplace: A Pragmatic Study for Business School

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Ahmed Liton

    2015-01-01

    Typically, an ESP course is designed to develop students’ communication skills not solely for the office, but also for useful in a specific workplace. Unfortunately, ESP for Schools of Business at some South-East Asian universities is not being very effective in promoting students’ performance in the workplace. Behind this backdrop, this paper explores learners’ pragmatic workplace learning practices that impact on their profession and have immediate applicability to their prof...

  11. Air sampling in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, E.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.; Strom, D.J.; Cicotte, G.R.; Wiblin, C.M.; McGuire, S.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides technical information on air sampling that will be useful for facilities following the recommendations in the NRC's Regulatory Guide 8.25, Revision 1, ''Air sampling in the Workplace.'' That guide addresses air sampling to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations on radiation protection, 10 CFR Part 20. This report describes how to determine the need for air sampling based on the amount of material in process modified by the type of material, release potential, and confinement of the material. The purposes of air sampling and how the purposes affect the types of air sampling provided are discussed. The report discusses how to locate air samplers to accurately determine the concentrations of airborne radioactive materials that workers will be exposed to. The need for and the methods of performing airflow pattern studies to improve the accuracy of air sampling results are included. The report presents and gives examples of several techniques that can be used to evaluate whether the airborne concentrations of material are representative of the air inhaled by workers. Methods to adjust derived air concentrations for particle size are described. Methods to calibrate for volume of air sampled and estimate the uncertainty in the volume of air sampled are described. Statistical tests for determining minimum detectable concentrations are presented. How to perform an annual evaluation of the adequacy of the air sampling is also discussed

  12. Moving beyond assumptions of deviance: The reconceptualization and measurement of workplace gossip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Daniel L; Brown, Douglas J; Liang, Lindie Hanyu

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research from other academic fields arguing that gossip is an important and potentially functional behavior, organizational research has largely assumed that gossip is malicious talk. This has resulted in the proliferation of gossip items in deviance scales, effectively subsuming workplace gossip research into deviance research. In this paper, the authors argue that organizational research has traditionally considered only a very narrow subset of workplace gossip, focusing almost exclusively on extreme negative cases which are not reflective of typical workplace gossip behavior. Instead of being primarily malicious, typical workplace gossip can be either positive or negative in nature and may serve important functions. It is therefore recommended that workplace gossip be studied on its own, independent of deviance. To facilitate this, the authors reconceptualize the workplace gossip construct and then develop a series of general-purpose English- and Chinese-language workplace gossip scales. Using 8 samples (including qualitative, multisource, multiwave, and multicultural data), the authors demonstrate the construct validity, reliability, cross-cultural measurement invariance, and acceptable psychometric properties of the workplace gossip scales. Relationships are demonstrated between workplace gossip and a variety of other organizational variables and processes, including uncertainty, emotion validation, self-esteem, norm enforcement, networking, influence, organizational justice, performance, deviance, and turnover. Future directions in workplace gossip research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Campus Sexual Misconduct: Restorative Justice Approaches to Enhance Compliance With Title IX Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Mary P; Wilgus, Jay K; Williamsen, Kaaren M

    2014-07-01

    Campus response to sexual violence is increasingly governed by federal law and administrative guidance such as the 1972 Title IX, the 2011 Dear Colleague Letter (DCL), and the 2013 Violence Against Women Act. Educational institutions are directed to expand disciplinary responses and establish coordinated action to eliminate sexual violence and remedy its effects. Compliance fosters a quasi-criminal justice approach not suited to all sexual misconduct and inconsistent with developing practice in student conduct management. This article envisions restorative justice (RJ) enhancements to traditional student conduct processes that maintain compliance, expand options, empower victim choice, and increase responsiveness to DCL aims. The article (1) defines sexual violence and sexual harassment within the DCL scope, (2) elaborates the DCL position on permissible alternative resolutions and differentiates mediation from RJ, (3) sequences action steps from case report to finalization, including both restorative and traditional justice pathways; and (4) discusses building support for innovation beginning with existing campus response. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Role of editors and journals in detecting and preventing scientific misconduct: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ana; Katavic, Vedran; Marusic, Matko

    2007-09-01

    Scientific journals have a central place in protecting research integrity because published articles are the most visible documentation of research. We used SWOT analysis to audit (S)trengths and (W)eaknesses as internal and (O)pportunities and (T)hreats as external factors affecting journals' responsibility in addressing research integrity issues. Strengths include editorial independence, authority and expertise, power to formulate editorial policies, and responsibility for the integrity of published records. Weaknesses stem from having no mandate for legal action, reluctance to get involved, and lack of training. Opportunities for editors are new technologies for detecting misconduct, policies by editorial organization or national institutions, and greater transparency of published research. Editors face threats from the lack of legal regulation and culture of research integrity in academic communities, lack of support from stakeholders in scientific publishing, and different pressures. Journal editors cannot be the policing force of the scientific community but they should actively ensure the integrity of the scientific record.

  15. Addressing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkis, Elias

    2014-09-01

    Although generally considered a childhood disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can persist into adulthood and impede achievement in the workplace. Core ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity can be associated with poor organization, time management, and interpersonal relationships. Employment levels, earning power, and productivity are reduced among individuals with ADHD compared with those without ADHD. Furthermore, the costs of employing individuals with ADHD are higher because of work absences and lost productivity. The primary care provider plays an integral role in managing ADHD symptoms and providing the necessary resources that will help individuals with ADHD succeed in the workplace. Pharmacotherapy can reduce ADHD symptoms and improve functioning; however, it is also important to consider how positive traits associated with ADHD, such as creative thinking, can be used in the workplace. Workplace accommodations and behavioral therapies, such as coaching, can also enhance time management and organizational skills. This review describes how ADHD symptoms affect workplace behaviors, the effect of ADHD on employment and workplace performance, and the management of ADHD in working adults.

  16. Recessions are Bad for Workplace Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Wuellrich, J.P.; Zweimuller, J.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace accidents are an important economic phenomenon. Yet, the pro-cyclical fl uctuations in workplace accidents are not well understood. They could be related to fluctuations in effort and working hours, but workplace accidents may also be affected by reporting behavior. Our paper uses unique data on workplace accidents from an Austrian matched worker-firm dataset to study in detail how economic incentives affect workplace accidents. We find that workers who reported an accident in a par...

  17. Workplace Communication Practices and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...... symbolic power and this is reflected in the linguistic ecosystem of the various work settings. In this chapter, we discuss issues around language use, language policy and language ideology in the workplace as well as gatekeeping. We draw on our recently completed and ongoing work as well as illustrative...

  18. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    2010-01-01

    some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part......Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key...... words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find...

  19. Misconduct, Marginality and Editorial Practices in Management, Business and Economics Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The paper presents data on the two problems of misconduct and marginality in management, business and economics (MBE) journals and their practices to combat these problems. Design Data was collected in three phases. First, all publicly retracted papers in MBE journals were identified through keywords searches in 7 major databases (n = 1329 journals). Second, a focused survey was distributed to editors involved in such retractions (n = 64; response rate = 28%). Finally, a survey was administered to all active journals in the seven databases to collect data on editors’ perceptions and practices related to the two problems (n = 937, response rate = 31.8%). Frequency analyses, cross tabulations, and qualitative analyses of open answers were used to examine the data. Results 184 retracted papers in MBE journals were identified in 2005–2015 (no retraction was found before 2005). From 2005–2007 to 2012–2015, the number of retractions increased by a factor ten with an all-time high in 2015. The survey to journals with reported retractions illustrates how already a few cases of suspected misconduct put a strain on the editorial workload. The survey to all active journals revealed that 42% of the respondents had started to use software to screen all submitted papers, and that a majority recognized the problem of marginality, as indicated by salami-style submissions. According to some editors, reviewers easily spot such submissions whereas others argued that authors may submit thinly sliced papers in parallel to several journals, which means that this practice is only discovered post-publication. The survey question on ways to support creative contributions stimulated a rich response of ideas regarding editorial vision, engaged boards and developmental approaches. The study uses data from three specialized fields, but its findings may be highly relevant to many journals in the social sciences. PMID:27454761

  20. Misconduct, Marginality and Editorial Practices in Management, Business and Economics Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz; Berggren, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents data on the two problems of misconduct and marginality in management, business and economics (MBE) journals and their practices to combat these problems. Data was collected in three phases. First, all publicly retracted papers in MBE journals were identified through keywords searches in 7 major databases (n = 1329 journals). Second, a focused survey was distributed to editors involved in such retractions (n = 64; response rate = 28%). Finally, a survey was administered to all active journals in the seven databases to collect data on editors' perceptions and practices related to the two problems (n = 937, response rate = 31.8%). Frequency analyses, cross tabulations, and qualitative analyses of open answers were used to examine the data. 184 retracted papers in MBE journals were identified in 2005-2015 (no retraction was found before 2005). From 2005-2007 to 2012-2015, the number of retractions increased by a factor ten with an all-time high in 2015. The survey to journals with reported retractions illustrates how already a few cases of suspected misconduct put a strain on the editorial workload. The survey to all active journals revealed that 42% of the respondents had started to use software to screen all submitted papers, and that a majority recognized the problem of marginality, as indicated by salami-style submissions. According to some editors, reviewers easily spot such submissions whereas others argued that authors may submit thinly sliced papers in parallel to several journals, which means that this practice is only discovered post-publication. The survey question on ways to support creative contributions stimulated a rich response of ideas regarding editorial vision, engaged boards and developmental approaches. The study uses data from three specialized fields, but its findings may be highly relevant to many journals in the social sciences.

  1. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  2. [Evaluation of a workplace health promotion program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forette, Françoise; Brieu, Marie-Anne; Lemasson, Hervé; Salord, Jean-Claude; Le Pen, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Some studies suggest that a workplace prevention programme could reduce health inequalities related to education level and improve the health status of the employees. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the advantages for a company to implement a health prevention programme in the workplace in order to: 1-improve health literacy 2 - change health-related behaviours 3-improve the company image. A "before - after" methodology was used in a population of 2153 employees of three companies. Three areas of prevention were considered: nutrition, physical activity and prevention of back pain. The successive steps of the EBS programme included general communication, group workshops and individual coaching. Data collection was carried out using anonymous questionnaires sent by e-mail. A global assessment was performed based on the companies' pooled data, with separate analysis according to the steps of the programme. The programme mobilized employees with participation rates ranging from 25% to 45.5%. After completion of the full programme, 77.5% of respondents reported an improvement of their health knowledge versus 50.3% of those who only received general communication. Behavioural modification was observed, especially in the fields of nutrition and back pain.. EBS can be considered to be a vector of the company image for almost 7 out of 10 employees. A health prevention education programme provided by the company in the workplace mobilizes employees and contributes to improvement of health knowledge and behaviour change. All approaches tested were important and applicable to various types of companies or workers.

  3. GENDER ISSUES IN WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    STAICULESCU Ana Rodica

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to the problem of workplace gender violence and the power relationships between males and females in organizational theory. Victimization based on gender is afflicting society as a whole, but is also relevant to the construction of social attitudes at the workplace. Thus, we will present how the context of work relationships can be affected by acts of verbal and physical intimidation engaged by gender inequality and what are the consequences for managers. Moreover, we...

  4. The Ethics of Workplace Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen

    2004-01-01

    A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper.......A discussion of the ethical dilemmas confronting occupational health and safety professionals when they are involved in workplace interventions. Case stories from the Danish occupational health service are used as the emperical point of departure for paper....

  5. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  6. Task-based exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Seunghon; Yoon, Chungsik; Lee, Euiseung; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Donguk; Chung, Eunkyo; Kim, Pilje; Lee, Byoungcheun

    2012-01-01

    Although task-based sampling is, theoretically, a plausible approach to the assessment of nanoparticle exposure, few studies using this type of sampling have been published. This study characterized and compared task-based nanoparticle exposure profiles for engineered nanoparticle manufacturing workplaces (ENMW) and workplaces that generated welding fumes containing incidental nanoparticles. Two ENMW and two welding workplaces were selected for exposure assessments. Real-time devices were utilized to characterize the concentration profiles and size distributions of airborne nanoparticles. Filter-based sampling was performed to measure time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, and off-line analysis was performed using an electron microscope. Workplace tasks were recorded by researchers to determine the concentration profiles associated with particular tasks/events. This study demonstrated that exposure profiles differ greatly in terms of concentrations and size distributions according to the task performed. The size distributions recorded during tasks were different from both those recorded during periods with no activity and from the background. The airborne concentration profiles of the nanoparticles varied according to not only the type of workplace but also the concentration metrics. The concentrations measured by surface area and the number concentrations measured by condensation particle counter, particulate matter 1.0, and TWA mass concentrations all showed a similar pattern, whereas the number concentrations measured by scanning mobility particle sizer indicated that the welding fume concentrations at one of the welding workplaces were unexpectedly higher than were those at workplaces that were engineering nanoparticles. This study suggests that a task-based exposure assessment can provide useful information regarding the exposure profiles of nanoparticles and can therefore be used as an exposure assessment tool.

  7. Changing families, changing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income distribution. Between 1975 and 2009, the labor force rate of mothers with children under age eighteen increased from 47.4 percent to 71.6 percent. Mothers today also return to work much sooner after the birth of a child than did mothers half a century ago. High divorce rates and a sharp rise in the share of births to unmarried mothers mean that more children are being raised by a single parent, usually their mother. Workplaces too have changed, observes Bianchi. Today's employees increasingly work nonstandard hours. The well-being of highly skilled workers and less-skilled workers has been diverging. For the former, work hours may be long, but income has soared. For lower-skill workers, the lack of "good jobs" disconnects fathers from family obligations. Men who cannot find work or have low earnings potential are much less likely to marry. For low-income women, many of whom are single parents, the work-family dilemma is how to care adequately for children and work enough hours to support them financially. Jobs for working-class and lower middle-class workers are relatively stable, except in economic downturns, but pay is low, and both parents must work full time to make ends meet. Family income is too high to qualify for government subsidized child care, but too low to afford high-quality care in the private market. These families struggle to have a reasonable family life and provide for their family's economic well-being. Bianchi concludes that the "work and family" problem has no one solution because it is not one problem. Some workers need more work and more money. Some need to take time off around the birth of a child

  8. Workplace violence and its effect on burnout and turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shiying; Lin, Shaowei; Ruan, Qishuang; Li, Huangyuan; Wu, Siying

    2016-11-01

    The present study was to evaluate workplace violence and examine its effect on job burnout and turnover attempt among medical staff in China. A total of 2,020 medical employees were selected from Fujian province by using stratified cluster sampling method. The Chinese version of the Workplace Violence Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey were used to measure the workplace violence and job burnout, respectively. Other potential influencing factors for job burnout and turnover attempt were collected using a structured questionnaire. The incidence of workplace violence among medical staff was 48.0%. Workplace violence had a positive correlation with emotional exhaustion and cynicism and a negative correlation with professional efficacy. Workplace violence, marital status, employment type, working time (≥ 10 h/day), performance recognition, and life satisfaction were significant predictors for turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff.

  9. Workplace analysis and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guen, B.; Bosquet, Ph.; Chevillard, S.; Gauron, Ch.; Lallemand, J.; Lombard, J.; Menetrier, F.; Feuardent, J.; Maccia, C.; Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Donnarieix, D.; Garrigou, A.; Gauthereau, V.; Truchi, F.; Chardin, J.; Debouck, F.; Clairand, I.; Amabile, J.Ch.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Roussille, F.; Witschger, O.; Feuardent, J.; Scanff, P.; Rannou, A.

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers the slides of the available presentations given during this conference day. Fifteen presentations out of 16 are assembled in the document and deal with: 1 - the evolution of doses received by workers (J. Feuardent); 2 - evaluation of extremities dosimetry among interventional radiology practitioners (L. Donadille); 3 - practical guide for the realisation of workplace dosimetry studies presenting a ionizing radiation exposure risk: and example in nuclear medicine (J.L. Rehel); 4 - workplace studies in radiotherapy-curietherapy (D. Donnarieix); 5 - from dosimetry to physical intensity: the case of heat insulation activities (A. Garrigou and C. Piccadaci); 6 - the consideration of human factor during facility modifications (V. Gauthereau); 7 - how to carry out a workplace analysis in gamma-graphy? (F. Truchi); 8 - workplace studies in the framework of dismantling activities (J. Chardin); 9 - team synergy (F. Debouck); 10 - adaptation of individual dosimetry to the workplace: the case of external exposure (I. Clairand); 11 - technical aspects of the evaluation of ionizing radiations exposure induced by a new interventional radiology procedure (J.C. Amabile); 12 - the point of view of a radioprotection skilled person in a nuclear medicine service (J.M. Vrigneaud); 13 - workplace studies for the unique document (F. Roussille); 14 - occupational exposure to manufactured nano-particles: issues and knowledge status (O. Witschger); 15 - toxicological risk of nano-particles: 'health impact'? (S. Chevillard). (J.S.)

  10. Developing a workplace resilience instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallak, Larry A; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2016-05-27

    Resilience benefits from the use of protective factors, as opposed to risk factors, which are associated with vulnerability. Considerable research and instrument development has been conducted in clinical settings for patients. The need existed for an instrument to be developed in a workplace setting to measure resilience of employees. This study developed and tested a resilience instrument for employees in the workplace. The research instrument was distributed to executives and nurses working in the United States in hospital settings. Five-hundred-forty completed and usable responses were obtained. The instrument contained an inventory of workplace resilience, a job stress questionnaire, and relevant demographics. The resilience items were written based on previous work by the lead author and inspired by Weick's [1] sense-making theory. A four-factor model yielded an instrument having psychometric properties showing good model fit. Twenty items were retained for the resulting Workplace Resilience Instrument (WRI). Parallel analysis was conducted with successive iterations of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Respondents were classified based on their employment with either a rural or an urban hospital. Executives had significantly higher WRI scores than nurses, controlling for gender. WRI scores were positively and significantly correlated with years of experience and the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire. An instrument to measure individual resilience in the workplace (WRI) was developed. The WRI's four factors identify dimensions of workplace resilience for use in subsequent investigations: Active Problem-Solving, Team Efficacy, Confident Sense-Making, and Bricolage.

  11. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza-Montes, Antonio; Muniz, Noel M.; Montero-Simó, María José; Araque-Padilla, Rafael Angel

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08). The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers. PMID:23887621

  12. Workplace Bullying among Healthcare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Montero-Simó

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to assess consistent predictors through the use of a sample that includes different actors from the healthcare work force to identify certain key elements in a set of job-related organizational contexts. The utilized data were obtained from the 5th European Working Conditions Survey, conducted in 2010 by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. In light of these objectives, we collected a subsample of 284 health professionals, some of them from the International Standard Classification of Occupations—subgroup 22—(ISCO-08. The results indicated that the chance of a healthcare worker referring to him/herself as bullied increases among those who work on a shift schedule, perform monotonous and rotating tasks, suffer from work stress, enjoy little satisfaction from their working conditions, and do not perceive opportunities for promotions in their organizations. The present work summarizes an array of outcomes and proposes within the usual course of events that workplace bullying could be reduced if job demands were limited and job resources were increased. The implications of these findings could assist human resource managers in facilitating, to some extent, good social relationships among healthcare workers.

  13. Ombuds’ corner: Workplace incivility

    CERN Multimedia

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   In 2011, the Canadian HR Reporter published several articles by Sharone Bar-David on workplace incivility (I would encourage you to read them here). These articles can shed some light on an internal issue here at CERN: what happens when there are violations of the Code of Conduct that we may face every day? Such incivilities can fly under the organizational radar and are not up to the level of any administrative or disciplinary action foreseen in the CERN Staff Rules and Regulations. However, if such breaches in respectful behaviour are tolerated continuously and nothing is done about them, they can create a toxic work climate. Furthermore, such a distortion of human relations...

  14. Spirituality in the Healthcare Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia Baldacchino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality involves a sense of connectedness, meaning making and transcendence. There is abundant published research that focuses on the importance of spirituality to patients and their families during times of illness and distress. However over the last decade there has also been a growing awareness about the importance of considering the need to address peoples’ spiritual needs in the workplace. Engaging in ones own personal spirituality involves connecting with the inner self, becoming more self aware of ones humanity and limitations. Engaging with ones personal spirituality can also mean that people begin to greater find meaning and purpose in life and at work. This may be demonstrated in the workplace by collegial relationships and teamwork. Those who engage with their own spirituality also engage more easily with others through a connectedness with other staff and by aligning their values with the respective organization if they fit well with ones personal values. Workplace spirituality is oriented towards self-awareness of an inner life which gives meaning, purpose and nourishment to the employees’ dynamic relationships at the workplace and is eventually also nourished by meaningful work. Exercising ones personal spirituality contributes towards generating workplace spirituality. Essentially acting from ones own personal spirituality framework by being in doing can contribute towards a person becoming a healing and therapeutic presence for others, that is nourishing in many workplaces. Personal spirituality in healthcare can be enhanced by: reflection in and on action; role-modeling; taking initiative for active presence in care; committing oneself to the spiritual dimension of care; and, integrating spirituality in health caregivers’ education. As spirituality is recognized as becoming increasingly important for patients in healthcare, increasing educational opportunities are now becoming available for nurses internationally that

  15. Racial/Ethnic Workplace Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Laura J.; Ornelas, India J.; Lyles, Courtney R.; Williams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Experiences of discrimination are associated with tobacco and alcohol use, and work is a common setting where individuals experience racial/ethnic discrimination. Few studies have evaluated the association between workplace discrimination and these behaviors, and none have described associations across race/ethnicity. Purpose To examine the association between workplace discrimination and tobacco and alcohol use in a large, multistate sample of U.S. adult respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey Reactions to Race Module (2004–2010). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported workplace discrimination and tobacco (current and daily smoking) and alcohol use (any and heavy use, and binge drinking) among all participants and stratified by race/ethnicity, adjusting for relevant covariates. Data were analyzed in 2013. Results Among respondents, 70,080 completed the workplace discrimination measure. Discrimination was more common among black non-Hispanic (21%), Hispanic (12%), and other race respondents (11%) than white non-Hispanics (4%) (pdiscrimination was associated with current smoking (risk ratio [RR]=1.32, 95% CI=1.19, 1.47), daily smoking (RR=1.41, 95% CI=1.24, 1.61), and heavy drinking (RR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01, 1.22), but not binge or any drinking. Among Hispanics, workplace discrimination was associated with increased heavy and binge drinking, but not any alcohol use or smoking. Workplace discrimination among black non-Hispanics and white Non-Hispanics was associated with increased current and daily smoking, but not alcohol outcomes. Conclusions Workplace discrimination is common, associated with smoking and alcohol use, and merits further policy attention given the impact of these behaviors on morbidity and mortality. PMID:25441232

  16. Disciplinary responses to misconduct among female prison inmates with mental illness, substance use disorders, and co-occurring disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Kimberly; Belenko, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Most female inmates have mental health, substance use, or co-occurring disorders (CODs), which can create greater difficulty adjusting to incarceration and higher rates of prison misconduct. The response of prison officials to institutional misbehaviors has important implications for female inmates' experiences while incarcerated, their likelihood of parole, and the clinical course of their condition. This article examined whether disciplinary actions are more severe for women with CODs. Data were provided by the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections for all female state prison inmates incarcerated between January 1, 2007, and July 30, 2009 (N = 2,279). The final sample of 211 women included those who had committed a minor misconduct during their incarceration. Disorder categories were created based on intake assessments, and multivariate models were estimated to determine the effect of disorder category on whether the prison imposed a severe or minor disciplinary response to the misconduct. The odds of receiving severe disciplinary responses to minor misconduct was significantly greater for women with CODs than those with the singular disorders of mental illness or substance abuse disorders, or those with no disorders. Findings suggest correctional institutions are responding in a punitive manner to the symptomatic manifestations of CODs in female inmates. These findings suggest the importance of screening instruments in correctional settings that assess for the presence of dual disorders. In addition, correctional administrators must implement training protocols for correctional officers and staff on the complexity of CODs and the ability to identify behavioral and emotional symptoms associated with this vulnerable subset of the offender population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. ESP Learners' Needs Related Learning for the Workplace: A Pragmatic Study for Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liton, Hussain Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Typically, an ESP course is designed to develop students' communication skills not solely for the office, but also for useful in a specific workplace. Unfortunately, ESP for Schools of Business at some South-East Asian universities is not being very effective in promoting students' performance in the workplace. Behind this backdrop, this paper…

  18. A Web-Based Therapeutic Workplace for the Treatment of Drug Addiction and Chronic Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Wong, Conrad J.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Hampton, Jacqueline; Sylvest, Christine E.; Dillon, Erin M.; Wentland, R. Daniel

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a Web-based therapeutic workplace intervention designed to promote heroin and cocaine abstinence and train and employ participants as data entry operators. Patients are paid to participate in training and then to perform data entry jobs in a therapeutic workplace business. Salary is linked to abstinence by requiring patients…

  19. Relationship between Workplace Spatial Settings and Occupant-Perceived Support for Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Ying; Loftness, Vivian; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Powell, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    The increasingly collaborative nature of knowledge-based work requires workplaces to support both dynamic interactions and concentrated work, both of which are critical for collaboration performance. Given the prevalence of open-plan settings, this requirement has created new challenges for workplace design. Therefore, an understanding of the…

  20. Information behavior and workplace procedures: The case of emergency-department triage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    In workplace contexts the performance of many information tasks is prescribed in procedures. Knowledge of the relationship between workplace procedures and actors’ real information behavior is important to understanding information behavior. We explore this relationship by looking at how emergency...... clinicians’ information behavior relates to clinical triage guidelines....

  1. Improving workplace-based assessment and feedback by an E-portfolio enhanced with learning analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke; Donkers, Jeroen; Slof, Bert; Moonen-van Loon, Joyce; van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Eric; Badii, Atta; Serban, Ovidiu; Ten Cate, Olle

    Electronic portfolios (E-portfolios) are crucial means for workplace-based assessment and feedback. Although E-portfolios provide a useful approach to view each learner’s progress, so far options for personalized feedback and potential data about a learner’s performances at the workplace often

  2. Improving Workplace-Based Assessment and Feedback by an E-Portfolio Enhanced with Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, Marieke; Donkers, Jeroen; Slof, Bert; Moonen-van Loon, Joyce; van Tartwijk, Jan; Driessen, Eric; Badii, Atta; Serban, Ovidiu; Ten Cate, Olle

    2017-01-01

    Electronic portfolios (E-portfolios) are crucial means for workplace-based assessment and feedback. Although E-portfolios provide a useful approach to view each learner's progress, so far options for personalized feedback and potential data about a learner's performances at the workplace often remain unexploited. This paper advocates that…

  3. 45 CFR 630.230 - How and when must I identify workplaces?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How and when must I identify workplaces? 630.230 Section 630.230 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE..., performers in concert halls or radio studios). (c) If you identified workplaces to the National Science...

  4. Radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivyer, C.R.; Gregory, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Guide has been prepared for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). Following the guidance is not compulsory and you are free to take other action. However if you do follow the guidance you will normally be doing enough to comply with the law. Health and Safety Inspectors seek to secure compliance with the law and may refer to this guidance as illustrating good practice. In the past, concern about exposure of employees to radon has largely centred on the mining environment. In recent times, with increased knowledge and mapping of radon levels in homes, attention has increasingly turned to radon exposure in buildings used for work purposes. Now there is a considerable fund of information to show that employees in some buildings can receive very significant radiation doses from radon. Surveys show that levels of radon tend to be higher in buildings with small rooms, such as offices rather than larger factory and warehouse constructions. The particular problem is that the nature of the work process gives no clue as to the radon hazard that may exist, and the employer may be unaware of its presence and how to deal with it. This Guide is aimed principally at employers and those who control buildings used for work purposes, or their representatives. It offers guidance on practical measures for reducing radon levels in workplaces. The guidance should also be of interest and assistance to those, such as surveyors and builders, concerned with specifying and carrying out the necessary remedial measures. Advice is provided for the majority of building types and construction situations likely to be encountered in larger non-domestic buildings. For buildings where construction is similar to that found in dwellings the guidance published by BRE on remedial measures for dwellings should be used. BRE prepared this Guide with assistance from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and Cornwall County Council under contract

  5. Determination of cyanamide in workplace air by high-performance liquid chromatography%工作场所空气中氨基氰测定的高效液相色谱法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉萍; 李清钊; 郑国颖; 关维俊; 王茜; 马冬

    2014-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determining cyanamide in workplace air by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC).Methods Air samples were collected from the workplace using the shock absorption tube containing water solution at a rate of 2.8~3.0 ml/min for 60 min; dansyl chloride was used as a derivatization reagent to conduct pre-column derivatization,and the procedure was as follows:acetone solution (2.5 ml),mixed solution (1.0 ml) containing 0.016 mol/L Na2CO3 and 0.184 mol/L NaHC03,and 10 mg/ml acetone solution of dansyl chloride (0.5 ml) were added into the samples,and reaction proceeded in a water bath (50 ℃) for 1 h.HPLC was performed on an ODS C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm,5 μm) with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (35:65) at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and a column temperature of 25℃; a fluorescence detector was used at an excitation wavelength of 360 nm and an emission wavelength of 495 nm.Results The minimum detectable concentration of cyanamide was 0.05 μg/ml; a good linear relationship was noted when the concentration of cyanamide was 0.2~100.0 μg/ml; the intraday relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.28%~1.18%,and the interday RSD was 0.22~2.16%; the recovery rate was 95.7%~ 103.0%,and the sampling efficiency was 95.8%~96.9%.Water solution of cyanamide (pH<6.5) could be stable in the dark at room temperature for 7 d.Conclusion This method is stable,reliable,easy to operate,and highly sensitive and suitable for determination of cyanamide in workplace air.%目的 建立工作场所空气中氨基氰测定的高效液相色谱法.方法 工作场所空气样品以水溶液作吸收液,用冲击式吸收管,以2.8~3.0 ml/min速度采集60 ain,以丹磺酰氯为衍生试剂,进行柱前衍生,衍生方法为待测样品中加入2.5 ml丙酮溶液,1.0 ml含0.016 mol/L碳酸钠和0.184 mol/L碳酸氢钠混合溶液,0.5 ml丹磺酰氯丙酮溶液(浓度为10 mg/ml),50℃水浴中反应1h

  6. Reporting Misconduct of a Coworker to Protect a Patient: A Comparison between Experienced Nurses and Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Mansbach

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Whistleblowing is the reporting of illegal, immoral, or illegitimate practices to persons or organizations that may affect the action. The current study compares experienced nurses to nursing students regarding their willingness to blow the whistle to protect a patient’s interests. Methods. 165 participants were divided into two groups: 82 undergraduate nursing students and 83 experienced nurses. Participants responded to two vignettes that described a colleague’s and a manager’s misconduct at work. Results. The nursing students perceived the severity of the misconduct significantly lower compared to the experienced nurses. The nursing students also ranked the internal and external whistleblowing indices higher than the nurses, but the differences did not reach statistical significance. For each of the examined internal and external indices, professional experience was found to be significant in multivariate regression analyses. Conclusions. Even though nursing students perceived the severity of the misconduct significantly lower than the experienced nurses, the students demonstrated a greater readiness to blow the whistle, both internally and externally. Recommendations for handling comparable situations are offered.

  7. Social capital and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo

    2017-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.

  8. HIV disclosure in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroote, S; Vogelaers, D; Koeck, R; Borms, R; De Meulemeester, L; Vandijck, D

    2014-06-01

    As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recruited using flyers and announcements on websites. A total of 54 PLHIV completed the questionnaire, among whom 50 (92·6%) males. Half of the participants did not disclose their HIV status in the workplace, mostly due to being afraid of social or professional consequences. Those who disclosed, reported no changes in the workplace or even reported receiving more empathy. A minority of participants have to take antiretroviral medication at work and they reported no particular problems related to medication intake. Despite improved solidarity and information campaigns, many PLHIV still do not disclose their HIV status in the workplace, most frequently due to fear for discrimination. More actions are warranted, as well as addressing possible self-stigma. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in the workplace posed little or no problems.

  9. Healthcare Workers and Workplace Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tevfik Pinar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence is a threatening worldwide public health problem. Healthcare workers have under particular risk of workplace violence, and they are being exposed to violence 4-16 times more than other service workers. The frequency of violence in the health sector in the world has indicated in different range of results since there is no consistent definition of workplace violence and differences in research methodology (any type of violence: 22,0% - 60,0%; physical violence: 2,6% - 57,0%; verbal violence: 24,3% - 82,0%; sexual harassment: %1,9 - 10,5%. All healthcare workers have right to work in a safe working place. The safety of healthcare workers should deserve the same priority as patient safety. Various risk factors including social, cultural, environmental, organizational and personal elements play a role in the formation of workplace violence that is very important for our country. Considering all those factors, the workplace violence in health sector should be seriously handled and the strategies and policies must be developed for prevention. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2013; 12(3.000: 315-326

  10. Relationship between workplace spirituality and organizational citizenship behavior among nurses through mediation of affective organizational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemipour, Farahnaz; Mohamad Amin, Salmiah; Pourseidi, Bahram

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the relationships between workplace spirituality, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and affective organizational commitment among nurses, and whether affective commitment mediates the relationship between workplace spirituality and OCB. In the present correlational study, a cross-sectional design was employed, and data were collected using a questionnaire-based survey. Based on the random sampling, 305 nurses were chosen and questionnaires were distributed among respondents in four public and general hospitals located in Kerman, Iran. To analyze the data descriptive statistics, Pearson coefficient, simple and multiple regression, and path analyses were also conducted. Workplace spirituality has a positive influence on nurses' OCB and affective commitment. Workplace spirituality explained 16% of the variation in OCB, while it explained 35% of the variation in affective commitment among nurses. Moreover, affective organizational commitment mediated the impact of workplace spirituality on OCB. Workplace spirituality predicts nurses' OCB and affective organizational commitment. It emphasizes benefits from the new perspective of workplace spirituality, particularly among nurses who need to be motivated in their work. This study illustrates that there are potential benefits owing to the positive influence of workplace spirituality on OCB and affective commitment among nurses. Managers of nursing services should consider workplace spirituality and its positive influence on nurses' outcomes in order to improve their performance and, subsequently, the healthcare system. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  11. Workplace violence against nurses: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liuyi; Wang, Anni; Xie, Xia; Zhou, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Yang, Lijun; Zhang, Jingping

    2017-07-01

    Workplace violence is a serious problem for clinical nurses, as it leads to a series of adverse consequences. However, little information is available on the prevalence and influencing factors of workplace violence in China. To determine the prevalence of workplace violence against Chinese nurses, and its influencing factors. A multi-center, cross-sectional study. The seven geographical regions (i.e., northeast, north, central, east, south, northwest, and southwest) of China. Four thousand one hundred and twenty-five nurses. We randomly selected 28 hospitals, located in 14 cities over 13 provinces across the seven geographical regions. We distributed 4125 questionnaires between May 4 and September 23, 2014. The questionnaire included demographic information, the Workplace Violent Incident Questionnaire, the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Professionals, and the Practice Environment Scale of Nursing Work Index. Workplace violence was assessed in terms of physical violence, non-physical violence, sexual harassment, and organized healthcare disturbances. We then performed descriptive analyses and logistic regressions on the collected data. The response rate was 92.97% (n=3835). Additionally, we obtained valid questionnaires from 3004 individuals. Of these, 25.77% reported experiencing physical violence, 63.65% non-physical violence, 2.76% sexual harassment, and 11.72% organized healthcare disturbances. A logistic regression analysis revealed that nurses who have less experience, work a rotating roster, work in emergency rooms and pediatrics departments, have low empathy levels, and who work in poor nursing environments have greater odds of experiencing violence. Experiences of workplace violence are prevalent among Chinese nurses, and several complex factors are associated with a greater risk of such violence, including nurses' personal characteristics, work settings, and work environments. Our results might help nursing managers understand their employees' work

  12. Workplace Communication Practices and Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirilova, Marta; Angouri, Jo

    2017-01-01

    studies from socio and applied linguistics research. Special attention is paid to the notions of symbolic capital and power as well as to language attitudes particularly in relation to linguistic evaluation and ‘common sense’ perceptions of language practice. We explore the relationship between language......This chapter addresses the issue of communication policy in the workplace. Modern workplaces are multinational and multilingual. Both white and blue collar employees interact in languages other than their L1 as part of their daily reality at work. At the same time a number of workplaces have...... introduced a ‘one language policy’ as a strategy to manage linguistic diversity as well as to encourage integration and, allegedly, shared decision making. Research has repeatedly shown, however, that this is a political and ideological decision rather than a purely linguistic one. Languages have different...

  13. Workplace bullying and sickness presenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate exposure to workplace bullying as a potential risk factor for sickness presenteeism (SP), i.e., working while ill. Methods: This study is based on data collected through self-reported questionnaires in a 2-year prospective study on employees...... with missing values, the final samples were composed of 2,865 and 1,331participants in the cross-sectional and prospective analyses, respectively. Results: Modified poisson regression analyses showed that frequent (i.e., daily or weekly) exposure to workplace bullying was associated with reporting 8 or more...... indications of a significant relationship between exposure to frequent workplace bullying and SP, although causal connections could not be established. Methodological and theoretical considerations about study findings are provided, which could be of benefit to future studies examining the impact of being...

  14. A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A meaningful workplace: Framework, space and context. ... PL Steenkamp, JS Basson ... The organisation experiences a loss of productivity, quality, innovation, et cetera ... This is what this article is about: to conceptualise the workplace as ...

  15. Measurements and Monte Carlo calculations of photon energy distributions in MAYAK PA workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smetanin, M.; Vasilenko, E.; Semenov, M.; Xanthos, S.; Takoudis, G.; Clouvas, A.; Silva, J.; Potiriadis, C.

    2008-01-01

    Photon energy distributions were measured in different workplaces of the Mayak Production Association (MPA), which was the first plutonium production plant in the former Soviet Union. In situ gamma spectrometry measurements were performed with a portable germanium detector. The spectral stripping method is used for the conversion of the in situ gamma-ray spectra to photon fluence rate energy distribution. This method requires the simulation of the portable germanium detector, which has been performed based on the MCNP code of Los Alamos. Measured photon fluence rate energy distributions were compared with calculated photon energy distributions (with the MCNP code) in two different workplaces: in the first workplace the geometry exposure was known. On the contrary, in the second workplace, as in most workplaces of MPA, the exposure geometry was unknown. The results obtained from the comparison between the experimental and calculated photon fluence rate energy distributions are presented and discussed. (authors)

  16. Achievements in workplace neutron dosimetry in the last decade: Lessons learned from the EVIDOS project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, R. J.; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Boschung, M.; Coeck, M.; Curzio, G.; D'Errico, F.; Fiechtner, A.; Lillhoek, J. E.; Lacoste, V.; Lindborg, L.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Vanhavere, F.

    2007-01-01

    The availability of active neutron personal dosemeters has made real time monitoring of neutron doses possible. This has obvious benefits, but is only of any real assistance if the dose assessments made are of sufficient accuracy and reliability. Preliminary assessments of the performance of active neutron dosemeters can be made in calibration facilities, but these can never replicate the conditions under which the dosemeter is used in the workplace. Consequently, it is necessary to assess their performance in the workplace, which requires the field in the workplace to be fully characterised in terms of the energy and direction dependence of the fluence. This paper presents an overview of developments in workplace neutron dosimetry but concentrates on the outcomes of the EVIDOS project, which has made significant advances in the characterisation of workplace fields and the analysis of dosemeter responses in those fields. (authors)

  17. Workplace Social Support and Behavioral Health Prior to Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Charlene A; Vasterling, Jennifer J

    2017-06-01

    Preparation and training for long-duration spaceflight bring with them psychosocial stressors potentially affecting the well-being and performance of astronauts, before and during spaceflight. Social support from within the workplace may mitigate behavioral health concerns arising during the preflight period and enhance resiliency before and during extended missions. The purpose of this review was to evaluate evidence addressing the viability of workplace social support as a pre-mission countermeasure, specifically addressing: 1) the observed relationships between workplace social support and behavioral health; 2) perceived need, acceptability, and format preference for workplace social support among high-achievers; 3) potential barriers to delivery/receipt of workplace social support; 4) workplace social support interventions; and 5) delivery timeframe and anticipated duration of workplace social support countermeasure benefits. We conducted an evidence review examining workplace social support in professional contexts sharing one or more characteristics with astronauts and spaceflight. Terms included populations of interest, social support constructs, and behavioral health outcomes. Abstracts of matches were subsequently reviewed for relevance and quality. Research findings demonstrate clear associations between workplace social support and behavioral health, especially following exposure to stress. Further, studies indicate strong need for support and acceptability of support countermeasures, despite barriers. Our review revealed two general formats for providing support (i.e., direct provision of support and training to optimize skills in provision and receipt of support) with potential differentiation of expected duration of benefits, according to format. Workplace social support countermeasures hold promise for effective application during pre-mission phases of long-duration spaceflight. Specific recommendations are provided.Deming CA, Vasterling JJ

  18. Workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freda van der Walt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In order to create competitive advantage in an increasingly turbulent economic environment, sustainability of high performance is crucial. Only a few individuals have the drive, mindset, discipline and ability to sustain high performance on a daily basis. Thus, it is necessary to consider what can be done so that employees can sustain high performance over the long term. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to establish whether spiritual workplaces will enhance employees’ work engagement and thriving at work. Motivation for the study: Two important mechanisms for understanding the human dimension of sustainability are thriving at work and work engagement. However, because work engagement and thriving are affective-motivational states, it is necessary to consider contextual factors that promote these positive states. As work engagement and thriving at work move beyond mere energy, to a sense of connectedness, it seems important that spiritual workplaces are created. Research approach, design and method: The study was quantitative in nature, and data were collected from employees working at small, medium and macro enterprises (SMMEs in one geographical area in South Africa. The final sample consisted of 259 employees. A survey that was cross-sectional in nature was conducted by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Main findings: The findings of the study show that there is a positive and significant relationship between workplace spirituality, work engagement and thriving at work. Furthermore, workplace spirituality significantly influences the variance in both work engagement and thriving at work. Practical or managerial implications: In order for SMMEs to promote work engagement and thriving at work, spiritual workplaces need to be created. Furthermore, emphasis needs to be placed on the work experience, rather than on work outcomes. It is also important that SMMEs develop employees holistically, that they create

  19. Understanding and Influencing Workplace Sedentary Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    NYSSA TEGAN HADGRAFT

    2017-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour (or sitting) is a recently identified chronic disease risk factor. Many adults spend the majority of their working hours sitting, making the workplace a key setting for public health interventions. This thesis aimed to identify factors that influence workplace sitting time and the feasibility of reducing this behaviour. The most prominent factors identified were: the nature of work, social norms and workplace culture, and the workplace physical environment. These findings ...

  20. Workplace Bullying: Curing the Cancer of the American Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glendinning, Peter M.

    2001-01-01

    A literature review concluded that supervisor/supervisee relationships are critical to job satisfaction; workplace bullying in the form of a management style of aggressive and intimidating behaviors is widespread; certain types of organizations foster bullying; and bullying has high costs for the targeted employee and the organization. (Contains…

  1. Workplace accommodations and job success for persons with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Carol Horton

    2011-01-01

    This research seeks to identify job characteristics and workplace policies conducive to the job success of individuals with bipolar disorder, and to examine the interactions between employers and bipolar employees regarding requested workplace accommodations. The study population consists of 39 adults who were in outpatient care and diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorder. Each participant completed a mail-in questionnaire regarding workplace characteristics that would enhance job performance. Primary beneficial work characteristics reported are schedule flexibility, autonomy, and supervisor willingness to provide accommodations. Specific helpful characteristics noted by participants include allowances for working at home, leaves of absence, frequent breaks, barriers between work spaces, control over goal-setting, creativity, and avoidance of jobs with pace set by machinery. Twelve of the 26 workers requested workplace changes, and of the 12 requests, 10 were implemented. Incidents of employer bias were reported. The experiences of the survey participants regarding beneficial workplace accommodations may help to improve the productivity and well-being of other individuals with bipolar disorder.

  2. Burnout and workplace deviance among flight attendants in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Su-Chiun; Hsieh, An-Tien

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between burnout and workplace deviance, identified as a component of job performance, was examined. Burnout was assessed with the Maslach Burnout Inventory which has three dimensions, Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment. Workplace deviance was defined as voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and threatens the well-being of an organization, its members, or both. This was assessed with the Workplace Deviance Scale, measuring the extent to which the participants had engaged in workplace deviant behavior such as taking property from work without permission, making fun of someone at work, or cursing at someone at work. Anonymous questionnaires with stamped envelopes were distributed to a sample of 1,470 Taiwanese flight attendants at the Arrival Hall of Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport. A response rate of 22.45% was obtained. After cases with missing data (n = 27) had been eliminated, the sample totaled 303, 17 men and 286 women. The average age was 28.7 yr. (SD = 4.6). Results of hierarchical regression showed that Depersonalization scores were significantly predictive of Workplace Deviance scores but not Emotional Exhaustion and Reduced Personal Accomplishment scores. Possible reasons and implications of these findings were discussed.

  3. Workplace Learning in Malaysia: The Learner's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Idris, Khairuddin

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a scenario of workplace learning as practiced in Malaysia. Based on survey research, the article describes learner profiles, learning provision and pattern. The analysis shows that Malaysians participate in formal workplace learning as part of their employment activities. Workplace learning in Malaysia is contextual, promoted by…

  4. Recessions are Bad for Workplace Safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Wuellrich, J.P.; Zweimuller, J.

    2011-01-01

    Workplace accidents are an important economic phenomenon. Yet, the pro-cyclical fl uctuations in workplace accidents are not well understood. They could be related to fluctuations in effort and working hours, but workplace accidents may also be affected by reporting behavior. Our paper uses unique

  5. Workplace Counselling in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Issues discussed included conflict of values, counsellor competency problem, workplace counselling as a victimization tool, management of client information, workplace counselling as an excuse or avoidance route, making workplaces mental-health friendly, display of care, preventive mechanism, a risk management tool, ...

  6. Firefighter Workplace Learning: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite there being a significant amount of research investigating workplace learning, research exploring firefighter workplace learning is almost nonexistent. The purpose of this qualitative multi-case study was to explore how firefighters conceptualize, report, and practice workplace learning. The researcher also investigated how firefighters…

  7. Mobbing: Workplace Violence in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Jeanmarie; McDermott, J. Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Incidents of workplace violence are becoming all too common at colleges and universities. Generally, one thinks of shootings and assaults in relation to campus workplace violence. However, mobbing and bullying of faculty by other faculty are types of workplace violence that, while very common, are rarely discussed or reported. This article raises…

  8. Gratitude in Workplace Research: A Rossian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Workplace learning is complex in form. It is explorative, social and creative enquiry, and because it is carried out in the socio-political domain of the workplace, it is potentially exploitative of all who contribute. This paper suggests that the workplace researcher might conceptualise the contributions of participants as benefits and/or gifts,…

  9. Violence in the workplace in Nursing: consequences overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordignon, Maiara; Monteiro, Maria Inês

    2016-01-01

    to reflect on the consequences of workplace violence experienced by nursing professionals. this is a reflection paper based on recent publications related to the subject, particularly researches carried out in Brazil and in other countries. exposure to workplace violence has been associated with health problems in nursing professionals, which may be physical damage, emotional manifestations, and psychic disorders. It also affects the employee performance, his or her family and social interactions. this phenomenon is potentially noxious and costly, for it leads to suffering, illness, absence from work, and even death. This reflection calls attention moreover to the importance of a safe and adequate health care work environment.

  10. Corporate and Workplace Challenges for Work-Life Balance (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    TAKEISHI Emiko

    2011-01-01

    As exemplified by the long working hours, it is well known that the working style of Japanese workers makes it difficult to harmonize work and personal life. On the basis of the current situation, the purpose of this study is to clarify the challenges—particularly in corporate-level and workplace-level—seen while aiming to achieve a work-life balance for employees in Japan. In the study, we compared the working situation, workers' perceptions of their working style, and workplace performance ...

  11. Workplace Spirituality, Computer Self-Efficacy And Emotional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There should therefore, be an ongoing facilitation of self-development for lecturers through opportunities for computer skills acquisition, role identification and role performance to manage emotional labour and the cold fact that spirituality is a key player in human functioning. Keywords: Workplace Spirituality, Computer ...

  12. Modelling Graduate Skill Transfer from University to the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise

    2016-01-01

    This study explores skill transfer in graduates as they transition from university to the workplace. Graduate employability continues to dominate higher education agendas yet the transfer of acquired skills is often assumed. The study is prompted by documented concern with graduate performance in certain employability skills, and prevalent skill…

  13. Workplace Statistical Literacy for Teachers: Interpreting Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Robyn; Chick, Helen

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of the increased use of data in workplace environments, there is a need to understand the demands that are placed on users to make sense of such data. In education, teachers are being increasingly expected to interpret and apply complex data about student and school performance, and, yet it is not clear that they always have the…

  14. Third European Company Survey: Workplace innovation in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Žiauberyté-Jakštiené, R.; Dhondt, S.; Corral, A.; Totterdill, P.; Preenen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace innovation (WPI) is a developed and implemented practice or combination of practices which enables employees to participate in organisational change and renewal and hence improve the quality of working life and organisational performance. This report looks at reasons for enabling WPI,

  15. Workplace Climate and Peer Support as Determinants of Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Although billions of dollars are spent annually on training and development, much about the transfer processes is not well understood. This study investigated the interaction of workplace climate and peer support on the transfer of learning in a corporate field setting. Supervisor ratings of performance on several skill dimensions were obtained…

  16. Measuring Self-Regulated Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Rosa Pia; Milligan, Colin; Littlejohn, Allison; Margaryan, Anoush

    2015-01-01

    In knowledge-intensive industries, the workplace has become a key locus of learning. To perform effectively, knowledge workers must be able to take responsibility for their own developmental needs, and in particular, to regulate their own learning. This paper describes the construction and validation of an instrument (the Self-Regulated Learning…

  17. Working Safely with Robot Workers: Recommendations for the New Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Vladimir; Hearl, Frank; Howard, John

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of robots in performing tasks alongside or together with human coworkers raises novel occupational safety and health issues. The new 21st century workplace will be one in which occupational robotics plays an increasing role. This paper describes the increasing complexity of robots and proposes a number of recommendations for the practice of safe occupational robotics. PMID:26554511

  18. Optimizing a Workplace Learning Pattern: A Case Study from Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavin, Timothy John; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to contribute to current research on team learning patterns. It specifically addresses some negative perceptions of the job performance learning pattern. Design/methodology/approach: Over a period of three years, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered on pilot learning in the workplace. The instructional modes…

  19. Working safely with robot workers: Recommendations for the new workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashov, Vladimir; Hearl, Frank; Howard, John

    2016-01-01

    The increasing use of robots in performing tasks alongside or together with human co-workers raises novel occupational safety and health issues. The new 21st century workplace will be one in which occupational robotics plays an increasing role. This article describes the increasing complexity of robots and proposes a number of recommendations for the practice of safe occupational robotics.

  20. Perspective: Innocence and due diligence: managing unfounded allegations of scientific misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenring, James R

    2010-03-01

    While the incidence of fraud in science is well documented, issues related to the establishment of innocence in cases of fallacious allegations remain unaddressed. In this article, the author uses his own experience to examine issues that arise when investigators are falsely accused of scientific fraud. Investigators must understand the processes in place to protect themselves against false accusations. The present system takes a position of guilty until proven innocent, a concept that is antithetical to American principles of jurisprudence. Yet this stance is acceptable as a requirement for membership in the scientific community, more reflective of the rules within a guild organization. The necessity for proof of innocence by members of the scientific community carries obligations that transcend normal legal assumptions. Scientists must safeguard their reputations by organizing and maintaining all original image files and data relevant to publications and grant proposals. Investigators must be able to provide clear documentation rapidly whenever concerns are raised during the review process. Moreover, peer-reviewed journals must be diligent not only in the identification of fraud but also in providing rapid due process for adjudication of allegations. The success of the scientific guild rules of conduct lies in the practice of due diligence by both scientists and journal editors in questions of scientific misconduct.

  1. Ethics in writing: Learning to stay away from plagiarism and scientific misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Singh, Virendra

    2011-01-01

    Fraudulent data and plagiarized text may corrupt scientific medical literature and ultimately harm patients. By prescribing erroneous treatment to an individual, only single patient is affected; but by presenting incorrect data or transcripts, the whole scientific medical universe is affected. Although both scenarios are highly undesirable, one can assume the magnitude of the effect of latter. Writers of scientific medical literature have been found to be involved in plagiarism and other publication misconducts from time to time irrespective of social, economic and geographic structure. The reason of such behavior is not usually obvious. Easy availability of personal computers has led to widespread dissemination of medical literature. As a result, young scientists are now publishing their research more frequently and efficiently. At the same time, this has increased the tendency to submit hurriedly prepared, poorly drafted and even illegitimate publications. Use of some amount of copy–paste followed by modifications during preparation of a manuscript seems to be common. Therefore, the researchers, especially postgraduate students, should be educated continuously about ethical medical writing. PMID:21712931

  2. Latex allergy in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toraason, M; Sussman, G; Biagini, R; Meade, J; Beezhold, D; Germolec, D

    2000-11-01

    While less than 1% of the general population is sensitized to latex, the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration estimates that 8-12% of health-care workers are sensitized. The major source of workplace exposure is powdered natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves. NRL is harvested from HEVEA: brasiliensis trees and ammoniated to prevent coagulation resulting in the hydrolysis of the latex proteins. Prior to use in manufacturing, the latex is formulated by the addition of multiple chemicals. Thus, human exposure is to a mixture of residual chemicals and hydrolyzed latex peptides. Clinical manifestations include irritant contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis (type IV), and type I immediate hypersensitivity response. Type I (IgE-mediated) NRL allergy includes contact urticaria, systemic urticaria, angioedema, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchospasm, and anaphylaxis. Taking an accurate history, including questions on atopic status, food allergy, and possible reactions to latex devices makes diagnosis of type-I latex allergy possible. To confirm a diagnosis, either in vivo skin prick testing (SPT) or in vitro assays for latex-specific IgE are performed. While the SPT is regarded as a primary confirmatory test for IgE-mediated disease, the absence of a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed HEVEA: brasiliensis latex extract has restricted its use in diagnosis. Serological tests have, therefore, become critically important as alternative diagnostic tests. Three manufacturers currently have FDA clearance for in vitro tests, to detect NRL-specific IgE. The commercially available assays may disagree on the antibody status of an individual serum, which may be due to the assay's detecting anti-NRL IgEs to different allergenic NRL proteins. Sensitized individuals produce specific IgE antibody to at least 10 potent HEVEA: allergens, Hev b 1-Hev b 10, each of which differs in its structure, size, and net charge. The relative content and ratios of Hevs in the

  3. Flipped Learning in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederveld, Allison; Berge, Zane L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to serve as a summary of resources on flipped learning for workplace learning professionals. A recent buzzword in the training world is "flipped". Flipped learning and the flipped classroom are hot topics that have emerged in K-12 education, made their way to the university and are now being noticed…

  4. Diversity in the Workplace. Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    Three papers comprise this symposium on diversity in the workplace. "Factors That Assist and Barriers That Hinder the Success of Diversity Initiatives in Multinational Corporations" (Rose Mary Wentling) reports that factors that assisted in the success were classified under diversity department, human, and work environment; barriers were…

  5. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  6. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...

  7. Managing conflict in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weygman, L

    1986-08-01

    Conflict is inevitable in the workplace. Mounting pressures to reduce staffing levels and improve productivity will almost certainly increase the level of conflict in the hospital setting in the coming months and years. The most effective managers will be those who can handle it constructively.

  8. Your guide to Workplace innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Totterdill, P.; Dhondt, S.; Boermans, S.

    2016-01-01

    Therefore we decided to answer the main question related to workplace innovation: “how can we actually do it?” This short guide will give you practical knowledge, inspire you with great case studies, help you to assess current practice in your organisation, suggest pathways to change, and signpost

  9. Gender, Work and Workplace Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Anita

    1996-01-01

    Argues that adult education discourse about the workplace uncritically adopts management perspectives and pays inadequate attention to gender and power issues. States that understanding gender as an organizing principle provides insights into these issues that can be applied to organizational change. (SK)

  10. Workplace Readiness for Communicating Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Clive

    1996-01-01

    Proposes a model for communicating change about diversity using a workplace-readiness approach. Discusses ways organizational change agents can assess the company's current interpersonal and social dynamics, use appropriate influence strategies, and create effective messages that will appeal to employees and help to achieve the desired acceptance…

  11. Educators' understanding of workplace bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens o a two-dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59 participants' descriptions of workplace bullying. The study found that the theoretical model provided a valuable framework for studying bullying in this context. The analysis of the educators' descriptions provided the following insights about the relational and organisational foundations of workplace bullying: (1 The relational powerless victims are subjected to public humiliation, disregard, isolation and discrimination. The bullying of educators results in escalating apathy and disempowerment, to the detriment of their professional and private wellbeing. (2 Bullying is likely to occur in schools where organisational chaos reigns. Such schools are characterised by incompetent, unprincipled, abusive leadership, lack of accountability, fairness and transparency. (3 There is interplay between relational powerlessness and organisational chaos, i.e. the absence of principled leadership, accountability and transparency gives rise to workplace bullying.

  12. Educators' Understanding of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens of a two- dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59…

  13. Evaluating Workplace English Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Kristin; Winke, Paula

    2009-01-01

    Companies across the United States provide workplace English classes to non-native-English-speaking employees to increase productivity, retention, and on-the-job safety. Institutions that financially support the programs often require evidence of learning through standardized tests as a prerequisite for continued funding. However, the tests…

  14. Interpersonal Relationships in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Jean Ortowski; And Others

    This curriculum guide on interpersonal relations in the workplace give techniques for instructors to use in evaluating these skills in their students. Eighteen competencies are included in this guide: adaptability; attendance; attitude; communication (nonverbal); communication (verbal); communication (written); confidence; cooperation; enthusiasm;…

  15. Internet Gambling in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  16. Workplace bullying: an emergent issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, S Donovan; Esquivel, Cynthia; Jha, Pankaj

    2014-09-01

    All companies, including dentists, rely on their staff to represent their firms in the most positive and effective manner. Today's managers face a multitude of issues, and as such, they must walk a fine line of fostering a productive, harmonious and safe working environment for their employees. Over the last several decades it is apparent that on the- job sexual harassment is no longer the leading issue of employee complaints. Rather, the organization issue which was investigated is workplace bullying, also commonly referred to as employee harassment. Risk management is no longer limited to avoiding malpractice issues but also preventing litigation created by poor organizational behavior. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore the background of workplace bullying and how it affects today's managers and their employees, customers and suppliers. In other words, the scope of this paper will feature research on past studies, results and conclusions. Since workplace bullying affects all levels of a corporation, it must be stated that the concern and focus of this paper is for today's manager to understand the background and history of workplace bullying, and what they can do to foster a safe working environment and prevent the bully from creating mental and physical harm to their employees. This paper details the history of workplace bullying and how management, employees and suppliers deal with and address the issue. Lastly, this treatise looks at risk management from a manger/dentist's perspective, the assessment/conclusion summarizes the implications for managers regarding how they must handle the issue or risk harm to the employee and/or serious legal ramifications.

  17. Unreported workplace violence in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvas, A; Seljak, J

    2014-09-01

    Workplace violence occurs on a frequent basis in nursing. Most violent acts remain unreported. Consequently, we do not know the actual frequency of the occurrence of workplace violence. This requires research of nurses' actions following workplace violence and identification of reasons why most victims do not report violent acts in the appropriate manner. To explore violence in nursing as experienced by nurses in Slovenia. A survey was carried out with a representative sample of nurses in Slovenia. The questionnaire Workplace Violence in Nursing was submitted to 3756 nurses, with 692 completing the questionnaire. A total of 61.6% of the nurses surveyed had been exposed to violence in the past year. Most victims were exposed to psychological (60.1%) and economic violence (28.9%). Victims reported acts of violence in formal written form in a range from 6.5% (psychological violence) to 10.9% (physical violence). The largest share of victims who did not report violence and did not speak to anyone about it were victims of sexual violence (17.9%). The main reason for not reporting the violence was the belief that reporting it would not change anything, followed by the fear of losing one's job. Only a small share of the respondents reported violence in written form, the main reason being the victims' belief that reporting it would not change anything. This represents a severe criticism of the system for preventing workplace violence for it reveals the failure of response by leadership structures in healthcare organizations. Professional associations and the education system must prepare nurses for the prevention of violence and appropriate actions in the event of violent acts. Healthcare organizations must ensure the necessary conditions for enabling and encouraging appropriate actions following violent acts according to relevant protocols. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  18. Impact of workplace violence against nurses' thriving at work, job satisfaction and turnover intention: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-Hong; Shi, Yu; Sun, Zhi-Nan; Xie, Feng-Zhe; Wang, Jing-Hui; Zhang, Shu-E; Gou, Tian-Yu; Han, Xuan-Ye; Sun, Tao; Fan, Li-Hua

    2018-02-15

    To investigate the interrelationships between workplace violence, thriving at work and turnover intention among Chinese nurses and to explore the action mechanism among these variables. Workplace violence is a dangerous occupational hazard globally, and it is pervasive in the health service industry. As a corollary, workplace violence may produce many negative outcomes among nursing staff. Consequently, it hinders nurses' professional performance and reduces nursing quality. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted. A total of 1,024 nurses from 26 cities in China were recruited from February-May 2016. An anonymous questionnaire was used in this survey. Participants' completed data were collected using a demographics form and a 26-item questionnaire consisting of scales addressing workplace violence, thriving at work, job satisfaction, subjective well-being and turnover intention. To evaluate multivariate relationships, some multiple linear hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Workplace violence significantly negatively influenced nurses' job satisfaction and thriving at work, and significantly positively influenced nurses' turnover intention. Job satisfaction significantly predicted thriving at work and turnover intention. Job satisfaction not only fully mediated the relationship between workplace violence and thriving at work, but also partially mediated the relationship between workplace violence and turnover intention. Subjective well-being moderated the relationship between workplace violence and job satisfaction and the relationship between workplace violence and nurses' turnover intention. Adverse effects of workplace violence were demonstrated in this study. Decreases in job satisfaction were a vital mediating factor. The moderating effect of subjective well-being was helpful in reducing the harm of workplace violence to nurses and in decreasing their turnover intention. Workplace violence and its negative impact on nursing work should not

  19. Behind closed doors: in-home workers' experience of sexual harassment and workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K

    2001-07-01

    The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.

  20. Gender still matters: Employees’ acceptance levels towards e-learning in the workplaces of South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Joo Yoo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate the integration of virtual training and development in workplace learning, this study examined technology acceptance level differences towards e-learning between genders in the South Korean workplace. This study is one of the first to examine this issue in the workplace of South Korea, and it was situated in a food service company in South Korea due to its high training needs and dispersed workplaces. Of the 172 valid datasets (112 female employees and 60 male employees analyzed, the study found that males have a higher performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and intention to use e-learning than females in integrating e-learning. In addition, males were more strongly affected by social influences than females. The findings reaffirm the importance of considering gender differences when integrating e-learning into learning in the workplace.

  1. Multicriteria ranking of workplaces regarding working conditions in a mining company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanović, Dejan; Stanković, Vladimir; Urošević, Snežana; Stojanović, Miloš

    2016-12-01

    Ranking of workplaces with respect to working conditions is very significant for each company. It indicates the positions where employees are most exposed to adverse effects resulting from the working environment, which endangers their health. This article presents the results obtained for 12 different production workplaces in the copper mining and smelting complex RTB Bor - 'Veliki Krivelj' open pit, based on six parameters measured regularly which defined the following working environment conditions: air temperature, light, noise, dustiness, chemical hazards and vibrations. The ranking of workplaces has been performed by PROMETHEE/GAIA. Additional optimization of workplaces is done by PROMETHEE V with the given limits related to maximum permitted values for working environment parameters. The obtained results indicate that the most difficult workplace is on the excavation location (excavator operator). This method can be successfully used for solving similar kinds of problems, in order to improve working conditions.

  2. Workplace violence prevention policies in home health and hospice care agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Nathan; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Nocera, Maryalice; Casteel, Carri

    2013-01-31

    Workplace violence in the home health industry is a growing concern, but little is known about the content of existing workplace violence prevention programs. The authors present the methods for this study that examined workplace violence prevention programs in a sample of 40 California home health and hospice agencies. Data was collected through surveys that were completed by the branch managers of participating facilities. Programs were scored in six different areas, including general workplace violence prevention components; management commitment and employee involvement; worksite analysis; hazard prevention and control; safety and health training; and recordkeeping and program evaluation. The results and discussion sections consider these six areas and the important gaps that were found in existing programs. For example, although most agencies offered workplace violence training, not every worker performing patient care was required to receive the training. Similarly, not all programs were written or reviewed and updated regularly. Few program differences were observed between agency characteristics, but nonetheless several striking gaps were found.

  3. Job Satisfaction and Employee’s Self-Schema at Workplace: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehrad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of employees at the workplace. Also, it focused on self-schema that pivotal role in employees believes about themselves. Moreover, lack of attention to job satisfaction that influenced on employees' scheme appeared some abnormal organizational behaviors at workplace. Thus, the present study supports job satisfaction to achieve appropriate scheme among employees at the workplace.

  4. Can individual health differences be explained by workplace characteristics?--A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Staffan; Bolin, Malin; von Essen, Jan

    2008-02-01

    Research on work-related health has mainly focused on individual factors. The present study expands the focus by exploring the role of organizational characteristics of workplaces for different individual health outcomes. The aim of the study was to look at differences in relative effect of workplace variations on five health outcomes, and to explain those differences in health outcomes by organizational characteristics. The sample encompassed 90 workplaces in Sweden and about 4300 individuals employed within these workplaces. Measurement of the workplace characteristics was carried out independently of the measurement of the individual's working conditions and health. Organizational data were collected by interviews with local managers at participating workplaces, and individual data were obtained by means of a survey of the employees. The results showed that a significant proportion of the variance in sickness absence, work ability, general health, and musculoskeletal disorders was attributed to the workplace. Of eight tested organizational characteristics, customer adaptation, lean production, and performance control could explain some of this workplace variance. The results also showed that only one organizational effect remained significant when controlled for the individual confounder of age and gender. High customer adaptation is associated with higher sickness absence. This association is not mediated via differences in mental and physical job strain.

  5. The relationship between emotional labor status and workplace violence among toll collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Yosub; Rhie, Jeongbae

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the emotional labor and workplace violence status among toll collectors by assessing and comparing the same with that in workers in other service occupation. It also aimed to analyze the relationship between emotional labor and workplace violence. This study examined emotional labor and workplace violence status in 264 female toll collectors from August 20 to September 4, 2015. The emotional labor was assessed using the Korean Emotional Labor Scale (K-ELS), and a questionnaire was used to examine the presence or absence, and type and frequency of workplace violence experienced by the subjects. A linear regression analysis was also performed to analyze the relationship between workplace violence and emotional labor. The scores on "emotional demanding and regulation ( p  workplace violence, whereas they were "normal" of emotional labor in those who did not. Even after being adjusted in the linear regression analysis, the emotional labor scores for the above 4 sub-categories were still significantly high in those who experienced workplace violence. On comparing the present scores with 13 other service occupations, it was found that toll collectors had the highest level in "emotional disharmony and hurt," "organizational surveillance and monitoring," and "organizational supportive and protective system". This study found that the toll collectors engaged in a high level of emotional labor. Additionally, there was a significant relationship between emotional labor and the experience of workplace violence among the toll collectors.

  6. Fitness in the Workplace: A Corporate Challenge. A Handbook on Employee Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This handbook on employee fitness program describes the benefits of developing physical recreation programs in the workplace. Descriptions are offered of various successful programs and their impact on employee health and job performance. (JD)

  7. Scientific Misconduct and Social Media: Role of Twitter in the Stimulus Triggered Acquisition of Pluripotency Cells Scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yuya; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Shoko; Murakami, Masayasu; Tsuya, Atsushi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kami, Masahiro; Narimatsu, Hiroto

    2017-02-28

    The academic scandal on a study on stimulus‑triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) cells in Japan in 2014 involved suspicions of scientific misconduct by the lead author of the study after the paper had been reviewed on a peer‑review website. This study investigated the discussions on STAP cells on Twitter and content of newspaper articles in an attempt to assess the role of social compared with traditional media in scientific peer review. This study examined Twitter utilization in scientific peer review on STAP cells misconduct. Searches for tweets and newspaper articles containing the term "STAP cells" were carried out through Twitter's search engine and Nikkei Telecom database, respectively. The search period was from January 1 to July 1, 2014. The nouns appearing in the "top tweets" and newspaper articles were extracted through a morphological analysis, and their frequency of appearance and changes over time were investigated. The total numbers of top tweets and newspaper articles containing the term were 134,958 and 1646, respectively. Negative words concerning STAP cells began to appear on Twitter by February 9-15, 2014, or 3 weeks after Obokata presented a paper on STAP cells. The number of negative words in newspaper articles gradually increased beginning in the week of March 12-18, 2014. A total of 1000 tweets were randomly selected, and they were found to contain STAP-related opinions (43.3%, 433/1000), links to news sites and other sources (41.4%, 414/1000), false scientific or medical claims (8.9%, 89/1000), and topics unrelated to STAP (6.4%, 64/1000). The discussion on scientific misconduct during the STAP cells scandal took place at an earlier stage on Twitter than in newspapers, a traditional medium. ©Yuya Sugawara, Tetsuya Tanimoto, Shoko Miyagawa, Masayasu Murakami, Atsushi Tsuya, Atsushi Tanaka, Masahiro Kami, Hiroto Narimatsu. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.02.2017.

  8. Testing Hypotheses on Risk Factors for Scientific Misconduct via Matched-Control Analysis of Papers Containing Problematic Image Duplications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Daniele; Costas, Rodrigo; Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo; Bik, Elisabeth M

    2018-02-19

    It is commonly hypothesized that scientists are more likely to engage in data falsification and fabrication when they are subject to pressures to publish, when they are not restrained by forms of social control, when they work in countries lacking policies to tackle scientific misconduct, and when they are male. Evidence to test these hypotheses, however, is inconclusive due to the difficulties of obtaining unbiased data. Here we report a pre-registered test of these four hypotheses, conducted on papers that were identified in a previous study as containing problematic image duplications through a systematic screening of the journal PLoS ONE. Image duplications were classified into three categories based on their complexity, with category 1 being most likely to reflect unintentional error and category 3 being most likely to reflect intentional fabrication. We tested multiple parameters connected to the hypotheses above with a matched-control paradigm, by collecting two controls for each paper containing duplications. Category 1 duplications were mostly not associated with any of the parameters tested, as was predicted based on the assumption that these duplications were mostly not due to misconduct. Categories 2 and 3, however, exhibited numerous statistically significant associations. Results of univariable and multivariable analyses support the hypotheses that academic culture, peer control, cash-based publication incentives and national misconduct policies might affect scientific integrity. No clear support was found for the "pressures to publish" hypothesis. Female authors were found to be equally likely to publish duplicated images compared to males. Country-level parameters generally exhibited stronger effects than individual-level parameters, because developing countries were significantly more likely to produce problematic image duplications. This suggests that promoting good research practices in all countries should be a priority for the international

  9. Hazard management at the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Hassan; Azimawati Ahmad; Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S M Ghazi; Hairul Nizam Idris

    2005-01-01

    Failure to ensure health and safety environment at workplace will cause an accident involving loss to the time, human resource, finance and for the worse case effect the moral value of an organization. If we go through to the cause of the accident, it is impossible to have a totally safety workplace. It is because every process in work activities has it own hazard elements. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the best action to prevent from the hazard with a comprehensive and effectiveness hazard management. Hazard management is the one of the pro-active hazard control. With this we manage to identify and evaluate the hazard and control the hazard risk. Therefore, hazard management should be screened constantly and continuously to make sure work hazard always in control. (Author)

  10. Physical Separation in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical separation is pervasive in organizations, and has powerful effects on employee motivation and organizational behaviors. However, research shows that workplace separation is characterized by a variety of tradeoffs, tensions, and challenges that lead to both positive and negative outcomes....... We develop new theory on the nature, antecedents, and motivational implications of separation awareness - a psychological state in which people are aware of their physical separation from others—and proffer a model of the mechanisms that link separation and motivation. We distinguish between control...... and autonomy affirmation as psychological states that are triggered by physical separation in the workplace, and discuss individual and context specific moderators, as well as motivational implications of separation awareness. In doing so, we reconcile the seemingly contradicting findings that have been...

  11. Workplace bullying and sleep difficulties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Garde, Anne Helene

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to investigate whether being subjected to bullying and witnessing bullying at the workplace was associated with concurrent sleep difficulties, whether frequently bullied/witnesses have more sleep difficulties than occasionally bullied....../witnesses, and whether there were associations between being subjected to bullying or witnessing bullying at the workplace and subsequent sleep difficulties. METHODS: A total of 3,382 respondents (67 % women and 33 % men) completed a baseline questionnaire about their psychosocial work environment and health....... The overall response rate was 46 %. At follow-up 2 years later, 1671 of those responded to a second questionnaire (49 % of the 3,382 respondents at baseline). Sleep difficulties were measured in terms of disturbed sleep, awakening problems, and poor quality of sleep. RESULTS: Bullied persons and witnesses...

  12. Health correlates of workplace bullying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jens Peter; Gullander, Maria; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the course of workplace bullying and health correlates among Danish employees across a four-year period. METHODS: In total, 7502 public service and private sector employees participated in a 3-wave study from 2006 through 2011. Workplace bullying over the past......-labelled bullying at baseline using logistic regression. RESULTS: Reports of bullying were persistent across four years in 22.2% (57/257) of employees who initially reported bullying. Baseline associations between self-labelled bullying and sick-listing, poor self-rated health, poor sleep, and depressive symptoms...... were significant with adjusted odds ratios (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.5-2.4] for poor sleep quality among those bullied "now and then" to 6.9 (95% CI 3.9-12.3) for depression among those reporting being bullied on a daily to monthly basis. In longitudinal analyses...

  13. Midwifery student reactions to workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Qualitative methods in workplace learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fabritius, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    Methods of learning in the workplace will be introduced. The methods are connect to competence development and to the process of conducting development discussions in a dialogical way. The tools developed and applied are a fourfold table, a cycle of work identity, a plan of personal development targets, a learning meeting and a learning map. The methods introduced will aim to better learning at work.

  15. Workplace Innovation as Institutional Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge Søndergaard; Scheller, Vibeke Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Workplace Innovation (WPI) ascribes to the tradition of Sociotechnical Systems (STS) in organisational development. Experiences of promoting STS show that neither economic arguments nor arguments of humanising work are sufficient to get companies to implement WPI activities. This chapter therefore...... that institutional alliances and coalitions are an important part of institutional entrepreneurship that creates change in the direction of WPI. The case studies also indicate that the sustainability of the introduced WPI activities depends on the institutional alliances related to their activity....

  16. HIV disclosure in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Degroote, S.; Vogelaers, D.; Koeck, R.; Borms, R.; De Meulemeester, L.; VANDIJCK, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recru...

  17. Spirituality in the Healthcare Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Donia Baldacchino

    2017-01-01

    Spirituality involves a sense of connectedness, meaning making and transcendence. There is abundant published research that focuses on the importance of spirituality to patients and their families during times of illness and distress. However over the last decade there has also been a growing awareness about the importance of considering the need to address peoples’ spiritual needs in the workplace. Engaging in ones own personal spirituality involves connecting with the inner self, becoming m...

  18. Measuring radon in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, M.

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued guidance for testing for radon in homes and interim guidance for testing in schools. Information on testing for radon in the workplace is the next initiative and this paper describes the current status of this effort. The results of measurements made in several buildings in the Washington, DC area are discussed. In this paper a discussion of preliminary guidance on radon survey design that has been offered to Federal agencies is presented

  19. Sexual assault in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2011-01-01

    Women are sexually assaulted at an alarming rate, and the workplace is a frequent arena for assault. However, in recent decades, attention has been given to improving responses to sexual assault. Sexual assault is a frequent cause of injury and death for women in the United States. One in five American women admit they have experienced a completed rape during their lifetime. These estimates are conservative because sexual assault and sexual violence are both underreported and underprosecuted. Fear of job loss and discrimination are frequent reasons women do not report sexual assault in the workplace. Women are entering the workplace in greater numbers due in part to more single parent families and the depressed economy. Also, women are entering work environments that have traditionally been the domain of male workers: corporate headquarters, semi trucks, health care providers' offices, rural farms, and rural factories. Employers must have a plan to protect female employees and effectively address any incidents of sexual assault or violence. Occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners can assist both employees and employers to prevent sexual assault and resolve the aftermath of sexual assault. However, to accomplish this goal, occupational health nurses and nurse practitioners must be trained in sexual assault and violence response as well as preventive interventions. 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Workplace spirituality and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Freda; de Klerk, Jeremias J

    2014-06-01

    In order to obtain an improved understanding of behaviour at work, employees should be studied from physical, psychological, and spiritual dimensions. Although the physical and psychological dimensions of individuals at work have been studied extensively, the spiritual dimension has been neglected for many years. The objective of the current research was to determine the relationship between workplace spirituality and a positive attitude related to work, that is, job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 600 white-collar workers, chosen from two organizations in different industries in South Africa. The research results indicate that there is a positive relationship between workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. These findings deepen the understanding of personal spirituality, organizational spirituality, and job satisfaction. They bring new insights into the significant role which spirituality plays in the context of the workplace. To survive in the 21st century, organizations need to be spiritually based. This, in turn, will lead to workers being satisfied with their entire work experience.

  1. Substance use, symptom, and employment outcomes of persons with a workplace mandate for chemical dependency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Constance; Lu, Yun; Hinman, Agatha; Monahan, John; Bonnie, Richard J; Moore, Charles D; Chi, Felicia W; Appelbaum, Paul S

    2009-05-01

    This study examined the role of workplace mandates to chemical dependency treatment in treatment adherence, alcohol and drug abstinence, severity of employment problems, and severity of psychiatric problems. The sample included 448 employed members of a private, nonprofit U.S. managed care health plan who entered chemical dependency treatment with a workplace mandate (N=75) or without one (N=373); 405 of these individuals were followed up at one year (N=70 and N=335, respectively), and 362 participated in a five-year follow up (N=60 and N=302, respectively). Propensity scores predicting receipt of a workplace mandate were calculated. Logistic regression and ordinary least-squares regression were used to predict length of stay in chemical dependency treatment, alcohol and drug abstinence, and psychiatric and employment problem severity at one and five years. Overall, participants with a workplace mandate had one- and five-year outcomes similar to those without such a mandate. Having a workplace mandate also predicted longer treatment stays and improvement in employment problems. When other factors related to outcomes were controlled for, having a workplace mandate predicted abstinence at one year, with length of stay as a mediating variable. Workplace mandates can be an effective mechanism for improving work performance and other outcomes. Study participants who had a workplace mandate were more likely than those who did not have a workplace mandate to be abstinent at follow-up, and they did as well in treatment, both short and long term. Pressure from the workplace likely gets people to treatment earlier and provides incentives for treatment adherence.

  2. Substance Use, Symptom, and Employment Outcomes of Persons With a Workplace Mandate for Chemical Dependency Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisner, Constance; Lu, Yun; Hinman, Agatha; Monahan, John; Bonnie, Richard J.; Moore, Charles D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the role of workplace mandates to chemical dependency treatment in treatment adherence, alcohol and drug abstinence, severity of employment problems, and severity of psychiatric problems. Methods The sample included 448 employed members of a private, nonprofit U.S. managed care health plan who entered chemical dependency treatment with a workplace mandate (N=75) or without one (N=373); 405 of these individuals were followed up at one year (N=70 and N=335, respectively), and 362 participated in a five-year follow up (N=60 and N=302, respectively). Propensity scores predicting receipt of a workplace mandate were calculated. Logistic regression and ordinary least-squares regression were used to predict length of stay in chemical dependency treatment, alcohol and drug abstinence, and psychiatric and employment problem severity at one and five years. Results Overall, participants with a workplace mandate had one- and five-year outcomes similar to those without such a mandate. Having a workplace mandate also predicted longer treatment stays and improvement in employment problems. When other factors related to outcomes were controlled for, having a workplace mandate predicted abstinence at one year, with length of stay as a mediating variable. Conclusions Workplace mandates can be an effective mechanism for improving work performance and other outcomes. Study participants who had a workplace mandate were more likely than those who did not have a workplace mandate to be abstinent at follow-up, and they did as well in treatment, both short and long term. Pressure from the workplace likely gets people to treatment earlier and provides incentives for treatment adherence. PMID:19411353

  3. Process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise to reduce musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees......Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate...... in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual...

  4. Pragmatic impact of workplace ostracism: toward a theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ali Al-Atwi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to extend the ostracism literature by exploring the pragmatic impact of ostracism on performance. Design/methodology/approach - Ostracism workplace, social relations and empowerment structures are discussed. The paper then develops a theoretical framework that explains why and under what conditions workplace ostracism undermines employees’ performance. The author proposes that empowerment structures mediate the link between ostracism and in-role and extra-role performance. In addition, it was proposed that relational links buffer the negative relationship between ostracism and empowerment structures on performance and weaken the negative indirect effect of ostracism on performance. Findings - The theoretical arguments provide support for the model showing that empowerment structures mediate the relationship between ostracism and performance, and the mediation effect only occurred when external links were high but not when external links were low. Originality/value - The author has expanded the extant literature by answering recent calls for research exploring the pragmatic impact of workplace ostracism where past research has typically focused solely on the psychological impacts such as psychological needs.

  5. Midwives׳ experiences of workplace resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Billie; Warren, Lucie

    2014-08-01

    many UK midwives experience workplace adversity resulting from a national shortage of midwives, rise in birth rate and increased numbers of women entering pregnancy with complex care needs. Research evidence suggests that workplace pressures, and the emotional demands of the job, may increase midwives׳ experience of stress and contribute to low morale, sickness and attrition. Much less is known about midwives who demonstrate resilience in the face of adversity. Resilience has been investigated in studies of other health and social care workers, but there is a gap in knowledge regarding midwives׳ experiences. to explore clinical midwives׳ understanding and experience of professional resilience and to identify the personal, professional and contextual factors considered to contribute to or act as barriers to resilience. an exploratory qualitative descriptive study. In Stage One, a closed online professional discussion group was conducted over a one month period. Midwives discussed workplace adversity and their resilient responses to this. In Stage Two, the data were discussed with an Expert Panel with representatives from midwifery workforce and resilience research, in order to enhance data interpretation and refine the concept modelling. the online discussion group was hosted by the Royal College of Midwives, UK online professional networking hub: 'Communities'. 11 practising midwives with 15 or more years of 'hands on clinical experience', and who self-identified as being resilient, took part in the online discussion group. thematic analysis of the data identified four themes: challenges to resilience, managing and coping, self-awareness and building resilience. The participants identified 'critical moments' in their careers when midwives were especially vulnerable to workplace adversity. Resilience was seen as a learned process which was facilitated by a range of coping strategies, including accessing support and developing self-awareness and protection of self

  6. Nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vickie A Lambert

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has suggested that nurses, regardless of workplace or culture, are confronted with a variety of stressors. As the worldwide nursing shortage increases, the aged population becomes larger, there is an increase in the incidence of chronic illnesses and technology continues to advance, nurses continually will be faced with numerous workplace stressors. Thus, nurses, especially palliative care nurses, need to learn how to identify their workplace stressors and to cope effectively with these stressors to attain and maintain both their physical and mental health. This article describes workplace stressors and coping strategies, compares and contrasts cross-cultural literature on nurses′ workplace stressors and coping strategies, and delineates a variety of stress management activities that could prove helpful for contending with stressors in the workplace.

  7. Discrimination, harassment, abuse, and bullying in the workplace: contribution of workplace injustice to occupational health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Souza, Kerry; Davis, Kelly D; de Castro, A Butch

    2014-05-01

    This paper synthesizes research on the contribution of workplace injustices to occupational health disparities. We conducted a broad review of research and other reports on the impact of workplace discrimination, harassment, and bullying on workers' health and on family and job outcomes. Members of demographic minority groups are more likely to be victims of workplace injustice and suffer more adverse outcomes when exposed to workplace injustice compared to demographic majority groups. A growing body of research links workplace injustice to poor psychological and physical health, and a smaller body of evidence links workplace injustice to unhealthy behaviors. Although not as well studied, studies show that workplace injustice can influence workers' health through effects on workers' family life and job-related outcomes. Injustice is a key contributor to occupational health injustice and prospective studies with oversample of disadvantaged workers and refinement of methods for characterizing workplace injustices are needed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Workplace bullying: A risk control perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Notelaers, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Workplace bullying is an omnipresent phenomenon in contemporary workplaces (Nielsen, Matthiesen, & Einarsen, in press). With its negative consequences for victims, bystanders and the socio-economic fabric of organisations, it is an important psychological, sociological and economical hazard that needs to be firmly addressed. Several countries, such as Norway, Sweden, Finland, Belgium and France, have adopted laws explicitly banning it from workplaces. Some European countries have integrated t...

  9. Workplace Accidents and Self-Organized Criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, John C.; Diehl, Brett; Marcellin, Richard F.; Vaughn, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of workplace accidents is described within the context of self-organized criticality, a theory from statistical physics that governs a wide range of phenomena across physics, biology, geosciences, economics, and the social sciences. Workplace accident data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reveal a power-law relationship between the number of accidents and their severity as measured by the number of days lost from work. This power-law scaling is indicative of workplace a...

  10. Sexual misconduct in prison: What factors affect whether incarcerated women will report abuses committed by prison staff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl P; Brenner, Hannah J; Bybee, Deborah; Campbell, Rebecca; Cummings, Cristy E; Darcy, Kathleen M; Fedock, Gina; Goodman-Williams, Rachael

    2017-08-01

    More than 80,000 prisoners each year are sexually victimized during incarceration, but only about 8% report victimization to correctional authorities. Complicating reporting is the fact that half of the perpetrators are staff members. Given the restrictive and highly regulated prison environment, studies that examine reporting behaviors are difficult to conduct and to date information available relied on those who have reported or hypothetical victimization studies. This study uses an ecological framework and archival data from a class action lawsuit of sexual misconduct to determine predictors of reporting. Relying on a subsample of 179 women, chosen because they have all experienced at least 1 penetration offense, we use bivariate and multivariable mixed effects logistic regression analyses to examine individual, assault, and context-level predictors of reporting on 397 incidents of staff sexual misconduct. The final model revealed that that 6 predictors (age at time of assault, physical injury, multiple incidents, perpetrator with multiple victims, the year the abuse began, and the number of years women have left on their sentence) account for 58% of the variance in reporting. Disclosure to inmate peers and/or family and friends was significant in the bivariate results. These findings indicate the need for stronger and more systematic implementation of Prison Rape Elimination Act guidelines and remedies that create and enforce sanctions, including termination, for staff violating policy and state law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Representations of workplace psychological harassment in print news media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbin, Andréia De Conto; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-06-01

    To analyze discourses on workplace psychological harassment in print media. Documental study on workplace psychological harassment that analyzed news stories published in three major newspapers of the State of São Paulo (southeastern Brazil) between 1990 and 2008. Discourse analysis was performed to identify discursive practices that reflect the phenomenon of psychological harassment in today's society, explanations for its occurrence and impact on workers' health. RESULT ANALYSIS: This theme emerged in the media through the dissemination of books, academic research production and laws. It was initially published in general news then in jobs and/or business sections. Discourses on compensation and precautionary business practices and coping strategies are widespread. Health-related aspects are foregone under the prevailing money-based rationale. Corporate cultures are permissive regarding psychological harassment and conflicts are escalated while working to achieve goals and results. Indifference, embarrassment, ridicule and demean were common in the news stories analyzed. The causal explanations of workplace harassment tend to have a psychological interpretation with emphasis on individual and behavioral characteristics, and minimizing a collective approach. The discourses analyzed trivialized harassment by creating caricatures of the actors involved. People apprehend its psychological content and stigmatization which contributes to making workplace harassment an accepted practice and trivializing work-related violence.

  12. Workplace experience of radiographers: impact of structural and interpersonal interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubik-Huch, R.A.; Roempler, M.; Weber, A. [Kantonsspital Baden, Institute of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Klaghofer, R.; Buddeberg-Fischer, B. [Zurich University Hospital, Department of Psychosocial Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Within the framework of organisational development, an assessment of the workplace experience of radiographers (RGs) was conducted. The aims of this study were to develop structural and interpersonal interventions and to prove their effectiveness and feasibility. A questionnaire consisting of work-related factors, e.g. time management and communication, and two validated instruments (Workplace Analysis Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale) was distributed to all RGs (n = 33) at baseline (T1). Interventions were implemented and a follow-up survey (T2) was performed 18 months after the initial assessment. At T1, areas with highest dissatisfaction were communication and time management for ambulant patients (bad/very bad, 57% each). The interventions addressed adaptation of work plans, coaching in developing interpersonal and team leadership skills, and regular team meetings. The follow-up survey (T2) showed significantly improved communication and cooperation within the team and improved qualification opportunities, whereas no significant changes could be identified in time management and in the workplace-related scales 'effort' expended at work and 'reward' received in return for the effort. Motivating workplace experience is important for high-level service quality and for attracting well-qualified radiographers to work at a place and to stay in the team for a longer period. (orig.)

  13. Workplace experience of radiographers: impact of structural and interpersonal interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubik-Huch, R.A.; Roempler, M.; Weber, A.; Klaghofer, R.; Buddeberg-Fischer, B.

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of organisational development, an assessment of the workplace experience of radiographers (RGs) was conducted. The aims of this study were to develop structural and interpersonal interventions and to prove their effectiveness and feasibility. A questionnaire consisting of work-related factors, e.g. time management and communication, and two validated instruments (Workplace Analysis Questionnaire, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale) was distributed to all RGs (n = 33) at baseline (T1). Interventions were implemented and a follow-up survey (T2) was performed 18 months after the initial assessment. At T1, areas with highest dissatisfaction were communication and time management for ambulant patients (bad/very bad, 57% each). The interventions addressed adaptation of work plans, coaching in developing interpersonal and team leadership skills, and regular team meetings. The follow-up survey (T2) showed significantly improved communication and cooperation within the team and improved qualification opportunities, whereas no significant changes could be identified in time management and in the workplace-related scales 'effort' expended at work and 'reward' received in return for the effort. Motivating workplace experience is important for high-level service quality and for attracting well-qualified radiographers to work at a place and to stay in the team for a longer period. (orig.)

  14. Competition and Social Identity in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Shu, Pian

    2016-01-01

    We study the impact of social identity on worker competition by exploiting the well-documented social divide between urban resident workers and rural migrant workers in urban Chinese firms. We analyze data on weekly output, individual characteristics, and coworker composition for all weavers...... in an urban Chinese textile firm during a 53-week period. The firm adopts relative performance incentives in addition to piece rates to encourage competition in the workplace. We find that social identity has a significant impact on competition: a weaver only competes against coworkers with a different social...... identity, but not against those sharing her own identity. The results are mainly driven by urban weavers competing aggressively against rural coworkers. Our results highlight the important role of social identity in mitigating or enhancing competition....

  15. Workplace bullying prevention: a critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Workplace Environment Characteristics as Antecedents of Affective Well-being in the Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Waratta Authayarat; Hiroyuki Umemuro

    2012-01-01

    Workplace environment characteristics may positively or negatively evoke an individual’s affective experiences, and these experiences can influence affective experiences of others. This study investigates the relations between employees’ affective experiences and workplace environment characteristics. A questionnaire-based investigation was conducted with employees in Thai companies. Participants were asked to evaluate various aspects of their own workplace environments and their affective we...

  17. Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T; Eriksson, H; Holm, E; Strömgren, M; Ekberg, J; Spreco, A; Dahlström, Ö

    2016-07-01

    Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10·6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

  18. Perceptions of Student Misconduct, Perceived Respect for Teachers, and Support for Corporal Punishment among School Teachers in South Korea: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of survey data on perceptions of student misconduct, perceived respect for teachers, and support for corporal punishment among school teachers in South Korea. The data were gathered from a survey of 110 middle and high school teachers in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea. Descriptive, chi square, logistic regression,…

  19. Liability of football clubs for supporters’ misconduct. A study into the interaction between disciplinary regulations of sports organisations and civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van R.H.C.

    2016-01-01

    Supporters’ misconduct is an unfortunate phenomenon connected to the most popular sport in the world. Despite many legislative efforts, incidents keep occurring, often resulting in damage. The difficulty in addressing the misbehaving individuals directly has led to the idea of addressing football

  20. Effect of workplace- versus home-based physical exercise on pain in healthcare workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence and consequences of musculoskeletal pain is considerable among healthcare workers, allegedly due to high physical work demands of healthcare work. Previous investigations have shown promising results of physical exercise for relieving pain among different occupational......, physical exercise performed during working hours at the workplace may be costly for the employers in terms of time spend. Thus, it seems relevant to compare the efficacy of workplace- versus home-based training on musculoskeletal pain. This study is intended to investigate the effect of workplace...... to increase adherence and avoid contamination between interventions. Two hundred healthcare workers from 18 departments located at three different hospitals is allocated to 10 weeks of 1) workplace based physical exercise performed during working hours (using kettlebells, elastic bands and exercise balls...

  1. Individual neutron monitoring in workplaces with mixed neutron/proton radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognese-Milsztajn, T.; Bartlett, D.; Boschung, M.; Coeck, M.; Curzio, G.; D'Errico, F.; Fiechtner, A.; Giusti, V.; Gressier, V.; Kylloenen, J.; Lacoste, V.; Lindborg, L.; Luszik-Bhadra, M.; Molinos, C.; Pelcot, G.; Reginatto, M.; Schuhmacher, H.; Tanner, R.; Vanhavere, F.; Derdau, D.

    2004-01-01

    EVIDOS ('evaluation of individual dosimetry in mixed neutron and photon radiation fields') is an European Commission (EC)-sponsored project that aims at a significant improvement of radiation protection dosimetry in mixed neutron/photon fields via spectrometric and dosimetric investigations in representative workplaces of the nuclear industry. In particular, new spectrometry methods are developed that provide the energy and direction distribution of the neutron fluence from which the reference dosimetric quantities are derived and compared to the readings of dosemeters. The final results of the project will be a comprehensive set of spectrometric and dosimetric data for the workplaces and an analysis of the performance of dosemeters, including novel electronic dosemeters. This paper gives an overview of the project and focuses on the results from measurements performed in calibration fields with broad energy distributions (simulated workplace fields) and on the first results from workplaces in the nuclear industry, inside a boiling water reactor and around a spent fuel transport cask. (authors)

  2. Cross-Sectional Analysis of the 1039 U.S. Physicians Reported to the National Practitioner Data Bank for Sexual Misconduct, 2003-2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza AbuDagga

    Full Text Available Little information exists on U.S. physicians who have been disciplined with licensure or restriction-of-clinical-privileges actions or have had malpractice payments because of sexual misconduct. Our objectives were to: (1 determine the number of these physicians and compare their age groups' distribution with that of the general U.S. physician population; (2 compare the type of disciplinary actions taken against these physicians with actions taken against physicians disciplined for other offenses; (3 compare the characteristics and type of injury among victims of these physicians with those of victims in reports for physicians with other offenses in malpractice-payment reports; and (4 determine the percentages of physicians with clinical-privileges or malpractice-payment reports due to sexual misconduct who were not disciplined by medical boards.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of physician reports submitted to the National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB from January 1, 2003, through September 30, 2013. A total of 1039 physicians had ≥ 1 sexual-misconduct-related reports. The majority (75.6% had only licensure reports, and 90.1% were 40 or older. For victims in malpractice-payment reports, 87.4% were female, and "emotional injury only" was the predominant type of injury. We found a higher percentage of serious licensure actions and clinical-privileges revocations in sexual-misconduct-related reports than in reports for other offenses (89.0% vs 68.1%, P = < .001, and 29.3% vs 18.8%, P = .002, respectively. Seventy percent of the physicians with a clinical-privileges or malpractice-payment report due to sexual misconduct were not disciplined by medical boards for this problem.A small number of physicians were reported to the NPDB because of sexual misconduct. It is concerning that a majority of the physicians with a clinical-privileges action or malpractice-payment report due to sexual misconduct were not disciplined by medical boards for

  3. Women at Sea: modesty, privacy, and sexual misconduct of passengers and sailors aboard Islamic ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilieh, Hassan S.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the attitude of Islamic law towards the carriage of women by water and how Muslim judicial authorities viewed their presence on ships. It discusses the conditions under which women were carried, accommodated and treated, in addition to their personal and social behavior in ships. To apply Islamic religious ethics and navigational regulations during maritime journeys, jurists instructed owners of ships, crews, and passengers how to act in the event of an immoral behavior on the part of both or either party. Women could protect themselves against temptation and sexual harassment by dressing modestly, behaving properly, and traveling with mahrams. Even though this work focuses on the Islamic Mediterranean, the article briefly describes the punishment of sexual misconduct as established in the thirteenth century C.E. in Islamic Malay. Lastly, it touches the Islamic legal position on the transportation of Muslims aboard Christian ships.

    Este artículo trata de la actitud de la ley islámica acerca del transporte marítimo de las mujeres y de cómo las autoridades jurídicas musulmanas consideraban su presencia en los barcos. Discute las condiciones bajo las cuales las mujeres eran acomodadas y tratadas en los barcos así como el comportamiento personal y social que se esperaba de ellas. Con el fin de aplicar la ética islámica y las normas marítimas, los juristas informaban a los armadores, tripulaciones y pasajeros de cómo actuar en el caso de comportamiento inmoral por alguna o varias de las partes. El trabajo se centra en el Mediterráneo Islámico, pero trata brevemente el castigo de la conducta

  4. Association between psychological distress and a sense of contribution to society in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki Kenichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.

  5. Workplace Phobic Anxiety as a Mental Health Phenomenon in the Job Demands-Resources Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoli, Michela; Muschalla, Beate; Mariani, Marco Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Anxiety-related problems at work are a serious problem in the occupational context, as they come along with sick leave and problems in work participation. The aim of this study is to analyse workplace phobic anxiety in nonclinical context using the Job Demands-Resources model. The study involved a sample of 739 workers from a retail company, mostly with permanent contracts. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed using AMOS software. Both the health impairment and motivational variables in the JD-R model were significantly related to workplace phobic anxiety and subsequently to absenteeism, specifically, exhaustion mediated between perceived job demands and workplace phobic anxiety and work engagement mediated between perceived job resources and workplace phobic anxiety. Moreover, workplace phobic anxiety was significantly positively related to absenteeism. Results suggest that workplace phobic anxiety is a specific concept and an important issue in organizations for both workers' health and the organizational costs linked to absenteeism. Supervisors and occupational physicians should be aware of workplace phobic anxiety, especially when workers are on sick leave often or for long periods.

  6. Insights into workplace Return to Work Coordinator training: An Australian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohatko-Naismith, Joanna; Guest, Maya; Rivett, Darren A; James, Carole

    2016-09-27

    Following brief training, an Australian workplace Return to Work (RTW) Coordinator is expected to provide information to the injured worker, liaise with key stakeholders and maintain workplace policies and procedures in accordance with legislative requirements. The aim of this study was to provide insights into the experiences and perceptions of the Australian Workplace RTW Coordinator in relation to current training practices and to identify any existing inadequacies within the available training. Twenty-five workplace RTW Coordinators from five Australian states participated in six focus groups.Participants with a minimum of two years' experience as a workplace RTW Coordinator and involved with the development and implementation of workplace policies and procedures, were included in the study. Thematic analysis was performed to identity meaningful themes and patterns. The findings highlighted specific training requirements and additional support mechanisms recommended by current workplace RTW Coordinators. Four key themes clearly emerged: inadequate training; irrelevant content; the need for specialised trainers; and network support services. RTW Coordinators require effective training and support to ensure the appropriate and timely delivery of services to all stakeholders involved in the RTW process. The results of this study may inform future training practices for RTW Coordinators.

  7. Workplace Phobic Anxiety as a Mental Health Phenomenon in the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Marco Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Anxiety-related problems at work are a serious problem in the occupational context, as they come along with sick leave and problems in work participation. The aim of this study is to analyse workplace phobic anxiety in nonclinical context using the Job Demands-Resources model. Methods The study involved a sample of 739 workers from a retail company, mostly with permanent contracts. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed using AMOS software. Results Both the health impairment and motivational variables in the JD-R model were significantly related to workplace phobic anxiety and subsequently to absenteeism, specifically, exhaustion mediated between perceived job demands and workplace phobic anxiety and work engagement mediated between perceived job resources and workplace phobic anxiety. Moreover, workplace phobic anxiety was significantly positively related to absenteeism. Conclusions Results suggest that workplace phobic anxiety is a specific concept and an important issue in organizations for both workers' health and the organizational costs linked to absenteeism. Supervisors and occupational physicians should be aware of workplace phobic anxiety, especially when workers are on sick leave often or for long periods. PMID:29318143

  8. Workplace Phobic Anxiety as a Mental Health Phenomenon in the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Anxiety-related problems at work are a serious problem in the occupational context, as they come along with sick leave and problems in work participation. The aim of this study is to analyse workplace phobic anxiety in nonclinical context using the Job Demands-Resources model. Methods. The study involved a sample of 739 workers from a retail company, mostly with permanent contracts. Structural equation modelling analyses were performed using AMOS software. Results. Both the health impairment and motivational variables in the JD-R model were significantly related to workplace phobic anxiety and subsequently to absenteeism, specifically, exhaustion mediated between perceived job demands and workplace phobic anxiety and work engagement mediated between perceived job resources and workplace phobic anxiety. Moreover, workplace phobic anxiety was significantly positively related to absenteeism. Conclusions. Results suggest that workplace phobic anxiety is a specific concept and an important issue in organizations for both workers’ health and the organizational costs linked to absenteeism. Supervisors and occupational physicians should be aware of workplace phobic anxiety, especially when workers are on sick leave often or for long periods.

  9. People management implications of virtual workplace arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ortlepp

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the factors that led to an organisation implementing a particular form of virtual workplace arrangement, namely, home-based work. The benefits and disadvantages associated with this form of work arrangement are explored from both the managers' and home-based employees' perspectives. Design/Methodology/Approach: Given the exploratory nature of the empirical study on which this paper is based, a qualitative research design was adopted so as to ensure that the data collection process was dynamic and probing in nature. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were therefore used as instruments for data collection. Findings: The research findings indicate that virtual work arrangements such as home-based work arrangements have advantages for both employers and employees. For instance, reduction of costs associated with office space and facilities, decrease in absenteeism rates, increased employee job satisfaction and improvements in employees' general quality of life. However, a number of negative experiences related to this form of virtual work arrangement are also evident, for example, feelings of isolation as well as stress related to the inability to have firm boundaries between work and family responsibilities. Implications: Based on the insights gained from the findings in the empirical study, a number of areas that need to be given specific attention when organisations are introducing virtual workplace arrangements of this nature are identified. Recommendations made in this article are important for human resource management specialists as well as core business policy makers considering different forms of organisational design. Originality/Value: Maximising the quality of production and service provided has become the prime objective in most organisations in the 21st century. Technology has made it possible for some jobs to be performed at any place at any time and has facilitated the

  10. Workplace prevention and promotion strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Brisson, Chantal; Trudel, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Psychosocial factors refer to all organizational factors and interpersonal relationships in the workplace that may affect the health of the workers. Currently, two psychosocial risk models are universally recognized for producing solid scientific knowledge regarding the vital link between social or psychological phenomena at work and the development of several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases or depression. The first is the "job demand-contro-support" model, which was defined by Karasek and to which the concept of social support has been added; the second is the "effort/reward imbalance" model defined by Siegrist. The public health perspective calls for theoretical models based on certain psychosocial attributes of the work environment for which there is empirical evidence of their pathogenic potential for exposed workers. Not only do these models reduce the complexity of the psychosocial reality of the work to components that are significant in terms of health risks, but they also facilitate the development and implementation of workplace interventions. Psychosocial risk intervention strategies currently implemented by companies are predominantly individual-oriented and aim chiefly at reducing the effects of stressful work situations by improving individual ability to adapt to the situation and manage stress. Like personal protection equipment for exposure to physical or chemical risks, these secondary prevention measures are commendable but insufficient, because they aim to reduce only the symptoms and not the cause of problems. Any intervention program for these risks should necessarily include a primary prevention component with a view to eliminating, or at least reducing, the psychosocial pathogenic agents in the workplace. Several authors have suggested that well-structured organizational approaches are most effective and should generate more important, longer-lasting effects than individual approaches. However, the evidence should be strengthened by

  11. The impact of workplace spirituality dimensions on organisational citizenship behaviour among nurses with the mediating effect of affective organisational commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemipour, Farahnaz; Mohd Amin, Salmiah

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the relationship between workplace spirituality dimensions and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB) among nurses through the mediating effect of affective organisational commitment. Nurses' OCB has been considered recently to improve the quality of services to patients and subsequently, their performance. As an influential attitude, affective organisational commitment has been recognized to influence OCB, and ultimately, organisational performance. Meanwhile, workplace spirituality is introduced as a new organisational behaviour concept to increase affective commitment influencing employees' OCB. The cross-sectional study and the respective data were collected with a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaires were distributed to 305 nurses employed in four public and general Iranian hospitals. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, Pearson coefficient, simple regression, multiple regression and path analyses were also conducted. The results indicated that workplace spirituality dimensions including meaningful work, a sense of community and an alignment with organisational values have a significant positive relationship with OCB. Moreover, affective organisational commitment mediated the impact of workplace spirituality on OCB. The concept of workplace spirituality through its dimensions predicts nurses' OCB, and affective organisational commitment partially mediated the relationship between workplace spirituality and OCB. Nurses' managers should consider the potentially positive influence of workplace spirituality on OCB and affective commitment among their nurses. With any plan to increase workplace spirituality, the respective managers can improve nurses' performance and would be of considerable importance in the healthcare system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Understanding Individual Resilience in the Workplace: The International Collaboration of Workforce Resilience (ICWR) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Clare Samantha Rees; Lauren J Breen; Lynette eCusack; Desley eHegney

    2015-01-01

    When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as ‘resilient’. A number of studies have found rela...

  13. Understanding individual resilience in the workplace: the international collaboration of workforce resilience model

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Clare S.; Breen, Lauren J.; Cusack, Lynette; Hegney, Desley

    2015-01-01

    When not managed effectively, high levels of workplace stress can lead to several negative personal and performance outcomes. Some professional groups work in highly stressful settings and are therefore particularly at risk of conditions such as anxiety, depression, secondary traumatic stress, and burnout. However, some individuals are less affected by workplace stress and the associated negative outcomes. Such individuals have been described as “resilient.” A number of studies have found rel...

  14. Job Satisfaction and Employee's Self-Schema at Workplace: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrad, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of empl...

  15. Job Satisfaction and Employee’s Self-Schema at Workplace: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Mehrad

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and self-schema amongst employees at the workplace. The results of the study revealed that self-schema derived from feelings and attitudes of employees based on their satisfaction at the workplace; and, explained that employees' schemas are various, completely. This study likewise considered on job satisfaction as a main organizational factor that increases the amount of performance and presence of empl...

  16. What can the Instinctive Drive system™ Offer the Workplace? A Qualitative Exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Anneke Fitzgerald; Ann Dadich; John Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits afforded by teamwork within the workplace, it can be difficult for employers and senior personnel to establish and maintain teams that gel. It is a juggling act involving the delicate interplay of organisational goals and interpersonal dynamics. In the pursuit of enhancing team performance within the workplace, organisational and psychological literature has concentrated on the personal attributes of individual team members, as well as relevant societal factors....

  17. “The Understanding of Workplace Counselling: A Study On University Sample”

    OpenAIRE

    F. Ceyda Aydogdu; Ezgi Uzel

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty becomes a major problem for employees in today’s unstable economy. Stress creates a negative psychological impact on employees at workplace, and it is one of the main reasons of declining performance of employees. No matter what causes the stress at workplace, managers of an organization should be aware of the need for a support program for their employees (Hindle, 1998:61). The purpose of this study is to form a base for further quantitative studies by discovering the perspective...

  18. How do authors of systematic reviews deal with research malpractice and misconduct in original studies? A cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, Nadia; von Elm, Erik; Chatagner, Alexandra; Pöpping, Daniel M; Tramèr, Martin R

    2016-03-02

    To study whether systematic reviewers apply procedures to counter-balance some common forms of research malpractice such as not publishing completed research, duplicate publications, or selective reporting of outcomes, and to see whether they identify and report misconduct. Cross-sectional analysis of systematic reviews and survey of their authors. 118 systematic reviews published in four journals (Ann Int Med, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet), and the Cochrane Library, in 2013. Number (%) of reviews that applied procedures to reduce the impact of: (1) publication bias (through searching of unpublished trials), (2) selective outcome reporting (by contacting the authors of the original studies), (3) duplicate publications, (4) sponsors' and (5) authors' conflicts of interest, on the conclusions of the review, and (6) looked for ethical approval of the studies. Number (%) of reviewers who suspected misconduct are reported. The procedures applied were compared across journals. 80 (68%) reviewers confirmed their data. 59 (50%) reviews applied three or more procedures; 11 (9%) applied none. Unpublished trials were searched in 79 (66%) reviews. Authors of original studies were contacted in 73 (62%). Duplicate publications were searched in 81 (69%). 27 reviews (23%) reported sponsors of the included studies; 6 (5%) analysed their impact on the conclusions of the review. Five reviews (4%) looked at conflicts of interest of study authors; none of them analysed their impact. Three reviews (2.5%) looked at ethical approval of the studies. Seven reviews (6%) suspected misconduct; only 2 (2%) reported it explicitly. Procedures applied differed across the journals. Only half of the systematic reviews applied three or more of the six procedures examined. Sponsors, conflicts of interest of authors and ethical approval remain overlooked. Research misconduct is sometimes identified, but rarely reported. Guidance on when, and how, to report suspected misconduct is needed. Published by the BMJ

  19. Monitoring of the radon exposure in workplaces: Regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenhuber, E.

    2002-01-01

    Germany has a reference level of 2 10 6 Bqh/m 3 for radon in workplaces, corresponding to an annual dose of 6 mSv and a limit of 6 10 6 Bqh/m 3 , corresponding to 10 mSv/y. If the reference level is exceeded remedial action has to be taken and a new radon measurement should be carried out. If it is not possible to reduce the radon concentration below the reference level the competent authority has to be notified and monitoring of the radon concentrations performed. Germany has performed a study to investigate the exposure by natural radionuclides in workplaces in a large number of industrial activities, with a dose assessment of the workers under normal circumstances. They made a categorization of NORM activities in dose ranges of 20 mSv/y. Most of the NORM activities fall in the category <1 mSv/y when normal occupational hygiene measures are taken

  20. [Physical activity and its importance in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masala, Daniele; Mannocci, Alice; Sinopoli, Alessandra; D'Egidio, Valeria; Villari, Paolo; La Torre, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to highlight the importance of physical activity in the workplace and its fundamental role for the wellness of an individual. The relationship between sedentary lifestyle and health is supported by several epidemiological studies and inactivity is one of the main risk factors for cardiovascular disease, chronic conditions and cancer. According to the World Health Organization, physical activity represents: "any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that requires energy expenditure". The promotion of regular physical activity, including its promotion in the workplace is of fundamental importance since a close correlation exists between good health and physical activity. Moreover, regular physical activity improves psycho-physical performance, social relationships, work performance and reduces sickness, absenteeism from work and work injuries.