WorldWideScience

Sample records for performance performance-based measures

  1. Performance-Based Measurement: Action for Organizations and HPT Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Moseley, James L.

    2010-01-01

    Basic measurements and applications of six selected general but critical operational performance-based indicators--effectiveness, efficiency, productivity, profitability, return on investment, and benefit-cost ratio--are presented. With each measurement, goals and potential impact are explored. Errors, risks, limitations to measurements, and a…

  2. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two...... investigating measurement properties of performance measures, including responsiveness and interpretability in people with hip and/or knee OA, is needed. Consensus on which combination of measures will best assess physical function in people with hip/and or knee OA is urgently required....

  3. The Relationship between Video Game Use and a Performance-Based Measure of Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Matthew; Shute, Valerie; Zhao, Weinan

    2013-01-01

    An online performance-based measure of persistence was developed using anagrams and riddles. Persistence was measured by recording the time spent on unsolved anagrams and riddles. Time spent on unsolved problems was correlated to a self-report measure of persistence. Additionally, frequent video game players spent longer times on unsolved problems…

  4. Self-reported physical fitness of older persons : A substitute for performance-based measures of physical fitness?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanHeuvelen, MJG; Kempen, GIJM; Ormel, J; de Greef, M.H.G.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the validity of self-report measures of physical fitness as substitutes for performance-based tests, self-reports and performance-based tests of physical fitness were compared. Subjects were a community-based sample of older adults (N = 624) aged 57 and over. The performance-based tests

  5. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobson, F.; Hinman, R.S.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Terwee, C.B.; Roos, E.M.; Bennell, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two reviewers

  6. Development of a Performance-Based Measure of Executive Functions in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    En-Chi Chiu

    Full Text Available A performance-based measure for assessing executive functions (EF is useful to understand patients' real life performance of EF. This study aimed to develop a performance-based measure of executive functions (PEF based on the Lezak model and to examine psychometric properties (i.e., unidimensionality and reliability of the PEF using Rasch analysis in patients with schizophrenia. We developed the PEF in three phases: (1 designing the preliminary version of PEF; (2 consultation with experts, cognitive interviews with patients, and pilot tests on patients to revise the preliminary PEF; (3 establishment of the final version of the PEF and examination of unidimensionality and Rasch reliability. Two hundred patients were assessed using the revised PEF. After deleting items which did not satisfy the Rasch model's expectations, the final version of the PEF contained 1 practice item and 13 test items for assessing the four domains of EF (i.e., volition, planning, purposive action, and effective performance. For unidimensional and multidimensional Rasch analyses, the 4 domains showed good reliability (i.e., 0.77-0.85 and 0.87-0.90, respectively. Our results showed that the PEF had satisfactory unidimensionality and Rasch reliability. Therefore, clinicians and researchers could use the PEF to assess the four domains of EF in patients with schizophrenia.

  7. Performance-Based Funding Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    A number of states have made progress in implementing performance-based funding (PFB) and accountability. This policy brief summarizes main features of performance-based funding systems in three states: Tennessee, Ohio, and Indiana. The brief also identifies key issues that states considering performance-based funding must address, as well as…

  8. Comparison of self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in elderly patients in an emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Louise M.; Kirkegaard, Hans; Østergaard, Lisa Gregersen

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment of functional ability in elderly patients is often based on self-reported rather than performance-based measures. This study aims to compare self-reported and performance-based measures of functional ability in a population of elderly patients at an emergency department (ED)...

  9. Performance-Based Measures Associate With Frailty in Patients With End-Stage Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jennifer C; Volk, Michael L; Strasburg, Debra; Alexander, Neil

    2016-12-01

    Physical frailty, as measured by the Fried Frailty Index, is increasingly recognized as a critical determinant of outcomes in patients with cirrhosis. However, its utility is limited by the inclusion of self-reported components. We aimed to identify performance-based measures associated with frailty in patients with cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis, aged 50 years or older, underwent: 6-minute walk test (cardiopulmonary endurance), chair stands in 30 seconds (muscle endurance), isometric knee extension (lower extremity strength), unipedal stance time (static balance), and maximal step length (dynamic balance/coordination). Linear regression associated each physical performance test with frailty. Principal components exploratory factor analysis evaluated the interrelatedness of frailty and the 5 physical performance tests. Of 40 patients with cirrhosis, with a median age of 64 years and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) MELD of 12.10 (25%) were frail by Fried Frailty Index ≥3. Frail patients with cirrhosis had poorer performance in 6-minute walk test distance (231 vs 338 m), 30-second chair stands (7 vs 10), isometric knee extension (86 vs 122 Newton meters), and maximal step length (22 vs 27 in. (P ≤ 0.02 for each). Each physical performance test was significantly associated with frailty (P test to a single factor-frailty. Frailty in cirrhosis is a multidimensional construct that is distinct from liver dysfunction and incorporates endurance, strength, and balance. Our data provide specific targets for prehabilitation interventions aimed at reducing frailty in patients with cirrhosis in preparation for liver transplantation.

  10. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Mei; Lin, Hsiu-Fen; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Chun-Wei; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Lo, Yi-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL), for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD), 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI), were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined. Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663) than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541). The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965) to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%. The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  11. Validation of Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, a Performance- Based Measurement of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living for Patients with Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Mei Chen

    Full Text Available Patients with cerebrovascular diseases often presented both cognitive and physical impairment. Disability in everyday functioning involving cognitive impairment among patients may be hard to completely rely on informants' reports, as their reports may be confounded with physical impairment. The aim of this study was to validate a performance-based measure of functional assessment, the Taiwan Performance-Based Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (TPIADL, for vascular cognitive impairment (VCI by examining its psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy.Ninety-seven patients with cerebrovascular diseases, including 30 with vascular dementia (VaD, 28 with mild cognitive impairment and 39 with no cognitive impairment, and 49 healthy control adults were recruited during study period. The TPIADL, as well as the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE, Lawton-IADL and Barthel Index (BI, were performed. The internal consistency, convergent and criteria validity of the TPIADL were examined.Cronbach's alpha of the TPIADL test was 0.84. The TPIADL scores were significantly correlated with the Lawton IADL (r = -0.587, p <0.01. Notably, the TPIADL had a higher correlation coefficient with the cognitive domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.663 than with physical domain of Lawton IADL (r = -0.541. The area under the relative operating characteristic curve was 0.888 (95% CI = 0.812-0.965 to differentiate VaD from other groups. The optimal cut-off point of the TPIADL for detecting VaD was 6/7, which gives a sensitivity of 73.3% and a specificity of 84.5%.The TPIADL is a brief and sensitive tool for the detection of IADL impairment in patients with VaD.

  12. Are performance-based measures predictive of work participation in patients with musculoskeletal disorders? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijer, P. P. F. M.; Gouttebarge, V.; Brouwer, S.; Reneman, M. F.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    Assessments of whether patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can participate in work mainly consist of case history, physical examinations, and self-reports. Performance-based measures might add value in these assessments. This study answers the question: how well do performance-based

  13. Performance based fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  14. Measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in hip and knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Hall, M; Terwee, C B; Roos, E M; Bennell, K L

    2012-12-01

    To systematically review the measurement properties of performance-based measures to assess physical function in people with hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, and PsycINFO up to the end of June 2012. Two reviewers independently rated measurement properties using the consensus-based standards for the selection of health status measurement instrument (COSMIN). "Best evidence synthesis" was made using COSMIN outcomes and the quality of findings. Twenty-four out of 1792 publications were eligible for inclusion. Twenty-one performance-based measures were evaluated including 15 single-activity measures and six multi-activity measures. Measurement properties evaluated included internal consistency (three measures), reliability (16 measures), measurement error (14 measures), validity (nine measures), responsiveness (12 measures) and interpretability (three measures). A positive rating was given to only 16% of possible measurement ratings. Evidence for the majority of measurement properties of tests reported in the review has yet to be determined. On balance of the limited evidence, the 40 m self-paced test was the best rated walk test, the 30 s-chair stand test and timed up and go test were the best rated sit to stand tests, and the Stratford battery, Physical Activity Restrictions and Functional Assessment System were the best rated multi-activity measures. Further good quality research investigating measurement properties of performance measures, including responsiveness and interpretability in people with hip and/or knee OA, is needed. Consensus on which combination of measures will best assess physical function in people with hip/and or knee OA is urgently required. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Do Performance-based Health Measures Reflect Differences in Frailty Among Immigrants Age 50+ in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Thomas D; Theou, Olga; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-09-01

    Life course influences, including country of residence and country of birth, are associated with frailty index scores. We investigated these associations using performance-based health measures. Among 33,745 participants age 50+ (mean age 64.8 ± 10.1; 55% women) in the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe, grip strength, delayed word recall, and semantic verbal fluency were assessed. Participants were grouped by country of residence (Northern/Western Europe or Southern/Eastern Europe), and by country of birth (native-born, immigrants born in low- and middle-income countries [LMICs], or immigrants born in high-income countries [HICs]). Participants in Southern/Eastern Europe had lower mean test scores than those in Northern/Western Europe, and their scores did not differ by country of birth group. In Northern/Western Europe, compared with native-born participants, LMIC-born immigrants demonstrated lower mean grip strength (32.8 ± 7.6 kg vs. 35.7 ± 7.7 kg), delayed recall (2.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.9), and verbal fluency scores (16.0 ± 6.9 vs. 20.3 ± 7.0). HIC-born immigrants had mean scores higher than LMIC-born immigrants, but lower than native-born participants (all pnational income levels of both country of residence and country of birth. This was similar to previously observed differences in frailty index scores.

  16. The ambiguities of performance-based governance reforms in Italy: Reviving the fortunes of evaluation and performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Mita

    2018-08-01

    Over the past two decades, Italy's administrative reforms have institutionalized evaluation to improve program effectiveness, staff productivity, and results-driven accountability against waste and corruption. Across ministries, regional governments, universities, schools and environmental protection agencies, seemingly unexpected consequences have emerged out of the implementation of performance measurement and evaluation regimes within public organizations. Formal compliance to legally binding evaluation procedures, judicially-sanctioned managerial accountability and lack of cross-agency coordination coupled with long-standing cultural separations among evaluators are some of the ambiguities associated with a performance-based governance system within Italian public administration. Building upon the 'new governane theory,' and qualitative fieldwork, I explore the political consequences of evaluation and performance measurement for possible improvements. From a normative perspective, greater integration between program evaluation and performance measurement can support organizational learning and democratic accountability both at the central and local level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Are performance-based measures predictive of work participation in patients with musculoskeletal disorders? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, P P F M; Gouttebarge, V; Brouwer, S; Reneman, M F; Frings-Dresen, M H W

    2012-02-01

    Assessments of whether patients with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can participate in work mainly consist of case history, physical examinations, and self-reports. Performance-based measures might add value in these assessments. This study answers the question: how well do performance-based measures predict work participation in patients with MSDs? A systematic literature search was performed to obtain longitudinal studies that used reliable performance-based measures to predict work participation in patients with MSDs. The following five sources of information were used to retrieve relevant studies: PubMed, Embase, AMA Guide to the Evaluation of Functional Ability, references of the included papers, and the expertise and personal file of the authors. A quality assessment specific for prognostic studies and an evidence synthesis were performed. Of the 1,230 retrieved studies, eighteen fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The studies included 4,113 patients, and the median follow-up period was 12 months. Twelve studies took possible confounders into account. Five studies were of good quality and thirteen of moderate quality. Two good-quality and all thirteen moderate-quality studies (83%) reported that performance-based measures were predictive of work participation. Two good-quality studies (11%) reported both an association and no association between performance-based measures and work participation. One good-quality study (6%) found no effect. A performance-based lifting test was used in fourteen studies and appeared to be predictive of work participation in thirteen studies. Strong evidence exists that a number of performance-based measures are predictive of work participation in patients with MSDs, especially lifting tests. Overall, the explained variance was modest.

  18. Student Listening Gains in the Basic Communication Course: A Comparison of Self-Report and Performance-Based Competence Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Danette Ifert; Long, Kathleen M.

    2007-01-01

    Direct listening instruction is a frequent component of basic communication courses. Research has found changes in self-perceived listening competence during a basic communication course and only a minimal relationship between self-perceived and performance-based measures of listening and other communication behaviors. Results of the present study…

  19. Measuring Adolescent Self-Awareness and Accuracy Using a Performance-Based Assessment and Parental Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Zlotnik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of this study was to assess awareness of performance and performance accuracy for a task that requires executive functions (EF, among healthy adolescents and to compare their performance to their parent’s ratings.MethodParticipants: 109 healthy adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 1.86 years completed the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity (WCPA. The discrepancy between self-estimated and actual performance was used to measure the level of awareness. The participants were divided into high and low accuracy groups according to the WCPA accuracy median score. The participants were also divided into high and low awareness groups. A comparison was conducted between groups using WCPA performance and parent ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF.ResultsHigher awareness was associated with better EF performance. Participants with high accuracy scores were more likely to show high awareness of performance as compared to participants with low accuracy scores. The high accuracy group had better parental ratings of EF, higher efficiency, followed more rules, and were more aware of their WCPA performance.ConclusionOur results highlight the important contribution that self-awareness of performance may have on the individual’s function. Assessing the level of awareness and providing metacognitive training techniques for those adolescents who are less aware, could support their performance.

  20. Neuropsychological predictors of performance-based measures of functional capacity and social skills in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Zanjbeel; Burton, Cynthia Z; Vella, Lea; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2018-04-13

    Neuropsychological abilities may underlie successful performance of everyday functioning and social skills. We aimed to determine the strongest neuropsychological predictors of performance-based functional capacity and social skills performance across the spectrum of severe mental illness (SMI). Unemployed outpatients with SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression; n = 151) were administered neuropsychological (expanded MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery), functional capacity (UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief; UPSA-B), and social skills (Social Skills Performance Assessment; SSPA) assessments. Bivariate correlations between neuropsychological performance and UPSA-B and SSPA total scores showed that most neuropsychological tests were significantly associated with each performance-based measure. Forward entry stepwise regression analyses were conducted entering education, diagnosis, symptom severity, and neuropsychological performance as predictors of functional capacity and social skills. Diagnosis, working memory, sustained attention, and category and letter fluency emerged as significant predictors of functional capacity, in a model that explained 43% of the variance. Negative symptoms, sustained attention, and letter fluency were significant predictors of social skill performance, in a model explaining 35% of the variance. Functional capacity is positively associated with neuropsychological functioning, but diagnosis remains strongly influential, with mood disorder participants outperforming those with psychosis. Social skill performance appears to be positively associated with sustained attention and verbal fluency regardless of diagnosis; however, negative symptom severity strongly predicts social skills performance. Improving neuropsychological functioning may improve psychosocial functioning in people with SMI. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Longitudinal Study of a Novel, Performance-based Measure of Daily Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    have functional impairments, and healthy age matched controls on the UPSA, as well as measures of cognition (e.g., episodic memory , semantic memory ...controls on the UPSA, as well as measures of cognition (e.g., episodic memory , semantic memory , executive function, speed). We found that patients with...diagnosis have functional impairments, and healthy age matched controls on the UPSA, as well as measures of cognition (e.g., episodic memory , semantic

  2. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Performance-Based Contracts Version 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-02

    Document outlines the Federal Energy Management Program's standard procedures and guidelines for measurement and verification (M&V) for federal energy managers, procurement officials, and energy service providers.

  3. Development, Reliability, and Equivalence of an Alternate Form for the CQ Duty Performance-Based Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    CQD-O Funding Support: This grant None. 14 There were no other individuals who contributed at least one person month over the past year ...Dysfunction; W81XWH-14-1-0198). - Awarded funding for 2 new grants in the past year . The Purpose Project Feasibility Study (Engelsma Family Foundation) is...repeated as a post-treatment outcome measure due to learning effects. Therefore, an equivalent alternate form is needed. Research Question #1. Can an

  4. Discrete Lognormal Model as an Unbiased Quantitative Measure of Scientific Performance Based on Empirical Citation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Joao; Zeng, Xiaohan; Amaral, Luis

    2013-03-01

    Assessing the career performance of scientists has become essential to modern science. Bibliometric indicators, like the h-index are becoming more and more decisive in evaluating grants and approving publication of articles. However, many of the more used indicators can be manipulated or falsified by publishing with very prolific researchers or self-citing papers with a certain number of citations, for instance. Accounting for these factors is possible but it introduces unwanted complexity that drives us further from the purpose of the indicator: to represent in a clear way the prestige and importance of a given scientist. Here we try to overcome this challenge. We used Thompson Reuter's Web of Science database and analyzed all the papers published until 2000 by ~1500 researchers in the top 30 departments of seven scientific fields. We find that over 97% of them have a citation distribution that is consistent with a discrete lognormal model. This suggests that our model can be used to accurately predict the performance of a researcher. Furthermore, this predictor does not depend on the individual number of publications and is not easily ``gamed'' on. The authors acknowledge support from FCT Portugal, and NSF grants

  5. A meta-analytic review of self-reported, clinician-rated, and performance-based motivation measures in schizophrenia: Are we measuring the same "stuff"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Lysaker, Paul H; Minor, Kyle S; Salyers, Michelle P

    2018-04-07

    An array of self-reported, clinician-rated, and performance-based measures has been used to assess motivation in schizophrenia; however, the convergent validity evidence for these motivation assessment methods is mixed. The current study is a series of meta-analyses that summarize the relationships between methods of motivation measurement in 45 studies of people with schizophrenia. The overall mean effect size between self-reported and clinician-rated motivation measures (r = 0.27, k = 33) was significant, positive, and approaching medium in magnitude, and the overall effect size between performance-based and clinician-rated motivation measures (r = 0.21, k = 11) was positive, significant, and small in magnitude. The overall mean effect size between self-reported and performance-based motivation measures was negligible and non-significant (r = -0.001, k = 2), but this meta-analysis was underpowered. Findings suggest modest convergent validity between clinician-rated and both self-reported and performance-based motivation measures, but additional work is needed to clarify the convergent validity between self-reported and performance-based measures. Further, there is likely more variability than similarity in the underlying construct that is being assessed across the three methods, particularly between the performance-based and other motivation measurement types. These motivation assessment methods should not be used interchangeably, and measures should be more precisely described as the specific motivational construct or domain they are capturing. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessing Therapist Competence: Development of a Performance-Based Measure and Its Comparison With a Web-Based Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Bohn, Kristin; de Vries, Dian; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2017-10-31

    Recent research interest in how best to train therapists to deliver psychological treatments has highlighted the need for rigorous, but scalable, means of measuring therapist competence. There are at least two components involved in assessing therapist competence: the assessment of their knowledge of the treatment concerned, including how and when to use its strategies and procedures, and an evaluation of their ability to apply such knowledge skillfully in practice. While the assessment of therapists' knowledge has the potential to be completed efficiently on the Web, the assessment of skill has generally involved a labor-intensive process carried out by clinicians, and as such, may not be suitable for assessing training outcome in certain circumstances. The aims of this study were to develop and evaluate a role-play-based measure of skill suitable for assessing training outcome and to compare its performance with a highly scalable Web-based measure of applied knowledge. Using enhanced cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders as an exemplar, clinical scenarios for role-play assessment were developed and piloted together with a rating scheme for assessing trainee therapists' performance. These scenarios were evaluated by examining the performance of 93 therapists from different professional backgrounds and at different levels of training in implementing CBT-E. These therapists also completed a previously developed Web-based measure of applied knowledge, and the ability of the Web-based measure to efficiently predict competence on the role-play measure was investigated. The role-play measure assessed performance at implementing a range of CBT-E procedures. The majority of the therapists rated their performance as moderately or closely resembling their usual clinical performance. Trained raters were able to achieve good-to-excellent reliability for averaged competence, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .653 to 909. The measure was

  7. Patient-reported outcome measures versus inertial performance-based outcome measures: A prospective study in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolink, S A A N; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C

    2015-12-01

    Outcome assessment of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by subjective patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) may not fully capture the functional (dis-)abilities of relevance. Objective performance-based outcome measures could provide distinct information. An ambulant inertial measurement unit (IMU) allows kinematic assessment of physical performance and could potentially be used for routine follow-up. To investigate the responsiveness of IMU measures in patients following TKA and compare outcomes with conventional PROMs. Patients with end stage knee OA (n=20, m/f=7/13; age=67.4 standard deviation 7.7 years) were measured preoperatively and one year postoperatively. IMU measures were derived during gait, sit-stand transfers and block step-up transfers. PROMs were assessed by using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and Knee Society Score (KSS). Responsiveness was calculated by the effect size, correlations were calculated with Spearman's rho correlation coefficient. One year after TKA, patients performed significantly better at gait, sit-to-stand transfers and block step-up transfers. Measures of time and kinematic IMU measures demonstrated significant improvements postoperatively for each performance-based test. The largest improvement was found in block step-up transfers (effect size=0.56-1.20). WOMAC function score and KSS function score demonstrated moderate correlations (Spearman's rho=0.45-0.74) with some of the physical performance-based measures pre- and postoperatively. To characterize the changes in physical function after TKA, PROMs could be supplemented by performance-based measures, assessing function during different activities and allowing kinematic characterization with an ambulant IMU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 48 CFR 970.1100-1 - Performance-based contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Procurement Policy's Seven Steps to Performance-Based Acquisition located at Web site http://www...) performance standards and objectives and quality assurance surveillance plans; provide performance incentives... planning processes. Measurable performance criteria, objective measures, and where appropriate, performance...

  9. Performance-based inspection and maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    Performance-based inspection and maintenance strategies utilize measures of equipment performance to help guide inspection and maintenance activities. A relevant measure of performance for safety system components is component unavailability. The component unavailability can also be input into a plant risk model such as a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to determine the associated plant risk performance. Based on the present and projected unavailability performance, or the present and projected risk performance, the effectiveness of current maintenance activities can be evaluated and this information can be used to plan future maintenance activities. A significant amount of information other than downtimes or failure times is collected or can be collected when an inspection or maintenance is conducted which can be used to estimate the component unavailability. This information generally involves observations on the condition or state of the component or component piecepart. The information can be detailed such as the amount of corrosion buildup or can be general such as the general state of the component described as ' high degradation', ' moderate degradation', or ' low degradation'. Much of the information collected in maintenance logs is qualitative and fuzzy. As part of an NRC Research program on performance-based engineering modeling, approaches have been developed to apply Fuzzy Set Theory to information collected on the state of the component to determine the implied component or component piecepart unavailability. Demonstrations of the applications of Fuzzy Set Theory are presented utilizing information from plant maintenance logs. The demonstrations show the power of Fuzzy Set Theory in translating engineering information to reliability and risk implications

  10. Performance-based planning and programming guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    "Performance-based planning and programming (PBPP) refers to the application of performance management principles within the planning and programming processes of transportation agencies to achieve desired performance outcomes for the multimodal tran...

  11. Approach to performance based regulation development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spogen, L.R.; Cleland, L.L.

    1977-06-01

    An approach to the development of performance based regulations (PBR's) is described. Initially, a framework is constructed that consists of a function hierarchy and associated measures. The function at the top of the hierarchy is described in terms of societal objectives. Decomposition of this function into subordinate functions and their subsequent decompositions yield the function hierarchy. ''Bottom'' functions describe the roles of system components. When measures are identified for the performance of each function and means of aggregating performances to higher levels are established, the framework may be employed for developing PBR's. Consideration of system flexibility and performance uncertainty guide in determining the hierarchical level at which regulations are formulated. Ease of testing compliance is also a factor. To show the viability of the approach, the framework developed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for evaluation of material control systems at fixed facilities is presented

  12. Assessing Therapist Competence : Development of a Performance-Based Measure and Its Comparison With a Web-Based Measure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen; Bailey-Straebler, Suzanne; Bohn, Kristin; de Vries, Dian; Murphy, Rebecca; O'Connor, Marianne E; Fairburn, Christopher G

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent research interest in how best to train therapists to deliver psychological treatments has highlighted the need for rigorous, but scalable, means of measuring therapist competence. There are at least two components involved in assessing therapist competence: the assessment of their

  13. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation

  14. Performance-based regulation. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert; Bier, Vicki M.; Bukowski, Richard W.; Prasad Kadambi, N.; Koonce, James F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Performance-based regulation is a part of the NRC's Strategic Plan and is realizing steady progress in conceptual development for actual applications. For example, high-level, conceptual guidelines have been proposed that would apply to reactors, materials, and waste areas. Performance-based approaches are also being applied in other regulated industries such as FAA and OSHA. The discussion will include comments from speakers from different parts of the nuclear industry and other industries regarding benefits and weaknesses of performance-based regulation. (authors)

  15. Susceptibility to Peer Influence: Using a Performance-Based Measure to Identify Adolescent Males at Heightened Risk for Deviant Peer Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinstein, Mitchell J.; Brechwald, Whitney A.; Cohen, Geoffrey L.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial amount of research has suggested that adolescents' attitudes and behaviors are influenced by peers; however, little is known regarding adolescents' individual variability, or susceptibility, to peer influence. In this study, a performance-based index from an experimental paradigm was used to directly measure adolescents'…

  16. Performance Management or Performance Based Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina PROTOPOPESCU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present some considerations about performance and performance management. Starting with the challenge of defining the performance concept, we intend to establish if „performance management” can be a new management system or it is just a sophisticated term for a HR strategy in order to improve the performance of teams and individuals. We also try to discuss the conection between performance management and management by objectives. Whether or not it is exageratted to talk about...

  17. Performance-Based Evaluation and School Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Audrey P.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of instructional personnel is standard procedure in our Pre-K-12 public schools, and its purpose is to document educator effectiveness. With Race to the Top and No Child Left Behind waivers, states are required to implement performance-based evaluations that demonstrate student academic progress. This three-year study describes the…

  18. Overview of Performance Based Practical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.13023/KTC.RR.2018.03 State transportation agencies (STAs) have increasingly turned to practical design and performance based practical design(PBPD) to inform project development and implementation and to reduce project cos...

  19. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  20. Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…

  1. Performance-based Pareto optimal design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sariyildiz, I.S.; Bittermann, M.S.; Ciftcioglu, O.

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach for performance-based design is presented, where Pareto optimality is pursued. Design requirements may contain linguistic information, which is difficult to bring into computation or make consistent their impartial estimations from case to case. Fuzzy logic and soft computing are

  2. The Performance Blueprint: An Integrated Logic Model Developed To Enhance Performance Measurement Literacy: The Case of Performance-Based Contract Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Paul J.

    This study explored the mechanics of using an enhanced, comprehensive multipurpose logic model, the Performance Blueprint, as a means of building evaluation capacity, referred to in this paper as performance measurement literacy, to facilitate the attainment of both service-delivery oriented and community-oriented outcomes. The application of this…

  3. Measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroman, S L; Roos, Ewa M.; Bennell, K L

    2014-01-01

    To systematically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA).......To systematically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA)....

  4. Analytical perspectives on performance-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadmann, Sarah; Johansen, Sarah; Lind, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Performance-based management (PBM) has become a dominant form of governance in health care and there is a need for careful assessment of its function and effects. This article contains a cross-disciplinary literature synthesis of current studies of PBM. Literature was retrieved by database search...... perspectives allows appreciation of otherwise implicit assumptions and potential implications of PBM. Reflections on such differences are important to ensure vigilant appropriation of shifting management tools in health quality governance.......Performance-based management (PBM) has become a dominant form of governance in health care and there is a need for careful assessment of its function and effects. This article contains a cross-disciplinary literature synthesis of current studies of PBM. Literature was retrieved by database searches....... In the functionalist perspective, PBM is perceived as a management tool aimed at improving health care services by means of market-based mechanisms. In the interpretive perspective, the adoption of PBM is understood as consequence of institutional and individual agents striving for public legitimacy. In the post...

  5. Mixed Movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. The project experiments with drawing-series as montages of materials and forces, making the drawing appear in its changing character. The moving components are conditioned by different circumstances...... that question each other, working as well with space-time motives as with expressions and techniques. A series poses questions both to the kind of forces it raises as well as to the kind of sensual affects it produces – to how the body resonates with the rhythms and tensions that appear in the drawing....... A drawing-series is then both a machine, a diagram, and an appearance, what we call a resonance-model, creating links between tectonic and drawing constructions, kinaesthetic competences and actual body-movements....

  6. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs.

  7. TAP 2, Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Training programs at DOE nuclear facilities should provide well- trained, qualified personnel to safely and efficiently operate the facilities in accordance with DOE requirements. A need has been identified for guidance regarding analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation of consistent and reliable performance-based training programs. Accreditation of training programs at Category A reactors and high-hazard and selected moderate-hazard nonreactor facilities will assure consistent, appropriate, and cost-effective training of personnel responsible for the operation, maintenance, and technical support of these facilities. Training programs that are designed and based on systematically job requirements, instead of subjective estimation of trainee needs, yield training activities that are consistent and develop or improve knowledge, skills, and abilities that can be directly related to the work setting. Because the training is job-related, the content of these programs more efficiently and effectively meets the needs of the employee. Besides a better trained work force, a greater level of operational reactor safety can be realized. This manual is intended to provide an overview of the accreditation process and a brief description of the elements necessary to construct and maintain training programs that are based on the requirements of the job. Two comparison manuals provide additional information to assist contractors in their efforts to accredit training programs

  8. Responsiveness of performance-based outcome measures for mobility, balance, muscle strength and manual dexterity in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Petitclerc, Émilie; Hébert, Luc J; Mathieu, Jean; Gagnon, Cynthia

    2018-02-28

    To assess changes and responsiveness in outcome measures of mobility, balance, muscle strength and manual dexterity in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1. A 9-year longitudinal study conducted with 113 patients. The responsiveness of the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, quantitative muscle testing, grip and pinch-grip strength, and Purdue Pegboard Test was assessed using criterion and construct approaches. Patient-reported perceived changes (worse/stable) in balance, walking, lower-limb weakness, stair-climbing and hand weakness were used as criteria. Predefined hypotheses about expected area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (criterion approach) and correlations between relative changes (construct approach) were explored. The direction and magnitude of median changes in outcome measures corresponded with patient-reported changes. Median changes in the Timed Up and Go test, grip strength, pinch-grip strength and Purdue Pegboard Test did not, in general, exceed known measurement errors. Most criterion (72%) and construct (70%) approach hypotheses were supported. Promising responsiveness was found for outcome measures of mobility, balance and muscle strength. Grip strength and manual dexterity measures showed poorer responsiveness. The performance-based outcome measures captured changes over the 9-year period and responsiveness was promising. Knowledge of measurement errors is needed to interpret the meaning of these longitudinal changes.

  9. Product and process effectiveness using performance-based auditing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Focus is the backbone of genius. Focus is the lifeblood of adequate products and effective processes. Focus is the theme of Performance-Based Audits (PBA). The Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) Program is using the PBA tool extensively to focus on the evaluation of product adequacy and process effectiveness. The term Performance-Based Audit has been around for several years. however, the approach presented here for the systematic end-product selection, planning, and measurement of adequacy and effectiveness is new and innovative

  10. Motor Skill Assessment of Children: Is There an Association between Performance-Based, Child-Report, and Parent-Report Measures of Children's Motor Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Johanna; Brown, Ted; Chien, Chi-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Client-centered practice requires therapists to actively seek the perspectives of children and families. Several assessment tools are available to facilitate this process. However, when evaluating motor skill performance, therapists typically concentrate on performance-based assessment. To improve understanding of the information provided by the…

  11. Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes performance-based assessment as expounded by its proponents, comments on these conceptions, reviews evidence regarding the technical quality of performance-based assessment, and considers its validity under various policy options. (JDD)

  12. Cost savings from performance-based maintenance contracting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2009-01-01

    New procurement approaches combined with performance-based building approaches should reduce costs, but empirical qualitative and quantitative studies are lacking. Performance-based maintenance contracts give maintenance suppliers incentives to improve their way of working. Innovative,

  13. Investigation of Concrete Electrical Resistivity As a Performance Based Test

    OpenAIRE

    Malakooti, Amir

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to identify the extent that concrete resistivity measurements (bulk and/or surface) can be used as a performance based lab test to improve the quality of concrete in Utah bridge decks. By allowing UDOT to specify a required resistivity, concrete bridge deck quality will increase and future maintenance costs will decrease. This research consisted of two phases: the field phase and the lab phase. In the field phase, concrete samples were gathered from...

  14. A Performance-Based Instructional Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Tom E.

    1974-01-01

    The rationale for a performanced- based instructional theory has arisen from significant advances during the past several years in instructional psychology. Four major areas of concern are: analysis of subject-matter content in terms of performance competencies, diagnosis of pre-instructional behavior, formulation of an instructional…

  15. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Richard P. [NRR/DOTS/TQMP, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, M/S OWFN 10A19, Washington, D.C. 20555 (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  16. Performance based regulation - The maintenance rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has begun a transition from 'process-oriented' to 'results-oriented' regulations. The maintenance rule is a results-oriented rule that mandates consideration of risk and plant performance. The Maintenance Rule allows licensees to devise the most effective and efficient means of achieving the results described in the rule including the use of Probabilistic Risk (or Safety) Assessments. The NRC staff conducted a series of site visits to evaluate implementation of the Rule. Conclusions from the site visits indicated that the results-oriented Maintenance Rule can be successfully implemented and enforced. (author)

  17. Students academic performance based on behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulida, Juwita Dien; Kariyam

    2017-12-01

    Utilization of data in an information system that can be used for decision making that utilizes existing data warehouse to help dig useful information to make decisions correctly and accurately. Experience API (xAPI) is one of the enabling technologies for collecting data, so xAPI can be used as a data warehouse that can be used for various needs. One software application whose data is collected in xAPI is LMS. LMS is a software used in an electronic learning process that can handle all aspects of learning, by using LMS can also be known how the learning process and the aspects that can affect learning achievement. One of the aspects that can affect the learning achievement is the background of each student, which is not necessarily the student with a good background is an outstanding student or vice versa. Therefore, an action is needed to anticipate this problem. Prediction of student academic performance using Naive Bayes algorithm obtained accuracy of 67.7983% and error 32.2917%.

  18. Measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroman, S L; Roos, E M; Bennell, K L; Hinman, R S; Dobson, F

    2014-01-01

    To systematically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and SPORTDiscus in May 2013. Two reviewers independently rated the measurement properties using the 4-point COSMIN checklist. Best evidence synthesis was made using COSMIN quality, consistency and direction of findings and sample size. Twenty of 2736 papers were eligible for inclusion and 24 different performance-based outcome measures knee or obese populations were evaluated. No tests related to hip populations were included. Twenty-five measurement properties including reliability (nine studies), construct validity (hypothesis testing) (nine studies), measurement error (three studies), structural validity (two studies), interpretability (one study) and responsiveness (one study) were evaluated. A positive rating was given to 12.5% (30/240) of all possible measurement ratings. Tests were grouped into two categories based on the population characteristics. The one-legged hop for distance, followed by the 6-m timed hop and cross over hop for distance were the best-rated tests for the knee-injured population. Whereas the 6-min walk test was the only included test for the obese population. This review highlights the many gaps in knowledge about the measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures for young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee OA. There is a need for consensus on which outcome measures should be used and/or combined when assessing physical function in this population. Further good quality research is required. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

  20. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  1. 48 CFR 52.232-32 - Performance-Based Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Contracting Officer, such excess shall be credited as a reduction in the unliquidated performance-based... adjustments. (e) Reduction or suspension of performance-based payments. The Contracting Officer may reduce or... sound and generally accepted accounting principles and practices: (i) Parts, materials, inventories, and...

  2. Double Marginalization in Performance-Based Advertising: Implications and Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Chrysanthos Dellarocas

    2012-01-01

    An important current trend in advertising is the replacement of traditional pay-per-exposure (pay-per-impression) pricing models with performance-based mechanisms in which advertisers pay only for measurable actions by consumers. Such pay-per-action (PPA) mechanisms are becoming the predominant method of selling advertising on the Internet. Well-known examples include pay-per-click, pay-per-call, and pay-per-sale. This work highlights an important, and hitherto unrecognized, side effect of PP...

  3. Performance Based Logistics... What’s Stopping Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    performance-based life cycle product support, where outcomes are acquired through performance-based arrangements that deliver Warfighter requirements and...correlates to the acquisition life cycle framework: spend the time and effort to identify and lock in the PBL requirements; conduct an analysis to...studies and reports on PBLs over the past 15 or more years. Much like fashion styles, the af- finity for PBLs has ebbed and flowed during this time

  4. The Combined Utility of a Brief Functional Measure and Performance-Based Screening Test for Case Finding of Cognitive Impairment in Primary Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Qun Lin; Shaik, Muhammad Amin; Xu, Jing; Xu, Xin; Chen, Christopher Li-Hsian; Dong, YanHong

    2016-04-01

    Use of a total risk score (TRS) based on vascular and sociodemographic risk factors has been recommended to identify patients at risk of cognitive impairment. Moreover, combining screening tests has been reported to improve positive predictive values (PPV) for case finding of cognitive impairment. We investigated the utility of the conjunctive combination of the informant-based AD8 and the performance-based National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke-Canadian Stroke Network (NINDS-CSN) 5-minute protocol for the detection of cognitive impairment, defined by a clinical dementia rating (CDR) score ≥0.5, in patients at risk of cognitive impairment (TRS ≥3). Participants were recruited from 2 primary healthcare centers in Singapore and received the AD8, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Mini-Mental State Examination, CDR, and a formal neuropsychological test battery. The scores for NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol were extracted from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment items. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve analyses were conducted to determine the discriminant indices of the screening instruments, the conjunctive combination (ie, screened positive on both tests), and the compensatory combination (ie, screened positive in either of or both tests). A total of 309 participants were recruited of whom 78.7% (n = 243) had CDR = 0 and 21.3% (n = 66) had CDR ≥0.5. The conjunctive combination of AD8 and NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol achieved excellent PPV and acceptable sensitivity (PPV 91.7%, sensitivity 73.3%). The conjunctive combination of the AD8 and NINDS-CSN 5-minute protocol is brief and accurate, and hence, suitable for case finding of cognitive impairment (CDR ≥0.5) in patients screened positive on the TRS in primary healthcare centers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Guidelines for performance-based supplier audits (NCIG-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauderdale, J.R.; Mattu, R.K.; Roman, W.S.

    1990-06-01

    This document provides guidelines for planning and conducting performance-based audits of suppliers of items used in nuclear power plants. A common purpose of audits is to provide a basis for confidence in the supplier's controls to ensure that products received will perform their intended functions satisfactorily. Performance-based audits offer means of raising the level of confidence. This confidence comes from evaluation of important features of the product and the processes and activities that produce it. This document does not add requirements to those in existing codes, standards, or regulations. The guidance herein is intended to complement the information in existing industry standards and practices. Performance-based audits are one element of an effective procurement program. A companion EPRI/NCIG document, EPRI NP-6629, Guidelines for the Procurement and Receipt of Items for Nuclear Power Plants (NCIG-15), provides guidance for other elements of an effective procurement program

  6. A Model of Statistics Performance Based on Achievement Goal Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandalos, Deborah L.; Finney, Sara J.; Geske, Jenenne A.

    2003-01-01

    Tests a model of statistics performance based on achievement goal theory. Both learning and performance goals affected achievement indirectly through study strategies, self-efficacy, and test anxiety. Implications of these findings for teaching and learning statistics are discussed. (Contains 47 references, 3 tables, 3 figures, and 1 appendix.)…

  7. Performance Based Building and its application to Healthy Buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Bluyssen, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    The European funded Project PeBBu, Performance Based Building, is a Thematic network under the Competitive and Sustainable Growth program, which started September 1st, 2001 andwill run for 4 years. In one of the domains of PeBBu, the domain Indoor Environment, a stateof-the-art on the Performance

  8. Performance-based shape optimization of continuum structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Qingquan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a performance-based optimization (PBO) method for optimal shape design of continuum structures with stiffness constraints. Performance-based design concepts are incorporated in the shape optimization theory to achieve optimal designs. In the PBO method, the traditional shape optimization problem of minimizing the weight of a continuum structure with displacement or mean compliance constraints is transformed to the problem of maximizing the performance of the structure. The optimal shape of a continuum structure is obtained by gradually eliminating inefficient finite elements from the structure until its performance is maximized. Performance indices are employed to monitor the performance of optimized shapes in an optimization process. Performance-based optimality criteria are incorporated in the PBO method to identify the optimum from the optimization process. The PBO method is used to produce optimal shapes of plane stress continuum structures and plates in bending. Benchmark numerical results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PBO method for generating the maximum stiffness shape design of continuum structures. It is shown that the PBO method developed overcomes the limitations of traditional shape optimization methods in optimal design of continuum structures. Performance-based optimality criteria presented can be incorporated in any shape and topology optimization methods to obtain optimal designs of continuum structures.

  9. Performance-based procurement for low disturbance brdige construction projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebastian, R.; Claeson-Jonsson, C.; Di Giulio, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to introduce a method of performance-based procurement, based on the most economically advantageous tender (MEAT), for low-disturbance bridge construction projects in urban environment. Design/methodology/approach – The first part of this paper reviews the key performance

  10. Effects of Accumulating Work Shifts on Performance-Based Fatigue Using Multiple Strength Measurements in Day and Night Shift Nurses and Aides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Banuelas, Victoria K

    2017-05-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the effects of accumulating nursing work on maximal and rapid strength characteristics in female nurses and compare these effects in day versus night shift workers. Background Nurses exhibit among the highest nonfatal injury rates of all occupations, which may be a consequence of long, cumulative work shift schedules. Fatigue may accumulate across multiple shifts and lead to performance impairments, which in turn may be linked to injury risks. Method Thirty-seven nurses and aides performed isometric strength-based performance testing of three muscle groups, including the knee extensors, knee flexors, and wrist flexors (hand grip), as well as countermovement jumps, at baseline and following exposure to three 12-hour work shifts in a four-day period. Variables included peak torque (PT) and rate of torque development (RTD) from isometric strength testing and jump height and power output. Results The rigorous work period resulted in significant decreases (-7.2% to -19.2%) in a large majority (8/9) of the isometric strength-based measurements. No differences were noted for the day versus night shift workers except for the RTD at 200 millisecond variable, for which the night shift had greater work-induced decreases than the day shift workers. No changes were observed for jump height or power output. Conclusions A compressed nursing work schedule resulted in decreases in strength-based performance abilities, being indicative of performance fatigue. Application Compressed work schedules involving long shifts lead to functional declines in nurse performance capacities that may pose risks for both the nurse and patient quality of care. Fatigue management plans are needed to monitor and regulate increased levels of fatigue.

  11. Introducing a performance-based objective clinical examination into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To describe how a formative Objective Structured Clinical Examination was applied to fourth year pharmacy students at a university in Northern Cyprus. Methods: A blueprint-guided performance-based objective clinical examination was implemented. Group-prepared case scenarios based on course objectives ...

  12. Performance-Based Accountability in Qatar: A State in Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Sonia Ben

    2011-01-01

    It has become a normative practice to include Performance-Based Accountability (PBA) policies in educational reforms to foster school changes that enhance student learning and success. There is considerable variation in PBA models that have an important impact on how they operate in schools. It is, therefore, important to characterize PBA models…

  13. Performance-based contracting in public procurement of developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambaw, Baynesagn Asfaw

    2017-01-01

    This research is focused on the application of Performance-based Contracting (PBC) in public procurement system of developing countries. We define five research objectives (ROs) that focus on this common issue. The first objective (RO1) mainly deals with the theory behind and the theoretical

  14. Performance-based maintenance procurement by Dutch housing associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2004-01-01

    OTB Research institute has established a long-term research program to performance-based maintenance procurement in the technical management of housing stock. Stakeholders: housing associations, contractors and the Dutch Building Research Foundation are directly involved in this research program.

  15. Performance Based Criteria for Ship Collision and Grounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2009-01-01

    The paper outlines a probabilistic procedure whereby the maritime industry can develop performance based rules to reduce the risk associated with human, environmental and economic costs of collision and grounding events and identify the most economic risk control options associated with prevention...

  16. Performance-Based Service Quality Model: An Empirical Study on Japanese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Parves; Wong, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to develop and empirically test the performance-based higher education service quality model. Design/methodology/approach: The study develops 67-item instrument for measuring performance-based service quality with a particular focus on the higher education sector. Scale reliability is confirmed using the Cronbach's alpha.…

  17. The Performance-based Funding Scheme of Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha KETTUNEN

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of the performance-based funding scheme of the Finnish universities that was adopted at the beginning of 2013. The political decision-makers expect that the funding scheme will create incentives for the universities to improve performance, but these funding schemes have largely failed in many other countries, primarily because public funding is only a small share of the total funding of universities. This study is interesting because Finnish universities have no tuition fees, unlike in many other countries, and the state allocates funding based on the objectives achieved. The empirical evidence of the graduation rates indicates that graduation rates increased when a new scheme was adopted, especially among male students, who have more room for improvement than female students. The new performance-based funding scheme allocates the funding according to the output-based indicators and limits the scope of strategic planning and the autonomy of the university. The performance-based funding scheme is transformed to the strategy map of the balanced scorecard. The new funding scheme steers universities in many respects but leaves the research and teaching skills to the discretion of the universities. The new scheme has also diminished the importance of the performance agreements between the university and the Ministry. The scheme increases the incentives for universities to improve the processes and structures in order to attain as much public funding as possible. It is optimal for the central administration of the university to allocate resources to faculties and other organisational units following the criteria of the performance-based funding scheme. The new funding scheme has made the universities compete with each other, because the total funding to the universities is allocated to each university according to the funding scheme. There is a tendency that the funding schemes are occasionally

  18. [Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobo-Armijo, Fernanda; Charvel, Sofía; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory approach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation's target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  19. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    For non-reactor nuclear facilities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) does not require that nuclear criticality safety engineers demonstrate qualification for their job. It is likely, however, that more formalism will be required in the future. Current DOE requirements for those positions which do have to demonstrate qualification indicate that qualification should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis is incompletely developed in some areas

  20. Performance based regulation: a strategy to increase breastfeeding rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cobo-Armijo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decreasing breastfeeding rate in México is of public health concern. In this paper we discus an innovative regulatory ap­proach -Performance Based Regulation- and its application to improve breastfeeding rates. This approach, forces industry to take responsibility for the lack of breastfeeding and its consequences. Failure to comply with this targets results in financial penalties. Applying performance based regulation as a strategy to improve breastfeeding is feasible because: the breastmilk substitutes market is an oligopoly, hence it is easy to identify the contribution of each market participant; the regulation’s target population is clearly defined; it has a clear regulatory standard which can be easily evaluated, and sanctions to infringement can be defined under objective parameters. Recommendations: modify public policy, celebrate concertation agreements with the industry, create persuasive sanctions, strengthen enforcement activities and coordinate every action with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes.

  1. Performance-Based (Risk-Informed) Regulation: A Regulatory Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadambi, N. Prasad

    2005-01-01

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) has been mandated at the national level in the United States and at the agency level, where appropriate, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Guidance has been developed that implements the USNRC's definitions of PBR and other such conceptual regulatory improvements. This paper describes why PBR is important, what constitutes PBR in the context of direction provided at the USNRC, and how PBR can be implemented using a five-step process. The process steps articulate questions to be posed by the analyst regarding various aspects of a regulatory issue so that a suitably performance-based resolution can be developed. A regulatory alternative thus developed can be included among other options to be considered as part of the regulatory decision-making process

  2. Performance based design of reinforced concrete beams under impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Tachibana

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to collect fundamental data and to establish a performance-based design method for reinforced concrete beams under perpendicular impact load.

    Series of low speed impact experiments using reinforced concrete beams were performed varying span length, cross section and main reinforcement.

    The experimental results are evaluated focusing on the impact load characteristics and the impact behaviours of reinforced concrete beams. Various characteristic values and their relationships are investigated such as the collision energy, the impact force duration, the energy absorbed by the beams and the beam response values. Also the bending performance of the reinforced concrete beams against perpendicular impact is evaluated.

    An equation is proposed to estimate the maximum displacement of the beam based on the collision energy and the static ultimate bending strength. The validity of the proposed equation is confirmed by comparison with experimental results obtained by other researchers as well as numerical results obtained by FEM simulations. The proposed equation allows for a performance based design of the structure accounting for the actual deformation due to the expected impact action.

  3. Concepts and techniques for conducting performance-based audits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espy, I.J.

    1990-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) audits have historically varied in purpose and approach and have earned labels that attempt to name each type of audit. Some more common labels for QA audits include compliance, program, product, and performance-based. While documentation and methodologies are important and hence controlled, an organizations product has ultimate impact on the user. Product quality then must be of more concern to the user than documentation and methodologies of the provider. Performance-based auditing (PBA) provides for assessing product quality by evaluating the suppliers activities that produce and affect product quality. PBA is defined as auditing that evaluates the ability of an activity to regularly produce and release only acceptable product, where product refers to the output of the activity. The output may be hardware, software, or a service, and acceptability includes suitability to the users needs. To satisfy this definition, PBA should focus on the activities that produce and affect product and should evaluate the systematics of each activity in terms of its ability to produce acceptable product. The activity evaluation model provides a framework for evaluating the systematicness of any activity. Elements of the activity evaluation model are described

  4. Effect- and Performance-Based Auditory Feedback on Interpersonal Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Hun Hwang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When two individuals interact in a collaborative task, such as carrying a sofa or a table, usually spatiotemporal coordination of individual motor behavior will emerge. In many cases, interpersonal coordination can arise independently of verbal communication, based on the observation of the partners' movements and/or the object's movements. In this study, we investigate how social coupling between two individuals can emerge in a collaborative task under different modes of perceptual information. A visual reference condition was compared with three different conditions with new types of additional auditory feedback provided in real time: effect-based auditory feedback, performance-based auditory feedback, and combined effect/performance-based auditory feedback. We have developed a new paradigm in which the actions of both participants continuously result in a seamlessly merged effect on an object simulated by a tablet computer application. Here, participants should temporally synchronize their movements with a 90° phase difference and precisely adjust the finger dynamics in order to keep the object (a ball accurately rotating on a given circular trajectory on the tablet. Results demonstrate that interpersonal coordination in a joint task can be altered by different kinds of additional auditory information in various ways.

  5. Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, new entrants to the practice of nuclear criticality safety have learned their job primarily by on-the-job training (OJT) often by association with an experienced nuclear criticality safety engineer who probably also learned their job by OJT. Typically, the new entrant learned what he/she needed to know to solve a particular problem and accumulated experience as more problems were solved. It is likely that more formalism will be required in the future. Current US Department of Energy requirements for those positions which have to demonstrate qualification indicate that it should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis i's incompletely developed in some areas. Details of this analysis are provided in this report

  6. Staff background paper on performance-based rate making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.; Brownell, B.

    1998-10-01

    An alternative to the traditional cost of service (COS) regulation for electric utilities in British Columbia has been proposed. The alternative to pure COS regulation is performance-based rate making (PBR). PBR partially decouples a utility's rates from its costs and ties utility profits to performance relative to specific benchmarks. The motivation underlying PBR is that ideally, it provides incentives for utilities to cost-effectively achieve pre-defined goals. This report describes the design of PBR mechanisms, base rate PBR formulas, base rate PBR in other jurisdictions including New York, California, Maine and New Jersey. The report also describes gas procurement PBR in other jurisdictions, as well as British Columbia Utilities' Commission's own experience with PBR. In general, PBR has the potential to provide resource efficiency, allocative efficiency, support for introduction of new services, and reduced regulatory administrative costs. 15 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Do Performance-Based Codes Support Universal Design in Architecture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grangaard, Sidse; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    – Universal Design (UD). The empirical material consists of input from six workshops to which all 700 Danish Architectural firms were invited, as well as eight group interviews. The analysis shows that the current prescriptive requirements are criticized for being too homogenous and possibilities...... for differentiation and zoning are required. Therefore, a majority of professionals are interested in a performance-based model because they think that such a model will support ‘accessibility zoning’, achieving flexibility because of different levels of accessibility in a building due to its performance. The common...... of educational objectives is suggested as a tool for such a boost. The research project has been financed by the Danish Transport and Construction Agency....

  8. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  9. Toward a Culture of Consequences: Performance-Based Accountability Systems for Public Services. Monograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian M.; Camm, Frank; Damberg, Cheryl L.; Hamilton, Laura S.; Mullen, Kathleen J.; Nelson, Christopher; Sorensen, Paul; Wachs, Martin; Yoh, Allison; Zellman, Gail L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance-based accountability systems (PBASs), which link incentives to measured performance as a means of improving services to the public, have gained popularity. While PBASs can vary widely across sectors, they share three main components: goals, incentives, and measures. Research suggests that PBASs influence provider behaviors, but little…

  10. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental......Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... thermodynamics • Heat exchange during the fire process • Skin burns • Burning rate, energy release rate and design fires • Proposal to Risk-based design fires • Proposal to a Fire scale • Material ignition and flame spread • Fire dynamics in buildings • Combustion products and toxic gases • Smoke inhalation...

  11. Performance-based quality assurance: the regulatory viewpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajaroff, Pedro M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper complements and upgrades a previous one recently presented, the aim is a further contribution to a wide dissemination of this new methodology and way of thinking. Modern quality management techniques emphasizes errors prevention instead of finding and correcting them, in line with the new generation of ISO-9000 documents. Performance-based QA is coherent with this 'right-first-time' attitude, resting on the managerial role (establishing and applying policies and instructions allowing to integrate quality objectives to everyday work) and on the responsibility of every single involved person (the attainment of such objectives). The contents of the final draft of the revised IAEA NUSS Code on QA -namely 'Quality Assurance for Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and other Nuclear Facilities', is based on that approach, so it is not perspective. The text only contains ten basic requirements, where the objective is improving nuclear safety through an improvement in the methods applied for attaining quality during design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear installations. These requirements are assigned to: 'Management' (QA programme; training and qualification; non-conformance control and corrective actions; document control and records); 'Performance' (work; design; procurement; inspection and testing for acceptance) and 'Assessment' (management self-assessment; independent assessment). The management is responsible for planning, organization, direction, control and support; the line groups are responsible for attaining quality; and the assessment group is responsible for analyzing the management's and the line groups' effectiveness. From the regulatory point of view in the performance context, operating organizations will have to demonstrate the effective fulfillment of QA requirements to the satisfaction of regulatory authorities. This is not a novel mechanism, it is usual within the regulatory performance approach. The Code is

  12. Are Performance-Based Accountability Systems Effective? Evidence from Five Sectors. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Kristin J.

    2010-01-01

    During the past two decades, performance-based accountability systems (PBASs), which link financial or other incentives to measured performance as a means of improving services, have gained popularity among policymakers. Although PBASs can vary widely across sectors, they share three main components: goals (i.e., one or more long-term outcomes to…

  13. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  14. Research on performance-based seismic design criteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢礼立; 马玉宏

    2002-01-01

    The seismic design criterion adopted in the existing seismic design codes is reviewed. It is pointed out that the presently used seismic design criterion is not satisfied with the requirements of nowadays social and economic development. A new performance-based seismic design criterion that is composed of three components is presented in this paper. It can not only effectively control the economic losses and casualty, but also ensure the building(s function in proper operation during earthquakes. The three components are: classification of seismic design for buildings, determination of seismic design intensity and/or seismic design ground motion for controlling seismic economic losses and casualties, and determination of the importance factors in terms of service periods of buildings. For controlling the seismic human losses, the idea of socially acceptable casualty level is presented and the (Optimal Economic Decision Model( and (Optimal Safe Decision Model( are established. Finally, a new method is recommended for calculating the importance factors of structures by adjusting structures service period on the base of more important structure with longer service period than the conventional ones. Therefore, the more important structure with longer service periods will be designed for higher seismic loads, in case the exceedance probability of seismic hazard in different service period is same.

  15. Performance-based financing: the same is different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renmans, Dimitri; Holvoet, Nathalie; Criel, Bart; Meessen, Bruno

    2017-07-01

    Although it is increasingly acknowledged within the Performance-Based Financing (PBF) research community that PBF is more than just payments based on outputs verified for quality, this narrow definition of PBF is still very present in many studies and evaluations. This leads to missed opportunities, misunderstandings and an unhelpful debate. Therefore, we reinforce the claim that PBF should be viewed as a reform package focused on targeted services with many different aspects that go beyond the health worker level. Failing to acknowledge the importance of the different elements of PBF negatively influences the task of practitioners, researchers and policymakers alike. After making the case for this wider definition, we propose three research pathways (describing, understanding and framing PBF) and give a short and tentative starting point for future research, leaving the floor open for more in-depth discussions. From these three vantage points it appears that when it comes to PBF 'the same is different'. Notwithstanding the increased complexity due to the use of the wider definition, progress on these three different research pathways will strongly improve our knowledge, lead to better adapted PBF programs and create a more nuanced debate on PBF. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Visualizations of Travel Time Performance Based on Vehicle Reidentification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley Ernest [National Renewable Energy Lab, 15013 Denver West Parkway, Golden, CO 80401; Sharifi, Elham [Center for Advanced Transportation Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Technology Ventures Building, Suite 2200, 5000 College Avenue, College Park, MD 20742; Day, Christopher M. [Joint Transportation Research Program, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906; Bullock, Darcy M. [Lyles School of Civil Engineering, Purdue University, 550 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47906

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides a visual reference of the breadth of arterial performance phenomena based on travel time measures obtained from reidentification technology that has proliferated in the past 5 years. These graphical performance measures are revealed through overlay charts and statistical distribution as revealed through cumulative frequency diagrams (CFDs). With overlays of vehicle travel times from multiple days, dominant traffic patterns over a 24-h period are reinforced and reveal the traffic behavior induced primarily by the operation of traffic control at signalized intersections. A cumulative distribution function in the statistical literature provides a method for comparing traffic patterns from various time frames or locations in a compact visual format that provides intuitive feedback on arterial performance. The CFD may be accumulated hourly, by peak periods, or by time periods specific to signal timing plans that are in effect. Combined, overlay charts and CFDs provide visual tools with which to assess the quality and consistency of traffic movement for various periods throughout the day efficiently, without sacrificing detail, which is a typical byproduct of numeric-based performance measures. These methods are particularly effective for comparing before-and-after median travel times, as well as changes in interquartile range, to assess travel time reliability.

  17. An Examination of the Performance Based Building Code on the Design of a Commercial Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Greenwood

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Building Code of Australia (BCA is the principal code under which building approvals in Australia are assessed. The BCA adopted performance-based solutions for building approvals in 1996. Performance-based codes are based upon a set of explicit objectives, stated in terms of a hierarchy of requirements beginning with key general objectives. With this in mind, the research presented in this paper aims to analyse the impact of the introduction of the performance-based code within Western Australia to gauge the effect and usefulness of alternative design solutions in commercial construction using a case study project. The research revealed that there are several advantages to the use of alternative designs and that all parties, in general, are in favour of the performance-based building code of Australia. It is suggested that change in the assessment process to streamline the alternative design path is needed for the greater use of the performance-based alternative. With appropriate quality control measures, minor variations to the deemed-to-satisfy provisions could easily be managed by the current and future building surveying profession.

  18. Evaluation of analytical performance based on partial order methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bruggemann, Rainer; Kenessova, Olga; Erzhigitov, Erkin

    2015-01-01

    Classical measurements of performances are typically based on linear scales. However, in analytical chemistry a simple scale may be not sufficient to analyze the analytical performance appropriately. Here partial order methodology can be helpful. Within the context described here, partial order analysis can be seen as an ordinal analysis of data matrices, especially to simplify the relative comparisons of objects due to their data profile (the ordered set of values an object have). Hence, partial order methodology offers a unique possibility to evaluate analytical performance. In the present data as, e.g., provided by the laboratories through interlaboratory comparisons or proficiency testings is used as an illustrative example. However, the presented scheme is likewise applicable for comparison of analytical methods or simply as a tool for optimization of an analytical method. The methodology can be applied without presumptions or pretreatment of the analytical data provided in order to evaluate the analytical performance taking into account all indicators simultaneously and thus elucidating a "distance" from the true value. In the present illustrative example it is assumed that the laboratories analyze a given sample several times and subsequently report the mean value, the standard deviation and the skewness, which simultaneously are used for the evaluation of the analytical performance. The analyses lead to information concerning (1) a partial ordering of the laboratories, subsequently, (2) a "distance" to the Reference laboratory and (3) a classification due to the concept of "peculiar points". Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. PERFORMANCE-BASED CONTRACTING IN CONSTRUCTION PHASE AND MAINTENANCE PHASE OF PAVEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi

    Performance-based contracting for pavement in Japan started as performance warranties in construction phase, in 1999. Recently, road agencies have recognized the applicability of this type of contracting in outsourcing of maintenance activities. The objectives of this study are to clarify the issues of performance specifying in construction phase and maintenance phase of pavement, and to propose measures to be taken. This paper, with the recognition that the life of each pavement depends on performance standards for various attributes, reviews domestic and foreign examples of performance-based contracting. A performance standard based on the average of current practices can enhance product quality and service life with a warranty contract. Repair thresholds and response time for each deficiency should be considered as performance standards in maintenance phase.

  20. 48 CFR 52.232-28 - Invitation To Propose Performance-Based Payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... establishing performance bases and performance-based finance payment amounts). (2) A listing of— (i) The...). As prescribed in FAR 32.1005(b)(2), add the following paragraph (f) to the basic provision: (f) The...

  1. Exploratory analysis of normative performance on the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment-Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Lea; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D; McClure, Margaret McNamara; Mausbach, Brent T; Taylor, Michael J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2017-10-01

    The UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment (UPSA) is a performance-based measure of functional capacity. The brief, two-domain (finance and communication ability) version of the assessment (UPSA-B) is now widely used in both clinical research and treatment trials. To date, research has not examined possible demographic-UPSA-B relationships within a non-psychiatric population. We aimed to produce and describe preliminary normative scores for the UPSA-B over a full range of ages and educational attainment. The finance and communication subscales of the UPSA were administered to 190 healthy participants in the context of three separate studies. These data were combined to examine the effects of age, sex, and educational attainment on the UPSA-B domain and total scores. Fractional polynomial regression was used to compute demographically-corrected T-scores for the UPSA-B total score, and percentile rank conversion was used for the two subscales. Age and education both had significant non-linear effects on the UPSA-B total score. The finance subscale was significantly related to both gender and years of education, whereas the communication subscale was not significantly related to any of the demographic characteristics. Demographically corrected T-scores and percentile ranks for UPSA-B scores are now available for use in clinical research. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Analyzing the Operation of Performance-Based Accountability Systems for Public Services. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camm, Frank; Stecher, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence of the effects of performance-based public management is scarce. This report describes a framework used to organize available empirical information on one form of performance-based management, a performance-based accountability system (PBAS). Such a system identifies individuals or organizations that must change their behavior…

  3. Comparison of Simple Versus Performance-Based Fall Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhar K. Gadkaree BS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the predictive ability of standard falls prediction models based on physical performance assessments with more parsimonious prediction models based on self-reported data. Design: We developed a series of fall prediction models progressing in complexity and compared area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC across models. Setting: National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, which surveyed a nationally representative sample of Medicare enrollees (age ≥65 at baseline (Round 1: 2011-2012 and 1-year follow-up (Round 2: 2012-2013. Participants: In all, 6,056 community-dwelling individuals participated in Rounds 1 and 2 of NHATS. Measurements: Primary outcomes were 1-year incidence of “ any fall ” and “ recurrent falls .” Prediction models were compared and validated in development and validation sets, respectively. Results: A prediction model that included demographic information, self-reported problems with balance and coordination, and previous fall history was the most parsimonious model that optimized AUC for both any fall (AUC = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.67, 0.71] and recurrent falls (AUC = 0.77, 95% CI = [0.74, 0.79] in the development set. Physical performance testing provided a marginal additional predictive value. Conclusion: A simple clinical prediction model that does not include physical performance testing could facilitate routine, widespread falls risk screening in the ambulatory care setting.

  4. Performance-based alternative assessments as a means of eliminating gender achievement differences on science tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Norman Merrill

    1998-09-01

    Historically, researchers have reported an achievement difference between females and males on standardized science tests. These differences have been reported to be based upon science knowledge, abstract reasoning skills, mathematical abilities, and cultural and social phenomena. This research was designed to determine how mastery of specific science content from public school curricula might be evaluated with performance-based assessment models, without producing gender achievement differences. The assessment instruments used were Harcourt Brace Educational Measurement's GOALSsp°ler: A Performance-Based Measure of Achievement and the performance-based portion of the Stanford Achievement Testspcopyright, Ninth Edition. The identified independent variables were test, gender, ethnicity, and grade level. A 2 x 2 x 6 x 12 (test x gender x ethnicity x grade) factorial experimental design was used to organize the data. A stratified random sample (N = 2400) was selected from a national pool of norming data: N = 1200 from the GOALSsp°ler group and N = 1200 from the SAT9spcopyright group. The ANOVA analysis yielded mixed results. The factors of test, gender, ethnicity by grade, gender by grade, and gender by grade by ethnicity failed to produce significant results (alpha = 0.05). The factors yielding significant results were ethnicity, grade, and ethnicity by grade. Therefore, no significant differences were found between female and male achievement on these performance-based assessments.

  5. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  6. Performance-based empathy mediates the influence of working memory on social competence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Horan, William P; Cobia, Derin J; Karpouzian, Tatiana M; Fox, Jaclyn M; Reilly, James L; Breiter, Hans C

    2014-07-01

    Empathic deficits have been linked to poor functioning in schizophrenia, but this work is mostly limited to self-report data. This study examined whether performance-based empathy measures account for incremental variance in social competence and social attainment above and beyond self-reported empathy, neurocognition, and clinical symptoms. Given the importance of working memory in theoretical models of empathy and in the prediction of functioning in schizophrenia, we also examined whether empathy mediates the relationship between working memory and functioning. Sixty outpatients and 45 healthy controls were compared on performance-based measures of 3 key components of empathic responding, including facial affect perception, emotional empathy (affective responsiveness), and cognitive empathy (emotional perspective-taking). Participants also completed measures of self-reported empathy, neurocognition, clinical symptoms, and social competence and attainment. Patients demonstrated lower accuracy than controls across the 3 performance-based empathy measures. Among patients, these measures showed minimal relations to self-reported empathy but significantly correlated with working memory and other neurocognitive functions as well as symptom levels. Furthermore, cognitive empathy explained significant incremental variance in social competence (∆R (2) = .07, P working memory and social competence. Performance-based measures of empathy were sensitive to functionally relevant disturbances in schizophrenia. Working memory deficits appear to have an important effect on these disruptions in empathy. Empathy is emerging as a promising new area for social cognitive research and for novel recovery-oriented treatment development. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. PERFORMANCE BASED PAY AS A DETERMINANT OF JOB SATISFACTION: A STUDY IN MALAYSIA GIATMARA CENTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compensation management literature highlights that performance based payhas two major characteristics: participation in pay systems and adequacy ofpay. The ability of management to properly implement such pay systems maylead to increased job satisfaction in organizations. Though, the nature of thisrelationship is interesting, little is known about the influence of performancebased pay on job satisfaction in compensation management literature.Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the relationship between payfor performance and job satisfaction in Malaysian GIATMARA centers. Theresults of exploratory factor analysis confirmed that measurement scalesused in this study satisfactorily met the standards of validity and reliabilityanalyses. An outcome of stepwise regression analysis shows thatdeterminant of job satisfaction is performance based pay. Further, this resultconfirms that pay for performance is an important antecedent for jobsatisfaction in the studied organizations.

  8. The Influence of Performance-Based Management on Teaching and Research Performance of Finnish Senior Academics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivistö, Jussi; Pekkola, Elias; Lyytinen, Anu

    2017-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of performance-based management in higher education, empirical research on its actual impact has remained scarce, particularly in Europe. With agency theory as a framework, our study utilised survey data collected from Finnish universities in order to explore the influence of performance management on perceived teaching…

  9. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  10. Assessing control of postural stability in community-living older adults using performance-based limits of stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jbabdi, Myriam; Boissy, Patrice; Hamel, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Balance disability measurements routinely used to identify fall risks in frail populations have limited value in the early detection of postural stability deficits in community-living older adults. The objectives of the study were to 1) measure performance-based limits of stability (LOS......-session performance variability during multiple trials using the performance-based LOS paradigm. METHODS: Twenty-four healthy community-living older adults (10 men, 14 women) aged between 62 to 85 (mean age +/- sd, 71.5 +/- 6 yrs) participated in the study. Subjects' performance-based LOS were established by asking...

  11. Proposed modifications of Environmental Protection Agency Method 1601 for detection of coliphages in drinking water, with same-day fluorescence-based detection and evaluation by the performance-based measurement system and alternative test protocol validation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Robert S; Durbin, Gregory W; Conklin, Ernestine; Rosen, Jeff; Clancy, Jennifer

    2010-12-01

    Coliphages are microbial indicators specified in the Ground Water Rule that can be used to monitor for potential fecal contamination of drinking water. The Total Coliform Rule specifies coliform and Escherichia coli indicators for municipal water quality testing; thus, coliphage indicator use is less common and advances in detection methodology are less frequent. Coliphages are viral structures and, compared to bacterial indicators, are more resistant to disinfection and diffuse further distances from pollution sources. Therefore, coliphage presence may serve as a better predictor of groundwater quality. This study describes Fast Phage, a 16- to 24-h presence/absence modification of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1601 for detection of coliphages in 100 ml water. The objective of the study is to demonstrate that the somatic and male-specific coliphage modifications provide results equivalent to those of Method 1601. Five laboratories compared the modifications, featuring same-day fluorescence-based prediction, to Method 1601 by using the performance-based measurement system (PBMS) criterion. This requires a minimum 50% positive response in 10 replicates of 100-ml water samples at coliphage contamination levels of 1.3 to 1.5 PFU/100 ml. The laboratories showed that Fast Phage meets PBMS criteria with 83.5 to 92.1% correlation of the same-day rapid fluorescence-based prediction with the next-day result. Somatic coliphage PBMS data are compared to manufacturer development data that followed the EPA alternative test protocol (ATP) validation approach. Statistical analysis of the data sets indicates that PBMS utilizes fewer samples than does the ATP approach but with similar conclusions. Results support testing the coliphage modifications by using an EPA-approved national PBMS approach with collaboratively shared samples.

  12. Predicting Academic Performance Based on Students' Blog and Microblog Posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Popescu, Elvira; Becheru, Alexandru; Crossley, Scott; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the degree to which textual complexity indices applied on students’ online contributions, corroborated with a longitudinal analysis performed on their weekly posts, predict academic performance. The source of student writing consists of blog and microblog posts, created in

  13. Reproducibility of the Internal Load and Performance-Based Responses to Simulated Amateur Boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Edward D; Lamb, Kevin L

    2017-12-01

    Thomson, ED and Lamb, KL. Reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to simulated amateur boxing. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3396-3402, 2017-The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of the internal load and performance-based responses to repeated bouts of a three-round amateur boxing simulation protocol (boxing conditioning and fitness test [BOXFIT]). Twenty-eight amateur boxers completed 2 familiarization trials before performing 2 complete trials of the BOXFIT, separated by 4-7 days. To characterize the internal load, mean (HRmean) and peak (HRpeak) heart rate, breath-by-breath oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), aerobic energy expenditure, excess carbon dioxide production (CO2excess), and ratings of perceived exertion were recorded throughout each round, and blood lactate determined post-BOXFIT. Additionally, an indication of the performance-based demands of the BOXFIT was provided by a measure of acceleration of the punches thrown in each round. Analyses revealed there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between repeated trials in any round for all dependent measures. The typical error (coefficient variation %) for all but 1 marker of internal load (CO2excess) was 1.2-16.5% and reflected a consistency that was sufficient for the detection of moderate changes in variables owing to an intervention. The reproducibility of the punch accelerations was high (coefficient of variance % range = 2.1-2.7%). In general, these findings suggest that the internal load and performance-based efforts recorded during the BOXFIT are reproducible and, thereby, offer practitioners a method by which meaningful changes impacting on performance could be identified.

  14. Performance-based contracting in home-care work in The Netherlands: professionalism under pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oomkens, Rosanne; Hoogenboom, Marcel; Knijn, Trudie

    2016-07-01

    Our aim was to improve the understanding of the relationships between performance-based contracting, management supportiveness and professionalism in home care. Using path analysis, this article explores the relationships between home-care workers' perceptions of management support, implementation of performance-based contracting (i.e. use of strict time registration rules and cost-efficiency measures) and autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction. We hypothesised that: use of strict time registration rules and cost-efficiency measures relates to lower levels of autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction (H1); there is an indirect relationship between use of strict time registration rules and use of cost-efficiency measures and intrinsic job satisfaction via autonomy (H2); higher levels of management support relate to the use of looser time registration rules and less use of cost-efficiency measures (H3); and higher levels of management support relate to higher levels of autonomy and intrinsic job satisfaction (H4). We used data from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 of a sample of Dutch home-care workers (N = 156, response rate = 34%). Overall, our study suggests that the consequences of performance-based contracting for professionalism are ambiguous. More specifically, using strict time registration rules is related to lower levels of autonomy, whereas using cost-efficiency measures does not seem to affect autonomy (H1). Performance-based contracting has no consequences for the level of fulfilment home-care workers find in their job, as neither of the two contracting dimensions measured was directly or indirectly related to intrinsic job satisfaction (H1, H2). The role of managers must be taken into account when studying performance-based contracting, because perceived higher management support is related to managers' less frequent use of both strict time registration rules and of cost-efficiency measures (H3). The insight we gained into the importance of

  15. Optimization of centrifugal pump cavitation performance based on CFD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, S F; Wang, Y; Liu, Z C; Zhu, Z T; Ning, C; Zhao, L F

    2015-01-01

    In order to further improve the cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump, slots on impeller blade near inlet were studied and six groups of hydraulic model were designed. Base on cavitating flow feature inside a centrifugal pump, bubble growth and implosion are calculated from the Rayleigh-Plesset equation which describes the dynamic behavior of spherical bubble and RNG κ-ε model was employed to simulate and analyze the internal two-phase flow of the model pump under the same conditions. The simulation results show that slots on blade near inlet could improve the cavitation performance and cavitation performance improvement of the second group was more obvious. Under the same conditions, the pressure on the back of blade near inlet was higher than the pressure on the back of unmodified blade near inlet, and energy distribution in the flow channel between the two blades was more uniform with a small change of head

  16. Performance Based Supplementary Payment System at University Hospitals in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahit YÝÐÝT

    2017-06-01

    Results: The result of the analysis has revealed that PBSP system encourage physicians who would like to receive financial incentives. PBSP system supports the individual performance, reduces waiting times in patients, increases revenues and decreases expenditures and increases in efficiency of department. However, this payment system increases work load, number of examinations and provokes the conflict among personals. Conclusions: University hospitals are academic institutions that perform important missions such as research, medical education and health services provision. Therefore, PBSP system should be revised so as to encourage performing these missions at university hospitals. There is also shortage of financial resources at the university hospitals. This situation leads to less additional payments to physicians. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(2.000: 126-131

  17. Gender consequences of a national performance-based funding model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    -regarded’ and highly selective journals and book publishers, and 1 and 5 points for equivalent scientific contributions via ‘normal level’ channels. On the basis of bibliometric data, the study shows that the BRI considerably widens the existing gender gap in researcher performance, since men on average receive more......This article investigates the extent to which the Danish Bibliometric Research Indicator (BRI) reflects the performance of men and women differently. The model is based on a differentiated counting of peer-reviewed publications, awarding three and eight points for contributions to ‘well...... privileges collaborative research, which disadvantages women due to gender differences in collaborative network relations....

  18. Robotic Mobile System's Performance-Based MIMO-OFDM Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Alani

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a predistortion neural network (PDNN architecture has been imposed to the Sniffer Mobile Robot (SNFRbot that is based on spatial multiplexed wireless Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM transmission technology. This proposal is used to improve the system performance by combating one of the main drawbacks that is encountered by OFDM technology; Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Simulation results show that using PDNN resulted in better PAPR performance than the previously published work that is based on linear coding, such as Low Density Parity Check (LDPC codes and turbo encoding whether using flat fading channel or a Doppler spread channel.

  19. Performance-Based Compensation: Linking Performance to Teacher Salaries. Ask the Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock-Sherratt, Ellen; Potemski, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To achieve the goal of attracting and retaining talented professionals in education, performance-based compensation systems (PBCS) must offer salaries that are both fair and sufficiently competitive at each point across an educator's career continuum. Although many states, especially with the support of the Teacher Incentive Fund (TIF) grants,…

  20. Storytelling for Fluency and Flair: A Performance-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Terry; Hlusek, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    In the classroom experiences described in this article, grade three students were introduced to storytelling through the interactive read aloud of a mentor text and a storytelling demonstration, followed by daily collaborative activities involving listening, speaking, reading, and writing, culminating in dramatic storytelling performances. The…

  1. Estimating Driving Performance Based on EEG Spectrum Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Tzyy-Ping

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing number of traffic accidents in recent years has become a serious concern to society. Accidents caused by driver's drowsiness behind the steering wheel have a high fatality rate because of the marked decline in the driver's abilities of perception, recognition, and vehicle control abilities while sleepy. Preventing such accidents caused by drowsiness is highly desirable but requires techniques for continuously detecting, estimating, and predicting the level of alertness of drivers and delivering effective feedbacks to maintain their maximum performance. This paper proposes an EEG-based drowsiness estimation system that combines electroencephalogram (EEG log subband power spectrum, correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and linear regression models to indirectly estimate driver's drowsiness level in a virtual-reality-based driving simulator. Our results demonstrated that it is feasible to accurately estimate quantitatively driving performance, expressed as deviation between the center of the vehicle and the center of the cruising lane, in a realistic driving simulator.

  2. Preserving Envelope Efficiency in Performance Based Code Compliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, Brian A. [Thornton Energy Consulting (United States); Sullivan, Greg P. [Efficiency Solutions (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-20

    The City of Seattle 2012 Energy Code (Seattle 2014), one of the most progressive in the country, is under revision for its 2015 edition. Additionally, city personnel participate in the development of the next generation of the Washington State Energy Code and the International Energy Code. Seattle has pledged carbon neutrality by 2050 including buildings, transportation and other sectors. The United States Department of Energy (DOE), through Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Seattle in order to understand the implications of one potential direction for its code development, limiting trade-offs of long-lived building envelope components less stringent than the prescriptive code envelope requirements by using better-than-code but shorter-lived lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) components through the total building performance modeled energy compliance path. Weaker building envelopes can permanently limit building energy performance even as lighting and HVAC components are upgraded over time, because retrofitting the envelope is less likely and more expensive. Weaker building envelopes may also increase the required size, cost and complexity of HVAC systems and may adversely affect occupant comfort. This report presents the results of this technical assistance. The use of modeled energy code compliance to trade-off envelope components with shorter-lived building components is not unique to Seattle and the lessons and possible solutions described in this report have implications for other jurisdictions and energy codes.

  3. Performance Based Logistics - A Bridge Between Acquisition Reform and Logistics Supply Chain Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurst, Dana

    2006-01-01

    .... Performance based logistics links acquisition and supply chain management in the Total Life Cycle Systems Management and thus may provide the opportunity for true reform resulting in increased...

  4. Using performance-based regulation to reduce childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2008-11-18

    Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These include measures such as 1) taking sweetened beverages out of schools, 2) posting calorie counts on fast-food menu boards, 3) labeling foods with a "red light" if they contain high levels of fat or sugar, 4) limiting the density of fast food restaurants in any neighborhood, 5) requiring chain restaurants to offer "healthy" alternatives, and 6) eliminating junk food ads on television shows aimed at children. Some advocates propose other regulatory interventions such as 1) influencing the relative prices of healthy and unhealthy foods through taxes and/or subsidies and 2) suing private industry for money damages as a way of blaming childhood obesity on certain practices of the food industry (such as its marketing, product composition, or portion size decisions). The food industry generally seeks to deflect blame for childhood obesity onto others, such as parents and schools.

  5. 48 CFR 32.1007 - Administration and payment of performance-based payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor's experience, performance record, reliability, financial strength, and the adequacy of controls... of performance-based payments. 32.1007 Section 32.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Performance-Based Payments 32.1007...

  6. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  7. Performance-Based Scholarships: Replication at Six Sites Using Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Performance-based scholarships were developed to help tackle some of the financial obstacles facing students in the postsecondary education system. In general, these scholarships aim to help reduce the financial burdens of low-income college students, and are structured to help incentivize good academic progress. Performance-based scholarships…

  8. Designing Scholarships to Improve College Success: Final Report on the Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Alexander K.; Patel, Reshma; Rudd, Timothy; Ratledge, Alyssa

    2015-01-01

    Performance-based scholarships have two main goals: (1) to give students more money for college; and (2) to provide incentives for academic progress. MDRC launched the Performance-Based Scholarship (PBS) Demonstration in 2008 to evaluate the effectiveness of these scholarships in a diverse set of states, institutions, and low-income student…

  9. Introduction of performance-based financing in burundi was associated with improvements in care and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfrer, Igna; Soeters, Robert; Van de Poel, Ellen; Basenya, Olivier; Longin, Gashubije; van de Looij, Frank; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2014-12-01

    Several governments in low- and middle-income countries have adopted performance-based financing to increase health care use and improve the quality of health services. We evaluated the effects of performance-based financing in the central African nation of Burundi by exploiting the staggered rollout of this financing across provinces during 2006-10. We found that performance-based financing increased the share of women delivering their babies in an institution by 22 percentage points, which reflects a relative increase of 36 percent, and the share of women using modern family planning services by 5 percentage points, a relative change of 55 percent. The overall quality score for health care facilities increased by 45 percent during the study period, but performance-based financing was found to have no effect on the quality of care as reported by patients. We did not find strong evidence of differential effects of performance-based financing across socioeconomic groups. The performance-based financing effects on the probability of using care when ill were found to be even smaller for the poor. Our findings suggest that a supply-side intervention such as performance-based financing without accompanying access incentives for poor people is unlikely to improve equity. More research into the cost-effectiveness of performance-based financing and how best to target vulnerable populations is warranted. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Next-Generation Performance-Based Regulation: Emphasizing Utility Performance to Unleash Power Sector Innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zinaman, Owen R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Littell, David [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Kadoch, Camille [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Baker, Phil [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Bharvirkar, Ranjit [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Dupuy, Max [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Hausauer, Brenda [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Linvill, Carl [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Migden-Ostrander, Janine [Regulatory Assistance Project (RAP), Montpelier, VT (United States); Rosenow, Jan [Regulatory Assistance Project; Xuan, Wang [Regulatory Assistance Project

    2017-09-12

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) enables regulators to reform hundred-year-old regulatory structures to unleash innovations within 21st century power systems. An old regulatory paradigm built to ensure safe and reliable electricity at reasonable prices from capital-intensive electricity monopolies is now adjusting to a new century of disruptive technological advances that change the way utilities make money and what value customers expect from their own electricity company. Advanced technologies are driving change in power sectors around the globe. Innovative technologies are transforming the way electricity is generated, delivered, and consumed. These emerging technology drivers include renewable generation, distributed energy resources such as distributed generation and energy storage, demand-side management measures such as demand-response, electric vehicles, and smart grid technologies and energy efficiency (EE). PBR enables regulators to recognize the value that electric utilities bring to customers by enabling these advanced technologies and integrating smart solutions into the utility grid and utility operations. These changes in the electric energy system and customer capacities means that there is an increasing interest in motivating regulated entities in other areas beyond traditional cost-of-service performance regulation. This report addresses best practices gleaned from more than two decades of PBR in practice, and analyzes how those best practices and lessons can be used to design innovative PBR programs. Readers looking for an introduction to PBR may want to focus on Chapters 1-5. Chapters 6 and 7 contain more detail for those interested in the intricate workings of PBR or particularly innovative PBR.

  11. Assessing control of postural stability in community-living older adults using performance-based limits of stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boissy Patrick

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balance disability measurements routinely used to identify fall risks in frail populations have limited value in the early detection of postural stability deficits in community-living older adults. The objectives of the study were to 1 measure performance-based limits of stability (LOS in community-living older adults and compare them to theoretical LOS computed from data proposed by the Balance Master® system, 2 explore the feasibility of a new measurement approach based on the assessment of postural stability during weight-shifting tasks at performance-based LOS, 3 quantify intra-session performance variability during multiple trials using the performance-based LOS paradigm. Methods Twenty-four healthy community-living older adults (10 men, 14 women aged between 62 to 85 (mean age ± sd, 71.5 ± 6 yrs participated in the study. Subjects' performance-based LOS were established by asking them to transfer their body weight as far as possible in three directions (forward, right and left without changing their base of support. LOS were computed as the maximal excursion of the COP in each direction among three trials. Participants then performed two experimental tasks that consisted in controlling, with the assistance of visual feedback, their centre of pressure (COP within two predefined targets set at 100% of their performance-based LOS. For each tasks 8 trials were performed. Ground reaction forces and torques during performance-based LOS evaluation and experimental tasks were recorded with a force plate. Sway area and medio-lateral mean COP displacement speed variables were extracted from force plate recordings. Results Significant differences between theoretical LOS computed from maximum leaning angles derived from anthropometric characteristics and performance-based LOS were observed. Results showed that a motor learning effect was present as the participants optimized their weight-shifting strategy through the first three

  12. Research on the comparison of performance-based concept and force-based concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zeyu; Wang, Dongwei

    2011-03-01

    There are two ideologies about structure design: force-based concept and performance-based concept. Generally, if the structure operates during elastic stage, the two philosophies usually attain the same results. But beyond that stage, the shortage of force-based method is exposed, and the merit of performance-based is displayed. Pros and cons of each strategy are listed herein, and then which structure is best suitable to each method analyzed. At last, a real structure is evaluated by adaptive pushover method to verify that performance-based method is better than force-based method.

  13. ANALYSIS OF FREE ROUTE AIRSPACE AND PERFORMANCE BASED NAVIGATION IMPLEMENTATION IN THE EUROPEAN AIR NAVIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Pavlova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available European Air Traffic Management system requires continuous improvements as air traffic is increasingday by day. For this purpose it was developed by international organizations Free Route Airspace and PerformanceBased Navigation concepts that allow to offer a required level of safety, capacity, environmental performance alongwith cost-effectiveness. The aim of the article is to provide detailed analysis of Free Route Airspace and PerformanceBased Navigation implementation status within European region including Ukrainian air navigation system.

  14. Planning for risk-informed/performance-based fire protection at nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, B.; Parkinson, W.J.; Lee, J.A.

    1997-12-01

    This document presents a framework for discussing issues and building consensus towards use of fire modeling and risk technology in nuclear power plant fire protection program implementation. The plan describes a three-phase approach: development of core technologies, implementation of methods, and finally, case studies and pilot applications to verify viability of such methods. The core technologies are defined as fire modeling, fire and system tests, use of operational data, and system and risk techniques. The implementation phase addresses the programmatic issues involved in implementing a risk-informed/performance-based approach in an integrated approach with risk/performance measures. The programmatic elements include: (1) a relationship with fire codes and standards development as defined by the ongoing effort of NFPA for development of performance-based standards; (2) the ability for NRC to undertake inspection and enforcement; and (3) the benefit to utilities in terms of cost versus safety. The case studies are intended to demonstrate applicability of single issue resolution while pilot applications are intended to check the applicability of the integrated program as a whole

  15. Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosko, Nancy; Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

  16. Evaluating performance-based test and specifications for sulfate resistance in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    This research project involved an experimental evaluation of the sulfate resistance of various concretes and mortars for the purpose of establishing performance-based specifications for the durability of concrete against sulfate attack. The research ...

  17. The Challenge of Moving from Performance Based Logistics to an Operational Logistics Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryant, Russell E

    2005-01-01

    ... and qualified forces for the combatant commanders of the 21st century. One focal area is within the logistics area of overall warfighter support, commonly referred to as performance based logistics (PBL...

  18. Adding a Performance-Based Component to Surface Warfare Officer Bonuses: Will it Affect Retention?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carman, Aron S; Mudd, Ryan M

    2008-01-01

    ... Authorization and the current officer inventory beginning at 9 years of commissioned service. The objective of this study was to analyze the 13-year retention effect of adding a performance-based component to the SWO Critical Skills Bonus (CSB...

  19. The effect of performance-based pay systems on job satisfaction and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hornbach, Jessica Janina

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations regarding the health- and wellbeing-related outcomes of performance-based pay systems have been scarce and ambiguous so far. Considering the huge economic and organizational impact of stress-related health problems, it is important to further investigate this relation, including the impact of different variables that can help to explain the variation in the relationship between performance-based pay and job strain. The main purpose of this study is to challenge the res...

  20. PERFORMANCE BASED PAY AS A DETERMINANT OF JOB SATISFACTION: A STUDY IN MALAYSIA GIATMARA CENTERS

    OpenAIRE

    Azman ISMAIL; Nurhana M RAFIUDDIN; Mohd Hamran MOHAMAD; Norashikin Sahol HAMID; Aniza WAMIN; Nurzawani ZAKARIA

    2011-01-01

    Compensation management literature highlights that performance based pay has two major characteristics: participation in pay systems and adequacy of pay. The ability of management to properly implement such pay systems may lead to increased job satisfaction in organizations. Though, the nature of this relationship is interesting, little is known about the influence of performance based pay on job satisfaction in compensation management literature. Therefore, this study was conducted to examin...

  1. Study on institutionalization of risk-informed performance-based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, M. G.; Hong, S. Y.; Seo, M. R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    In this study, for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation in Korea, the latest technical movements of overseas countries are examined and reviewed. And the issues that was found when license change petition using risk information was submitted in Korean regulatory body are reviewed. Based on these review, the applicable areas to domestic situation will be found and proposed. This study can contribute to setting up the proper direction for the institutionalization of risk informed and performance based regulation.

  2. Performance-based interpretation bias in clinically anxious youths: relationships with attention, anxiety, and negative cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenman, Michelle; Amir, Nader; Weersing, V Robin

    2014-09-01

    This preliminary investigation sought to examine basic interpretive biases, as assessed via performance-based means, in the context of anxious symptomatology, attention, and negative cognition in children and adolescents. At a single assessment, 26 youths diagnosed with primary separation anxiety, social phobia, or generalized anxiety disorder completed performance-based assessments of interpretation and attention. Youths and parents also completed diagnostic interviews and youths completed a measure of negative self-statements. Components of interpretation (threat-valence judgments and speed of responding) were examined, and interpretation was explored as a correlate of youth anxiety, attention bias, and negative self-statements. Results found percentage of negative interpretations endorsed as the strongest predictor of anxiety symptoms; this index was also correlated with attention bias. Slower rejection of benign interpretations was also associated with youth-reported negative self-statements.This initial investigation provides support for a relationship between interpretation bias and anxiety and preliminary evidence for a relationship between attention and interpretation biases. Continued research dismantling the stages of basic cognition within the chain of information processing may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying anxiety disorders in youths and lead to continued development and refinement of cognitive interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Performance-based functional impairment and readmission and death: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Carole E; Folly, Antoine; Mancinetti, Marco; Hayoz, Daniel; Donzé, Jacques D

    2017-06-08

    Readmission and death are frequent after a hospitalisation and difficult to predict. While many predictors have been identified, few studies have focused on functional status. We assessed whether performance-based functional impairment at discharge is associated with readmission and death after an acute medical hospitalisation. We prospectively included patients aged ≥50 years admitted to the Department of General Internal Medicine of a large community hospital. Functional status was assessed shortly before discharge using the Timed Up and Go test performed twice in a standard way by trained physiotherapists and was defined as a test duration ≥15 s. Sensitivity analyses using a cut-off at >10 and >20 s were performed. The primary and secondary outcome measures were unplanned readmission and death, respectively, within 6 months after discharge. Within 6 months after discharge, 107/338 (31.7%) patients had an unplanned readmission and 31/338 (9.2%) died. Functional impairment was associated with higher risk of death (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.15 to 5.18), but not with unplanned readmission (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.84 to 2.15). No significant association was found between functional impairment and the total number of unplanned readmissions (adjusted OR 1.59, 95% CI 0.95 to 2.67). Functional impairment at discharge of an acute medical hospitalisation was associated with higher risk of death, but not of unplanned readmission within 6 months after discharge. Simple performance-based assessment may represent a better prognostic measure for mortality than for readmission. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Toward a Culture of Consequences: Performance-Based Accountability Systems for Public Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian M; Camm, Frank; Damberg, Cheryl L; Hamilton, Laura S; Mullen, Kathleen J; Nelson, Christopher; Sorensen, Paul; Wachs, Martin; Yoh, Allison; Zellman, Gail L; Leuschner, Kristin J; Camm, Frank; Stecher, Brian M

    2012-01-01

    Performance-based accountability systems (PBASs), which link incentives to measured performance as a means of improving services to the public, have gained popularity. While PBASs can vary widely across sectors, they share three main components: goals, incentives, and measures. Research suggests that PBASs influence provider behaviors, but little is known about PBAS effectiveness at achieving performance goals or about government and agency experiences. This study examines nine PBASs that are drawn from five sectors: child care, education, health care, public health emergency preparedness, and transportation. In the right circumstances, a PBAS can be an effective strategy for improving service delivery. Optimum circumstances include having a widely shared goal, unambiguous observable measures, meaningful incentives for those with control over the relevant inputs and processes, few competing interests, and adequate resources to design, implement, and operate the PBAS. However, these conditions are rarely fully realized, so it is difficult to design and implement PBASs that are uniformly effective. PBASs represent a promising policy option for improving the quality of service-delivery activities in many contexts. The evidence supports continued experimentation with and adoption of this approach in appropriate circumstances. Even so, PBAS design and its prospects for success depend on the context in which it will operate. Also, ongoing system evaluation and monitoring are integral components of a PBAS; they inform refinements that improve system functioning over time. Empirical evidence of the effects of performance-based public management is scarce. This article also describes a framework used to evaluate a PBAS. Such a system identifies individuals or organizations that must change their behavior for the performance of an activity to improve, chooses an implicit or explicit incentive structure to motivate these organizations or individuals to change, and then

  5. Performance-based management and quality of work: an empirical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falzon, Pierre; Nascimento, Adelaide; Gaudart, Corinne; Piney, Cécile; Dujarier, Marie-Anne; Germe, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    In France, in the private sector as in the public sector, performance-based management tends to become a norm. Performance-based management is supposed to improve service quality, productivity and efficiency, transparency of allotted means and achieved results, and to better focus the activity of employees and of the whole organization. This text reports a study conducted for the French Ministry of Budget by a team of researchers in ergonomics, sociology and management science, in order to assess the impact of performance-based management on employees, on teams and on work organization. About 100 interviews were conducted with employees of all categories and 6 working groups were set up in order to discuss and validate or amend our first analyses. Results concern several aspects: workload and work intensification, indicators and performance management and the transformation of jobs induced by performance management.

  6. Performance-based classrooms: A case study of two elementary teachers of mathematics and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kenneth W.

    This case study depicts how two elementary teachers develop classrooms devoted to performance-based instruction in mathematics and science. The purpose is to develop empirical evidence of classroom practices that leads to a conceptual framework about the nature of performance-based instruction. Performance-based assessment and instruction are defined from the literature to entail involving students in tasks that are complex and engaging, requiring them to apply knowledge and skills in authentic contexts. In elementary mathematics and science, such an approach emphasizes problem solving, exploration, inquiry, and reasoning. The body of the work examines teacher beliefs, curricular orientations, instructional strategies, assessment approaches, management and organizational skills, and interpersonal relationships. The focus throughout is on those aspects that foster student performance in elementary mathematics and science. The resulting framework describes five characteristics that contribute to performance-based classrooms: a caring classroom community, a connectionist learning theory, a thinking and doing curriculum, diverse opportunities for learning, and ongoing assessment, feedback, and adjustment. The conclusion analyzes factors external to the classroom that support or constrain the development of performance-based classrooms and discusses the implications for educational policy and further research.

  7. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good.

  8. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goverde, Rob M P; Bešinović, Nikola; Binder, Anne

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents a performance-based railway timetabling framework integrating timetable construction and evaluation on three levels: microscopic, macroscopic, and a corridor fine-tuning level, where each performance indicator is optimized or evaluated at the appropriate level. A modular implementation...

  9. Putting the Focus on Student Engagement: The Benefits of Performance-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlowe, Avram; Cook, Ann

    2016-01-01

    For more than two decades, the New York Performance Standards Consortium, a coalition of 38 public high schools, has steered clear of high-stakes testing, which superficially assess student learning. Instead, the consortium's approach relies on performance-based assessments--essays, research papers, science experiments, and high-level mathematical…

  10. Targeting the poorest in a performance-based financing programme in northern Cameroon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.E. Flink (Ilse); Ziebe, R. (Roland); Vagaï, D. (Djebba); Van De Looij, F. (Frank); Van 'T Riet, H. (Hilda); A.J. Houweling (Tanja)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPerformance-Based Financing (PBF) is a promising approach to improve health system performance in developing countries, but there are concerns that it may inadequately address inequalities in access to care. Incentives for reaching the poor may prove beneficial, but evidence remains

  11. Explicit MPC design and performance-based tuning of an Adaptive Cruise Control Stop-&-Go

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, G.J.L.; Ploeg, J.; Molengraft, M.J.G. van de; Steinbuch, M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the synthesis, the implementation and the performance-based tuning of an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) Stop-&-Go (S&G) design. A Model Predictive Control (MPC) framework is adopted to design the controller. Performance of the controller is evaluated, distinguishing between

  12. The Massachusetts Community College Performance-Based Funding Formula: A New Model for New England?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon-Fernandez, Yves

    2014-01-01

    The Massachusetts community college system is entering a second year with funding for each of its 15 schools determined using a new performance-based formula. Under the new model, 50% of each college's allocation is based on performance on metrics related to enrollment and student success, with added incentives for "at-risk" students…

  13. An Analysis of Performance-Based Funding Policies and Recommendations for the Florida College System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balog, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 30 states have adopted or are transitioning to performance-based funding programs for community colleges that allocate funding based on institutional performance according to defined metrics. While embraced by state lawmakers and promoted by outside advocacy groups as a method to improve student outcomes, enhance accountability and ensure…

  14. Grading the Metrics: Performance-Based Funding in the Florida State University System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Luke M.; Cavanaugh, Terence W.

    2016-01-01

    A policy analysis of Florida's 10-factor Performance-Based Funding system for state universities. The focus of the article is on the system of performance metrics developed by the state Board of Governors and their impact on institutions and their missions. The paper also discusses problems and issues with the metrics, their ongoing evolution, and…

  15. Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program: An Innovative Model for Promoting Care Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Valerie; Arling, Greg; Lewis, Teresa; Abrahamson, Kathleen A.; Mueller, Christine; Edstrom, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Minnesota's Nursing Facility Performance-Based Incentive Payment Program (PIPP) supports provider-initiated projects aimed at improving care quality and efficiency. PIPP moves beyond conventional pay for performance. It seeks to promote implementation of evidence-based practices, encourage innovation and risk taking, foster collaboration…

  16. Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G

    2010-01-01

    . The investigated psychometric properties of the AMPS included discrimination between a sample of healthy women and those with chronic widespread pain, as well as stability when no intervention was provided and sensitivity to change following intervention. Data were obtained based on a repeated measures design......-report and performance-based assessment of ADL offer distinct but complementary information about ability. The present study, therefore, investigated the applicability of a performance-based measure of ADL ability, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS), among 50 women with chronic widespread pain...... performing AMPS evaluations twice pre- and twice post-rehabilitation. Results indicated that the ADL motor ability measures of the participants were significantly lower than those of healthy women of same age, the ADL motor and ADL process ability measures remained stable when no intervention was provided...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Reward and Employee Performance Based on Gender at Central Bank of Bank Sulut

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda; Lapian, S.L.H.V Joyce; Oroh, Ryan Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Employee are the big asset of organization. Employee Performance are have big effect of organization performance. The best way to attract employee performance is rewarding employee. Reward can be tangible such money, bonuses or called extrinsic reward and intangible reward such promotion, holiday or called intrinsic reward. The purpose of this research are to analyzed significant differences in employee performance based on reward between male and female. To achieve the objectives researcher ...

  18. Introduction into scientific work methods-a necessity when performance-based codes are introduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    The introduction of performance-based codes in Denmark in 2004 requires new competences from people working with different aspects of fire safety in the industry and the public sector. This abstract presents an attempt in reducing problems with handling and analysing the mathematical methods...... and CFD models when applying performance-based codes. This is done within the educational program "Master of Fire Safety Engineering" at the department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. It was found that the students had general problems with academic methods. Therefore, a new...

  19. Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced Frame attuned with Indian Standard code and its Seismic Performance Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Purvang Dalal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Performance Based Plastic design method, the failure is predetermined; making it famous throughout the world. But due to lack of proper guidelines and simple stepwise methodology, it is not quite popular in India. In this paper, stepwise design procedure of Performance Based Plastic Design of Concentrically Braced frame attuned with the Indian Standard code has been presented. The comparative seismic performance evaluation of a six storey concentrically braced frame designed using the displacement based Performance Based Plastic Design (PBPD method and currently used force based Limit State Design (LSD method has also been carried out by nonlinear static pushover analysis and time history analysis under three different ground motions. Results show that Performance Based Plastic Design method is superior to the current design in terms of displacement and acceleration response. Also total collapse of the frame is prevented in the PBPD frame.

  20. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Niel, Johan van; Bourg, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required

  1. Profiting from negawatts. Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria); van Niel, Johan [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required. (author)

  2. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: julia.steinberger@uni-klu.ac.at; Niel, Johan van [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required.

  3. Performance-based maintenance of gas turbines for reliable control of degraded power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Huadong; Sansavini, Giovanni; Xie, Min

    2018-03-01

    Maintenance actions are necessary for ensuring proper operations of control systems under component degradation. However, current condition-based maintenance (CBM) models based on component health indices are not suitable for degraded control systems. Indeed, failures of control systems are only determined by the controller outputs, and the feedback mechanism compensates the control performance loss caused by the component deterioration. Thus, control systems may still operate normally even if the component health indices exceed failure thresholds. This work investigates the CBM model of control systems and employs the reduced control performance as a direct degradation measure for deciding maintenance activities. The reduced control performance depends on the underlying component degradation modelled as a Wiener process and the feedback mechanism. To this aim, the controller features are quantified by developing a dynamic and stochastic control block diagram-based simulation model, consisting of the degraded components and the control mechanism. At each inspection, the system receives a maintenance action if the control performance deterioration exceeds its preventive-maintenance or failure thresholds. Inspired by realistic cases, the component degradation model considers random start time and unit-to-unit variability. The cost analysis of maintenance model is conducted via Monte Carlo simulation. Optimal maintenance strategies are investigated to minimize the expected maintenance costs, which is a direct consequence of the control performance. The proposed framework is able to design preventive maintenance actions on a gas power plant, to ensuring required load frequency control performance against a sudden load increase. The optimization results identify the trade-off between system downtime and maintenance costs as a function of preventive maintenance thresholds and inspection frequency. Finally, the control performance-based maintenance model can reduce

  4. Performance Based Envelopes: A Theory of Spatialized Skins and the Emergence of the Integrated Design Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Trubiano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Realigning the design of building envelopes within the measures of air, light and heat has rendered possible an inventive form of practice whose benefits are far in excess of the metrics of data and analysis. For many of its most advanced practitioners, the contemporary design of facades engages the true potential of “performance” when it deepens, broadens and complicates the theoretical dimension of this most liminal of surfaces. Of particular interest to this paper is a discussion of new theoretical paradigms associated with the design and operation of high performance envelopes of which four characteristics of this emergent sub-discipline are herein examined. To begin with, the way in which building envelopes are no longer separators, dividers and barriers between a building’s interior and exterior conditions, but rather, “spatially” defined environments that fully engage the totality of a building’s engineering systems, is discussed. Cantilevered Louvers, Double Skin Facades and Hybrid Conditioned Atria are representative of this new paradigm as is the use of Responsive Technologies to optimize their behaviors. Lastly, the paper examines the rise of the new integrated design building envelope professional called upon to deliver ever-better performing skins, whether in the guise of energy modeler, climate engineer or façade construction specialist. Hence, this paper develops a theoretical structure within which to describe, analyze and interpret the values made possible by this new and expanding field of performance based envelopes.

  5. ADMINISTRATOR’S ROLE IN PERFORMANCE BASED REWARD AS A DETERMINANT OF EMPLOYEE OUTCOMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman ISMAIL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent literature pertaining on workplace compensation program, administrators often play two important roles in planning and implementing performance based reward: communication and performance appraisal. Recent studies in this field highlights that the ability of administrators to appropriately communicate pay information and appraise employee performance may have a significant impact on employee outcomes, especially job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between administrator’s role in performance based reward and employee outcomes using self-administered questionnaires collected from employees at a district council in Malaysia. The outcomes of the SmartPLS path model analysis showed that pay communication does not act as an important determinant of job satisfaction, but performance appraisal does act as an important determinant of job satisfaction. Conversely, both pay communication and performance appraisal act as important determinants of organizational commitment. Hence, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  6. Effect of Manager’s Role in Performance Based Pay on Employee Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman, I

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the recent literature pertaining on Islamic based organizational compensation, performance based pay consists of two essential features: communication and performance appraisal. Recent studies in this field highlights that the ability of managers to appropriately communicate pay information and appraise employee performance may have a significant impact on employee outcomes, especially job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Therefore, this study was undertaken to assess the relationship between manager’s role in performance based pay and employee outcomes using self-administered questionnaires collected from employees at a district council in Peninsular Malaysia. The outcomes of the SmartPLS path model analysis showed that pay communication does not act as an important determinant of job satisfaction, but performance appraisal does act as an important determinant of job satisfaction. Conversely, pay communication and performance appraisal act as important determinants of organizational commitment. In addition, this study provides discussion, implications and conclusion

  7. Evaluation of a performance-based standards approach to heavy vehicle design to reduce pavement wear

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of successful initiatives in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the introduction of a performance-based standards (PBS) approach in the heavy vehicle sector in South Africa was identified by the Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  8. A Humanistic Approach to Performance-Based Teacher Education. PBTE Series No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Paul

    Questions are reaised in making performance-based teacher education (PBTE) a more humanistic enterprise. A definition of the term "humanistic" could include such qualities as freedom, uniqueness, creativity, productivity, wholeness, responsibility, and social humanization. As to freedom, a humanistic approach to PBTE would encourage people to act…

  9. The Influence of Performance-Based Accountability on the Distribution of Teacher Salary Increases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how aspects of a district's institutional and policy environment influence the distribution of teacher salary increases. The primary hypothesis tested is that statewide performance-based accountability policies influence the extent to which districts backload teacher salary increases. I use data on teacher salaries from the…

  10. Performance based durability design of a bored tunnel with concrete lining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, H. de; Siemes, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Design for durability is gradually changing from a deem-to-satisfy approach to a performance based approach. The conventional building codes give in principle only construction rules. If these rules are fulfilled, it is assumed that the structure will have an adequate durability. But specifications

  11. Reliability in the performance-based concept of fib Model Code 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bigaj-van Vliet, A.; Vrouwenvelder, T.

    2013-01-01

    The design philosophy of the new fib Model Code for Concrete Structures 2010 represents the state of the art with regard to performance-based approach to the design and assessment of concrete structures. Given the random nature of quantities determining structural behaviour, the assessment of

  12. Feasibility Study of a Performance-Based Teacher Education Curriculum in Language Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Masha Kabakow

    This report of a feasibility study, conducted under the provisions of a model elementary teacher education grant from the U.S. Office of Education, is in five parts. Chapter one contains an overview of and rationale for a performance-based teacher education program, a brief history of the study, the attitude and ability goals expected from…

  13. Articulated, Performance-Based Instruction Objectives Guide for Automotive Mechanics. Final Document. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, William Edward, Jr.

    Developed during a project designed to provide continuous, performance-based vocational training at the secondary and postsecondary levels, this instructional guide is intended to help teachers implement a laterally and vertically articulated secondary level automotive mechanics program. Introductory materials include descriptions of Automotive…

  14. The Evaluation of Teachers' Job Performance Based on Total Quality Management (TQM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahmohammadi, Nayereh

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate teachers' job performance based on total quality management (TQM) model. This was a descriptive survey study. The target population consisted of all primary school teachers in Karaj (N = 2917). Using Cochran formula and simple random sampling, 340 participants were selected as sample. A total quality management…

  15. Using performance-based contracts to foster innovation in outsourced service delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumo, Regien; van der Valk, Wendy; Duijsters, Geert; van Weele, Arjan

    2016-01-01

    While many scholars claim that Performance-based Contracts (PBCs) foster supplier-led innovation, empirical research into their actual use and effects remains limited. We therefore explore two cases of IT outsourcing through such contracts to see whether, and if so how, PBCs foster innovation. Our

  16. The Performance-Based Research Fund, Gender and a Cultural Cringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article explores ways the Performance-based Research Fund (PBRF) produces gendered results and expresses a cultural cringe. It is argued that the research evaluation is fixated with being "world-class" at the expense of academic practice that focuses on New Zealand. In this context, disadvantage faced by female academics under the…

  17. Proposed Performance-Based Metrics for the Future Funding of Graduate Medical Education: Starting the Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzagie, Kelly J; Lane, Susan W; Sharma, Niraj; Donnelly, John; Jaeger, Jeffrey R; Laird-Fick, Heather; Moriarty, John P; Moyer, Darilyn V; Wallach, Sara L; Wardrop, Richard M; Steinmann, Alwin F

    2017-12-12

    Graduate medical education (GME) in the United States is financed by contributions from both federal and state entities that total over $15 billion annually. Within institutions, these funds are distributed with limited transparency to achieve ill-defined outcomes. To address this, the Institute of Medicine convened a committee on the governance and financing of GME to recommend finance reform that would promote a physician training system that meets society's current and future needs. The resulting report provided several recommendations regarding the oversight and mechanisms of GME funding, including implementation of performance-based GME payments, but did not provide specific details about the content and development of metrics for these payments. To initiate a national conversation about performance-based GME funding, the authors asked: What should GME be held accountable for in exchange for public funding? In answer to this question, the authors propose 17 potential performance-based metrics for GME funding that could inform future funding decisions. Eight of the metrics are described as exemplars to add context and to help readers obtain a deeper understanding of the inherent complexities of performance-based GME funding. The authors also describe considerations and precautions for metric implementation.

  18. The Influence of Teacher Motivation in the Context of Performance-Based Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Jason E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine teacher motivation in the context of performance-based compensation systems. The researcher specifically sought to address four research questions: 1. To what extent are teachers motivated for behavioristic/economic reasons and extrinsic rewards? 2. To what extent are teachers motivated for altruistic/PSM…

  19. Perceptions of success in performance-based procurement: Differences between clients and contractors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duren, J.M.A.; Doree, Andries G.; Voordijk, Johannes T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to analyse, from the perspective of agency theory, differences between client and contractor in their perceptions of changes in uncertainty and in inclination to opportunistic behaviour while using a performance-based procurement procedure. In agency theory,

  20. A comparison between prescriptive- and performance-based approaches in fire safety design of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budny, Iwona; Giuliani, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    methodology of the performance-based fire design approach is considered, with the avail of computer-aided simulations of the main frame of the car-park. Nonlinear analyses, with respect to thermally induced effects and emphasis laid to the collapse modality, are carried out on a frame of the considered...

  1. Persistence to Graduation for Students with Disabilities: Implications for Performance-Based Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, William; Wessel, Roger D.; Markle, Larry

    2018-01-01

    The study sought to determine whether students with disabilities are disadvantaged because of state and institutional performance-based policies providing incentives for 4-year graduation. In a longitudinal study of 32,187 students at a Midwestern Research University, the retention and graduation rates, and mean years to graduation, of students…

  2. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, C.J.W.; Peters, D.J.; de Gijt, J.G.; Metrikine, A.; Jonkman, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to

  3. Performance-based methodology for assessing seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibin, Lin; Lili, Xie; Maosheng, Gong; Ming, Li

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a performance-based methodology for the assessment of seismic vulnerability and capacity of buildings. The vulnerability assessment methodology is based on the HAZUS methodology and the improved capacitydemand-diagram method. The spectral displacement ( S d ) of performance points on a capacity curve is used to estimate the damage level of a building. The relationship between S d and peak ground acceleration (PGA) is established, and then a new vulnerability function is expressed in terms of PGA. Furthermore, the expected value of the seismic capacity index (SCev) is provided to estimate the seismic capacity of buildings based on the probability distribution of damage levels and the corresponding seismic capacity index. The results indicate that the proposed vulnerability methodology is able to assess seismic damage of a large number of building stock directly and quickly following an earthquake. The SCev provides an effective index to measure the seismic capacity of buildings and illustrate the relationship between the seismic capacity of buildings and seismic action. The estimated result is compared with damage surveys of the cities of Dujiangyan and Jiangyou in the M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake, revealing that the methodology is acceptable for seismic risk assessment and decision making. The primary reasons for discrepancies between the estimated results and the damage surveys are discussed.

  4. Quality verification at Arkansas Nuclear One using performance-based concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Performance-based auditing is beginning to make an impact within the nuclear industry. Its use provides performance assessments of the operating plant. In the past, this company along with most other nuclear utilities, performed compliance-based audits. These audits focused on paper reviews of past activities that were completed in weeks or months. This type of audit did not provide a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of an activity's performance, nor was it able to identify any performance problems that may have occurred. To respond to this discrepancy, a comprehensive overhaul of quality assurance (QA) assessment programs was developed. The first major change was to develop a technical specification (tech spec) audit program, with the objective of auditing each tech spec line item every 5 yr. To achieve performance-based results within the tech spec audit program, a tech spec surveillance program was implemented whose goal is to observe 75% of the tech-spec required tests every 5 yr. The next major change was to develop a QA surveillance program that would provide surveillance coverage for the remainder of the plant not covered by the tech spec surveillance program. One other improvement was to merge the QA/quality control (QC) functions into one nuclear quality group. The final part of the quality verification effort is trending of the quality performance-based data (including US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) violations)

  5. Performance-based training: from job and task analysis to training materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.T.; Spinney, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    Historically, the smoke filled room approach has been used to revise training programs: instructors would sit down and design a program based on existing training materials and any federal requirements that applied. This failure to reflect a systematic definition of required job functions, responsibilities and performance standards in training programs has resulted in generic program deficiencies: they do not provide complete training of required skills and knowledge. Recognition of this need for change, coupled with a decrease in experienced industry personnel inputs and long training pipelines, has heightened the need for efficient performance-based training programs which are derived from and referenced to job performance criteria. This paper presents the process for developing performance-based training materials based on job and task analysis products

  6. Performance Based Islamic Performance Index (Study on the Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mandiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aisjah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of Islamic base banks in Indonesia in recent years show rapid growth. The main challenge for Islamic base banks is how to raise belief from the stakeholders. Stakeholder expectations of the Islamic banks is different from a conventional bank. Since, Islamic banks are built on basic principles of Islamic economics. Therefore, we need a tool to evaluate and measure the performance of Islamic base banks. Islamicity Performance Index is a method which can evaluate the performance of Islamic base banks not only their financial but also justice principles, halal (lawfulness, and tazkiyah (sanctification. There are six financial ratios which are measured from Islamicity Performance Index:profit sharing ratio, zakat performance ratio, equitable distribution ratio, directors-employees welfare ratio, Islamic investment versus non-Islamic investment ratio, Islamic income versus non-Islamic income. This research is intended to figure out the performance of Islamic base Bank in Indonesia based on Islamicity Performance Index. The samples are the Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mandiri. Sources of data are the financial reports of Bank Muamalat Indonesia and Bank Syariah Mandiri in 2009–2010 period.The results show that the financial performance of Islamic Base Bank in Indonesia during 2009-2010 period have ”quite satisfactory level of  valuation. However, there are two unsatisfactory ratios. They are zakat performance ratio and director-employee welfare contrast ratio. It shows that zakat issued by the Islamic base bank in Indonesia is still low and the contrast of the director-employee welfare is still huge.

  7. Correlations between Energy and Displacement Demands for Performance-Based Seismic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaioli, Fabrizio; Bruno, Silvia; Decanini, Luis; Saragoni, Rodolfo

    2011-01-01

    The development of a scientific framework for performance-based seismic engineering requires, among other steps, the evaluation of ground motion intensity measures at a site and the characterization of their relationship with suitable engineering demand parameters (EDPs) which describe the performance of a structure. In order to be able to predict the damage resulting from earthquake ground motions in a structural system, it is first necessary to properly identify ground motion parameters that are well correlated with structural response and, in turn, with damage. Since structural damage during an earthquake ground motion may be due to excessive deformation or to cumulative cyclic damage, reliable methods for estimating displacement demands on structures are needed. Even though the seismic performance is directly related to the global and local deformations of the structure, energy-based methodologies appear more helpful in concept, as they permit a rational assessment of the energy absorption and dissipation mechanisms that can be effectively accomplished to balance the energy imparted to the structure. Moreover, energy-based parameters are directly related to cycles of response of the structure and, therefore, they can implicitly capture the effect of ground motion duration, which is ignored by conventional spectral parameters. Therefore, the identification of reliable relationships between energy and displacement demands represents a fundamental issue in both the development of more reliable seismic code provisions and the evaluation of seismic vulnerability aimed at the upgrading of existing hazardous facilities. As these two aspects could become consistently integrated within a performance-based seismic design methodology, understanding how input and dissipated energy are correlated with displacement demands emerges as a decisive prerequisite. The aim of the present study is the establishment of functional relationships between input and dissipated energy

  8. Performance-based Reward Administration Enhancing Employees’ Feelings of Interactional Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformation in international business landscape has changed organizational management especially reward administration. This is done in order to maintain the organization’s competitiveness in global market place. In the field of reward administration, an emerging trend can be observed whereby most organizations are moving toward the application of psychological elements in administering organizational reward system. The ultimate objective of this study is to investigate the association between performance-based reward administration and interactional justice. The proposed model was empirically tested using a sample of 113 employees from fire and rescue agency in Peninsular Malaysia. This study found an evidence that performance-based reward administration (i.e., communication, participation and performance appraisal is positively and significantly associated with interactional justice. This findings proves that the ability of administrators to appropriately implement communication openness, inspire participative decision-making and organize fairness performance appraisal in administering performance-based reward have significantly evoked the feeling of interactional justice when employees perceived that they are being fairly treated in the reward system.

  9. Performance-based contracting for maintaining transportation assets with emphasis on bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsharqawi Mohammed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With a large number of aging transportation infrastructure assets in North America and the growing problem of deterioration across the globe, managing these assets have been the subject of ongoing research. There is an overwhelming amount of maintenance and rehabilitation works to be done and selecting a suitable maintenance, repair or replacement (MRR strategy is one of the most challenging tasks for decision makers. Limited budget and resources are even making the decision making process more challenging. Maintaining infrastructure to the highest possible condition while investing the minimal amount of money has promoted innovative contracting approaches. Transportation agencies have increased private sector involvement through long term performance-based maintenance contracts or what is called Performance-Based Contracting. PBC is a type of contract that pays a contractor based on the results achieved, not on the methods for performing the maintenance work. By looking into the literature, it is observed that agencies are expanding the amount of contracting they do in order to maintain and achieve a better standard of infrastructure facilities. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to study and review performance-based contracting for transportation infrastructure with emphasis on bridge assets.

  10. An ecologically valid performance-based social functioning assessment battery for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Chuan; He, Yi; Cheung, Eric F C; Yu, Xin; Chan, Raymond C K

    2013-12-30

    Psychiatrists pay more attention to the social functioning outcome of schizophrenia nowadays. How to evaluate the real world function among schizophrenia is a challenging task due to culture difference, there is no such kind of instrument in terms of the Chinese setting. This study aimed to report the validation of an ecologically valid performance-based everyday functioning assessment for schizophrenia, namely the Beijing Performance-based Functional Ecological Test (BJ-PERFECT). Fifty community-dwelling adults with schizophrenia and 37 healthy controls were recruited. Fifteen of the healthy controls were re-tested one week later. All participants were administered the University of California, San Diego, Performance-based Skill Assessment-Brief version (UPSA-B) and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). The finalized assessment included three subdomains: transportation, financial management and work ability. The test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities were good. The total score significantly correlated with the UPSA-B. The performance of individuals with schizophrenia was significantly more impaired than healthy controls, especially in the domain of work ability. Among individuals with schizophrenia, functional outcome was influenced by premorbid functioning, negative symptoms and neurocognition such as processing speed, visual learning and attention/vigilance. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Parameter Model Establishment of EMC Performance Based on Measured Data%基于测量数据的电磁兼容性能参数建模的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡震; 李高升; 何建国

    2011-01-01

    With deeply research on Electromagnetic Compatibility Test (EMC), an increasing number of measured data will be generated. It is of great importance to system electromagnetic compatibility analysis and maintenance if we can organize and analyze this test data. The method of data mining on electromagnetic compatibility test data is studied and the data modeling technique of electromagnetic compatibility test data is discussed. Meanwhile, a way to conclude the changing patterns of e-lectromagnetic parameters in electronic systems is put forward. All these findings provide technological means to enhance the pertinence of system electromagnetic compatibility maintenance and warranty.%随着电磁兼容测试的不断深入,将会产生越来越多的测试数据.将这些数据进行整理、分析从而提取出有意义的信息,对于系统电磁兼容分析与维护具有十分重要的意义.该文研究了对电磁兼容测量数据进行数据挖掘的方法,探讨了电磁兼容数据建模技术,提出了归纳电子系统电磁参数的变化规律的方法,为增强系统电磁兼容维护与保障的针对性提供了技术手段.

  12. Performance-based contracts for road projects comparative analysis of different types

    CERN Document Server

    Gajurel, Ashish

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the aspects of contracting contracts, basically related to road construction and management contracts. The book presents an analytical study of Performance-Based Road Management and Maintenance (PMMR), Funktionsbauvertrag (FBV) (Function-Based Construction Contract) and Public Private Partnerships (PPP). A separate chapter is also included about the comparative study of these contract types. The book provides useful material for university libraries, construction companies and government departments of construction.

  13. Performance-based analysis of current South African semi-trailer designs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thorogood, R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available , performance based standards, dynamic stability, tractor semi- trailers, directional response, static rollover threshold Introduction South African heavy vehicles are currently designed according to prescriptive standards designed and enforced... productivity. These include Central Tyre Inflation (CTI), on-board weighing, new materials such as Domex and vehicle satellite tracking, all leading towards increased payloads and reduced costs. There have also been improvements in technology...

  14. Performance-based standards (PBS) vehicles for transport in the agricultural sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available manufacturers start designing vehicles on an ad hoc basis. It should be borne in mind that PBS vehicle designs include certain safety features, and must be loaded in the correct manner. The RTMS approach offers the most suitable way of ensuring.... The objectives of the Performance-Based Standards (PBS) philosophy are to utilise technology to reduce road damage, improve safety, increase payloads and reduce costs. To overcome the limitations of prescriptive legislation, is has been proposed that PBS...

  15. Work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion and performance-based self-esteem: reciprocal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Anne; Schraml, Karin; Leineweber, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    The three constructs of work-family conflict, emotional exhaustion and performance-based self-esteem are all related to tremendous negative consequences for the individual, the organization as well as for society. Even though there are studies that connect two of those constructs, the prospective relations between all three of them have not been studied yet. We explored the prospective relations between the three constructs in a large Swedish data set representative of the Swedish workforce. Gender differences in the relations were investigated. Longitudinal data with a 2-year time lag were gathered from 3,387 working men and women who responded to the 2006 and 2008 waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health. Four different cross-lagged models were analysed. In the best fitting model, higher levels of work-family conflict at time 1 were associated with an increased level of performance-based self-esteem at time 2, but not with emotional exhaustion, after controlling for having children, gender, education and age. Also, relationships between emotional exhaustion at time 1 and work-family conflict and performance-based self-esteem at time 2 could be established. Furthermore, relationships between performance-based self-esteem time 1 and work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion time 2 were found. Multiple-group analysis did not show any differences in the relations of the tested constructs over time for either men or women. We conclude that the three constructs are interrelated and best understood through a reciprocal model. No differences were found between men and women.

  16. Model Solutions for Performance-Based Seismic Analysis of an Anchored Sheet Pile Quay Wall

    OpenAIRE

    C. J. W. Habets; D. J. Peters; J. G. de Gijt; A. V. Metrikine; S. N. Jonkman

    2016-01-01

    Conventional seismic designs of quay walls in ports are mostly based on pseudo-static analysis. A more advanced alternative is the Performance-Based Design (PBD) method, which evaluates permanent deformations and amounts of (repairable) damage under seismic loading. The aim of this study is to investigate the suitability of this method for anchored sheet pile quay walls that were not purposely designed for seismic loads. A research methodology is developed in which pseudo-static, permanent-di...

  17. The efficacy of tourniquet assisted total knee arthroplasty on patient-reported and performance-based physical function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohmann-Jensen, Rasmus; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders; Emmeluth, Claus

    2014-01-01

    surgery. The non-tourniquet assisted TKA group will have surgery performed without application of a tourniquet. The primary aim is to compare tourniquet assisted to non-tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function (KOOS-ADL). The secondary aim is to compare post-surgery pain, function...... in sports and recreation, quality of life, and performance-based physical function. The explorative outcomes include; use of pain medication, single-fiber muscle damage, and changes in mechanical muscle function. The primary endpoint will be at 3-months following surgical treatment, and the time...... randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of tourniquet assisted TKA on patient-reported physical function supported by a range of performance-based secondary outcome measures. As such it will provide high quality evidence that may help determine whether tourniquet should be used in future TKA...

  18. Energy-Performance-Based Design-Build Process: Strategies for Procuring High-Performance Buildings on Typical Construction Budgets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheib, J.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2014-08-01

    NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner's representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.

  19. Impact of implementing performance-based financing on childhood malnutrition in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binagwaho, Agnes; Condo, Jeanine; Wagner, Claire; Ngabo, Fidele; Karema, Corine; Kanters, Steve; Forrest, Jamie I; Bizimana, Jean de Dieu

    2014-11-04

    Malnutrition remains a serious concern in Rwanda, particularly among children under-5 years. Performance-based financing (PBF), an innovative health systems financing strategy, has been implemented at the national level since 2008. This study aimed to assess the impact of PBF and other factors associated with the prevalence of three classifications of malnutrition (stunting, wasting and underweight) in children under-5 years in Rwanda. The study is a cross-sectional study comprising of 713 children under five years old from 557 households, whose anthropometric measurements (height, weight and age) had been obtained as part of the 2008 Rwanda General Health and HIV household survey. Z-scores for height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and body mass index-for-age were analyzed according to the World Health Organization 2006 Child Growth Standards. Random intercept logistic regression models were used to regress each anthropometric measure (WAZ, HAZ and WHZ) against child, maternal and household characteristics. Child participants ranged in age from 0 to 60 months, 20.2% of children were under 12 months and 5.1% were HIV positive. The prevalence of wasting was 8.8%; of stunting was 58.4%; and of underweight status was 20.7%. Maternal emotional and social wellbeing was protective of wasting in children under-5 years of age. Living in districts implementing PBF was protective of wasting (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 0.43; 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.97). Living in a district with PBF was not found to be associated with either stunting or underweight status among children under-5. PBF may have a protective association with particular forms of malnutrition among children under-5 years in Rwanda. These findings warrant further investigation in relation to the impact of implementing innovative financing schemes on health outcomes.

  20. Performance-based pay is fair, particularly when I perform better : Differential fairness perceptions of allocators and recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.; Van den Bos, K.P.; de Graaff, D.

    2005-01-01

    We examined in two experiments the impact of the roles that people enact (allocator or recipient) and performance attributions (talent or effort) on fairness perceptions of pay systems (performance-based pay or job-based pay). To test the relative effects of the roles that people enact, in the

  1. Improving the road wear performance of heavy vehicles in South Africa using a performance-based standards approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available of the world to achieve regional harmonisation and effective road use have had limited success. Another approach is to consider performance-based standards (PBS); in this case standards specify the performance required from the operation of a vehicle on a...

  2. Uses of Multiple Measures for Performance-Based Compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Alyson; Cushing, Ellen; Bivona, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Across the nation, states and local school districts are seeking to redesign their educator-evaluation systems. Newly funded initiatives from the U.S. Department of Education--such as Race to the Top, School Improvement Grants, and the Teacher Incentive Fund--call for innovative teacher and principal evaluation models. These new evaluation models…

  3. Quality performance-based training enhances safe and effective transport operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    If the hazardous materials transportation industry is to reduce human error, reduce accidents, and improve its public image, there must be assurance that transportation personnel are properly trained and qualified to perform their jobs in a safe and efficient manner. This training must make them intimately aware of the hazards and risks associated with transport activities, ensure understanding of responsibilities and liabilities unique to their job, and ensure that they can competently perform functional duties vital to safety. To ensure that trained and qualified personnel are on the job, it is essential that the training be performance-based and require trainees to demonstrate functional proficiency. Performance-based training has proven to be a highly effective means of ensuring personnel are qualified to conduct their assignments safely and efficiently. This training is designed around the basic premise that training must be provided that supplies the information necessary for each worker to perform their assigned duties at a predetermined and acceptable level of expertise and skill. (J.P.N.)

  4. Association of Neuromuscular Attributes With Performance-Based Mobility Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Symptomatic Lumbar Spinal Stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Catherine T; Ward, Rachel E; Suri, Pradeep; Kiely, Dan K; Ni, Pengsheng; Anderson, Dennis E; Bean, Jonathan F

    2017-07-01

    To identify differences in health factors, neuromuscular attributes, and performance-based mobility among community-dwelling older adults with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis; and to determine which neuromuscular attributes are associated with performance-based measures of mobility. Cross-sectional; secondary data analysis of a cohort study. Outpatient rehabilitation center. Community-dwelling adults aged ≥65 years with self-reported mobility limitations and symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis (N=54). Not applicable. Short Physical Performance Battery score, habitual gait speed, and chair stand test. Symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis was classified using self-reported symptoms of neurogenic claudication and imaging. Among 430 community-dwelling older adults, 54 (13%) met criteria for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Compared with participants without symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis, those with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis had more comorbidities, higher body mass index, greater pain, and less balance confidence. Participants with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis had greater impairment in trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength, leg strength asymmetry, knee flexion range of motion (ROM), knee extension ROM, and ankle ROM compared with participants without symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Five neuromuscular attributes were associated with performance-based mobility among participants with symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis: trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength, leg strength asymmetry, knee flexion ROM, and knee extension ROM asymmetry. Community-dwelling older adults with self-reported mobility limitations and symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis exhibit poorer health characteristics, greater neuromuscular impairment, and worse mobility when compared with those without symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis. Poorer trunk extensor muscle endurance, leg strength, leg strength asymmetry, knee flexion ROM, and knee extension ROM asymmetry

  5. Performance-Based Risk-Sharing Arrangements: U.S. Payer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Joseph A; Ung, Brian; van Boemmel-Wegmann, Sascha; Navarro, Robert P; Parece, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    As a result of global concern about rising drug costs, many U.S. payers and European agencies such as the National Health Service have partnered with pharmaceutical companies in performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs) by which manufacturers share financial risk with health care purchasing entities and authorities. However, PBRSAs present many administrative and legal challenges that have minimized successful contract experiences in the United States. To (a) identify drug and disease characteristics and contract components that contribute to successful PBRSA experiences and the primary barriers to PBRSA execution and (b) explore solutions to facilitate contract negotiation and execution. A 37-item, web-based survey instrument (Qualtrics), approximately 20 minutes in duration, was open during July and August 2016. The survey was emailed to 90 pharmacy and medical directors of various health care organizations. Statistical analysis included the Kruskal-Wallis test and chi-square tests to examine differences among payer responses. Survey responses were anonymized and data were aggregated. Twenty-seven individuals completed the survey (30% completion rate). The majority of respondents worked for regional health plans (52%, n = 14), covering at least 1 million lives (63%, n = 17), with at least 7 years of managed care experience (81%, n = 22). A total of 51 PBRSAs were active among respondents at the time of the survey. Easily obtainable and evaluable drug data and medical data were the most important drug and disease attributes for successful PBRSAs, respectively. Pharmacy claims and patient demographic data were assessed as "very easy and inexpensive" to collect. Type and amount of manufacturer payment for drug outcome performance failure, endpoint measurement, and necessary clinical data for drug performance measurement were all critical factors for successful PBRSAs. Standardized contract templates and transparent contract financial risk evaluation and

  6. Advanced nuclear power plant regulation using risk-informed and performance-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes and discusses implications of a largely probabilistic regulatory framework using best-estimate, goal-driven, risk-informed, and performance-based methods. This framework relies on continuous probabilistic assessment of performance of a set of time-dependent, safety-critical systems, structures, components, and procedures that assure attainment of a broad set of overarching technology-neutral protective, mitigative, and preventive goals under all phases of plant operations. In this framework acceptable levels of performance are set through formal apportionment so that they are commensurate with the overarching goals. Regulatory acceptance would be the based on the confidence level with which the plant conforms to these goals and performance objectives. The proposed framework uses the traditional defense-in-depth design and operation regulatory philosophy when uncertainty in conforming to specific goals and objectives is high. Finally, the paper discusses the steps needed to develop a corresponding technology-neutral regulatory approach from the proposed framework

  7. Costs of performance based maintenance for local roads: Case study Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokanović, Igor; Grujić, Bojana; Zeljić, Dragana; Grujić, Žarko; Svilar, Mila

    2017-12-01

    The provision and maintenance of road infrastructure is a major global business, consequently it is essential that road maintenance services are provided in the most cost effective manner. Without regular maintenance, roads can rapidly fall into disrepair, preventing realization of the longer term impacts of road improvements on development, such as increased agricultural production and growth in school enrollment, which is of particular importance for a network of local (access) roads. Inadequate local roads maintenance in Albania is proposed to be solved by implementing performance based maintenance approach for which the costing exercise is presented within the paper.

  8. Evaluation of a Performance-Based Expert Elicitation: WHO Global Attribution of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aspinall, W. P.; Cooke, R. M.; Havelaar, A. H.

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents new findings from a large-scale international SEJ study intended to estimate the global burden of foodborne disease on behalf of WHO. The study involved 72 experts distributed over 134 expert panels, with panels comprising thirteen experts on average. Elicitations were conducted in five...... languages. Performance-based weighted solutions for target questions of interest were formed for each panel. These weights were based on individual expert's statistical accuracy and informativeness, determined using between ten and fifteen calibration variables from the experts' field with known values...

  9. The development of performance-based practical assessment model at civil engineering workshop in state polytechnic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristinayanti, W. S.; Mas Pertiwi, I. G. A. I.; Evin Yudhi, S.; Lokantara, W. D.

    2018-01-01

    Assessment is an important element in education that shall oversees students’ competence not only in terms of cognitive aspect, but alsothe students’ psychomotorin a comprehensive way. Civil Engineering Department at Bali State Polytechnic,as a vocational education institution, emphasizes on not only the theoretical foundation of the study, but also the application throughpracticum in workshop-based learning. We are aware of a need for performance-based assessment for these students, which would be essential for the student’s all-round performance in their studies.We try to develop a performance-based practicum assessment model that is needed to assess student’s ability in workshop-based learning. This research was conducted in three stages, 1) learning needs analysis, 2) instruments development, and 3) testing of instruments. The study uses rubrics set-up to test students’ competence in the workshop and test the validity. We obtained 34-point valid statement out of 35, and resulted in value of Cronbach’s alpha equal to 0.977. In expert test we obtained a value of CVI = 0.75 which means that the drafted assessment is empirically valid within thetrial group.

  10. Managing wind turbine reliability and maintenance via performance-based contract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Tongdan; Ding, Yi; Guo, Huairui

    2012-01-01

    between system cost, reliability and spare parts stocking. This analytical insight into the system performance allows the turbine manufacturer to optimize design, production, and after-sales services. The study aims to create a theoretical basis to facilitate the transition of the maintenance paradigm......Performance-based contracting (PBC) is reshaping the acquisition, operation, and maintenance of capital equipment. Under the PBC scheme, we propose a holistic approach for lowering the cost of wind turbine ownership while meeting the availability requirement. Our effects are focused on integrated...... firms who design and market wind turbines, and also provide maintenance and repair service. PBC differs from conventional service contracts in that the wind farmers compensate the service provider for the system performance, not the spare parts and repair labor. We explore the analytical relationship...

  11. What is a new drug worth? An innovative model for performance-based pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, G; Dorward, K; Owens, R C; Schipper, H

    2015-05-01

    This article focuses on a novel method to derive prices for new pharmaceuticals by making price a function of drug performance. We briefly review current models for determining price for a new product and discuss alternatives that have historically been favoured by various funding bodies. The progressive approach to drug pricing, proposed herein, may better address the views and concerns of multiple stakeholders in a developed healthcare system by acknowledging and incorporating input from disparate parties via comprehensive and successive negotiation stages. In proposing a valid construct for performance-based pricing, the following model seeks to achieve several crucial objectives: earlier and wider access to new treatments; improved transparency in drug pricing; multi-stakeholder involvement through phased pricing negotiations; recognition of innovative product performance and latent changes in value; an earlier and more predictable return for developers without sacrificing total return on investment (ROI); more involved and informed risk sharing by the end-user. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Development of a performance-based industrial energy efficiency indicator for corn refining plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, G. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; USEPA

    2006-07-31

    Organizations that implement strategic energy management programs have the potential to achieve sustained energy savings if the programs are carried out properly. A key opportunity for achieving energy savings that plant managers can take is to determine an appropriate level of energy performance by comparing their plant's performance with that of similar plants in the same industry. Manufacturing facilities can set energy efficiency targets by using performance-based indicators. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through its ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program, has been developing plant energy performance indicators (EPIs) to encourage a variety of U.S. industries to use energy more efficiently. This report describes work with the corn refining industry to provide a plant-level indicator of energy efficiency for facilities that produce a variety of products--including corn starch, corn oil, animal feed, corn sweeteners, and ethanol--for the paper, food, beverage, and other industries in the United States. Consideration is given to the role that performance-based indicators play in motivating change; the steps needed to develop indicators, including interacting with an industry to secure adequate data for an indicator; and the actual application and use of an indicator when complete. How indicators are employed in the EPA's efforts to encourage industries to voluntarily improve their use of energy is discussed as well. The report describes the data and statistical methods used to construct the EPI for corn refining plants. Individual equations are presented, as are the instructions for using them in an associated Excel spreadsheet.

  13. OARSI recommended performance-based tests to assess physical function in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobson, F; Hinman, R S; Roos, Ewa M.

    2013-01-01

    To recommend a consensus-derived set of performance-based tests of physical function for use in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) or following joint replacement.......To recommend a consensus-derived set of performance-based tests of physical function for use in people diagnosed with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) or following joint replacement....

  14. ANALISA RISIKO TAHAP PERAWATAN JALAN DALAM PENERAPAN PERFORMANCE BASED CONTRACT PADA PROYEK JALAN DI JAWA TIMUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Prihartanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Road as the main infrastructure in cross overland to connect starting area to the destination area. The level of damage that occurred after the implementation reduce the road’s service quality. Performance Based Contract (PBC has stages such as Design, Build, Operation, and Maintenance. PBC is expected to minimize the budget for road construction due to damage that routinely occurs every year. PBC has the maintenance stage to meet the performance who have risk reducing road maintenance after road completion and operation. Risk variables in this study use variables in the maintenance stage from the PBC application in Eastern Java road project. It uses Probability Impact Analysis method to analyze road maintenance risk in PBC application. The results are highest score of risk variable in the maintenance stage as the descriptive analysis references to compare the threat and opportunity in PBC application. Then, it is used to create strategy in order to fulfil dominant risk in the maintenance stage.

  15. Writing standards for performance based building regulations. Conditions to be fulfilled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, N.P.M.; Walters, W.; Nouwen, R.

    2001-01-01

    The Dutch Building Decree, a general administrative measure based on the Housing Act, is expressed in performance requirements. In each clause the performance requirement is based on a functional definit-ion. This definition expresses the intention of the performance requirement. The performance

  16. Relationship between psychological factors and performance-based and self-reported disability in chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.; Reneman, M.F.; Boonstra, Antje; Dijkstra, P.U.; Versteegen, G.J.; Geertzen, J.H.; Brouwer, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cross sectional study, performed in an outpatient university based pain rehabilitation setting. To analyze the relationship between psychological factors (psychosocial distress, depression, self efficacy, self-esteem, fear of movement, pain cognitions and coping reactions) and performance-based and

  17. Performance-Based Service Acquisition (PBSA) Study and Graduate Level Course Material

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kennedy, Penny S; McClure, Joe T

    2005-01-01

    .... It is important to understand that the PBSA contract form involves acquisition strategies, methods, and techniques that define and communicate measurable performance expectations in terms of outcomes...

  18. Fuel performance-REP, Seminars on nuclear fuel performance based on basic underlining phenomena, proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Description: The need for further improving the understanding of basic phenomena underlying nuclear fuel behaviour has been recognised both by fuel vendors, experts in fuel research in the different laboratories and committees and working groups coordinating international activities. The OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee has established an Experts Group addressing this issue. This has led to establishing an International Fuel Performance Experiments Database (IFPE) that should help model evaluation and validation. Many years ago the IAEA established an International Working Group on Fuel Performance and Technology (IWGFPT) that led to the FUMEX-I and FUMEX-II (Fuel Modelling Exercise) which has had an important impact on code improvements. Both international organisations, with the support of national organisations, co-operate in establishing and maintaining the Database and to build confidence in the predictive power of the models through international comparison exercises. But above all the different parties have agreed that seminars focussed on specific phenomena would be beneficial to exchange current knowledge, identify outstanding problems and agree on common action that would lead to improved understanding of the phenomena. A series of three seminars has been initiated by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France (EdF), Framatome and Cogema under the aegis of the OECD/NEA and the IAEA. 1. Thermal Performance of High Burn-Up LWR Fuel at Cadarache, France, from 3 to 6 of March 1998. Thermal performance occupies the most important aspect of the fuel performance modelling. Not only is it extremely important from a safety point of view, but also many of the material properties of interest and behaviour, such as transport properties like fuel creep and fission gas release are thermally activated processes. Thus, in order to model these processes correctly, it is critical to calculate temperatures and their distribution as accurately as

  19. Scaling earthquake ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y.-N.; Whittaker, A.S.; Luco, N.; Hamburger, R.O.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of alternate ground-motion scaling procedures on the distribution of displacement responses in simplified structural systems is investigated. Recommendations are provided for selecting and scaling ground motions for performance-based assessment of buildings. Four scaling methods are studied, namely, (1)geometric-mean scaling of pairs of ground motions, (2)spectrum matching of ground motions, (3)first-mode-period scaling to a target spectral acceleration, and (4)scaling of ground motions per the distribution of spectral demands. Data were developed by nonlinear response-history analysis of a large family of nonlinear single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators that could represent fixed-base and base-isolated structures. The advantages and disadvantages of each scaling method are discussed. The relationship between spectral shape and a ground-motion randomness parameter, is presented. A scaling procedure that explicitly considers spectral shape is proposed. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  20. Analysis of concept and application or Risk-Informed Performed-Based Regulation (RI-PBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. S.; Sung, K. Y.; Lee, C. J.; Kim, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    For improving regulation of nuclear power plants, the USNRC is adopting the Risk-Informed Performance-Based Regulation (RI-PBR) as an alternative, in parallel with implementing current deterministic regulation. This paper introduces a research plan for 'Institutionalization of RI-PBR' that is being conducted by KINS as a national project for evaluating feasibility for application of the alternative to Korean regulation system. Analysis of regulation characteristics, case study and experience on RI-PBR were presented as interim research results. In addition, the future plan of development of RI-PBR concept as understandable to the public and evaluation of level of techniques needed for implementation of RI-PBR was introduced

  1. Performance-based parameter tuning method of model-driven PID control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y M; Xie, W F; Tu, X W

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, performance-based parameter tuning method of model-driven Two-Degree-of-Freedom PID (MD TDOF PID) control system has been proposed to enhance the control performances of a process. Known for its ability of stabilizing the unstable processes, fast tracking to the change of set points and rejecting disturbance, the MD TDOF PID has gained research interest recently. The tuning methods for the reported MD TDOF PID are based on internal model control (IMC) method instead of optimizing the performance indices. In this paper, an Integral of Time Absolute Error (ITAE) zero-position-error optimal tuning and noise effect minimizing method is proposed for tuning two parameters in MD TDOF PID control system to achieve the desired regulating and disturbance rejection performance. The comparison with Two-Degree-of-Freedom control scheme by modified smith predictor (TDOF CS MSP) and the designed MD TDOF PID tuned by the IMC tuning method demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed tuning method. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AZARM,M.A.; TRAVIS,R.J.

    1999-11-14

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions.

  3. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AZARM, M.A.; TRAVIS, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions

  4. Linking payment to health outcomes: a taxonomy and examination of performance-based reimbursement schemes between healthcare payers and manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Josh J; Sullivan, Sean D; Garrison, Louis P; Neumann, Peter J; Veenstra, David L

    2010-08-01

    To identify, categorize and examine performance-based health outcomes reimbursement schemes for medical technology. We performed a review of performance-based health outcomes reimbursement schemes over the past 10 years (7/98-010/09) using publicly available databases, web and grey literature searches, and input from healthcare reimbursement experts. We developed a taxonomy of scheme types by inductively organizing the schemes identified according to the timing, execution, and health outcomes measured in the schemes. Our search yielded 34 coverage with evidence development schemes, 10 conditional treatment continuation schemes, and 14 performance-linked reimbursement schemes. The majority of schemes are in Europe and Australia, with an increasing number in Canada and the U.S. These schemes have the potential to alter the reimbursement and pricing landscape for medical technology, but significant challenges, including high transaction costs and insufficient information systems, may limit their long-term impact. Future studies regarding experiences and outcomes of implemented schemes are necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance-Based Outcomes After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Professional Athletes Differ Between Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Harry T; Chun, Danielle S; Schneider, Andrew D; Erickson, Brandon J; Freshman, Ryan D; Kester, Benjamin; Verma, Nikhil N; Hsu, Wellington K

    2017-08-01

    Excellent outcomes have been reported for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) in professional athletes in a number of different sports. However, no study has directly compared these outcomes between sports. To determine if differences in performance-based outcomes exist after ACLR between professional athletes of each sport. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. National Football League (NFL), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Hockey League (NHL), and Major League Baseball (MLB) athletes undergoing primary ACLR for an acute rupture were identified through an established protocol of injury reports and public archives. Sport-specific performance statistics were collected before and after surgery for each athlete. Return to play (RTP) was defined as a successful return to the active roster for at least 1 regular-season game after ACLR. Of 344 professional athletes who met the inclusion criteria, a total of 298 (86.6%) returned to play. NHL players had a significantly higher rate of RTP (95.8% vs 83.4%, respectively; P = .04) and a shorter recovery time (258 ± 110 days vs 367 ± 268 days, respectively; P NBA and NFL players showed decreased performance at season 1 after ACLR ( P ≤ .001). NFL players continued to have lower performance at seasons 2 and 3 ( P = .002), while NBA players recovered to baseline performance. The data indicate that NFL athletes fare the worst after ACLR with the lowest survival rate, shortest postoperative career length, and sustained decreases in performance. NHL athletes fare the best with the highest rates of RTP, highest survival rates, longest postoperative career lengths, and no significant changes in performance. The unique physical demand that each sport requires is likely one of the explanations for these differences in outcomes.

  6. Future regulatory research needs on risk-informed and performance-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Wong Sik; Kim, Hho Jung

    2004-01-01

    The USNRC has pursued the incorporation of risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) into nuclear safety regulatory system, as an alternative to improve existing nuclear safety regulation of nuclear power plants, which is deterministic and prescriptive. It focuses on the use of risk insight from probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Recently, it becomes necessary to find a way to improve regulatory efficiency and effectiveness in order to cover the increasing regulatory needs in Korea. Also, the utility has optimized design and operation of the plant using PSA insight and equipment performance information. According to the increase of the necessity for regulatory improvement using risk and performance information, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) is developing, as a part of a mid and long-term project of Nuclear R and D program, how to adopt the RIPBR in Korean nuclear regulatory system. As the interim results, three basic directions and several principles that are necessary to implement RIPBR model were already identified from the previous study. This paper suggests a direction to future regulatory research on RIPBR based on the previous studies including the review of international trend of RIPBR and the evaluation of risk-informed regulatory environment

  7. Performance Based Evaluation of Concrete Strength under Various Curing Conditions to Investigate Climate Change Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Kyun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the manifestation of global warming-induced climate change has been observed through super typhoons, heavy snowfalls, torrential rains, and extended heat waves. These climate changes have been occurring all over the world and natural disasters have caused severe damage and deterioration of concrete structures and infrastructure. In an effort to deal with these problems due to extreme and abnormal climate changes, studies have been conducted to develop construction technologies and design guidelines. Nevertheless, study results applicable to construction sites continue to be ineffective and insufficient. Therefore, this study proposes ways to cope with climate change by considering the effect of concrete curing condition variations on concrete material performance. More specifically, the 3-, 7- and 28-day compressive and split tensile strength properties of concrete mix cured under various climatic factors including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunlight exposure time were evaluated to determine whether the concrete meets the current design requirements. Thereafter, a performance based evaluation (PBE was performed using satisfaction probabilities based on the test values to understand the problems associated with the current mix proportion design practice and to identify countermeasures to deal with climate change-induced curing conditions.

  8. Evaluation of the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing System for Performance Based Navigation Arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Jung, Jaewoo; Swenson, Harry N.; Martin, Lynne; Lin, Melody; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    NASA has developed the Terminal Sequencing and Spacing (TSS) system, a suite of advanced arrival management technologies combining timebased scheduling and controller precision spacing tools. TSS is a ground-based controller automation tool that facilitates sequencing and merging arrivals that have both current standard ATC routes and terminal Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) routes, especially during highly congested demand periods. In collaboration with the FAA and MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development (CAASD), TSS system performance was evaluated in human-in-the-loop (HITL) simulations with currently active controllers as participants. Traffic scenarios had mixed Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) equipage, where the more advanced RNP-equipped aircraft had preferential treatment with a shorter approach option. Simulation results indicate the TSS system achieved benefits by enabling PBN, while maintaining high throughput rates-10% above baseline demand levels. Flight path predictability improved, where path deviation was reduced by 2 NM on average and variance in the downwind leg length was 75% less. Arrivals flew more fuel-efficient descents for longer, spending an average of 39 seconds less in step-down level altitude segments. Self-reported controller workload was reduced, with statistically significant differences at the p less than 0.01 level. The RNP-equipped arrivals were also able to more frequently capitalize on the benefits of being "Best-Equipped, Best- Served" (BEBS), where less vectoring was needed and nearly all RNP approaches were conducted without interruption.

  9. performance-based approach to design and evaluation of nuclear security systems for Brazilian nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Renato L. A.; Filho, Josélio S. M., E-mail: renato.tavares@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: joselio@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Diretoria de Radioproteção e Segurança Nuclear. Divisão de Normas e Segurança Física; Fontes, Gladson S.; Fiel, J.C.B., E-mail: gsfontes@hotmail.com, E-mail: fiel@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (SE-7/IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Seção de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This study presents an application of a performance-based approach to definition of requirements, design and evaluation of physical protection systems for nuclear facilities. Such approach considers a probabilistic analysis of the threat, equipment, systems and response forces used to prevent, dissuade and detain malicious acts against the integrity of facilities and the nuclear materials inside them. Nowadays, in the context of Brazilian nuclear facilities licensing, a mostly prescriptive approach is adopted, which despite having advantages such as simplified inspections and homogeneous regulatory requisites amid different fuel cycle facility types, does not consider evolution, dynamism and capacities of external or internal threats to facilities and to Brazilian Nuclear Program itself, neither provides metrics to evaluate system performance facing such threats. In order to preserve actual plans and systems confidentiality, a facility hypothetical model is created, including a research reactor and a waste storage facility. It is expected that the methodology and results obtained in this study serve in the future as a basis to Brazilian nuclear operators, in elaboration process of their Physical Protection Plans, which must comply with future regulation CNEN-NN 2.01, a revision of CNEN-NE 2.01, once that regulation will include performance requisites. (author)

  10. performance-based approach to design and evaluation of nuclear security systems for Brazilian nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Renato L. A.; Filho, Josélio S. M.; Fontes, Gladson S.; Fiel, J.C.B.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an application of a performance-based approach to definition of requirements, design and evaluation of physical protection systems for nuclear facilities. Such approach considers a probabilistic analysis of the threat, equipment, systems and response forces used to prevent, dissuade and detain malicious acts against the integrity of facilities and the nuclear materials inside them. Nowadays, in the context of Brazilian nuclear facilities licensing, a mostly prescriptive approach is adopted, which despite having advantages such as simplified inspections and homogeneous regulatory requisites amid different fuel cycle facility types, does not consider evolution, dynamism and capacities of external or internal threats to facilities and to Brazilian Nuclear Program itself, neither provides metrics to evaluate system performance facing such threats. In order to preserve actual plans and systems confidentiality, a facility hypothetical model is created, including a research reactor and a waste storage facility. It is expected that the methodology and results obtained in this study serve in the future as a basis to Brazilian nuclear operators, in elaboration process of their Physical Protection Plans, which must comply with future regulation CNEN-NN 2.01, a revision of CNEN-NE 2.01, once that regulation will include performance requisites. (author)

  11. An algorithm for calculating exam quality as a basis for performance-based allocation of funds at medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschstein, Timo; Wolters, Alexander; Lenz, Jan-Hendrik; Fröhlich, Susanne; Hakenberg, Oliver; Kundt, Günther; Darmüntzel, Martin; Hecker, Michael; Altiner, Attila; Müller-Hilke, Brigitte

    2016-01-01

    The amendment of the Medical Licensing Act (ÄAppO) in Germany in 2002 led to the introduction of graded assessments in the clinical part of medical studies. This, in turn, lent new weight to the importance of written tests, even though the minimum requirements for exam quality are sometimes difficult to reach. Introducing exam quality as a criterion for the award of performance-based allocation of funds is expected to steer the attention of faculty members towards more quality and perpetuate higher standards. However, at present there is a lack of suitable algorithms for calculating exam quality. In the spring of 2014, the students' dean commissioned the "core group" for curricular improvement at the University Medical Center in Rostock to revise the criteria for the allocation of performance-based funds for teaching. In a first approach, we developed an algorithm that was based on the results of the most common type of exam in medical education, multiple choice tests. It included item difficulty and discrimination, reliability as well as the distribution of grades achieved. This algorithm quantitatively describes exam quality of multiple choice exams. However, it can also be applied to exams involving short assay questions and the OSCE. It thus allows for the quantitation of exam quality in the various subjects and - in analogy to impact factors and third party grants - a ranking among faculty. Our algorithm can be applied to all test formats in which item difficulty, the discriminatory power of the individual items, reliability of the exam and the distribution of grades are measured. Even though the content validity of an exam is not considered here, we believe that our algorithm is suitable as a general basis for performance-based allocation of funds.

  12. An algorithm for calculating exam quality as a basis for performance-based allocation of funds at medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirschstein, Timo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The amendment of the Medical Licensing Act (ÄAppO in Germany in 2002 led to the introduction of graded assessments in the clinical part of medical studies. This, in turn, lent new weight to the importance of written tests, even though the minimum requirements for exam quality are sometimes difficult to reach. Introducing exam quality as a criterion for the award of performance-based allocation of funds is expected to steer the attention of faculty members towards more quality and perpetuate higher standards. However, at present there is a lack of suitable algorithms for calculating exam quality.Methods: In the spring of 2014, the students‘ dean commissioned the „core group“ for curricular improvement at the University Medical Center in Rostock to revise the criteria for the allocation of performance-based funds for teaching. In a first approach, we developed an algorithm that was based on the results of the most common type of exam in medical education, multiple choice tests. It included item difficulty and discrimination, reliability as well as the distribution of grades achieved. Results: This algorithm quantitatively describes exam quality of multiple choice exams. However, it can also be applied to exams involving short assay questions and the OSCE. It thus allows for the quantitation of exam quality in the various subjects and – in analogy to impact factors and third party grants – a ranking among faculty. Conclusion: Our algorithm can be applied to all test formats in which item difficulty, the discriminatory power of the individual items, reliability of the exam and the distribution of grades are measured. Even though the content validity of an exam is not considered here, we believe that our algorithm is suitable as a general basis for performance-based allocation of funds.

  13. Improved nuclear power plant operations through performance-based safety regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1998-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has recently instituted use of Risk-Informed, Performance-Based Regulation (RIPBR) for protecting public safety in the use of nuclear power. This was done most importantly during June 1997 in issuance of revised Regulatory Guides and Standard Review Plan (SRP) guidance to licensees and the NRC staff. The propose of RIPBR is to replace the previously-used system of prescriptive regulation, which focuses upon what licensees must do, to a system which focuses upon what they must achieve. RIPBR is goals-oriented and the previous system is means-oriented. This regulatory change is potentially revolutionary, and offers many opportunities for improving the efficiency of improving both nuclear power operations and safety. However, it must be nurtured carefully if is to be successful. The work reported in this paper is concerned with showing how RIPBR can be implemented successfully, with benefits in both areas being attained. It is also concerned with how several of the practical barriers to establishing a workable new regulatory system can be overcome. This work, sponsored by the US Dept. of Energy, is being performed in collaboration with Northeast Utilities Services Crop. and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In our work we have examined a practical safety-related example at the Millstone 3 nuclear power station for implementation of RIPBR. In this examination we have formulated a set of modifications to the plant's technical specifications, and are in the process of investigating their bases and refining the modifications. (author)

  14. Performance-based seismic assessment of vulnerability of dam using time history analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmrabet Oumnia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current performance-based seismic assessment procedure can be computationally intensive as it requires many time history analyses (THA each requiring time intensive post-processing of results. Time history analysis is a part of structural analysis and is the calculation of the response of a structure to any earthquake. It is one of the main processes of structural design in regions where earthquakes are prevalent. The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of embankment dam located on the Oued RHISS in the Province of AL HOCEIMA using the THA method. To monitor structural behavior, the seismic vulnerability of structure is evaluated under real earthquake records with considering the soil-structure-fluide interaction. In this study, a simple assistant program is developed for implementing earthquake analyses of structure with ANSYS, ground acceleration–time history data are used for seismic analysis and dynamic numerical simulations were conducted to study and identify the total response of the soil-structure system.

  15. Performance-based, cost- and time-effective PCB analytical methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory applications for the analysis of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) in environmental matrices such as soil/sediment/sludge and oil/waste oil were evaluated for potential reduction in waste, source reduction, and alternative techniques for final determination. As a consequence, new procedures were studied for solvent substitution, miniaturization of extraction and cleanups, minimization of reagent consumption, reduction of cost per analysis, and reduction of time. These new procedures provide adequate data that meet all the performance requirements for the determination of PCBs. Use of the new procedures reduced costs for all sample preparation techniques. Time and cost were also reduced by combining the new sample preparation procedures with the power of fast gas chromatography. Separation of Aroclor 1254 was achieved in less than 6 min by using DB-1 and SPB-608 columns. With the greatly shortened run times, reproducibility can be tested quickly and consequently with low cost. With performance-based methodology, the applications presented here can be applied now, without waiting for regulatory approval

  16. Strength Performance Based on Flexibility from Laterite Soil Using Tire Powder and Micro Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Gordan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In terms of environmental issues and human health, one of the advisable techniques to improve soil behavior is the use of scrap tires for soil structures. According to the literature, Tire-Derived Aggregates (TDA are one of the valuable materials in different field of Geotechnical that can be used. TDA properties correspond to some important factors such as high level of flexible, lightweight, high permeability and economic material comparing with sand. Strength performance based on increasing flexibility from laterite soil is the main goal of this study. For this purpose, tropical laterite soil was mixed using TDA and micro silica (MS. As a research method, unconfined tests were carried for thirteen samples based on different percentage of the additives. As a result, the significant reduction for elasticity modulus and strength was observed when soil mixed just using TDA. In addition, the rate of strain at the peak of the curve was dramatically increased. The best performance was found using 6% additives when the ratio was 3% MS and 3% TDA. In fact, the effect of MS was more to increase strength. To recommend, the seepage controlling will investigate at next.

  17. Risk Management and Simulation Based Live Fire Test and Evaluation in the Performance Based Defense Business Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, R

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to reduce the policy and management process costs of Congressionally mandated Live Fire Test and Evaluation procedures in the new Performance Based Defense Acquisition environment...

  18. Effects of Performance-Based Financial Incentives on Work Performance: A Study of Technical-Level Employees in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Dabere, Sampath

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of performance-based financial incentives on work performance. The study hypothesized that the design features of performance-based financial incentive schemes themselves may influence individuals' work performance. For the study, survey methodology was used and 93 technical-level employees…

  19. Exploring the relationships among performance-based functional ability, self-rated disability, perceived instrumental support, and depression: a structural equation model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Joyce; Hutchinson, Susan R; Traxler, Karen

    2014-11-01

    Data from the Women's Health and Aging Study were used to test a model of factors explaining depressive symptomology. The primary purpose of the study was to explore the association between performance-based measures of functional ability and depression and to examine the role of self-rated physical difficulties and perceived instrumental support in mediating the relationship between performance-based functioning and depression. The inclusion of performance-based measures allows for the testing of functional ability as a clinical precursor to disability and depression: a critical, but rarely examined, association in the disablement process. Structural equation modeling supported the overall fit of the model and found an indirect relationship between performance-based functioning and depression, with perceived physical difficulties serving as a significant mediator. Our results highlight the complementary nature of performance-based and self-rated measures and the importance of including perception of self-rated physical difficulties when examining depression in older persons. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. A direction to adopting risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.S.; Sung, K.Y.; Lee, C.J.; Choi, Y.H.; Choi, Y.S.; Kim, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The USNRC has pursued the incorporation of new regulatory approach of risk-informed and performance-based regulation (RIPBR) into nuclear safety regulation, as an alternative to improve existing nuclear safety regulation of nuclear power plants, which is deterministic and prescriptive. It focuses on the use of risk insight from probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Recently, it becomes necessary to find a way to improve regulatory efficiency and effectiveness in order to cover the increasing regulatory needs in Korea. Also, the utility has optimized design and operation of the plant using PSA insight and equipment performance information. According to the increase of the necessity for regulatory improvement using risk and performance information, KINS (Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety) is developing, as a part of mid- and long-term project of Nuclear development program, how to adopt the RIPBR in Korean nuclear regulation. This paper presents the interim result of the study that comprises the assessment of feasibility to adopt the RIPBR, and basic directions and principles for implementing RIPBR model. It is concluded that adopting RIPBR is essential for risk management of the plant, public acceptance to nuclear safety, improvement of existing regulation, minimization of unnecessary regulatory burden, and effective use of regulatory resources, etc. Three basic directions and several principles that are necessary to implement RIPBR model are identified from the study. The application of the directions and principles to the assessment of RIPBR model to be established in the near future is expected to result in making the adoption of new regulatory system more objective and consistent. (authors)

  1. Reliability- and performance-based robust design optimization of MEMS structures considering technological uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martowicz, Adam; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2012-10-01

    The paper discusses the applicability of a reliability- and performance-based multi-criteria robust design optimization technique for micro-electromechanical systems, considering their technological uncertainties. Nowadays, micro-devices are commonly applied systems, especially in the automotive industry, taking advantage of utilizing both the mechanical structure and electronic control circuit on one board. Their frequent use motivates the elaboration of virtual prototyping tools that can be applied in design optimization with the introduction of technological uncertainties and reliability. The authors present a procedure for the optimization of micro-devices, which is based on the theory of reliability-based robust design optimization. This takes into consideration the performance of a micro-device and its reliability assessed by means of uncertainty analysis. The procedure assumes that, for each checked design configuration, the assessment of uncertainty propagation is performed with the meta-modeling technique. The described procedure is illustrated with an example of the optimization carried out for a finite element model of a micro-mirror. The multi-physics approach allowed the introduction of several physical phenomena to correctly model the electrostatic actuation and the squeezing effect present between electrodes. The optimization was preceded by sensitivity analysis to establish the design and uncertain domains. The genetic algorithms fulfilled the defined optimization task effectively. The best discovered individuals are characterized by a minimized value of the multi-criteria objective function, simultaneously satisfying the constraint on material strength. The restriction of the maximum equivalent stresses was introduced with the conditionally formulated objective function with a penalty component. The yielded results were successfully verified with a global uniform search through the input design domain.

  2. Performance-Based Regulation In A High Distributed Energy Resources Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton Lowry, Mark [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC, Madison, WI (United States); Woolf, Tim [Synapse Energy Economics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2018-03-07

    Performance-based regulation (PBR) of utilities has emerged as an important ratemaking option in the last 25 years. It has been implemented in numerous jurisdictions across the United States and is common in many other advanced industrialized countries. PBR’s appeal lies chiefly in its ability to strengthen utility performance incentives relative to traditional cost-of-service regulation (COSR). Some forms of PBR can streamline regulation and provide utilities with greater operating flexibility. Ideally, the benefits of better performance are shared by the utility and its customers. The shortcomings of traditional COSR in providing electric utilities with incentives that are aligned with certain regulatory goals are becoming increasingly clear. In particular, COSR can provide strong incentives to increase electricity sales and utility rate base. Further, some parties express concern that traditional COSR does not provide utilities with appropriate financial incentives to address evolving industry challenges such as changing customer demands for electricity services, increased levels of distributed energy resources (DERs), and growing pressure to mitigate carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, attention to potential new regulatory models to support the “utility of the future” has renewed interest in PBR. This report describes key elements of PBR and explains some of the advantages and disadvantages of various PBR options. We present pertinent issues from the perspectives of utilities and customers. In practice, these different perspectives are not diametrically opposed. Nonetheless, this framework is useful for illustrating how various aspects of PBR may be viewed by those key groups. Regulators have a unique perspective, in that they must balance consumer, utility, and other interests with the goal of achieving a result that is in the overall public interest.

  3. Beyond integrated safeguards: Performance-based assessments for future nuclear controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong Sylvester, Kory W.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In the future, if the nuclear nonproliferation and arms control agendas are to advance, they will likely become increasingly seen as parallel undertakings with the objective of comprehensive cradle-to-grave controls over nuclear materials and possibly even warheads removed from defense programs along with materials in civilian use. This 'back to the future' prospect was envisioned in the Acheson-Lillienthal Report and the Baruch Plan, and more modestly in the Atoms-for-Peace Proposal. Unlike the grand plans of the early nuclear years, today's and tomorrow's undertakings will more likely consist of a series of incremental steps with the goal of expanding nuclear controls. These steps will be undertaken at a time of fundamental change in the IAEA safeguards system, and they will be influenced by those changes in profound ways. This prospective influence needs to be taken into account as the IAEA develops and implements integrated safeguards, including its efforts to establish new safeguards criteria, undertake technological and administrative improvements in safeguards, implement credible capabilities for the detection of undeclared nuclear facilities and activities and, perhaps, provide for a more intensive involvement in applying safeguards in new roles such as the verification of a Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty. Performance-based criteria offer one promising way to address the effectiveness of integrated safeguards and to provide a common means of assessing the other key areas of a comprehensive approach to nuclear controls as these develop independently and to the extent that they are coordinated in the future. (author)

  4. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yuit Chan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre.

  5. Conspecific and not performance-based attraction on immigrants drives colony growth in a waterbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenan, Simone; Fasola, Mauro; Volponi, Stefano; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2017-09-01

    Local recruitment and immigration play an important part in the dynamics and growth of animal populations. However, their estimation and incorporation into open population models is, in most cases, problematic. We studied factors affecting the growth of a recently established colony of Eurasian spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia) and assessed the contribution of local recruits, i.e. birds born in the colony, and immigrants, i.e. birds of unknown origin, to colony growth. We applied an integrated population model that accounts for uncertainty in breeding state assignment and merges population surveys, local fecundity and individual longitudinal data of breeding and non-breeding birds, to estimate demographic rates and the relative role of recruitment and immigration in driving the local dynamics. We also used this analytical framework to assess the degree of support for the 'performance-based' and 'conspecific attraction' hypotheses as possible mechanisms of colony growth. Among the demographic rates, only immigration was positively and significantly correlated with population growth rate. In addition, the number of immigrants settling in the colony was positively correlated with colony size in the previous and current year, but was not correlated with fecundity of the previous year. Our results suggest that the variation in immigration affected colony dynamics and that conspecific attraction likely triggered the relevant role of immigration in the growth of a recently formed waterbird colony, supporting the need of including immigration in population analysis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  6. Review of performance-based incentives in community-based family planning programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Nicole M; Askew, Ian; Bellows, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background One strategy for improving family planning (FP) uptake at the community level is the use of performance-based incentives (PBIs), which offer community distributors financial incentives to recruit more users of FP. This article examines the use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes via a literature search of the peer-reviewed and grey literature conducted in April 2013. Results A total of 28 community-based FP programmes in 21 countries were identified as having used PBIs. The most common approach was a sales commission model where distributors received commission for FP products sold, while a referral payment model for long-term methods was also used extensively. Six evaluations were identified that specifically examined the impact of the PBI in community-based FP programmes. Overall, the results of the evaluations are mixed and more research is needed; however, the findings suggest that easy-to-understand PBIs can be successful in increasing the use of FP at the community level. Conclusion For future use of PBIs in community-based FP programmes it is important to consider the ethics of incentivising FP and ensuring that PBIs are non-coercive and choice-enhancing. PMID:25037703

  7. A fuzzy MCDM approach for evaluating school performance based on linguistic information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, Suhaina; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2013-11-01

    Decision making is the process of finding the best option among the feasible alternatives. This process should consider a variety of criteria, but this study only focus on academic achievement. The data used is the percentage of candidates who obtained Malaysian Certificate of Education (SPM) in Melaka based on school academic achievement for each subject. 57 secondary schools in Melaka as listed by the Ministry of Education involved in this study. Therefore the school ranking can be done using MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) methods. The objective of this study is to develop a rational method for evaluating school performance based on linguistic information. Since the information or level of academic achievement provided in linguistic manner, there is a possible chance of getting incomplete or uncertain problems. So in order to overcome the situation, the information could be provided as fuzzy numbers. Since fuzzy set represents the uncertainty in human perceptions. In this research, VIKOR (Multi Criteria Optimization and Compromise Solution) has been used as a MCDM tool for the school ranking process in fuzzy environment. Results showed that fuzzy set theory can solve the limitations of using MCDM when there is uncertainty problems exist in the data.

  8. Combining auctions and performance-based payments in a forest enrichment field trial in Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalumba, Mercelyne; Wünscher, Tobias; Wunder, Sven; Büdenbender, Mirjam; Holm-Müller, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Cost-effectiveness is an important aspect in the assessment of payments for environmental services (PES) initiatives. In participatory field trials with communities in Western Kenya, we combined procurement auctions for forest enrichment contracts with performance-based payments and compared the outcomes with a baseline scenario currently used by the Kenyan Forest Service. Procurement auctions were the most cost-effective. The competitive nature of the auction reduced contracting expenses (provision costs), and the result-oriented payments provided additional incentives to care for the planted seedlings, resulting in their improved survival rates (service quantity). These gains clearly exceeded increases in transaction costs associated with conducting an auction. The number of income-poor auction participants and winners was disproportionately high and local institutional buy-in was remarkably strong. Our participatory approach may, however, require adaptations when conducted at a larger scale. Although the number of contracts we monitored was limited and prohibited the use of statistical tests, our study is one of the first to reveal the benefits of using auctions for PES in developing countries. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Performance Based Failure Criteria of the Base Isolation System for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Han; Kim, Min Kyu; Choi, In Kil

    2013-01-01

    The realistic approach to evaluate the failure state of the base isolation system is necessary. From this point of view, several concerns are reviewed and discussed in this study. This is the preliminary study for the performance based risk assessment of a base isolated nuclear power plant. The items to evaluate the capacity and response of an individual base isolator and a base isolation system were briefly outlined. However, the methodology to evaluate the realistic fragility of a base isolation system still needs to be specified. For the quantification of the seismic risk for a nuclear power plant structure, the failure probabilities of the structural component for the various seismic intensity levels need to be calculated. The failure probability is evaluated as the probability when the seismic response of a structure exceeds the failure criteria. Accordingly, the failure mode of the structural system caused by an earthquake vibration should be defined first. The type of a base isolator appropriate for a nuclear power plant structure is regarded as an elastometric rubber bearing with a lead core. The failure limit of the lead-rubber bearing (LRB) is not easy to be predicted because of its high nonlinearity and a complex loading condition by an earthquake excitation. Furthermore, the failure mode of the LRB system installed below the nuclear island cannot be simply determined because the basemat can be sufficiently supported if the number of damaged isolator is not much

  10. An index approach to performance-based payments for water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maille, Peter; Collins, Alan R

    2012-05-30

    In this paper we describe elements of a field research project that presented farmers with economic incentives to control nitrate runoff. The approach used is novel in that payments are based on ambient water quality and water quantity produced by a watershed rather than proxies for water quality conservation. Also, payments are made based on water quality relative to a control watershed, and therefore, account for stochastic fluctuations in background nitrate levels. Finally, the program pays farmers as a group to elicit team behavior. We present our approach to modeling that allowed us to estimate prices for water and resulting payment levels. We then compare these preliminary estimates to the actual values recorded over 33 months of fieldwork. We find that our actual payments were 29% less than our preliminary estimates, due in part to the failure of our ecological model to estimate discharge accurately. Despite this shortfall, the program attracted the participation of 53% of the farmers in the watershed, and resulted in substantial nitrate abatement activity. Given this favorable response, we propose that research efforts focus on implementing field trials of group-level performance-based payments. Ideally these programs would be low risk and control for naturally occurring contamination. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The oral case presentation: toward a performance-based rhetorical model for teaching and learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mei Yuit

    2015-01-01

    The oral case presentation is an important communicative activity in the teaching and assessment of students. Despite its importance, not much attention has been paid to providing support for teachers to teach this difficult task to medical students who are novices to this form of communication. As a formalized piece of talk that takes a regularized form and used for a specific communicative goal, the case presentation is regarded as a rhetorical activity and awareness of its rhetorical and linguistic characteristics should be given due consideration in teaching. This paper reviews practitioners’ and the limited research literature that relates to expectations of medical educators about what makes a good case presentation, and explains the rhetorical aspect of the activity. It is found there is currently a lack of a comprehensive model of the case presentation that projects the rhetorical and linguistic skills needed to produce and deliver a good presentation. Attempts to describe the structure of the case presentation have used predominantly opinion-based methodologies. In this paper, I argue for a performance-based model that would not only allow a description of the rhetorical structure of the oral case presentation, but also enable a systematic examination of the tacit genre knowledge that differentiates the expert from the novice. Such a model will be a useful resource for medical educators to provide more structured feedback and teaching support to medical students in learning this important genre. PMID:26194482

  12. How to construct a service quality index in performance based ratemaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, B.R.

    1996-04-01

    Nothing will derail the movement to competition quicker than a falloff in service quality. During the uncertain transition to a more competitive electricity market, utility regulators should carry out their duty to ensure adequate service quality by adopting innovative performance tracking methods. Despite all the talk - and there is plenty of that - the restructuring of the electric utility industry is not yet upon us. But many state regulatory bodies - having already experienced restructuring in the telecommunications industry, in which many employed new regulatory models known under the rubric of performance-based regulation - are beginning to experiment with some form of PBR in the increasingly competitive electricity industry. PBR is usually undertaken on the assumption that, in a more competitive industry, a lighter regulatory hand coupled with the discipline of market competition will produce better results for both utility customers and shareholders. PBR, as an alternative to traditional base rate regulation, typically retains strict control over basic service rates for core customers, either by freezing prices or establishing a formula that restricts the utility`s ability to raise prices for these customer groups. The utilty is usually given significant pricing and marketing flexibility over more competitive services and the ability to retain earnings from these services. A hallmark of these alternative schemes is their multi-year nature: the utility is offered the opportunity to earn higher profits over, say, a two-to-five year period, in return for stricter regulatory controls on prices charged to core customers. The purpose of this article, based in large part on the telecommunications experience, is to describe why it is necessary to address customer service issues that are inherent in PBR and to provide the basic tools to create a customer service and reliability index that can be included in any alternative rate plan for a utilty.

  13. Paying It Forward: A Technical Assistance Guide for Developing and Implementing Performance-Based Scholarships. The Performance-Based Scholarship Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welbeck, Rashida; Ware, Michelle; Cerna, Oscar; Valenzuela, Ireri

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties in paying for college and in maintaining good academic performance are two major hurdles to college graduation for low-income students. In recent years, state and federal budgets for postsecondary education have been cut significantly, limiting the options policymakers, education leaders, and communities have to improve rates of…

  14. Performance-based plastic design of earthquake resistant reinforced concrete moment frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen-Cheng

    Performance-Based Plastic Design (PBPD) method has been recently developed to achieve enhanced performance of earthquake resistant structures. The design concept uses pre-selected target drift and yield mechanism as performance criteria. The design base shear for selected hazard level is determined by equating the work needed to push the structure monotonically up to the target drift to the corresponding energy demand of an equivalent SDOF oscillator. This study presents development of the PBPD approach as applied to reinforced concrete special moment frame (RC SMF) structures. RC structures present special challenge because of their complex and degrading ("pinched") hysteretic behavior. In order to account for the degrading hysteretic behavior the 1-EMA 440 C2 factor approach was used in the process of determining the design base shear. Four baseline RC SMF (4, 8, 12 and 20-story) as used in the FEMA P695 were selected for this study. Those frames were redesigned by the PBPD approach. The baseline frames and the PBPD frames were subjected to extensive inelastic pushover and time-history analyses. The PBPD frames showed much improved response meeting all desired performance objectives, including the intended yield mechanisms and the target drifts. On the contrary, the baseline frames experienced large story drifts due to flexural yielding of the columns. The work-energy equation to determine design base shear can also be used to estimate seismic demands, called the energy spectrum method. In this approach the skeleton force-displacement (capacity) curve of the structure is converted into energy-displacement plot (Ec) which is superimposed over the corresponding energy demand plot ( Ed) for the specified hazard level to determine the expected peak displacement demands. In summary, this study shows that the PBPD approach can be successfully applied to RC moment frame structures as well, and that the responses of the example moment frames were much improved over those

  15. Fighting childhood obesity through performance-based regulation of the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2007-04-01

    That childhood obesity is an alarming public health problem is clear and widely appreciated. What is altogether unclear is what our society should do about it. Some people think the solution lies in using tort law to sue McDonald's, Coca-Cola, and other corporations. We reject that notion. Others believe that government should order specific changes in the behavior of food companies and school officials--and yet, there is little reason for confidence that these "command and control" strategies will make a difference. Instead, we propose "performance-based regulation" of the food industry. This is analogous to the approach our country is now taking with respect to elementary and secondary education (most prominently in the No Child Left Behind legislation). Schools are not told how to achieve better educational results, but better outcomes are demanded of them. This strategy has also been used in the environmental context to reduce harmful power plant emissions, and it has been briefly proposed as a way of regulating cigarette companies. In this Article, we propose that large firms selling food and drink that is high in sugar or fat will be assigned the responsibility of reducing obesity rates in a specific pool of children. A firm's share of the overall responsibility will be based on its share of the "bad' food market, and the children assigned to it will be organized by geographically proximate schools where obesity rates are currently above the plan's nationwide target rate of 8 percent (the actual childhood obesity rate today is approximately 16 percent). Firms that fail to achieve their goals will be subject to serious financial penalties.

  16. Performance-based financing for improving HIV/AIDS service delivery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Nagata, Jason M; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Bärnighausen, Till; Negussie, Eyerusalem K; Doherty, Meg C

    2017-01-04

    Although domestic HIV/AIDS financing is increasing, international HIV/AIDS financing has plateaued. Providing incentives for the health system (i.e. performance-based financing [PBF]) may help countries achieve more with available resources. We systematically reviewed effects of PBF on HIV/AIDS service delivery to inform WHO guidelines. PubMed, WHO Index Medicus, conference databases, and clinical trial registries were searched in April 2015 for randomised trials, comparative contemporaneous studies, or time-series studies. Studies evaluating PBF in people with HIV were included when they reported service quality, access, or cost. Meta-analyses were not possible due to limited data. This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42015023207. Four studies, published from 2009 to 2015 and including 173,262 people, met the eligibility criteria. All studies were from Sub-Saharan Africa. PBF did not improve individual testing coverage (relative risk [RR], 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.89 to 1.13), improved couples testing coverage (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.20), and improved pregnant women testing coverage (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.28-1.30). PBF improved coverage of antiretrovirals in pregnant women (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.50 to 1.59), infants (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.84 to 2.01), and adults (RR 1.74, 1.64 to 1.85). PBF reduced attrition (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96) and treatment failure (odds ratio 0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.97). Potential harms were not reported. Although the limited data suggests PBF positively affected HIV service access and quality, critical health system and governance knowledge gaps remain. More research is needed to inform national policymaking.

  17. Performance-based financing to increase utilization of maternal health services: Evidence from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Steenland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Performance-based financing (PBF programs are increasingly implemented in low and middle-income countries to improve health service quality and utilization. In April 2011, a PBF pilot program was launched in Boulsa, Leo and Titao districts in Burkina Faso with the objective of increasing the provision and quality of maternal health services. We evaluate the impact of this program using facility-level administrative data from the national health management information system (HMIS. Primary outcomes were the number of antenatal care visits, the proportion of antenatal care visits that occurred during the first trimester of pregnancy, the number of institutional deliveries and the number of postnatal care visits. To assess program impact we use a difference-in-differences approach, comparing changes in health service provision post-introduction with changes in matched comparison areas. All models were estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS regression models with standard errors clustered at the facility level. On average, PBF facilities had 2.3 more antenatal care visits (95% CI [0.446–4.225], 2.1 more deliveries (95% CI [0.034–4.069] and 9.5 more postnatal care visits (95% CI [6.099, 12.903] each month after the introduction of PBF. Compared to the service provision levels prior to the interventions, this implies a relative increase of 27.7 percent for ANC, of 9.2 percent for deliveries, and of 118.7 percent for postnatal care. Given the positive results observed during the pre-pilot period and the limited resources available in the health sector, the PBF program in Burkina Faso may be a low-cost, high impact intervention to improve maternal and child health.

  18. Setting performance-based financing in the health sector agenda: a case study in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieleunou, Isidore; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Fotso, Jean-Claude Taptué; Tamga, Denise Magne; Yumo, Habakkuk Azinyui; Kouokam, Estelle; Ridde, Valery

    2017-08-01

    More than 30 countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced performance-based financing (PBF) in their healthcare systems. Yet, there has been little research on the process by which PBF was put on the national policy agenda in Africa. This study examines the policy process behind the introduction of PBF program in Cameroon. The research is an explanatory case study using the Kingdon multiple streams framework. We conducted a document review and 25 interviews with various types of actors involved in the policy process. We conducted thematic analysis using a hybrid deductive-inductive approach for data analysis. By 2004, several reports and events had provided evidence on the state of the poor health outcomes and health financing in the country, thereby raising awareness of the situation. As a result, decision-makers identified the lack of a suitable health financing policy as an important issue that needed to be addressed. The change in the political discourse toward more accountability made room to test new mechanisms. A group of policy entrepreneurs from the World Bank, through numerous forms of influence (financial, ideational, network and knowledge-based) and building on several ongoing reforms, collaborated with senior government officials to place the PBF program on the agenda. The policy changes occurred as the result of two open policy windows (i.e. national and international), and in both instances, policy entrepreneurs were able to couple the policy streams to effect change. The policy agenda of PBF in Cameroon underlined the importance of a perceived crisis in the policy reform process and the advantage of building a team to carry forward the policy process. It also highlighted the role of other sources of information alongside scientific evidence (eg.: workshop and study tour), as well as the role of previous policies and experiences, in shaping or influencing respectively the way issues are framed and reformers' actions and choices.

  19. Impact of performance-based financing on primary health care services in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wu; Cros, Marion; Wright, Katherine D; Shepard, Donald S

    2013-09-01

    To strengthen Haiti's primary health care (PHC) system, the country first piloted performance-based financing (PBF) in 1999 and subsequently expanded the approach to most internationally funded non-government organizations. PBF complements support (training and technical assistance). This study evaluates (a) the separate impact of PBF and international support on PHC's service delivery; (b) the combined impact of PBF and technical assistance on PHC's service delivery; and (c) the costs of PBF implementation in Haiti. To minimize the risk of facilities neglecting potential non-incentivized services, the incentivized indicators were randomly chosen at the end of each year. We obtained quantities of key services from four departments for 217 health centres (15 with PBF and 202 without) from 2008 through 2010, computed quarterly growth rates and analysed the results using a difference-in-differences approach by comparing the growth of incentivized and non-incentivized services between PBF and non-PBF facilities. To interpret the statistical analyses, we also interviewed staff in four facilities. Whereas international support added 39% to base costs of PHC, incentive payments added only 6%. Support alone increased the quantities of PHC services over 3 years by 35% (2.7%/quarter). However, support plus incentives increased these amounts by 87% over 3 years (5.7%/quarter) compared with facilities with neither input. Incentives alone was associated with a net 39% increase over this period, and more than doubled the growth of services (P < 0.05). Interview findings found no adverse impacts and, in fact, indicated beneficial impacts on quality. Incentives proved to be a relatively inexpensive, well accepted and very effective complement to support, suggesting that a small amount of money, strategically used, can substantially improve PHC. Haiti's experience, after more than a decade of use, indicates that incentives are an effective tool to strengthen PHC.

  20. Pathways to high and low performance: factors differentiating primary care facilities under performance-based financing in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Shunsuke; Sesan, Temilade; Bennett, Sara C

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The determinants of primary health facility performance in developing countries have not been well studied. One of the most under-researched areas is health facility management. This study investigated health facilities under the pilot performance-based financing (PBF) scheme in Nigeria, and aimed to understand which factors differentiated primary health care centres (PHCCs) which had performed well, vs those which had not, with a focus on health facility management practices. We used a multiple case study where we compared two high-performing PHCCs and two low-performing PHCCs for each of the two PBF target states. Two teams of two trained local researchers spent 1 week at each PHCC and collected semi-structured interview, observation and documentary data. Data from interviews were transcribed, translated and coded using a framework approach. The data for each PHCC were synthesized to understand dynamic interactions of different elements in each case. We then compared the characteristics of high and low performers. The areas in which critical differences between high and low-performers emerged were: community engagement and support; and performance and staff management. We also found that (i) contextual and health system factors particularly staffing, access and competition with other providers; (ii) health centre management including community engagement, performance management and staff management; and (iii) community leader support interacted and drove performance improvement among the PHCCs. Among them, we found that good health centre management can overcome some contextual and health system barriers and enhance community leader support. This study findings suggest a strong need to select capable and motivated health centre managers, provide long-term coaching in managerial skills, and motivate them to improve their practices. The study also highlights the need to position engagement with community leaders as a key management practice and a central

  1. Performance-Based Financing to Strengthen the Health System in Benin: Challenging the Mainstream Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Paul

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Performance-based financing (PBF is often proposed as a way to improve health system performance. In Benin, PBF was launched in 2012 through a World Bank-supported project. The Belgian Development Agency (BTC followed suit through a health system strengthening (HSS project. This paper analyses and draws lessons from the experience of BTC-supported PBF alternative approach – especially with regards to institutional aspects, the role of demand-side actors, ownership, and cost-effectiveness – and explores the mechanisms at stake so as to better understand how the “PBF package” functions and produces effects. Methods An exploratory, theory-driven evaluation approach was adopted. Causal mechanisms through which PBF is hypothesised to impact on results were singled out and explored. This paper stems from the co-authors’ capitalisation of experiences; mixed methods were used to collect, triangulate and analyse information. Results are structured along Witter et al framework. Results Influence of context is strong over PBF in Benin; the policy is donor-driven. BTC did not adopt the World Bank’s mainstream PBF model, but developed an alternative approach in line with its HSS support programme, which is grounded on existing domestic institutions. The main features of this approach are described (decentralised governance, peer review verification, counter-verification entrusted to health service users’ platforms, as well as its adaptive process. PBF has contributed to strengthen various aspects of the health system and led to modest progress in utilisation of health services, but noticeable improvements in healthcare quality. Three mechanisms explaining observed outcomes within the context are described: comprehensive HSS at district level; acting on health workers’ motivation through a complex package of incentives; and increased accountability by reinforcing dialogue with demand-side actors. Cost-effectiveness and

  2. Performance Based Clustering for Benchmarking of Container Ports: an Application of Dea and Cluster Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The operational performance of container ports has received more and more attentions in both academic and practitioner circles, the performance evaluation and process improvement of container ports have also been the focus of several studies. In this paper, Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, an effective tool for relative efficiency assessment, is utilized for measuring the performances and benchmarking of the 77 world container ports in 2007. The used approaches in the current study consider four inputs (Capacity of Cargo Handling Machines, Number of Berths, Terminal Area and Storage Capacity and a single output (Container Throughput. The results for the efficiency scores are analyzed, and a unique ordering of the ports based on average cross efficiency is provided, also cluster analysis technique is used to select the more appropriate targets for poorly performing ports to use as benchmarks.

  3. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification Systems, and manual function was measured using the Manual Ability Classification System. [Results] Motor skills in daily activities were significantly different on Gross Motor Function Classification System level and Manual Ability Classification System level. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, children categorized as Gross Motor Function Classification System level III scored lower in terms of performance based motor skills than Gross Motor Function Classification System level I children. Also, when analyzed with respect to Manual Ability Classification System level, level II was lower than level I, and level III was lower than level II in terms of performance based motor skills. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicate that performance-based motor skills differ among children categorized based on Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels of cerebral palsy.

  4. Performance-based specifications and control of concrete durability state-of-the-art report RILEM TC 230-PSC

    CERN Document Server

    Luco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This work gives an overview of significant research from recent years concerning performance-based design and quality control for concrete durability and its implementation. In engineering practice, performance approaches are often still used in combination with prescriptive requirements. This is largely because, for most durability test methods, sufficient practical experience still has to be gained before engineers and owners are prepared to fully rely on them.   This book, compiled by RILEM TC 230-PSC, is intended to assist efforts to successfully build the foundation for the full implementation of performance-based approaches through the exchange of relevant knowledge and experience between researchers and practitioners worldwide.  .

  5. Evaluation of the Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing System for Performance-Based Navigation Arrivals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; Swenson, Harry; Thipphavong, Jane; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Chen, Liang; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2013-01-01

    The growth of global demand for air transportation has put increasing strain on the nation's air traffic management system. To relieve this strain, the International Civil Aviation Organization has urged all nations to adopt Performance-Based Navigation (PBN), which can help to reduce air traffic congestion, decrease aviation fuel consumption, and protect the environment. NASA has developed a Terminal Area Precision Scheduling and Spacing (TAPSS) system that can support increased use of PBN during periods of high traffic, while supporting fuel-efficient, continuous descent approaches. In the original development of this system, arrival aircraft are assigned fuel-efficient Area Navigation (RNAV) Standard Terminal Arrival Routes before their initial descent from cruise, with routing defined to a specific runway. The system also determines precise schedules for these aircraft that facilitate continuous descent through the assigned routes. To meet these schedules, controllers are given a set of advisory tools to precisely control aircraft. The TAPSS system has been evaluated in a series of human-in-the-loop (HITL) air traffic simulations during 2010 and 2011. Results indicated increased airport arrival throughput up to 10 over current operations, and maintained fuel-efficient aircraft decent profiles from the initial descent to landing with reduced controller workload. This paper focuses on results from a joint NASA and FAA HITL simulation conducted in 2012. Due to the FAA rollout of the advance terminal area PBN procedures at mid-sized airports first, the TAPSS system was modified to manage arrival aircraft as they entered Terminal Radar Approach Control (TRACON). Dallas-Love Field airport (DAL) was selected by the FAA as a representative mid-sized airport within a constrained TRACON airspace due to the close proximity of a major airport, in this case Dallas-Ft Worth International Airport, one of the busiest in the world. To address this constraint, RNAV routes and

  6. Analysis of Nurse's Clinical Education Performance based on Work Theory and The Indicator of Competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinalesti Mahanani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical Learning is a process of transformation of the student to become a professional nurse. Clinical Nurse Educator contributes to improve the quality of clinical learning because of variety of roles ranging from planning, implementing and evaluating learning clinical practice. Improving the quality of clinical practice learning, can be reached by improving the performance of Clinical Nurse Educator. The aim of this study was to know the effect of psychological variables and organizational variables to the competence and performance of Clinical Nurse Educators. Sample was Clinical Nurse Educators who work inpatient wards at Kediri Baptist Hospital inpatient wards. Method: This study was conducted in two stages. Phase I measure the competence and performance of Clinical Nurse Educator by Supervisor and students, as well as psychological variables and organizational variables by using questionnaires. Phase II was done by Focused Group Discussion to discuss about the variables that affect Clinical Nurse Educator performance. Data processed using Partial Least Square with α = 0.05, path coefficient = 0.5 and t table = 1.96. Result: The results of this research is showed that Performance Nurse Educator can be improved by increasing Individual Competence with path coefficient= 0.600 and t = 6.741. The individual competence will be increase by improving pscychological aspect nurse educator such as perception, personal aspect, motivation, learning skill and attitude with path coefficient = 0.518 and t = 2.715. Psycological Aspect can be increasing by improving Organization Variable such as Organization Resource, Salary, Organization Structure and Job Description with path coefficient = 0.825 and t = 19.658. Discussion: The conclusion of this result that increase of nurse educator competence and performance can be effort by improving psycological aspect and organizational variable Keywords: competence, performance, clinical nurse

  7. Detecting payload performance based on relative radiometric characteristic: case of the optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jie; Li, Shengyang; Zhang, Tao; Qin, Bangyong

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for accurately estimating the degree of radiometric non-uniformity in remote sensing images. The algorithm was tested on high-quality images and heavily striping images, and quantitative analyses were conducted to evaluate the performance for each band by measuring the radiometric non-uniformity of the images. The results demonstrated that the proposed algorithm exhibits high accuracy and stability compared with traditional algorithms. The radiometric performance of TianGong-1 short-wave infrared images was calculated using this new method, and it was highly correlated with the solar angle, pitch angle and refrigerator thermal according to the Apriori algorithm. Based on these results, we have proposed a strategy for restricting increases in striping.

  8. Performance-based evaluation of graphic displays for nuclear-power-plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.J.; Banks, W.W.; Gertman, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports several methodologies for evaluating the perceptual and perceptual/decision making aspects of displays used in the control rooms of nuclear power plants. This NRC funded study focuses upon the Safety Parameter Display System (SPDS) and relates the utility of the display to objective performance and preference measures obtained in experimental conditions. The first condition is a traditional laboratory setting where classical experimental methodologies can be employed. The second condition is an interactive control room simulation where the operator's performance is assessed while he/she operates the simulator. The third condition is a rating scale designed to assess operator preferences and opinions regarding a variety of display formats. The goal of this study is the development of a cost-efficient display evaluation methodology which correlates highly with the operator's ability to control a plant

  9. Improving LAN Performance Based on IEEE802.1Q VLAN Switching Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhurgham Abdulridha Jawad AL-Khaffaf

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available VLAN is a set of users in different isolated logical LANs or broadcasting domains, they are communicated as a same LAN i.e. same broadcasting domain. Ethernet protocol is very popular over networks because it has a simple of implementation and ease of configuration. However, the support of Quality of Service (QoS has become an essential merit of Ethernet network. In this context, the problems of large network and data transport delay have been regained significant importance. Alleviating the end to end delay by using the VLAN technology to enhance the network performance. In this paper, we analyze and evaluate the performance of LAN and VLAN networks in different scenarios. Measuring key performance indicators such as traffic sent, traffic received, average delay and throughput. The simulation was carried out by employing OPNET 17.5 Student Version. Two different scenarios are presented to observe the performance of LAN and VLAN networks. The simulation results illustrated that there is more existing traffic without VLAN technology. Hence, VLANs prohibit the access to the network resources of other departments. Also, VLAN has half average queuing delay compared with no VLAN scenario. Therefore, VLANs can improve bandwidth utilization, power, speed and security.

  10. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A.; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M.; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Rentz, Dorene M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer’s disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer’s disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer’s disease. Objective To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer’s disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. Design In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Setting Academic clinical research center. Participants One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). Measurements As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. Results We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone

  11. INTERNATIONAL BEHAVIOUR AND PERFORMANCE BASED ROMANIAN ENTREPRENEURIAL AND TRADITIONAL FIRM CLUSTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEDER Emoke - Szidonia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The micro, small and medium-sized firms (SMEs present a key interest at European level due to their potential positive influence on regional, national and firm level competitiveness. At a certain moment in time, internationalisation became an expected and even unavoidable strategy in firms’ future development, growth and evolution. From theoretical perspective, an integrative complementarily approach is adopted concerning the dominant paradigm of stage models from incremental internationalisation theory and the emergent paradigm of international entrepreneurship theory. Several researcher calls for empirical testing of different theoretical frameworks and international firms. Therefore, the first aim of the quantitative study is to empirically prove, the existence of various internationalisation behaviour configuration based clusters, like sporadic and traditional international firms, born-again global and born global firms, within the framework of Romanian SMEs. Secondly, within the research framework the study propose to assess different distinguishing internationalisation behavioural characteristics and patterns for the delimited clusters, in terms of foreign market scope, internationalisation pace and rhythm, initial and current entry modes, international product portfolio and commitment. Thirdly, internationalisation cluster membership and patterns differential influence and contribution is analysed on firm level international business performance, as internationalisation degree, financial and marketing measures. The framework was tested on a transversal sample consisting of 140 Romanian internationalised SMEs. Findings are especially useful for entrepreneurs and SME managers presenting various decisional possibilities and options on internationalisation behaviours and performance. These emphasize the importance of internationalisation scope, pace, object and opportunity seeking, along with positive influence on performance, indifferent

  12. The Harvard Automated Phone Task: new performance-based activities of daily living tests for early Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Gad A; Dekhtyar, Maria; Bruno, Jonathan M; Jethwani, Kamal; Amariglio, Rebecca E; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Rentz, Dorene M

    2015-12-01

    Impairment in activities of daily living is a major burden for Alzheimer's disease dementia patients and caregivers. Multiple subjective scales and a few performance-based instruments have been validated and proven to be reliable in measuring instrumental activities of daily living in Alzheimer's disease dementia but less so in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and preclinical Alzheimer's disease. To validate the Harvard Automated Phone Task, a new performance-based activities of daily living test for early Alzheimer's disease, which assesses high level tasks that challenge seniors in daily life. In a cross-sectional study, the Harvard Automated Phone Task was associated with demographics and cognitive measures through univariate and multivariate analyses; ability to discriminate across diagnostic groups was assessed; test-retest reliability with the same and alternate versions was assessed in a subset of participants; and the relationship with regional cortical thickness was assessed in a subset of participants. Academic clinical research center. One hundred and eighty two participants were recruited from the community (127 clinically normal elderly and 45 young normal participants) and memory disorders clinics at Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital (10 participants with mild cognitive impairment). As part of the Harvard Automated Phone Task, participants navigated an interactive voice response system to refill a prescription (APT-Script), select a new primary care physician (APT-PCP), and make a bank account transfer and payment (APT-Bank). The 3 tasks were scored based on time, errors, and repetitions from which composite z-scores were derived, as well as a separate report of correct completion of the task. We found that the Harvard Automated Phone Task discriminated well between diagnostic groups (APT-Script: p=0.002; APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task and executive function (APT-PCP: pHarvard Automated Phone Task, which

  13. The Use of Performance Based Funding in a Sport Organization: A Case Study of the United States Olympic Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    description and analysis of a single instance, phenomenon, or social unit (Merriam, 1998). Management by Objective (MBO). A control system designed to...theoretical principles of performance based funding instead of testing a hypothesis, my epistemology will be constructivist. Constructionism Maynard...operate. This constitutes a vital epistemological position that constructionism takes in relation to the interaction between the investigator and

  14. Teacher Reactions to the Performance-Based Bonus Program: How the Expectancy Theory Works in the South Korean School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Bong-Woon; Sung, Youl-Kwan

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine how and to what extent the implementation of the performance-based bonus program in South Korean schools has motivated teachers to improve their behavior, as well as to identify any other positive or negative effects of the program. Interviews with teachers indicated that a large percentage of teachers…

  15. Progress toward forecasting product quality and quantity of mammalian cell culture processes by performance-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidberger, Timo; Posch, Christoph; Sasse, Alexandra; Gülch, Carina; Huber, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The production of biopharmaceuticals requires highly sophisticated, complex cell based processes. Once a process has been developed, acceptable ranges for various control parameters are typically defined based on process characterization studies often comprising several dozens of small scale bioreactor cultivations. A lot of data is generated during these studies and usually only the information needed to define acceptable ranges is processed in more detail. Making use of the wealth of information contained in such data sets, we present here a methodology that uses performance data (such as metabolite profiles) to forecast the product quality and quantity of mammalian cell culture processes based on a toolbox of advanced statistical methods. With this performance based modeling (PBM) the final product concentration and 12 quality attributes (QAs) for two different biopharmaceutical products were predicted in daily intervals throughout the main stage process. The best forecast was achieved for product concentration in a very early phase of the process. Furthermore, some glycan isoforms were predicted with good accuracy several days before the bioreactor was harvested. Overall, PBM clearly demonstrated its capability of early process endpoint prediction by only using commonly available data, even though it was not possible to predict all QAs with the desired accuracy. Knowing the product quality prior to the harvest allows the manufacturer to take counter measures in case the forecasted quality or quantity deviates from what is expected. This would be a big step towards real-time release, an important element of the FDA's PAT initiative. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Adding a Performance-Based Component to Surface Warfare Officer Bonuses: Will it Affect Retention?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carman, Aron S; Mudd, Ryan M

    2008-01-01

    ... to Lieutenant Commander (0-4). Probit regressions showed that top performers exhibited higher retention rates than lower-performing peers, though pay had a stronger retention effect among low performers...

  17. Utility of the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief Japanese version: discriminative ability and relation to neurocognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Sumiyoshi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment Brief (the UPSA-B has been widely used for evaluating functional capacity in patients with schizophrenia. The utility of the battery in a wide range of cultural contexts has been of concern among developers. The current study investigated the validity of the Japanese version of the UPSA-B as a measure of functional capacity and as a co-primary for neurocognion. Sixty-four Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 83 healthy adults entered the study. The Japanese version of the UPSA-B (UPSA-B Japanese version and the MATRICS Cognitive Consensus Battery Japanese version (MCCB Japanese version were administered. Normal controls performed significantly better than patients, with large effect sizes for the Total and the subscale scores of the UPSA-B. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis revealed that the optimal cut-off point for the UPSA-B Total score was estimated at around 80. The UPSA-B Total score was significantly correlated with the MCCB Composite score and several domain scores, indicating the relationship between this co-primary measure and overall cognitive functioning in Japanese patients with schizophrenia. The results obtained here suggest that the UPSA-B Japanese version is an effective tool for evaluating disturbances of daily-living skills linked to cognitive functioning in schizophrenia, providing an identifiable cut-off point and relationships to neurocognition. Further research is warranted to evaluate the psychometrical properties and response to treatment of the Japanese version of the UPSA-B.

  18. Performance-based Physical Functioning and Peripheral Neuropathy in a Population-based Cohort of Women at Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylitalo, Kelly R.; Herman, William H.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is underappreciated as a potential cause of functional limitations. In the present article, we assessed the cross-sectional association between peripheral neuropathy and physical functioning and how the longitudinal association between age and functioning differed by neuropathy status. Physical functioning was measured in 1996–2008 using timed performances on stair-climb, walking, sit-to-stand, and balance tests at the Michigan site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, a population-based cohort study of women at midlife (n = 396). Peripheral neuropathy was measured in 2008 and defined as having an abnormal monofilament test result or 4 or more symptoms. We used linear mixed models to determine whether trajectories of physical functioning differed by prevalent neuropathy status. Overall, 27.8% of the women had neuropathy. Stair-climb time differed by neuropathy status (P = 0.04), and for every 1-year increase in age, women with neuropathy had a 1.82% (95% confidence interval: 1.42, 2.21) increase compared with a 0.95% (95% confidence interval: 0.71, 1.20) increase for women without neuropathy. Sit-to-stand time differed by neuropathy status (P = 0.01), but the rate of change did not differ. No differences between neuropathy groups were observed for the walk test. For some performance-based tasks, poor functioning was maintained or exacerbated for women who had prevalent neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy may play a role in physical functioning limitations and future disability. PMID:23524038

  19. Friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol consumption: The moderating role of performance-based peer influence susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Hanneke A; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Scholte, Ron H J; Spijkerman, Renske; Prinstein, Mitchell J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether the relationship between friends' drinking norms and male adolescents' alcohol use is moderated by performance-based peer influence susceptibility. Seventy-three male adolescents (M = 17 years) from three schools in the Netherlands were exposed to the drinking norms of "peers" (electronic confederates) in a chat room experiment. These peers were either popular or unpopular, and conveyed pro- or anti-alcohol norms. Peer influence susceptibility was defined as the change in adolescents' answers before and after exposure to the peer norms. Multilevel regression analyses indicated that the relationship between friends' drinking norms and adolescents' alcohol use (assessed during eight weekends) was moderated by susceptibility to the pro-alcohol norms of popular peers. This relationship was stronger for adolescents who were highly susceptible. These findings suggest that a behavioral measure of peer influence susceptibility could be useful in alcohol prevention programs to select adolescents at risk for negative peer socialization. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  20. Computational Model-Based Prediction of Human Episodic Memory Performance Based on Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Naoyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko

    Subjects' episodic memory performance is not simply reflected by eye movements. We use a ‘theta phase coding’ model of the hippocampus to predict subjects' memory performance from their eye movements. Results demonstrate the ability of the model to predict subjects' memory performance. These studies provide a novel approach to computational modeling in the human-machine interface.

  1. More than just the mean: moving to a dynamic view of performance-based compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Reb, Jochen; Ang, Dionysius

    2012-05-01

    Compensation decisions have important consequences for employees and organizations and affect factors such as retention, motivation, and recruitment. Past research has primarily focused on mean performance as a predictor of compensation, promoting the implicit assumption that alternative aspects of dynamic performance are not relevant. To address this gap in the literature, we examined the influence of dynamic performance characteristics on compensation decisions in the National Basketball Association (NBA). We predicted that, in addition to performance mean, performance trend and variability would also affect compensation decisions. Results revealed that performance mean and trend, but not variability, were significantly and positively related to changes in compensation levels of NBA players. Moreover, trend (but not mean or variability) predicted compensation when controlling for future performance, suggesting that organizations overweighted trend in their compensation decisions. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Preoperative prediction of inpatient recovery of function after total hip arthroplasty using performance-based tests: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosting, Ellen; Hoogeboom, Thomas J; Appelman-de Vries, Suzan A; Swets, Adam; Dronkers, Jaap J; van Meeteren, Nico L U

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of conventional factors, the Risk Assessment and Predictor Tool (RAPT) and performance-based functional tests as predictors of delayed recovery after total hip arthroplasty (THA). A prospective cohort study in a regional hospital in the Netherlands with 315 patients was attending for THA in 2012. The dependent variable recovery of function was assessed with the Modified Iowa Levels of Assistance scale. Delayed recovery was defined as taking more than 3 days to walk independently. Independent variables were age, sex, BMI, Charnley score, RAPT score and scores for four performance-based tests [2-minute walk test, timed up and go test (TUG), 10-meter walking test (10 mW) and hand grip strength]. Regression analysis with all variables identified older age (>70 years), Charnley score C, slow walking speed (10 mW >10.0 s) and poor functional mobility (TUG >10.5 s) as the best predictors of delayed recovery of function. This model (AUC 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.91) performed better than a model with conventional factors and RAPT scores, and significantly better (p = 0.04) than a model with only conventional factors (AUC 0.81, 95% CI 0.74-0.87). The combination of performance-based tests and conventional factors predicted inpatient functional recovery after THA. Two simple functional performance-based tests have a significant added value to a more conventional screening with age and comorbidities to predict recovery of functioning immediately after total hip surgery. Patients over 70 years old, with comorbidities, with a TUG score >10.5 s and a walking speed >1.0 m/s are at risk for delayed recovery of functioning. Those high risk patients need an accurate discharge plan and could benefit from targeted pre- and postoperative therapeutic exercise programs.

  3. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  4. Performance-based building codes: a call for injury prevention indicators that bridge health and building sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, N

    2008-10-01

    The international introduction of performance-based building codes calls for a re-examination of indicators used to monitor their implementation. Indicators used in the building sector have a business orientation, target the life cycle of buildings, and guide asset management. In contrast, indicators used in the health sector focus on injury prevention, have a behavioural orientation, lack specificity with respect to features of the built environment, and do not take into account patterns of building use or building longevity. Suggestions for metrics that bridge the building and health sectors are discussed. The need for integrated surveillance systems in health and building sectors is outlined. It is time to reconsider commonly used epidemiological indicators in the field of injury prevention and determine their utility to address the accountability requirements of performance-based codes.

  5. Coordinating a Service Supply Chain under Arms Offset Program’s Intervention by Performance-Based Contracting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kuei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a support service supply chain for coordinating with a local third-party logistics provider by arms offset program’s intervention and develops a performance-based contracting framework for the coordinating problem, which remains scarce in the literatures. The performance-based contracting framework evaluates payments and profits for the support service by a game-theoretical approach with principal-agent model. We prove that the proposed framework is an effective tool in acquiring the balance between maximum profit and minimum payment for both parties in the coordinating problem without moral hazard issue. A numerical study consolidates the formulated schemes as contracting preference for both parties’ decision with a higher profit margin at a lower customer’s payment.

  6. Technical methods for a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a technical review and examination of technical methods that are available for developing a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at a nuclear plant. The technical methods include ''engineering tools'' for examining the fire dynamics of fire protection problems, reliability techniques for establishing an optimal fire protection surveillance program, fire computer codes for analyzing important fire protection safety parameters, and risk-informed approaches that can range from drawing qualitative insights from risk information to quantifying the risk impact of alternative fire protection approaches. Based on this technical review and examination, it is concluded that methods for modeling fires, and reliability and fire PRA analyses are currently available to support the initial implementation of simple risk-informed, performance-based approaches in fire protection programs. (author)

  7. Technical methods for a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a technical review and examination of technical methods that are available for developing a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection program at a nuclear plant. The technical methods include 'engineering tools' for examining the fire dynamics of fire protection problems, reliability techniques for establishing an optimal fire protection surveillance program, fire computer codes for analyzing important fire protection safety parameters, and risk-informed approaches that can range from drawing qualitative insights from risk information to quantifying the risk impact of alternative fire protection approaches. Based on this technical review and examination, it is concluded that methods for modeling fires, and reliability and fire probabilistic risk analyses (PRA) are currently available to support the initial implementation of simple risk-informed, performance-based approaches in fire protection programs. (orig.) [de

  8. Performance-based vs socially supportive culture: A cross-national study of descriptive norms and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Ute Stephan; Lorraine M Uhlaner

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a cross-national study testing a framework relating cultural descriptive norms to entrepreneurship in a sample of 40 nations. Based on data from the Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness project, we identify two higher-order dimensions of culture – socially supportive culture (SSC) and performance-based culture (PBC) – and relate them to entrepreneurship rates and associated supply-side and demand-side variables available from the Global Entrepreneurship Mo...

  9. Performance-based service acquisition (PBSA) of TRIDENT strategic weapons systems (SWS) technical engineering support (TES) services

    OpenAIRE

    Arcidiacono, William J.

    2003-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Approved for public release ; distribution is unlimited The objective of this thesis is to determine whether the Strategic Systems Programs (SSP) should apply the concepts of Performance-Based Service Acquisition (PBSA) to Strategic Weapons Systems (SWS) Technical Engineering Support (TES) Services. This thesis provides a Department of Defense (DoD), Department of the Navy (DON), and SSP SWS program acquisition and PBSA history background, ...

  10. A Performance-Based Teacher Education Curriculum in the Language Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Masha

    1972-01-01

    Under a feasibility grant awarded by the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare for a Model Elementary Teacher Education Program (METEP), the University of Massachusetts' School of Education set up a language arts education program based on performance criteria, in that it is the performance of the student that is crucial, not the method…

  11. Family Friendly Policies and Performance-Based Pay in Companies' Employment Management in Japan : Its Effect on Work Life Balance Satisfaction and Willingness to Job continuity

    OpenAIRE

    菅原, 佑香

    2012-01-01

    The Purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of firm's family friendly policies and also the recent introduction of as performance based wage system on employee's motivation. The motivation was measured in terms of work life balance satisfaction and willingness to continuity to work at the same workplace. To analyze these effects, I used probit model and ordinary least squares (OLS), and two step least squares. The main findings is as follows (1) Introduction of various family friend...

  12. Investigation of an innovative maintenance contracting strategy : the performance-based maintenance contract (PBMC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    One of the major responsibilities of state Departments of Transportation (DOTs) is to maintain their road assets so : that road users can travel cost effectively, safely, and in a timely manner. Maintenance projects can be performed : either by using...

  13. A Performance-Based Technology Assessment Methodology to Support DoD Acquisition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mahafza, Sherry; Componation, Paul; Tippett, Donald

    2005-01-01

    .... This methodology is referred to as Technology Performance Risk Index (TPRI). The TPRI can track technology readiness through a life cycle, or it can be used at a specific time to support a particular system milestone decision...

  14. Performance-Based Outcomes Following Lisfranc Injury Among Professional American Football and Rugby Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sameer K; George, Andrew; Kadakia, Anish R; Hsu, Wellington K

    2018-04-27

    Professional National Football League (NFL) and rugby athletes have high rates of Lisfranc injuries. Although favorable return-to-play rates have been previously reported, a thorough assessment of postinjury performance is lacking. Professional NFL and rugby athletes who sustained a Lisfranc injury were identified using a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were determined for each athlete. League participation and game performance were collected 1 season prior to injury and up to 3 seasons after injury. Statistical analysis was performed, with P≤.05 being significant. A total of 47 athletes (NFL=35, rugby=12) with Lisfranc injuries were identified, having 23 ligamentous injuries and 24 fractures. Thirty-five (75%) were treated operatively. Among NFL players, 29 (83%) returned to play, taking 10.0±2.9 months to do so. Overall, NFL players started fewer games 2 and 3 seasons following surgery (P=.002 and .035, respectively) and showed a significant decline in performance 1 season after return compared with preinjury levels (21%; P=.05). Offensive players had a significantly greater decline in statistical performance compared with defensive counterparts (P=.02). Although professional NFL athletes return to play at a high rate (83%) following Lisfranc injury, their league participation and performance is significantly decreased on return. Ligamentous and bony injuries have similar prognoses; however, offensive players show greater declines in performance compared with defensive players. To best guide therapy, players, coaches, and team physicians should be aware of the impact of Lisfranc injuries on career performance and longevity. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Indexing the Environmental Quality Performance Based on A Fuzzy Inference Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswari, Lizda

    2018-03-01

    Environmental performance strongly deals with the quality of human life. In Indonesia, this performance is quantified through Environmental Quality Index (EQI) which consists of three indicators, i.e. river quality index, air quality index, and coverage of land cover. The current of this instrument data processing was done by averaging and weighting each index to represent the EQI at the provincial level. However, we found EQI interpretations that may contain some uncertainties and have a range of circumstances possibly less appropriate if processed under a common statistical approach. In this research, we aim to manage the indicators of EQI with a more intuitive computation technique and make some inferences related to the environmental performance in 33 provinces in Indonesia. Research was conducted in three stages of Mamdani Fuzzy Inference System (MAFIS), i.e. fuzzification, data inference, and defuzzification. Data input consists of 10 environmental parameters and the output is an index of Environmental Quality Performance (EQP). Research was applied to the environmental condition data set in 2015 and quantified the results into the scale of 0 to 100, i.e. 10 provinces at good performance with the EQP above 80 dominated by provinces in eastern part of Indonesia, 22 provinces with the EQP between 80 to 50, and one province in Java Island with the EQP below 20. This research shows that environmental quality performance can be quantified without eliminating the natures of the data set and simultaneously is able to show the environment behavior along with its spatial pattern distribution.

  16. Urban Spatial Ecological Performance Based on the Data of Remote Sensing of Guyuan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, X.-J.; Chen, X.-J.; Ma, Q.

    2018-04-01

    The evolution analysis of urban landuse and spatial ecological performance are necessary and useful to recognizing the stage of urban development and revealing the regularity and connotation of urban spatial expansion. Moreover, it lies in the core that should be exmined in the urban sustainable development. In this paper, detailed information has been acquired from the high-resolution satellite imageries of Guyuan, China case study. With the support of GIS, the land-use mapping information and the land cover changes are analyzed, and the process of urban spatial ecological performance evolution by the hierarchical methodology is explored. Results demonstrate that in the past 11 years, the urban spatial ecological performance show an improved process with the dramatic landcover change in Guyuan. Firstly, the landuse structure of Guyuan changes significantly and shows an obvious stage characteristic. Secondly, the urban ecological performance of Guyuan continues to be optimized over the 11 years. Thirdly, the findings suggest that a dynamic monitoring mechanism of urban land use based on high-resolution remote sensing data should be established in urban development, and the rational development of urban land use should be guided by the spatial ecological performance as the basic value orientation.

  17. Comparison of overhead line lightning performance based on two different tower geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Thomas; Olason, Daniel; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    of the substation and transmission line is of great importance as it is a part of the 400 kV backbone between Sweden, Norway, Germany and the offshore wind farms in Horns Rev, Denmark. The new Eagle pylon has been designed with the focus of minimizing the visual impacted of overhead lines. A detailed lightning...... performance analysis of the existing Donau and the new Eagle pylon is therefore important in order to assess the risk of failure. The lightning strike analysis is based on the number of strikes expected to terminate on the line and an investigation of how many of these there may be expected to cause...... better protected from direct stroke than the phase conductors on the Donau pylon. Furthermore with respect to a backflash, the Eagle has a better performance than the Donau pylon. It is therefore concluded that the Eagle has a better lightning performance than the Donau....

  18. Optimum Performance-Based Seismic Design Using a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid optimization method is presented to optimum seismic design of steel frames considering four performance levels. These performance levels are considered to determine the optimum design of structures to reduce the structural cost. A pushover analysis of steel building frameworks subject to equivalent-static earthquake loading is utilized. The algorithm is based on the concepts of the charged system search in which each agent is affected by local and global best positions stored in the charged memory considering the governing laws of electrical physics. Comparison of the results of the hybrid algorithm with those of other metaheuristic algorithms shows the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  19. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglan Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain.

  20. South African performance based standards (PBS) vehicle to transport steel pipes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dessein, T

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available measures the vehicle?s rollover stability. Rearward Amplification (RA) ? Measures the degree to which the lateral accelerations experienced by trailing units are amplified in comparison to that of the towing unit in a high speed evasive single lane...-speed 90? turn high-speed travel along a 1.0km long straight road with uneven road surface a pulse-steer test HVTT11: A South African PBS Vehicle to Transport Pipes 10 a constant radius turn at slowly increasing speed an evasive lane change...

  1. A socio-technical system framework for risk-informed performance-based building regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, B.J.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2017-01-01

    Building regulatory systems have been evolving in recent decades, first with a transition to a functional or performance basis, and more recently with the introduction of new societal objectives, including those related to sustainability and climate change resiliency. Various policy and technical

  2. Predicting Students' Academic Performance Based on School and Socio-Demographic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Tamara; Singleton, Alexander; Pope, Daniel; Stanistreet, Debbi

    2016-01-01

    Students' trajectories into university are often uniquely dependent on school qualifications though these alone are limited as predictors of academic potential. This study endorses this, examining associations between school grades, school type, school performance, socio-economic deprivation, neighbourhood participation, sex and academic…

  3. A three-level framework for performance-based railway timetabling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverde, R.M.P.; Besinovic, N.; Binder, A.; Cacchiani, V.; Quaglietta, E.; Roberti, R.; Toth, P.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of railway operations depends highly on the quality of the railway timetable. In particular for dense railway networks it can be a challenge to obtain a stable robust conflict-free and energy-efficient timetable with acceptable infrastructure occupation and short travel times. This

  4. A Cross-Sectional Evaluation of Student Achievement Using Standardized and Performance-Based Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Brad; Matchock, Robert L.; Charles, Eric P.; Balch, William R.

    2014-01-01

    Three groups of undergraduates (42 senior graduating psychology majors, 27 first-year premajors taking introductory psychology, and 24 first-year, high-performing nonmajors taking introductory psychology) completed the Psychology Major Field Test (MFT) and a short-answer (SA) essay test on reasoning about core knowledge in psychology. Graduating…

  5. Gender Consequences of a National Performance-Based Funding Model: New Pieces in an Old Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the Danish "Bibliometric Research Indicator" (BRI) reflects the performance of men and women differently. The model is based on a differentiated counting of peer-reviewed publications, awarding three and eight points for contributions to "well-regarded" and highly selective journals…

  6. Performance-Based Task Assessment of Higher-Order Proficiencies in Redesigned STEM High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.; Glennie, Elizabeth; Li, Songze

    2017-01-01

    This study explored student abilities in applying conceptual knowledge when presented with structured performance tasks. Specifically, the study gauged proficiency in higher-order applications of students enrolled in earth and environmental science or biology. The student sample was drawn from a Redesigned STEM high school model where a tested…

  7. A pro-forma design for car-carriers: Low-speed performance-based standards

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Benade R, Berman R

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available the constraints of the pro-forma design met the Level 1 requirements of the low-speed PBS. Future work will ensure compliance with the full set of twelve performance standards. It is estimated that the pro-forma approach as compared to doing full assessments would...

  8. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  9. Modelling of proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance based on semi-empirical equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Baghdadi, Maher A.R. Sadiq [Babylon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Babylon (Iraq)

    2005-08-01

    Using semi-empirical equations for modeling a proton exchange membrane fuel cell is proposed for providing a tool for the design and analysis of fuel cell total systems. The focus of this study is to derive an empirical model including process variations to estimate the performance of fuel cell without extensive calculations. The model take into account not only the current density but also the process variations, such as the gas pressure, temperature, humidity, and utilization to cover operating processes, which are important factors in determining the real performance of fuel cell. The modelling results are compared well with known experimental results. The comparison shows good agreements between the modeling results and the experimental data. The model can be used to investigate the influence of process variables for design optimization of fuel cells, stacks, and complete fuel cell power system. (Author)

  10. Identifying colon cancer risk modules with better classification performance based on human signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaoli; Xie, Ruiqiang; Chen, Lina; Feng, Chenchen; Zhou, Yanyan; Li, Wan; Huang, Hao; Jia, Xu; Lv, Junjie; He, Yuehan; Du, Youwen; Li, Weiguo; Shi, Yuchen; He, Weiming

    2014-10-01

    Identifying differences between normal and tumor samples from a modular perspective may help to improve our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for colon cancer. Many cancer studies have shown that signaling transduction and biological pathways are disturbed in disease states, and expression profiles can distinguish variations in diseases. In this study, we integrated a weighted human signaling network and gene expression profiles to select risk modules associated with tumor conditions. Risk modules as classification features by our method had a better classification performance than other methods, and one risk module for colon cancer had a good classification performance for distinguishing between normal/tumor samples and between tumor stages. All genes in the module were annotated to the biological process of positive regulation of cell proliferation, and were highly associated with colon cancer. These results suggested that these genes might be the potential risk genes for colon cancer. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Using EEG to Discriminate Cognitive Workload and Performance Based on Neural Activation and Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-31

    in memory . Cognitive efficacy is assessed based on accuracy in recalling digits from memory . A Gaussian classifier is used to discriminate cognitive...high) and 2) cognitive performance (correct recall , incorrect recall ). Our paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, the auditory working memory ...data collection is described, which uses a novel cognitive load protocol that taxes auditory working memory by eliciting recall of sentences and

  12. Optimal Cost Avoidance Investment and Pricing Strategies for Performance-Based Post-Production Service Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-30

    a BS degree in Mathematics and an MS degree in Statistics and Financial and Actuarial Mathematics from Kiev National Taras Shevchenko University...degrees from Rutgers University in Industrial Engineering (PhD and MS) and Statistics (MS) and from Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico in Actuarial ...Science. His research efforts focus on developing mathematical models for the analysis, computation, and optimization of system performance with

  13. Review of FRAP-T4 performance based on fuel behavior tests conducted in the PBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charyulu, M.K.

    1979-09-01

    The ability of the Fuel Rod Analysis Program - Transient (FRAP-T), a computer code developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to calculate fuel rod behavior during transient experiments conducted in the Power Burst Facility, is discussed. Fuel rod behavior calculations are compared with data from tests performed under postulated RIA, LOCA, and PCM accident conditions. Physical phenomena, rod damage, and damage mechanisms observed during the tests and not presently incorporated into the FRAP-T code are identified

  14. The roles of NRC research in risk-informed, performance-based regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, D.L.; Murphy, J.A.; Hodges, M.W.; Cunningham, M.A.; Drouin, M.T.; Ramey-Smith, A.M.; VanderMolen, H.

    1997-01-01

    The NRC is expanding the use of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) throughout the spectrum of its regulatory activities. The NRC's research program in PRA supports this expansion in a number of ways, from performing basic research to developing guidance for regulatory applications. The author provides an overview of the NRC's PRA research program, then focuses on two key activities - the review of individual plant examinations, and the development of guidance for use of PRA in reactor regulation

  15. INFLUENCE OF STOCHASTIC NOISE STATISTICS ON KALMAN FILTER PERFORMANCE BASED ON VIDEO TARGET TRACKING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Ken; Napolitano; Zhang Yun; Li Dong

    2010-01-01

    The system stochastic noises involved in Kalman filtering are preconditioned on being ideally white and Gaussian distributed. In this research,efforts are exerted on exploring the influence of the noise statistics on Kalman filtering from the perspective of video target tracking quality. The correlation of tracking precision to both the process and measurement noise covariance is investigated; the signal-to-noise power density ratio is defined; the contribution of predicted states and measured outputs to Kalman filter behavior is discussed; the tracking precision relative sensitivity is derived and applied in this study case. The findings are expected to pave the way for future study on how the actual noise statistics deviating from the assumed ones impacts on the Kalman filter optimality and degradation in the application of video tracking.

  16. State Performance-Based Regulation Using Multiyear Rate Plans for U.S. Electric Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Mark Newton [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Makos, Matt [Pacific Economics Group Research LLC (United States); Deason, Jeff [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Electric utilities today must contain costs at a time when many need to modernize aging systems and all face major changes in technologies, customer preferences and competitive pressures.Most U.S. electric utility facilities are investor-owned, subject to rate and service regulation by state public utility commissions. Regulatory systems under which these utilities operate affect their performance and ability to meet these challenges. In this business environment, multiyear rate plans have some advantages over traditional rate regulation.The report focuses on key design issues and provides case studies of the multiyear rate plan approach, applicable to both vertically integrated and restructured states. Mark Newton Lowry and Matt Makos of Pacific Energy Group Research and Jeff Deason of Berkeley Lab authored the report; Lisa Schwartz, Berkeley Lab, was project manager and technical editor.The report is aimed primarily at state utility regulators and stakeholders in the state regulatory process. The multiyear rate approach also provides ideas on how to streamline oversight of public power utilities and rural electric cooperatives for their governing boards.Two key provisions of multiyear rate plans strengthen cost containment incentives and streamline regulation: 1. Reducing frequency of rate cases, typically to every four or five years 2. Using an attrition relief mechanism to escalate rates or revenue between rate cases to address cost pressures such as inflation and growth in number of customers, independently of the utility’s own cost Better utility performance can be achieved under well-designed multiyear rate plans while achieving lower regulatory costs. Benefits can be shared between utilities and their customers. But plans can be complex and involve significant changes in the regulatory system. Designing plans that stimulate utility performance without undue risk and share benefits fairly can be challenging.This report discusses the rationale for multiyear

  17. Research of real-time performance based on VxWorks embedded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daming; Li Haiming

    2011-01-01

    In the research of mechanism and heating efficiency of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, data acquisition system with high real-time performance needed. By the means of system logic analyzer, SPY and other relevant software on VxWorks embedded operating system for real-time testing gives real-time data of the system. Real-time level to achieve balances used time and processor idle time, real-time data acquisition, and minimize the interference of external to the system, ensure the system work in its own set of scheduling trajectory. Interrupt switching time and task context switching time meet the system requirements. (authors)

  18. Towards the development of performance based guidelines for using Phase Change Materials in lightweight buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudel, Niraj

    Incorporating Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in construction materials can increase the thermal mass of a building. With this increase in thermal mass, PCMs are known to reduce the heating and cooling loads of a building significantly. During the past 10 years, studies have estimated potential reduction of energy consumption of buildings between 10 and 30 percent. This wide range is due to the large number of parameters that effect energy consumption and make the process of selecting the optimal type and amount of PCM challenging. In fact, extensive engineering studies are generally necessary to determine the practicality of PCM in any specific case. As a result, architects and engineers are reluctant to use PCM because of the lack of such a comprehensive study. In the United States, eight climate zones are identified on the basis of annual degree heating and degree cooling days. For a given building in a given climate, there exists an optimal melting temperature and enthalpy that can reduce the energy consumption and the payback period. In this research, the optimal properties of PCM boards are determined for all 15 representative cities. Additional topics discussed in this research are the sensitivity of the optimal properties of PCM and the effect of the average cost of energy on the selection of PCM. The effect of six independent variables on the performance of PCM boards is presented in detail and the climate types where PCM boards perform optimally are narrowed down. In addition, a new procedure is presented to study the temporal and directional melting and solidifying trend of the PCM placed in buildings. The energy consumption and hourly data for the PCM enhanced buildings are determined numerically using the Department of Energy software EnergyPlus, which calculates the energy consumption for heating and cooling a building under any climate and operation schedule. The software is run on a computer cluster for a wide range of properties from which the

  19. Performance-based gear metrology kinematic, transmission, error computation and diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Mark, William D

    2012-01-01

    A mathematically rigorous explanation of how manufacturing deviations and damage on the working surfaces of gear teeth cause transmission-error contributions to vibration excitations Some gear-tooth working-surface manufacturing deviations of significant amplitude cause negligible vibration excitation and noise, yet others of minuscule amplitude are a source of significant vibration excitation and noise.   Presently available computer-numerically-controlled dedicated gear metrology equipment can measure such error patterns on a gear in a few hours in sufficient detail to enable

  20. Evaluation of Road Performance Based on International Roughness Index and Falling Weight Deflectometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanuddin; Setyawan, A.; Yulianto, B.

    2018-03-01

    Assessment to the performance of road pavement is deemed necessary to improve the management quality of road maintenance and rehabilitation. This research to evaluate the road base on functional and structural and recommendations handling done. Assessing the pavement performance is conducted with functional and structural evaluation. Functional evaluation of pavement is based on the value of IRI (International Roughness Index) which among others is derived from reading NAASRA for analysis and recommended road handling. Meanwhile, structural evaluation of pavement is done by analyzing deflection value based on FWD (Falling Weight Deflectometer) data resulting in SN (Structural Number) value. The analysis will result in SN eff (Structural Number Effective) and SN f (Structural Number Future) value obtained from comparing SN eff to SN f value that leads to SCI (Structural Condition Index) value. SCI value implies the possible recommendation for handling pavement. The study done to Simpang Tuan-Batas Kota Jambi road segment was based on functional analysis. The study indicated that the road segment split into 12 segments in which segment 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11 were of regular maintenance, segment 2, 4, 8, 10, 12 belonged to periodic maintenance, and segment 6 was of rehabilitation. The structural analysis resulted in 8 segments consisting of segment 1 and 2 recommended for regular maintenance, segment 3, 4, 5, and 7 for functional overlay, and 6 and 8 were of structural overlay.

  1. SiGe epitaxial memory for neuromorphic computing with reproducible high performance based on engineered dislocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Shinhyun; Tan, Scott H.; Li, Zefan; Kim, Yunjo; Choi, Chanyeol; Chen, Pai-Yu; Yeon, Hanwool; Yu, Shimeng; Kim, Jeehwan

    2018-01-01

    Although several types of architecture combining memory cells and transistors have been used to demonstrate artificial synaptic arrays, they usually present limited scalability and high power consumption. Transistor-free analog switching devices may overcome these limitations, yet the typical switching process they rely on—formation of filaments in an amorphous medium—is not easily controlled and hence hampers the spatial and temporal reproducibility of the performance. Here, we demonstrate analog resistive switching devices that possess desired characteristics for neuromorphic computing networks with minimal performance variations using a single-crystalline SiGe layer epitaxially grown on Si as a switching medium. Such epitaxial random access memories utilize threading dislocations in SiGe to confine metal filaments in a defined, one-dimensional channel. This confinement results in drastically enhanced switching uniformity and long retention/high endurance with a high analog on/off ratio. Simulations using the MNIST handwritten recognition data set prove that epitaxial random access memories can operate with an online learning accuracy of 95.1%.

  2. Performance-Based Contingency Management in Cognitive Remediation Training: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiluk, Brian D; Buck, Matthew B; Devore, Kathleen A; Babuscio, Theresa A; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in attention, working memory, and executive function are common among substance users and may adversely affect SUD treatment outcomes. The ability of cognitive remediation (CR) interventions to improve these deficits is hindered in part because levels of engagement in CR training may be inadequate to achieve benefit. This pilot study aimed to increase CR engagement and improve outcome by implementing contingency management (CM) procedures that reinforce performance improvements on CR tasks. Participants were forty individuals (50% male; 65% African American) in an outpatient substance use treatment facility with mild cognitive impairment who had ≥30-days of abstinence from alcohol and drugs. They were randomized to standard (CR-S; n=21) or CM-enhanced (CR-CM; n=19) cognitive remediation training. CR consisted of 1-hour sessions, three times per week for four weeks (12 sessions). A neuropsychological assessment battery was administered prior to and after the four-week intervention. Both groups had high rates of CR session attendance (mean CR-S=11.7, CR-CM=10.9 sessions). Performance on 8 of the 9 CR tasks significantly improved over time for both conditions, with the CR-CM condition demonstrating greater improvement on a CR Sequenced Recall task [F(1,37)=5.81, ptraining and suggest the potential value of more research in this area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A framework for the quantitative assessment of performance-based system resilience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Huy T.; Balchanos, Michael; Domerçant, Jean Charles; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing system complexity and threat uncertainty require the consideration of resilience in the design and analysis of engineered systems. While the resilience engineering community has begun to converge on a definition and set of characteristics for resilience, methods for quantifying the concept are still limited in their applicability to system designers. This paper proposes a framework for assessing resilience that focuses on the ability of a system to absorb disruptions, recover from them, and adapt over time. The framework extends current approaches by explicitly considering temporal aspects of system responses to disruptions, volatility in system performance data, and the possibility of multiple disruption events. Notional system performance data is generated using the logistic function, providing an experimental platform for a parametric comparison of the proposed resilience metric with an integration-based metric. An information exchange network model is used to demonstrate the applicability of the framework towards system design tradeoff studies using stochastic simulations. The presented framework is domain-agnostic and flexible, such that it can be applied to a variety of systems and adjusted to focus on specific aspects of resilience. - Highlights: • We propose a quantitative framework and metrics for assessing system resilience. • Metrics focus on absorption, recovery, and adaptation to disruptions. • The framework accepts volatile data and is easily automated for simulation studies. • The framework is applied to a model of adaptive information exchange networks. • Results show benefits of network adaptation against random and targeted threats.

  4. Analytical Study of 90Sr Betavoltaic Nuclear Battery Performance Based on p-n Junction Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahastama, Swastya; Waris, Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Previously, an analytical calculation of 63 Ni p-n junction betavoltaic battery has been published. As the basic approach, we reproduced the analytical simulation of 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and then compared it to previous results using the same design of the battery. Furthermore, we calculated its maximum power output and radiation- electricity conversion efficiency using semiconductor analysis method.Then, the same method were applied to calculate and analyse the performance of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery. The aim of this project is to compare the analytical perfomance results of 90 Sr betavoltaic battery to 63 Ni betavoltaic battery and the source activity influences to performance. Since it has a higher power density, 90 Sr betavoltaic battery yields more power than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery but less radiation-electricity conversion efficiency. However, beta particles emitted from 90 Sr source could travel further inside the silicon corresponding to stopping range of beta particles, thus the 90 Sr betavoltaic battery could be designed thicker than 63 Ni betavoltaic battery to achieve higher conversion efficiency. (paper)

  5. Securing Relay Networks with Artificial Noise: An Error Performance-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We apply the concept of artificial and controlled interference in a two-hop relay network with an untrusted relay, aiming at enhancing the wireless communication secrecy between the source and the destination node. In order to shield the square quadrature amplitude-modulated (QAM signals transmitted from the source node to the relay, the destination node designs and transmits artificial noise (AN symbols to jam the relay reception. The objective of our considered AN design is to degrade the error probability performance at the untrusted relay, for different types of channel state information (CSI at the destination. By considering perfect knowledge of the instantaneous CSI of the source-to-relay and relay-to-destination links, we first present an analytical expression for the symbol error rate (SER performance at the relay. Based on the assumption of an average power constraint at the destination node, we then derive the optimal phase and power distribution of the AN that maximizes the SER at the relay. Furthermore, we obtain the optimal AN design for the case where only statistical CSI is available at the destination node. For both cases, our study reveals that the Gaussian distribution is generally not optimal to generate AN symbols. The presented AN design takes into account practical parameters for the communication links, such as QAM signaling and maximum likelihood decoding.

  6. A New Controller to Enhance PV System Performance Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshdy A AbdelRassoul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a radical increase of photovoltaic (PV power generators installation took place because of increased efficiency of solar cells, as well as the growth of manufacturing technology of solar panels. This paper shows the operation and modeling of photovoltaic systems, particularly designing neural controller to control the system. Neural controller is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO   leads to getting the best performance of the designed PV system. Using neural network the maximum overshoot and rise time obtained become 0.00001% and 0.1798 seconds, respectively also this paper introduce a comparison between some kind of controller for PV system.In recent years, a radical increase of photovoltaic (PV power generators installation took place because of increased efficiency of solar cells, as well as the growth of manufacturing technology of solar panels. This paper shows the operation and modeling of photovoltaic systems, particularly designing neural controller to control the system. Neural controller is optimized using particle swarm optimization (PSO   leads to getting the best performance of the designed PV system. Using neural network the maximum overshoot and rise time obtained become 0.00001% and 0.1798 seconds, respectively also this paper introduce a comparison between some kind of controller for PV system.

  7. Experimental study of refrigeration performance based on linear Fresnel solar thermal photovoltaic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jinghui; Yuan, Hui; Xia, Yunfeng; Kan, Weimin; Deng, Xiaowen; Liu, Shi; Liang, Wanlong; Deng, Jianhua

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces the working principle and system constitution of the linear Fresnel solar lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle, and elaborates several typical structures of absorption refrigeration cycle, including single-effect, two-stage cycle and double-effect lithium bromide absorption refrigeration cycle A 1.n effect absorption chiller system based on the best parameters was introduced and applied to a linear Fresnel solar absorption chiller system. Through the field refrigerator performance test, the results show: Based on this heat cycle design and processing 1.n lithium bromide absorption refrigeration power up to 35.2KW, It can meet the theoretical expectations and has good flexibility and reliability, provides guidance for the use of solar thermal energy.

  8. An Analysis of Organizational Performance Based on Hospital Specialization Level and Strategy Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, Young-Hoon; Woo, Jung-Sik; Hyun, Sook-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Hospitals are studying the focused factory concept and attempting to increase their power in a competitive industry by becoming more specialized. This study uses the information theory index (ITI) and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI) to analyze the extent of specialization by Korean hospitals that receive national health insurance reimbursements. Hierarchical regression analysis is used to assess the impact of hospital specialization on the following four aspects of operational performance: productivity, profitability, efficiency and quality of care. The results show that a focused strategy (high HHI) improves the income and adjusted number of patients per specialist through the efficient utilization of human resources. However, a diversified strategy (high ITI) improves the hospital utilization ratio, income per bed and adjusted number of patients per bed (controlling for material resources such as beds). In addition, as the concentration index increases, case-mix mortality rates and referral rates decrease, indicating that specialization has a positive relationship with quality of care.

  9. ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BASED ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INVESTMENTS AND CASH-FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila PROFIR

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial performance is often difficult to achieve by economic entities, especially in the current economic context and successful models of some companies constitute examples of good practice for aspirants. Cash-flow explains investment because it contains information about future flows of cash and because investment is made in pursuit of future income. Therfore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between cash-flow, investment and net income. The target population of the study was the companies listed and traded on the Bucharest Stock Exchange during 2012-2016. The results of this empirical study showed that most of the companies listed and traded on BVB that earn profit constantly generate cash-flow and 65% of the companies listed and traded on BVB during the period 2012-2016 show a satisfactory long-term financial balance.

  10. A New Availability-Payment Model for Pricing Performance-Based Logistics Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Grant number: N00244‐13‐1‐0009 A New “Availability‐ Payment ”  Model  for Pricing Performance‐ Based Logistics Contracts A. KashaniPour, X. Zhu, P...DATE MAY 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A New ’Availability‐ Payment ’ Model for...is how the  payment   model  in the contract  quantifies the contractor’s  performance for awarding incentives  or penalties Discrete‐Event Simulator ut

  11. Analysis of coarse aggregate performance based on the modified Micro Deval abrasion test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The anti-abrasion property of aggregate significantly affects the performance of the pavement. In this research, the quartzite and gneiss which were produced in Lincheng County, Xingtai City, Hebei Province were selected as test samples. According to the American Society for Testing and Materials standard, the Micro-Deval abrasion test was taken every 1000 rotation times until 20,000 times, and the change trend of the Micro-Deval abrasion value was obtained. Results showed that the abrasion values were in the exponential growth rate rather than linear rate. Their R-Square coefficient was 0.99142 and 0.99916 respectively. The gravel information such as area, roundness, diameter, perimeter and so on were calculated and analyzed by Image-Pro Plus software, which provided a rapid way for the 2D morphology characteristics analysis of the coarse aggregate. Keywords: Micro-Deval abrasion test, Coarse aggregate, Anti-abrasion property, Abrasion values

  12. Performance-based ECCS cladding acceptance criteria: A new simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoino, A.; Alfonsi, A.; Rabiti, C.; Szilard, R.H.; Giannetti, F.; Caruso, G.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new methodology to demonstrate compliance with the new ECCS acceptance criteria is described. • A wide spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states can be analysed in the design phase. • The coupled suite PHISICS/RELAP5-3D has been used in the analyses. • A demo simulation of the equilibrium cycle, load-following and a LOCA analysis has been performed. - Abstract: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently proposing rulemaking to revise the Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and therefore the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) acceptance criteria, to include the effects of higher burnup on cladding performance as well as to address other technical issues. As motivated by the new rule, the need to use advanced cladding designs may be a result. A loss of operational margin may result due to the more restrictive cladding embrittlement criteria. Initial and future compliance with the rule may significantly increase vendor workload and licensee cost, as a spectrum of fuel rod initial burnup states may need to be analyzed to demonstrate compliance. Consequently, there will be an increased focus on licensee decision making related to LOCA analysis to minimize cost and impact, and to manage margin. The study here presented has been part of a big project used to investigate technical issues and approaches for future industrial applications within the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway. Specifically, the primary aim of this study is to lay out a roadmap to demonstrate the application of the new methodology. The present analysis shows a simplified version of the methodology of an industrial application on the Core Design and the Multi-Cycle Analysis.

  13. IMPROVING THE TRANSMISSION PERFORMANCE BASED ON MINIMIZING ENERGY IN MOBILE ADHOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundala Swathi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Networking is collectively no of mobile nodes allocate users to correctly detect a distant environment. These wireless mobile networks want strong but simple, scalable, energy efficient and also self organize routing algorithms. In Mobile technology small quantity of power electronics and less power radio frequency have permit the expansion of small, comparatively economical and less power nodes, are associated in a wireless mobile networkIn this study we proposed method are: energy effectiveness, energetic occurrence zone and multiple hop TRANSMIT, taking into concern between the energy of transmit nodes and distance from the transmit node to the trusted neighbor node, link weight energy utilization and distance are measured as most important constraint for decide on greatest possible path from Zone Head (ZH to the neighbor node. In this we use the different constraints and lessen the quantity of distribution messages during the Transmit node choice point to decrease the energy utilization of the complete network.

  14. Performance-based financial incentives for diabetes care: an effective strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Lesley P; Marshall, Emily Gard

    2015-02-01

    The use of financial incentives provided to primary care physicians who achieve target management or clinical outcomes has been advocated to support the fulfillment of care recommendations for patients with diabetes. This article explores the characteristics of incentive models implemented in the context of universal healthcare systems in the United Kingdom, Australia, Taiwan and Canada; the extent to which these interventions have been successful in improving diabetes outcomes; and the key challenges and concerns around implementing incentive models. Research in the effect of incentives in the United Kingdom demonstrates some improvements in process outcomes and achievement of cholesterol, blood pressure and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) targets. Evidence of the efficacy of programs implemented outside of the United Kingdom is very limited but suggests that physicians participating in these enhanced billing incentive programs were already completing the guideline-recommended care prior to the introduction of the incentive. A shift to pay-for-performance programs may have important implications for professionalism and patient-centred care. In the absence of definitive evidence that financial incentives drive the quality of diabetes management at the level of primary care, policy makers should proceed with caution. It is important to look beyond simply modifying physicians' behaviours and address the factors and systemic barriers that make it challenging for patients and physicians to manage diabetes in partnership. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analysis of Organizational Performance Based on Hospital Specialization Level and Strategy Type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    Full Text Available Hospitals are studying the focused factory concept and attempting to increase their power in a competitive industry by becoming more specialized.This study uses the information theory index (ITI and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index (HHI to analyze the extent of specialization by Korean hospitals that receive national health insurance reimbursements. Hierarchical regression analysis is used to assess the impact of hospital specialization on the following four aspects of operational performance: productivity, profitability, efficiency and quality of care.The results show that a focused strategy (high HHI improves the income and adjusted number of patients per specialist through the efficient utilization of human resources. However, a diversified strategy (high ITI improves the hospital utilization ratio, income per bed and adjusted number of patients per bed (controlling for material resources such as beds. In addition, as the concentration index increases, case-mix mortality rates and referral rates decrease, indicating that specialization has a positive relationship with quality of care.

  16. Approaches to characterise chromatographic column performance based on global parameters accounting for peak broadening and skewness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Pous-Torres, S; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2010-04-02

    Peak broadening and skewness are fundamental parameters in chromatography, since they affect the resolution capability of a chromatographic column. A common practice to characterise chromatographic columns is to estimate the efficiency and asymmetry factor for the peaks of one or more solutes eluted at selected experimental conditions. This has the drawback that the extra-column contributions to the peak variance and skewness make the peak shape parameters depend on the retention time. We propose and discuss here the use of several approaches that allow the estimation of global parameters (non-dependent on the retention time) to describe the column performance. The global parameters arise from different linear relationships that can be established between the peak variance, standard deviation, or half-widths with the retention time. Some of them describe exclusively the column contribution to the peak broadening, whereas others consider the extra-column effects also. The estimation of peak skewness was also possible for the approaches based on the half-widths. The proposed approaches were applied to the characterisation of different columns (Spherisorb, Zorbax SB, Zorbax Eclipse, Kromasil, Chromolith, X-Terra and Inertsil), using the chromatographic data obtained for several diuretics and basic drugs (beta-blockers). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Novel approaches to improve iris recognition system performance based on local quality evaluation and feature fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Yuanning; Zhu, Xiaodong; Chen, Huiling; He, Fei; Pang, Yutong

    2014-01-01

    For building a new iris template, this paper proposes a strategy to fuse different portions of iris based on machine learning method to evaluate local quality of iris. There are three novelties compared to previous work. Firstly, the normalized segmented iris is divided into multitracks and then each track is estimated individually to analyze the recognition accuracy rate (RAR). Secondly, six local quality evaluation parameters are adopted to analyze texture information of each track. Besides, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is employed to get the weights of these evaluation parameters and corresponding weighted coefficients of different tracks. Finally, all tracks' information is fused according to the weights of different tracks. The experimental results based on subsets of three public and one private iris image databases demonstrate three contributions of this paper. (1) Our experimental results prove that partial iris image cannot completely replace the entire iris image for iris recognition system in several ways. (2) The proposed quality evaluation algorithm is a self-adaptive algorithm, and it can automatically optimize the parameters according to iris image samples' own characteristics. (3) Our feature information fusion strategy can effectively improve the performance of iris recognition system.

  18. Invited Article: Threats to physician autonomy in a performance-based reimbursement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larriviere, Daniel G; Bernat, James L

    2008-06-10

    Physician autonomy is currently threatened by the external application of pay for performance standards and required conformity to practice guidelines. This phenomenon is being driven by concerns over the economic viability of increasing per capita health care expenditures without a concomitant rise in favorable health outcomes and by the unjustified marked variations among physicians' practice patterns. Proponents contend that altering the reimbursement system to encourage physicians to make choices based upon the best available evidence would be one way to ensure better outcomes per health care dollar spent. Although physician autonomy is most easily justified when decisions are made by appealing to the best available evidence, incentivizing decision-making risks sacrificing physician autonomy to political and social forces if the limitations of evidence-based medicine are not respected. Any reimbursement system designed to encourage physicians to utilize the best available evidence by providing financial incentives must recognize physicians who try to play to the numbers as well as physicians who refuse to follow the best available evidence if doing so would conflict with good medicine or patient preferences. By designing, promulgating, and updating evidence-based clinical practice guidelines, medical specialty societies can limit threats to physician autonomy while improving medical practice.

  19. Why performance-based contracting failed in Uganda--an "open-box" evaluation of a complex health system intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ssengooba, Freddie; McPake, Barbara; Palmer, Natasha

    2012-07-01

    Performance-based contracting (PBC) is a tool that links rewards to attainment of measurable performance targets. Significant problems remain in the methods used to evaluate this tool. The primary focus of evaluations on the effects of PBC (black-box) and less attention to how these effects arise (open-box) generates suboptimal policy learning. A black-box impact evaluation of PBC pilot by the Development Research Group of the World Bank (DRG) and the Ministry of Health (MOH) concluded that PBC was ineffective. This paper reports a theory-based case study intended to clarify how and why PBC failed to achieve its objectives. To explain the observed PBC implementation and responses of participants, this case study employed two related theories i.e. complex adaptive system and expectancy theory respectively. A prospective study trailed the implementation of PBC (2003-2006) while collecting experiences of participants at district and hospital levels. Significant problems were encountered in the implementation of PBC that reflected its inadequate design. As problems were encountered, hasty adaptations resulted in a de facto intervention distinct from the one implied at the design stage. For example, inadequate time was allowed for the selection of service targets by the health centres yet they got 'locked-in' to these poor choices. The learning curve and workload among performance auditors weakened the validity of audit results. Above all, financial shortfalls led to delays, short-cuts and uncertainty about the size and payment of bonuses. The lesson for those intending to implement similar interventions is that PBC should not be attempted 'on the cheap'. It requires a plan to boost local institutional and technical capacities of implementers. It also requires careful consideration of the responses of multiple actors - both insiders and outsiders to the intended change process. Given the costs and complexity of PBC implementation, strengthening conventional approaches

  20. Screening key parameters related to passive system performance based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guohang; Yu, Yu; Huang, Xiong; Peng, Yuan; Ma, Nan; Shan, Zuhua; Niu, Fenglei; Wang, Shengfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved AHP method is presented for screening key parameters used in passive system reliability analysis. • We take the special bottom parameters as criterion for calculation and the abrupt change of the results are verified. • Combination weights are also affected by uncertainty of input parameters. - Abstract: Passive safety system is widely used in the new generation nuclear power plant (NPP) designs such as AP1000 to improve the reactor safety benefitting from its simple construction and less request for human intervene. However, the functional failure induced by uncertainty in the system thermal–hydraulic (T–H) performance becomes one of the main contributors to system operational failure since the system operates based on natural circulation, which should be considered in the system reliability evaluation. In order to improve the calculation efficiency the key parameters which significantly affect the system T–H characteristics can be screened and then be analyzed in detail. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the efficient methods to analyze the influence of the parameters on a passive system based on the experts’ experience. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is one of the typical passive safety systems, nevertheless too many parameters need to be analyzed and the T–H model itself is more complicated, so the traditional AHP method should be mended to use for screening key parameters efficiently. In this paper, we adapt the improved method in hierarchy construction and experts’ opinions integration, some parameters at the bottom justly in the traditional hierarchy are studied as criterion layer in improved AHP, the rationality of the method and the effect of abrupt change with the data are verified. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is evaluated as an example, and four key parameters are selected from 49 inputs

  1. Financial analysis and forecasting of the results of small businesses performance based on regression model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana O. Musienko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to develop the economicmathematical model of the dependence of revenue on other balance sheet items taking into account the sectoral affiliation of the companies. Methods using comparative analysis the article studies the existing approaches to the construction of the company management models. Applying the regression analysis and the least squares method which is widely used for financial management of enterprises in Russia and abroad the author builds a model of the dependence of revenue on other balance sheet items taking into account the sectoral affiliation of the companies which can be used in the financial analysis and prediction of small enterprisesrsquo performance. Results the article states the need to identify factors affecting the financial management efficiency. The author analyzed scientific research and revealed the lack of comprehensive studies on the methodology for assessing the small enterprisesrsquo management while the methods used for large companies are not always suitable for the task. The systematized approaches of various authors to the formation of regression models describe the influence of certain factors on the company activity. It is revealed that the resulting indicators in the studies were revenue profit or the company relative profitability. The main drawback of most models is the mathematical not economic approach to the definition of the dependent and independent variables. Basing on the analysis it was determined that the most correct is the model of dependence between revenues and total assets of the company using the decimal logarithm. The model was built using data on the activities of the 507 small businesses operating in three spheres of economic activity. Using the presented model it was proved that there is direct dependence between the sales proceeds and the main items of the asset balance as well as differences in the degree of this effect depending on the economic activity of small

  2. Health worker preferences for performance-based payment schemes in a rural health district in Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Yé

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One promising way to improve the motivation of healthcare providers and the quality of healthcare services is performance-based incentives (PBIs also referred as performance-based financing. Our study aims to explore healthcare providers’ preferences for an incentive scheme based on local resources, which aimed at improving the quality of maternal and child health care in the Nouna Health District. Design: A qualitative and quantitative survey was carried out in 2010 involving 94 healthcare providers within 34 health facilities. In addition, in-depth interviews involving a total of 33 key informants were conducted at health facility levels. Results: Overall, 85% of health workers were in favour of an incentive scheme based on the health district's own financial resources (95% CI: [71.91; 88.08]. Most health workers (95 and 96% expressed a preference for financial incentives (95% CI: [66.64; 85.36] and team-based incentives (95% CI: [67.78; 86.22], respectively. The suggested performance indicators were those linked to antenatal care services, prevention of mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus transmission, neonatal care, and immunization. Conclusions: The early involvement of health workers and other stakeholders in designing an incentive scheme proved to be valuable. It ensured their effective participation in the process and overall acceptance of the scheme at the end. This study is an important contribution towards the designing of effective PBI schemes.

  3. Investigating the relationship between outsourcing and performance based on Balanced Score Card (Case study Ilam Post Office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karam Khalili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, outsourcing can play a crucial role in satisfying customers and meeting their requirements; therefore post office has devoted some of its services and supports for improving the performance, reducing the expenses, and modifying the organizational structure. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between outsourcing and the performance based on Balanced Score Card (Ilam Post Office in 2013. This study was a descriptive-survey and it utilized a questionnaire for collecting data. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Useable data were gathered from 18 managers and assistants. T-student and correlation method was used for data analysis. The results showed that there are a strong and positive relationship between outsourcing post office activities and performance management in three aspects of financial, customers and internal processes; however there was a positive and weak relationship between the aspect of learning and outsourcing.

  4. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  5. The effect of the work environment and performance-based self-esteem on cognitive stress symptoms among Danish knowledge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Karen; Rugulies, Reiner; Garde, Anne Helene; Burr, Hermann

    2010-02-01

    Interpersonal relations at work as well as individual factors seem to play prominent roles in the modern labour market, and arguably also for the change in stress symptoms. The aim was to examine whether exposures in the psychosocial work environment predicted symptoms of cognitive stress in a sample of Danish knowledge workers (i.e. employees working with sign, communication or exchange of knowledge) and whether performance-based self-esteem had a main effect, over and above the work environmental factors. 349 knowledge workers, selected from a national, representative cohort study, were followed up with two data collections, 12 months apart. We used data on psychosocial work environment factors and cognitive stress symptoms measured with the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ), and a measurement of performance-based self-esteem. Effects on cognitive stress symptoms were analyzed with a GLM procedure with and without adjustment for baseline level. Measures at baseline of quantitative demands, role conflicts, lack of role clarity, recognition, predictability, influence and social support from management were positively associated with cognitive stress symptoms 12 months later. After adjustment for baseline level of cognitive stress symptoms, follow-up level was only predicted by lack of predictability. Performance-based self-esteem was prospectively associated with cognitive stress symptoms and had an independent effect above the psychosocial work environment factors on the level of and changes in cognitive stress symptoms. The results suggest that both work environmental and individual characteristics should be taken into account in order to capture sources of stress in modern working life.

  6. Protocol for the process evaluation of interventions combining performance-based financing with health equity in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Souares, Aurélia; Lohmann, Julia; Zombré, David; Koulidiati, Jean Louis; Yaogo, Maurice; Hien, Hervé; Hunt, Matthew; Zongo, Sylvie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2014-10-12

    The low quality of healthcare and the presence of user fees in Burkina Faso contribute to low utilization of healthcare and elevated levels of mortality. To improve access to high-quality healthcare and equity, national authorities are testing different intervention arms that combine performance-based financing with community-based health insurance and pro-poor targeting. There is a need to evaluate the implementation of these unique approaches. We developed a research protocol to analyze the conditions that led to the emergence of these intervention arms, the fidelity between the activities initially planned and those conducted, the implementation and adaptation processes, the sustainability of the interventions, the possibilities for scaling them up, and their ethical implications. The study adopts a longitudinal multiple case study design with several embedded levels of analyses. To represent the diversity of contexts where the intervention arms are carried out, we will select three districts. Within districts, we will select both primary healthcare centers (n =18) representing different intervention arms and the district or regional hospital (n =3). We will select contrasted cases in relation to their initial performance (good, fair, poor). Over a period of 18 months, we will use quantitative and qualitative data collection and analytical tools to study these cases including in-depth interviews, participatory observation, research diaries, and questionnaires. We will give more weight to qualitative methods compared to quantitative methods. Performance-based financing is expanding rapidly across low- and middle-income countries. The results of this study will enable researchers and decision makers to gain a better understanding of the factors that can influence the implementation and the sustainability of complex interventions aiming to increase healthcare quality as well as equity.

  7. The antecedents of satisfaction with pay in teams: do performance-based compensation and autonomy keep team-members satisfied?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Godeanu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the effects performance-based compensation and autonomy on satisfaction with pay in the context of team working. I develop a complex perspective that considers the influence of different monetary and non-monetary rewards on satisfaction with pay. Drawing from the agency theory, equity theory and theory of cooperation I predict that both piece rates and team-based rewards are associated with higher pay satisfaction. Moreover, I claim that both individual and team-based autonomy contribute to increased satisfaction with pay. Using a cross-sectional dataset of randomly selected European employees who are asked about specific working and living conditions, results confirm that both productivity-based rewards and autonomy are important for employee satisfaction. Managers should know when to introduce rewards based only on individual merits and when to give to use autonomy as a buffer to compensate for the potential lack of fairness in the payment system.

  8. [The debate concerning performance-based financing in Africa South of the Sahara: analysis of the nature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitu, Serge Mayaka; Meessen, Bruno; Lushimba, Michel Muvudi; Macq, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) is a strategy designed to link thefunding of health services to predetermined results. Payment by an independent strategic purchaser is subject to verification of effective achievement of health outcomes in terms ofquantity and quality. This article investigates the complex tensions observed in relation to performance based financing (PBF) and identifies some reasons for disagreement on this approach. This study was essentially qualitative. Interviews were conducted with a panel of experts on PBF mobilizing their ability to reflect on the various arguments and positions concerning this financing mechanism. To enhance our analyses, we proposed a framework based on the main reasonsfor scientific or political controversies and factors involved in their emergence. Analysis of the information collected therefore consisted of combining experts verbatim reports with corresponding factors of controversies of our framework. Graphic representations of the differences were also established. Tensions concerning PBF are based on facts (experts' interpretation ofPBF), principles and values (around each expert's conceptual framework), balances of power between experts but also inappropriate behavior in the discussion process. Viewpoints remain isolated, each individual experience and an overview are lacking, which can interfere with decision-making and maintain the Health system reform crisis. Potential solutions to reduce these tensions are proposed. Our study shows that experts have difficulties agreeing on a theoretical priority approach to PBE. A good understanding of the nature of the tensions and an improvement in the quality of dialogue will promote a real dynamic of change and the proposal of an agenda of PBF actions.

  9. The performance measurement manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  10. The Regulation of Behavioral Plasticity by Performance-Based Feedback and an Experimental Test with Avian Egg Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, Keith W

    2016-05-01

    Optimizing plasticity in behavioral performances requires the abilities to regulate physiological effort and to estimate the effects of the environment. To describe how performance-based feedback could play a role in regulating recursive or continuous behavioral performances, I developed two models, one (environmental feedback) that assumes an initial ability to regulate effort but not to predict the effects of the environment and the other (effort feedback) that assumes an initial ability to predict the effects of the environment but not to regulate effort. I tested them by manipulating feedback on egg production, using an egg-substitution experiment in wild, free-ranging Lincoln's sparrows (Melospiza lincolnii). I discovered that females adjusted the size of their clutches' third laid eggs in response to the size of an experimentally substituted first laid egg, such that the size of the third laid egg increased with the size of the substitute. Results were largely consistent with the environmental feedback model, though small portions of the response surface were consistent with the effort feedback model or with neither. Regardless, such feedback-based regulation predicted by either model may help females maximize net benefits of egg production and may be a basis for mechanisms regulating a wide range of other behavioral performances, as well.

  11. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  12. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  13. Current status and trends in performance-based risk-sharing arrangements between healthcare payers and medical product manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Josh J; Gries, Katharine S; Yeung, Kai; Sullivan, Sean D; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to identify and characterize publicly available cases and related trends for performance-based risk-sharing arrangements (PBRSAs). We performed a review of PBRSAs over the past 20 years (1993-2013) using available databases and reports from colleagues and healthcare experts. These were categorized according to a previously published taxonomy of scheme types and assessed in terms of the underlying product and market attributes for each scheme. Macro-level trends were identified related to the timing of scheme adoption, countries involved, types of arrangements, and product and market factors. Our search yielded 148 arrangements. From this set, 65 arrangements included a coverage with an evidence development component, 20 included a conditional treatment continuation component, 54 included a performance-linked reimbursement component, and 42 included a financial utilization component. Each type of scheme addresses fundamental uncertainties that exist when products enter the market. The pace of adoption appears to be slowing, but new countries continue to implement PBRSAs. Over this 20-year period, there has been a consistent movement toward arrangements that minimize administrative burden. In conclusion, the pace of PBRSA adoption appears to be slowing but still has traction in many health systems. These remain a viable coverage and reimbursement mechanism for a wide range of medical products. The long-term viability and growth of these arrangements will rest in the ability of the parties to develop mutually beneficial arrangements that entail minimal administrative burden in their development and implementation.

  14. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  15. Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

  16. From 'Compliance-based' to 'Performance-based' Quality - A trend in and evolution of U. S. quality standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Douglas A.; Taylor, H. Stephen; Johnson, Robert B.; Erler, Bryan A.; Daley, Thomas J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper traces the evolution of quality systems for nuclear power plant design, procurement, fabrication, installation, pre-operational testing, operations and maintenance in the U. S., as reflected in consensus standards such as N45.2, NQA-1, etc. Using a 'Defense-In-Depth' Quality Model, it highlights the changes in understanding where the responsibilities for quality should reside. Industries' growing recognition and operating experience show that a 'graded' approach to quality, based on safety significance, can be used to determine which quality criteria apply and the depth of implementing those criteria, resulting in potential long term cost savings and increased effectiveness) is also examined and discussed. Together, these two approaches form the basis for a performance-based quality system suitable for the business and technical environment of the 1990's and beyond. Performance-based Quality System - an approach that focuses on the end results, not the process, that directly contribute to safe and reliable plant operations. This approach includes monitoring performance or condition against predetermined, licensee-established goals, limits, or criteria in a manner sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the safety function will be fulfilled. These criteria are based upon the design basis safety function, operating experience, and pertinent reliability studies. A licensee is allowed the flexibility to determine how best to achieve the results and adjust the application of quality elements accordingly. The roles of the individual worker, site/line supervision and management, independent quality verifiers (QA and QC), and external regulators are examined in the context of where and how industry quality standards have historically placed emphasis and accountability. The changes in these standards and their of effects are illustrated. Based on industry experience, the current understanding of the controls necessary to achieve safe, reliable and

  17. A cross-sport comparison of performance-based outcomes of professional athletes following primary microfracture of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schallmo, Michael S; Singh, Sameer K; Barth, Kathryn A; Freshman, Ryan D; Mai, Harry T; Hsu, Wellington K

    2018-05-08

    The purpose of this study was to compare performance-based outcomes among professional athletes in four major North American sports following microfracture to treat symptomatic chondral defects of the knee. Major League Baseball (MLB), National Basketball Association (NBA), National Football League (NFL), and National Hockey League (NHL) athletes who underwent primary unilateral microfracture of the knee were identified through a previously reported protocol based on public sources. Successful return-to-play was defined as returning for at least one professional regular season game after surgery. Regular season player statistics and sport-specific performance scores were compiled for each player. Each player served as his own control, with the season prior to surgery defined as baseline. Comparisons across sports were enabled by adjusting for expected season and career length differences between sports and by calculating percent changes in performance. One hundred thirty one professional athletes who underwent microfracture were included. One hundred three athletes (78.6%) successfully returned to play. The ratio of games started-to-games played before surgery was found to be a significant positive independent predictor of returning (p = 0.002). Compared with their preoperative season, basketball and baseball players demonstrated significantly decreased performance one season after surgery (-14.8%, p = 0.029 and -12.9%, p = 0.002, respectively) that was recoverable to baseline by postoperative seasons 2-3 for baseball players but not for basketball players (-9.7%, p = 0.024). Knee microfracture surgery is associated with a high rate of return to the professional level. However, the impact of this procedure on postoperative performance varied significantly depending on sport. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A study on the relevance and influence of the existing regulation and risk informed/performance based regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, B. J.; Kang, J. M.; Kim, H. S.; Koh, S. H.; Kang, D. H.; Park, C. H. [Cheju Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    The goal of this study is to estimate the relevance and Influence of the Existing Regulation and the RI-PBR to the institutionalization of the regulatory system. This study reviews the current regulatory system and the status of the RI-PBR implementation of the US NRC and Korea based upon SECY Papers, Risk Informed Regulation Implementation Plan (RIRIP) of the US NRC and other domestic studies. In order to investigate the perceptions, knowledge level, ground for the regulatory change, a survey was performed to Korean nuclear utilities, researchers and regulators on the perception on the RIR. The questionnaire was composed of 50 questions regarding personal details on work experience, level of education and specific field of work ; level of knowledge on the risk informed performance based regulation (RI-PBR); the perception of the current regulation, the effectiveness, level of procedure, flexibility, dependency on the regulator and personal view, and the perception of the RI-PBR such as flexibility of regulation, introduction time and the effect of RI-PBR, safety improvement, public perception, parts of the existing regulatory system that should be changed, etc. 515 answered from all sectors of the nuclear field; utilities, engineering companies, research institutes, and regulatory bodies.

  19. A preliminary assessment of financial stability, efficiency, health systems and health outcomes using performance-based contracts in Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, Diana M; Figueroa, Ramon; Natiq, Laila; Okunogbe, Adeyemi

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, Belize has implemented a National Health Insurance (NHI) program that uses performance-based contracts with both public and private facilities to improve financial sustainability, efficiency and service provision. Data were collected at the facility, district and national levels in order to assess trends in financial sustainability, efficiency payments, year-end bonuses and health system and health outcomes. A difference-in-difference approach was used to assess the difference in technical efficiency between private and public facilities. The results show that per capita spending on services provided by the NHI program has decreased over the period 2006-2009 from BZ$177 to BZ$136. The private sector has achieved higher levels of technical efficiency, but lower percentages of efficiency and year-end bonus payments. Districts with contracts through the NHI program showed greater improvements in facility births, nurse density, reducing maternal mortality, diabetes deaths and morbidity from bronchitis, emphysema and asthma than districts without contracts over the period 2006-2010. This preliminary assessment of Belize's pay-for-performance system provides some positive results, however further research is needed to use the lessons learned from Belize to implement similar reforms in other systems.

  20. Twelve months of implementation of health care performance-based financing in Burkina Faso: A qualitative multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Yaogo, Maurice; Zongo, Sylvie; Somé, Paul-André; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie

    2018-01-01

    To improve health services' quantity and quality, African countries are increasingly engaging in performance-based financing (PBF) interventions. Studies to understand their implementation in francophone West Africa are rare. This study analysed PBF implementation in Burkina Faso 12 months post-launch in late 2014. The design was a multiple and contrasted case study involving 18 cases (health centres). Empirical data were collected from observations, informal (n = 224) and formal (n = 459) interviews, and documents. Outside the circle of persons trained in PBF, few in the community had knowledge of it. In some health centres, the fact that staff were receiving bonuses was intentionally not announced to populations and community leaders. Most local actors thought PBF was just another project, but the majority appreciated it. There were significant delays in setting up agencies for performance monitoring, auditing, and contracting, as well as in the payment. The first audits led rapidly to coping strategies among health workers and occasionally to some staging beforehand. No community-based audits had yet been done. Distribution of bonuses varied from one centre to another. This study shows the importance of understanding the implementation of public health interventions in Africa and of uncovering coping strategies. © 2017 The Authors. The International Journal of Health Planning and Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Wilmington Area Planning Council, New Castle County, Delaware and Cecil County, Maryland : a performance-based approach to integrating congestion management into the metropolitan planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Wilmington Area Planning Council takes an objectives-driven, performance-based approach to its metropolitan transportation planning, including paying special attention to integrating its Congestion Management Process into its planning efforts. Th...

  2. Effects of gross motor function and manual function levels on performance-based ADL motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Myoung-Ok

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine effects of Gross Motor Function Classification System and Manual Ability Classification System levels on performance-based motor skills of children with spastic cerebral palsy. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three children with cerebral palsy were included. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was used to evaluate performance-based motor skills in daily life. Gross motor function was assessed using Gross Motor Function Classification S...

  3. Adapting industry-style business model to academia in a system of Performance-based Incentive Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, E Albert; Nugent, Olan; Wheeler, Richard P; Smith, Charles W; Hough, Aubrey J; Winter, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Performance-Based Incentive Compensation (PBIC) plans currently prevail throughout industry and have repeatedly demonstrated effectiveness as powerful motivational tools for attracting and retaining top talent, enhancing key indicators, increasing employee productivity, and, ultimately, enhancing mission-based parameters. The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) College of Medicine introduced its PBIC plan to further the transition of the college to a high-performing academic and clinical enterprise. A forward-thinking compensation plan was progressively implemented during a three-year period. After the introduction of an aggressive five-year vision plan in 2002, the college introduced a PBIC plan designed to ensure the retention and recruitment of high-quality faculty through the use of uncapped salaries that reflect each faculty member's clinical, research, and education duties. The PBIC plan was introduced with broad, schoolwide principles adaptable to each department and purposely flexible to allow for tailor-made algorithms to fit the specific approaches required by individual departments. As of July 2006, the college had begun to reap a variety of short-term benefits from Phase I of its PBIC program, including increases in revenue and faculty salaries, and increased faculty morale and satisfaction.Successful implementation of a PBIC plan depends on a host of factors, including the development of a process for evaluating performance that is considered fair and reliable to the entire faculty. The college has become more efficient and effective by adopting such a program, which has helped it to increase overall productivity. The PBIC program continues to challenge our faculty members to attain their highest potential while rewarding them accordingly.

  4. Motivating health workers up to a limit: partial effects of performance-based financing on working environments in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Aarushi; George, Asha S

    2016-09-01

    In 2012, the Nigerian government launched performance-based financing (PBF) in three districts providing financial incentives to health workers based on the quantity and quality of service provision. They were given autonomy to use funds for operational costs and performance bonuses. This study aims to understand changes in perceived motivation among health workers with the introduction of PBF in Wamba district, Nigeria. The study used a qualitative research design to compare perceptions of health workers in facilities receiving PBF payments in the pilot district of Wamba to those that were not. In-depth semi-structured interviews (n = 39) were conducted with health workers from PBF and non-PBF facilities along with managers of the PBF project. Framework analysis was used to identify patterns and variations in responses. Facility records were collated and triangulated with qualitative data. Health workers receiving PBF payments reported to be 'awakened' by performance bonuses and improved working environments including routine supportive supervision and availability of essential drugs. They recounted being more punctual, hard working and proud of providing better services to their communities. In comparison, health workers in non-PBF facilities complained about the dearth of basic equipment and lack of motivating strategies. However, health workers from both sets of facilities considered there to be a severe shortage of manpower resulting in excessive workload, fatigue and general dissatisfaction. PBF strategies can succeed in motivating health workers by bringing about a change in incentives and working conditions. However, such programmes need to be aligned with human resource reforms including timely recruitment and appropriate distribution of health workers to prevent burn out and attrition. As people working on the frontline of constrained health systems, health workers are responsive to improved incentives and working conditions, but need more

  5. Generalized Fragility Relationships with Local Site Conditions for Probabilistic Performance-based Seismic Risk Assessment of Bridge Inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivathayalan S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The current practice of detailed seismic risk assessment cannot be easily applied to all the bridges in a large transportation networks due to limited resources. This paper presents a new approach for seismic risk assessment of large bridge inventories in a city or national bridge network based on the framework of probabilistic performance based seismic risk assessment. To account for the influences of local site effects, a procedure to generate site-specific hazard curves that includes seismic hazard microzonation information has been developed for seismic risk assessment of bridge inventories. Simulated ground motions compatible with the site specific seismic hazard are used as input excitations in nonlinear time history analysis of representative bridges for calibration. A normalizing procedure to obtain generalized fragility relationships in terms of structural characteristic parameters of bridge span and size and longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios is presented. The seismic risk of bridges in a large inventory can then be easily evaluated using the normalized fragility relationships without the requirement of carrying out detailed nonlinear time history analysis.

  6. Are health workers motivated by income? Job motivation of Cambodian primary health workers implementing performance-based financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khim, Keovathanak

    2016-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used in performance-based financing (PBF) schemes, but their contribution to health workers' incomes and job motivation is poorly understood. Cambodia undertook health sector reform from the middle of 2009 and PBF was employed as a part of the reform process. This study examines job motivation for primary health workers (PHWs) under PBF reform in Cambodia and assesses the relationship between job motivation and income. A cross-sectional self-administered survey was conducted on 266 PHWs, from 54 health centers in the 15 districts involved in the reform. The health workers were asked to report all sources of income from public sector jobs and provide answers to 20 items related to job motivation. Factor analysis was conducted to identify the latent variables of job motivation. Factors associated with motivation were identified through multivariable regression. PHWs reported multiple sources of income and an average total income of US$190 per month. Financial incentives under the PBF scheme account for 42% of the average total income. PHWs had an index motivation score of 4.9 (on a scale from one to six), suggesting they had generally high job motivation that was related to a sense of community service, respect, and job benefits. Regression analysis indicated that income and the perception of a fair distribution of incentives were both statistically significant in association with higher job motivation scores. Financial incentives used in the reform formed a significant part of health workers' income and influenced their job motivation. Improving job motivation requires fixing payment mechanisms and increasing the size of incentives. PBF is more likely to succeed when income, training needs, and the desire for a sense of community service are addressed and institutionalized within the health system.

  7. Performance-based financing with GAVI health system strengthening funding in rural Cambodia: a brief assessment of the impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Sadatoshi; Obara, Hiromi; Nagai, Mari; Murakami, Hitoshi; Chan Lon, Rasmey

    2014-07-01

    Though Cambodia made impressive gains in immunization coverage between the years 2000 and 2005, it recognized several health system challenges to greater coverage of immunization and sustainability. The Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) opened a Health System Strengthening (HSS) funding window in 2006. To address the health system challenges, Cambodia has been receiving the GAVI HSS fund since October 2007. The major component of the support is performance-based financing (PBF) for maternal, neonatal and child health (MNCH) services. To examine the impact of the PBF scheme on MNCH services and administrative management in rural Cambodia. Quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted in Kroch Chhmar Operational District (OD), Cambodia. Quantitative analyses were conducted on the trends of the numbers of MNCH services. A brief analysis was conducted using qualitative data. After the commencement of the PBF support, the volume of MNCH services was significantly boosted. In addition, strengthened financial and operational management was observed in the study area. However, the quality of the MNCH services was not ensured. Technical assistance, rather than the PBF scheme, was perceived by stakeholders to play a vital role in increasing the quality of the services. To improve the quality of the health services provided, it is better to include indicators on the quality of care in the PBF scheme. Mutual co-operation between PBF models and technical assistance may ensure better service quality while boosting the quantity. A robust but feasible data validation mechanism should be in place, as a PBF could incentivize inaccurate reporting. The capacity for financial management should be strengthened in PBF recipient ODs. To address the broader aspects of MNCH, a balanced input of resources and strengthening of all six building blocks of a health system are necessary. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene

  8. Local Stakeholders’ Perceptions about the Introduction of Performance-Based Financing in Benin: A Case Study in Two Health Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Paul

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Performance-Based Financing (PBF has been advanced as a solution to contribute to improving the performance of health systems in developing countries. This is the case in Benin. This study aims to analyse how two PBF approaches, piloted in Benin, behave during implementation and what effects they produce, through investigating how local stakeholders perceive the introduction of PBF, how they adapt the different approaches during implementation, and the behavioural interactions induced by PBF. Methods The research rests on a socio-anthropological approach and qualitative methods. The design is a case study in two health districts selected on purpose. The selection of health facilities was also done on purpose, until we reached saturation of information. Information was collected through observation and semi-directive interviews supported by an interview guide. Data was analysed through contents and discourse analysis. Results The Ministry of Health (MoH strongly supports PBF, but it is not well integrated with other ongoing reforms and processes. Field actors welcome PBF but still do not have a sense of ownership about it. The two PBF approaches differ notably as for the organs in charge of verification. Performance premiums are granted according to a limited number of quantitative indicators plus an extensive qualitative checklist. PBF matrices and verification missions come in addition to routine monitoring. Local stakeholders accommodate theoretical approaches. Globally, staff is satisfied with PBF and welcomes additional supervision and training. Health providers reckon that PBF forces them to depart from routine, to be more professional and to respect national norms. A major issue is the perceived unfairness in premium distribution. Even if health staff often refer to financial premiums, actually the latter are probably too weak—and ‘blurred’—to have a lasting inciting effect. It rather seems that PBF motivates health

  9. Performance-based risk-sharing arrangements-good practices for design, implementation, and evaluation: report of the ISPOR good practices for performance-based risk-sharing arrangements task force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Louis P; Towse, Adrian; Briggs, Andrew; de Pouvourville, Gerard; Grueger, Jens; Mohr, Penny E; Severens, J L Hans; Siviero, Paolo; Sleeper, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    There is a significant and growing interest among both payers and producers of medical products for agreements that involve a "pay-for-performance" or "risk-sharing" element. These payment schemes-called "performance-based risk-sharing arrangements" (PBRSAs)-involve a plan by which the performance of the product is tracked in a defined patient population over a specified period of time and the amount or level of reimbursement is based on the health and cost outcomes achieved. There has always been considerable uncertainty at product launch about the ultimate real-world clinical and economic performance of new products, but this appears to have increased in recent years. PBRSAs represent one mechanism for reducing this uncertainty through greater investment in evidence collection while a technology is used within a health care system. The objective of this Task Force report was to set out the standards that should be applied to "good practices"-both research and operational-in the use of a PBRSA, encompassing questions around the desirability, design, implementation, and evaluation of such an arrangement. This report provides practical recommendations for the development and application of state-of-the-art methods to be used when considering, using, or reviewing PBRSAs. Key findings and recommendations include the following. Additional evidence collection is costly, and there are numerous barriers to establishing viable and cost-effective PBRSAs: negotiation, monitoring, and evaluation costs can be substantial. For good research practice in PBRSAs, it is critical to match the appropriate study and research design to the uncertainties being addressed. Good governance processes are also essential. The information generated as part of PBRSAs has public good aspects, bringing ethical and professional obligations, which need to be considered from a policy perspective. The societal desirability of a particular PBRSA is fundamentally an issue as to whether the cost of

  10. Performance-based financing as a health system reform: mapping the key dimensions for monitoring and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance-based financing is increasingly being applied in a variety of contexts, with the expectation that it can improve the performance of health systems. However, while there is a growing literature on implementation issues and effects on outputs, there has been relatively little focus on interactions between PBF and health systems and how these should be studied. This paper aims to contribute to filling that gap by developing a framework for assessing the interactions between PBF and health systems, focusing on low and middle income countries. In doing so, it elaborates a general framework for monitoring and evaluating health system reforms in general. Methods This paper is based on an exploratory literature review and on the work of a group of academics and PBF practitioners. The group developed ideas for the monitoring and evaluation framework through exchange of emails and working documents. Ideas were further refined through discussion at the Health Systems Research symposium in Beijing in October 2012, through comments from members of the online PBF Community of Practice and Beijing participants, and through discussion with PBF experts in Bergen in June 2013. Results The paper starts with a discussion of definitions, to clarify the core concept of PBF and how the different terms are used. It then develops a framework for monitoring its interactions with the health system, structured around five domains of context, the development process, design, implementation and effects. Some of the key questions for monitoring and evaluation are highlighted, and a systematic approach to monitoring effects proposed, structured according to the health system pillars, but also according to inputs, processes and outputs. Conclusions The paper lays out a broad framework within which indicators can be prioritised for monitoring and evaluation of PBF or other health system reforms. It highlights the dynamic linkages between the domains and the different pillars

  11. Performance-based financing as a health system reform: mapping the key dimensions for monitoring and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Sophie; Toonen, Jurrien; Meessen, Bruno; Kagubare, Jean; Fritsche, György; Vaughan, Kelsey

    2013-09-29

    Performance-based financing is increasingly being applied in a variety of contexts, with the expectation that it can improve the performance of health systems. However, while there is a growing literature on implementation issues and effects on outputs, there has been relatively little focus on interactions between PBF and health systems and how these should be studied. This paper aims to contribute to filling that gap by developing a framework for assessing the interactions between PBF and health systems, focusing on low and middle income countries. In doing so, it elaborates a general framework for monitoring and evaluating health system reforms in general. This paper is based on an exploratory literature review and on the work of a group of academics and PBF practitioners. The group developed ideas for the monitoring and evaluation framework through exchange of emails and working documents. Ideas were further refined through discussion at the Health Systems Research symposium in Beijing in October 2012, through comments from members of the online PBF Community of Practice and Beijing participants, and through discussion with PBF experts in Bergen in June 2013. The paper starts with a discussion of definitions, to clarify the core concept of PBF and how the different terms are used. It then develops a framework for monitoring its interactions with the health system, structured around five domains of context, the development process, design, implementation and effects. Some of the key questions for monitoring and evaluation are highlighted, and a systematic approach to monitoring effects proposed, structured according to the health system pillars, but also according to inputs, processes and outputs. The paper lays out a broad framework within which indicators can be prioritised for monitoring and evaluation of PBF or other health system reforms. It highlights the dynamic linkages between the domains and the different pillars. All of these are also framed within

  12. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  13. Using Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  14. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Managing the human capital in education requires measuring teacher performance. To measure performance, administrators need to combine measures of practice with measures of outcomes, such as value-added measures, and three measurement systems are needed: classroom observations, performance assessments or work samples, and classroom walkthroughs.…

  15. Constructing an Evaluation Framework for Eco-Museum Operations-Management Performance, Based on the Case of Jhushan, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Wei Hsu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The bamboo-art industry in Taiwan’s Jhushan Township is inseparable from local life. In the face of local industrial-development difficulties in smaller towns, the Taiwan government aimed to achieve a range of (redevelopment goals using eco-museums as collaboration platforms and required such museums to combine their operations management with cultural preservation, local industrial development, and local residents’ goals. As such, the likely future performance of such operations management has emerged as a crucially important factor in decision-making about whether such museums should be constructed. This study, therefore, reviews the relevant literature on the operations-management performance of museums, with special attention to eco-museums, and proposes an operations-management performance measurement framework for eco-museums based on that review and a two-stage questionnaire administered to experts. The first stage utilized the Fuzzy Delphi Method, which focuses on impact factors, and the second, the Analytica Network Process Method, deals with performance factors. The results indicate that the key impacts on the performance of eco-museums and their operations management were, in order of importance, (1 community symbiosis, (2 cultural inheritance, and (3 regional revitalization. The preservation of cultural heritage, local identity, and community participation are the most important criteria in the operations management of eco-museums, and Jhushan Town can promote such museums through these guidelines.

  16. Change in intraindividual variability over time as a key metric for defining performance-based cognitive fatigability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Ding, Mingzhou; Kluger, Benzi M

    2014-03-01

    Cognitive fatigability is conventionally quantified as the increase over time in either mean reaction time (RT) or error rate from two or more time periods during sustained performance of a prolonged cognitive task. There is evidence indicating that these mean performance measures may not sufficiently reflect the response characteristics of cognitive fatigue. We hypothesized that changes in intraindividual variability over time would be a more sensitive and ecologically meaningful metric for investigations of fatigability of cognitive performance. To test the hypothesis fifteen young adults were recruited. Trait fatigue perceptions in various domains were assessed with the Multidimensional Fatigue Index (MFI). Behavioral data were then recorded during performance of a three-hour continuous cued Stroop task. Results showed that intraindividual variability, as quantified by the coefficient of variation of RT, increased linearly over the course of three hours and demonstrated a significantly greater effect size than mean RT or accuracy. Change in intraindividual RT variability over time was significantly correlated with relevant subscores of the MFI including reduced activity, reduced motivation and mental fatigue. While change in mean RT over time was also correlated with reduced motivation and mental fatigue, these correlations were significantly smaller than those associated with intraindividual RT variability. RT distribution analysis using an ex-Gaussian model further revealed that change in intraindividual variability over time reflects an increase in the exponential component of variance and may reflect attentional lapses or other breakdowns in cognitive control. These results suggest that intraindividual variability and its change over time provide important metrics for measuring cognitive fatigability and may prove useful for inferring the underlying neuronal mechanisms of both perceptions of fatigue and objective changes in performance. Copyright © 2014

  17. Can't get no satisfaction? Will pay for performance help?: toward an economic framework for understanding performance-based risk-sharing agreements for innovative medical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towse, Adrian; Garrison, Louis P

    2010-01-01

    This article examines performance-based risk-sharing agreements for pharmaceuticals from a theoretical economic perspective. We position these agreements as a form of coverage with evidence development. New performance-based risk sharing could produce a more efficient market equilibrium, achieved by adjustment of the price post-launch to reflect outcomes combined with a new approach to the post-launch costs of evidence collection. For this to happen, the party best able to manage or to bear specific risks must do so. Willingness to bear risk will depend not only on ability to manage it, but on the degree of risk aversion. We identify three related frameworks that provide relevant insights: value of information, real option theory and money-back guarantees. We identify four categories of risk sharing: budget impact, price discounting, outcomes uncertainty and subgroup uncertainty. We conclude that a value of information/real option framework is likely to be the most helpful approach for understanding the costs and benefits of risk sharing. There are a number of factors that are likely to be crucial in determining if performance-based or risk-sharing agreements are efficient and likely to become more important in the future: (i) the cost and practicality of post-launch evidence collection relative to pre-launch; (ii) the feasibility of coverage with evidence development without a pre-agreed contract as to how the evidence will be used to adjust price, revenues or use, in which uncertainty around the pay-off to additional research will reduce the incentive for the manufacturer to collect the information; (iii) the difficulty of writing and policing risk-sharing agreements; (iv) the degree of risk aversion (and therefore opportunity to trade) on the part of payers and manufacturers; and (v) the extent of transferability of data from one country setting to another to support coverage with evidence development in a risk-sharing framework. There is no doubt that

  18. Freight performance measures : approach analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    This report reviews the existing state of the art and also the state of the practice of freight performance measurement. Most performance measures at the state level have aimed at evaluating highway or transit infrastructure performance with an empha...

  19. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  20. Do trout swim better than eels? Challenges for estimating performance based on the wake of self-propelled bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytell, Eric D.

    Engineers and biologists have long desired to compare propulsive performance for fishes and underwater vehicles of different sizes, shapes, and modes of propulsion. Ideally, such a comparison would be made on the basis of either propulsive efficiency, total power output or both. However, estimating the efficiency and power output of self-propelled bodies, and particularly fishes, is methodologically challenging because it requires an estimate of thrust. For such systems traveling at a constant velocity, thrust and drag are equal, and can rarely be separated on the basis of flow measured in the wake. This problem is demonstrated using flow fields from swimming American eels, Anguilla rostrata, measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and high-speed video. Eels balance thrust and drag quite evenly, resulting in virtually no wake momentum in the swimming (axial) direction. On average, their wakes resemble those of self-propelled jet propulsors, which have been studied extensively. Theoretical studies of such wakes may provide methods for the estimation of thrust separately from drag. These flow fields are compared with those measured in the wakes of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and bluegill sunfish, Lepomis macrochirus. In contrast to eels, these fishes produce wakes with axial momentum. Although the net momentum flux must be zero on average, it is neither spatially nor temporally homogeneous; the heterogeneity may provide an alternative route for estimating thrust. This review shows examples of wakes and velocity profiles from the three fishes, indicating challenges in estimating efficiency and power output and suggesting several routes for further experiments. Because these estimates will be complicated, a much simpler method for comparing performance is outlined, using as a point of comparison the power lost producing the wake. This wake power, a component of the efficiency and total power, can be estimated in a straightforward way from the flow

  1. Performance-Based Outcomes after Operative Management of Athletic Pubalgia / Core Muscle Injury in National Football League Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas Sean; Kosanovic, Radomir; Gibbs, Daniel Bradley; Park, Caroline; Bedi, Asheesh; Larson, Christopher M.; Ahmad, Christopher S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Athletic pubalgia is a condition in which there is an injury to the core musculature that precipitates groin and lower abdominal pain, particularly in cutting and pivoting sports. These are common injury patterns in the National Football League (NFL); however, the effect of surgery on performance for these players has not been described. Methods: Athletes in the NFL that underwent a surgical procedure for athletic pubalgia / core muscle injury (CMI) were identified through team injury reports and archives on public record since 2004. Outcome data was collected for athletes who met inclusion criteria which included total games played after season of injury / surgery, number of Pro Bowls voted to, yearly total years and touchdowns for offensive players and yearly total tackles sacks and interceptions for defensive players. Previously validated performance scores were calculated using this data for each player one season before and after their procedure for a CMI. Athletes were then matched to control professional football players without a diagnosis of athletic pubalgia by age, position, year and round drafted. Statistical analysis was used to compare pre-injury and post-injury performance measures for players treated with operative management to their case controls. Results: The study group was composed of 32 NFL athletes who underwent operative management for athletic pubalgia that met inclusion criteria during this study period, including 18 offensive players and 16 defensive players. The average age of athletes undergoing this surgery was 27 years old. Analysis of pre- and post-injury athletic performance revealed no statistically significant changes after return to sport after surgical intervention; however, there was a statistically significant difference in the number of Pro Bowls that affected athletes participated in before surgery (8) compared to the season after surgery (3). Analysis of durability, as measured by total number of games played

  2. 77 FR 50172 - Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Transportation, Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) invite interested parties to...] Expert Forum on the Use of Performance-Based Regulatory Models in the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry, Offshore... and gas industry. The meeting will take place at the College of the Mainland, and hosted by the Gulf...

  3. What do we miss? ASAS non-responders on anti-TNF therapy show improvement in performance-based physical function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weely, S.F.E.; van Denderen, J.C.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Nurmohamed, M.T.; Dijkmans, B.A.C.; Dekker, J.; van der Horst-Bruinsma, I.E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: A prospective study was conducted in order to establish whether AS patients, who are defined as non-responders after 3 months of anti-TNF therapy, show improvement on performance-based tests of physical functioning. Methods: At baseline and 3 months after the start of anti-TNF therapy, AS

  4. Personal vulnerability and work-home interaction: the effect of job performance-based self-esteem on work/home conflict and facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innstrand, Siw Tone; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Espnes, Geir Arild; Aasland, Olaf Gjerløw; Falkum, Erik

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the longitudinal relationship between job performance-based self-esteem (JPB-SE) and work-home interaction (WHI) in terms of the direction of the interaction (work-to-home vs. home-to-work) and the effect (conflict vs. facilitation). A sample of 3,475 respondents from eight different occupational groups (lawyers, physicians, nurses, teachers, church ministers, bus drivers, and people working in advertising and information technology) supplied data at two points of time with a two-year time interval. The two-wave, cross-lagged structural equations modeling (SEM) analysis demonstrated reciprocal relationships between these variables, i.e., job performance-based self-esteem may act as a precursor as well as an outcome of work-home interaction. The strongest association was between job performance-based self-esteem and work-to-home conflict. Previous research on work-home interaction has mainly focused on situational factors. This longitudinal study expands the work-home literature by demonstrating how individual vulnerability (job performance-based self-esteem) contributes to the explanation of work-home interactions. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  5. Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Performance Measurement Baseline Change Request template is used to document changes to scope, cost, schedule, or operational performance metrics for SSA's Major...

  6. Assessment of Executive Function in Patients With Substance Use Disorder: A Comparison of Inventory- and Performance-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Egon; Erga, Aleksander H; Hagen, Katrin P; Nesvåg, Sverre M; McKay, James R; Lundervold, Astri J; Walderhaug, Espen

    2016-07-01

    Chronic polysubstance abuse (SUD) is associated with neurophysiological and neuroanatomical changes. Neurocognitive impairment tends to affect quality of life, occupational functioning, and the ability to benefit from therapy. Neurocognitive assessment is thus of importance, but costly and not widely available. Therefore, in a busy clinical setting, procedures that include readily available measures targeting core cognitive deficits would be beneficial. This paper investigates the utility of psychometric tests and a questionnaire-based inventory to assess "hot" and "cold" neurocognitive measures of executive functions (EF) in adults with a substance use disorder. Hot decision-making processes are associated with emotional, affective, and visceral responses, while cold executive functions are associated with rational decision-making. Subjects with polysubstance abuse (n=126) and healthy controls (n=32) were compared on hot (Iowa Gambling Task) and cold (Stroop and the Trail Making Test) measures of EF, in addition to a questionnaire assessing everyday EF related problems (BRIEF-A; Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult, self-report version). Information about the substance abuse and social adjustment were assessed by self-report. Logistic regression analyses were applied to assess independent correlates of SUD status and social adjustment. A multiple linear regression was performed to predict the number of previous treatment attempts. The psychometric test of hot EF (the Iowa Gambling Task) did not differentiate the patients with polysubstance abuse from controls, and was not associated with social adjustment. The psychometric tests of cold EF distinguished somewhat between the groups and were associated with one indicator of social adjustment. The BRIEF-A differentiated between groups on all the clinical scales and was associated with three out of five social adjustment indicators ("criminal lifestyle," "conflict with caregiver," and "stable

  7. Genetic and environmental influences on the association between performance-based self-esteem and exhaustion: A study of the self-worth notion of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Pia; Hallsten, Lennart; Narusyte, Jurgita; Bodin, Lennart; Blom, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    In the self-worth model, burnout is considered to be a syndrome of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) and experiences of exhaustion. Studies have shown that PBSE and burnout indices such as Pines' Burnout Measure (BM) are associated. Whether these variables have overlapping etiologies has however not been studied before. Genetic and environmental components of covariation between PBSE and exhaustion measured with Pines' BM were examined in a bivariate Cholesky model using data from 14,875 monozygotic and dizygotic Swedish twins. Fifty-two per cent of the phenotypic correlation (r = 0.41) between PBSE and Pines' BM was explained by genetics and 48% by environmental factors. The findings of the present study strengthen the assumption that PBSE should be considered in the burnout process as proposed by the self-worth conception of burnout. The present results extend our understanding of the link between this contingent self-esteem construct and exhaustion and provide additional information about the underlying mechanisms in terms of genetics and environment. This finding corroborates the assumed syndrome view on burnout, while it also suggests an altered view of how the syndrome emerges and how it can be alleviated. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Relationship between children's performance-based motor skills and child, parent, and teacher perceptions of children's motor abilities using self/informant-report questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Aislinn; Brown, Ted; Murdolo, Yuki

    2016-04-01

    Occupational therapists often assess the motor skill performance of children referred to them as part of the assessment process. This study investigated whether children's, parents' and teachers' perceptions of children's motor skills using valid and reliable self/informant-report questionnaires were associated with and predictive of children's actual motor performance, as measured by a standardised performance-based motor skill assessment. Fifty-five typically developing children (8-12 years of age), their parents and classroom teachers were recruited to participate in the study. The children completed the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ) and the Self-Perception Profile for Children. The parents completed the Developmental Profile III (DP-III) and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire, whereas the teachers completed the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and the Teacher's Rating Scale of Child's Actual Behavior. Children's motor performance composite scores were determined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second Edition (BOT-2). Spearman's rho correlation coefficients were calculated to identify if significant correlations existed and multiple linear regression was used to identify whether self/informant report data were significant predictors of children's motor skill performance. The child self-report scores had the largest number of significant correlations with the BOT-2 composites. Regression analysis found that the parent report DP-III Physical subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Manual Coordination composite and the child-report questionnaire PSDQ. Endurance subscale was a significant predictor of the BOT-2 Strength and Agility composite. The findings support the use of top-down assessment methods from a variety of sources when evaluating children's motor abilities. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  9. Transit performance measures in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This research is the result of a California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) request to assess the most commonly : available transit performance measures in California. Caltrans wanted to understand performance measures and data used by : Metr...

  10. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus ofreal value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuationmodel for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost iscorrectly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0.Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark.The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search anaverage NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  11. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus of real value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuation model for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost is correctly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0. Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark. The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search an average NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  12. Enhanced NH3 gas sensing performance based on electrospun alkaline-earth metals composited SnO2 nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shuang; Kan, Kan; Yang, Ying; Jiang, Chao; Gao, Jun; Jing, Liqiang; Shen, Peikang; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The small-sized SnO 2 (5–7 nm) were obtained by adding the alkaline-earth. • Sr-composited SnO 2 nanofibers showed uniform nanotubes structure (Sr/SnO 2 ). • Sr/SnO 2 showed an excellent sensing performance to NH 3 at room temperature. - Abstract: One-dimensional alkaline-earth metals composited SnO 2 (Ae/SnO 2 ) nanofibres were fabricated via electrospinning technique, followed by thermal treatment at 600 °C for 5 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed that the nanoparticles size of Ae/SnO 2 was 5–7 nm, which was smaller than the pristine SnO 2 nanorods attached by 20 nm nanoparticles. Moreover, Sr/SnO 2 nanocomposites showed uniform nanotubes structure with the wall thickness of about 30 nm, in which all the nanoparticles were connected to their neighbors by necks. The Sr/SnO 2 nanotubes exhibited an excellent sensing response toward NH 3 gas at room temperature, lower detection limit (10 ppm), faster response time (6 s towards 2000 ppm∼16 s towards 10 ppm) and better reversibility compared to the pristine SnO 2 nanorods. The enhanced sensor performances were attributed to the higher conductivity of the Sr/SnO 2 . Mott–Schottky plots (M–S) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that the carrier density of Sr/SnO 2 nanotubes was 3 fold of that pristine SnO 2

  13. Economic measures of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration systems can reduce the total cost of utility service, and, in some instances where power is sold to an electric utility, can even produce a positive net revenue stream. This is, the total cogeneration revenue is greater than the cogeneration system's operating cost plus the cost of supplemental fuel and power. Whether it is sited at an existing facility or new construction, cogeneration systems do require an incremental investment over and above that which would be required if the end user were to utilize more conventional utility services. While the decision as to whether or not one should invest in cogeneration may consider such intangibles as predictability of future utility costs, reliability of electrical supply and the quality of that supply, the decision ultimately becomes one of basic economics. This chapter briefly reviews several economic measures with regard to ease of use, accuracy and financial objective

  14. The relationship between performance-based self-esteem and self-reported work and health behaviors among Danish knowledge workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Roger; Albertsen, Karen; Garde, Anne Helene; Rugulies, Reiner

    2012-02-01

    Since knowledge intensive work often requires self-management, one might fear that persons who are dependent on work success for self-esteem will have difficulties in finding a healthful and sustainable balance between internal needs and external demands. Accordingly, we examined to what degree work-related performance-based self-esteem (PBS) was linked to work and health behaviors in 392 knowledge workers (226 women, 166 men). In the women group, multiple binary logistic regression analyses with repeated measurements showed that the PBS score was associated with 10 of the 17 examined work and health behaviors. For men the corresponding figure was 3 of 17. In both men and women, higher PBS scores were positively associated with reports of efforts and strivings for work as well as attending work while ill. In conclusion, statistically significant relationships between PBS and work and health behaviors were more clearly visible among women than men. Whether this gender difference is dependent on the study design, or on true inherent differences between women and men, cannot be concluded with any certainty. However, persons who described themselves as being relatively more dependent on work accomplishments for a high self-esteem, as expressed by the PBS score, seem to display work behaviors that may lessen their restitution time. In addition, they also seem to be more prone to work while sick. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  15. Industry participation in the development of a risk-informed, performance-based regulation for fire protection at US nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emerson, F.A.

    1998-01-01

    The USNRC staff have recently been directed by the NRC Commissioners to evaluate quickly the development of a risk-informed, performance-based fire protection regulation to replace the current regulations. The US nuclear industry does not believe a new rule is necessary to increase fire safety, and believes that there are significant risks and potentially significant benefits depending on the construction of the rule. However, the industry will actively work with NRC staff if rulemaking proceeds such that the risks are minimized and the benefits maximized. A Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) Issue Task Force (ITF) has been established to guide the participation of industry in any rulemaking activity. If rulemaking proceeds, a framework should be established for the evolution of a fire protection rule from the current prescriptive basis to a risk-informed, performance-based rule. (author)

  16. THE MEASURABILITY OF CONTROLLING PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Laval

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The urge to increase the performance of company processes is ongoing. Surveys indicate however, that many companies do not measure the controlling performance with a defined set of key performance indicators. This paper will analyze three categories of controlling key performance indicators based on their degree of measurability and their impact on the financial performance of a company. Potential measures to optimize the performance of the controlling department will be outlined and put in a logical order. The aligning of the controlling activity with the respective management expectation will be discussed as a key success factor of this improvement project.

  17. The relationship between dorsolateral prefrontal activation and speech performance-based social anxiety using functional near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Lisa H; Kuster, Anootnara T; Shaw, Jena A; Forman, Evan M; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Matteucci, Alyssa; Herbert, James D

    2017-06-01

    Functional near-infrared (fNIR) spectroscopy is a promising new technology that has demonstrated utility in the study of normal human cognition. We utilized fNIR spectroscopy to examine the effect of social anxiety and performance on hemodynamic activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Socially phobic participants and non-clinical participants with varying levels of social anxiety completed a public speaking task in front of a small virtual audience while the DLPFC was being monitored by the fNIR device. The relationship between anxiety and both blood volume (BV) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) varied significantly as a function of speech performance, such that individuals with low social anxiety who performed well showed an increase in DLPFC activation relative to those who did not perform well. This result suggests that effortful thinking and/or efficient top-down inhibitory control may have been required to complete an impromptu speech task with good performance. In contrast, good performers who were highly socially anxious showed lower DLPFC activation relative to good performers who were low in social anxiety, suggesting autopilot thinking or less-effortful thinking. In poor performers, slight increases in DLPFC activation were observed from low to highly anxious individuals, which may reflect a shift from effortless thinking to heightened self-focused attention. Heightened self-focused attention, poor inhibitory control resulting in excessive fear or anxiety, or low motivation may lower performance. These results suggest that there can be different underlying mechanisms in the brain that affect the level of speech performance in individuals with varying degrees of social anxiety. This study highlights the utility of the fNIR device in the assessment of changes in DLPFC in response to exposure to realistic phobic stimuli, and further supports the potential utility of this technology in the study of the neurophysiology of anxiety disorders.

  18. Measuring and improving infrastructure performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Measuring and Improving Infrastructure Performance, National Research Council

    .... Developing a framework for guiding attempts at measuring the performance of infrastructure systems and grappling with the concept of defining good performance are the major themes of this book...

  19. Defense Logistics: Improved Analysis and Cost Data Needed to Evaluate the Cost-Effectiveness of Performance Based Logistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M; Denman, Julia; Brumm, Harold; Dove, Matt; Echard, Jennifer; Gaskin, Chanee; Gosling, Tom; Jebo, Jennifer; Jones, Mae; Keith, Kevin; Perdue, Charles; Prybyla, Janine; Thornton, Karen

    2008-01-01

    .... Within DoD, PBL is the purchase of performance outcomes, such as system availability, rather than the purchase of individual elements of logistics support such as parts, repairs, and engineering support...

  20. MEASURING PERFORMANCE IN ORGANIZATIONS FROM MULTI-DIMENSIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘTEFĂNESCU CRISTIAN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In turbulent financial and economic present conditions a major challenge for the general management of organizations and in particular for the strategic human resources management is to establish a clear, coherent and consistent framework in terms of measuring organizational performance and economic efficiency. This paper aims to conduct an exploratory research of literature concerning measuring organizational performance. Based on the results of research the paper proposes a multi-dimensional model for measuring organizational performance providing a mechanism that will allow quantification of performance based on selected criteria. The model will attempt to eliminate inconsistencies and incongruities of organizational effectiveness models developed by specialists from organization theory area, performance measurement models developed by specialists from accounting management area and models of measuring the efficiency and effectiveness developed by specialists from strategic management and entrepreneurship areas.

  1. Establishing sustainable performance-based incentive schemes: views of rural health workers from qualitative research in three sub-Saharan African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yé, M; Aninanya, G A; Sié, A; Kakoko, D C V; Chatio, S; Kagoné, M; Prytherch, H; Loukanova, S; Williams, J E; Sauerborn, R

    2014-01-01

    Performance-based incentives (PBIs) are currently receiving attention as a strategy for improving the quality of care that health providers deliver. Experiences from several African countries have shown that PBIs can trigger improvements, particularly in the area of maternal and neonatal health. The involvement of health workers in deciding how their performance should be measured is recommended. Only limited information is available about how such schemes can be made sustainable. This study explored the types of PBIs that rural health workers suggested, their ideas regarding the management and sustainability of such schemes, and their views on which indicators best lend themselves to the monitoring of performance. In this article the authors reported the findings from a cross-country survey conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. The study was exploratory with qualitative methodology. In-depth interviews were conducted with 29 maternal and neonatal healthcare providers, four district health managers and two policy makers (total 35 respondents) from one district in each of the three countries. The respondents were purposively selected from six peripheral health facilities. Care was taken to include providers who had a management role. By also including respondents from district and policy level a comparison of perspectives from different levels of the health system was facilitated. The data that was collected was coded and analysed with support of NVivo v8 software. The most frequently suggested PBIs amongst the respondents in Burkina Faso were training with per-diems, bonuses and recognition of work done. The respondents in Tanzania favoured training with per-diems, as well as payment of overtime, and timely promotion. The respondents in Ghana also called for training, including paid study leave, payment of overtime and recognition schemes for health workers or facilities. Respondents in the three countries supported the mobilisation of local resources to

  2. Self-Reported Versus Performance-Based Assessments of a Simple Mobility Task Among Older Adults in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedersheimer, Kyle M; Pereira, Greg F; Jones, Christopher W; Braz, Valerie A; Mangipudi, Sowmya A; Platts-Mills, Timothy F

    2016-02-01

    Accurate information about the mobility of independently living older adults is essential in determining whether they may be safely discharged home from the emergency department (ED). We assess the accuracy of self-reported ability to complete a simple mobility task among older ED patients. This was a cross-sectional study of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older who were neither nursing home residents nor critically ill, conducted in 2 academic EDs. Consenting participants were asked whether they could get out of bed, walk 10 feet, turn around, and get back in bed without assistance, and if not, whether they could perform this task with a cane, walker, or assistance. Each participant was then asked to perform the task and was provided with a mobility device or assistance as needed. Of 272 patients who met eligibility criteria and answered the physical task question, 161 (59%) said they could do the task unassisted, 45 (17%) said they could do it with a cane or walker, 21 (8%) said they could do it with assistance, and 45 (17%) said they would be unable to do it even with assistance. Among those who said they could do the task either with or without assistance and who were subsequently willing to attempt the task (N=172), discrepancies between self-reported ability and actual performance were common. Of those who said they could perform the task without assistance, 12% required some assistance or were unable to complete the task. Of those who said they could perform the task with a cane or walker, 48% required either assistance or were unable to perform the task. Of those who said they could perform the task with assistance, 24% were unable to perform the task even with assistance. In this sample of older adults receiving care in the ED, the accuracy of their self-reported ability to perform a simple mobility task was poor, particularly for those who reported some need for assistance. For older adults being considered for discharge who report a need

  3. Structuring a risk-informed and performance-based process for optimization of regulation for Laguna Verde NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Hernandez, A.

    2001-01-01

    This work describes the plan for a process to incorporate into the regulatory activities the risk information derived from probabilistic risk assessments, as well as information generated by the periodic evaluation of the Maintenance Rule (MR, 10CFR50.65). The current status of the Laguna Verde NPP (LVNPP) risk analysis, PSA Level 1, allows determining in a reliable way the accident scenarios and the involved systems having significant impact on safety. The determination of system's risk significance allows carrying out a prioritization of safety issues to be evaluated and inspected; for example, operational events, changes to technical specifications, design modifications, inspection priorities, etc. In addition, complementary and basic information are the results generated by the performance monitoring of structures, systems and components (SSCs) under the scope of the MR. The SSCs performance trends are indicatives to focus evaluation and inspection activities on important issues. Then, with the reportability in short periods the performance evaluations of SSCs and the incorporation of a process of risk management, the evaluation and inspection activities will be directed to those risk significant systems showing degraded performance. Therefore, based on systems performance results and risk information, it is feasible to have certain flexibility or a better balance between the regulatory requirements. Inside this process, a consensus is needed with the utility to establish quality attributes for the plant-specific PSA, as well as the rules to be followed in the use of this tool and the kind of information to be reported for MR results. (author)

  4. The Politics of Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholt, Bente; Larsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Performance measurements are meant to improve public decision making and organizational performance. But performance measurements are far from always rational tools for problem solving, they are also political instruments. The central question addressed in this article is how performance...... impact on the political decision making process, as the focus on performance goals entails a kind of reductionism (complex problems are simplified), sequential decision making processes (with a division in separate policy issues) and short-sighted decisions (based on the need for making operational goals)....... measurement affects public policy. The aim is to conceptualize the political consequences of performance measurements and of special concern is how performance systems influence how political decisions are made, what kind of political decisions are conceivable, and how they are implemented. The literature...

  5. An Examination of Mastery- and Performance-Based Orientations in Strategic Communication Syllabi and Suggestions for Rhetorical and Pedagogical Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Elise M.; Gibson, Rhonda

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated syllabi (N = 87) from introductory advertising and public relations courses to examine to what extent and how stated course goals and assignments signal the overall learning orientation of a course and which type of learning orientation--mastery or performance--was most common. Mastery orientations emphasize intrinsic rewards,…

  6. Performance-based assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) ability among women with chronic widespread pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen; Amris, Kirstine; Fisher, Anne G

    2010-01-01

    Functional ability, including the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL), is considered a core outcome domain in chronic pain clinical trials and is usually assessed through generic or disease-specific self-report questionnaires. Research, however, indicates that self...

  7. Evaluating TCMS Train-to-Ground communication performances based on the LTE technology and discreet event simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouaziz, Maha; Yan, Ying; Kassab, Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    is shared between the train and different passengers. The simulation is based on the discrete-events network simulator Riverbed Modeler. Next, second step focusses on a co-simulation testbed, to evaluate performances with real traffic based on Hardware-In-The-Loop and OpenAirInterface modules. Preliminary...... (Long Term Evolution) network as an alternative communication technology, instead of GSM-R (Global System for Mobile communications-Railway) because of some capacity and capability limits. First step, a pure simulation is used to evaluate the network load for a high-speed scenario, when the LTE network...... simulation and co-simulation results show that LTE provides good performance for the TCMS traffic exchange in terms of packet delay and data integrity...

  8. Performance-Based Specifications of Workability Characteristics of Prestressed, Precast Self-Consolidating Concrete—A North American Prospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Hwang, Soo-Duck; Han, Ning-Xu

    2014-01-01

    Adequate selection of material constituents and test methods are necessary for workability specifications and performance of hardened concrete. An experimental program was performed to evaluate the suitability of various test methods for workability assessment and to propose performance specifications of prestressed concrete. In total, 33 self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixtures made with various mixture proportioning parameters, including maximum size and type of aggregate, type and content of binder, and w/cm were evaluated. Correlations among various test results used in evaluating the workability responses are established. It is recommended that SCC should have slump flow values of 635–760 mm. To ensure proper filling capacity greater than 80%, such concrete should have a passing ability that corresponds to L-box blocking ratio (h2/h1) ≥ 0.5, J-Ring flow of 570–685 mm, slump flow minus J-Ring flow diameter ≤75 mm. Moreover, Stable SCC should develop a column segregation index lower than 5%, and rate of settlement at 30 min of 0.27%/h for SCC proportioned with 12.5 or 9.5 mm MSA. It is recommended that SCC should have a plastic viscosity of 100–225 Pa·s and 100–400 Pa·s for concrete made with crushed aggregate and gravel, respectively, to ensure proper workability. PMID:28788578

  9. Performance-Based Specifications of Workability Characteristics of Prestressed, Precast Self-Consolidating Concrete-A North American Prospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Hwang, Soo-Duck; Han, Ning-Xu

    2014-03-27

    Adequate selection of material constituents and test methods are necessary for workability specifications and performance of hardened concrete. An experimental program was performed to evaluate the suitability of various test methods for workability assessment and to propose performance specifications of prestressed concrete. In total, 33 self-consolidating concrete (SCC) mixtures made with various mixture proportioning parameters, including maximum size and type of aggregate, type and content of binder, and w/cm were evaluated. Correlations among various test results used in evaluating the workability responses are established. It is recommended that SCC should have slump flow values of 635-760 mm. To ensure proper filling capacity greater than 80%, such concrete should have a passing ability that corresponds to L-box blocking ratio (h₂/h₁) ≥ 0.5, J-Ring flow of 570-685 mm, slump flow minus J-Ring flow diameter ≤75 mm. Moreover, Stable SCC should develop a column segregation index lower than 5%, and rate of settlement at 30 min of 0.27%/h for SCC proportioned with 12.5 or 9.5 mm MSA. It is recommended that SCC should have a plastic viscosity of 100-225 Pa·s and 100-400 Pa·s for concrete made with crushed aggregate and gravel, respectively, to ensure proper workability.

  10. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper. PMID:26230694

  11. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Molina-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors. Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  12. A Decentralized Wireless Solution to Monitor and Diagnose PV Solar Module Performance Based on Symmetrized-Shifted Gompertz Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Angel; Campelo, José Carlos; Blanc, Sara; Serrano, Juan José; García-Sánchez, Tania; Bueso, María C

    2015-07-29

    This paper proposes and assesses an integrated solution to monitor and diagnose photovoltaic (PV) solar modules based on a decentralized wireless sensor acquisition system. Both DC electrical variables and environmental data are collected at PV module level using low-cost and high-energy efficiency node sensors. Data is real-time processed locally and compared with expected PV module performances obtained by a PV module model based on symmetrized-shifted Gompertz functions (as previously developed and assessed by the authors). Sensor nodes send data to a centralized sink-computing module using a multi-hop wireless sensor network architecture. Such integration thus provides extensive analysis of PV installations, and avoids off-line tests or post-processing processes. In comparison with previous approaches, this solution is enhanced with a low-cost system and non-critical performance constraints, and it is suitable for extensive deployment in PV power plants. Moreover, it is easily implemented in existing PV installations, since no additional wiring is required. The system has been implemented and assessed in a Spanish PV power plant connected to the grid. Results and estimations of PV module performances are also included in the paper.

  13. Diagnostic colonoscopy: performance measurement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, Naomi

    2002-07-01

    This is the fifth of a series of best practices studies undertaken by the Performance Measurement Initiative (PMI), the centerpiece of the Institute for Quality Improvement (IQI), a not-for-profit quality improvement subsidiary of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC) (Performance Measurement Initiative, 1999a, 1999b, 2000a, 2000b). The IQI was created to offer clinical performance measurement and improvement opportunities to ambulatory health care organizations and others interested in quality patient care. The purpose of the study was to provide opportunities to initiate clinical performance measurement on key processes and outcomes for this procedure and use this information for clinical quality improvement. This article provides performance measurement information on how organizations that have demonstrated and validated differences in clinical practice can have similar outcomes, but at a dramatically lower cost. The intent of the article is to provide organizations with alternatives in practice to provide a better value to their patients.

  14. Stretchable Fiber Supercapacitors with High Volumetric Performance Based on Buckled MnO2 /Oxidized Carbon Nanotube Fiber Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingyang; Zu, Mei; Yu, Jinshan; Cheng, Haifeng; Li, Qingwen

    2017-03-01

    A stretchable fiber supercapacitor (SC) based on buckled MnO 2 /oxidized carbon nanotube (CNT) fiber electrode is fabricated by a simple prestraining-then-buckling method. The prepared stretchable fiber SC has a specific volumetric capacitance up to 409.4 F cm -3 , which is 33 times that of the pristine CNT fiber based SC, and shows the outstanding stability and repeatability in performance as a stretchable SC. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Conveyor Performance based on Motor DC 12 Volt Eg-530ad-2f using K-Means Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifin, Zaenal; Artini, Sri DP; Much Ibnu Subroto, Imam

    2017-04-01

    To produce goods in industry, a controlled tool to improve production is required. Separation process has become a part of production process. Separation process is carried out based on certain criteria to get optimum result. By knowing the characteristics performance of a controlled tools in separation process the optimum results is also possible to be obtained. Clustering analysis is popular method for clustering data into smaller segments. Clustering analysis is useful to divide a group of object into a k-group in which the member value of the group is homogeny or similar. Similarity in the group is set based on certain criteria. The work in this paper based on K-Means method to conduct clustering of loading in the performance of a conveyor driven by a dc motor 12 volt eg-530-2f. This technique gives a complete clustering data for a prototype of conveyor driven by dc motor to separate goods in term of height. The parameters involved are voltage, current, time of travelling. These parameters give two clusters namely optimal cluster with center of cluster 10.50 volt, 0.3 Ampere, 10.58 second, and unoptimal cluster with center of cluster 10.88 volt, 0.28 Ampere and 40.43 second.

  16. The effect of oxygen transfer mechanism on the cathode performance based on proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two types of proton-blocking composites, La2NiO4+δ-LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3-δ (LNO-LNF) and Sm0.2Ce0.8O2-δ-LaNi0.6Fe0.4O3-δ (SDC-LNF), were evaluated as cathode materials for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (H-SOFCs) based on the BaZr0.1Ce0.7Y0.2O3-δ (BZCY) electrolyte, in order to compare and investigate the influence of two different oxygen transfer mechanism on the performance of the cathode for H-SOFCs. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the chemical compatibility of the components in both compounds was excellent up to 1000°C. Electrochemical studies revealed that LNO-LNF showed lower area specific polarization resistances in symmetrical cells and better electrochemical performance in single cell tests. The single cell with LNO-LNF cathode generated remarkable higher maximum power densities (MPDs) and lower interfacial polarization resistances (Rp) than that with SDC-LNF cathode. Correspondingly, the MPDs of the single cell with the LNO-LNF cathode were 490, 364, 266, 180 mW cm-2 and the Rp were 0.103, 0.279, 0.587, 1.367 Ω cm2 at 700, 650, 600 and 550°C, respectively. Moreover, after the single cell with LNO-LNF cathode optimized with an anode functional layer (AFL) between the anode and electrolyte, the power outputs reached 708 mW cm-2 at 700°C. These results demonstrate that the LNO-LNF composite cathode with the interstitial oxygen transfer mechanism is a more preferable alternative for H-SOFCs than SDC-LNF composite cathode with the oxygen vacancy transfer mechanism.

  17. Masekitlana re-membered: A performance-based ethnography of South African black children’s pretend play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Ofenste Phetlhu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extensive empirical research inspired by Piaget and Vygotsky’s theories of make-believe play has been criticised for restricting data to western, urban, middle-class children. We seek to redress this bias by researching a traditional black South African Pedi children’s game Masekitlana. Our data relies on embodied memories enacted by Mapelo (one of the authors, and interviews of two other informants. The analytical framework draws upon ‘emergent methods’ in ethnography such as performance ethnography, autoethnography and memory elicitation through ‘bodynotes’ within a Vygotskyian orientation to play. The findings show that Masekitlana shares features common to all pretend play, but others unique to it  including: i extended monologue, ii metacommunicative frames for realistic thinking, and iii a complex relation between social and solitary play. These findings support Vygotsky. However, ‘the long childhood’ of Masekitlana suggests that the stages theory of Piaget, as well as  Vygotskyian ideas that have come down to us via Cole & Scribner and Valsiner, require revision in the light of Bruner’s two modes of cognition, and Veresov’s reinterpretation of the theatre movement, within which Vygotsky’s central ideas are embedded.

  18. Decisions concerning how to improve operator performance based on comparisons of successful and non-successful operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svenson, Ola

    1999-01-01

    One way of finding out how to improve operator training is to collect information from expert operators about how they select and process information when they act as experts. This strategy can be used when the information is not well structured, when expertise involves a very high level of skill and so forth. X-ray diagnosis, evaluations of organizations, judgments of rock and materials quality over very long time and investigations of cracks in ultrasonic tests exemplify areas in which human expertise plays an important role. Typically, in this kind of approach, a number of skilled experts are first selected and then they are compared to a control group of less successful individuals or non-experts (who can also in some cases be the candidates of the training program). The differences between the two groups are then used as a basis for designing training programs to improve the performance of the non-experts. Unfortunately, this approach has some pitfalls that may lead to undue optimism concerning the expected results of such training programs. This will be further elaborated and exemplified in this talk (full text of the contribution)

  19. Fabrication and investigation of a biocompatible microfilament with high mechanical performance based on regenerated bacterial cellulose and bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huan-Ling; Bremner, David H; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wu, Jun-Zi; Li, He-Yu; Wu, Jian-Rong; Niu, Shi-Wei; Zhu, Li-Min

    2017-10-01

    A high-strength regenerated bacterial cellulose (RBC)/bacterial cellulose (BC) microfilament of potential use as a biomaterial was successfully prepared via a wet spinning process. The BC not only consists of a 3-D network composed of nanofibers with a diameter of several hundred nanometers but also has a secondary structure consisting of highly oriented nanofibrils with a diameter ranging from a few nanometers to tens of nanometers which explains the reason for the high mechanical strength of BC. Furthermore, a strategy of partially dissolving BC was used and this greatly enhanced the mechanical performance of spun filament and a method called post-treatment was utilized to remove residual solvents from the RBC/BC filaments. A comparison of structure, properties, as well as cytocompatibility between BC nanofibers and RBC/BC microfilaments was achieved using morphology, mechanical properties, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay. The RBC/BC microfilament has a uniform groove structure with a diameter of 50-60μm and XRD indicated that the crystal form was transformed from cellulose Iα to cellulose III I and the degree of crystallinity of RBC/BC (33.22%) was much lower than the original BC (60.29%). The enzymatic hydrolysis assay proved that the RBC/BC material was more easily degraded than BC. ICP detection indicated that the residual amount of lithium was 0.07mg/g (w/w) and GC-MS analysis showed the residual amount of DMAc to be 8.51μg/g (w/w) demonstrating that the post-treatment process is necessary and effective for removal of residual materials from the RBC/BC microfilaments. Also, a cell viability assay demonstrated that after post-treatment the RBC/BC filaments had good cytocompatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Hill, L.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains summaries of the electric utilities performance-based rate plans for the following companies: Alabama Power Company; Central Maine Power Company; Consolidated Edison of New York; Mississippi Power Company; New York State Electric and Gas Corporation; Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation; PacifiCorp; Pacific Gas and Electric; Southern California Edison; San Diego Gas & Electric; and Tucson Electric Power. In addition, this document also contains information about LBNL`s Power Index and Incentive Properties of a Hybrid Cap and Long-Run Demand Elasticity.

  1. Developing Human Performance Measures (PSAM8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey C. Joe

    2006-01-01

    Through the reactor oversight process (ROP), the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) monitors the performance of utilities licensed to operate nuclear power plants. The process is designed to assure public health and safety by providing reasonable assurance that licensees are meeting the cornerstones of safety and designated crosscutting elements. The reactor inspection program, together with performance indicators (PIs), and enforcement activities form the basis for the NRC's risk-informed, performance based regulatory framework. While human performance is a key component in the safe operation of nuclear power plants and is a designated cross-cutting element of the ROP, there is currently no direct inspection or performance indicator for assessing human performance. Rather, when human performance is identified as a substantive cross cutting element in any 1 of 3 categories (resources, organizational or personnel), it is then evaluated for common themes to determine if follow-up actions are warranted. However, variability in human performance occurs from day to day, across activities that vary in complexity, and workgroups, contributing to the uncertainty in the outcomes of performance. While some variability in human performance may be random, much of the variability may be attributed to factors that are not currently assessed. There is a need to identify and assess aspects of human performance that relate to plant safety and to develop measures that can be used to successfully assure licensee performance and indicate when additional investigation may be required. This paper presents research that establishes a technical basis for developing human performance measures. In particular, we discuss: (1) how historical data already gives some indication of connection between human performance and overall plant performance, (2) how industry led efforts to measure and model human performance and organizational factors could serve as a data source and basis for a

  2. Facilities projects performance measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erben, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    The two DOE-owned facilities at Hanford, the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), and the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test Facility (FMIT), are described. The performance measurement systems used at these two facilities are next described

  3. Can performance-based incentives improve motivation of nurses and midwives in primary facilities in northern Ghana? A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aninanya, Gifty Apiung; Howard, Natasha; Williams, John E; Apam, Benjamin; Prytherch, Helen; Loukanova, Svetla; Kamara, Eunice Karanja; Otupiri, Easmon

    2016-01-01

    Lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce has emerged as the biggest barrier to scaling up health services provision in sub-Saharan Africa. As the global community commits to the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage, health workforce challenges are critical. In northern Ghana, performance-based incentives (PBIs) were introduced to improve health worker motivation and service quality. The goal of this study was to determine the impact of PBIs on maternal health worker motivation in two districts in northern Ghana. A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and post-intervention measurement was used. PBIs were implemented for 2 years in six health facilities in Kassena-Nankana District with six health facilities in Builsa District serving as comparison sites. Fifty pre- and post-intervention structured interviews and 66 post-intervention in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers. Motivation was assessed using constructs for job satisfaction, pride, intrinsic motivation, timelines/attendance, and organisational commitment. Quantitative data were analysed to determine changes in motivation between intervention and comparison facilities pre- and post-intervention using STATA™ version 13. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 to explore possible reasons for quantitative findings. PBIs were associated with slightly improved maternal health worker motivation. Mean values for overall motivation between intervention and comparison health workers were 0.6 versus 0.7 at baseline and 0.8 versus 0.7 at end line, respectively. Differences at baseline and end line were 0.1 ( p =0.40 and p =0.50 respectively), with an overall 0.01 difference in difference ( p =0.90). Qualitative interviews indicated that PBIs encouraged health workers to work harder and be more punctual, increasing reported pride and job satisfaction. The results contribute evidence on the effects of PBIs on motivational constructs among

  4. Can performance-based incentives improve motivation of nurses and midwives in primary facilities in northern Ghana? A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gifty Apiung Aninanya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of an adequate and well-performing health workforce has emerged as the biggest barrier to scaling up health services provision in sub-Saharan Africa. As the global community commits to the Sustainable Development Goals and universal health coverage, health workforce challenges are critical. In northern Ghana, performance-based incentives (PBIs were introduced to improve health worker motivation and service quality. Objective: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of PBIs on maternal health worker motivation in two districts in northern Ghana. Design: A quasi-experimental study design with pre- and post-intervention measurement was used. PBIs were implemented for 2 years in six health facilities in Kassena-Nankana District with six health facilities in Builsa District serving as comparison sites. Fifty pre- and post-intervention structured interviews and 66 post-intervention in-depth interviews were conducted with health workers. Motivation was assessed using constructs for job satisfaction, pride, intrinsic motivation, timelines/attendance, and organisational commitment. Quantitative data were analysed to determine changes in motivation between intervention and comparison facilities pre- and post-intervention using STATA™ version 13. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10 to explore possible reasons for quantitative findings. Results: PBIs were associated with slightly improved maternal health worker motivation. Mean values for overall motivation between intervention and comparison health workers were 0.6 versus 0.7 at baseline and 0.8 versus 0.7 at end line, respectively. Differences at baseline and end line were 0.1 (p=0.40 and p=0.50 respectively, with an overall 0.01 difference in difference (p=0.90. Qualitative interviews indicated that PBIs encouraged health workers to work harder and be more punctual, increasing reported pride and job satisfaction. Conclusions: The results contribute

  5. Performance Measures, Benchmarking and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Felicity

    This paper discusses performance measurement in university libraries, based on examples from the University of Wollongong (UoW) in Australia. The introduction highlights the integration of information literacy into the curriculum and the outcomes of a 1998 UoW student satisfaction survey. The first section considers performance indicators in…

  6. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising.

  7. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising

  8. Simplified study for the proposed APR1400 condenser performance based on EL-DABAA SITE, EGYPT, with respect to BNPP and SHIN KORI NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdoelatef, M. Gomaa; Rezk, Osama; Lee, YonKwan [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    • Perception of nuclear power as a convenient, economically competitive and viable source of energy which, if introduced in the country, would not only complement the traditional energy sources, but would also promote technological development and serve as an incentive for social and economic progress. In this paper we will introduce APR-1400 as the most likely selected reactor type for 1st Egyptian Nuclear Power Plant. Then we will study the optimized APR-1400 condenser performance based on El-Dabaa site conditions. As the climate conditions, especially the seawater temperatures (intake for the cooling system) having a direct effects on the condenser performance and the overall NPP Efficiency, we studied the seawater temperature change based on EL-Dabaa site conditions and it's feedback on the proposed APR-1400 condenser performance and the NPP efficiency. All of the calculations and analysis had been executed by using KINGS NPA by applying EL-Dabaa seawater temperature variations for the 2 types of APR-1400 Condensers (Shinkori, south Korea and Barakah, UAE), and the main findings were as follow: For the APR-1400 condensers (Shinkori and Barakah) performance • The average difference all over the year for saturation temperature, cooling water outlet temperature, and condenser pressure are 0.135 .deg. C, .05785 .deg. C, and 0.3948 mHgA respectively. This shows that the Barakah condenser performance is not significantly better than the shinkori condenser performance based on EL-Dabaa Conditions, especially if we considered the cost difference between the two condensers designs. For APR-1400 NPPs (Shinkori and Barakah) net efficiency • The average difference all over the year for the power productions and net efficiency are 1.4791 MWe and .00037 %, respectively.

  9. The Multiple Object Test as a Performance Based Tool to Assess Cognitive Driven Activity of Daily Living Function in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonnegger, Hannah; Beyle, Aline; Cerff, Bernhard; Gräber, Susanne; Csoti, Ilona; Berg, Daniela; Liepelt-Scarfone, Inga

    2016-07-06

    There is need for multidimensional quantitative assessment of cognitive driven activities of daily living (ADL) functions in Parkinson's disease (PD). To determine whether there is an ADL profile related to cognitive impairment in PD assessed by the Multiple Object Test (MOT). We assumed MOT performance to be lower in PD patients versus controls and in PD patients with more severe cognitive impairment. 50 PD patients with no cognitive impairment (PD-NC), 54 patients with PD-mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI), 29 with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), and 40 healthy controls (HC) were investigated. Besides comprehensive cognitive testing, the MOT, a performance based test consisting of five routine tasks (e.g., preparing a cup of coffee), was applied. Quantitative (total errors and time) and qualitative (error type) MOT parameters were analyzed. Total time and number of MOT errors was increased in PD patients compared to controls (p < 0.001). These parameters also differentiated PDD patients from other cognitive groups (p < 0.05). No control subject had ≥ 4 errors in the MOT, but 30% of PD patients, especially PDD, scored above this cut-off. Omission (p < 0.001) and mislocation (p < 0.03) errors were more prominent in PDD than other cognitive groups. Perplexity errors did not differ between PD-MCI and PDD but between PD-NC and PDD (p = 0.01). MOT parameters discriminating between cognitive groups correlated mainly with lower test performance in psychomotor speed and executive function. Performance based testing is promising to identify quantitative and qualitative ADL aspects differentiating between different cognitive groups which might be helpful for an early detection of PDD.

  10. Performance of biometric quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grother, Patrick; Tabassi, Elham

    2007-04-01

    We document methods for the quantitative evaluation of systems that produce a scalar summary of a biometric sample's quality. We are motivated by a need to test claims that quality measures are predictive of matching performance. We regard a quality measurement algorithm as a black box that converts an input sample to an output scalar. We evaluate it by quantifying the association between those values and observed matching results. We advance detection error trade-off and error versus reject characteristics as metrics for the comparative evaluation of sample quality measurement algorithms. We proceed this with a definition of sample quality, a description of the operational use of quality measures. We emphasize the performance goal by including a procedure for annotating the samples of a reference corpus with quality values derived from empirical recognition scores.

  11. Contribution analysis as an evaluation strategy in the context of a sector-wide approach: Performance-based health financing in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Noltze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sector-wide approaches (SWAps emerged as a response to donor fragmentation and non-adjusted and parallel programming. In the health sector, SWAps have received considerable support by the international donor community due to their potential to reduce inefficiencies through alignment to common procedures and hence to increase development effectiveness. Evaluating development cooperation in the context of a SWAp, however, translates into methodological challenges for evaluators who have to disentangle the cumulative effects in strongly donor-aligned, complex sector environments. In this article the authors discussed the application of a methodological strategy for evaluating development interventions in complex settings – for example in the context of a SWAp –and reflected the suitability of the approach. The authors conducted a contribution analysis, a theory-based approach to evaluation, and exemplified the approach for an intervention of performance-based financing for Rwandan health workers supported by the Rwanda-German cooperation. The findings suggested that the Rwandan system of performance based financing increased service orientation and outputs of health professionals, but also indicated that negative motivational side effects and resource constraints are real. With regard to the methodological approach, the authors conclude that contribution analysis has a high potential to evaluate development cooperation in the context of a SWAp dueto its high flexibility to use different data collection tools and its capability to assess risks and rival explanations. Challenges can be identified with regard to the efficiency of the evaluation strategy and a remaining trade-off between scope and causal strength ofevidence.

  12. Scalable Performance Measurement and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamblin, Todd [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Concurrency levels in large-scale, distributed-memory supercomputers are rising exponentially. Modern machines may contain 100,000 or more microprocessor cores, and the largest of these, IBM's Blue Gene/L, contains over 200,000 cores. Future systems are expected to support millions of concurrent tasks. In this dissertation, we focus on efficient techniques for measuring and analyzing the performance of applications running on very large parallel machines. Tuning the performance of large-scale applications can be a subtle and time-consuming task because application developers must measure and interpret data from many independent processes. While the volume of the raw data scales linearly with the number of tasks in the running system, the number of tasks is growing exponentially, and data for even small systems quickly becomes unmanageable. Transporting performance data from so many processes over a network can perturb application performance and make measurements inaccurate, and storing such data would require a prohibitive amount of space. Moreover, even if it were stored, analyzing the data would be extremely time-consuming. In this dissertation, we present novel methods for reducing performance data volume. The first draws on multi-scale wavelet techniques from signal processing to compress systemwide, time-varying load-balance data. The second uses statistical sampling to select a small subset of running processes to generate low-volume traces. A third approach combines sampling and wavelet compression to stratify performance data adaptively at run-time and to reduce further the cost of sampled tracing. We have integrated these approaches into Libra, a toolset for scalable load-balance analysis. We present Libra and show how it can be used to analyze data from large scientific applications scalably.

  13. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  14. Performance Measurement of Research Activitities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Peyton, Margit Malmmose

    Performance measurements have made their entry into the world of universities. Every research activity is registered in a database and the output measures form the foundation for managerial decisions. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the registration practices among researchers...... the registrations as a way to be promoted and to legitimise and account for their work; on the other hand, the economic incentives behind ranking lists and bibliographic research indicators threaten the individual researcher's freedom. The findings also show how managers have difficulties in translating back...

  15. The Effects of Supplementary Low-Load Blood Flow Restriction Training on Morphological and Performance-Based Adaptations in Team Sport Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brendan R; Peiffer, Jeremiah J; Goods, Paul S R

    2017-08-01

    Scott, BR, Peiffer, JJ, and Goods, PSR. The effects of supplementary low-load blood flow restriction training on morphological and performance-based adaptations in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2147-2154, 2017-Low-load resistance training with blood flow restriction (BFR) may be a method to enhance muscular development even in trained athletes. This study aimed to assess whether supplemental low-load BFR training can improve muscle size, strength, and physical performance characteristics in team sport athletes. Twenty-one semiprofessional Australian football athletes were assessed for 3-repetition maximum (3RM) and muscular endurance in the back squat, vastus lateralis muscle architecture, and performance in sprint and vertical jump tasks. Participants then undertook a 5-week training program, consisting of normal high-load resistance training supplemented by low-load squats with (LLBFR) or without (LL) BFR. Participants also performed regular conditioning and football training during this period. After the training intervention, participants again completed the pretraining testing battery. Squat 3RM and endurance increased from pretraining levels in both LL (3RM = 12.5% increase; endurance = 24.1% increase; p ≤ 0.007) and LLBFR (3RM = 12.3% increase; endurance = 21.2% increase; p = 0.007) groups, though there were no between-group differences. No post-training changes were observed for muscle architecture, or performance in sprinting and jumping tasks. Although squat 3RM and endurance performance increased in both groups, adding BFR during supplemental exercise did not enhance these responses. Similarly, there were no large differences in the assessments of sprint, acceleration, and jumping performance between the groups after training. These findings suggest that although LLBFR did not negatively affect adaptive responses to resistance training, this training strategy may not provide added benefit for healthy Australian football athletes

  16. From performance measurement to learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Jenny; Triantafillou, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Over the last few decades accountability has accommodated an increasing number of different political, legal and administrative goals. This article focuses on the administrative aspect of accountability and explores the potential perils of a shift from performance measurement to learning. While...... overload. We conclude with some comments on limiting the undesirable consequences of such a move. Points for practitioners Public administrators need to identify and weigh the (human, political and economic) benefits and costs of accountability regimes. While output-focused performance measurement regimes...... to comply with accountability requirements, because of the first point. Third, the costs of compliance are likely to increase because learning requires more participation and dialogue. Fourth, accountability as learning may generate a ‘change for the sake of change’ mentality, creating further government...

  17. Performance-based ratemaking for electric utilities: Review of plans and analysis of economic and resource-planning issues. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comnes, G.A.; Stoft, S.; Greene, N. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hill, L.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1995-11-01

    Performance-Based Ratemaking (PBR) is a form of utility regulation that strengthens the financial incentives to lower rates, lower costs, or improve nonprice performance relative traditional regulation, which the authors call cost-of-service, rate-of-return (COS/ROR) regulation. Although the electric utility industry has considerable experience with incentive mechanisms that target specific areas of performance, implementation of mechanisms that cover a comprehensive set of utility costs or services is relatively rare. In recent years, interest in PBR has increased as a result of growing dissatisfaction with COS/ROR and as a result of economic and technological trends that are leading to more competition in certain segments of the electricity industry. In addition, incentive regulation has been used with some success in other public utility industries, most notably telecommunications in the US and telecommunications, energy, and water in the United Kingdom. In this report, the authors analyze comprehensive PBR mechanisms for electric utilities in four ways: (1) they describe different types of PBR mechanisms, (2) they review a sample of actual PBR plans, (3) they consider the interaction of PBR and utility-funded energy efficiency programs, and (4) they examine how PBR interacts with electric utility resource planning and industry restructuring. The report should be of interest to technical staff of utilities and regulatory commissions that are actively considering or designing PBR mechanisms. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. The Development of a Scientific Evaluation System of Force-on-Force (FOF) Exercise for Performance-based Regulation in Nuclear Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Moonsung; Jung, Myungtak

    2015-01-01

    A terrorist attack or sabotage at a nuclear facility could lead result in a great amount of loss of life and social chaos, in addition to serious radiological damage. As threats have been evolved more intelligent, divergent, advanced, the international societies including IAEA encourage for all member states to establish the performance-based regulation using Forceon- Force (FOF) exercise, computer simulation. Consequently, the performance evaluation for physical protection at nuclear facilities should focus on properly reacting to threat scenarios. Physical protection should also include detecting, blocking, delaying, interrupting including the human and technical factors the adversary having malicious intention of the realistic main threat element before he accomplishes the goal based on Design Basis Threat (DBT). After the completion of the FOF evaluation system, KINAC will evaluate, and later strengthen its overall security program in response to changes in the threat environment, technological advancements, and lessons learned. As a result, substantial improvements to a nuclear facility security can be predicted. These improvements will focus on a plant security force, physical barriers, intrusion detection systems, surveillance systems, and access controls. Through the building a Force-on-Force scientific evaluation system, KINAC will establish an efficient physical protection implementation system for nuclear energy facilities

  19. The Development of a Scientific Evaluation System of Force-on-Force (FOF) Exercise for Performance-based Regulation in Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Moonsung; Jung, Myungtak [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    A terrorist attack or sabotage at a nuclear facility could lead result in a great amount of loss of life and social chaos, in addition to serious radiological damage. As threats have been evolved more intelligent, divergent, advanced, the international societies including IAEA encourage for all member states to establish the performance-based regulation using Forceon- Force (FOF) exercise, computer simulation. Consequently, the performance evaluation for physical protection at nuclear facilities should focus on properly reacting to threat scenarios. Physical protection should also include detecting, blocking, delaying, interrupting including the human and technical factors the adversary having malicious intention of the realistic main threat element before he accomplishes the goal based on Design Basis Threat (DBT). After the completion of the FOF evaluation system, KINAC will evaluate, and later strengthen its overall security program in response to changes in the threat environment, technological advancements, and lessons learned. As a result, substantial improvements to a nuclear facility security can be predicted. These improvements will focus on a plant security force, physical barriers, intrusion detection systems, surveillance systems, and access controls. Through the building a Force-on-Force scientific evaluation system, KINAC will establish an efficient physical protection implementation system for nuclear energy facilities.

  20. Opcode counting for performance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gara, Alan; Satterfield, David L.; Walkup, Robert E.

    2018-03-20

    Methods, systems and computer program products are disclosed for measuring a performance of a program running on a processing unit of a processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises informing a logic unit of each instruction in the program that is executed by the processing unit, assigning a weight to each instruction, assigning the instructions to a plurality of groups, and analyzing the plurality of groups to measure one or more metrics. In one embodiment, each instruction includes an operating code portion, and the assigning includes assigning the instructions to the groups based on the operating code portions of the instructions. In an embodiment, each type of instruction is assigned to a respective one of the plurality of groups. These groups may be combined into a plurality of sets of the groups.

  1. [Negotiation of a heath policy controversy: application of an indirect dialogue approach to performance-based financing in sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitu, Serge Mayaka; Lushimba, Michel Muvudi; Macq, Jean; Meessen, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the controversy around performance-based financing (PBF) and its contribution to the reform of health systems. It aims to reduce tensions between the different camps by restructuring the debate. Our approach was to organize an indirect dialogue between critics and supporters of PBF, based on the framework developed by Norman Daniels. This analytical framework is non-partisan and uses clear and objective criteria. The interviews were carried out in two rounds (first the critics, then the supporters) and were then analyzed. Parts of answers were regrouped according to the most common sectoral themes while also highlighting major areas of disagreement. The interviews revealed some areas of convergence around PBF; the strategy is considered to be a complementary strategy to other strategies; such as those which aim to improving financial access to health care. The analysis also revealed disagreements based on misunderstandings of claims often ascribed to PBF, or lack of sufficient evidence, or asymmetrical information between experts. Several questions polarize PBF discussions. However, better structuring of convergent and divergent areas and arguments should facilitate a synthesis, at least to some extent. Experts need to adopt an objective approach with universally accepted criteria, for the benefit of all.

  2. Performance measurement and pay for performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Kleingeld, P.A.M.; Algera, J.A.; Rutten, M.L.; Sonnentag, S.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter, which takes a (re)design perspective, focuses on the management of employees’ contributions to organisational goal attainment. The control loop for the self-regulation of task performance is used as a frame of reference. Several subsets of design requirements are described and related

  3. Is it all about the money? A qualitative exploration of the effects of performance-based financial incentives on Zimbabwe's voluntary male medical circumcision program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caryl Feldacker

    Full Text Available In 2013, Zimbabwe's voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC program adopted performance-based financing (PBF to speed progress towards ambitious VMMC targets. The $25 USD PBF intended to encourage low-paid healthcare workers to remain in the public sector and to strengthen the public healthcare system. The majority of the incentive supports healthcare workers (HCWs who perform VMMC alongside other routine services; a small portion supports province, district, and facility levels.This qualitative study assessed the effect of the PBF on HCW motivation, satisfaction, and professional relationships. The study objectives were to: 1 Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the HCW level; 2 Gain understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of PBF at the site level; and 3 Inform scale up, modification, or discontinuation of PBF for the national VMMC program. Sixteen focus groups were conducted: eight with HCWs who received PBF for VMMC and eight with HCWs in the same clinics who did not work in VMMC and, therefore, did not receive PBF. Fourteen key informant interviews ascertained administrator opinion.Findings suggest that PBF appreciably increased motivation among VMMC teams and helped improve facilities where VMMC services are provided. However, PBF appears to contribute to antagonism at the workplace, creating divisiveness that may reach beyond VMMC. PBF may also cause distortion in the healthcare system: HCWs prioritized incentivized VMMC services over other routine duties. To reduce workplace tension and improve the VMMC program, participants suggested increasing HCW training in VMMC to expand PBF beneficiaries and strengthening integration of VMMC services into routine care.In the low-resource, short-staffed context of Zimbabwe, PBF enabled rapid VMMC scale up and achievement of ambitious targets; however, side effects make PBF less advantageous and sustainable than envisioned. Careful consideration is warranted in

  4. A study on the implementation fidelity of the performance-based financing policy in Burkina Faso after 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodson, Oriane; Barro, Ahmed; Turcotte-Tremblay, Anne-Marie; Zanté, Nestor; Somé, Paul-André; Ridde, Valéry

    2018-01-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) in the health sector has recently gained momentum in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as one of the ways forward for achieving Universal Health Coverage. The major principle underlying PBF is that health centers are remunerated based on the quantity and quality of services they provide. PBF has been operating in Burkina Faso since 2011, and as a pilot project since 2014 in 15 health districts randomly assigned into four different models, before an eventual scale-up. Despite the need for expeditious documentation of the impact of PBF, caution is advised to avoid adopting hasty conclusions. Above all, it is crucial to understand why and how an impact is produced or not. Our implementation fidelity study approached this inquiry by comparing, after 12 months of operation, the activities implemented against what was planned initially and will make it possible later to establish links with the policy's impacts. Our study compared, in 21 health centers from three health districts, the implementation of activities that were core to the process in terms of content, coverage, and temporality. Data were collected through document analysis, as well as from individual interviews and focus groups with key informants. In the first year of implementation, solid foundations were put in place for the intervention. Even so, implementation deficiencies and delays were observed with respect to certain performance auditing procedures, as well as in payments of PBF subsidies, which compromised the incentive-based rationale to some extent. Over next months, efforts should be made to adjust the intervention more closely to context and to the original planning.

  5. 76 FR 20438 - Proposed Model Performance Measures for State Traffic Records Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... and well-defined: The measures are appropriate and understandable. Performance based: The measures are defined by data system performance, not supporting activities or milestones: ``awarded a contract'' or... consistent with values that are properly calculated. Important: The measures capture the essence of this...

  6. Context matters (but how and why?) A hypothesis-led literature review of performance based financing in fragile and conflict-affected health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertone, Maria Paola; Falisse, Jean-Benoît; Russo, Giuliano; Witter, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) schemes have been expanding rapidly across low and middle income countries in the past decade, with considerable external financing from multilateral, bilateral and global health initiatives. Many of these countries have been fragile and conflict-affected (FCAS), but while the influence of context is acknowledged to be important to the operation of PBF, there has been little examination of how it affects adoption and implementation of PBF. This article lays out initial hypotheses about how FCAS contexts may influence the adoption, adaption, implementation and health system effects of PBF. These are then interrogated through a review of available grey and published literature (140 documents in total, covering 23 PBF schemes). We find that PBF has been more common in FCAS contexts, which were also more commonly early adopters. Very little explanation of the rationale for its adoption, in particular in relation with the contextual features, is given in programme documents. However, there are a number of factors which could explain this, including the greater role of external actors and donors, a greater openness to institutional reform, and lower levels of trust within the public system and between government and donors, all of which favour more contractual approaches. These suggest that rather than emerging despite fragility, conditions of fragility may favour the rapid emergence of PBF. We also document few emerging adaptations of PBF to humanitarian settings and limited evidence of health system effects which may be contextually driven, but these require more in-depth analysis. Another area meriting more study is the political economy of PBF and its diffusion across contexts.

  7. How does performance-based financing affect health workers' intrinsic motivation? A Self-Determination Theory-based mixed-methods study in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Muula, Adamson S; Houlfort, Nathalie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2018-07-01

    "Intrinsic motivation crowding out", the erosion of high-quality, sustainable motivation through the introduction of financial incentives, is one of the most frequently discussed but yet little researched potential unfavorable consequence of Performance-based Financing (PBF). We used the opportunity of the introduction of PBF in Malawi to investigate whether and how PBF affected intrinsic motivation, using a mixed-methods research design theoretically grounded in Self-Determination Theory (SDT). The quantitative component served to estimate the impact of PBF on intrinsic motivation, relying on a controlled pre- and post-test design, with data collected from health workers in 23 intervention and 10 comparison facilities before (March/April 2013; n = 70) and approximately two years after (June/July 2015; n = 71) the start of the intervention. The qualitative component, relying on in-depth interviews with health workers in selected intervention facilities one (April 2014; n = 21) and two (September 2015; n = 20) years after the start of PBF, served to understand how PBF did or did not bring about change in intrinsic motivation. Specifically, it allowed us to examine how the various motivation-relevant elements and consequences of PBF impacted health workers' basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, which SDT postulates as central to intrinsic motivation. Our results suggest that PBF did not affect health workers' overall intrinsic motivation levels, with the intervention having had both positive and negative effects on psychological needs satisfaction. To maximize positive PBF effects on intrinsic motivation, our results underline the potential value of explicit strategies to mitigate unintended negative impact of unavoidable design, implementation, and contextual challenges, for instance by building autonomy support activities into PBF designs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crowding out or no crowding out? A Self-Determination Theory approach to health worker motivation in performance-based financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmann, Julia; Houlfort, Nathalie; De Allegri, Manuela

    2016-11-01

    Performance-based financing (PBF) is a common health system reform approach in low and middle income countries at present. Although increasing evidence on the effectiveness of PBF and knowledge of principles of good design are available, research is still lacking in regards to other aspects. Among these are a yet limited understanding of the complex role of health worker motivation in PBF and of potential side effects, for instance on intrinsic motivation. Our article aims to support meaningful future research by advancing the theoretical discussion around health worker motivation and PBF. We argue that an in-depth understanding of the motivational mechanisms and consequences of PBF at health worker level are of high practical relevance and should be at the heart of the PBF research agenda, and that predominant unidimensional conceptualizations of health worker motivation and descriptive rather than explanatory research approaches are insufficient to fully understand whether, how, and why PBF schemes alter health workers' motivational structures, mindsets, affect, and behavior. We introduce and apply Self-Determination Theory to the context of PBF as a valuable theoretical framework for future empirical exploration. From this, we conclude that PBF interventions are unlikely to have a generally adverse effect on intrinsic motivation as feared by parts of the PBF community. Rather, we posit that PBF can have positive and negative effects on both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, to varying degrees depending on the specific design, implementation, and results of a particular intervention and on health workers' perceptions and evaluations of it. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Performance measurement for information systems: Industry perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Peter C.; Yoes, Cissy; Hamilton, Kay

    1992-01-01

    Performance measurement has become a focal topic for information systems (IS) organizations. Historically, IS performance measures have dealt with the efficiency of the data processing function. Today, the function of most IS organizations goes beyond simple data processing. To understand how IS organizations have developed meaningful performance measures that reflect their objectives and activities, industry perspectives on IS performance measurement was studied. The objectives of the study were to understand the state of the practice in IS performance techniques for IS performance measurement; to gather approaches and measures of actual performance measures used in industry; and to report patterns, trends, and lessons learned about performance measurement to NASA/JSC. Examples of how some of the most forward looking companies are shaping their IS processes through measurement is provided. Thoughts on the presence of a life-cycle to performance measures development and a suggested taxonomy for performance measurements are included in the appendices.

  10. 45 CFR 305.2 - Performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.2 Performance measures. (a) The child support incentive system measures State performance levels in five program areas... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance measures. 305.2 Section 305.2 Public...

  11. Virtual Design Studio (VDS) - Development of an Integrated Computer Simulation Environment for Performance Based Design of Very-Low Energy and High IEQ Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yixing [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Zhang, Jianshun [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Pelken, Michael [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Gu, Lixing [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Rice, Danial [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Meng, Zhaozhou [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Semahegn, Shewangizaw [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Feng, Wei [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Ling, Francesca [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Shi, Jun [Building Energy and Environmental Systems Lab. (BEESL), Syracuse, NY (United States); Henderson, Hugh [CDH Energy, Cazenovia, NY (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Executive Summary The objective of this study was to develop a “Virtual Design Studio (VDS)”: a software platform for integrated, coordinated and optimized design of green building systems with low energy consumption, high indoor environmental quality (IEQ), and high level of sustainability. This VDS is intended to assist collaborating architects, engineers and project management team members throughout from the early phases to the detailed building design stages. It can be used to plan design tasks and workflow, and evaluate the potential impacts of various green building strategies on the building performance by using the state of the art simulation tools as well as industrial/professional standards and guidelines for green building system design. Engaged in the development of VDS was a multi-disciplinary research team that included architects, engineers, and software developers. Based on the review and analysis of how existing professional practices in building systems design operate, particularly those used in the U.S., Germany and UK, a generic process for performance-based building design, construction and operation was proposed. It distinguishes the whole process into five distinct stages: Assess, Define, Design, Apply, and Monitoring (ADDAM). The current VDS is focused on the first three stages. The VDS considers building design as a multi-dimensional process, involving multiple design teams, design factors, and design stages. The intersection among these three dimensions defines a specific design task in terms of “who”, “what” and “when”. It also considers building design as a multi-objective process that aims to enhance the five aspects of performance for green building systems: site sustainability, materials and resource efficiency, water utilization efficiency, energy efficiency and impacts to the atmospheric environment, and IEQ. The current VDS development has been limited to energy efficiency and IEQ performance, with particular focus

  12. Performance-based incentives may be appropriate to address challenges to delivery of prevention of vertical transmission of HIV services in rural Mozambique: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Roseanne C; de Sousa, Octávio; Rivera, Jacqueline; Olson, Rebecca; Pinault, Delphine; Young, Sera L

    2016-10-07

    Performance-based incentives (PBIs) have garnered global attention as a promising strategy to improve healthcare delivery to vulnerable populations. However, literature gaps in the context in which an intervention is implemented and how the PBIs were developed exist. Therefore, we (1) characterized the barriers and promoters to prevention of vertical transmission of HIV (PVT) service delivery in rural Mozambique, where the vertical transmission rate is 12 %, and (2) assessed the appropriateness for a PBI's intervention and application to PVT. We conducted 24 semi-structured interviews with nurses, volunteers, community health workers, and traditional birth attendants about the barriers and promoters they experienced delivering PVT services. We then explored emergent themes in subsequent focus group discussions (n = 7, total participants N = 92) and elicited participant perspectives on PBIs. The ecological motivation-opportunity-ability framework guided our iterative data collection and thematic analysis processes. The interviews revealed that while all health worker cadres were motivated intrinsically and by social recognition, they were dissatisfied with low and late remuneration. Facility-based staff were challenged by factors across the rest of the ecological levels, primarily in the opportunity domain, including the following: poor referral and record systems (work mandate), high workload, stock-outs, poor infrastructure (facility environment), and delays in obtaining patient results and donor payment discrepancies (administrative). Community-based cadres' opportunity challenges included lack of supplies, distance (work environment), lack of incorporation into the health system (administration), and ability challenges of incorrect knowledge (health worker). PBIs based on social recognition and that enable action on intrinsic motivation through training, supervision, and collaboration were thought to have the most potential for targeting improvements

  13. DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO THE EBIT CONSTRUCTION AND THEIR IMPACT ON CORPORATE FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BASED ON THE RETURN ON ASSETS: SOME EVIDENCE FROM CZECH TOP100 COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Strouhal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses ways of measuring the financial performance of businesses. The aim is to determine to what extent the form of profit calculation influences value of return on assets (hereinafter referred to as ‘ROA’, which is frequently used as an indicator for measuring financial performance. The theoretical part is focused on the comparative analysis of accounting data based on Czech practices and IFRS with the in-depth focus on interest charges and reporting requirements. There is discussed the topic of objective and subjective measurement of financial performance. In the practical part, ROA is calculated using a profit in two forms of its construction. There are evaluated TOP 100 Czech companies in order to assess the differences in the final values of the tested indicator. The results are linked to the capital structure of the analysed companies and prove that the level of indebtedness influences the difference in the ROA calculations when different kinds of profit are used. In the case of the companies with higher indebtedness, it is more appropriate to compare the ROA indicators based on the nominator containing earnings before interest and taxes. It shall be concluded that this is a pioneer study of this topic in the Czech Republic and probably also in the CEE region.

  14. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  15. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anton, A

    2010-01-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  16. In situ performance curves measurements of large pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, A.

    2010-08-01

    The complex energetic system on the river Lotru in Romania comprises of a series of lakes and pumping stations and a major hydroelectric power plant: Lotru-Ciunget. All the efforts have been oriented towards the maintenance of the Pelton turbines and very little attention has been directed to the pumps. In the system, there are three large pumping stations and only in the last 5 years, the pump performances have become a concern. The performances where determined using portable ultrasonic flow meters, a Yates meter, precision manometers and appropriate electrical equipment for power measurement (Power Analiser - NORMA D4000 LEM). The measurements are not supposed to interfere with the normal operation so only a limited number of tests could be performed. Based on those tests, portions of the test curves have been measured and represented in specific diagrams.

  17. Mobility and reliability performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This project grew out of the fact that mobility was identified early on as one of the key performance focus areas of NCDOTs : strategic transformation effort. The Transformation Management Team (TMT) established a TMT Mobility Workstream Team : in...

  18. Allocating organisational level funding on the basis of Research Performance Based assessments, a comparative analysis of the EU Member States in international perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkers, K.; Zacharewicz, T.; Lepori, B.; Reale, E.

    2016-07-01

    The paper analyses the extent to which RPBF allocation mechanisms are being implemented in Europe. To do so, this study builds on a novel set of data on project and organisational level funding developed for the European Commission, which identifies funding allocation mechanisms in each of the EU-28 Member States. This approach allows to compare the scope of RPBF systems across European countries.Further, the paper build on an in-depth analysis of RPBF implementation in 28 European countries, which comes to a classification of different types of RPBF implementation around three characteristics, i.e. a) the way research performance is measured and b) the type of link between performance assessment and allocation of resources. The analysis furthermore identifies a number of good practices while highlighting the potential for adverse effects of RPBF systems in research systems at different stages of development. (Author)

  19. Traffic Management Systems Performance Measurement: Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James H.; Kelly, Gregory

    1997-01-01

    This report documents a study of performance measurement for Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Performance measurement requirements were analyzed, data collection and management techniques were investigated, and case study traffic data system improvement plans were prepared for two Caltrans districts.

  20. Performance measurement and insurance liabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantinga, A; Huijgen, C

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors develop an attribution framework for evaluating the investment performance of institutional investors such as insurance companies. The model is useful in identifying the investment skills of insurance companies. This is accomplished by developing a dual benchmark for the

  1. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 2: Human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; Technical issues related to rulemakings; Risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; High burn-up fuel research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following: (1) human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; (2) technical issues related to rulemakings; (3) risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; and (4) high burn-up fuel research

  2. Twenty-fifth water reactor safety information meeting: Proceedings. Volume 2: Human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; Technical issues related to rulemakings; Risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; High burn-up fuel research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This three-volume report contains papers presented at the conference. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Japan, Norway, and Russia. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. This volume contains the following: (1) human reliability analysis and human performance evaluation; (2) technical issues related to rulemakings; (3) risk-informed, performance-based initiatives; and (4) high burn-up fuel research. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Eva versus Other Performance Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Hechmi Soumaya

    2013-01-01

    Create value not only intended to satisfy shareholders. This is also the way to ensure the ability of the company to ensure its sustainability and finance its growth. The company will not attract new capital if it destroys value. "The concept of value creation is none other than the intersection of strategy (create value) and technique (evaluate the company)"(Powilewicz, 2002). The basic idea behind the different measures of value creation by a company is that a company creates value for its ...

  4. Static and dynamic measures of frailty predicted decline in performance-based and self-reported physical functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puts, M.T.E.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Deeg, D.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of frailty on decline in physical functioning and to examine if chronic diseases modify this effect. METHODS: The study sample was derived from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam and included respondents with initial ages 65 and over at T(2) (1995/1996), who

  5. Internet Performance and Reliability Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-01-01

    Collaborative HEP research is dependent on good Internet connectivity. Although most local- and wide-area networks are carefully watched, there is little monitoring of connections that cross many networks. This paper describes work in progress at several sites to monitor Internet end-to-end performance between hundreds of HEP sites worldwide. At each collection site, ICMP ping packets are automatically sent periodically to sites of interest. The data is recorded and made available to analysis nodes, which collect the data from multiple collection sites and provide analysis and graphing. Future work includes improving the efficiency and accuracy of ping data collection

  6. Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drewry, Gavin; Greve, Carsten; Tanquerel, Thierry

    This book addresses issues to do with public accountability, audit and performance measurement that are both highly topical and of crucial importance to the theory and practice of public administration in an era of contractualized public management. The literature on public sector contracting...... of audit and accountability in a variety of countries and contexts; the third part offers some wider, cross-cutting perspectives. Based on the work of the EGPA permanent study group on the history of contractualization, Contracts, Performance Measurement and Accountability in the Public Sector draws upon...... - covering both 'hard' agreements (ones that are legally enforceable) and 'soft' agreements (enforced by negotiation and mutual trust) - has been growing for some time and the present book adds a primarily European perspective on contracting, performance-based management and accountability. One important...

  7. PRINCIPLES OF THE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    BEATA ŒLUSARCZYK; SEBASTIAN KOT

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of performance in every business management is a crucial activity allowing for effectiveness increase. The lack of suitable performance measurement is especially noticed in complex systems as supply chains. Responsible persons cannot manage effectively without suitable set of measures those are base for comparison to previous data or effects of other supply chain functioning. The analysis shows that it is very hard to find balanced set of supply chain performance measures those sh...

  8. Performance Measurement in Global Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    there is a requirement for the process to be monitored and measured relative to the business strategy of an organisation. It was found that performance measurement is a process that helps achieve sustainable business success, encouraging a learning culture within organisations. To this day, much of the research into how...... performance is measured has focussed on the process of product development. However, exploration of performance measurement related to global product development is relatively unexplored and a need for further research is evident. This paper contributes towards understanding how performance is measured...

  9. Health Plan Performance Measurement within Medicare Subvention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    the causes of poor performance (Siren & Laffel, 1996). Although outcomes measures such as nosocomial infection rates, admission rates for select...defined. Traditional outcomes measures include infection rates, morbidity, and mortality. The problem with these traditional measures is... Maternal /Child Care Indicators Nursing Staffing Indicators Outcome Indicators Technical Outcomes Plan Performance Stability of Health Plan

  10. Enhanced NH{sub 3} gas sensing performance based on electrospun alkaline-earth metals composited SnO{sub 2} nanofibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shuang [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Kan, Kan [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Daqing Branch, Heilongjiang Academy of Sciences, Daqing 163319 (China); Yang, Ying; Jiang, Chao [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Gao, Jun [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Department of Chemistry, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Jing, Liqiang [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Shen, Peikang [Department of Physics and Engineering Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Li, E-mail: llwjjhlju@sina.cn [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering Process and Technology for High-efficiency Conversion, School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China); and others

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The small-sized SnO{sub 2} (5–7 nm) were obtained by adding the alkaline-earth. • Sr-composited SnO{sub 2} nanofibers showed uniform nanotubes structure (Sr/SnO{sub 2}). • Sr/SnO{sub 2} showed an excellent sensing performance to NH{sub 3} at room temperature. - Abstract: One-dimensional alkaline-earth metals composited SnO{sub 2} (Ae/SnO{sub 2}) nanofibres were fabricated via electrospinning technique, followed by thermal treatment at 600 °C for 5 h. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies showed that the nanoparticles size of Ae/SnO{sub 2} was 5–7 nm, which was smaller than the pristine SnO{sub 2} nanorods attached by 20 nm nanoparticles. Moreover, Sr/SnO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed uniform nanotubes structure with the wall thickness of about 30 nm, in which all the nanoparticles were connected to their neighbors by necks. The Sr/SnO{sub 2} nanotubes exhibited an excellent sensing response toward NH{sub 3} gas at room temperature, lower detection limit (10 ppm), faster response time (6 s towards 2000 ppm∼16 s towards 10 ppm) and better reversibility compared to the pristine SnO{sub 2} nanorods. The enhanced sensor performances were attributed to the higher conductivity of the Sr/SnO{sub 2}. Mott–Schottky plots (M–S) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements indicated that the carrier density of Sr/SnO{sub 2} nanotubes was 3 fold of that pristine SnO{sub 2}.

  11. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  12. Measuring Distribution Performance? Benchmarking Warrants Your Attention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Sean J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Alvarez, Paul [The Wired Group

    2018-04-13

    Identifying, designing, and measuring performance metrics is critical to securing customer value, but can be a difficult task. This article examines the use of benchmarks based on publicly available performance data to set challenging, yet fair, metrics and targets.

  13. Synthesis of work-zone performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main objective of this synthesis was to identify and summarize how agencies collect, analyze, and report different work-zone : traffic-performance measures, which include exposure, mobility, and safety measures. The researchers also examined comm...

  14. Measuring the performance of business incubators

    OpenAIRE

    VANDERSTRAETEN, Johanna; MATTHYSSENS, Paul; VAN WITTELOOSTUIJN, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on incubator performance measurement. First, we report the findings of an extensive literature review. Both existing individual measures and more comprehensive measurement systems are discussed. This literature review shows that most incubator researchers and practitioners only use one or a few indicators for performance evaluation, and that existing measurement systems do not recognize the importance of short, medium and long-term results, do not always include an incubato...

  15. The service of public services performance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2014-01-01

    that performance measurement serves as “rituals of verification” which promotes the interests of political masters and their mistresses rather than public service. Another area of concern is the cost of performance measurement. Hood & Peters (2004:278) note that performance measurement is likely to “distract...... measurement suggests a range of contested and contradictory propositions. Its alleged benefits include public assurance, better functioning of supply markets for public services, and direct improvements of public services. But the literature also demonstrates the existence of significant concern about...... the actual impact, the costs and unintended consequences associated with performance measurement. This paper identifies the main rationales and rationalities in the scholarly discourse on public services performance measurement. It concludes with some suggestions on how to deal with the many rationales...

  16. COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Ioana Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of economic research has been and remains the re-evaluation of the notion of performance and especially exploring and finding some indicators that would reflect as accurately as possible the subtleties of the economic entity. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main company performance measurement and reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on company performance measurement. If the financial performance measurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performance measurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performance measurement, reporting and interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performance measurement methods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the company performance measurement than the non-financial indicators do.

  17. A Critique of Health System Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Health system performance measurement is a ubiquitous phenomenon. Many authors have identified multiple methodological and substantive problems with performance measurement practices. Despite the validity of these criticisms and their cross-national character, the practice of health system performance measurement persists. Theodore Marmor suggests that performance measurement invokes an "incantatory response" wrapped within "linguistic muddle." In this article, I expand upon Marmor's insights using Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework to suggest that, far from an aberration, the "linguistic muddle" identified by Marmor is an indicator of a broad struggle about the representation and classification of public health services as a public good. I present a case study of performance measurement from Alberta, Canada, examining how this representational struggle occurs and what the stakes are. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Does hospital financial performance measure up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1992-05-01

    Comparisons are continuously being made between the financial performance, products and services, of the healthcare industry and those of non-healthcare industries. Several useful measures of financial performance--profitability, liquidity, financial risk, asset management and replacement, and debt capacity, are used by the authors to compare the financial performance of the hospital industry with that of the industrial, transportation and utility sectors. Hospitals exhibit weaknesses in several areas. Goals are suggested for each measure to bring hospitals closer to competitive levels.

  19. On music performance, theories, measurement en diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.; Honing, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of musical performances is of interest to studies in musicology, music psychology and music performance practice, but in general it has not been considered the main issue: when analyzing Western classical music, these disciplines usually focus on the score rather than the performance.

  20. Development of a Behavioral Performance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cabus Klotzle

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the fifties, several measures have been developed in order to measure the performance of investments or choices involving uncertain outcomes. Much of these measures are based on Expected Utility Theory, but since the nineties a number of measures have been proposed based on Non-Expected Utility Theory. Among the Theories of Non-Expected Utility highlights Prospect Theory, which is the foundation of Behavioral Finance. Based on this theory this study proposes a new performance measure in which are embedded loss aversion along with the likelihood of distortions in the choice of alternatives. A hypothetical example is presented in which various performance measures, including the new measure are compared. The results showed that the ordering of the assets varied depending on the performance measure adopted. According to what was expected, the new performance measure clearly has captured the distortion of probabilities and loss aversion of the decision maker, ie, those assets with the greatest negative deviations from the target were those who had the worst performance.

  1. Performance measures for a dialysis setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiuzhu; Itoh, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    This study from Japan extracted performance measures for dialysis unit management and investigated their characteristics from professional views. Two surveys were conducted using self-administered questionnaires, in which dialysis managers/staff were asked to rate the usefulness of 44 performance indicators. A total of 255 managers and 2,097 staff responded. Eight performance measures were elicited from dialysis manager and staff responses: these were safety, operational efficiency, quality of working life, financial effectiveness, employee development, mortality, patient/employee satisfaction and patient-centred health care. These performance measures were almost compatible with those extracted in overall healthcare settings in a previous study. Internal reliability, content and construct validity of the performance measures for the dialysis setting were ensured to some extent. As a general trend, both dialysis managers and staff perceived performance measures as highly useful, especially for safety, mortality, operational efficiency and patient/employee satisfaction, but showed relatively low concerns for patient-centred health care and employee development. However, dialysis managers' usefulness perceptions were significantly higher than staff. Important guidelines for designing a holistic hospital/clinic management system were yielded. Performance measures must be balanced for outcomes and performance shaping factors (PSF); a common set of performance measures could be applied to all the healthcare settings, although performance indicators of each measure should be composed based on the application field and setting; in addition, sound causal relationships between PSF and outcome measures/indicators should be explored for further improvement. © 2017 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.

  2. Development of a model performance-based sign sheeting specification based on the evaluation of nighttime traffic signs using legibility and eye-tracker data : data and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report presents data and technical analyses for Texas Department of Transportation Project 0-5235. This : project focused on the evaluation of traffic sign sheeting performance in terms of meeting the nighttime : driver needs. The goal was to de...

  3. The development and evaluation of a performance-based standards approach for regulating the use of heavy vehicles in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available in the provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga. Evaluation focused on improvements in productivity (fuel efficiency and trip reduction) and load control with reference to initial results regarding road wear and safety performance....

  4. Development of a model performance-based sign sheeting specification based on the evaluation of nighttime traffic signs using legibility and eye-tracker data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This project focused on the evaluation of traffic sign sheeting performance in terms of meeting the nighttime : driver needs. The goal was to develop a nighttime driver needs specification for traffic signs. The : researchers used nighttime sign legi...

  5. Measuring Human Performance within Computer Security Incident Response Teams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, Jonathan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avina, Glory Emmanuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Human performance has become a pertinen t issue within cyber security. However, this research has been stymied by the limited availability of expert cyber security professionals. This is partly attributable to the ongoing workload faced by cyber security professionals, which is compound ed by the limited number of qualified personnel and turnover of p ersonnel across organizations. Additionally, it is difficult to conduct research, and particularly, openly published research, due to the sensitivity inherent to cyber ope rations at most orga nizations. As an alternative, the current research has focused on data collection during cyb er security training exercises. These events draw individuals with a range of knowledge and experience extending from seasoned professionals to recent college gradu ates to college students. The current paper describes research involving data collection at two separate cyber security exercises. This data collection involved multiple measures which included behavioral performance based on human - machine transactions and questionnaire - based assessments of cyber security experience.

  6. MEASUREMENT: ACCOUNTING FOR RELIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  7. Towards integrating environmental performance in divisional performance measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins C Ngwakwe

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper suggests an integration of environmental performance measurement (EPM into conventional divisional financial performance measures as a catalyst to enhance managers’ drive toward cleaner production and sustainable development. The approach is conceptual and normative; and using a hypothetical firm, it suggests a model to integrate environmental performance measure as an ancillary to conventional divisional financial performance measures. Vroom’s motivation theory and other literature evidence indicate that corporate goals are achievable in an environment where managers’ efforts are recognised and thus rewarded. Consequently the paper suggests that environmentally motivated managers are important to propel corporate sustainability strategy toward desired corporate environmental governance and sustainable economic development. Thus this suggested approach modestly adds to existing environmental management accounting (EMA theory and literature. It is hoped that this paper may provide an agenda for further research toward a practical application of the suggested method in a firm.

  8. Introduction to control system performance measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, K C

    1968-01-01

    Introduction to Control System Performance Measurements presents the methods of dynamic measurements, specifically as they apply to control system and component testing. This book provides an introduction to the concepts of statistical measurement methods.Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the applications of automatic control systems that pervade almost every area of activity ranging from servomechanisms to electrical power distribution networks. This text then discusses the common measurement transducer functions. Other chapters consider the basic wave

  9. Internal Performance Measurement Systems: Problems and Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Morten; Mitchell, Falconer; Nørreklit, Hanne

    2010-01-01

    This article pursues two aims: to identify problems and dangers related to the operational use of internal performance measurement systems of the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) type and to provide some guidance on how performance measurement systems may be designed to overcome these problems....... The analysis uses and extends N rreklit's (2000) critique of the BSC by applying the concepts developed therein to contemporary research on the BSC and to the development of practice in performance measurement. The analysis is of relevance for many companies in the Asia-Pacific area as an increasing numbers...

  10. Risk Factors for Reoperation and Performance-Based Outcomes After Operative Fixation of Foot Fractures in the Professional Athlete: A Cross-Sport Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sameer K; Larkin, Kevin E; Kadakia, Anish R; Hsu, Wellington K

    Professional athletes are predisposed to fractures of the foot due to large stresses placed on the lower extremity. These players are concerned with efficiently returning to play at a high level. Return-to-play rates after operative treatment have been previously reported, yet performance outcomes after such treatment are generally unknown in this population. Overall, professional athletes sustaining a foot fracture would return to play at high rates with little impact on postoperative performance or league participation. However, National Football League (NFL) athletes would have a significantly greater decline in performance due to the high-impact nature of the sport. Case series. Level 4. Athletes in the National Basketball League (NBA), NFL, Major League Baseball (MLB), and National Hockey League (NHL) undergoing operative fixation of a foot fracture were identified through a well-established protocol confirmed by multiple sources of the public record. Return-to-play rate and time to return were collected for each sport. League participation and game performance data were collected before and after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed, with significance accepted as P ≤ 0.05. A total of 77 players undergoing 84 procedures met the inclusion criteria. Overall, 98.7% (76/77) of players were able to return to play, with a median time to return across all sports of 137 days. Players returned to preoperative performance levels within 1 season of surgery. Six players (7.8%) sustained refracture requiring reoperation, all of whom were in the NBA. Percentage of games started during the season after primary operative treatment was a predictive factor for reinjury (99% vs 40%, P = 0.001). Athletes returned to play at a high rate after foot fracture fixation, with excellent postoperative performance levels, regardless of sport and fracture location. NBA athletes sustaining fifth metatarsal and navicular fractures are at greater risk of reinjury compared with other

  11. Long-term deficits in episodic memory after ischemic stroke: evaluation and prediction of verbal and visual memory performance based on lesion characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Eveline A.; Schiemanck, Sven K.; Brand, Nico; Post, Marcel W. M.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between ischemic lesion characteristics (hemispheric side, cortical and subcortical level, volume) and memory performance, 1 year after stroke. Verbal and visual memory of 86 patients with stroke were assessed with Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test and the Doors

  12. Measurement uncertainty analysis techniques applied to PV performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to provide a brief introduction to measurement uncertainty analysis, outline how it is done, and illustrate uncertainty analysis with examples drawn from the PV field, with particular emphasis toward its use in PV performance measurements. The uncertainty information we know and state concerning a PV performance measurement or a module test result determines, to a significant extent, the value and quality of that result. What is measurement uncertainty analysis? It is an outgrowth of what has commonly been called error analysis. But uncertainty analysis, a more recent development, gives greater insight into measurement processes and tests, experiments, or calibration results. Uncertainty analysis gives us an estimate of the I interval about a measured value or an experiment's final result within which we believe the true value of that quantity will lie. Why should we take the time to perform an uncertainty analysis? A rigorous measurement uncertainty analysis: Increases the credibility and value of research results; allows comparisons of results from different labs; helps improve experiment design and identifies where changes are needed to achieve stated objectives (through use of the pre-test analysis); plays a significant role in validating measurements and experimental results, and in demonstrating (through the post-test analysis) that valid data have been acquired; reduces the risk of making erroneous decisions; demonstrates quality assurance and quality control measures have been accomplished; define Valid Data as data having known and documented paths of: Origin, including theory; measurements; traceability to measurement standards; computations; uncertainty analysis of results

  13. Performance measurement in transport sector analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Išoraitė

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the following issues: 1. Performance measurement in literature. The performance measurement has an important role to play in the efficient and effective management of organizations. Kaplan and Johnson highlighted the failure of the financial measures to reflect changes in the competitive circumstances and strategies of modern organizations. Many authors have focused attention on how organizations can design more appropriate measurement systems. Based on literature, consultancy experience and action research, numerous processes have been developed that organizations can follow in order to design and implement systems. Many frameworks have been proposed that support these processes. The objective of such frameworks is to help organizations define a set of measures that reflect their objectives and assess their performance appropriately. 2. Transport sector performance and its impacts measuring. The purpose of transport measurement is to identify opportunities enhancing transport performance. Successful transport sector management requires a system to analyze its efficiency and effectiveness as well as plan interventions if transport sector performance needs improvement. Transport impacts must be measurable and monitorable so that the person responsible for the project intervention can decide when and how to influence them. Performance indicators provide a means to measure and monitor impacts. These indicators essentially reflect quantitative and qualitative aspects of impacts at given time and places. 3. Transport sector output and input. Transport sector inputs are the resources required to deliver transport sector outputs. Transport sector inputs are typically: human resources, particularly skilled resources (including specialists consulting inputs; technology processes such as equipment and work; and finance, both public and private. 4. Transport sector policy and institutional framework; 5. Cause – effect linkages; 6

  14. Road weather management performance measures : 2012 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    In 2007, the Road Weather Management Program (RWMP) conducted a study with stakeholders from the transportation and meteorological communities to define eleven performance measures that would enable the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to determ...

  15. Performance measures for metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Performance measurement is a topic of increasing importance to transportation agencies, as issues with : funding shortfalls and concerns about transportation system efficiency lead to a shift in how transportation : decision making is carried out. In...

  16. Smart city performance measurement framework. CITYkeys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Airaksinen, M.; Seppa, I.P.; Huovilla, A.; Neumann, H.M.; Iglar, B.; Bosch, P.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a holistic performance measurement framework for harmonized and transparent monitoring and comparability of the European cities activities during the implementation of Smart City solutions. The work methodology was based on extensive collaboration and communication with European

  17. A study on effects of the best human resource management methods on employee performance based on Guest model: A case study of Charmahal-Bakhtiari Gas distribution firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Valikhani Dehaghani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human resource management plays an essential role on the success of any business units such as utility firms. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the effects of different human resource management on employee performance. The proposed study is applied on one of gas distribution units in province of Charmahal-Bakhtiari, which is located west part of Iran. There were 161 people working for this firm where 75 employees were working in center of province and 86 employees were working in other sides of province. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 0.83, which is well above the minimum desirable limit. The study uses Pearson correlation test to investigate the effects of Hiring system, Training system, Job design, Organizational relationship and Share ownership programs on employee performance. The results of our survey indicate that job design is the most important technique for employee management followed by training system, organizational relationship and share ownership programs.

  18. Work zone performance measures pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  19. ASUPT Automated Objective Performance Measurement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Wayne L.; And Others

    To realize its full research potential, a need exists for the development of an automated objective pilot performance evaluation system for use in the Advanced Simulation in Undergraduate Pilot Training (ASUPT) facility. The present report documents the approach taken for the development of performance measures and also presents data collected…

  20. Balancing performance-based expectations with a holistic perspective on coaching: a qualitative study of Swedish women's national football team coaches' practice experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Barker-Ruchti, Natalie

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how an exclusive sample of women's national football team coaches described how they implement careful coaching while facing social and organizational pressure to win medals. To consider coaches' negotiations, we drew on Noddings' concept of caring. Using an interpretive research paradigm, we conducted in-depth interviews with five Swedish women's national football team coaches. An abductive approach was used to simultaneously process the theoretical framework of "ethics of care" and the empirical data. The coaches unanimously adopted a holistic perspective to coaching. The coaching strategies they described included promoting players' development, well-being, and sustainable elite performance; listening to the players' voices and engaging in dialogue; and creating a positive environment and promoting fair play. These findings demonstrate that the women coaches, despite performance pressure, adopt caring coaching in the form of Noddings' pedagogical modelling, dialogue, and confirmation strategies, and provide an example of how coaches can adopt caring, holistic, and athlete-centred coaching while working at the highest level of competitive sport and achieving competitive success.