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Sample records for performance parameters including

  1. Revisiting Hansen Solubility Parameters by Including Thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, Manuel J; Fernández-Maldonado, Ana María; Rousseau, Simon; Moreau-Masselon, Chloe; Roux, Bernard; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2017-01-01

    The Hansen solubility parameter approach is revisited by implementing the thermodynamics of dissolution and mixing. Hansen's pragmatic approach has earned its spurs in predicting solvents for polymer solutions, but for molecular solutes improvements are needed. By going into the details of entropy

  2. Including Organizational Cultural Parameters in Work Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Handley, Holly A; Heacox, Nancy J

    2004-01-01

    ... between decision-makers of different nationalities. In addition to nationality, a decision-maker is also a member of an organization and brings this organizational culture to his role in the work process, where it may also affect his task performance...

  3. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called ... However, there are other parameters which are fairly good indicators ... Whereas a final deciding factor reflecting on .... matter of a future work.

  4. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called figure-of-merit = 2 / , where , and refer respectively to the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the thermoelement material. However, there are other parameters which are fairly good ...

  5. The Vulnerability of Some Networks including Cycles via Domination Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufan Turaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Let G=(V(G,E(G be an undirected simple connected graph. A network is usually represented by an undirected simple graph where vertices represent processors and edges represent links between processors. Finding the vulnerability values of communication networks modeled by graphs is important for network designers. The vulnerability value of a communication network shows the resistance of the network after the disruption of some centers or connection lines until a communication breakdown. The domination number and its variations are the most important vulnerability parameters for network vulnerability. Some variations of domination numbers are the 2-domination number, the bondage number, the reinforcement number, the average lower domination number, the average lower 2-domination number, and so forth. In this paper, we study the vulnerability of cycles and related graphs, namely, fans, k-pyramids, and n-gon books, via domination parameters. Then, exact solutions of the domination parameters are obtained for the above-mentioned graphs.

  6. Calculation of the collective mass-parameter including RPA corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, M.K.; Zawischa, D.; Speth, J.

    1975-01-01

    A derivation of the vibrational mass-parameter B is given which makes the consistency with RPA calculations explicit. The expected enhancement by the residual particle-hole and particle-particle interaction is demonstrated by solving the quasiparticle-RPA for deformed nuclei in the rare earth region. (orig.) [de

  7. Power extraction calculation improvement when local parameters are included

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Mateos, L. M.; Hartnett, M.

    2016-02-01

    The improvement of the tidal resource assessment will be studied by comparing two approaches in a two-dimensional, finite difference, hydrodynamic model DIVAST-ADI; in a channel of non-varying cross-sectional area that connects two large basins. The first strategy, considers a constant trust coefficient; the second one, use the local field parameters around the turbine. These parameters are obtained after applying the open channel theory in the tidal stream and after considering the turbine as a linear momentum actuator disk. The parameters correspond to the upstream and downstream, with respect to the turbine, speeds and depths; also the blockage ratio, the wake velocity and the bypass coefficients and they have already been incorporated in the model. The figure (a) shows the numerical configuration at high tide developed with DIVAST-ADI. The experiment undertakes two open boundary conditions. The first one is a sinusoidal forcing introduced as a water level located at (I, J=1) and the second one, indicate that a zero velocity and a constant water depth were kept (I, J=362); when the turbine is introduced it is placed in the middle of the channel (I=161, J=181). The influence of the turbine in the velocity and elevation around the turbine region is evident; figure (b) and (c) shows that the turbine produces a discontinuity in the depth and velocity profile, when we plot a transect along the channel. Finally, the configuration implemented reproduced with satisfactory accuracy the quasi-steady flow condition, even without presenting shock-capturing capability. Also, the range of the parameters 0.01<α 4<0.55, $0

  8. Improving weather predictability by including land-surface model parameter uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Rene; Dutra, Emanuel; Pappenberger, Florian

    2016-04-01

    The land surface forms an important component of Earth system models and interacts nonlinearly with other parts such as ocean and atmosphere. To capture the complex and heterogenous hydrology of the land surface, land surface models include a large number of parameters impacting the coupling to other components of the Earth system model. Focusing on ECMWF's land-surface model HTESSEL we present in this study a comprehensive parameter sensitivity evaluation using multiple observational datasets in Europe. We select 6 poorly constrained effective parameters (surface runoff effective depth, skin conductivity, minimum stomatal resistance, maximum interception, soil moisture stress function shape, total soil depth) and explore their sensitivity to model outputs such as soil moisture, evapotranspiration and runoff using uncoupled simulations and coupled seasonal forecasts. Additionally we investigate the possibility to construct ensembles from the multiple land surface parameters. In the uncoupled runs we find that minimum stomatal resistance and total soil depth have the most influence on model performance. Forecast skill scores are moreover sensitive to the same parameters as HTESSEL performance in the uncoupled analysis. We demonstrate the robustness of our findings by comparing multiple best performing parameter sets and multiple randomly chosen parameter sets. We find better temperature and precipitation forecast skill with the best-performing parameter perturbations demonstrating representativeness of model performance across uncoupled (and hence less computationally demanding) and coupled settings. Finally, we construct ensemble forecasts from ensemble members derived with different best-performing parameterizations of HTESSEL. This incorporation of parameter uncertainty in the ensemble generation yields an increase in forecast skill, even beyond the skill of the default system. Orth, R., E. Dutra, and F. Pappenberger, 2016: Improving weather predictability by

  9. Constraining cosmological parameters with observational data including weak lensing effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)], E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.cn; Liu Jie [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Sun Lei; Fan Zuhui [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tao Charling; Tilquin, Andre [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3-Luminy and Universite de la Mediterranee, Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, PO Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2009-05-11

    In this Letter, we study the cosmological implications of the 100 square degree Weak Lensing survey (the CFHTLS-Wide, RCS, VIRMOS-DESCART and GaBoDS surveys). We combine these weak lensing data with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements from the WMAP5, BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, ACBAR, the SDSS LRG matter power spectrum and the Type Ia Supernoave (SNIa) data with the 'Union' compilation (307 sample), using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to determine the cosmological parameters, such as the equation-of-state (EoS) of dark energy w, the density fluctuation amplitude {sigma}{sub 8}, the total neutrino mass {sigma}m{sub {nu}} and the parameters associated with the power spectrum of the primordial fluctuations. Our results show that the {lambda}CDM model remains a good fit to all of these data. In a flat universe, we obtain a tight limit on the constant EoS of dark energy, w=-0.97{+-}0.041 (1{sigma}). For the dynamical dark energy model with time evolving EoS parameterized as w{sub de}(a)=w{sub 0}+w{sub a}(1-a), we find that the best-fit values are w{sub 0}=-1.064 and w{sub a}=0.375, implying the mildly preference of Quintom model whose EoS gets across the cosmological constant boundary during evolution. Regarding the total neutrino mass limit, we obtain the upper limit, {sigma}m{sub {nu}}<0.471 eV (95% C.L.) within the framework of the flat {lambda}CDM model. Due to the obvious degeneracies between the neutrino mass and the EoS of dark energy model, this upper limit will be relaxed by a factor of 2 in the framework of dynamical dark energy models. Assuming that the primordial fluctuations are adiabatic with a power law spectrum, within the {lambda}CDM model, we find that the upper limit on the ratio of the tensor to scalar is r<0.35 (95% C.L.) and the inflationary models with the slope n{sub s}{>=}1 are excluded at more than 2{sigma} confidence level. In this Letter we pay particular attention to the contribution from the weak lensing data and

  10. Network optimization including gas lift and network parameters under subsurface uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze-Riegert, R.; Baffoe, J.; Pajonk, O. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Badalov, H.; Huseynov, S. [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). ITE; Trick, M. [SPT Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Optimization of oil and gas field production systems poses a great challenge to field development due to complex and multiple interactions between various operational design parameters and subsurface uncertainties. Conventional analytical methods are capable of finding local optima based on single deterministic models. They are less applicable for efficiently generating alternative design scenarios in a multi-objective context. Practical implementations of robust optimization workflows integrate the evaluation of alternative design scenarios and multiple realizations of subsurface uncertainty descriptions. Production or economic performance indicators such as NPV (Net Present Value) are linked to a risk-weighted objective function definition to guide the optimization processes. This work focuses on an integrated workflow using a reservoir-network simulator coupled to an optimization framework. The work will investigate the impact of design parameters while considering the physics of the reservoir, wells, and surface facilities. Subsurface uncertainties are described by well parameters such as inflow performance. Experimental design methods are used to investigate parameter sensitivities and interactions. Optimization methods are used to find optimal design parameter combinations which improve key performance indicators of the production network system. The proposed workflow will be applied to a representative oil reservoir coupled to a network which is modelled by an integrated reservoir-network simulator. Gas-lift will be included as an explicit measure to improve production. An objective function will be formulated for the net present value of the integrated system including production revenue and facility costs. Facility and gas lift design parameters are tuned to maximize NPV. Well inflow performance uncertainties are introduced with an impact on gas lift performance. Resulting variances on NPV are identified as a risk measure for the optimized system design. A

  11. Identifying the connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Guse

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In hydrological models, parameters are used to represent the time-invariant characteristics of catchments and to capture different aspects of hydrological response. Hence, model parameters need to be identified based on their role in controlling the hydrological behaviour. For the identification of meaningful parameter values, multiple and complementary performance criteria are used that compare modelled and measured discharge time series. The reliability of the identification of hydrologically meaningful model parameter values depends on how distinctly a model parameter can be assigned to one of the performance criteria. To investigate this, we introduce the new concept of connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria. The connective strength assesses the intensity in the interrelationship between model parameters and performance criteria in a bijective way. In our analysis of connective strength, model simulations are carried out based on a latin hypercube sampling. Ten performance criteria including Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE, Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE and its three components (alpha, beta and r as well as RSR (the ratio of the root mean square error to the standard deviation for different segments of the flow duration curve (FDC are calculated. With a joint analysis of two regression tree (RT approaches, we derive how a model parameter is connected to different performance criteria. At first, RTs are constructed using each performance criterion as the target variable to detect the most relevant model parameters for each performance criterion. Secondly, RTs are constructed using each parameter as the target variable to detect which performance criteria are impacted by changes in the values of one distinct model parameter. Based on this, appropriate performance criteria are identified for each model parameter. In this study, a high bijective connective strength between model parameters and performance criteria

  12. A tool for standardized collector performance calculations including PVT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perers, Bengt; Kovacs, Peter; Olsson, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    A tool for standardized calculation of solar collector performance has been developed in cooperation between SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, DTU Denmark and SERC Dalarna University. The tool is designed to calculate the annual performance of solar collectors at representative locations...... can be tested and modeled as a thermal collector, when the PV electric part is active with an MPP tracker in operation. The thermal collector parameters from this operation mode are used for the PVT calculations....

  13. Performance parameters of a standalone PV plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Fathi, Amine; Nkhaili, Lahcen; Bennouna, Amin; Outzourhit, Abdelkader

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We described in details a photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (Essaouira Morocco – 7.2 kWp). • We presented the results of monitoring and some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve. • We discussed the energy management of the plant which is based on the droop mode control. • We presented and discussed the yields and the performance ratio of the plant. - Abstract: In this work we present a detailed description of a 7.2 kWp photovoltaic power plant installed in the remote rural village Elkaria (province of Essaouira in Morocco). This plant supplies 16 households with electricity through a local grid that was installed for this purpose. The results of monitoring some performance parameters of the plant such as load curve, the yields and the performance ratio are presented and discussed. The performance ratio of the PV plant varied between 33% and 70.2%. The low values of this parameter are mainly attributed to the way the battery inverter manages the energy flow

  14. Nomogram including pretherapeutic parameters for prediction of survival after SIRT of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fendler, Wolfgang Peter; Ilhan, Harun; Paprottka, Philipp M.; Jakobs, Tobias F.; Heinemann, Volker; Bartenstein, Peter; Haug, Alexander R.; Khalaf, Feras; Ezziddin, Samer; Hacker, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Pre-therapeutic prediction of outcome is important for clinicians and patients in determining whether selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is indicated for hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre-therapeutic characteristics of 100 patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) treated by radioembolization were analyzed to develop a nomogram for predicting survival. Prognostic factors were selected by univariate Cox regression analysis and subsequent tested by multivariate analysis for predicting patient survival. The nomogram was validated with reference to an external patient cohort (n = 25) from the Bonn University Department of Nuclear Medicine. Of the 13 parameters tested, four were independently associated with reduced patient survival in multivariate analysis. These parameters included no liver surgery before SIRT (HR:1.81, p = 0.014), CEA serum level ≥ 150 ng/ml (HR:2.08, p = 0.001), transaminase toxicity level ≥2.5 x upper limit of normal (HR:2.82, p = 0.001), and summed computed tomography (CT) size of the largest two liver lesions ≥10 cm (HR:2.31, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for our prediction model was 0.83 for the external patient cohort, indicating superior performance of our multivariate model compared to a model ignoring covariates. The nomogram developed in our study entailing four pre-therapeutic parameters gives good prediction of patient survival post SIRT. (orig.)

  15. Nomogram including pretherapeutic parameters for prediction of survival after SIRT of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Munich (Germany); Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Paprottka, Philipp M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Jakobs, Tobias F. [Hospital Barmherzige Brueder, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter; Haug, Alexander R. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Khalaf, Feras [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Pre-therapeutic prediction of outcome is important for clinicians and patients in determining whether selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is indicated for hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre-therapeutic characteristics of 100 patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) treated by radioembolization were analyzed to develop a nomogram for predicting survival. Prognostic factors were selected by univariate Cox regression analysis and subsequent tested by multivariate analysis for predicting patient survival. The nomogram was validated with reference to an external patient cohort (n = 25) from the Bonn University Department of Nuclear Medicine. Of the 13 parameters tested, four were independently associated with reduced patient survival in multivariate analysis. These parameters included no liver surgery before SIRT (HR:1.81, p = 0.014), CEA serum level ≥ 150 ng/ml (HR:2.08, p = 0.001), transaminase toxicity level ≥2.5 x upper limit of normal (HR:2.82, p = 0.001), and summed computed tomography (CT) size of the largest two liver lesions ≥10 cm (HR:2.31, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for our prediction model was 0.83 for the external patient cohort, indicating superior performance of our multivariate model compared to a model ignoring covariates. The nomogram developed in our study entailing four pre-therapeutic parameters gives good prediction of patient survival post SIRT. (orig.)

  16. Calculation of proton-deuteron phase parameters including the Coulomb force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Sandhas, W.; Ziegelmann, H.

    1985-04-01

    A previously proposed exact method for including the Coulomb force in three-body collisions is applied to proton-deuteron scattering. We present phase shifts for angular momenta up to L=9, from elastic threshold to 50 MeV proton laboratory energy. Separable rank-one potentials are taken for the nuclear interactions. A charge-independent and a charge-symmetric choise, while leading to different neutron-deuteron and proton-deuteron phase parameters, nevertheless yields practically the same Coulomb corrections. We, moreover, investigate the question of P-wave resonances.A critical comparison of our results with those obtained in a co-ordinate space formalism is performed. Furthermore, proposals for an approximate inclusion of the Coulomb potential are tested, and found unsatisfactory. (orig.)

  17. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  18. Changes in bone mineral metabolism parameters, including FGF23, after discontinuing cinacalcet at kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Xoana; Fuster, David; Paschoalin, Raphael; Oppenheimer, Federico; Rubello, Domenico; Perlaza, Pilar; Pons, Francesca; Torregrosa, Jose V

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the effects of the administration of cinacalcet in dialytic patients who are scheduled for kidney transplantation, and in particular about the changes in FGF23 and other mineral metabolism parameters after surgery compared with recipients not on cinacalcet at kidney transplantation. We performed a prospective observational cohort study with recruitment of consecutive kidney transplant recipients at our institution. Patients were classified according to whether they were under treatment with cinacalcet before transplantation. Bone mineral metabolism parameters, including C-terminal FGF23, were measured at baseline, on day 15, and at 1, 3, and 6 months after transplantation. In previously cinacalcet-treated patients, cinacalcet therapy was discontinued on the day of surgery and was not restarted after transplantation. A total of 48 kidney transplant recipients, 20 on cinacalcet at surgery and 28 cinacalcet non-treated patients, completed the follow-up. Serum phosphate declined significantly in the first 15 days after transplantation with no differences between the two groups, whereas cinacalcet-treated patients showed higher FGF23 levels, although not significant. After transplantation, PTH and serum calcium were significantly higher in cinacalcet-treated patients. We conclude that patients receiving cinacalcet on dialysis presented similar serum phosphate levels but higher PTH and serum calcium levels during the initial six months after kidney transplantation than cinacalcet non-treated patients. The group previously treated with cinacalcet before transplantation showed higher FGF23 levels without significant differences, so further studies should investigate its relevance in the management of these patients.

  19. Performance parameters of electric power distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, M.Th.; Lima, J.W.M.

    1992-01-01

    The aspects referring to the evaluation of distribution system reliability are presented: consumers, companies and regulator institutes. The different strategies for fixing of probabilistic criterions of performance are mentioned, including the economic valorization of continuity restriction of electric supply. (C.G.C.)

  20. Interim performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBlasio, R.; Forman, S.; Hogan, S.; Nuss, G.; Post, H.; Ross, R.; Schafft, H.

    1980-12-01

    This document is a response to the Photovoltaic Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-590) which required the generation of performance criteria for photovoltaic energy systems. Since the document is evolutionary and will be updated, the term interim is used. More than 50 experts in the photovoltaic field have contributed in the writing and review of the 179 performance criteria listed in this document. The performance criteria address characteristics of present-day photovoltaic systems that are of interest to manufacturers, government agencies, purchasers, and all others interested in various aspects of photovoltaic system performance and safety. The performance criteria apply to the system as a whole and to its possible subsystems: array, power conditioning, monitor and control, storage, cabling, and power distribution. They are further categorized according to the following performance attributes: electrical, thermal, mechanical/structural, safety, durability/reliability, installation/operation/maintenance, and building/site. Each criterion contains a statement of expected performance (nonprescriptive), a method of evaluation, and a commentary with further information or justification. Over 50 references for background information are also given. A glossary with definitions relevant to photovoltaic systems and a section on test methods are presented in the appendices. Twenty test methods are included to measure performance characteristics of the subsystem elements. These test methods and other parts of the document will be expanded or revised as future experience and needs dictate.

  1. Performance parameters for ex situ bioremediation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, D.R.

    1994-01-01

    The potential of biotechnology to reduce the concentration of undesirable hydrocarbons, i.e. gasoline and diesel fuel pollution, is very attractive due to its apparent benign nature and potentially low cost. When good industrial practices are used in the design, construction, and administration of the bioremediation system, the performance of the technology can be predicted and monitored. Some of the principles behind the design, construction, and operation of ex situ bioremediation systems and facilities are described. Biological considerations include creation of a favorable environment for hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the soils, selection of bacteria, and bacterial byproducts. Chemical considerations include nutrient augmentation, oxygen availability, and the use of surfactants and dispersants. Physical considerations include soil textures and structures, soil temperatures, moisture content, and the use of bulking agents. Experience has shown that indigenous microbes will usually be sufficient to implement bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons if encouraged through the application of fertilizers. The introduction of additional carbon sources may be considered if rapid bioremediation rates are desired or if soil conditions are poor. Adjustments to a bioremediation system may be made to enhance the performance of the bacterial community by introducing bulking agents and external temperature sources. Surfactants may be helpful in promoting bacteria-hydrocarbon contact and may be particularly useful for mobilization of free-phase hydrocarbons. 7 refs

  2. Noise in off-axis type holograms including reconstruction and CCD camera parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelkl, Edgar, E-mail: edgar.voelkl@fei.com [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124-5793 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Phase and amplitude images as contained in digital holograms are commonly extracted via a process called 'reconstruction'. Expressions for the expected noise in these images have been given in the past by several authors; however, the effect of the actual reconstruction process has not been fully appreciated. By starting with the Quantum Mechanical intensity distribution of the off-axis type interference pattern, then building the digital hologram on an electron-by-electron base while simultaneously reconstructing the phase/amplitude images and evaluating their noise levels, an expression is derived that consistently describes the noise in simulated and experimental phase/amplitude images and contains the reconstruction parameters. Because of the necessity to discretize the intensity distribution function, the digitization effects of an ideal CCD camera had to be included. Subsequently, this allowed a comparison between real and simulated holograms which then led to a comparison between the performance of an 'ideal' CCD camera versus a real device. It was concluded that significant improvement of the phase and amplitude noise may be obtained if CCD cameras were optimized for digitizing intensity distributions at low sampling rates.

  3. Complete Tangent Stiffness for eXtended Finite Element Method by including crack growth parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.; Nielsen, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    the crack geometry parameters, such as the crack length and the crack direction directly in the virtual work formulation. For efficiency, it is essential to obtain a complete tangent stiffness. A new method in this work is presented to include an incremental form the crack growth parameters on equal terms......The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a useful tool for modeling the growth of discrete cracks in structures made of concrete and other quasi‐brittle and brittle materials. However, in a standard application of XFEM, the tangent stiffness is not complete. This is a result of not including...... with the degrees of freedom in the FEM‐equations. The complete tangential stiffness matrix is based on the virtual work together with the constitutive conditions at the crack tip. Introducing the crack growth parameters as direct unknowns, both equilibrium equations and the crack tip criterion can be handled...

  4. Influence of structural parameter included in nonlocal rock mass model on stress concentration around circular tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrikov, SV; Mikenina, OA; Revuzhenko, AF

    2018-03-01

    A model of elastic body, including local curvature of elementary volume, is matched with a nonlocal model with a linear structural parameter in the differential approximation. The problem on deformation of rock mass around a circular cross section tunnel is solved numerically. The contours of the calculated stresses are plotted. It is shown that inclusion of local bends in the model results in expansion of influence zone of the tunnel and reduces stress concentration factor at the tunnel boundary.

  5. Genetic parameter estimates for carcass traits and visual scores including or not genomic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordo, D G M; Espigolan, R; Tonussi, R L; Júnior, G A F; Bresolin, T; Magalhães, A F Braga; Feitosa, F L; Baldi, F; Carvalheiro, R; Tonhati, H; de Oliveira, H N; Chardulo, L A L; de Albuquerque, L G

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether visual scores used as selection criteria in Nellore breeding programs are effective indicators of carcass traits measured after slaughter. Additionally, this study evaluated the effect of different structures of the relationship matrix ( and ) on the estimation of genetic parameters and on the prediction accuracy of breeding values. There were 13,524 animals for visual scores of conformation (CS), finishing precocity (FP), and muscling (MS) and 1,753, 1,747, and 1,564 for LM area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and HCW, respectively. Of these, 1,566 animals were genotyped using a high-density panel containing 777,962 SNP. Six analyses were performed using multitrait animal models, each including the 3 visual scores and 1 carcass trait. For the visual scores, the model included direct additive genetic and residual random effects and the fixed effects of contemporary group (defined by year of birth, management group at yearling, and farm) and the linear effect of age of animal at yearling. The same model was used for the carcass traits, replacing the effect of age of animal at yearling with the linear effect of age of animal at slaughter. The variance and covariance components were estimated by the REML method in analyses using the numerator relationship matrix () or combining the genomic and the numerator relationship matrices (). The heritability estimates for the visual scores obtained with the 2 methods were similar and of moderate magnitude (0.23-0.34), indicating that these traits should response to direct selection. The heritabilities for LMA, BF, and HCW were 0.13, 0.07, and 0.17, respectively, using matrix and 0.29, 0.16, and 0.23, respectively, using matrix . The genetic correlations between the visual scores and carcass traits were positive, and higher correlations were generally obtained when matrix was used. Considering the difficulties and cost of measuring carcass traits postmortem, visual scores of

  6. Weak lensing and CMB: Parameter forecasts including a running spectral index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Hirata, Christopher M.; McDonald, Patrick; Seljak, Uros

    2004-01-01

    We use statistical inference theory to explore the constraints from future galaxy weak lensing (cosmic shear) surveys combined with the current CMB constraints on cosmological parameters, focusing particularly on the running of the spectral index of the primordial scalar power spectrum, α s . Recent papers have drawn attention to the possibility of measuring α s by combining the CMB with galaxy clustering and/or the Lyman-α forest. Weak lensing combined with the CMB provides an alternative probe of the primordial power spectrum. We run a series of simulations with variable runnings and compare them to semianalytic nonlinear mappings to test their validity for our calculations. We find that a 'reference' cosmic shear survey with f sky =0.01 and 6.6x10 8 galaxies per steradian can reduce the uncertainty on n s and α s by roughly a factor of 2 relative to the CMB alone. We investigate the effect of shear calibration biases on lensing by including the calibration factor as a parameter, and show that for our reference survey, the precision of cosmological parameter determination is only slightly degraded even if the amplitude calibration is uncertain by as much as 5%. We conclude that in the near future weak lensing surveys can supplement the CMB observations to constrain the primordial power spectrum

  7. Growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with one hundred and twenty (120) day-old marshal chicks to investigate the effect of Maxigrain® enzyme supplementation of corn bran based diets on growth performance, carcass characteristics, haematology and serum biochemistry of broilers in an eight weeks experiment. Four experimental ...

  8. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Barbar, Ana E.; Crippa, José A.; Osório, Flávia L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. ...

  9. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbar, Ana E; Crippa, José A; Osório, Flávia L

    2014-09-01

    To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001), and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.

  10. Parameters for screening music performance anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana E. Barbar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the discriminative capacity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its version adapted for Brazil, in a sample of 230 Brazilian adult musicians. Method: The Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN was used to assess the presence of social anxiety indicators, adopting it as the gold standard. The Mann-Whitney U test and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve were used for statistical analysis, with p ≤ 0.05 set as the significance level. Results: Subjects with social anxiety indicators exhibited higher mean total K-MPAI scores, as well as higher individual scores on 62% of its items. The area under the ROC curve was 0.734 (p = 0.001, and considered appropriate. Within the possible cutoff scores presented, the score -15 had the best balance of sensitivity and specificity values. However, the score -7 had greater specificity and accuracy. Conclusion: The K-MPAI showed appropriate discriminant validity, with a marked association between music performance anxiety and social anxiety. The cutoff scores presented in the study have both clinical and research value, allowing screening for music performance anxiety and identification of possible cases.

  11. Performance Parameters for Grid-Connected PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, B.; Adelstein, J.; Boyle, K.; Hayden, H.; Hammond, B.; Fletcher, T.; Canada, B.; Narang, D.; Shugar, D.; Wenger, H.; Kimber, A.; Mitchell, L.; Rich, G.; Townsend, T.

    2005-02-01

    The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.The use of appropriate performance parameters facilitates the comparison of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems that may differ with respect to design, technology, or geographic location. Four performance parameters that define the overall system performance with respect to the energy production, solar resource, and overall effect of system losses are the following: final PV system yield, reference yield, performance ratio, and PVUSA rating. These performance parameters are discussed for their suitability in providing desired information for PV system design and performance evaluation and are demonstrated for a variety of technologies, designs, and geographic locations. Also discussed are methodologies for determining system a.c. power ratings in the design phase using multipliers developed from measured performance parameters.

  12. Improving the performance parameters of metal cylindrical grid shell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving the performance parameters of metal cylindrical grid shell structures. ... Finite element models are designed taking into account minimization of production and ... The force factors and deformation parameters of the basic circuits of a ...

  13. Candidate genes for performance in horses, including monocarboxylate transporters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inaê Cristina Regatieri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Some horse breeds are highly selected for athletic activities. The athletic potential of each animal can be measured by its performance in sports. High athletic performance depends on the animal capacity to produce energy through aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways, among other factors. Transmembrane proteins called monocarboxylate transporters, mainly the isoform 1 (MCT1 and its ancillary protein CD147, can help the organism to adapt to physiological stress caused by physical exercise, transporting lactate and H+ ions. Horse breeds are selected for different purposes so we might expect differences in the amount of those proteins and in the genotypic frequencies for genes that play a significant role in the performance of the animals. The study of MCT1 and CD147 gene polymorphisms, which can affect the formation of the proteins and transport of lactate and H+, can provide enough information to be used for selection of athletic horses increasingly resistant to intense exercise. Two other candidate genes, the PDK4 and DMRT3, have been associated with athletic potential and indicated as possible markers for performance in horses. The oxidation of fatty acids is highly effective in generating ATP and is controlled by the expression of PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 in skeletal muscle during and after exercise. The doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene encodes an important transcription factor in the setting of spinal cord circuits controlling movement in vertebrates and may be associated with gait performance in horses. This review describes how the monocarboxylate transporters work during physical exercise in athletic horses and the influence of polymorphisms in candidate genes for athletic performance in horses.

  14. Concurrently adjusting interrelated control parameters to achieve optimal engine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2015-12-01

    Methods and systems for real-time engine control optimization are provided. A value of an engine performance variable is determined, a value of a first operating condition and a value of a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected, and initial values for a first engine control parameter and a second engine control parameter are determined based on the detected first operating condition and the detected second operating condition. The initial values for the first engine control parameter and the second engine control parameter are adjusted based on the determined value of the engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target engine performance variable. In order to cause the engine performance variable to approach the target engine performance variable, adjusting the initial value for the first engine control parameter necessitates a corresponding adjustment of the initial value for the second engine control parameter.

  15. Calculation of driling and blasting parameters in blasting performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dambov, Risto; Karanakova Stefanovska, Radmila; Dambov, Ilija

    2015-01-01

    In all mining technology drilling and blasting parameters and works are one of the main production processes at each mine. The parameters of drilling and blasting and explosives consumption per ton of blasting mass are define economic indicators of any blasting no matter for what purpose and where mining is performed. The calculation of rock blasting should always have in mind that the methodology of calculation of all drilling and blasting parameters in blasting performance are performed for...

  16. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  17. The ETH Zurich AMS facilities: Performance parameters and reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christl, M., E-mail: mchristl@phys.ethz.ch [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Vockenhuber, C.; Kubik, P.W.; Wacker, L.; Lachner, J.; Alfimov, V.; Synal, H.-A. [Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    The current performance of all three AMS systems in operation at ETH Zurich, the 6 MV HVEC EN-Tandem facility 'TANDEM', the 0.5 MV NEC Pelletron 'TANDY', and the 0.2 MV system 'MICADAS' is summarized. Radionuclides routinely measured with these AMS systems include {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 129}I and the actinides. The reference materials used for the normalization of the AMS measurements at the ETH Zurich AMS facilities are presented. This paper therefore is a comprehensive status report of all three AMS systems currently operated by the Laboratory of Ion Beam Physics (LIP) at ETH Zurich and documents their performance and operation parameters.

  18. HIV Model Parameter Estimates from Interruption Trial Data including Drug Efficacy and Reservoir Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rutao; Piovoso, Michael J.; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Zurakowski, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Mathematical models based on ordinary differential equations (ODE) have had significant impact on understanding HIV disease dynamics and optimizing patient treatment. A model that characterizes the essential disease dynamics can be used for prediction only if the model parameters are identifiable from clinical data. Most previous parameter identification studies for HIV have used sparsely sampled data from the decay phase following the introduction of therapy. In this paper, model parameters are identified from frequently sampled viral-load data taken from ten patients enrolled in the previously published AutoVac HAART interruption study, providing between 69 and 114 viral load measurements from 3–5 phases of viral decay and rebound for each patient. This dataset is considerably larger than those used in previously published parameter estimation studies. Furthermore, the measurements come from two separate experimental conditions, which allows for the direct estimation of drug efficacy and reservoir contribution rates, two parameters that cannot be identified from decay-phase data alone. A Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo method is used to estimate the model parameter values, with initial estimates obtained using nonlinear least-squares methods. The posterior distributions of the parameter estimates are reported and compared for all patients. PMID:22815727

  19. Refitting density dependent relativistic model parameters including Center-of-Mass corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avancini, Sidney S.; Marinelli, Jose R.; Carlson, Brett Vern

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Relativistic mean field models have become a standard approach for precise nuclear structure calculations. After the seminal work of Serot and Walecka, which introduced a model Lagrangian density where the nucleons interact through the exchange of scalar and vector mesons, several models were obtained through its generalization, including other meson degrees of freedom, non-linear meson interactions, meson-meson interactions, etc. More recently density dependent coupling constants were incorporated into the Walecka-like models, which are then extensively used. In particular, for these models a connection with the density functional theory can be established. Due to the inherent difficulties presented by field theoretical models, only the mean field approximation is used for the solution of these models. In order to calculate finite nuclei properties in the mean field approximation, a reference set has to be fixed and therefore the translational symmetry is violated. It is well known that in such case spurious effects due to the center-of-mass (COM) motion are present, which are more pronounced for light nuclei. In a previous work we have proposed a technique based on the Pierls-Yoccoz projection operator applied to the mean-field relativistic solution, in order to project out spurious COM contributions. In this work we obtain a new fitting for the density dependent parameters of a density dependent hadronic model, taking into account the COM corrections. Our fitting is obtained taking into account the charge radii and binding energies for He 4 , O 16 , Ca 40 , Ca 48 , Ni 56 , Ni 68 , Sn 100 , Sn 132 and Pb 208 . We show that the nuclear observables calculated using our fit are of a quality comparable to others that can be found in the literature, with the advantage that now a translational invariant many-body wave function is at our disposal. (author)

  20. Performance of a solar chimney by varying design parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available the design of solar chimneys to ensure optimal performance. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the performance of an example solar chimney by varying the design parameters and examining their effects on the interior ventilation performance... chimney by varying design parameters Tichaona Kumirai, Researcher, Built Environment CSIR Jan-Hendrik Grobler, DPSS CSIR Dr D.C.U. Conradie, Senior researcher, Built Environment CSIR 1 Introduction Trombe walls and solar chimneys are not widely...

  1. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints which includes spectral parameters as roughness measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulatilake, P.H.S.W.; Shou, G.; Huang, T.H.

    1996-01-01

    Most of the natural rock joint surface profiles do not belong to the self similar fractal category. In general, roughness profiles of rock joints consist of non-stationary and stationary components. At the simplest level, only one parameter is sufficient to quantify non-stationary joint roughness. The average inclination angle I, along with the direction considered for the joint surface, is suggested to capture the non-stationary roughness. It is shown that even though the fractal dimension D is a useful parameter, it alone is insufficient to quantify the stationary roughness of non-self similar profiles

  2. The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) including a critical cavity size ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquier, Gerard

    2017-06-01

    The 4-parameter Compressible Packing Model (CPM) has been developed to predict the packing density of mixtures constituted by bidisperse spherical particles. The four parameters are: the wall effect and the loosening effect coefficients, the compaction index and a critical cavity size ratio. The two geometrical interactions have been studied theoretically on the basis of a spherical cell centered on a secondary class bead. For the loosening effect, a critical cavity size ratio, below which a fine particle can be inserted into a small cavity created by touching coarser particles, is introduced. This is the only parameter which requires adaptation to extend the model to other types of particles. The 4-parameter CPM demonstrates its efficiency on frictionless glass beads (300 values), spherical particles numerically simulated (20 values), round natural particles (125 values) and crushed particles (335 values) with correlation coefficients equal to respectively 99.0%, 98.7%, 97.8%, 96.4% and mean deviations equal to respectively 0.007, 0.006, 0.007, 0.010.

  3. Performance Evaluation and HaematologicalParameters of West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Performance Evaluation and HaematologicalParameters of West African Dwarf Goats Fed Diet Containing Graded Level of Raw and Fermented Malted Sorghum ... influenced white blood cell count (WBC), lymphocytes, monocytes, basophil and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration across the dietary treatments.

  4. The Parameters Selection of PSO Algorithm influencing On performance of Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The particle swarm optimization (PSO is an optimization algorithm based on intelligent optimization. Parameters selection of PSO will play an important role in performance and efficiency of the algorithm. In this paper, the performance of PSO is analyzed when the control parameters vary, including particle number, accelerate constant, inertia weight and maximum limited velocity. And then PSO with dynamic parameters has been applied on the neural network training for gearbox fault diagnosis, the results with different parameters of PSO are compared and analyzed. At last some suggestions for parameters selection are proposed to improve the performance of PSO.

  5. Constraining dark energy with Hubble parameter measurements: an analysis including future redshift-drift observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Rui-Yun; Zhang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The nature of dark energy affects the Hubble expansion rate (namely, the expansion history) H(z) by an integral over w(z). However, the usual observables are the luminosity distances or the angular diameter distances, which measure the distance.redshift relation. Actually, the property of dark energy affects the distances (and the growth factor) by a further integration over functions of H(z). Thus, the direct measurements of the Hubble parameter H(z) at different redshifts are of great importance for constraining the properties of dark energy. In this paper, we show how the typical dark energy models, for example, the ΛCDM, wCDM, CPL, and holographic dark energy models, can be constrained by the current direct measurements of H(z) (31 data used in total in this paper, covering the redshift range of z @ element of [0.07, 2.34]). In fact, the future redshift-drift observations (also referred to as the Sandage-Loeb test) can also directly measure H(z) at higher redshifts, covering the range of z @ element of [2, 5]. We thus discuss what role the redshift-drift observations can play in constraining dark energy with the Hubble parameter measurements. We show that the constraints on dark energy can be improved greatly with the H(z) data from only a 10-year observation of redshift drift. (orig.)

  6. Performance analysis of pin fins with temperature dependent thermal parameters using the variation of parameters method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Arslantürk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance of pin fins transferring heat by convection and radiation and having variable thermal conductivity, variable emissivity and variable heat transfer coefficient was investigated in the present paper. Nondimensionalizing the fin equation, the problem parameters which affect the fin performance were obtained. Dimensionless nonlinear fin equation was solved with the variation of parameters method, which is quite new in the solution of nonlinear heat transfer problems. The solution of variation of parameters method was compared with known analytical solutions and some numerical solution. The comparisons showed that the solutions are seen to be perfectly compatible. The effects of problem parameters were investigated on the heat transfer rate and fin efficiency and results were presented graphically.

  7. A Profile of Fitness Parameters and Performance of Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind B. Taware

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ball games require comprehen-sive ability including physical, technical, men-tal and tactical abilities. Among them, physicalabilities of players exert marked effects on theskill of the players themselves and the tacticsof the team. Therefore players must have thephysical abilities to meet the demand of thesport. Volleyball is one of the most popularlyplayed games in the world. Unfortunately, thelevel of performance of the Indian volleyballplayers lags far behind the international stan-dards. Aim of the Study: The present study wasaimed to assess flexibility, muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance of vol-leyball players and to compare the results withage matched controls. Also, to compare thefindings of the volleyball players with that ofthe international norms from the available lit-erature and to make some suggestions for theimprovement in their performance level. Ma-terial and Methods: The study was carried outin 40 male volleyball players aged between 17to 26 years and 40 ages matched male controls.Physical fitness parameters namely flexibility,muscular endurance, power and cardio-respi-ratory endurance were measured, data was ana-lyzed using unpaired ‘t’-test. Results: It was ob-served that all physical fitness parameters weresignificantly more in players as compared totheir aged-matched controls but when values ofthe subjects were compared to internationalstandards; our subjects were behind the recom-mended norms for the elite volleyball players.Conclusion: The volleyball players have moreadvantage of flexibility muscular endurance,power and cardio-respiratory endurance.

  8. Numerical calculation of electromagnetic properties including chirality parameters for uniaxial bianisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirkhizi, Alireza V; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of conductive straight wires or coils the electromagnetic properties of a composite material can be modified. The asymmetric geometry of the coils creates an overall chiral response. The polarization vectors rotate as an electromagnetic wave travels through such a medium. To calculate the chirality of a medium prior to its manufacturing, we developed a method to extract all four electromagnetic material parameter tensors for a general uniaxial bianisotropic composite based on the numerical simulation of the electromagnetic fields. Our method uses appropriate line and surface field averages in a single unit cell of the periodic structure of the composite material. These overall field quantities have physical meaning only when the microscopic variation of the electromagnetic fields in the scale of the unit cell is not important, that is when the wavelength of interest is significantly larger than the maximum linear dimension of the unit cell. The overall constitutive relations of the periodic structure can then be obtained from the relations among the average quantities

  9. Effects of Adiponectin Including Reduction of Androstenedione Secretion and Ovarian Oxidative Stress Parameters In Vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio V Comim

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33, previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments: Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline; Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 μg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 μg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 μg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60% in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 μg/mL treatment (P = 0.01. This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1. In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 μg/mL; AOPP (mean ± SD decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 μmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 μmol/L; P = 0.0003. Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h.

  10. Developing Key Parameters for Green Performance of Partition Wall Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Cheng Siew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To promote sustainable construction, it is important to consider green performance of construction materials throughout the life cycle. Selecting inappropriate materials could not only affect the functional performance but also preclude the achievement of green building performance as a whole. Green performance of construction materials has therefore been one of the primary considerations of green building assessment systems. Using partition wall blocks as an example, this paper examines green performance of building materials primarily from the cradle to gate boundaries. Nine key parameters are proposed for the green performance of partition wall blocks. Apart from environmental features, technical performance of partition wall blocks is also taken into consideration since it is the determinant of the lifecycle performance. This paper offers a roadmap to decision makers to make environmentally responsible choices for their materials of internal walls and partitions, and hence provides a potential sustainable solution for green buildings.

  11. Effects of supervised Self Organising Maps parameters on classification performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabio, Davide; Vasighi, Mahdi; Filzmoser, Peter

    2013-02-26

    Self Organising Maps (SOMs) are one of the most powerful learning strategies among neural networks algorithms. SOMs have several adaptable parameters and the selection of appropriate network architectures is required in order to make accurate predictions. The major disadvantage of SOMs is probably due to the network optimisation, since this procedure can be often time-expensive. Effects of network size, training epochs and learning rate on the classification performance of SOMs are known, whereas the effect of other parameters (type of SOMs, weights initialisation, training algorithm, topology and boundary conditions) are not so obvious. This study was addressed to analyse the effect of SOMs parameters on the network classification performance, as well as on their computational times, taking into consideration a significant number of real datasets, in order to achieve a comprehensive statistical comparison. Parameters were contemporaneously evaluated by means of an approach based on the design of experiments, which enabled the investigation of their interaction effects. Results highlighted the most important parameters which influence the classification performance and enabled the identification of the optimal settings, as well as the optimal architectures to reduce the computational time of SOMs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Case for Including Atmospheric Thermodynamic Variables in Wind Turbine Fatigue Loading Parameter Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, Neil D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper makes the case for establishing efficient predictor variables for atmospheric thermodynamics that can be used to statistically correlate the fatigue accumulation seen on wind turbines. Recently, two approaches to this issue have been reported. One uses multiple linear-regression analysis to establish the relative causality between a number of predictors related to the turbulent inflow and turbine loads. The other approach, using many of the same predictors, applies the technique of principal component analysis. An examination of the ensemble of predictor variables revealed that they were all kinematic in nature; i.e., they were only related to the description of the velocity field. Boundary-layer turbulence dynamics depends upon a description of the thermal field and its interaction with the velocity distribution. We used a series of measurements taken within a multi-row wind farm to demonstrate the need to include atmospheric thermodynamic variables as well as velocity-related ones in the search for efficient turbulence loading predictors in various turbine-operating environments. Our results show that a combination of vertical stability and hub-height mean shearing stress variables meet this need over a period of 10 minutes

  13. Assessment of performance parameters for EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Fattibene, P.; Shishkina, E.A.; Ivanov, D.V.; De Coste, V.; Guettler, A.; Onori, S.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of a comparison between three laboratories, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal-to-dose response curves were measured for sets of 30 tooth enamel samples and the variance of EPR measurements in dependence on absorbed dose was evaluated, in nine combinations of laboratory of sample preparation and EPR evaluation, respectively. As a test for benchmarking of EPR evaluation, the parameters 'critical dose' and 'limit of detection' were proposed as performance parameters following definitions from chemical-metrology, and a model function was suggested for analytical formulation of the dependence of the variance of EPR measurement on absorbed dose. First estimates of limits of detection by weighted and unweighted fitting resulted in the range 101-552 and 67-561 mGy, respectively, and were generally larger with weighted than with unweighted fitting. Indication was found for the influence of methodology of sample preparation and applied EPR measurement parameters on performance of EPR dosimetry with tooth enamel

  14. Effect of Varying Controller Parameters on the Performance of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the results of computer simulation studies designed to isolate the effects of the major parameters of a fuzzy logic controller namely the range of the universe of discourse, the extent of overlap of the fuzzy sets, the rules in the rule base and the modes of the output fuzzy sets on the performance of a fuzzy ...

  15. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Srikanta [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available.

  16. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Srikanta

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available

  17. Performance Evaluation and Parameter Identification on DROID III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, Julianna J.

    2011-01-01

    The DROID III project consisted of two main parts. The former, performance evaluation, focused on the performance characteristics of the aircraft such as lift to drag ratio, thrust required for level flight, and rate of climb. The latter, parameter identification, focused on finding the aerodynamic coefficients for the aircraft using a system that creates a mathematical model to match the flight data of doublet maneuvers and the aircraft s response. Both portions of the project called for flight testing and that data is now available on account of this project. The conclusion of the project is that the performance evaluation data is well-within desired standards but could be improved with a thrust model, and that parameter identification is still in need of more data processing but seems to produce reasonable results thus far.

  18. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashettappa Biradar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI, and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink embedded with Stein’s unbiased risk estimation (SURE. The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  19. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biradar, Nagashettappa; Dewal, M L; Rohit, ManojKumar; Gowre, Sanjaykumar; Gundge, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI), and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink) embedded with Stein's unbiased risk estimation (SURE). The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  20. The direction of bilateral transfer depends on the performance parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhujun; van Gemmert, Arend W A

    2013-10-01

    To acquire a more comprehensive understanding of the learning benefits associated with bilateral transfer and to gain knowledge of possible mechanisms behind bilateral transfer, we investigated the transfer direction of several parameters which are assumed to represent important features of movement control in a visuo-motor task. During the study, participants learned a multidirectional point-to-point drawing task in which the visual feedback was rotated 45° and the gain was increased. Performance changes of the untrained hand in movement time, trajectory length, normalized jerk, initial direction error, ratio of the primary sub-movement time to the total movement time, and the accuracy of the aiming movement after the primary sub-movement were investigated as indices of learning from bilateral transfer. The results showed that performance parameters related to the initial production of the movement, such as the initial direction, ratio of primary sub-movement to the total movement time, and movement accuracy after the primary sub-movement, only transferred to the non-dominant, while hand performance variables related to the overall outcome, such as movement duration, movement smoothness, and trajectory length, transferred in both directions. The findings of the current study support the basic principle of the "dynamic dominance model" because it is suggested that overall improvements in the non-dominant system are controlled by trajectory parameters in visuo-motor tasks, which resulted in transference of the afore mentioned production parameters to rather occur to the non-dominant hand as opposed to transference to the dominant hand. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Performance parameters of an ejector-absorption heat transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soezen, Adnan; Arcaklioglu, Erol; Oezalp, Mehmet; Yuecesu, Serdar

    2005-01-01

    Ejector-absorption heat transformers (EAHTs) are attractive for increasing a solar-pond's temperature and for recovering low-level waste-heat. Thermodynamic analysis of the performance of an EAHT is complicated due to the associated complex differential equations and simulation programs. This paper proposes the use of artificial neural-networks (ANNs) as a new approach to determine the performance parameters, as functions of only the working temperatures of the EAHT, which is used to increase the solar pond's temperature under various working conditions. Thus, this study is helpful in predicting the performance of an EAHT where the temperatures are known. Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG) and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and a logistic sigmoid transfer-function were used in the network. The best approach was investigated for performance parameters with developed software using various algorithms. The best statistical coefficients of multiple determinations (R 2 -values) equal 0.99995, 0.99997 and 0.99995 for the coefficient of performance (COP), exergetic coefficient of performance (ECOP) and circulation ratio (F), respectively obtained by the LM algorithm with seven neurons. In the comparison of performances, results obtained via analytic equations and by means of the ANN, the COP, ECOP and F for all working situations differ by less than 1.05%, 0.7% and 3.07%, respectively. These accuracies are acceptable in the design of the EAHT. The ANN approach greatly reduces the time required by design engineers to find the optimum solution. Apart from reducing the time required, it is possible to find solutions that make solar-energy applications more viable and thus more attractive to potential users. Also, this approach has the advantages of high computational speed, low cost for feasibility, rapid turn-around, which is especially important during iterative design phases, and ease of design by operators with little technical experience

  2. Manipulating perceptual parameters in a continuous performance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, Nir; Humphreys, Glyn; Demeyere, Nele

    2018-02-01

    Sustained attention (SA) is among the most studied faculties of human cognition, and thought to be crucial for many aspects of behavior. Measuring SA often relies on performance on a continuous, low-demanding task. Such continuous performance tasks (CPTs) have many variations, and sustained attention is typically estimated based on variability in reaction times. While relying on reaction times may be useful in some cases, it can pose a challenge when working with clinical populations. To increase interpersonal variability in task parameters that do not rely on speed, researchers have increased demands for memory and response inhibition. These approaches, however, may be confounded when used to assess populations that suffer from multiple cognitive deficits. In the current study, we propose a new approach for increasing task variability by increasing the attentional demands. In order to do so, we created a new variation of a CPT - a masked version, where inattention is more likely to cause misidentifying a target. After establishing that masking indeed decreases target detection, we further investigated which task parameter may influence response biases. To do so, we contrasted two versions of the CPT with different target/distractor ratio. We then established how perceptual parameters can be controlled independently in a CPT. Following the experimental manipulations, we tested the MCCPT with aging controls and chronic stroke patients to assure the task can be used with target populations. The results confirm the MCCPT as a task providing high sensitivity without relying on reaction speed, and feasible for patients.

  3. Migration of antioxidants from polylactic acid films, a parameter estimation approach: Part I - A model including convective mass transfer coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsudin, Hayati; Auras, Rafael; Burgess, Gary; Dolan, Kirk; Soto-Valdez, Herlinda

    2018-03-01

    A two-step solution based on the boundary conditions of Crank's equations for mass transfer in a film was developed. Three driving factors, the diffusion (D), partition (K p,f ) and convective mass transfer coefficients (h), govern the sorption and/or desorption kinetics of migrants from polymer films. These three parameters were simultaneously estimated. They provide in-depth insight into the physics of a migration process. The first step was used to find the combination of D, K p,f and h that minimized the sums of squared errors (SSE) between the predicted and actual results. In step 2, an ordinary least square (OLS) estimation was performed by using the proposed analytical solution containing D, K p,f and h. Three selected migration studies of PLA/antioxidant-based films were used to demonstrate the use of this two-step solution. Additional parameter estimation approaches such as sequential and bootstrap were also performed to acquire a better knowledge about the kinetics of migration. The proposed model successfully provided the initial guesses for D, K p,f and h. The h value was determined without performing a specific experiment for it. By determining h together with D, under or overestimation issues pertaining to a migration process can be avoided since these two parameters are correlated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Network Parameters Influencing Performance of Hybrid Multimedia Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Kovac

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia networks is an emerging subject that currently attracts the attention of research and industrial communities. This environment provides new entertainment services and business opportunities merged with all well-known network services like VoIP calls or file transfers. Such a heterogeneous system has to be able satisfy all network and end-user requirements which are increasing constantly. Therefore the simulation tools enabling deep analysis in order to find the key performance indicators and factors which influence the overall quality for specific network service the most are highly needed. This paper provides a study on the network parameters like communication technology, routing protocol, QoS mechanism, etc. and their effect on the performance of hybrid multimedia network. The analysis was performed in OPNET Modeler environment and the most interesting results are discussed at the end of this paper

  5. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  6. Decoupling interrelated parameters for designing high performance thermoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chong; Li, Zhou; Li, Kun; Huang, Pengcheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-04-15

    The world's supply of fossil fuels is quickly being exhausted, and the impact of their overuse is contributing to both climate change and global political unrest. In order to help solve these escalating problems, scientists must find a way to either replace combustion engines or reduce their use. Thermoelectric materials have attracted widespread research interest because of their potential applications as clean and renewable energy sources. They are reliable, lightweight, robust, and environmentally friendly and can reversibly convert between heat and electricity. However, after decades of development, the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has been hovering around 10%. This is far below the theoretical predictions, mainly due to the interdependence and coupling between electrical and thermal parameters, which are strongly interrelated through the electronic structure of the materials. Therefore, any strategy that balances or decouples these parameters, in addition to optimizing the materials' intrinsic electronic structure, should be critical to the development of thermoelectric technology. In this Account, we discuss our recently developed strategies to decouple thermoelectric parameters for the synergistic optimization of electrical and thermal transport. We first highlight the phase transition, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of electrical transport, such as with a metal-insulator and semiconductor-superionic conductor transition. This should be a universal and effective strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance, which takes advantage of modulated electronic structure and critical scattering across phase transitions to decouple the power factor and thermal conductivity. We propose that solid-solution homojunction nanoplates with disordered lattices are promising thermoelectric materials to meet the "phonon glass electron crystal" approach. The formation of a solid solution, coupled with homojunctions, allows for

  7. Key parameters controlling the performance of catalytic motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esplandiu, Maria J.; Afshar Farniya, Ali [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2), CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Reguera, David, E-mail: dreguera@ub.edu [Departament de Física Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    The development of autonomous micro/nanomotors driven by self-generated chemical gradients is a topic of high interest given their potential impact in medicine and environmental remediation. Although impressive functionalities of these devices have been demonstrated, a detailed understanding of the propulsion mechanism is still lacking. In this work, we perform a comprehensive numerical analysis of the key parameters governing the actuation of bimetallic catalytic micropumps. We show that the fluid motion is driven by self-generated electro-osmosis where the electric field originates by a proton current rather than by a lateral charge asymmetry inside the double layer. Hence, the surface potential and the electric field are the key parameters for setting the pumping strength and directionality. The proton flux that generates the electric field stems from the proton gradient induced by the electrochemical reactions taken place at the pump. Surprisingly the electric field and consequently the fluid flow are mainly controlled by the ionic strength and not by the conductivity of the solution, as one could have expected. We have also analyzed the influence of the chemical fuel concentration, electrochemical reaction rates, and size of the metallic structures for an optimized pump performance. Our findings cast light on the complex chemomechanical actuation of catalytic motors and provide important clues for the search, design, and optimization of novel catalytic actuators.

  8. Correlation between rotary drill performance parameters and borehole geophysical logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoble, M.J.; Peck, J.; Hendricks, C.

    1989-01-01

    There is a growing interest in developing performance monitoring techniques for both surface and underground mining equipment used in excavating, loading and transport systems. Research into the techniques and applications for monitoring drilling machinery including gamma and neutron logging, is reviewed. 17 refs.; 5 figs

  9. A single parameter representation of hygroscopic growth and cloud condensation nucleus activity – Part 2: Including solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Petters

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a particle to serve as a cloud condensation nucleus in the atmosphere is determined by its size, hygroscopicity and its solubility in water. Usually size and hygroscopicity alone are sufficient to predict CCN activity. Single parameter representations for hygroscopicity have been shown to successfully model complex, multicomponent particles types. Under the assumption of either complete solubility, or complete insolubility of a component, it is not necessary to explicitly include that component's solubility into the single parameter framework. This is not the case if sparingly soluble materials are present. In this work we explicitly account for solubility by modifying the single parameter equations. We demonstrate that sensitivity to the actual value of solubility emerges only in the regime of 2×10−1–5×10−4, where the solubility values are expressed as volume of solute per unit volume of water present in a saturated solution. Compounds that do not fall inside this sparingly soluble envelope can be adequately modeled assuming they are either infinitely soluble in water or completely insoluble.

  10. Safety parameter display systems' effect on operator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerven, F.; Ford, R.E.; Blackman, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Computer generated displays are a powerful and flexible tool for presenting data to the operators of nuclear power plants. Such displays are currently being developed in industry for use as safety parameter displays and for use in advanced control rooms. There exists a need for methods to objectively evaluate the effect of these displays, positive or negative, on the performance of control room personnel. Results of developing one such method, noninteractive simulation, and the two experiments that were performed to determine if it can be used as a method for evaluating computer displays are presented. This method is more objective and powerful than pencil and paper methods because it measures human performance rather than opinion or perference, has excellent control of the experimental variables, and has a higher fidelity to the control room environment. The results of these experiments indicates that the present methodology does not differentiate among the display types tested at a statistically significant level. In other words, all display types tested worked equally well in providing operators needed information

  11. Performance Parameters and Characterizations of Nanocrystals: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasi M. Chogale

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Poor bioavailability of drugs associated with their poor solubility limits the clinical effectiveness of almost 40% of the newly discovered drug moieties. Low solubility, coupled with a high log p value, high melting point and high dose necessitates exploration of alternative formulation strategies for such drugs. One such novel approach is formulation of the drugs as “Nanocrystals”. Nanocrystals are primarily comprised of drug and surfactants/stabilizers and are manufactured by “top-down” or “bottom-up” methods. Nanocrystals aid the clinical efficacy of drugs by various means such as enhancement of bioavailability, lowering of dose requirement, and facilitating sustained release of the drug. This effect is dependent on the various characteristics of nanocrystals (particle size, saturation solubility, dissolution velocity, which have an impact on the improved performance of the nanocrystals. Various sophisticated techniques have been developed to evaluate these characteristics. This article describes in detail the various characterization techniques along with a brief review of the significance of the various parameters on the performance of nanocrystals.

  12. Vaginal semisolid products: Technological performance considering physiologic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rita Monteiro; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita

    2017-11-15

    Vaginal semisolid products are frequently used to treat vaginal infections and atrophy-related symptoms of menopause. Formulations composition and the methods for their characterization, especially those developed concerning the target epithelia, are key tools to predict in vivo results at early stages of product development. However, recent studies on this subject have been almost exclusively focused on anti-HIV preparations. The aim of this work consists on improving traditional characterization methods by using physiological parameters in order to construct predictive tools to characterize a new ideal vaginal semisolid formulation whatever target it may have. Ten vaginal antimicrobial and hormonal products already available in the market were studied (Gino-Canesten®, Sertopic®, Dermofix®, Gyno-pevaryl®, Lomexin®, Gino Travogen®, Dalacin V®, Ovestin®, Blissel®, Colpotrophine®). Furthermore, Universal Placebo gel and Replens® were used for comparison. Products were characterized in terms of: pH and buffering capacity in a vaginal fluid simulant (VFS); osmolality - directly and upon dilution in VFS; textural parameters (firmness, adhesiveness and bioadhesion) using vaginal ex vivo porcine epithelium; and viscosity (including VFS dilution at 37°C and after administration on an ex vivo model). Interestingly, the majority of the tested commercial vaginal formulations did not present technological characteristics close to the ideal ones when tested under target biological conditions. The inclusion of such methodologic adaptations is expected to optimize cost-efficiency of new formulations development by predicting efficacy and safety profiles at early stages of product development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of Performance Parameters for Large Area Silicon Photomultipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Kathryn

    2008-10-01

    The goal of the GlueX experiment is to search for exotic hybrid mesons as evidence of gluonic excitations in an effort to better understand confinement. A key component of the GlueX detector is the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter (BCAL) located immediately inside a superconducting solenoid of approximately 2.5T. Because of this arrangement, traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) which are affected significantly by magnetic fields cannot be used on the BCAL. The use of Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) as front-end detectors has been proposed. While the largest SiPMs that have been previously employed by other experiments are 1x1 mm^2, GlueX proposes to use large area SiPMs each composed of 16 - 3x3 mm^2 cells in a 4x4 array. This puts the GlueX collaboration in the unique position of driving the technology for larger area sensors. In this talk I will discuss tests done in Regina regarding performance parameters of prototype SiPM arrays delivered by SensL, a photonics research and development company based in Ireland, as well as sample 1x1 mm^2 and 3x3 mm^2 SiPMs.

  14. Performance Analysis of Different NeQuick Ionospheric Model Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ningbo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galileo adopts NeQuick model for single-frequency ionospheric delay corrections. For the standard operation of Galileo, NeQuick model is driven by the effective ionization level parameter Az instead of the solar activity level index, and the three broadcast ionospheric coefficients are determined by a second-polynomial through fitting the Az values estimated from globally distributed Galileo Sensor Stations (GSS. In this study, the processing strategies for the estimation of NeQuick ionospheric coefficients are discussed and the characteristics of the NeQuick coefficients are also analyzed. The accuracy of Global Position System (GPS broadcast Klobuchar, original NeQuick2 and fitted NeQuickC as well as Galileo broadcast NeQuickG models is evaluated over the continental and oceanic regions, respectively, in comparison with the ionospheric total electron content (TEC provided by global ionospheric maps (GIM, GPS test stations and JASON-2 altimeter. The results show that NeQuickG can mitigate ionospheric delay by 54.2%~65.8% on a global scale, and NeQuickC can correct for 71.1%~74.2% of the ionospheric delay. NeQuick2 performs at the same level with NeQuickG, which is a bit better than that of GPS broadcast Klobuchar model.

  15. 77 FR 33492 - Cequent Performance Products, Inc. a Subsidiary of Trimas Corporation Including Workers Whose...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Products, Inc. Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower Tekonsha, MI; Amended Certification Regarding... Cequent Performance Products, Inc. Accordingly, the Department is amending this certification to properly... Products, Inc. a Subsidiary of Trimas Corporation Including Workers Whose Wages Were Reported Under...

  16. Thermal-hydraulic Parameters of WWER-440 Fuel Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacmar, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture the thermodynamic characteristics of reactor core V230, V213 (design concept and the distribution of coolant flow inside the reactor vessel and basic T-H parameters), allowed reactor regimes and reactor core flow factor as well as thermodynamic parameters and impact to fuel leakage are presented

  17. Ultrasound for Appendicitis: Performance and Integration with Clinical Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfvenberg, Fanny

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the performance of ultrasound in pediatric appendicitis and the integration of US with the pediatric appendicitis score (PAS) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Method. An institution-based, retrospective study of children who underwent abdominal US for suspected appendicitis between 2012 and 2015 at a tertiary pediatric surgery center. US results were dichotomized, with a nonvisualized appendix considered as a negative examination. Results. In total, 438 children were included (mean 8.5 years, 54% boys), with an appendicitis rate of 29%. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for US were 82%, 97%, 92%, and 93%, respectively, without significant age or gender differences. Pediatric radiologists had significantly higher sensitivity compared to general radiologists, 88% and 71%, respectively (p appendicitis, regardless of age or gender, and should be the first choice of imaging modalities. Combining US with PAS and CRP may reduce several unnecessary admissions for in-hospital observation. PMID:28044133

  18. Analytical and Experimental Performance Evaluation of BLE Neighbor Discovery Process Including Non-Idealities of Real Chipsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perez-Diaz de Cerio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to evaluate from a real perspective the performance of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE as a technology that enables fast and reliable discovery of a large number of users/devices in a short period of time. The BLE standard specifies a wide range of configurable parameter values that determine the discovery process and need to be set according to the particular application requirements. Many previous works have been addressed to investigate the discovery process through analytical and simulation models, according to the ideal specification of the standard. However, measurements show that additional scanning gaps appear in the scanning process, which reduce the discovery capabilities. These gaps have been identified in all of the analyzed devices and respond to both regular patterns and variable events associated with the decoding process. We have demonstrated that these non-idealities, which are not taken into account in other studies, have a severe impact on the discovery process performance. Extensive performance evaluation for a varying number of devices and feasible parameter combinations has been done by comparing simulations and experimental measurements. This work also includes a simple mathematical model that closely matches both the standard implementation and the different chipset peculiarities for any possible parameter value specified in the standard and for any number of simultaneous advertising devices under scanner coverage.

  19. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  20. Estimates of genetic parameters and environmental effects for measures of hunting performance in Finnish hounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liinamo, A E; Karjalainen, L; Ojala, M; Vilva, V

    1997-03-01

    Data from field trials of Finnish Hounds between 1988 and 1992 in Finland were used to estimate genetic parameters and environmental effects for measures of hunting performance using REML procedures and an animal model. The original data set included 28,791 field trial records from 5,666 dogs. Males and females had equal hunting performance, whereas experience acquired by age improved trial results compared with results for young dogs (P Hounds with respect to their hunting ability should be based on animal model BLUP methods instead of mere performance testing. The evaluation system of field trials should also be revised for more reliability.

  1. Evaluating the Performance of Polynomial Regression Method with Different Parameters during Color Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The polynomial regression method is employed to calculate the relationship of device color space and CIE color space for color characterization, and the performance of different expressions with specific parameters is evaluated. Firstly, the polynomial equation for color conversion is established and the computation of polynomial coefficients is analysed. And then different forms of polynomial equations are used to calculate the RGB and CMYK’s CIE color values, while the corresponding color errors are compared. At last, an optimal polynomial expression is obtained by analysing several related parameters during color conversion, including polynomial numbers, the degree of polynomial terms, the selection of CIE visual spaces, and the linearization.

  2. Exergoeconomic performance optimization for a steady-flow endoreversible refrigeration model including six typical cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lingen; Kan, Xuxian; Sun, Fengrui; Wu, Feng [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2013-07-01

    The operation of a universal steady flow endoreversible refrigeration cycle model consisting of a constant thermal-capacity heating branch, two constant thermal-capacity cooling branches and two adiabatic branches is viewed as a production process with exergy as its output. The finite time exergoeconomic performance optimization of the refrigeration cycle is investigated by taking profit rate optimization criterion as the objective. The relations between the profit rate and the temperature ratio of working fluid, between the COP (coefficient of performance) and the temperature ratio of working fluid, as well as the optimal relation between profit rate and the COP of the cycle are derived. The focus of this paper is to search the compromised optimization between economics (profit rate) and the utilization factor (COP) for endoreversible refrigeration cycles, by searching the optimum COP at maximum profit, which is termed as the finite-time exergoeconomic performance bound. Moreover, performance analysis and optimization of the model are carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle process on the performance of the cycles using numerical example. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of endoreversible Carnot, Diesel, Otto, Atkinson, Dual and Brayton refrigeration cycles.

  3. Assessment of non-genetic parameters of the racing performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From 1995 to 2007, flat racing data was collected for Thoroughbred and Arabian horses in Algeria. Non-genetic factors affecting racing performances have been identified and quantified using linear models. Performances are represented through the earnings and the rankings. Three traits were used: two earnings traits [the ...

  4. Comparative analysis of partial imaging performance parameters of home and imported X-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yunxi; Wang Xianyun; Liu Huiqin; Guo Yongxin

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To compare and analyze the performance indexes and the imaging quality of the home and imported X-ray machines through testing their partial imaging performance parameters. Methods: By separate sampling from 10 home and 10 imported X-ray machines, the parameters including tube current, time of exposure, machine total exposure, and repeatability were tested, and the imaging performance was evaluated according to the national standard. Results: All the performance indexes met the standard of GB4505-84. The first sampling tests showed the maximum changing coefficient of imaging performance repeatability of the home X-ray machines was Δmax1 = 0.025, while that of the imported X-ray machine was Δmax1 = 0.016. In the second sampling tests, the maximum changing coefficients of the two were Δmax2 = 0.048 and Δmax2 = 0.022, respectively. Conclusion: The 2 years' follow-up tests indicate that there is no significant difference between the above-mentioned parameters of the elaborately adjusted home X-ray machines and imported ones, but the home X-ray machines are no better than the imported X-ray machines in stability and consistency

  5. Evaluation of the main parameters affecting seismic performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The current study considers forty eight (48) 3-D RC building models to .... Acceptance criteria for members and performance level criteria for buildings are ..... Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings, Applied Technology Council, Vol 1.

  6. A study of the effects of collector and environment parameters on the performance of a solar powered solid adsorption refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Wang, R.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Based on the heat and mass transfer model validated by experiment, the performance of the plate solar ice-maker is analyzed systemically with the opinion of two-type characteristic parameters, which includes parametric effects of adsorbent bed of solar ice-maker and outer parameters referring to circumstance. A large number of simulations were undertaken to test the performance of the refrigerator for various collector design parameters and environmental parameters. These works are beneficial to further study the optimization design of a solar cooling system. (Author)

  7. An Envelope Correlation Formula for (N,N MIMO Antenna Arrays Using Input Scattering Parameters, and Including Power Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. S. Dama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The scattering parameter formulation for the envelope correlation in an (N,N MIMO antenna array has been modified to take the intrinsic antenna power losses into account. This method of calculation provides a major simplification over the use of antenna radiation field patterns. Its accuracy is illustrated in three examples, which also show that the locations of the correlation minima are sensitive to the intrinsic losses.

  8. Multilayered analog optical differentiating device: performance analysis on structural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenhui; Jiang, Wei; Yang, Jiang; Gong, Shaoxiang; Ma, Yungui

    2017-12-15

    Analogy optical devices (AODs) able to do mathematical computations have recently gained strong research interest for their potential applications as accelerating hardware in traditional electronic computers. The performance of these wavefront-processing devices is primarily decided by the accuracy of the angular spectral engineering. In this Letter, we show that the multilayer technique could be a promising method to flexibly design AODs according to the input wavefront conditions. As examples, various Si-SiO 2 -based multilayer films are designed that can precisely perform the second-order differentiation for the input wavefronts of different Fourier spectrum widths. The minimum number and thickness uncertainty of sublayers for the device performance are discussed. A technique by rescaling the Fourier spectrum intensity has been proposed in order to further improve the practical feasibility. These results are thought to be instrumental for the development of AODs.

  9. Parameters affecting the performance of a low cost solar still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahsan, A.; Imteaz, M.; Thomas, U.A.; Azmi, M.; Rahman, A.; Nik Daud, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The triangular solar still is designed using cheap and durable materials. • The initial water depth has an inverse relationship with the production. • The water productivity is nearly proportional to the solar radiation. • The water quality parameters are within the accepted ranges of drinking water. - Abstract: This study aims at developing a low cost technique to be used in rural and coastal areas for converting saline water into potable water using solar energy. A triangular solar still (TrSS) was, therefore, designed and developed with cheap, lightweight, local and available materials. A number of field experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of solar radiation intensity, ambient air temperature and the initial water depth on the daily water production of the TrSS. A time lag of about and hour between the hourly peaks of solar radiation and water production is observed. Finally, a few essential relationships were attained, e.g. between the daily production and the initial water depth, between the daily production and daily solar radiation, and between the daily production and the average ambient temperature. The effect of the initial water depth in the basin on the daily water productivity was evaluated by varying the water depths (1.5, 2.5 and 5 cm) with the climatic condition of Malaysia and an inverse proportional relationship was revealed between them. However, the daily water productivity is nearly proportional to the daily solar radiation. In addition, some important water quality parameters were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the distillate quality and were then compared with the drinking water standards

  10. Specification of PWR UO2 pellet design parameters with the fuel performance code FRAPCON-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.T.; Marra Neto, A.

    1988-08-01

    UO 2 pellet design parameters are analysed to verify their influence in the fuel basic properties and in its performance under irradiation in pressurized water reactors. Three groups of parameters are discussed: 1) content of fissionable and impurity materials; 2) stoichiometry; 3) density pore morpholoy, and microstructure. A methodology is applied with the fuel performance program FRAPCON-1 to specify these parameters. (author [pt

  11. Analysis report for WIPP colloid model constraints and performance assessment parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, Paul E.; Sassani, David Carl

    2014-03-01

    An analysis of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) colloid model constraints and parameter values was performed. The focus of this work was primarily on intrinsic colloids, mineral fragment colloids, and humic substance colloids, with a lesser focus on microbial colloids. Comments by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) concerning intrinsic Th(IV) colloids and Mg-Cl-OH mineral fragment colloids were addressed in detail, assumptions and data used to constrain colloid model calculations were evaluated, and inconsistencies between data and model parameter values were identified. This work resulted in a list of specific conclusions regarding model integrity, model conservatism, and opportunities for improvement related to each of the four colloid types included in the WIPP performance assessment.

  12. The effects of operation parameter on the performance of a solar-powered adsorption chiller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Huilong; Wang, Ruzhu; Dai, Yanjun

    2010-01-01

    A solar-powered adsorption chiller with heat and mass recovery cycle was designed and constructed. It consists of a solar water heating unit, a silica gel-water adsorption chiller, a cooling tower and a fan coil unit. The adsorption chiller includes two identical adsorption units and a second stage evaporator with methanol working fluid. The effects of operation parameter on system performance were tested successfully. Test results indicated that the COP (coefficient of performance) and cooling power of the solar-powered adsorption chiller could be improved greatly by optimizing the key operation parameters, such as solar hot water temperature, heating/cooling time, mass recovery time, and chilled water temperature. Under the climatic conditions of daily solar radiation being about 16-21 MJ/m 2 , this solar-powered adsorption chiller can produce a cooling capacity about 66-90 W per m 2 collector area, its daily solar cooling COP is about 0.1-0.13.

  13. Effects of probiotics on growth performance, blood parameters, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ziyanda Dlamini

    2017-09-25

    Sep 25, 2017 ... During this phase, the piglets have to cope with ... Pigs were kept individually in a temperature-controlled building in flat deck type ... Dilutions were subsequently plated in triplicate on selective agar media for enumeration of target bacterial ..... inactivated cells on the performance, microflora and blood ...

  14. Performance Analysis of Methods for Estimating Weibull Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average ...

  15. Assessment of non-genetic parameters of the racing performances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    s050186

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... From 1995 to 2007, flat racing data was collected for Thoroughbred and Arabian horses in Algeria. Non- ... Performances are represented through the earnings and the rankings. Three traits were ... correlations (p < 0.001) between the three traits in the two breeds, showing that the measurements quantify ...

  16. Influence of Pyrolysis Parameters on the Performance of CMSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Campo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon hollow fiber membranes have been prepared by pyrolysis of a P84/S-PEEK blend. Proximate analysis of the precursor was performed using thermogravimetry (TGA, and a carbon yield of approximately 40% can be obtained. This study aimed at understanding the influence of pyrolysis parameters—end temperature, quenching effect, and soaking time—on the membrane properties. Permeation experiments were performed with N2, He, and CO2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM has been done for all carbon hollow fibers. The highest permeances were obtained for the membrane submitted to an end temperature of 750°C and the highest ideal selectivities for an end temperature of 700°C. In both cases, the membranes were quenched to room temperature.

  17. The Performance Parameters Of Wireless Sensor Networks In Underground Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan UGUZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years underground mines have increasingly remained on the agenda with both difficult working conditions and problems such as collapsed and firedamp explosion in our country and in the world. In terms of life safety of miners and their health mine sites are required to be continuously monitored and controlled. This is difficult to achieve with existing wired systems due to the topography of mine sites. The applications have increased with the development of wireless sensor networks WSN technology in mine sites in recent years. This case has also caused an increase in studies on improving WSN performance. Especially energy efficiency is very important for the WSN hardware with a low energy source. In this study information about things to consider while using WSN technologies in underground mines and studies on their performance has been provided.

  18. Optimum parameters in a model for tumour control probability, including interpatient heterogeneity: evaluation of the log-normal distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keall, P J; Webb, S

    2007-01-01

    The heterogeneity of human tumour radiation response is well known. Researchers have used the normal distribution to describe interpatient tumour radiosensitivity. However, many natural phenomena show a log-normal distribution. Log-normal distributions are common when mean values are low, variances are large and values cannot be negative. These conditions apply to radiosensitivity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the log-normal distribution to predict clinical tumour control probability (TCP) data and to compare the results with the homogeneous (δ-function with single α-value) and normal distributions. The clinically derived TCP data for four tumour types-melanoma, breast, squamous cell carcinoma and nodes-were used to fit the TCP models. Three forms of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity were considered: the log-normal, normal and δ-function. The free parameters in the models were the radiosensitivity mean, standard deviation and clonogenic cell density. The evaluation metric was the deviance of the maximum likelihood estimation of the fit of the TCP calculated using the predicted parameters to the clinical data. We conclude that (1) the log-normal and normal distributions of interpatient tumour radiosensitivity heterogeneity more closely describe clinical TCP data than a single radiosensitivity value and (2) the log-normal distribution has some theoretical and practical advantages over the normal distribution. Further work is needed to test these models on higher quality clinical outcome datasets

  19. FCC-ee accelerator parameters, performance and limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Koratzinos, Mike

    2016-12-22

    CERN has recently launched the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study to deal with all aspects of an ambitious post-LHC possible programme. The emphasis of the study is on a 100 TeV proton collider to be housed in a 80-100 km new ring in the Geneva region. An electron machine will also be considered as a possible intermediate first step (FCC-ee). The study benefits from earlier work done in the context of TLEP and has already published a parameter table, to serve as the basis for the work to be done. The study aims to publish a conceptual design report at around 2018. The recent discovery of a light Higgs boson has opened up considerable interest in circular e+e- Higgs factories around the world. FCC-ee is capable of very high luminosities in a wide centre-of-mass (ECM) spectrum from 90 to 350 GeV. This allows the very precise study of the Z, W and H bosons as well as the top quark, allowing for meaningful precision tests of the closure of the Standard Model.

  20. Performance of MarSite Multi parameter Borehole Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralp, Cansun; Tunc, Suleyman; Ozel, Oguz; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Necmioglu, Ocal

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we present two year results obtained from the integrated multiparameter borehole system at Marsite. The very broad band (VBB) system have been operating since installation in November 2014; one year in a water filled borehole and one year in a dry Borehole. from January 2016. The real time data has been available to the community. The two Borehole environments are compared showing the superior performance of dry borehole environ- ment compared to water filled for a very broad band (VBB) seismometer. The practical considerations applied in both borehole installations are compared and the best borehole practical installation techniques are presented and discussed. The data is also compared with a surface 120 second broad band sensor and the seismic arrays with in MarSite region. The very long term performance, (one year data in a dry hole) of the VBB Borehole seismometer and the Dilatometer will be presented The high frequency performance of the VBB seismometer which extends to 150 Hz and the dilatometer are compared characterizing the results from the dilatometer.

  1. Growth performance, haemo-biochemical parameters and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... coxistac and olaquindox [PosCon]; and 3) commercial grower diet without antibiotics in which L. javanica was included at the rate of 25 g/kg [Ljav25]. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Weekly feed intake and body weights were recorded to calculate feed conversion efficiency (FCE). At 9 weeks of ...

  2. Determination of the Performance Parameters of a Spectrophotometer: An Advanced Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Virgil W.

    1978-01-01

    Describes an advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment developed for the determination of the performance parameters of a spectrophotometer. Among the parameters are the baseline linearity with wavelength, wavelength accuracy and respectability, stray light, noise level and pen response time. (HM)

  3. Biogas composition and engine performance, including database and biogas property model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijstens, A.J.; Beuman, W.P.H.; Molen, M. van der; Rijke, J. de; Cloudt, R.P.M.; Kadijk, G.; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Bleuanus, W.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    In order to enable this evaluation of the current biogas quality situation in the EU; results are presented in a biogas database. Furthermore the key gas parameter Sonic Bievo Index (influence on open loop A/F-ratio) is defined and other key gas parameters like the Methane Number (knock resistance)

  4. Nox diffusion-simulation in an urban area in using the vertical diffusion diagram including a surface roughness parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kono, Hitoshi; Fujimoto, Akira; Nakano, Hiroshi

    1988-03-31

    In recent years, in order to attain a total quantity regulation of air pollution and to prepare a local air-control program, a diffusion simulation is often made using a Gaussian plume model. NOx diffusion simulation of the urban area was carried out using a vertical diffusion width by taking a parameter of ground-surface roughness using Smith's correction to the Gaussian model. For the diffusion of car exhaust gas, comparison was made for the estimate and the measurement by jointly using the values of ground-surface roughness and the initial diffusion width. As a result, change in the diffusion width of the car exhaust gas due to the urban buildings was expressed at a necessary practical level by giving the height of the point of calculation, 1 - 3 m in the central part and 30 cm at the peripheral part, and giving the initial diffusion width of roughly half to equal size of initial diffusion width to the average height of the buildings. (2 figs, 8 tabs, 20 refs)

  5. Neutrino masses and cosmological parameters from a Euclid-like survey: Markov Chain Monte Carlo forecasts including theoretical errors

    CERN Document Server

    Audren, Benjamin; Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Viel, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    We present forecasts for the accuracy of determining the parameters of a minimal cosmological model and the total neutrino mass based on combined mock data for a future Euclid-like galaxy survey and Planck. We consider two different galaxy surveys: a spectroscopic redshift survey and a cosmic shear survey. We make use of the Monte Carlo Markov Chains (MCMC) technique and assume two sets of theoretical errors. The first error is meant to account for uncertainties in the modelling of the effect of neutrinos on the non-linear galaxy power spectrum and we assume this error to be fully correlated in Fourier space. The second error is meant to parametrize the overall residual uncertainties in modelling the non-linear galaxy power spectrum at small scales, and is conservatively assumed to be uncorrelated and to increase with the ratio of a given scale to the scale of non-linearity. It hence increases with wavenumber and decreases with redshift. With these two assumptions for the errors and assuming further conservat...

  6. Prediction of oxidation parameters of purified Kilka fish oil including gallic acid and methyl gallate by adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaashari, Maryam; Farhoosh, Reza; Farahmandfar, Reza

    2016-10-01

    As a result of concerns regarding possible health hazards of synthetic antioxidants, gallic acid and methyl gallate may be introduced as natural antioxidants to improve oxidative stability of marine oil. Since conventional modelling could not predict the oxidative parameters precisely, artificial neural network (ANN) and neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) modelling with three inputs, including type of antioxidant (gallic acid and methyl gallate), temperature (35, 45 and 55 °C) and concentration (0, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg L(-1) ) and four outputs containing induction period (IP), slope of initial stage of oxidation curve (k1 ) and slope of propagation stage of oxidation curve (k2 ) and peroxide value at the IP (PVIP ) were performed to predict the oxidation parameters of Kilka oil triacylglycerols and were compared to multiple linear regression (MLR). The results showed ANFIS was the best model with high coefficient of determination (R(2)  = 0.99, 0.99, 0.92 and 0.77 for IP, k1 , k2 and PVIP , respectively). So, the RMSE and MAE values for IP were 7.49 and 4.92 in ANFIS model. However, they were to be 15.95 and 10.88 and 34.14 and 3.60 for the best MLP structure and MLR, respectively. So, MLR showed the minimum accuracy among the constructed models. Sensitivity analysis based on the ANFIS model suggested a high sensitivity of oxidation parameters, particularly the induction period on concentrations of gallic acid and methyl gallate due to their high antioxidant activity to retard oil oxidation and enhanced Kilka oil shelf life. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. [Research and Design of a System for Detecting Automated External Defbrillator Performance Parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kewu; Xiao, Shengxiang; Jiang, Lina; Hu, Jingkai

    2017-09-30

    In order to regularly detect the performance parameters of automated external defibrillator (AED), to make sure it is safe before using the instrument, research and design of a system for detecting automated external defibrillator performance parameters. According to the research of the characteristics of its performance parameters, combing the STM32's stability and high speed with PWM modulation control, the system produces a variety of ECG normal and abnormal signals through the digital sampling methods. Completed the design of the hardware and software, formed a prototype. This system can accurate detect automated external defibrillator discharge energy, synchronous defibrillation time, charging time and other key performance parameters.

  8. Parameter study on performance of building cooling by night-time ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Manz, H.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    of different parameters such as building construction, heat gains, air change rates, heat transfer coefficients and climatic conditions including annual variations on the number of overheating degree hours (operative room temperature >26 °C) was evaluated. Climatic conditions and air flow rate during night......Especially for commercial buildings in moderate climates, night-time ventilation seems to be a simple and energy-efficient approach to improve thermal comfort in summer. However, due to uncertainties in the prediction of thermal comfort in buildings with night-time ventilation, architects...... and engineers are still hesitant to apply this technique. In order to reduce the uncertainties, the most important parameters affecting night ventilation performance need to be identified. A typical office room was therefore modelled using a building energy simulation programme (HELIOS), and the effect...

  9. Adaptive Synchronization of Chaotic Systems considering Performance Parameters of Operational Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruíz-Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an adaptive control approach for synchronizing two chaotic oscillators with saturated nonlinear function series as nonlinear functions. Mathematical models to characterize the behavior of the transmitter and receiver circuit were derived, including in the latter the adaptive control and taking into account, for both chaotic oscillators, the most influential performance parameters associated with operational amplifiers. Asymptotic stability of the full synchronization system is studied by using Lyapunov direct method. Theoretical derivations and related results are experimentally validated through implementations from commercially available devices. Finally, the full synchronization system can easily be reproducible at a low cost.

  10. Effects of Khaya senegalensis leaves on performance, carcass traits, hemtological and biochemical parameters in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wareth, A. A. A.; Hammad, Seddik; Ahmed, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges facing farmers today is to ensure adequate integration of natural resources into animal feeds. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of Khaya senegalensis (KS) leaves on the performance of growing male rabbits, carcass traits and biochemical as well as hematological parameters. Thirty New Zealand White male growing rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rabbits per group). Group I (control) received standard rabbit diet. Rabbits in group II and group III were fed standard rabbit diet supplemented with 35 % and 65 % KS leaves, respectively. All rabbits were fed daily for 25 days. The performance parameters and carcass criteria, including daily body weight gain, final body weight, and the percentage of dressing, were increased in rabbits fed 35 % KS when compared to the control group. Kidney and liver weight ratios increased significantly in group II but dropped in group III. Furthermore, liver enzymes - alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and kidney function parameters - urea, and creatinine - increased in both group II (significant P<0.05) and in group III (significant P<0.01) when compared to the control group. Moreover, KS leaves induced a significant increase (P<0.05) in the total white blood cell count, the percentage of granulocytes and the platelet count; whereas, the percentage of lymphocytes, red blood cell count, hemoglobin content, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were not statistically significantly changed. This study demonstrates that the performance parameters and carcass traits are improved by the replacement of rabbit's diet with KS leaves. However, KS leaves may adversely affect liver and kidney function in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, further studies are required to elucidate the maximum tolerable and toxic, as well as lethal doses, and to isolate the pharmacologically active components from KS leaves. PMID

  11. THE LEGITIMACY OF INCLUDING THE SOCIAL PARAMETERS IN EVALUATING THE HEALTH STATUS IN THE SOCIAL ASSURANCE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI NEDELCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The social state crisis encouraged a reductionist tendency which had recently developed in the evaluations of the health status in the social assurance system. A holistic, psycho-medical approach, which took in consideration the implications of the social factors regarding disability, was confronted with a strictly medical model, in which the illness is exclusively considered a person’s problem; therefore, the references towards the „social” are irrelevant. In this context, the present paper states the question of the legitimacy of using some sociological concepts, in medical expertise, considered relevant in this area, such as: „occupational access” or the „social functioning of the person”. The present study doesn’t stop at offering as arguments of legitimacy the authority of some recommendations regarding the use of the social-medical model, including the evaluation of the health status, recommendations received from the behalf of OMS and the European Council (see CIF. The paper presents the construction of specific evaluation instruments and tries to identify the sense in which using the references regarding the „social” could influence the pressures in the social assurance system.

  12. Effect analysis of geometric parameters of floating raft on isolation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shangda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper focuses on the effects of the geometric parameters of a floating raft on isolation performance.[Methods] Based on the idea that the weight of a floating raft remains constant, a parametric finite element model is established using geometric parameters, and the effects of the geometric parameters when isolation performance is measured by vibration level difference are discussed.[Results] The effects of the geometric parameters of a floating raft on isolation performance are mainly reflected in the middle and high frequency areas. The most important geometric parameters which have an impact on isolation performance are the raft's height, length to width ratio and number of ribs. Adjusting the geometric parameters of the raft is one effective way to avoid the vibration frequency of mechanical equipment.[Conclusions] This paper has some practical value for the engineering design of floating raft isolation systems.

  13. Parameter Selection and Performance Analysis of Mobile Terminal Models Based on Unity3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Li-feng; ZHAO Hai-ying; XU Guang-mei

    2014-01-01

    Mobile platform is now widely seen as a promising multimedia service with a favorable user group and market prospect. To study the influence of mobile terminal models on the quality of scene roaming, a parameter setting platform of mobile terminal models is established to select the parameter selection and performance index on different mobile platforms in this paper. This test platform is established based on model optimality principle, analyzing the performance curve of mobile terminals in different scene models and then deducing the external parameter of model establishment. Simulation results prove that the established test platform is able to analyze the parameter and performance matching list of a mobile terminal model.

  14. High performance computation of landscape genomic models including local indicators of spatial association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, S; Orozco-terWengel, P; Forester, B R; Duruz, S; Colli, L; Masembe, C; Negrini, R; Landguth, E; Jones, M R; Bruford, M W; Taberlet, P; Joost, S

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing availability of both molecular and topo-climatic data, the main challenges facing landscape genomics - that is the combination of landscape ecology with population genomics - include processing large numbers of models and distinguishing between selection and demographic processes (e.g. population structure). Several methods address the latter, either by estimating a null model of population history or by simultaneously inferring environmental and demographic effects. Here we present samβada, an approach designed to study signatures of local adaptation, with special emphasis on high performance computing of large-scale genetic and environmental data sets. samβada identifies candidate loci using genotype-environment associations while also incorporating multivariate analyses to assess the effect of many environmental predictor variables. This enables the inclusion of explanatory variables representing population structure into the models to lower the occurrences of spurious genotype-environment associations. In addition, samβada calculates local indicators of spatial association for candidate loci to provide information on whether similar genotypes tend to cluster in space, which constitutes a useful indication of the possible kinship between individuals. To test the usefulness of this approach, we carried out a simulation study and analysed a data set from Ugandan cattle to detect signatures of local adaptation with samβada, bayenv, lfmm and an F ST outlier method (FDIST approach in arlequin) and compare their results. samβada - an open source software for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X available at http://lasig.epfl.ch/sambada - outperforms other approaches and better suits whole-genome sequence data processing. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Investigation of optimized experimental parameters including laser wavelength for boron measurement in photovoltaic grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwiche, S.; Benmansour, M.; Eliezer, N.; Morvan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of boron and other impurities in photovoltaic grade silicon was investigated using the LIBS technique with attention to the laser wavelength employed, temporal parameters, and the nature of the ambient gas. The laser wavelength was found to have a moderate effect on the performance of the process, while the type of purge gas and temporal parameters had a strong effect on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the boron spectral emission, which was used to determine the boron concentration in silicon. The three parameters are not independent, meaning that for each different purge gas, different optimal temporal parameters are observed. Electron density was also calculated from Stark broadening of the 390.5 nm silicon emission line in order to better understand the different performances observed when using different gases and gating parameters. Calibration curves were made for boron measurement in silicon using certified standards with different purge gases while using the temporal parameters which had been optimized for that gas. By comparing the calibration curves, it was determined that argon is superior to helium or air for use as the analysis chamber purge gas with an UV laser.

  16. Key radionuclides and parameters that determine performance of geologic repositories for high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joonhong Ahn; Atsuyuki Suzuki

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents results of a mathematical analysis for performance of the engineered barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories. The main body of the mathematical model developed in this study is mass transport of actinides in a bentonite region. In an analysis of actinide transport, radioactive decay chain and effects of low solubilities must be taken into account. In many previous models for mass transport in engineered barriers including radioactive decay chain, however, boundary conditions at the interface between the waste form and the bentonite region cannot be determined flexibly. In some models, solubility-limited boundary condition is assumed for all the members in a chain. In order to investigate what are key radionuclides and parameters that control performance of engineered barriers of a geologic repository, we must evaluate mass transport with the source boundary condition determined by a detailed analysis on mass transfer at the boundary. In this study, we developed a mathematical model, which can determine whether the inner boundary condition is solubility-limited or congruent release, based on a mathematical analysis for mass transfer at the glass dissolution location, and how long the solubility-limited boundary condition applies. Based on the mathematical model, we point out radionuclides and parameters that have primary influences on the performance of a repository, and investigate a reasonable strategy for coupling geologic disposal and partitioning of those key radionuclides from the standpoint of reducing hazard of geologic disposal. (authors). 4 tabs., 2 figs., 8 refs

  17. Extraction of bowing parameters from violin performance combining motion capture and sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E; Demoucron, M

    2009-11-01

    A method is described for measurement of a complete set of bowing parameters in violin performance. Optical motion capture was combined with sensors for accurate measurement of the main bowing parameters (bow position, bow velocity, bow acceleration, bow-bridge distance, and bow force) as well as secondary control parameters (skewness, inclination, and tilt of the bow). In addition, other performance features (moments of on/off in bow-string contact, string played, and bowing direction) were extracted. Detailed descriptions of the calculations of the bowing parameters, features, and calibrations are given. The described system is capable of measuring all bowing parameters without disturbing the player, allowing for detailed studies of musically relevant aspects of bow control and coordination of bowing parameters in bowed-string instrument performance.

  18. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Rosann

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  19. Somatic parameters of 17 year old soccer players in the older youth category in relation to sports performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Kutáč

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Somatic parameters are included not only in the general structure of sporting performance, but also in the structure of sporting performance in soccer. In light of this structure, higher performance players should have better somatic performance prerequisites, and their somatic parameters should differ from players with lower performance levels. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to assess the somatic parameters of players with different performance levels. METHODS: The research included 90 soccer players in the age of 17 years in three performance categories playing in the junior competition in the Czech Republic. Average age of the individual levels – highest performance 17.61 ± 0.48, middle performance 17.50 ± 0.50, lowest performance 17.50 ± 0.50 years. The following was monitored – basic anthropometric parameters (body weight, body height, somatotype (Heath-Carter, representation of body fat (BF, fat free mass (FFM and the total body water (TBW. The Tanita 418 MA tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance (BIA scale was used for the determination of the representation of BF and the TBW. All players were measured at the beginning of the competition period in the same year. All measurements were implemented in the morning hours by the same person with corresponding experience. RESULTS: The average values of somatic parameters measured in the individual performance categories show that we can only consider them to be an indicator of sporting performance up to a particular performance level. The boundary was the middle performance level (teams playing regional competition as their mean values of the monitored somatic parameters significantly differed from the mean values of players at the lowest performance level (teams playing at the district and municipal levels but they did not differ when compared with the mean values of the players at the highest performance level (teams playing the top junior league. CONCLUSIONS

  20. Impact of water temperature and structural parameters on the hydraulic labyrinth-channel emitter performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed I. Al-Amoud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water temperature and structural parameters of a labyrinth emitter on drip irrigation hydraulic performance were investigated. The inside structural parameters of the trapezoidal labyrinth emitter include path width (W and length (L, trapezoidal unit numbers (N, height (H, and spacing (S. Laboratory experiments were conducted using five different types of labyrinth-channel emitters (three non-pressure compensating and two pressure-compensating emitters commonly used for subsurface drip irrigation systems. The water temperature effect on the hydraulic characteristics at various operating pressures was recorded and a comparison was made to identify the most effective structural parameter on emitter performance. The pressure compensating emitter flow exponent (x average was 0.014, while non-pressure compensating emitter’s values average was 0.456, indicating that the sensitivity of non-pressure compensating emitters to pressure variation is an obvious characteristic (p<0.001 of this type of emitters. The effects of water temperature on emitter flow rate were insignificant (p>0.05 at various operating pressures, where the flow rate index values for emitters were around one. The effects of water temperature on manufacturer’s coefficient of variation (CV values for all emitters were insignificant (p>0.05. The CV values of the non-pressure compensating emitters were lower than those of pressure compensating emitters. This is typical for most compensating models because they are manufactured with more elements than non-compensating emitters are. The results of regression analysis indicate that N and H are the essential factors (p<0.001 to affect the hydraulic performance.

  1. Parameters that affect parallel processing for computational electromagnetic simulation codes on high performance computing clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hongsik

    What is the impact of multicore and associated advanced technologies on computational software for science? Most researchers and students have multicore laptops or desktops for their research and they need computing power to run computational software packages. Computing power was initially derived from Central Processing Unit (CPU) clock speed. That changed when increases in clock speed became constrained by power requirements. Chip manufacturers turned to multicore CPU architectures and associated technological advancements to create the CPUs for the future. Most software applications benefited by the increased computing power the same way that increases in clock speed helped applications run faster. However, for Computational ElectroMagnetics (CEM) software developers, this change was not an obvious benefit - it appeared to be a detriment. Developers were challenged to find a way to correctly utilize the advancements in hardware so that their codes could benefit. The solution was parallelization and this dissertation details the investigation to address these challenges. Prior to multicore CPUs, advanced computer technologies were compared with the performance using benchmark software and the metric was FLoting-point Operations Per Seconds (FLOPS) which indicates system performance for scientific applications that make heavy use of floating-point calculations. Is FLOPS an effective metric for parallelized CEM simulation tools on new multicore system? Parallel CEM software needs to be benchmarked not only by FLOPS but also by the performance of other parameters related to type and utilization of the hardware, such as CPU, Random Access Memory (RAM), hard disk, network, etc. The codes need to be optimized for more than just FLOPs and new parameters must be included in benchmarking. In this dissertation, the parallel CEM software named High Order Basis Based Integral Equation Solver (HOBBIES) is introduced. This code was developed to address the needs of the

  2. Using Mathematical Modeling Methods for Estimating Entrance Flow Heterogeneity Impact on Aviation GTE Parameters and Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Ezrokhi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methodological approaches to the mathematical models (MM of various levels, dedicated to estimate an impact of the entrance flow heterogeneity on the main parameters and performances of the aviation GTE and it units. By an example of calculation of a twin-shaft turbofan engine in cruiser mode, demonstrates engineering mathematical model capabilities to define the impact of the total pressure field distortion on engine trust and air flow parameters, and also gas dynamic stability margin of the both compressors.It is shown that the presented first level mathematical model allows us to estimate sufficiently the impact of entrance total pressure heterogeneity on the engine parameters. Here reliability of calculations is proved to be true by their comparison with the results, obtained owing to well fulfilled 2D & 3D mathematical models of the engine, which have been repeatedly identified by the results of experiments.It is shown that received results including those on decreasing values of stability margin of both compressors can be used for tentative estimates when choosing a desirable stability margin, providing steady operation of compressors and engine in an entire range of its operating modes. Carrying out a definitive testing calculation using the specialized engine MM of a higher level will not only confirm the results obtained, but also reduce their expected error with regard to the real values reached as a result of tests.

  3. Increasing the Performance and Reliability of Power Boiler by Monitoring Thermal and Strength Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobota Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for determination of thermo-flow parameters for steam boilers. This method allows to perform the calculations of the boiler furnace chamber and heat flow rates absorbed by superheater stages. These parameters are important for monitoring the performance of the power unit. Knowledge of these parameters allows determining the degree of the furnace chamber slagging. The calculation can be performed in online mode and use to monitoring of steam boiler. The presented method allows to the operation of steam boiler with high efficiency.

  4. Performance of muon reconstruction including Alignment Position Errors for 2016 Collision Data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    From 2016 Run muon reconstruction is using non-zero Alignment Position Errors to account for the residual uncertainties of muon chambers' positions. Significant improvements are obtained in particular for the startup phase after opening/closing the muon detector. Performance results are presented for real data and MC simulations, related to both the offline reconstruction and the High-Level Trigger.

  5. Transient performances analysis of wind turbine system with induction generator including flux saturation and skin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Han, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze correctly the effect of different models for induction generators on the transient performances of large wind power generation, Wind turbine driven squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) models taking into account both main and leakage flux saturation and skin effect were...

  6. The scaling of economic and performance parameters of DT and advanced fuel fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this study, the plasma stability index beta and the fusion power density in the plasma were treated as independent variables to determine how they influenced three economic performance parameters of fusion reactors burning the DT and four advanced fusion fuel cycles. The economic/performance parameters included the total power produced per unit length of reactor; the mass per unit length, and the specific mass in kilograms/kilowatt. The scaling of these parameters with beta and fusion power density was examined for a common set of engineering assumptions on the allowable wall loading limits, the maximum magnetic field existing in the plasma, average blanket mass density, etc. It was found that the power per unit length decreased as the plasma power density and beta increased. This is a consequence of the fact that the first wall is a bottleneck in the energy flow from the plasma to the generating equipment, and the wall power flux will exceed wall loading limits if the plasma radius exceeds a critical value. If one wished to build an engineering test reactor which produced a burning plasma at the lowest possible initial cost, and without regard to whether such a reactor would ultimately produce the cheapest power, then one would minimize the mass per unit length. The mass per unit length decreases with increasing plasma power density and beta, with the DT reaction being the most expensive at a fixed plasma power density (because of its thicker blanket), and the least expensive at a fixed value of beta, at least up to values of beta of 50%. The specific mass, in kg/kw, which is a rough measure of the cost of the power generated by the reactor, shows an opposite trend. It increases with increasing plasma power density and beta. At a given plasma power density and low beta, the DT reaction gives the lowest specific mass, but at a fixed beta above 10%, the advanced fuel cycles have the lowest specific mass

  7. Influence of superoleophobic layer on the lubrication performance of partially textured bearing including cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauviqirrahman, M.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Muchammad, Jamari, J.

    2016-04-01

    Surfaces with high superoleophobicity have attracted important attention because of their potential applications in scientific and industrial field. Especially classical metal bearing are faced with lubrication problem, because metal surface shows typically oleophilicity. The development of superolephobic metal surfaces which repel oil liquid droplet have significant applications in preventing the stiction. In addition, for classical bearing with texturing, the cavitation occurence is often considered as the main cause of the deterioration of the lubrication performance and thus shorten the lifetime of the bearing. In the present study, the exploration of the influence of adding the superoleophobic layer on the improvement of the performance of partially textured bearing in preventing the cavitation was performed. Navier slip model was used to model the behavior of the superoleophobic layer. A formulation of the modified Reynolds equation with mass-conserving boundary conditions was derived and the pressure distribution was of particular interest. The equations of lubrication were discretized using a finite volume method and solved using a tri-diagonal-matrix-algortihm. In this calculation, it was shown that after introducing the superoleophobic layer at the leading edge of the contact, the cavitation occurence can be prevented and thus the increased hydrodynamic pressure is found. However, the results showed that for deeper texture, the deterioration of the load support is noted. This findings may have useful implications to extend the life time of textured bearing.

  8. Elevation profile influence at key contractual performance parameters for LDS (Leak Detection Systems) based on compensated volume balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebenberg, Lieb [TRANSNET Pipeline, Durban (South Africa); Bueno, David; Passos, Rafaela [KANOPUS Consulting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes and discusses procedures and correlations to estimate performance parameters for Leak Detection Systems based on Compensation Volume Balance, at the portions not usually covered by international standards (like, API RP 1130). These parameters include: minimum acceptable leakage to be detected, under steady state conditions, based on flow measurement uncertainty, observed for both pipeline head and tail; an actual flow rate uncertainty against the one informed by the flow meter manufacturer documentation; the reference flow rate for steady state conditions; and the sensitivity one may expect for the system against a given probability of false alarms (i.e., the ways to correlate reliability, the main performance parameter as per API RP 1130 and sensitivity, the second one). A question usually not considered is: how the elevation profile may affect some of these parameters. That is the second main objective addressed herein, with actual examples employed in a South African multi product pipeline. (author)

  9. A new unbiased stochastic derivative estimator for discontinuous sample performances with structural parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Yijie; Fu, Michael C.; Hu, Jian Qiang; Heidergott, Bernd

    In this paper, we propose a new unbiased stochastic derivative estimator in a framework that can handle discontinuous sample performances with structural parameters. This work extends the three most popular unbiased stochastic derivative estimators: (1) infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA), (2)

  10. Environmental performance of gasified willow from different lands including land-use changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saez de Bikuna Salinas, Koldo; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Pilegaard, Kim

    2017-01-01

    A life-cycle assessment (LCA) of a low-input, short rotation coppice (SRC) willow grown on different Danish lands was performed. Woodchips are gasified, producer gas is used for co-generation of heat and power (CHP) and the ash-char output is applied as soil amendment in the field. A hybrid model...... for abandoned farmland, as a relative C stock loss compared to natural regeneration. ILUC results show that area related GHG emissions are dominant (93% of iLUCfood and 80% of iLUCfeed), transformation being more important (82% of iLUCfood) than occupation (11%) impacts. LCA results show that CHP from willow...

  11. Combination for differential and integral data: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactor performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marable, J.H.; de Saussure, G.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter attempts to show how the various types of data presented and discussed in previous chapters can be combined and applied to the calculation of performance parameters of a reactor design model. Discusses derivation of least-squares adjustment; input data to the adjustment; the results of adjustment; and application to an LMFBR. Demonstrates that the least-squares formulae represent a logical, well-founded method for combining the results of integral and differential experiments. Includes calculational bias factors and their uncertainties. Concludes that the adjustment technique is a valuable tool, and that significant progress has been made with respect to its development and its applications. Recommends further work on the evaluation of covariance files, especially for calculational biases, and the inclusion of specific shielding factors as variables to be adjusted. The appendix features a calculation whose goal is to find the form of the projection operator which projects perpendicular to the calculational manifold

  12. Key performance indicators for stroke from the Ministry of Health of Brazil: benchmarking and indicator parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C Lange

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aimed to analyze the stroke units in two centers for the key performance indicators (KPIs required by the Ministry of Health in Brazil. Methods All 16 KPIs were analyzed, including the percentage of patients admitted to the stroke unit, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the first 48 hours after admission, pneumonia and hospital mortality due to stroke, and hospital discharge on antithrombotic therapy in patients without cardioembolic mechanism. Results Both centers admitted over 80% of the patients in their stroke unit. The incidence of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis was > 85%, that of in-hospital pneumonia was 70%. Conclusion Our results suggest using the parameters of all of the 16 KPIs required by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, and the present results for the two stroke units for future benchmarking.

  13. Mechanical–biological treatment: Performance and potentials. An LCA of 8 MBT plants including waste characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montejo, Cristina; Tonini, Davide; Márquez, María del Carmen

    2013-01-01

    recovery through increased automation of the selection and to prioritize biogas-electricity production from the organic fraction over direct composting. The optimal strategy for refuse derived fuel (RDF) management depends upon the environmental compartment to be prioritized and the type of marginal...... of the MBT plants. These widely differed in type of biological treatment and recovery efficiencies. The results indicated that the performance is strongly connected with energy and materials recovery efficiency. The recommendation for upgrading and/or commissioning of future plants is to optimize materials...... electricity source in the system. It was estimated that, overall, up to ca. 180—190 kt CO2-eq. y−1 may be saved by optimizing the MBT plants under assessment....

  14. Thermal enhanced vapor extraction systems: Design, application and performance prediction including contaminant behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Soil heating technologies have been proposed as a method to accelerate contaminant removal from subsurface soils. These methods include the use of hot air, steam, conductive heaters, in-situ resistive heating and in-situ radiofrequency heating (Buettner et.al., EPA, Dev et.al., Heath et.al.). Criteria for selection of a particular soil heating technology is a complex function of contaminant and soil properties, and efficiency in energy delivery and contaminant removal technologies. The work presented here seeks to expand the understanding of the interactions of subsurface water, contaminant, heat and vacuum extraction through model predictions and field data collection. Field demonstration will involve the combination of two soil heating technologies (resistive and dielectric) with a vacuum vapor extraction system and will occur during the summer of 1994

  15. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments...... and storage, noise level and visual privacy. However, if job performance is considered, then satisfaction with the main indoor environmental parameters should be addressed first as they affected self-estimated job performance to the highest extent. The present study showed that overall satisfaction...... with personal workspace affected significantly the self-estimated job performance. Increasing overall satisfaction with the personal workspace by about 15% would correspond to an increase of self-estimated job performance by 3.7%. Among indoor environmental parameters and building features, satisfaction...

  16. Performance of cement solidification with barium for high activity liquid waste including sulphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, Toshikazu; Yamada, Motoyuki; Horikawa, Yoshihiko; Kaneko, Masaaki; Saso, Michitaka; Haruguchi, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Yu; Sakai, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    The target liquid waste to be solidified is generated from PWR primary loop spent resin treatment with sulphate acid, so, its main constituent is sodium sulphate and the activity of this liquid is relatively high. Waste form of this liquid waste is considered to be a candidate for the subsurface disposal. The disposed waste including sulphate is anticipated to rise a concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water around the disposal facility and it may cause degradation of materials such as cement and bentonite layer and comprise the disposal facility. There could be two approaches to avoid this problem, the strong design of the disposal facility and the minimization of sulphaste ion migration from the solidified waste. In this study, the latter approach was examined. In order to keep the low concentration of sulphate ion in the ground water, it is effective to make barium sulphate by adding barium compound into the liquid waste in solidification. However, adding equivalent amount of barium compound with sulphate ion causes difficulty of mixing, because production of barium sulphate causes high viscosity. In this study, mixing condition after and before adding cement into the liquid waste was estimated. The mixing condition was set with consideration to keep anion concentration low in the ground water and of mixing easily enough in practical operation. Long term leaching behavior of the simulated solidified waste was also analyzed by PHREEQC. And the concentration of the constitution affected to the disposal facility was estimated be low enough in the ground water. (author)

  17. Sensitivity functions for uncertainty analysis: Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of reactor performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter presents the mathematical basis for sensitivity functions, discusses their physical meaning and information they contain, and clarifies a number of issues concerning their application, including the definition of group sensitivities, the selection of sensitivity functions to be included in the analysis, and limitations of sensitivity theory. Examines the theoretical foundation; criticality reset sensitivities; group sensitivities and uncertainties; selection of sensitivities included in the analysis; and other uses and limitations of sensitivity functions. Gives the theoretical formulation of sensitivity functions pertaining to ''as-built'' designs for performance parameters of the form of ratios of linear flux functionals (such as reaction-rate ratios), linear adjoint functionals, bilinear functions (such as reactivity worth ratios), and for reactor reactivity. Offers a consistent procedure for reducing energy-dependent or fine-group sensitivities and uncertainties to broad group sensitivities and uncertainties. Provides illustrations of sensitivity functions as well as references to available compilations of such functions and of total sensitivities. Indicates limitations of sensitivity theory originating from the fact that this theory is based on a first-order perturbation theory

  18. Important parameters in the performance of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain (TSPA-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, J.E.; Sevougian, S.D.; Lee, J.H.; Andrews, R.W.; McNeish, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A total system performance assessment (TSPA) was conducted to determine how a potential repository at Yucca Mountain would behave. Using the results of this TSPA, regression was done to determine which parameters had the most important effect on the repository performance. These results were consistent with the current conceptual understanding of the repository

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of WEC Array Layout Parameters Effect on the Power Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz, Pau Mercadé; Ferri, Francesco; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the effect that the array layout choice has on the power performance. To this end, a sensitivity analysis is carried out with six array layout parameters, as the simulation inputs, the array power performance (q-factor), as the simulation output, and a simulation model special...

  20. Performance emulation and parameter estimation for nonlinear fibre-optic links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Fibre-optic communication systems, especially when operating in the nonlinear regime, generally do not perform exactly as theory would predict. A number of methods for data-based evaluation of nonlinear fibre-optic link parameters, both for accurate performance emulation and optimization...

  1. Analyzing the shape parameter effects on the performance of the mixed-flow fan using CFD and Factorial design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Uk Hee; Kim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Sung; Kim, Jin Hyuk; Choi, Young Seok

    2016-01-01

    Fans are representative turbo-machinery widely used for ventilation throughout the industrial world. Recently, as the importance of energy saving has been magnified with the fans, the demand for the fans with high efficiency and performance has been increasing. The representative method for enhancing the performance includes design optimization; in practice, fan performance can be improved by changing the shape parameters such as those of meridional plane, impeller, and diffuser. Before optimizing the efficient design, a process of screening to select important design parameters is essential. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of mixed-flow fans' shape parameters on fan performance (static pressure and fan static efficiency) and derive optimum models based on the results. In this study, the shape parameters considered in the impeller domain are as follows: tip clearance, number of blades, beta angle of Leading edge (LE) in the blade, and beta angle of Trailing edge (TE) in the blade. The shape parameters considered in the diffuser domain are as follows: meridional length of the Guide vane (GV), number of GV, beta angle of LE in the GV and beta angle of TE in the GV. The effects of individual shape parameters were analyzed using the CFD (Computational fluid dynamic) and DOE (Design of experiments) methods. The reliability of CFD was verified through the comparison between preliminary fan model's experiment results and CFD results, and screening processes were implemented through 24-1 fractional factorial design. From the analysis of DOE results, it could be seen that the tip clearance and the number of blades in the impeller domain greatly affected the fan performance, and the beta angle of TE at the GV in the diffuser domain greatly affected the fan performance. Finally, the optimum models with improved fan performance were created using linear regression equations derived from 24-1 fractional factorial design.

  2. Diagnostic performances of shear wave elastography: which parameter to use in differential diagnosis of solid breast masses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Ko, Kyung Hee; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoon, Jung Hyun

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate which shear wave elastography (SWE) parameter proves most accurate in the differential diagnosis of solid breast masses. One hundred and fifty-six breast lesions in 139 consecutive women (mean age: 43.54 ± 9.94 years, range 21-88 years), who had been scheduled for ultrasound-guided breast biopsy, were included. Conventional ultrasound and SWE were performed in all women before biopsy procedures. Ultrasound BI-RADS final assessment and SWE parameters were recorded. Diagnostic performance of each SWE parameter was calculated and compared with those obtained when applying cut-off values of previously published data. Performance of conventional ultrasound and ultrasound combined with each parameter was also compared. Of the 156 breast masses, 120 (76.9 %) were benign and 36 (23.1 %) malignant. Maximum stiffness (Emax) with a cut-off of 82.3 kPa had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) value compared with other SWE parameters, 0.860 (sensitivity 88.9 %, specificity 77.5 %, accuracy 80.1 %). Az values of conventional ultrasound combined with each SWE parameter showed lower (but not significantly) values than with conventional ultrasound alone. Maximum stiffness (82.3 kPa) provided the best diagnostic performance. However the overall diagnostic performance of ultrasound plus SWE was not significantly better than that of conventional ultrasound alone. • SWE offers new information over and above conventional breast ultrasound • Various SWE parameters were explored regarding distinction between benign and malignant lesions • An elasticity of 82.3 kPa appears optimal in differentiating solid breast masses • However, ultrasound plus SWE was not significantly better than conventional ultrasound alone.

  3. Working parameters affecting earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) system performance for passive cooling: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, D.; Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Ismail, M. A.; Amaludin, A.

    2017-07-01

    The study on the effect of the working parameters such as pipe material, pipe length, pipe diameter, depth of burial of the pipe, air flow rate and different types of soils on the thermal performance of earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) systems is very crucial to ensure that thermal comfort can be achieved. In the past decade, researchers have performed studies to develop numerical models for analysis of EAHE systems. Until recently, two-dimensional models replaced the numerical models in the 1990s and in recent times, more advanced analysis using three-dimensional models, specifically the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation in the analysis of EAHE system. This paper reviews previous models used to analyse the EAHE system and working parameters that affects the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHE) thermal performance as of February 2017. Recent findings on the parameters affecting EAHE performance are also presented and discussed. As a conclusion, with the advent of CFD methods, investigational work have geared up to modelling and simulation work as it saves time and cost. Comprehension of the EAHE working parameters and its effect on system performance is largely established. However, the study on type of soil and its characteristics on the performance of EAHEs systems are surprisingly barren. Therefore, future studies should focus on the effect of soil characteristics such as moisture content, density of soil, and type of soil on the thermal performance of EAHEs system.

  4. Determination of performance parameters of vertical axis wind turbines in wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Bang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the determination of the performance parameters of a small vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT, which operate by the utilization of drag forces acting on the blades of the turbine. The performance was evaluated by investigating the electrical power output and torque moment of the wind machine. Measurements were performed on the full-scale model and the experimental data are assessed and compared to other types of wind turbines, with respect to its purpose.

  5. Human comfort and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    OpenAIRE

    Frontczak, Monika Joanna; Wargocki, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the Ph.D. study was to examine occupants’ perception of comfort and self-estimated job performance in non-industrial buildings (homes and offices), in particular how building occupants understand comfort and which parameters, not necessarily related to indoor environments, influence the perception of comfort.To meet the objective, the following actions were taken: (1) a literature survey exploring which indoor environmental parameters (thermal, acoustic, visualenvironmen...

  6. Performance evaluation and parameter sensitivity of energy-harvesting shock absorbers on different vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sijing; Liu, Yilun; Xu, Lin; Guo, Xuexun; Zuo, Lei

    2016-07-01

    Traditional shock absorbers provide favourable ride comfort and road handling by dissipating the suspension vibration energy into heat waste. In order to harvest this dissipated energy and improve the vehicle fuel efficiency, many energy-harvesting shock absorbers (EHSAs) have been proposed in recent years. Among them, two types of EHSAs have attracted much attention. One is a traditional EHSA which converts the oscillatory vibration into bidirectional rotation using rack-pinion, ball-screw or other mechanisms. The other EHSA is equipped with a mechanical motion rectifier (MMR) that transforms the bidirectional vibration into unidirectional rotation. Hereinafter, they are referred to as NonMMR-EHSA and MMR-EHSA, respectively. This paper compares their performances with the corresponding traditional shock absorber by using closed-form analysis and numerical simulations on various types of vehicles, including passenger cars, buses and trucks. Results suggest that MMR-EHSA provides better ride performances than NonMMR-EHSA, and that MMR-EHSA is able to improve both the ride comfort and road handling simultaneously over the traditional shock absorber when installed on light-damped, heavy-duty vehicles. Additionally, the optimal parameters of MMR-EHSA are obtained for ride comfort. The optimal solutions ('Pareto-optimal solutions') are also obtained by considering the trade-off between ride comfort and road handling.

  7. Genetic parameters for type classification of Nelore cattle on central performance tests at pasture in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Paulo Ricardo Martins; Paiva, Samuel Rezende; Cobuci, Jaime Araujo; Braccini Neto, José; Machado, Carlos Henrique Cavallari; McManus, Concepta

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Nelore cattle on central performance tests in pasture, ranked by the visual classification method EPMURAS (structure, precocity, muscle, navel, breed, posture, and sexual characteristics), and to estimate genetic and phenotypic correlations between these parameters, including visual as well as production traits (initial and final weight on test, weight gain, and weight corrected for 550 days). The information used in the study was obtained on 21,032 Nelore bulls which were participants in the central performance test at pasture of the Brazilian Association for Zebu Breeders (ABCZ). Heritabilities obtained were from 0.19 to 0.50. Phenotypic correlations were positive from 0.70 to 0.97 between the weight traits, from 0.65 to 0.74 between visual characteristics, and from 0.29 to 0.47 between visual characteristics and weight traits. The genetic correlations were positive ranging from 0.80 to 0.98 between the characteristics of structure, precocity and musculature, from 0.13 to 0.64 between the growth characteristics, and from 0.41 to 0.97 between visual scores and weight gains. Heritability and genetic correlations indicate that the use of visual scores, along with the selection for growth characteristics, can bring positive results in selection of beef cattle for rearing on pasture.

  8. Synergistic improvement of gas sensing performance by micro-gravimetrically extracted kinetic/thermodynamic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Shuanbao; Xu, Pengcheng; Yu, Haitao; Cheng, Zhenxing; Li, Xinxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensing material can be comprehensively optimized by using gravimetric cantilever. • Kinetic-thermodynamic model parameters are quantitatively extracted by experiment • Sensing-material performance is synergistically optimized by extracted parameters. - Abstract: A novel method is explored for comprehensive design/optimization of organophosphorus sensing material, which is loaded on mass-type microcantilever sensor. Conventionally, by directly observing the gas sensing response, it is difficult to build quantitative relationship with the intrinsic structure of the material. To break through this difficulty, resonant cantilever is employed as gravimetric tool to implement molecule adsorption experiment. Based on the sensing data, key kinetic/thermodynamic parameters of the material to the molecule, including adsorption heat −ΔH°, adsorption/desorption rate constants K a and K d , active-site number per unit mass N′ and surface coverage θ, can be quantitatively extracted according to physical–chemistry theories. With gaseous DMMP (simulant of organophosphorus agents) as sensing target, the optimization route for three sensing materials is successfully demonstrated. Firstly, a hyper-branched polymer is evaluated. Though suffering low sensitivity due to insufficient N′, the bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropane (BHPF) sensing-group exhibits satisfactory reproducibility due to appropriate −ΔH°. To achieve more sensing-sites, KIT-5 mesoporous-silica with higher surface-area is assessed, resulting in good sensitivity but too high −ΔH° that brings poor repeatability. After comprehensive consideration, the confirmed BHPF sensing-group is grafted on the KIT-5 carrier to form an optimized DMMP sensing nanomaterial. Experimental results indicate that, featuring appropriate kinetic/thermodynamic parameters of −ΔH°, K a , K d , N′ and θ, the BHPF-functionalized KIT-5 mesoporous silica exhibits synergistic improvement among

  9. Availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters based on vector-universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qi; Shang Yanlong; Chen Lisheng; Zhao Yuguang

    2013-01-01

    Vector-universal generating function was presented to analyze the availability of thermodynamic system with multiple performance parameters. Vector-universal generating function of component's performance was defined, the arithmetic model based on vector-universal generating function was derived for the thermodynamic system, and the calculation method was given for state probability of multi-state component. With the stochastic simulation of the degeneration trend of the multiple factors, the system availability with multiple performance parameters was obtained under composite factors. It is shown by an example that the results of the availability obtained by the binary availability analysis method are somewhat conservative, and the results considering parameter failure based on vector-universal generating function reflect the operation characteristics of the thermodynamic system better. (authors)

  10. Evaluation of cyclone geometry and its influence on performance parameters by computational fluid dynamics (CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. P. Martignoni

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclone models have been used without relevant modifications for more than a century. Most of the attention has been focused on finding new methods to improve performance parameters. Recently, some studies were conducted to improve equipment performance by evaluating geometric effects on projects. In this work, the effect of cyclone geometry was studied through the creation of a symmetrical inlet and a volute scroll outlet section in an experimental cyclone and comparison to an ordinary single tangential inlet. The study was performed for gas-solid flow, based on an experimental study available in the literature, where a conventional cyclone model was used. Numerical experiments were performed by using CFX 5.7.1. The axial and tangential velocity components were evaluated using RSM and LES turbulence models. Results showed that these new designs can improve the cyclone performance parameters significantly and very interesting details were found on cyclone fluid dynamics properties using RSM and LES.

  11. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed

  12. Derivation of parameters necessary for the evaluation of performance of sites for deep geological repositories with particular reference to bedded salt, Livermore, California. Volume I. Main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, J.P.; Rawlings, G.E.; Soto, C.A.; Wood, D.F.; Chorley, D.W.

    1979-12-01

    A survey of parameters to be considered in the evaluation of sites for deep geologic nuclear waste repositories is presented. As yet, no comprehensive site selection procedure or performance evaluation approach has been adopted. A basis is provided for the development of parameters by discussing both site selection and performance evaluation. Three major groups of parameters are considered in this report: geologic, mining/rock mechanics, and hydrogeologic. For each type, the role of the parameter in the evaluation of repository sites is discussed. The derivation of the parameter by measurement, correlation, inference, or other method is discussed. Geologic parameters define the framework of the repository site and can be used in development of conceptual models and the prediction of long-term performance. Methods for deriving geological parameters include mapping, surveying, drilling, geophysical investigation, and historical and regional analysis. Rock mechanics/mining parameters are essential for the prediction of short-term performance and the development of initial conditions for modeling of long-term performance. Rock mechanics/mapping parameters can be derived by field or laboratory investigation, correlation, and theoretically or empirically based inference. Hydrogeologic parameters are the most important for assessment of long-term radionuclide confinement, since transport throughout the regional hydrogeologic system is the most likely mode of radionuclide escape from geologic repositories. Hydrogeologic parameters can be derived by hydrogeologic mapping and interpretation, hydrogeologic system modeling, field measurements, and lab tests. Procedures used in determination and statistical evaluation of geologic and rock mechanics parameters are discussed.

  13. Incremental Diagnostic Performance of Combined Parameters in the Detection of Severe Coronary Artery Disease Using Exercise Gated Myocardial Perfusion Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ju Liu

    Full Text Available Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI using gated single-photon emission tomography (gSPECT may underestimate the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD. This study aimed to evaluate the significance of combined parameters derived from gSPECT, as well as treadmill stress test parameters, in the detection of severe CAD.A total of 211 consecutive patients referred for exercise MPI between June 2011 and June 2013 (who received invasive coronary angiography within six months after MPI were retrospectively reviewed. Exercise MPI was performed with Bruce protocol and 201Tl injected at peak exercise. Gated SPECT was performed using a cadmium-zinc-telluride camera and processed by QPS/QGS software. Perfusion defect abnormalities such as sum stress score (SSS; sum difference score, algorithm-derived total perfusion deficits, transient ischemic dilatation ratios of end-diastolic volumes and end-systolic volumes, post-stress changes in ejection fraction, and lung/heart ratio (LHR were calculated. Treadmill parameters, including ST depression (STD at the 1st and 3rd minutes of recovery stage (1'STD and 3'STD, maximal STD corrected by heart rate increment (ST/HR, heart rate decline in 1st and 3rd minutes of recovery stage, recovery heart rate ratio (HR ratio, systolic and mean blood pressure ratios (SBP ratio and MAP ratio during recovery phase were recorded. Diagnostic performances of these parameters were analyzed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis and logistic regression for detection of left main (≥ 50% or 3-vessel disease (all ≥ 70% luminal stenosis on invasive angiography.Among various MPI and treadmill parameters used for detection of severe CAD, SSS and ST/HR had the highest AUC (0.78, 0.73, p = NS and best cut-off values (SSS > 6, ST/HR > 17.39 10-2mV/bpm, respectively. By univariate logistic regression, all parameters except 1'HRR, 3'HRR, SBP and MAP ratios increased the odds ratio of severe CAD. Only increased L/H ratio, 3'STD

  14. Assessment of anthropometric parameters including area of the psoas, area of the back muscle, and psoas-vertebra distance as indices for prediction of vertebral fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tamotsu; Morita, Masahumi; Mabuchi, Kiyoshi

    2005-01-01

    We assessed some anthropometric parameters as indices for the prediction of vertebral compression fracture. We measured the area of the total cross section, area of the back muscle, area of the psoas, area of subcutaneous fat tissue, ratio of the right and left area of the psoas, psoas-vertebra distance, the mediolateral length of the back muscle, anteroposterior length of the back muscle, the mediolateral length of the psoas, and anteroposterior length of the psoas, on computed tomography images. Logistic regression analysis was performed in order to test the correlation between each anthropometric parameter and the incidence of fracture. The odds ratio corresponding to one standard deviation of each parameter was calculated. The ratio of center and anterior vertebral heights and the ratio of center and posterior vertebral heights were measured from the positioning image. The smaller value of these was defined as the vertebral height ratio value. Vertebral height ratio was used as the parameter directly related to vertebral fracture. The subjects for research were 25 women with vertebral compression fracture and 36 women without fracture. Vertebral height ratio had a significant correlation with area of the psoas (correlation coefficient, r=0.609 p<0.001), area of the back muscle (r=0.547 p<0.001), and the psoas-vertebra distance (r=-0.523 p<0.001) in the anthropometric parameters. The odds ratios of the area of the psoas (odds ratio, OR:0.18, 95% confidence interval, CI:0.43 to 0.08), area of the back muscle (OR:0.13, 95% CI:0.37 to 0.05), and the psoas-vertebra distance (OR:3.01, 95% CI:6.22 to 1.46) were high. The odds ratio of the mediolateral length of the psoas (OR:0.34, 95% CI:0.67 to 0.18), and the left-to-right area ratio of the psoas (OR:0.41, 95% CI:0.76 to 0.22) were rather high. However, the vertebral height ratio had no significant correlation with the left-to-right area ratio of the psoas. It was considered that area of the psoas, area of the back

  15. An Efficient Data Partitioning to Improve Classification Performance While Keeping Parameters Interpretable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Korjus

    Full Text Available Supervised machine learning methods typically require splitting data into multiple chunks for training, validating, and finally testing classifiers. For finding the best parameters of a classifier, training and validation are usually carried out with cross-validation. This is followed by application of the classifier with optimized parameters to a separate test set for estimating the classifier's generalization performance. With limited data, this separation of test data creates a difficult trade-off between having more statistical power in estimating generalization performance versus choosing better parameters and fitting a better model. We propose a novel approach that we term "Cross-validation and cross-testing" improving this trade-off by re-using test data without biasing classifier performance. The novel approach is validated using simulated data and electrophysiological recordings in humans and rodents. The results demonstrate that the approach has a higher probability of discovering significant results than the standard approach of cross-validation and testing, while maintaining the nominal alpha level. In contrast to nested cross-validation, which is maximally efficient in re-using data, the proposed approach additionally maintains the interpretability of individual parameters. Taken together, we suggest an addition to currently used machine learning approaches which may be particularly useful in cases where model weights do not require interpretation, but parameters do.

  16. Computer simulation for prediction of performance and thermodynamic parameters of high energy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthurajan, H.; Sivabalan, R.; Talawar, M.B.; Asthana, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    A new code viz., Linear Output Thermodynamic User-friendly Software for Energetic Systems (LOTUSES) developed during this work predicts the theoretical performance parameters such as density, detonation factor, velocity of detonation, detonation pressure and thermodynamic properties such as heat of detonation, heat of explosion, volume of explosion gaseous products. The same code also assists in the prediction of possible explosive decomposition products after explosion and power index. The developed code has been validated by calculating the parameters of standard explosives such as TNT, PETN, RDX, and HMX. Theoretically predicated parameters are accurate to the order of ±5% deviation. To the best of our knowledge, no such code is reported in literature which can predict a wide range of characteristics of known/unknown explosives with minimum input parameters. The code can be used to obtain thermochemical and performance parameters of high energy materials (HEMs) with reasonable accuracy. The code has been developed in Visual Basic having enhanced windows environment, and thereby advantages over the conventional codes, written in Fortran. The theoretically predicted HEMs performance can be directly printed as well as stored in text (.txt) or HTML (.htm) or Microsoft Word (.doc) or Adobe Acrobat (.pdf) format in the hard disk. The output can also be copied into the Random Access Memory as clipboard text which can be imported/pasted in other software as in the case of other codes

  17. Development of multiple performance indices and system parameter study for the design of a MEMS accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Choi, Chan Kyu; Yoo, Hong Hee

    2012-01-01

    For the design of a MEMS accelerometer, proper performance indices should be defined and employed. Performance indices are obtained using either an experimental method or a numerical method. In the present study, a vibration analysis model of a MEMS accelerometer is introduced to calculate three performance indices: sensitivity, measurable acceleration range, and measurable frequency range. The accuracy of the vibration analysis model is first validated by comparing its modal and transient results with those of a commercial finite element code. Measurable acceleration and frequency ranges versus allowable errors for electrical and mechanical sensitivities are obtained and the effects of system parameter variations on the three performance indices are investigated

  18. Dataset for Phase I randomized clinical trial for safety and tolerability of GET 73 in single and repeated ascending doses including preliminary pharmacokinetic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina L. Haass-Koffler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data in this article outline the methods used for the administration of GET 73 in the first time-in-human manuscript entitled “Phase I randomized clinical trial for the safety, tolerability and preliminary pharmacokinetics of the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator GET 73 following single and repeated doses in healthy male volunteers” (Haass-Koffler et al., 2017 [1]. Data sets are provided in two different manners. The first series of tables provided includes procedural information about the experiments conducted. The next series of tables provided includes Pharmacokinetic (PK parameters for GET 73 and its main metabolite MET 2. This set of data is comprised by two experiments: Experiment 1 references a single ascending dose administration of GET 73 and Experiment 2 references a repeated ascending dose administration of GET 73. Keywords: Glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5, Allosteric modulator, GET 73, Safety, Tolerability

  19. Dataset for Phase I randomized clinical trial for safety and tolerability of GET 73 in single and repeated ascending doses including preliminary pharmacokinetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Goodyear, Kimberly; Long, Victoria M; Tran, Harrison H; Loche, Antonella; Cacciaglia, Roberto; Swift, Robert M; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2017-12-01

    The data in this article outline the methods used for the administration of GET 73 in the first time-in-human manuscript entitled "Phase I randomized clinical trial for the safety, tolerability and preliminary pharmacokinetics of the mGluR5 negative allosteric modulator GET 73 following single and repeated doses in healthy male volunteers" (Haass-Koffler et al., 2017) [1]. Data sets are provided in two different manners. The first series of tables provided includes procedural information about the experiments conducted. The next series of tables provided includes Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters for GET 73 and its main metabolite MET 2. This set of data is comprised by two experiments: Experiment 1 references a single ascending dose administration of GET 73 and Experiment 2 references a repeated ascending dose administration of GET 73.

  20. The player and the bowed string: coordination of bowing parameters in violin and viola performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonderwaldt, E

    2009-11-01

    An experiment was conducted with four violin and viola players, measuring their bowing performance using an optical motion capture system and sensors on the bow. The measurements allowed for a detailed analysis of the use and coordination of the main bowing parameters bow velocity, bow force, and bow-bridge distance. An analysis of bowing strategies in detache playing of notes of three durations (0.2, 2, and 4 s) at three dynamic levels (pp, mf, and f) on all four strings is presented, focusing on the "steady" part of the notes. The results revealed clear trends in the coordinated variations of the bowing parameters depending on the constraints of the task, reflecting a common behavior as well as individual strategies. Furthermore, there were clear indications that the players adapted the bowing parameters to the physical properties of the string and the instrument, respecting the limits of the playable control parameter space.

  1. The need for control of magnetic parameters for energy efficient performance of magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, I. A. H.; Gale, E.; Alpha, C.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Optimizing energy performance of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs) is the key for embedding Spin Transfer Torque-Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) in low power circuits. Due to the complex interdependencies of the parameters and variables of the device operating energy, it is important to analyse parameters with most effective control of MTJ power. The impact of threshold current density, Jco , on the energy and the impact of HK on Jco are studied analytically, following the expressions that stem from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS-STT) model. In addition, the impact of other magnetic material parameters, such as Ms , and geometric parameters such as tfree and λ is discussed. Device modelling study was conducted to analyse the impact at the circuit level. Nano-magnetism simulation based on NMAGTM package was conducted to analyse the impact of controlling HK on the switching dynamics of the film.

  2. Effect of Dietary Cysteine Supplementation on Growing Performance, Pelt Quality and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Young Rex Rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Tossou Myrlene Carine B; Han Xu-feng; Chen Yu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid supplementation on growth performance, pelt quality and a number of serum biochemical parameters of young Rex Rabbit. One hundred and twenty Rex Rabbits aged 45 days were divided into five dietary treatment groups including one control group and 4 experimental groups. Each group was composed of 24 animals and was fed with different diets for 56 days corresponding to the fattening peri...

  3. Effect of fuel fabrication parameters on performance- designer's point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, P.N.; Ravi, M.; Soni, R.; Bajaj, S.S.; Bhardwaj, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The fuel bundle performance in reactor depends upon the material properties, dimensions of the different components and their inter-compatibility. This paper brings out the fuel parameters required to be optimised to achieve better fuel reliability, operational flexibility, safety and economics from the designer point of view

  4. Satisfaction and self-estimated performance in relation to indoor environmental parameters and building features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Frontczak, Monika; Schiavon, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines how satisfaction with indoor environmental parameters and building features affects satisfaction and self-estimated job performance. The analyses used subjective responses from around 50, 000 occupants collected mainly in US office buildings using a web-based survey administered...

  5. Effect of calibration data series length on performance and optimal parameters of hydrological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-zhe Li

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the effects of calibration data series length on the performance and optimal parameter values of a hydrological model in ungauged or data-limited catchments (data are non-continuous and fragmental in some catchments, we used non-continuous calibration periods for more independent streamflow data for SIMHYD (simple hydrology model calibration. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percentage water balance error were used as performance measures. The particle swarm optimization (PSO method was used to calibrate the rainfall-runoff models. Different lengths of data series ranging from one year to ten years, randomly sampled, were used to study the impact of calibration data series length. Fifty-five relatively unimpaired catchments located all over Australia with daily precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and streamflow data were tested to obtain more general conclusions. The results show that longer calibration data series do not necessarily result in better model performance. In general, eight years of data are sufficient to obtain steady estimates of model performance and parameters for the SIMHYD model. It is also shown that most humid catchments require fewer calibration data to obtain a good performance and stable parameter values. The model performs better in humid and semi-humid catchments than in arid catchments. Our results may have useful and interesting implications for the efficiency of using limited observation data for hydrological model calibration in different climates.

  6. Thermal performance parameters estimation of hot box type solar cooker by using artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurt, Hueseyin; Atik, Kemal; Oezkaymak, Mehmet; Recebli, Ziyaddin [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Karabuk Technical Education Faculty, 78200 Karabuk (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Work to date has shown that Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has not been used for predicting thermal performance parameters of a solar cooker. The objective of this study is to predict thermal performance parameters such as absorber plate, enclosure air and pot water temperatures of the experimentally investigated box type solar cooker by using the ANN. Data set is obtained from the box type solar cooker which was tested under various experimental conditions. A feed-forward neural network based on back propagation algorithm was developed to predict the thermal performance of solar cooker with and without reflector. Mathematical formulations derived from the ANN model are presented for each predicting temperatures. The experimental data set consists of 126 values. These were divided into two groups, of which the 96 values were used for training/learning of the network and the rest of the data (30 values) for testing/validation of the network performance. The performance of the ANN predictions was evaluated by comparing the prediction results with the experimental results. The results showed a good regression analysis with the correlation coefficients in the range of 0.9950-0.9987 and mean relative errors (MREs) in the range of 3.925-7.040% for the test data set. The regression coefficients indicated that the ANN model can successfully be used for the prediction of the thermal performance parameters of a box type solar cooker with a high degree of accuracy. (author)

  7. Screening key parameters related to passive system performance based on Analytic Hierarchy Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guohang; Yu, Yu; Huang, Xiong; Peng, Yuan; Ma, Nan; Shan, Zuhua; Niu, Fenglei; Wang, Shengfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • An improved AHP method is presented for screening key parameters used in passive system reliability analysis. • We take the special bottom parameters as criterion for calculation and the abrupt change of the results are verified. • Combination weights are also affected by uncertainty of input parameters. - Abstract: Passive safety system is widely used in the new generation nuclear power plant (NPP) designs such as AP1000 to improve the reactor safety benefitting from its simple construction and less request for human intervene. However, the functional failure induced by uncertainty in the system thermal–hydraulic (T–H) performance becomes one of the main contributors to system operational failure since the system operates based on natural circulation, which should be considered in the system reliability evaluation. In order to improve the calculation efficiency the key parameters which significantly affect the system T–H characteristics can be screened and then be analyzed in detail. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is one of the efficient methods to analyze the influence of the parameters on a passive system based on the experts’ experience. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is one of the typical passive safety systems, nevertheless too many parameters need to be analyzed and the T–H model itself is more complicated, so the traditional AHP method should be mended to use for screening key parameters efficiently. In this paper, we adapt the improved method in hierarchy construction and experts’ opinions integration, some parameters at the bottom justly in the traditional hierarchy are studied as criterion layer in improved AHP, the rationality of the method and the effect of abrupt change with the data are verified. The passive containment cooling system (PCCS) in AP1000 is evaluated as an example, and four key parameters are selected from 49 inputs

  8. Assessment of impact of acoustic and nonacoustic parameters on performance and well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellert, Volker; Weber, Reinhard; Nocke, Christian

    2004-05-01

    It is of interest to estimate the influence of the environment in a specific work place area on the performance and well-being of people. Investigations have been carried out for the cabin environment of an airplane and for class rooms. Acoustics is only one issue of a variety of environmental factors, therefore the combined impact of temperature, humidity, air quality, lighting, vibration, etc. on human perception is the subject of psychophysical research. Methods for the objective assessment of subjective impressions have been developed for applications in acoustics for a long time, e.g., for concert hall acoustics, noise evaluation, and sound design. The methodology relies on questionnaires, measurement of acoustic parameters, ear-related signal processing and analysis, and on correlation of the physical input with subjective output. Methodology and results are presented from measurements of noise and vibration, temperature and humidity in aircraft simulators, and of reverberation, coloring, and lighting in a primary school, and of the environmental perception. [The work includes research with M. Klatte, A. Schick from the Psychology Department of Oldenburg University, and M. Meis from Hoerzentrum Oldenburg GmbH and with the European Project HEACE (for partners see www.heace.org).

  9. Identification of the contribution of contact and aerial biomechanical parameters in acrobatic performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Haering

    Full Text Available Teaching acrobatic skills with a minimal amount of repetition is a major challenge for coaches. Biomechanical, statistical or computer simulation tools can help them identify the most determinant factors of performance. Release parameters, change in moment of inertia and segmental momentum transfers were identified in the prediction of acrobatics success. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relative contribution of these parameters in performance throughout expertise or optimisation based improvements. The counter movement forward in flight (CMFIF was chosen for its intrinsic dichotomy between the accessibility of its attempt and complexity of its mastery.Three repetitions of the CMFIF performed by eight novice and eight advanced female gymnasts were recorded using a motion capture system. Optimal aerial techniques that maximise rotation potential at regrasp were also computed. A 14-segment-multibody-model defined through the Rigid Body Dynamics Library was used to compute recorded and optimal kinematics, and biomechanical parameters. A stepwise multiple linear regression was used to determine the relative contribution of these parameters in novice recorded, novice optimised, advanced recorded and advanced optimised trials. Finally, fixed effects of expertise and optimisation were tested through a mixed-effects analysis.Variation in release state only contributed to performances in novice recorded trials. Moment of inertia contribution to performance increased from novice recorded, to novice optimised, advanced recorded, and advanced optimised trials. Contribution to performance of momentum transfer to the trunk during the flight prevailed in all recorded trials. Although optimisation decreased transfer contribution, momentum transfer to the arms appeared.Findings suggest that novices should be coached on both contact and aerial technique. Inversely, mainly improved aerial technique helped advanced gymnasts increase their

  10. The Evaluation of Conventional X-ray Exposure Parameters Including Tube Voltage and Exposure Time in Private and Governmental Hospitals of Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Gholami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In radiography, dose and image quality are dependent on radiographic parameters. The problem is caused from incorrect use of radiography equipment and from the radiation exposure to patients much more than required. Therefore, the aim of this study was to implement a quality-control program to detect changes in exposure parameters, which may affect diagnosis or patient radiation dose. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on seven stationary X-ray units in sixhospitals of Lorestan province. The measurements were performed, using a factory-calibrated Barracuda dosimeter (model: SE-43137. Results According to the results, the highest output was obtained in A Hospital (M1 device, ranging from 107×10-3 to 147×10-3 mGy/mAs. The evaluation of tube voltage accuracy showed a deviation from the standard value, which ranged between 0.81% (M1 device and 17.94% (M2 device at A Hospital. The deviation ranges at other hospitals were as follows: 0.30-27.52% in B Hospital (the highest in this study, 8.11-20.34% in C Hospital, 1.68-2.58% in D Hospital, 0.90-2.42% in E Hospital and 0.10-1.63% in F Hospital. The evaluation of exposure time accuracy showed that E, C, D and A (M2 device hospitals complied with the requirements (allowing a deviation of ±5%, whereas A (M1 device, F and B hospitals exceeded the permitted limit. Conclusion The results of this study showed that old X-ray equipments with poor or no maintenance are probably the main sources of reducing radiographic image quality and increasing patient radiation dose.

  11. Predictive Performance of Echocardiographic Parameters for Cardiovascular Events Among Elderly Treated Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enayet K; Jennings, Garry L R; Dewar, Elizabeth; Wing, Lindon M H; Reid, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension leads to cardiac structural and functional changes, commonly assessed by echocardiography. In this study, we assessed the predictive performance of different echocardiographic parameters including left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on future cardiovascular outcomes in elderly hypertensive patients without heart failure. Data from LVH substudy of the Second Australian National Blood Pressure trial were used. Echocardiograms were performed at entry into the study. Cardiovascular outcomes were identified over short term (median 4.2 years) and long term (median 10.9 years). LVH was defined using threshold values of LV mass (LVM) indexed to either body surface area (BSA) or height(2.7): >115/95g/m(2) (LVH-BSA(115/95)) or ≥49/45g/m(2.7) (LVH-ht(49/45)) in males/females, respectively, and ≥125g/m(2) (LVH-BSA(125)) or ≥51g/m(2.7) (LVH-ht(51)) for both sexes. In the 666 participants aged ≥65 years in this analysis, LVH prevalence at baseline was 33%-70% depending on definition; and after adjusting for potential risk factors, only LVH-BSA(115/95) predicted both short- and long-term cardiovascular outcomes. Participants having LVH-BSA(115/95) (69%) at baseline had twice the risk of having any first cardiovascular event over the short term (hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.00, 1.12-3.57, P = 0.02) and any fatal cardiovascular events (2.11, 1.21-3.68, P = 0.01) over the longer term. Among other echocardiographic parameters, LVM and LVM indexed to either BSA or height(2.7) predicted cardiovascular events over both short and longer term. In elderly treated hypertensive patients without heart failure, determining LVH by echocardiography is highly dependent on the methodology adopted. LVH-BSA(115/95) is a reliable predictor of future cardiovascular outcomes in the elderly. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Comparison of sound absorbing performances of copper foam and iron foam with the same parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X. C.; Shen, X. M.; Xu, P. J.; Zhang, X. N.; Bai, P. F.; Peng, K.; Yin, Q.; Wang, D.

    2018-01-01

    Sound absorbing performances of the copper foam and the iron foam with the same parameters were investigated by the AWA6128A detector according to standing wave method. Two modes were investigated, which included the pure metal foam mode and the combination mode with the settled thickness of metal foam. In order to legibly compare the sound absorbing coefficients of the two metal foams, the detected sound frequency points were divided into the low frequency range (100 Hz ~ 1000 Hz), the middle frequency range (1000 Hz ~ 3200 Hz), and the high frequency range (3500 Hz ~ 6000 Hz). Sound absorbing performances of the two metal foams in the two modes were discussed within the three frequency ranges in detail. It would be calculated that the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam in the pure metal foam mode were 12.6%, 22.7%, 34.6%, 43.6%, 51.1%, and 56.2% when the thickness was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm. meanwhile, in the combination mode, the average sound absorbing coefficients of copper foam with the thickness of 10 mm were 30.6%, 34.8%, 36.3%, and 35.8% when the cavity was 5 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm, and 20 mm. In addition, those of iron foam in the pure metal foam mode were 13.4%, 20.1%, 34.4%, 43.1%, 49.6%, and 56.1%, and in the combination mode were 25.6%, 30.5%, 34.3%, and 33.4%.

  13. Key parameters of the swimming start and their relationship to start performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tor, Elaine; Pease, David L; Ball, Kevin A

    2015-01-01

    The swimming start is typically broken into three sub-phases; on-block, flight, and underwater phases. While overall start performance is highly important to elite swimming, the contribution of each phase and important technical components within each phase, particularly with the new kick-start technique, has not been established. The aim of this study was to identify technical factors associated with overall start performance, with a particular focus on the underwater phase. A number of parameters were calculated from 52 starts performed by elite freestyle and butterfly swimmers. These parameters were split into above-water and underwater groupings, before factor analysis was used to reduce parameter numbers for multiple regression. For the above-water phases, 81% of variance in start performance was accounted for by take-off horizontal velocity. For the underwater water phase, 96% of variance was accounted for with time underwater in descent, time underwater in ascent and time to 10 m. Therefore, developing greater take-off horizontal velocity and focussing on the underwater phase by finding the ideal trajectory will lead to improved start performance.

  14. Parameter Selection and Performance Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization in Sensor Networks Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanqing Cui

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Localization is a key technology in wireless sensor networks. Faced with the challenges of the sensors’ memory, computational constraints, and limited energy, particle swarm optimization has been widely applied in the localization of wireless sensor networks, demonstrating better performance than other optimization methods. In particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms, the variants and parameters should be chosen elaborately to achieve the best performance. However, there is a lack of guidance on how to choose these variants and parameters. Further, there is no comprehensive performance comparison among particle swarm optimization algorithms. The main contribution of this paper is three-fold. First, it surveys the popular particle swarm optimization variants and particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Secondly, it presents parameter selection of nine particle swarm optimization variants and six types of swarm topologies by extensive simulations. Thirdly, it comprehensively compares the performance of these algorithms. The results show that the particle swarm optimization with constriction coefficient using ring topology outperforms other variants and swarm topologies, and it performs better than the second-order cone programming algorithm.

  15. Parameter Selection and Performance Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization in Sensor Networks Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanqing; Shu, Minglei; Song, Min; Wang, Yinglong

    2017-03-01

    Localization is a key technology in wireless sensor networks. Faced with the challenges of the sensors' memory, computational constraints, and limited energy, particle swarm optimization has been widely applied in the localization of wireless sensor networks, demonstrating better performance than other optimization methods. In particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms, the variants and parameters should be chosen elaborately to achieve the best performance. However, there is a lack of guidance on how to choose these variants and parameters. Further, there is no comprehensive performance comparison among particle swarm optimization algorithms. The main contribution of this paper is three-fold. First, it surveys the popular particle swarm optimization variants and particle swarm optimization-based localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks. Secondly, it presents parameter selection of nine particle swarm optimization variants and six types of swarm topologies by extensive simulations. Thirdly, it comprehensively compares the performance of these algorithms. The results show that the particle swarm optimization with constriction coefficient using ring topology outperforms other variants and swarm topologies, and it performs better than the second-order cone programming algorithm.

  16. Extraction of optical parameters of thin films from spectral measurements for design and optical performance of multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, J.; Jurecka, S.; Kucerova, A.

    2003-01-01

    Optical parameters of a-Si:H and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on glass substrates are determined from spectral measurements of reflectance and/or transmittance. It is shown how important the exact knowledge of optical parameters as well as thicknesses of the layers for the design and the optical performance of multilayer structures is. The model of the p-i-n based a:Si-H solar cell with ITO as transparent conductive oxide layer is used for illustrating. The modeling of the solar cell integral reflectance in the spectral region of (650-830) nm is used as a criterion to reverse engineering of a multilayer structure with suppressed reflectance losses. The reflectance of a solar cell is modelled and the simulation of the varying optical parameters of individual layers including their thicknesses is discussed. Besides this,the advantage of using an antireflective layer under ITO is discussed (Authors)

  17. Numerical investigation of geometric parameter effects on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan is numerically investigated considering the effect of five geometric parameters. Airflow through this fan was analyzed by simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m × 2 m × 4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and the evaluation of its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for the aerodynamic investigations. In order to design the Bladeless fan an Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross section of the fan. Five distinct parameters, namely height of cross section of the fan, outlet angle of the flow relative to the fan axis, thickness of airflow outlet slit, hydraulic diameter, and aspect ratio for circular and quadratic cross sections were considered. Validating 3-D numerical results, experimental results of a round jet showed good agreement with those of the simulation data. The multiplier factor M is defined to show the ratio of the outlet flow rate to inlet flow rate from the fan. The obtained numerical results showed that the Discharge ratio has the maximum value for the height of 3 cm. The numerical outcomes of outlet thickness variation indicate that this parameter is one of the most influential parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan. The results for the outlet thicknesses of 1, 2 and 3 mm showed that the Discharge ratio increased significantly when the outlet thickness decreased.

  18. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Naomi Vidal; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi; da Costa, Danielle Irigoyen; dos Santos, Fernando; Costa, Fernando Oliveira; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI), is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Executive cognitive function (ECF) impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI. Aim To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI. Method The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19), and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07). We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT) for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT) for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF). Results Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working memory, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and phonemic verbal fluency. After adjustment, the ABI group performance remained worse for working memory and semantic verbal fluency. In a simple correlation analysis including all of the subjects, the 6MWT was associated with global cognition, attention span, working memory, information processing speed, inhibitory control/impulsivity, semantic verbal fluency, and global ECF. After adjustment, all the associations remained statistically significant. Conclusion This study found an independent association between

  19. An Integrated Lumped Parameter-CFD approach for off-design ejector performance evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besagni, Giorgio; Mereu, Riccardo; Chiesa, Paolo; Inzoli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We validate a CFD approach for a convergent nozzle ejector using global and local measurement. • We evaluate seven RANS turbulence models for convergent nozzle ejector. • We introduce a lumped parameter model for on-design and off-design ejector performance evaluation. • We analyze the relationship between local flow behavior and lumped parameters of the model. • We discuss how to improve predicting capabilities of the model by variable parameters calibrated on CFD simulations. - Abstract: This paper presents an Integrated Lumped Parameter Model-Computational Fluid-Dynamics approach for off-design ejector performance evaluation. The purpose of this approach is to evaluate the entrainment ratio, for a fixed geometry, in both on-design and off-design operating conditions. The proposed model is based on a Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) with variable ejector component efficiencies provided by CFD simulations. The CFD results are used for developing maps for ejector component efficiencies in a broad range of operating conditions. The ejector component efficiency maps couple the CFD and the LPM techniques for building an Integrated LPM-CFD approach. The proposed approach is demonstrated for a convergent nozzle ejector and the paper is structured in four parts. At first, the CFD approach is validated by global and local data and seven Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) turbulence models are compared: the k–ω SST showed good performance and was selected for the rest of the analysis. At second, a Lumped Parameter Model (LPM) for subsonic ejector is developed and the ejector component efficiencies have been defined. At third, the CFD approach is used to investigate the flow field, to analyze its influence on ejector component efficiencies and to propose efficiency correlations and maps linking ejector component efficiencies and local flow quantities. In the last part, the efficiency maps are embedded into the lumped parameter model, thus creating

  20. Differences in morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age groups and performance level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Štefanovský

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Some studies have pointed out the influence of morphological parameters on judo performance, however the relationship between morphological variables and performance status have not yet been confirmed. In addition, there is a lack of studies focused on morphological comparison of different age categories. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess differences in the morphological parameters of judo athletes of different age and performance level. Methods: The research sample was composed of 47 male judokas (age 19.15 ± 2.93 years; body weight 77.16 ± 11.39 kg; height 178.91 ± 6.39 cm; sport age 11.47 ± 2.74 years. It was divided by: (1 age, into cadets (15-17 years, n = 19, juniors (18-20 years, n = 15, and seniors (21+ years, n = 13 category and (2 performance status (elite, n = 10; non-elite, n = 37. In all participants, body fat, and the circumference measurement of wrist, forearm, flexed arm, and calf were observed. A personal interview was used to gain information about the athlete's performance status. Results: We found out that there are significant differences in arm circumference between cadets and seniors, cadets and juniors, juniors and seniors; and in the circumference of forearm between cadets and seniors; cadets and juniors, as well. According to the performance status, we have discovered significantly higher circumference of forearm and wrist in the elite group compared to the non-elite group. Conclusion: Forearm and wrist circumference is a reliable discriminative factor and should be taken into consideration, especially when selecting judo athletes into elite teams. However, we did not confirm that subcutaneous fat is a parameter able to distinguish between judo athletes of different performance status across various age categories.

  1. Investigation of the Influence of Hydrocyclone Geometric and Flow Parameters on Its Performance Using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboetswe Seraga Motsamai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effectiveness and efficiency of hydro-cyclone separators are highly dependent on their geometrical parameters and flow characteristics. Performance of the hydro-cyclone can, therefore, be improved by modifying the geometrical parameters or flow characteristics. The mining and chemical industries are faced with problems of separating ore-rich stones from the nonore-rich stones. Due to this problem a certain amount of precious metals is lost to the dumping sites. Plant managers try to solve these problems by stockpiling what could be useless stones, so that they can be reprocessed in the future. Reprocessing is not a sustainable approach, because the reprocessed material would give lower yield as compared to the production costs. Particulate separation in a hydro-cyclone has been investigated in this paper, by using computational fluid dynamics. The paper investigated the influence of various flow and geometric parameters on particulate separation. Optimal parameters for efficient separation have been determined for the density of fluid, diameter of the spigot, and diameter of the vortex finder. The principal contribution of this paper is that key parameters for design optimization of the hydro-cyclone have been investigated.

  2. The effects of design parameters on the charge-discharge performance of iron-chromium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Y.K.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhou, X.L.; Zeng, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effects of design parameters on the ICRFB performance are investigated. • The energy efficiency of the present ICRFB reaches 80.5% at 480 mA cm"−"2. • The power density reaches 1077 and 694 mW cm"−"2 at 65 and 25 °C, respectively. • The dominant loss of ICRFBs operating at 25 and 65 °C is the ohmic loss. - Abstract: The objective of this work is to understand and identify key design parameters that influence the battery performance of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs). The investigated parameters include the membrane thickness, electrode compression ratio, electrode pretreatment and catalyst loading. Results show that: (i) with a thin NR-211 membrane and a high electrode compression ratio of 62.5%, the operating current density of the ICRFB can reach as high as 480 mA cm"−"2 at an energy efficiency of higher than 80%; (ii) the bismuth catalyst loading has insignificant effect on the battery performance in the range of 0.52–10.45 mg cm"−"2; (iii) the moderately oxidative thermal pretreatment of the electrode improves the energy efficiency compared to the as-received electrode while the electrode prepared with a harsh pretreatment deteriorates the battery performance; and (iv) for the present ICRFBs operating at both 25 °C and 65 °C, the dominant loss is identified to be ohmic loss rather than kinetics loss.

  3. Influences of some parameters on the performance of a small vertical axis wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrache Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various parameters on the performance of a straight bladed vertical axis wind turbine, using the vortex model, have been numerically investigated. A vortex model has been used to evaluate the performance of a vertical axis wind turbine, by means of aerodynamic characteristics of different airfoils for Reynolds numbers between 105 and 106. Parameters such as the thickness and the camber of the blade airfoil, the solidity, the type of blade profile, the number of blades and the pitch angle, which influence the power coefficient, CP, and the start-up regime. This study can be used in the designing an optimal vertical axis wind turbine in a specific location, when the prevailed wind regime is known.

  4. Slot Parameter Optimization for Multiband Antenna Performance Improvement Using Intelligent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Demircioglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses bandwidth enhancement for multiband microstrip patch antennas (MMPAs using symmetrical rectangular/square slots etched on the patch and the substrate properties. The slot parameters on MMPA are modeled using soft computing technique of artificial neural networks (ANN. To achieve the best ANN performance, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Differential Evolution (DE are applied with ANN’s conventional training algorithm in optimization of the modeling performance. In this study, the slot parameters are assumed as slot distance to the radiating patch edge, slot width, and length. Bandwidth enhancement is applied to a formerly designed MMPA fed by a microstrip transmission line attached to the center pin of 50 ohm SMA connecter. The simulated antennas are fabricated and measured. Measurement results are utilized for training the artificial intelligence models. The ANN provides 98% model accuracy for rectangular slots and 97% for square slots; however, ANFIS offer 90% accuracy with lack of resonance frequency tracking.

  5. Parameters affecting the life cycle performance of PV technologies and systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacca, Sergio; Sivaraman, Deepak; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses modeling parameters that affect the environmental performance of two state-of-the-art photovoltaic (PV) electricity generation technologies: the PVL136 thin film laminates and the KC120 multi-crystalline modules. We selected three metrics to assess the modules' environmental performance, which are part of an actual 33 kW installation in Ann Arbor, MI. The net energy ratio (NER), the energy pay back time (E-PBT), and the CO 2 emissions are calculated using process based LCA methods. The results reveal some of the parameters, such as the level of solar radiation, the position of the modules, the modules' manufacturing energy intensity and its corresponding fuel mix, and the solar radiation conversion efficiency of the modules, which affect the final analytical results. A sensitivity analysis shows the effect of selected parameters on the final results. For the baseline scenario, the E-PBT for the PVL136 and KC120 are 3.2 and 7.5 years, respectively. When expected future conversion efficiencies are tested, the E-PBT is 1.6 and 5.7 years for the PVL136 and the KC120, respectively. Based on the US fuel mix, the CO 2 emissions for the PVL136 and the KC120 are 34.3 and 72.4 g of CO 2 /kW h, respectively. The most effective way to improve the modules' environmental performance is to reduce the energy input in the manufacturing phase of the modules, provided that other parameters remain constant. Consequently, the use of PV as an electricity source during PV manufacturing is also assessed. The NER of the supplier PV is key for the performance of this scheme. The results show that the NER based on a PV system can be 3.7 times higher than the NER based on electricity supplied by the traditional grid mix, and the CO 2 emissions can be reduced by 80%

  6. The effect of various parameters of large scale radio propagation models on improving performance mobile communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinem, M.; Fauzi, R.

    2018-02-01

    One technique for ensuring continuity of wireless communication services and keeping a smooth transition on mobile communication networks is the soft handover technique. In the Soft Handover (SHO) technique the inclusion and reduction of Base Station from the set of active sets is determined by initiation triggers. One of the initiation triggers is based on the strong reception signal. In this paper we observed the influence of parameters of large-scale radio propagation models to improve the performance of mobile communications. The observation parameters for characterizing the performance of the specified mobile system are Drop Call, Radio Link Degradation Rate and Average Size of Active Set (AS). The simulated results show that the increase in altitude of Base Station (BS) Antenna and Mobile Station (MS) Antenna contributes to the improvement of signal power reception level so as to improve Radio Link quality and increase the average size of Active Set and reduce the average Drop Call rate. It was also found that Hata’s propagation model contributed significantly to improvements in system performance parameters compared to Okumura’s propagation model and Lee’s propagation model.

  7. Numerical investigation of geometric parameter effects on the aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Jafari; Hossein Afshin; Bijan Farhanieh; Atta Sojoudi

    2016-01-01

    Aerodynamic performance of a Bladeless fan is numerically investigated considering the effect of five geometric parameters. Airflow through this fan was analyzed by simulating a Bladeless fan within a 2 m × 2 m × 4 m room. Analysis of the flow field inside the fan and the evaluation of its performance were obtained by solving conservations of mass and momentum equations for the aerodynamic investigations. In order to design the Bladeless fan an Eppler 473 airfoil profile was used as the cross...

  8. The Association of Sprint Performance with Anthropometric Parameters in Youth Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjan Hyka

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated the association between strength and speed, showing that stronger athletes perform better during sprint performances (Baker & Nance, 1999. Moreover, the aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between sprint performance and anthropometric parameters. Subjects were 32 youth soccer players. The age of participants was 15.1±0.3 years. Speed time (50 m sprint was evaluated during sprint test, and anthropometric parameters were measured (weight, height, percent body fat. Correlation analysis (Pearson test was performed to evaluate the correlation between speed and anthropometrics. Results showed correlation between body weight and speed (r=-0.041 Sig=0.834; BMI values and speed (r=0.231; Sig=0.236, body height and speed (r=-0.384; Sig=0.044; percent body fat and speed (r=0.440; Sig=0.019.In conclusion, the results of this study show no significance association between body weight and BMI with sprint performance and significance correlation between body height (negative correlation and percent body fat (positive correlation with speed.

  9. Effect of squat depth on performance and biomechanical parameters of countermovement vertical jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghedini Gheller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n6p658   The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of different squat depths in the performance and biomechanical parameters at counter movement jump (CMJ. Twenty-two male volleyball or basketball players volunteered to participate in this study and all were currently competing at the college level. The CMJ was performed in three different conditions: 1 with relative knee flexion at the end of counter movement phase smaller than 90° (90°, and; 3 preferred position (PREF. During the CMJ, kinematic, kinetic, and electromyography parameters were assessed. ANOVA for repeated measures with post-hoc Bonferroni´s test was used for variables comparison, with a significance level set at p≤0.05. The higher performance was on PREF and 90°. Average and peak power, as well as absolute and normalized peak forces, were higher in >90° CMJ. The peak velocity of CG and angular velocities of hip and knee were higher in the 90°. Recuts femoris and biceps femoris did not show difference in any jump phases. In conclusion, the knee flexion interferes the performance and the biomechanical variables at the CMJ. The highest jumps were got at a deeper squat, so this technique could be used for athletes in order to optimize the vertical jump performance in the training and competitions.

  10. Evaluation of Efficacy of Performed Dialysis According to Changes in Bone Metabolism Related Parameters in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sheikh

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective : Most of the CRF patients undergo dialysis to correct the CRF complications. Alterations in biochemical parameters of blood depends on the quality of dialysis. Several factors such as membrane , concentration of dialysis solutions , and dilution are involved in this process. Since the efficacy of the dialysis performed in Hamadan have not been studied previously and there was not information about the efficiency of Iranian made membrane (HD , R4 , R3 , S3 , this study was designed and performed.Materials & Methods: In this study some biochemical parameters including Hb , Hct , alkaline phosphatase , Ca , P , total protein , urea , creatinine before and after dialysis were measured in all patients referring to dialysis center of Hamadan. After collecting the blood samples before and after the dialysis, Hb and Htc were measured using the ABX cell counter. The other parameters were measured using Technicon RA1000 autoanalyser. The mean of these parameters before and after dialysis were compared using paired t-test. The results of different membranes were compared using ANOVA.Results: Results showed the serum level of total Ca increased 33% after dialysis (P<0.0001 while the P showed 36% decrease (P<0.0001. Alkaline phosphatase activity did not show any significant differences. Comparing the efficacy of different membrane in correction of urea and creatinine , HD membrane showed the most efficiency and R4 had the least (P<0.03. Other parameters did not show significant differences.Conclusion: The data obtained from this study showed a significant change in Ca , P, and ALP level after dialysis . Also it was concluded that different membrane had different effect on correction of studied parameters.

  11. Performance assessment model development and parameter acquisition for analysis of the transport of natural radionuclides in a Mediterranean watershed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agueero, Almudena

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology developed to construct a model for predicting the behaviour of the natural radioisotopes of U, Th and Ra in a Mediterranean watershed. The methodology includes the development of the performance assessment model, obtaining water flow and radiological parameters based on experimental data and analysis of results. The model, which accounts for both water flows and mass balances of the radionuclides in a semi-natural environment, provides assessments of radionuclide behaviour in grassland and agricultural soils, rivers and reservoirs, including the processes of radionuclide migration through land and water and interactions between both. From field and laboratory data, it has been possible to obtain parameters for the driving processes considered in the model, water fluxes, source term definition, soil to plant transfer factors and distribution coefficient values. Ranges of parameter values obtained have shown good agreement with published literature data. This general methodological approach was developed to be extended to other radionuclides for the modelling of a biosphere watershed in the context of performance assessment of a High Level Waste (HLW) repository under Mediterranean climate conditions, as well as for forecasting radionuclide transport under similar Mediterranean conditions that will occur in the future in other areas. The application of sensitivity and uncertainty analysis was intended to identify key uncertainties with the aim of setting priorities for future research. The model results for the activity concentration in the reservoir indicate that for 238 U and 230 Th the most relevant parameter is the initial concentrations of the radionuclides in the reservoir sediments. However, for 226 Ra the most important parameter is the precipitation rate over the whole watershed

  12. Experimental study of dual fuel engine performance using variable LPG composition and engine parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnajjar, Emad; Selim, Mohamed Y.E.; Hamdan, Mohammad O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of using variable LPG is studied. • Five fuels with propane to butane % volume ratio are: 100-70-55-25-0. • 100% Propane composition shows the highest noise levels with similar performance. • At 45° BTDC injection timing 55% Propane LPG the only fuel experience knocking. • LPG fuels gave similar engine performance, with differences in levels of noise. - Abstract: The present work investigates experimentally the effect of LPG fuel with different composition and engine parameters on the performance of a dual compression engine. Five different blends of LPG fuels are used with Propane to Butane volume ratio of 100:0, 70:30, 55:45, 25:75, and 0:100. A single cylinder, naturally aspirated, four strokes, indirectly injected, water cooled modified Ricardo E6 engine, is used in this study. The study is carried out by measuring the cylinder pressure, engine load, engine speed, crank angle, and the fuel’s flow rate. The engine performance under variable LPG fuel composition, engine load, pilot fuel injection timing, compression ratio, pilot fuel mass and engine speed, are estimated by comparing the following engine parameters: the cylinder maximum pressure, the indicated mean effective pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, and the thermal efficiency. The experimental data indicates that the engine parameters are playing a major role on the engine’s performance. Different LPG fuel composition did not show a major effect on the engine efficiency but directly impacted the levels of generated combustion noise

  13. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasberry, Catherine N; Lee, Sarah M; Robin, Leah; Laris, B A; Russell, Lisa A; Coyle, Karin K; Nihiser, Allison J

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the scientific literature that has examined the association between school-based physical activity (including physical education) and academic performance (including indicators of cognitive skills and attitudes, academic behaviors, and academic achievement). Relevant research was identified through a search of nine electronic databases using both physical activity and academic-related search terms. Forty-three articles (reporting a total of 50 unique studies) met the inclusion criteria and were read, abstracted, and coded for this synthesis. Findings of the 50 studies were then summarized. Across all the studies, there were a total of 251 associations between physical activity and academic performance, representing measures of academic achievement, academic behavior, and cognitive skills and attitudes. Slightly more than half (50.5%) of all associations examined were positive, 48% were not significant, and 1.5% were negative. Examination of the findings by each physical activity context provides insights regarding specific relationships. Results suggest physical activity is either positively related to academic performance or that there is not a demonstrated relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Results have important implications for both policy and schools. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high jH-, low je) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H-, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H- density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa).

  15. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high j H − , low j e ) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H − , its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H − density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa)

  16. Analysis of microdialysate monoamines, including noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin, using capillary ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Barbara; Gifu, Elena-Patricia; Sandu, Ioana; Denoroy, Luc; Parrot, Sandrine

    2014-03-01

    Electrochemical methods are very often used to detect catecholamine and indolamine neurotransmitters separated by conventional reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The present paper presents the development of a chromatographic method to detect monoamines present in low-volume brain dialysis samples using a capillary column filled with sub-2μm particles. Several parameters (repeatability, linearity, accuracy, limit of detection) for this new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method with electrochemical detection were examined after optimization of the analytical conditions. Noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, dopamine and its metabolite 3-methoxytyramine were separated in 1μL of injected sample volume; they were detected above concentrations of 0.5-1nmol/L, with 2.1-9.5% accuracy and intra-assay repeatability equal to or less than 6%. The final method was applied to very low volume dialysates from rat brain containing monoamine traces. The study demonstrates that capillary UHPLC with electrochemical detection is suitable for monitoring dialysate monoamines collected at high sampling rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The selection of the parameters of high pressure syringe in performing interventional angiography: a retrospective analysis of 692 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dehai; Luo Laishu; Yang Zhihong; Liu Yong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the optimal parameters of high pressure injector in performing interventional angiography and therapy of different parts of body in order to improve the image quality. Methods: During the period from July 2009 to September 2010 interventional angiography or therapy of different parts of body with the help of high pressure injector was performed in 692 patients, including 538 males and 154 females with a mean age of (53.6±2.5) years. The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The angiographic regions included vessels (n=341), cerebral vessels (n=71), thoracic larger vessels (n=19) and the vessels of the arms and legs (n=203). The technical parameters and the image qualities were evaluated and analyzed. Results: Based on the contrast filling degree, the presence or absence of contrast reflux, the imaging resolution and the satisfactory degree in meeting the diagnostic requirements, the angiographic images were evaluated. The image quality was up to standard in 615 cases (88.7%). Unsatisfactory contrast filling with no contrast reflux was seen in 62 cases (9.0%), and poor vascular opacification with contrast reflux was found in 9 cases (1.3%). Vagueness of the images caused by the body movement during exposure was seen in 6 cases (0.8%). No accidental events occurred in all procedures. Conclusion: The use of appropriate catheter, equipment and reasonable injecting parameters, which can match the characteristics of the target lesions, is the key to provide physicians with reliable angiography images. (authors)

  18. Approaches to characterise chromatographic column performance based on global parameters accounting for peak broadening and skewness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Baeza, J J; Pous-Torres, S; Torres-Lapasió, J R; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2010-04-02

    Peak broadening and skewness are fundamental parameters in chromatography, since they affect the resolution capability of a chromatographic column. A common practice to characterise chromatographic columns is to estimate the efficiency and asymmetry factor for the peaks of one or more solutes eluted at selected experimental conditions. This has the drawback that the extra-column contributions to the peak variance and skewness make the peak shape parameters depend on the retention time. We propose and discuss here the use of several approaches that allow the estimation of global parameters (non-dependent on the retention time) to describe the column performance. The global parameters arise from different linear relationships that can be established between the peak variance, standard deviation, or half-widths with the retention time. Some of them describe exclusively the column contribution to the peak broadening, whereas others consider the extra-column effects also. The estimation of peak skewness was also possible for the approaches based on the half-widths. The proposed approaches were applied to the characterisation of different columns (Spherisorb, Zorbax SB, Zorbax Eclipse, Kromasil, Chromolith, X-Terra and Inertsil), using the chromatographic data obtained for several diuretics and basic drugs (beta-blockers). Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. An investigation of engine performance parameters and artificial intelligent emission prediction of hydrogen powered car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Tien; Karri, Vishy; Lim, Daniel; Barret, Danny

    2008-01-01

    With the depletion of fossil fuel resources and the potential consequences of climate change due to fossil fuel use, much effort has been put into the search for alternative fuels for transportation. Although there are several potential alternative fuels, which have low impact on the environment, none of these fuels have the ability to be used as the sole 'fuel of the future'. One fuel which is likely to become a part of the over all solution to the transportation fuel dilemma is hydrogen. In this paper, The Toyota Corolla four cylinder, 1.8 l engine running on petrol is systematically converted to run on hydrogen. Several ancillary instruments for measuring various engine operating parameters and emissions are fitted to appraise the performance of the hydrogen car. The effect of hydrogen as a fuel compares with gasoline on engine operating parameters and effect of engine operating parameters on emission characteristics is discussed. Based on the experimental setup, a suite of neural network models were tested to accurately predict the effect of major engine operating conditions on the hydrogen car emissions. Predictions were found to be ±4% to the experimental values. This work provided better understanding of the effect of engine process parameters on emissions. (author)

  20. Selection of the battery pack parameters for an electric vehicle based on performance requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koniak, M.; Czerepicki, A.

    2017-06-01

    Each type of vehicle has specific power requirements. Some require a rapid charging, other make long distances between charges, but a common feature is the longest battery life time. Additionally, the battery is influenced by factors such as temperature, depth of discharge and the operation current. The article contain the parameters of chemical cells that should be taken into account during the design of the battery for a specific application. This is particularly important because the batteries are not properly matched and can wear prematurely and cause an additional costs. The method of selecting the correct cell type should take previously discussed features and operating characteristics of the vehicle into account. The authors present methods of obtaining such characteristics along with their assessment and examples. Also there has been described an example of the battery parameters selection based on design assumptions of the vehicle and the expected performance characteristics. Selecting proper battery operating parameters is important due to its impact on the economic result of investments in electric vehicles. For example, for some Li-Ion technologies, the earlier worn out of batteries in a fleet of cruise boats or buses having estimated lifetime of 10 years is not acceptable, because this will cause substantial financial losses for the owner of the rolling stock. The presented method of choosing the right cell technology in the selected application, can be the basis for making the decision on future battery technical parameters.

  1. A review on heat sink for thermo-electric power generation: Classifications and parameters affecting performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elghool, Ali; Basrawi, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Thamir Khalil; Habib, Khairul; Ibrahim, Hassan; Idris, Daing Mohamad Nafiz Daing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Coupling a thermoelectric power generation (TEG) to a heat sink is presented. • Review the classifications and parameters affecting performance of the TEG with heat sink. • Discuss different mathematical models of the heat sinks. • The passive heat sinks are most appropriate because of the inherent efficiency of TEG. • Medium temperature range below 300 °C is found to be most suitable for HPHS. - Abstract: In recent years, there have been growing interests in key areas related to global warming resulting from environmental emissions, and the diminishing sources of fossil fuel. The increased interest has led to significant research efforts towards finding novel technologies in clean energy production. Consequently, the merits of a thermo-electric generator (TEG) have promised a revival of alternative means of producing green energy. It is, however, impractical to account for the cost of thermal energy input to the TEG which is in the form of final waste heat. This is because the technology presents critical limitations in determining its cost efficiency nor its economic disadvantages. This paper reviews the principles of thermo-electric power production, as well the materials use, performance achieved, and application areas. The paper also takes a particular deliberation on TEG heat sinks geometries and categories. The review emphasizes more on the TEG performance while considering a number of heat sink parameters related to its performance.

  2. Performance-based parameter tuning method of model-driven PID control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y M; Xie, W F; Tu, X W

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, performance-based parameter tuning method of model-driven Two-Degree-of-Freedom PID (MD TDOF PID) control system has been proposed to enhance the control performances of a process. Known for its ability of stabilizing the unstable processes, fast tracking to the change of set points and rejecting disturbance, the MD TDOF PID has gained research interest recently. The tuning methods for the reported MD TDOF PID are based on internal model control (IMC) method instead of optimizing the performance indices. In this paper, an Integral of Time Absolute Error (ITAE) zero-position-error optimal tuning and noise effect minimizing method is proposed for tuning two parameters in MD TDOF PID control system to achieve the desired regulating and disturbance rejection performance. The comparison with Two-Degree-of-Freedom control scheme by modified smith predictor (TDOF CS MSP) and the designed MD TDOF PID tuned by the IMC tuning method demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed tuning method. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs.

  4. Repository environmental parameters and models/methodologies relevant to assessing the performance of high-level waste packages in basalt, tuff, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claiborne, H.C.; Croff, A.G.; Griess, J.C.; Smith, F.J.

    1987-09-01

    This document provides specifications for models/methodologies that could be employed in determining postclosure repository environmental parameters relevant to the performance of high-level waste packages for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at Richland, Washington, the tuff at Yucca Mountain by the Nevada Test Site, and the bedded salt in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Guidance is provided on the identify of the relevant repository environmental parameters; the models/methodologies employed to determine the parameters, and the input data base for the models/methodologies. Supporting studies included are an analysis of potential waste package failure modes leading to identification of the relevant repository environmental parameters, an evaluation of the credible range of the repository environmental parameters, and a summary of the review of existing models/methodologies currently employed in determining repository environmental parameters relevant to waste package performance. 327 refs., 26 figs., 19 tabs

  5. Verification of the security analysis including uncertainty in uncertain parameters; Verificacion del Analisis de Seguridad incluyendo la Incertidumbre en Parametros Inciertos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Magan, J. J.; Fernandez, I.; Gil, J.; Marrao, H.

    2013-07-01

    Work has been applied DAKOTA-SCAIS-MAAP-R for a loss of coolant in the primary sequence analysis, considering parameters and times uncertain, in a 3L-PWR plant Westinghouse design; which allows to verify the security analysis where temporary uncertainty represents an important parameter.

  6. Sensitivity of storage field performance to geologic and cavern design parameters in salt domes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehgartner, Brian L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Park, Byoung Yoon

    2009-03-01

    A sensitivity study was performed utilizing a three dimensional finite element model to assess allowable cavern field sizes for strategic petroleum reserve salt domes. A potential exists for tensile fracturing and dilatancy damage to salt that can compromise the integrity of a cavern field in situations where high extraction ratios exist. The effects of salt creep rate, depth of salt dome top, dome size, caprock thickness, elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, lateral stress ratio of surrounding rock, cavern size, depth of cavern, and number of caverns are examined numerically. As a result, a correlation table between the parameters and the impact on the performance of storage field was established. In general, slower salt creep rates, deeper depth of salt dome top, larger elastic moduli of caprock and surrounding rock, and a smaller radius of cavern are better for structural performance of the salt dome.

  7. Effect of Composting Parameters on the Power Performance of Solid Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Tsan Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, solid organic waste is of major environmental concern and is reaching critical levels worldwide. Currently, a form of natural decomposition, known as composting technology, is widely used to deal with organic waste. This method is applied to enhance the performance of solid microbial fuel cells (SMFCs in this study. Operational composting parameters (carbon/nitrogen ratio, moisture content and pH value are investigated to explore the optimal power performance of solid microbial fuel cells (SMFCs. Results indicate that the carbon/nitrogen ratio and the moisture content displayed the most significant impact on SMFCs. When the carbon/nitrogen ratio is 31.4 and moisture content is 60%, along with a pH value of 6–8, a better SMFC power performance would be obtained. These findings would provide positive information regarding the application of compost in SMFCs.

  8. Formation Flight System Extremum-Seeking-Control Using Blended Performance Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John J. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An extremum-seeking control system for formation flight that uses blended performance parameters in a conglomerate performance function that better approximates drag reduction than performance functions formed from individual measurements. Generally, a variety of different measurements are taken and fed to a control system, the measurements are weighted, and are then subjected to a peak-seeking control algorithm. As measurements are continually taken, the aircraft will be guided to a relative position which optimizes the drag reduction of the formation. Two embodiments are discussed. Two approaches are shown for determining relative weightings: "a priori" by which they are qualitatively determined (by minimizing the error between the conglomerate function and the drag reduction function), and by periodically updating the weightings as the formation evolves.

  9. Measurement of performance parameters of plasma source for plasma opening switch on Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Weixi; Zeng Zhengzhong; Lei Tianshi; Wang Liangping; Hu Yixiang; Sun Tieping; Huang Tao

    2012-01-01

    The plasma source (cable guns) of the plasma opening switch (POS) on Qiangguang Ⅰ generator was chosen as the study object. The plasma source performance was investigated by using charge collectors. Experimental results show that the plasma ejection density is positively correlated with the structural parameter, the distance between gun core tip and muzzle plane, and the plasma ejection velocity is negatively correlated with the parameter. The increasing rate of plasma ejection density is less than that of drive current. As far as a plasma source with tens of cable plasma guns is concerned, the influence of single cable gun's discharge dispersancy on plasma uniformity is little. Analysis of uncertainty shows that the uncertainty of measurement can be reduced by increasing the number of experiments and averaging the results. The combined standard uncertainty of plasma ejection density is less than 10%. (authors)

  10. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  11. Study of operational parameters on the performance of micro PEMFCs with different flow fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.-S.; Yang, S.-H.; Kuo, J.-K.; Huang, C.-F.; Tsai, H.-H.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of different operating parameters on micro PEMFC performances were experimentally studied for three different flow field configurations (interdigitated, mesh, and serpentine). Experiments with different cell operating temperatures and different backpressures on the H 2 flow channels, as well as various combinations of these parameters, have been conducted for three different flow geometries. The micro PEMFCs were designed and fabricated inhouse through a deep UV lithography technique and the SU-8 photoresist was used as microstructure material for the fuel cell flow field plates. Results are presented in the form of polarization VI curves and PI curves under different operating conditions. The possible transport mechanisms associated with the parametric effects were discussed. In addition, it was found that among the three flow patterns considered, significant improvements can be reached with a specified flow geometry

  12. Effects of inverting the position of layers eggs during storage on hatchery performance parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JCS de Lima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Storing hatchable eggs is a common practice in commercial hatcheries. However, storage time may negative effects on several performance parameters. An experiment was carried out to evaluate inverting egg position during storage of eggs laid by young and old layer breeders. Fertile eggs of 32 and 58-week-old breeders were stored for seven, 14, and 21 days at 18ºC ± 2ºC and 80% ± 10% relative humidity (RU. The following parameters were evaluated: egg weight loss, hatchability and hatchling weight, and embryodiagnosis results. Eggs stored with the small end up lost less weight during storage compared with the control eggs. Storing eggs for 14 days with the small end up reduced early embryo mortality, improving hatchability. In addition, hatchling weight increased. These results show that the detrimental effects of long storage periods may be alleviated when eggs are stored with the small end up to 14 days of storage.

  13. The influence of design parameters on the performance of FBAR in 10-14 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, N. I. M.; Osman, R. A. M.; Idris, M. S.; Khalid, N.; Mohamad Isa, M.; Ahmad, N.; Mat Isa, Siti S.; Ramli, Muhammad M.; Kasjoo, S. R.

    2017-11-01

    This research presents the analysis of the influence of design parameters on the performance of film bilk acoustic wave resonator (FBAR) working from 10 GHz to 14 GHz. The analysis is done by implementing one-dimensional (1-D) modellings, which are 1-D Mason model and Butterworth Van Dyke (BVD) model. The physical parameters such as piezoelectric materials and its thickness, and size of area affecting the characteristics of the FBAR are analyzed in detail. Zinc oxide (ZnO) and aluminum nitride (AlN) are chosen as the piezoelectric materials. The resonance area is varied at 25μm×25μm to 35μm×35μm. From the analysis, it is found that as the frequency increases, the thickness of the piezoelectric material decreases. Meanwhile, the static capacitance increases as the frequency increases. It is also found that as the area increases, the electrical impedance and static capacitance also increases.

  14. Effect of Processing Parameters on Performance of Spray-Deposited Organic Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack W. Owen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs is often strongly dependent on the fabrication procedure. In this study, we fabricate OTFTs of soluble small-molecule organic semiconductors by spray-deposition and explore the effect of processing parameters on film morphology and device mobility. In particular, we report on the effect of the nature of solvent, the pressure of the carrier gas used in deposition, and the spraying distance. We investigate the surface morphology using scanning force microscopy and show that the molecules pack along the π-stacking direction, which is the preferred charge transport direction. Our results demonstrate that we can tune the field-effect mobility of spray-deposited devices two orders of magnitude, from 10−3 cm2/Vs to 10−1 cm2/Vs, by controlling fabrication parameters.

  15. Atmospheric parameters, spectral indexes and their relation to CPV spectral performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Núñez, Rubén, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Antón, Ignacio, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Askins, Steve, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es; Sala, Gabriel, E-mail: ruben.nunez@ies-def.upm.es [Instituto de Energía Solar - Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Instituto de Energía Solar, ETSI Telecomunicación, Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Air Mass and atmosphere components (basically aerosol (AOD) and precipitable water (PW)) define the absorption of the sunlight that arrive to Earth. Radiative models such as SMARTS or MODTRAN use these parameters to generate an equivalent spectrum. However, complex and expensive instruments (as AERONET network devices) are needed to obtain AOD and PW. On the other hand, the use of isotype cells is a convenient way to characterize spectrally a place for CPV considering that they provide the photocurrent of the different internal subcells individually. Crossing data from AERONET station and a Tri-band Spectroheliometer, a model that correlates Spectral Mismatch Ratios and atmospheric parameters is proposed. Considering the amount of stations of AERONET network, this model may be used to estimate the spectral influence on energy performance of CPV systems close to all the stations worldwide.

  16. High-performance control of a three-phase voltage-source converter including feedforward compensation of the estimated load current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Andres E.; Solsona, Jorge A.; Busada, Claudio; Chiacchiarini, Hector; Valla, Maria Ines

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a new control strategy for voltage-source converters (VSC) is introduced. The proposed strategy consists of a nonlinear feedback controller based on feedback linearization plus a feedforward compensation of the estimated load current. In our proposal an energy function and the direct-axis current are considered as outputs, in order to avoid the internal dynamics. In this way, a full linearization is obtained via nonlinear transformation and feedback. An estimate of the load current is feedforwarded to improve the performance of the whole system and to diminish the capacitor size. This estimation allows to obtain a more rugged and cheaper implementation. The estimate is calculated by using a nonlinear reduced-order observer. The proposal is validated through different tests. These tests include performance in presence of switching frequency, measurement filters delays, parameters uncertainties and disturbances in the input voltage.

  17. Significance of uncertainties derived from settling tank model structure and parameters on predicting WWTP performance - A global sensitivity analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty derived from one of the process models – such as one-dimensional secondary settling tank (SST) models – can impact the output of the other process models, e.g., biokinetic (ASM1), as well as the integrated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models. The model structure and parameter...... and from the last aerobic bioreactor upstream to the SST (Garrett/hydraulic method). For model structure uncertainty, two one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) models are assessed, including a first-order model (the widely used Takács-model), in which the feasibility of using measured...... uncertainty of settler models can therefore propagate, and add to the uncertainties in prediction of any plant performance criteria. Here we present an assessment of the relative significance of secondary settling model performance in WWTP simulations. We perform a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) based...

  18. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  19. Hydrological model performance and parameter estimation in the wavelet-domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Schaefli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for rainfall-runoff model calibration and performance analysis in the wavelet-domain by fitting the estimated wavelet-power spectrum (a representation of the time-varying frequency content of a time series of a simulated discharge series to the one of the corresponding observed time series. As discussed in this paper, calibrating hydrological models so as to reproduce the time-varying frequency content of the observed signal can lead to different results than parameter estimation in the time-domain. Therefore, wavelet-domain parameter estimation has the potential to give new insights into model performance and to reveal model structural deficiencies. We apply the proposed method to synthetic case studies and a real-world discharge modeling case study and discuss how model diagnosis can benefit from an analysis in the wavelet-domain. The results show that for the real-world case study of precipitation – runoff modeling for a high alpine catchment, the calibrated discharge simulation captures the dynamics of the observed time series better than the results obtained through calibration in the time-domain. In addition, the wavelet-domain performance assessment of this case study highlights the frequencies that are not well reproduced by the model, which gives specific indications about how to improve the model structure.

  20. Analysis of swimming performance from physical, physiological, and biomechanical parameters in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Haljaste, Kaja; Cicchella, Antonio; Lätt, Evelin; Purge, Priit; Leppik, Aire; Jürimäe, Toivo

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the energy cost of swimming, body composition, and technical parameters on swimming performance in young swimmers. Twenty-nine swimmers, 15 prepubertal (11.9 +/- 0.3 years; Tanner Stages 1-2) and 14 pubertal (14.3 +/- 1.4 years; Tanner Stages 3-4) boys participated in the study. The energy cost of swimming (Cs) and stroking parameters were assessed over maximal 400-m front-crawl swimming in a 25-m swimming pool. The backward extrapolation technique was used to evaluate peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). A stroke index (SI; m2 . s(-1) . cycles(-1)) was calculated by multiplying the swimming speed by the stroke length. VO2peak results were compared with VO2peak test in the laboratory (bicycle, 2.86 +/- 0.74 L/min, vs. in water, 2.53 +/- 0.50 L/min; R2 = .713; p = .0001). Stepwise-regression analyses revealed that SI (R2 = .898), in-water VO2peak (R2 = .358), and arm span (R2 = .454) were the best predictors of swimming performance. The backward-extrapolation method could be used to assess VO2peak in young swimmers. SI, arm span, and VO2peak appear to be the major determinants of front-crawl swimming performance in young swimmers.

  1. Impact of Various Parameters on the Performance of Inter-aircraft Optical Wireless Communication Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mehtab

    2017-12-01

    Optical wireless communication (OWC) systems also known as Free space optics (FSO) are capable of providing high channel bandwidth, high data transmission rates, low power consumption, and high security. OWC links are being considered in different applications such as inter-satellite links, terrestrial links, and inter-aircraft communication links. This paper investigates the impact of different system parameters such as transmission power level, operating wavelength, transmitter pointing error angle, bit transmission rate, atmospheric attenuation, antenna aperture diameter, geometric losses, the responsivity of the photodetector, and link range on the performance of inter-aircraft optical wireless communication link.

  2. Evaluating climate model performance with various parameter sets using observations over the recent past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Loutre

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many sources of uncertainty limit the accuracy of climate projections. Among them, we focus here on the parameter uncertainty, i.e. the imperfect knowledge of the values of many physical parameters in a climate model. Therefore, we use LOVECLIM, a global three-dimensional Earth system model of intermediate complexity and vary several parameters within a range based on the expert judgement of model developers. Nine climatic parameter sets and three carbon cycle parameter sets are selected because they yield present-day climate simulations coherent with observations and they cover a wide range of climate responses to doubled atmospheric CO2 concentration and freshwater flux perturbation in the North Atlantic. Moreover, they also lead to a large range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations in response to prescribed emissions. Consequently, we have at our disposal 27 alternative versions of LOVECLIM (each corresponding to one parameter set that provide very different responses to some climate forcings. The 27 model versions are then used to illustrate the range of responses provided over the recent past, to compare the time evolution of climate variables over the time interval for which they are available (the last few decades up to more than one century and to identify the outliers and the "best" versions over that particular time span. For example, between 1979 and 2005, the simulated global annual mean surface temperature increase ranges from 0.24 °C to 0.64 °C, while the simulated increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration varies between 40 and 50 ppmv. Measurements over the same period indicate an increase in global annual mean surface temperature of 0.45 °C (Brohan et al., 2006 and an increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration of 44 ppmv (Enting et al., 1994; GLOBALVIEW-CO2, 2006. Only a few parameter sets yield simulations that reproduce the observed key variables of the climate system over the last

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF COMBINATION NON-MEDICAL TREATMENT INCLUDING FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION ON THE CLINICAL AND INSTRUMENTAL PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBRAL PALSY WITH SPASTIC DIPLEGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Eliseev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral palsy is the leading cause of physical disability in pediatric  age. The search for new methods and improvement of old rehabil- itation techniques is ongoing, due to low efficacy of the latter. Aim: To assess the efficacy of a func- tional programmed electrical muscle stimulation as a part  of combination treatment of patients with cerebral palsy in the form of spastic diplegia. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of treatment of 71 children with cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia, who had  been  randomized  into two groups  depending on the type of treatment. In  the  first group,  the  patients  (n = 38 received a course of functional programmed electric stim- ulation  in combination with  other  non-medical treatment  methods.  The  second   group   (n = 33 underwent a usual  course  of electrical  stimula- tion in combination with non-medical  treatment, similar to that  in the first group. The third group (control   included   41   children   without    cere- bral palsy. Clinical and  instrumental parameters were  assessed  in all study  participants. Results: After the course of combination treatment in the group  1, the  tonus  of m. gastrocnemius was de- creased significantly by 41%, that of the posterior group  of femur muscles by 43%, adductor group of femur muscles by 36%. In the group  2, the re- spective parameters decreased by 24, 21 and 21%. Muscle power  endurance was  increased  signifi- cantly in patients of both groups: that of long back extensors by 12.5 and 6.2 sec, of m. rectus abdomi- nis by 10.6 sec and 5.2 sec, of gluteal muscles by 9.3 and 4.6 sec, of m. quadriceps  by 19.8 and 7.2 sec, of m. anterior  tibialis by 12.1 and 4.6 sec, respec- tively. After the  treatment, the  active movement volume in the large joints of lower extremities  in the group 1 patients  improved as follows: by 15.6° in hip joints, by 11.1° in knee joints and by

  4. Determination of Performance Measuring Parameters of an Improved Dual Paraboloid Solar Cooker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Zaki Farooqui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation into the performance evaluation of an improved dual reflector foldable paraboloid solar cooker has been reported, along with its energy and exergy analysis. The best attribute of this lightweight and low-cost solar cooker is its high performance coupled with the ease of handling. The cooker utilizes two paraboloid reflectors made out of Mylar-coated fiberglass dishes, each having a diameter of 90 cm and focal length of 105 cm. The total intercepted radiation energy is 1.08 kW under standard test conditions. Stagnation temperatures of up to 330°C and cooking temperatures of up to 290°C have been attained with load. Altogether, 9 experiments have been performed with and without load. Loaded tests have been conducted with water and vegetable oil. Results indicate an average cooking power of 485 W, peak exergy gain of 60.53 W, quality factor of 0.077, and a high product of temperature difference gap at half peak power to peak power of 4364.33 W·K. The maximum exergy output power attained was 70 W, while maximum exergy efficiency was 8–10%. All performance measuring parameters indicate that it is a high performance solar cooker for rural and urban communities and is suitable for all types of oil- and water-based cooking.

  5. Chemical and physical parameters affecting the performance of the Os-191/Ir-191m generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packard, A.B.; Butler, T.A.; Knapp, F.F.; O'Brien, G.M.; Treves, S.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an Os-191/Ir-191m generator suitable for radionuclide angiography in humans has elicited much interest. This generator employs ''(OsO 2 Cl 4 ) 2- '' on AG MP-1 anion exchange resin with a Dowex-2 scavenger column and is eluted with normal saline at pH 1. The parent Os species is, however, neither welldefined nor homogeneous leading to less than optimal breakthrough of Os-191 (5 x 10 -3 %) and modest Ir-191m yield (10-15%). The effect of a range of parameters on generator performance has been evaluated as has been the way in which the assembly and loading process affects generator performance. In addition, a number of potential alternative generator systems have been evaluated

  6. Investigation of fuel lattice pitch changes influence on reactor performance through evaluate the neutronic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zareian Ronizi, F.; Fadaei, A.H.; Setayeshi, S.; Shahidi, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • One of the most complex issues that Nu-engineers deal with is the design of NR core. • Numerous factors in nuclear core design depend on Fuel-to-Moderator volume ratio. • Aim of this research is to investigate RX performance for different lattice pitches. - Abstract: Nuclear reactor core design is one of the most complex issues that nuclear engineers deal with. The number and complexity of effective parameters and their impact on reactor design, which makes the problem difficult to solve, require precise knowledge of these parameters and their influence on the reactor operation. Numerous factors in a nuclear reactor core design depend on the Fuel-to-Moderator volume ratio, V F /V M , in a fuel cell. This ratio can be modified by changing the lattice pitch which is the thickness of water channels between fuels plates while keeping fuel slab dimensions fixed. Cooling and moderating properties of water are affected by such a change in a reactor core, and hence some parameters related to these properties might be changed. The aim of this research is to provide the suitable knowledge for nuclear core designing. To reach this goal, the first operating core of Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) with different lattice pitches is simulated, and the effect of different lattice pitches on some parameters such as effective multiplication factor (K eff ), reactor life time, distribution of neutron flux and power density in the core, as well as moderator temperature and density coefficient of reactivity are evaluated. The nuclear reactor analysis code, MTR-PC package is employed to carry out the considered calculation. Finally, the results are presented in some tables and graphs that provide useful information for nuclear engineers in the nuclear reactor core design

  7. Preliminary performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992. Volume 3, Model parameters: Sandia WIPP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-29

    This volume documents model parameters chosen as of July 1992 that were used by the Performance Assessment Department of Sandia National Laboratories in its 1992 preliminary performance assessment of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Ranges and distributions for about 300 modeling parameters in the current secondary data base are presented in tables for the geologic and engineered barriers, global materials (e.g., fluid properties), and agents that act upon the WIPP disposal system such as climate variability and human-intrusion boreholes. The 49 parameters sampled in the 1992 Preliminary Performance Assessment are given special emphasis with tables and graphics that provide insight and sources of data for each parameter.

  8. Key performance indicators for stroke from the Ministry of Health of Brazil: benchmarking and indicator parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Marcos C; Braga, Gabriel Pereira; Nóvak, Edison M; Harger, Rodrigo; Felippe, Maria Justina Dalla Bernardina; Canever, Mariana; Dall'Asta, Isabella; Rauen, Jordana; Bazan, Rodrigo; Zetola, Viviane

    2017-06-01

    All 16 KPIs were analyzed, including the percentage of patients admitted to the stroke unit, venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the first 48 hours after admission, pneumonia and hospital mortality due to stroke, and hospital discharge on antithrombotic therapy in patients without cardioembolic mechanism. Both centers admitted over 80% of the patients in their stroke unit. The incidence of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis was > 85%, that of in-hospital pneumonia was 70%. Our results suggest using the parameters of all of the 16 KPIs required by the Ministry of Health of Brazil, and the present results for the two stroke units for future benchmarking.

  9. Performance verification and system parameter identification of spacecraft tape recorder control servo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    1979-01-01

    Design adequacy of the lead-lag compensator of the frequency loop, accuracy checking of the analytical expression for the electrical motor transfer function, and performance evaluation of the speed control servo of the digital tape recorder used on-board the 1976 Viking Mars Orbiters and Voyager 1977 Jupiter-Saturn flyby spacecraft are analyzed. The transfer functions of the most important parts of a simplified frequency loop used for test simulation are described and ten simulation cases are reported. The first four of these cases illustrate the method of selecting the most suitable transfer function for the hysteresis synchronous motor, while the rest verify and determine the servo performance parameters and alternative servo compensation schemes. It is concluded that the linear methods provide a starting point for the final verification/refinement of servo design by nonlinear time response simulation and that the variation of the parameters of the static/dynamic Coulomb friction is as expected in a long-life space mission environment.

  10. The role of interior watershed processes in improving parameter estimation and performance of watershed models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Haw; Bailey, Ryan T; Arabi, Mazdak; Ahmadi, Mehdi; White, Michael J; Arnold, Jeffrey G

    2014-09-01

    Watershed models typically are evaluated solely through comparison of in-stream water and nutrient fluxes with measured data using established performance criteria, whereas processes and responses within the interior of the watershed that govern these global fluxes often are neglected. Due to the large number of parameters at the disposal of these models, circumstances may arise in which excellent global results are achieved using inaccurate magnitudes of these "intra-watershed" responses. When used for scenario analysis, a given model hence may inaccurately predict the global, in-stream effect of implementing land-use practices at the interior of the watershed. In this study, data regarding internal watershed behavior are used to constrain parameter estimation to maintain realistic intra-watershed responses while also matching available in-stream monitoring data. The methodology is demonstrated for the Eagle Creek Watershed in central Indiana. Streamflow and nitrate (NO) loading are used as global in-stream comparisons, with two process responses, the annual mass of denitrification and the ratio of NO losses from subsurface and surface flow, used to constrain parameter estimation. Results show that imposing these constraints not only yields realistic internal watershed behavior but also provides good in-stream comparisons. Results further demonstrate that in the absence of incorporating intra-watershed constraints, evaluation of nutrient abatement strategies could be misleading, even though typical performance criteria are satisfied. Incorporating intra-watershed responses yields a watershed model that more accurately represents the observed behavior of the system and hence a tool that can be used with confidence in scenario evaluation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. TGLF Recalibration for ITER Standard Case Parameters FY2015: Theory and Simulation Performance Target Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.

    2015-01-01

    This work was motivated by the observation, as early as 2008, that GYRO simulations of some ITER operating scenarios exhibited nonlinear zonal-flow generation large enough to effectively quench turbulence inside r /a ~ 0.5. This observation of flow-dominated, low-transport states persisted even as more accurate and comprehensive predictions of ITER profiles were made using the state-of-the-art TGLF transport model. This core stabilization is in stark contrast to GYRO-TGLF comparisons for modern-day tokamaks, for which GYRO and TGLF are typically in very close agreement. So, we began to suspect that TGLF needed to be generalized to include the effect of zonal-flow stabilization in order to be more accurate for the conditions of reactor simulations. While the precise cause of the GYRO-TGLF discrepancy for ITER parameters was not known, it was speculated that closeness to threshold in the absence of driven rotation, as well as electromagnetic stabilization, created conditions more sensitive the self-generated zonal-flow stabilization than in modern tokamaks. Need for nonlinear zonal-flow stabilization: To explore the inclusion of a zonal-flow stabilization mechanism in TGLF, we started with a nominal ITER profile predicted by TGLF, and then performed linear and nonlinear GYRO simulations to characterize the behavior at and slightly above the nominal temperature gradients for finite levels of energy transport. Then, we ran TGLF on these cases to see where the discrepancies were largest. The predicted ITER profiles were indeed near to the TGLF threshold over most of the plasma core in the hybrid discharge studied (weak magnetic shear, q > 1). Scanning temperature gradients above the TGLF power balance values also showed that TGLF overpredicted the electron energy transport in the low-collisionality ITER plasma. At first (in Q3), a model of only the zonal-flow stabilization (Dimits shift) was attempted. Although we were able to construct an ad hoc model of the zonal

  12. TGLF Recalibration for ITER Standard Case Parameters FY2015: Theory and Simulation Performance Target Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This work was motivated by the observation, as early as 2008, that GYRO simulations of some ITER operating scenarios exhibited nonlinear zonal-flow generation large enough to effectively quench turbulence inside r /a ~ 0.5. This observation of flow-dominated, low-transport states persisted even as more accurate and comprehensive predictions of ITER profiles were made using the state-of-the-art TGLF transport model. This core stabilization is in stark contrast to GYRO-TGLF comparisons for modern-day tokamaks, for which GYRO and TGLF are typically in very close agreement. So, we began to suspect that TGLF needed to be generalized to include the effect of zonal-flow stabilization in order to be more accurate for the conditions of reactor simulations. While the precise cause of the GYRO-TGLF discrepancy for ITER parameters was not known, it was speculated that closeness to threshold in the absence of driven rotation, as well as electromagnetic stabilization, created conditions more sensitive the self-generated zonal-flow stabilization than in modern tokamaks. Need for nonlinear zonal-flow stabilization: To explore the inclusion of a zonal-flow stabilization mechanism in TGLF, we started with a nominal ITER profile predicted by TGLF, and then performed linear and nonlinear GYRO simulations to characterize the behavior at and slightly above the nominal temperature gradients for finite levels of energy transport. Then, we ran TGLF on these cases to see where the discrepancies were largest. The predicted ITER profiles were indeed near to the TGLF threshold over most of the plasma core in the hybrid discharge studied (weak magnetic shear, q > 1). Scanning temperature gradients above the TGLF power balance values also showed that TGLF overpredicted the electron energy transport in the low-collisionality ITER plasma. At first (in Q3), a model of only the zonal-flow stabilization (Dimits shift) was attempted. Although we were able to construct an ad hoc model of the zonal

  13. Effects of PEMFC operating parameters on the performance of an integrated ethanol processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francesconi, Javier A.; Mussati, Miguel C.; Aguirre, Pio A. [INGAR Instituto de Desarrollo y Diseno (CONICET-UTN), Avellaneda 3657, CP:S3002GJC, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper the performance of a complete fuel cell system processing ethanol fuel has been analyzed as a function of the main fuel cell operating parameters. The fuel processor is based on the steam reforming process, followed by high- and low-temperature shift reactors, and carbon monoxide preferential oxidation reactor, which are coupled to a polymeric fuel cell (PEMFC). The goal was to analyze and improve the fuel cell system performance by simulation techniques. PEMFC operation has been analyzed using an available parametric model, which was implemented within HYSYS environment software. Pinch Analysis concepts were used to investigate the process energy integration and determine the maximum efficiency minimizing ethanol consumption. The system performance was analyzed for the SR-12 Modular PEM Generator, the Ballard Mark V fuel cell and the BCS 500 W stack. The net system efficiency is dependent on the required power demand. Efficiency values higher than 50% at low loads and less than 30% at high power demands are computed. In addition, the effect of fuel cell temperature, pressure and hydrogen utilization was analyzed. The trade-off between the reformer yield and the fuel cell performance defines the optimal operation pressure. The cell temperature determines operating zones where the water, involved in the reforming reactions, can be produced or demanded. (author)

  14. Optimization of Design Parameters and Operating Conditions of Electrochemical Capacitors for High Energy and Power Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ike, Innocent S.; Sigalas, Iakovos; Iyuke, Sunny E.

    2017-03-01

    Theoretical expressions for performance parameters of different electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have been optimized by solving them using MATLAB scripts as well as via the MATLAB R2014a optimization toolbox. The performance of the different kinds of ECs under given conditions was compared using theoretical equations and simulations of various models based on the conditions of device components, using optimal values for the coefficient associated with the battery-kind material ( K BMopt) and the constant associated with the electrolyte material ( K Eopt), as well as our symmetric electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC) experimental data. Estimation of performance parameters was possible based on values for the mass ratio of electrodes, operating potential range ratio, and specific capacitance of electrolyte. The performance of asymmetric ECs with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using aqueous or organic electrolyte at appropriate operating potential range and specific capacitance was 2.2 and 5.56 times greater, respectively, than for the symmetric EDLC and asymmetric EC using the same aqueous electrolyte, respectively. This enhancement was accompanied by reduced cell mass and volume. Also, the storable and deliverable energies of the asymmetric EC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 12.9 times greater than those of the symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, again with reduced cell mass and volume. The storable energy, energy density, and power density of the asymmetric EDLC with suitable electrode mass and operating potential range ratios using the proper organic electrolyte were 5.56 times higher than for a similar symmetric EDLC using aqueous electrolyte, with cell mass and volume reduced by a factor of 1.77. Also, the asymmetric EDLC with the same type of electrode and suitable electrode mass ratio, working potential range ratio, and proper organic electrolyte

  15. Effects of shape and stroke parameters on the propulsion performance of an axisymmetric swimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jifeng; Alben, Silas

    2012-03-01

    In nature, there exists a special group of aquatic animals which have an axisymmetric body and whose primary swimming mechanism is to use periodic body contractions to generate vortex rings in the surrounding fluid. Using jellyfish medusae as an example, this study develops a mathematical model of body kinematics of an axisymmetric swimmer and uses a computational approach to investigate the induced vortex wakes. Wake characteristics are identified for swimmers using jet propulsion and rowing, two mechanisms identified in previous studies of medusan propulsion. The parameter space of body kinematics is explored through four quantities: a measure of body shape, stroke amplitude, the ratio between body contraction duration and extension duration, and the pulsing frequency. The effects of these parameters on thrust, input power requirement and circulation production are quantified. Two metrics, cruising speed and energy cost of locomotion, are used to evaluate the propulsion performance. The study finds that a more prolate-shaped swimmer with larger stroke amplitudes is able to swim faster, but its cost of locomotion is also higher. In contrast, a more oblate-shaped swimmer with smaller stroke amplitudes uses less energy for its locomotion, but swims more slowly. Compared with symmetric strokes with equal durations of contraction and extension, faster bell contractions increase the swimming speed whereas faster bell extensions decrease it, but both require a larger energy input. This study shows that besides the well-studied correlations between medusan body shape and locomotion, stroke variables also affect the propulsion performance. It provides a framework for comparing the propulsion performance of axisymmetric swimmers based on their body kinematics when it is difficult to measure and analyze their wakes empirically. The knowledge from this study is also useful for the design of robotic swimmers that use axisymmetric body contractions for propulsion.

  16. Effects of shape and stroke parameters on the propulsion performance of an axisymmetric swimmer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jifeng; Alben, Silas

    2012-01-01

    In nature, there exists a special group of aquatic animals which have an axisymmetric body and whose primary swimming mechanism is to use periodic body contractions to generate vortex rings in the surrounding fluid. Using jellyfish medusae as an example, this study develops a mathematical model of body kinematics of an axisymmetric swimmer and uses a computational approach to investigate the induced vortex wakes. Wake characteristics are identified for swimmers using jet propulsion and rowing, two mechanisms identified in previous studies of medusan propulsion. The parameter space of body kinematics is explored through four quantities: a measure of body shape, stroke amplitude, the ratio between body contraction duration and extension duration, and the pulsing frequency. The effects of these parameters on thrust, input power requirement and circulation production are quantified. Two metrics, cruising speed and energy cost of locomotion, are used to evaluate the propulsion performance. The study finds that a more prolate-shaped swimmer with larger stroke amplitudes is able to swim faster, but its cost of locomotion is also higher. In contrast, a more oblate-shaped swimmer with smaller stroke amplitudes uses less energy for its locomotion, but swims more slowly. Compared with symmetric strokes with equal durations of contraction and extension, faster bell contractions increase the swimming speed whereas faster bell extensions decrease it, but both require a larger energy input. This study shows that besides the well-studied correlations between medusan body shape and locomotion, stroke variables also affect the propulsion performance. It provides a framework for comparing the propulsion performance of axisymmetric swimmers based on their body kinematics when it is difficult to measure and analyze their wakes empirically. The knowledge from this study is also useful for the design of robotic swimmers that use axisymmetric body contractions for propulsion. (paper)

  17. Performance Analysis of a Six-Port Receiver in a WCDMA Communication System including a Multipath Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Olopade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Third generation communication systems require receivers with wide bandwidth of operation to support high transmission rates and are also reconfigurable to support various communication standards with different frequency bands. An ideal software defined radio (SDR will be the absolute answer to this requirement but it is not achievable with the current level of technology. This paper proposes the use of a six-port receiver (SPR front-end (FE in a WCDMA communication system. A WCDMA end-to-end physical layer MATLAB demo which includes a multipath channel distortion block is used to determine the viability of the six-port based receiver. The WCDMA signal after passing through a multipath channel is received using a constructed SPR FE. The baseband signal is then calibrated and corrected in MATLAB. The six-port receiver performance is measured in terms of bit error rate (BER. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the transmitted IQ data is varied and the BER profile of the communication system is plotted. The effect of the multipath fading on the receiver performance and the accuracy of the calibration algorithm are obtained by comparing two different measured BER curves for different calibration techniques to the simulated BER curve of an ideal receiver.

  18. Influence of electrical resistivity and machining parameters on electrical discharge machining performance of engineering ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Renjie; Liu, Yonghong; Diao, Ruiqiang; Xu, Chenchen; Li, Xiaopeng; Cai, Baoping; Zhang, Yanzhen

    2014-01-01

    Engineering ceramics have been widely used in modern industry for their excellent physical and mechanical properties, and they are difficult to machine owing to their high hardness and brittleness. Electrical discharge machining (EDM) is the appropriate process for machining engineering ceramics provided they are electrically conducting. However, the electrical resistivity of the popular engineering ceramics is higher, and there has been no research on the relationship between the EDM parameters and the electrical resistivity of the engineering ceramics. This paper investigates the effects of the electrical resistivity and EDM parameters such as tool polarity, pulse interval, and electrode material, on the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic's EDM performance, in terms of the material removal rate (MRR), electrode wear ratio (EWR), and surface roughness (SR). The results show that the electrical resistivity and the EDM parameters have the great influence on the EDM performance. The ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity up to 3410 Ω·cm can be effectively machined by EDM with the copper electrode, the negative tool polarity, and the shorter pulse interval. Under most machining conditions, the MRR increases, and the SR decreases with the decrease of electrical resistivity. Moreover, the tool polarity, and pulse interval affect the EWR, respectively, and the electrical resistivity and electrode material have a combined effect on the EWR. Furthermore, the EDM performance of ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic with the electrical resistivity higher than 687 Ω·cm is obviously different from that with the electrical resistivity lower than 687 Ω·cm, when the electrode material changes. The microstructure character analysis of the machined ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic surface shows that the ZnO/Al2O3 ceramic is removed by melting, evaporation and thermal spalling, and the material from the working fluid and the graphite electrode can transfer to the workpiece surface during electrical discharge

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Veers, P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces the development of a new software framework for research, design, and development of wind energy systems which is meant to 1) represent a full wind plant including all physical and nonphysical assets and associated costs up to the point of grid interconnection, 2) allow use of interchangeable models of varying fidelity for different aspects of the system, and 3) support system level multidisciplinary analyses and optimizations. This paper describes the design of the overall software capability and applies it to a global sensitivity analysis of wind turbine and plant performance and cost. The analysis was performed using three different model configurations involving different levels of fidelity, which illustrate how increasing fidelity can preserve important system interactions that build up to overall system performance and cost. Analyses were performed for a reference wind plant based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 5-MW reference turbine at a mid-Atlantic offshore location within the United States.

  20. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  1. Stack Parameters Effect on the Performance of Anharmonic Resonator Thermoacoustic Heat Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Nouh, Mostafa A.

    2014-01-01

    A thermoacoustic heat engine (TAHE) converts heat into acoustic power with no moving parts. It exhibits several advantages over traditional engines, such as simple design, stable functionality, and environment-friendly working gas. In order to further improve the performance of TAHE, stack parameters need to be optimized. Stack\\'s position, length and plate spacing are the three main parameters that have been investigated in this study. Stack\\'s position dictates both the efficiency and the maximum produced acoustic power of the heat engine. Positioning the stack closer to the pressure anti-node might ensure high efficiency on the expense of the maximum produced acoustic power. It is noticed that the TAHE efficiency can further be improved by spacing the plates of the stack at a value of 2.4 of the thermal penetration depth, δk . Changes in the stack length will not affect the efficiency much as long as the temperature gradient across the stack, as a ratio of the critical temperature gradient ψ is more than 1. Upon interpreting the effect of these variations, attempts are made towards reaching the engine\\'s most powerful operating point.

  2. Thermal performance analysis and optimum design parameters of heat exchanger having perforated pin fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Bayram; Demir, Alparslan

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports the heat transfer enhancement and corresponding pressure drop over a flat surface equipped with circular cross section perforated pin fins in a rectangular channel. The channel had a cross section area of 100-250 mm 2 . The experiments covered the following ranges: Reynolds number 13500-42,000, clearance ratio (C/H) 0, 0.33 and 1 and interfin spacing ratio (S y /D) 1.208, 1.524, 1.944 and 3.417. Correlation equations were developed for the heat transfer, friction factor and enhancement efficiency. The experimental results showed that the use of circular cross section pin fins may lead to heat transfer enhancement. Enhancement efficiencies varied between 1.4 and 2.6 depending on clearance ratio and interfin spacing ratio. Using a Taguchi experimental design method, optimum design parameters and their levels were investigated. Nusselt number and friction factor were considered as performance parameters. An L 9 (3 3 ) orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan. First of all, each goal was optimized separately. Then, all the goals were optimized together, considering the priority of the goals, and the optimum results were found to be Reynolds number of 42,000, fin height of 50 mm and streamwise distance between fins of 51 mm

  3. Stack Parameters Effect on the Performance of Anharmonic Resonator Thermoacoustic Heat Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Nouh, Mostafa A.; Arafa, Nadim M.; Abdel-Rahman, Ehab

    2014-01-01

    A thermoacoustic heat engine (TAHE) converts heat into acoustic power with no moving parts. It exhibits several advantages over traditional engines, such as simple design, stable functionality, and environment-friendly working gas. In order to further improve the performance of TAHE, stack parameters need to be optimized. Stack's position, length and plate spacing are the three main parameters that have been investigated in this study. Stack's position dictates both the efficiency and the maximum produced acoustic power of the heat engine. Positioning the stack closer to the pressure anti-node might ensure high efficiency on the expense of the maximum produced acoustic power. It is noticed that the TAHE efficiency can further be improved by spacing the plates of the stack at a value of 2.4 of the thermal penetration depth, δk . Changes in the stack length will not affect the efficiency much as long as the temperature gradient across the stack, as a ratio of the critical temperature gradient ψ is more than 1. Upon interpreting the effect of these variations, attempts are made towards reaching the engine's most powerful operating point.

  4. Analysis of performance and device parameters of CIGS PV modules deployed outdoors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radue, C. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)], E-mail: chantelle.radue@nmmu.ac.za; Dyk, E.E. van; Macabebe, E.Q. [Physics Department, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth, 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-02-02

    Two 20 W copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure, followed by outdoor deployment at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University as part of an ongoing study. The initial indoor measurement of maximum power output (P{sub MAX}) of one of the modules was considerably higher than the manufacturer's rating (E.E. van Dyk, C. Radue and A.R. Gxasheka, Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6196). The modules were deployed on a dual-axis solar tracker and current-voltage characteristics were obtained weekly. In addition to the normal PV parameters of short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, P{sub MAX}, fill factor and efficiency, shunt and series resistances were also monitored. The performances of the two modules are compared and analyzed and the results presented in this paper.

  5. Analysis of performance and device parameters of CIGS PV modules deployed outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radue, C.; Dyk, E.E. van; Macabebe, E.Q.

    2009-01-01

    Two 20 W copper indium gallium diselenide photovoltaic modules were subjected to a thorough indoor assessment procedure, followed by outdoor deployment at the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University as part of an ongoing study. The initial indoor measurement of maximum power output (P MAX ) of one of the modules was considerably higher than the manufacturer's rating (E.E. van Dyk, C. Radue and A.R. Gxasheka, Thin Solid Films 515 (2007) 6196). The modules were deployed on a dual-axis solar tracker and current-voltage characteristics were obtained weekly. In addition to the normal PV parameters of short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage, P MAX , fill factor and efficiency, shunt and series resistances were also monitored. The performances of the two modules are compared and analyzed and the results presented in this paper

  6. Mesh parameters influence on transparent and active antennas performance at microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Martin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Optically transparent and active square loop coplanar antennas operating in X-band are investigated in this letter. The frequency tunability is provided by a surface mounted beam-lead varactor with micrometric size, thereby no-visible to the naked eye. The influence of the metal mesh parameters on the sheet resistance (from 0.05 Ω/sq to 0.54 Ω/sq, the optical transparency (from 66% to 89% and the microwave performance (return loss, resonance frequency, radiation pattern and gain of such antennas is evaluated, compared with those of an opaque counterpart, and finally discussed. This study paves the way of their promising implementation on new surfaces, namely building and car windows for future wireless communications systems.

  7. Effect of design parameters on performance of a top fired natural gas reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahimi, Hadi; Mohammadzadeh, Jafar S. Soltan; Zamaniyan, Akbar; Shayegh, Flora

    2008-01-01

    A three-dimensional zone method was applied to an industrial fired heater of methane steam reforming reactor. Radiation heat transfer from all gases and surfaces inside the furnace was considered. Results from previous work and data of an industrial top fired furnace were used to validate the model. A maximum temperature in external reaction tube skin was obtained at about one third of the reactor length from top in the industrial furnace. Effect of important parameters such as emissivity, extinction coefficient, heat release pattern and flame angle on performance of the fired heater are presented. It was found that decreasing the extinction coefficients of combustion gases by 25% (from about 0.20 to 0.15) caused 2.6% rise in temperature of heat sink surfaces. It was demonstrated that the three-dimensional zone method developed in this work is simple, easy and flexible for modeling and simulation of the fired heaters

  8. Design of Parameter Independent, High Performance Sensorless Controllers for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Ge

    . The transient fluctuation of the estimated rotor position error is around 20 degrees with a step load torque change from 0% to 100% of the rated torque. The position error in steady state is within ±2 electrical degrees for the best case. The proposed method may also be used for e.g. online machine parameter......The Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine (PMSM) has become an attractive candidate for various industrial applications due to its high efficiency and torque density. In the PMSM drive system, simple and robust control methods play an important role in achieving satisfactory drive performances....... For reducing the cost and increasing the reliability of the drive system, eliminating the mechanical sensor brings a lot advantages to the PMSM drive system. Therefore, sensorless control was developed and has been increasingly used in different PMSM drive systems in the last 20 years. However, machine...

  9. Advances in three-dimensional field analysis and evaluation of performance parameters of electrical machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba

    This thesis makes advances in three dimensional finite element analysis of electrical machines and the quantification of their parameters and performance. The principal objectives of the thesis are: (1)the development of a stable and accurate method of nonlinear three-dimensional field computation and application to electrical machinery and devices; and (2)improvement in the accuracy of determination of performance parameters, particularly forces and torque computed from finite elements. Contributions are made in two general areas: a more efficient formulation for three dimensional finite element analysis which saves time and improves accuracy, and new post-processing techniques to calculate flux density values from a given finite element solution. A novel three-dimensional magnetostatic solution based on a modified scalar potential method is implemented. This method has significant advantages over the traditional total scalar, reduced scalar or vector potential methods. The new method is applied to a 3D geometry of an iron core inductor and a permanent magnet motor. The results obtained are compared with those obtained from traditional methods, in terms of accuracy and speed of computation. A technique which has been observed to improve force computation in two dimensional analysis using a local solution of Laplace's equation in the airgap of machines is investigated and a similar method is implemented in the three dimensional analysis of electromagnetic devices. A new integral formulation to improve force calculation from a smoother flux-density profile is also explored and implemented. Comparisons are made and conclusions drawn as to how much improvement is obtained and at what cost. This thesis also demonstrates the use of finite element analysis to analyze torque ripples due to rotor eccentricity in permanent magnet BLDC motors. A new method for analyzing torque harmonics based on data obtained from a time stepping finite element analysis of the machine is

  10. An experimental palladium-103 seed (OptiSeedexp) in a biocompatible polymer without a gold marker: Characterization of dosimetric parameters including the interseed effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abboud, F.; Scalliet, P.; Vynckier, S.

    2008-01-01

    Permanent implantation of 125 I (iodine) or 103 Pd (palladium) sources is a popular treatment option in the management of early stage prostate cancer. New sources are being developed, some of which are being marketed for different clinical applications. A new technique of adjuvant stereotactic permanent seed breast implant, similar to that used in the treatment of prostate cancer, has been proposed by [N. Jansen et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 67, 1052-1058 (2007)] with encouraging results. The presence of artifacts from the metallic seeds, however, can disturb follow-up imaging. The development of plastic seeds has reduced these artifacts. This paper presents a feasibility study of the advantages of palladium-103 seeds, encapsulated with a biocompatible polymer, for future clinical applications, and on the effect of the gold marker on the dosimetric characteristics of such seeds. Experimental palladium seeds, OptiSeed exp , were manufactured by International Brachytherapy (IBt), Seneffe, Belgium, from a biocompatible polymer, including the marker. Apart from the absence of a gold marker, the studied seed has an identical design to the OptiSeed 103 [Phys. Med. Biol. 50, 1493-1504 (2005)]; [Appl. Radiat. Isot. 63, 311-321 (2005)]. Polymer encapsulation was preferred by IBt in order to reduce the quantity of radioactive material needed for a given dose rate and to reduce the anisotropy of the radiation field around the seed. In addition, this design is intended to decrease the interseed effects that can occur as a result of the marker and the encapsulation. Dosimetric measurements were performed using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (1 mm 3 ) in solid water phantoms (WT1). Measured data were compared to Monte Carlo simulated data in solid water using the MCNP code, version 4C. Updated cross sections [Med. Phys. 30, 701-711 (2003)] were used. As the measured and calculated data were in agreement, Monte Carlo calculations were then performed in liquid water

  11. Study and optimization of thermo-physical parameters for a solar-still performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabi, A.; Zaidi, H.

    2006-01-01

    The thermo-physical parameters of a static solar still with a greenhouse effect were studied. The simulation was conducted for each component of the still at the same initial temperature and time step. Analyzed parameters included the solar collector; brine; absorber; and insulator. The thermophysical changes of different still components were analyzed as well as their impacts on the solar still's output. The aim of the study was to enhance distilled water production. A Gauss-Seidel iterative method was used to solve thermophysical equations. Results of the study showed that maximum hourly production of distilled water was reached at 13:00 PM, when temperatures differences between the brine and the inner side of the still had a significant impact on system productivity. Three types of material were tested: copper, aluminum, and steel. Copper gave improved production, higher thermal conductivity; higher heat, and an improved coefficient of absorption. Production of distilled water increased when a black layer of nickel was added to the still. It was concluded that solar still efficiency increased when the absorber had a high thermal conductivity and a high specific heat. 14 refs., 6 figs

  12. Parameters concerning the preparation and performance of a magnetic microparticle antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rongsen, Shen; Ruiyun, Xing; Fengqi, Zhou; Xiuzhen, Liu; Dingquan, Wang

    1997-01-01

    We have described 'Magnetic Microparticle Antibodies and Their Application to RIAs' in a recently published paper. In this article operative parameters for the preparation of a magnetic second antibody (MSA-II) including results of purification of donkey anti-rabbit (D X R) serum by an (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 precipitation method, rates of recovery of products in preparation of magnetic nucleus (MN, Fe 3 O 4 microparticle), in distillation of acrolein (AL) and in preparation of polyacrolein magnetic particle (PAMP), change in pH value of suspension irradiated before and after 60 Co γ-irradiation and volume of wet sediment in separation of magnetic particles by a magnetic separator, etc., as well as correlation of levels of quality control (QC) sera obtained with liquid-phase double antibody assay (LDA) and MSA-II assay during four years were supplementarily summarized. These operative parameters would be helpful to mastering the procedures for preparation and/or use of the magnetic particles. The better correlation of levels of QC sera for both the assays showed the reliability of the magnetic antibody. (author)

  13. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  14. The effect of broiler market age on performance parameters and economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GS Schmidt

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 35 farmers contracted by an integration company were selected. Each farmer owned an average of seven poultry houses, and housed six flocks per year, with a total of 4.0 million housed broilers. Birds were grouped into 5 market ages (MA1=46 days, and the following parameters were measured: average flock body weight (AFW, feed conversion ratio (FCR, livability (L, production efficiency index (PEI, production cost, and farmer's gross margin. MA significantly influenced all parameters, except production cost/kg broiler. The effects of farm and farm*MA interaction were not significant. Each day of MA increase resulted in increases of 68.43g and 0.039 units in AFW and FCR, respectively. PEI was 4.0% lower in MA5 as compared to MA1, thereby reducing farmer's compensation in 11.89% per reared broilers. Production costs were not different among market ages, partially due to a reduction from 16.86 (MA1 to 14.62% (MA5 in the farmer's participation in the total cost. The results show that a new farmer's compensation index that included MA is necessary to calculate farmer's margin.

  15. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL CDMA SYSTEM USING VC CODE FAMILY UNDER VARIOUS OPTICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN YOUSIF AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to study the performance of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems using Vector Combinatorial (VC code under various optical parameters. This code can be constructed by an algebraic way based on Euclidian vectors for any positive integer number. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross-correlation is always one which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise are reduced. Transmitter and receiver structures based on unchirped fiber Bragg grating (FBGs using VC code and taking into account effects of the intensity, shot and thermal noise sources is demonstrated. The impact of the fiber distance effects on bit error rate (BER is reported using a commercial optical systems simulator, virtual photonic instrument, VPITM. The VC code is compared mathematically with reported codes which use similar techniques. We analyzed and characterized the fiber link, received power, BER and channel spacing. The performance and optimization of VC code in SAC-OCDMA system is reported. By comparing the theoretical and simulation results taken from VPITM, we have demonstrated that, for a high number of users, even if data rate is higher, the effective power source is adequate when the VC is used. Also it is found that as the channel spacing width goes from very narrow to wider, the BER decreases, best performance occurs at a spacing bandwidth between 0.8 and 1 nm. We have shown that the SAC system utilizing VC code significantly improves the performance compared with the reported codes.

  16. Use of Vitamin D and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  17. Music in CrossFit®—Influence on Performance, Physiological, and Psychological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Brupbacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining increasing popularity within the fitness sector, CrossFit® serves as an appealing and efficient high intensity training approach to develop strength and endurance on a functional level; and music is often utilized to produce ergogenic effects. The present randomized, controlled, crossover study aimed at investigating the effects of music vs. non-music on performance, physiological and psychological outcomes. Thirteen (age: 27.5, standard deviation (SD 6.2 years, healthy, moderately trained subjects performed four identical workouts over two weeks. The order of the four workouts (two with, and two without music, 20 min each was randomly assigned for each individual. Acute responses in work output, heart rate, blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion, perceived pain, and affective reaction were measured at the 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th min during the training sessions. Training with music resulted in a significantly lower work output (460.3 repetitions, SD 98.1 vs. 497.8 repetitions, SD 103.7; p = 0.03. All other parameters did not differ between both music conditions. This is partly in line with previous findings that instead of providing ergogenic effects, applying music during CrossFit® may serve as a more distractive stimulus. Future studies should separate the influence of music on a more individual basis with larger sample sizes.

  18. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HEART RATE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF PERFORMANCE IN TOP-LEVEL WATER POLO PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Galy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to measure the heart rate (HR response of eight elite water polo players during the four 7-min quarters of the game and to check for relationships with the physiological parameters of performance ( ·VO2max, Th1vent, Th2vent. Each athlete performed a ·VO2max treadmill test and played a water polo game wearing a heart rate monitor. The game fatigue index was calculated as the ratio of the fourth-quarter HR to the first-quarter HR: HR4/HR1. The results showed a slight decrease in fourth-quarter HR compared with the first quarter, with the mean four-quarter HR equal to 79.9 ± 4.2% of HRmax. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed ·VO2max to be the main explanatory factor of game intensity, i.e. game HR expressed in %HRreserve (R=0.88, P<0.01. We observed that higher aerobic capacity resulted in higher game intensity. We also observed a decrease in the playing intensity in the fourth quarter compared with the first, likely due to very high game involvement. We concluded that high aerobic capacity seems necessary to ensure high game intensity in water polo. This suggests that coaches should encourage their athletes to reach a minimum level of ·VO2max and that HR monitoring could be of great interest in the control of water polo training sessions.

  19. Effects of egg storage on hatchability, chick quality, performance and immunocompetence parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliomytis, Michael; Tsipouzian, Theofania; Hager-Theodorides, Ariadne L

    2015-09-01

    Pre-incubation egg storage is a necessity for the poultry industry. This study evaluated the effects of pre-incubation storage length of broiler eggs on hatchability, 1-day-old chick quality, subsequent performance, and immunocompetence. To this end, a total of 360 hatching eggs were stored for 4, 12, or 16 d prior to incubation. Hatchability and chick quality were assessed at hatch, and growth performance and immunocompetence parameters were assessed during a 35 d rearing period. Hatchability of set and fertile eggs, and embryonic mortality, were not affected by egg storage. On the contrary, 1-day-old chick BW and length were linearly negatively correlated with egg storage length (P-linearegg weight prior to setting was unaffected, and corrected chick length was positively affected by storage length. One-day-old chick Tona score, navel quality, and post-hatch growth performance (BW at 7 and 35 d, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio at 35 d) were unaffected by egg storage (P, P-linear>0.05). Lymphoid organ weights at 2 and 35 d, the titre of maternal anti-NDV antibodies, most of the thymocyte subpopulations defined by CD3, CD4, and CD8 cell surface expression in the thymus of 2-d-old chicks, cellular responses to the PHA skin test, humoral responses to primary SRBC, and NDV immunizations were also not influenced by length of storage (P, P-linear>0.05). On the contrary, the length of egg storage was found to negatively influence the abundance of CD3+CD4-CD8- thymocytes that represent the majority of γδ-T cells in the thymus of 2-day-old chicks, as well as the humoral response to booster NDV immunization of the birds. In brief, pre-incubation storage of broiler hatching eggs for up to 16 d did not affect most developmental and growth parameters investigated, except for BW and length at hatch. Egg storage was found to suppress some aspects of the immunocompetence of the birds, particularly aspects of acquired immunity. © 2015 Poultry Science

  20. Effects of lighting and task parameters on visual acuity and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halonen, L.

    1993-12-31

    Lighting and task parameters and their effects on visual acuity and visual performance are dealt with. The parameters studied are target contrast, target size and subject`s age; and also adaptation luminance, luminance ratio between task and its surrounding and temporal change in luminances are studied. Experiments were carried out to examine the effects of luminance and light spectrum on visual acuity. Young normally sighted, older and low vision people participated in the measurements. In the young and older subject groups the visual acuity remained unchanged at contrasts 0.93 and 0.63 at the luminance range of 15-630 cd/m{sub 2}. The results show that at contrasts 0.03-0.93 young and older subjects` visual acuity remained unchanged in the luminance range of 105-630 cd/m{sub 2}. In the low vision group, the changes in luminances between 25-860 cd/m{sub 2} did not have significant effects on visual acuity measured at high contrast 0.93, at low contrast, slight individual changes were found. The colour temperature of the light sources was altered between 2900-9500 K in the experiment. In the groups of the older, young and low vision subjects the light spectrum did not have significant effects on visual acuity, except for two retinitis pigmentosa subjects. On the basis of the visual acuity experiments, a three dimensional visual acuity model (VA-HUT) has been developed. The model predicts visual acuity as a function of luminance, target contrast and observer age. On the basis of visual acuity experiments visual acuity reserve values have been calculated for different text sizes

  1. Effect of fermented biogas residue on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Xu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the effect of fermented biogas residue (FBR of wheat on the performance, serum biochemical parameters, and meat quality in pigs. Methods We selected 128 pigs (the mean initial body weight was 40.24±3.08 kg and randomly allocated them to 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups with 4 replicates per group and 8 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design based on initial body weight and sex. The control group received a corn-soybean meal-based diet, the treatment group fed diets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% FBR, respectively (abbreviated as FBR5, FBR10, and FBR15, respectively. Every group received equivalent-energy and nitrogen diets. The test lasted 60 days and was divided into early and late stages. Blood and carcass samples were obtained on 60 d. Meat quality was collected from two pigs per pen. Results During the late stage, the average daily feed intake and average daily gain of the treatment groups was greater than that of the control group (p<0.05. During the entire experiment, the average daily gain of the treatment groups was higher than that of the control group (p<0.05. Fermented biomass residue did not significantly affect serum biochemical parameters or meat quality, but did affect amino acid profiles in pork. The contents of Asp, Arg, Tyr, Phe, Leu, Thr, Ser, Lys, Pro, Ala, essential amino acids, non-essential amino acids, and total amino acids in pork of FBR5 and FBR10 were greater than those of the control group (p<0.05. Conclusion These combined results suggest that feeding FBR could increase the average daily gain and average daily feed intake in pigs and the content of several flavor-promoting amino acids.

  2. Effects of Pre and Probiotic on Growth Performance and Haematological Parameters in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Radu Szakacs

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of dietary supplementation with feed supplements (prebiotics and probiotics on pig performance, the feed conversion ratio and some haematological parameters. The research was conducted on hybrid pigs [(Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc] in a farm from Sălaj County, Romania. Pigs of 11 weeks (n = 200 were divided into 4 equal groups: a group fed with the probiotic, a prebiotic-fed group, a control group and a synbiotic (pre- and probiotic treated group. The control group was fed with a feed without the specified additives. Probiotic treated group was fed the same feedstuff but containing the additive Beta Plus® Ultra (Biochem( 5.12x1012 CFU / kg - Bacillus subtilis DSM 5750, 5.12x1012UFC / kg - Bacillus licheniformis (DSM 5749 and 921 g of betaine, in an amount of 1 kg / tonne of feed.  Prebiotic group had added to the feed an extract derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (TechnoMos® - Biochem in a dose of 250 g / ton of feed. The weight of 25 pigs in each compartment was recorded 9 times (over 85 days. Animal health was evaluated via clinical, haematological, and parasitological examinations. 5 rectal swabs were collected on day 11 and day 77 and faeces samples were taken in day 77 from each investigated group. Growth rate, feed consumption and some haematological parameters were measured. The body weight, average total weight gain and feed conversion rate increase by the dietary inclusion of the both pre and probiotic (p˃0.05. In the compartment treated with prebiotic the weight of the pigs has increased by 1030 g/day compared with 982 g/day value recorded in the control group. The average feed consumption was 3.21 kg/day in the control group while the group treated with prebiotic was only 2.99 kg/day. Feed conversion rate for all treated groups were lower than the one of control. Haematological parameters varied in physiological limits of species. Conclusion: These products show

  3. Effects of Mindfulness Practice on Performance-Relevant Parameters and Performance Outcomes in Sports: A Meta-Analytical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühlmayer, Lucia; Birrer, Daniel; Röthlin, Philipp; Faude, Oliver; Donath, Lars

    2017-11-01

    -distance runners, shooters, sprinters, volleyball players) were included. Intervention time varied from 4 weeks to over 2 years. The practice frequency lasted from twice daily to just once a week, and the mean session time covered 50-60 min. In favor of mindfulness practice compared with the control condition, large effects with narrow confidence limits and low heterogeneity were found for mindfulness scores [SMD 1.03, 90% confidence interval (CI) 0.67-1.40, p performance indices depicted wide confidence limits accompanied with very large heterogeneity. However, the effect sizes remained very large, with confidence limits that did not overlap zero (SMD 3.62, 90% CI 0.03-7.21, p = 0.10, I 2  = 98%). Moderate to large effects were observed for both psychological performance surrogates (SMD 0.72, 90% CI 0.46-0.98, p performance outcomes in shooting and dart throwing (SMD 1.35, 90% CI 0.61-2.09, p = 0.003, I 2  = 82%). Mindfulness practice consistently and beneficially modulates mindfulness scores. Furthermore, physiological and psychological surrogates improved to a meaningful extent following mindfulness practice, as well as performance outcomes in shooting and dart throwing. It seems reasonable to consider mindfulness practice strategies as a regular complementary mental skills training approach for athletes, at least in precision sports; however, more high-quality, randomized, controlled trials on mindfulness practice and performance improvements in diverse sport settings are needed.

  4. Sensitivity analysis in oxidation ditch modelling: the effect of variations in stoichiometric, kinetic and operating parameters on the performance indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abusam, A.A.A.; Keesman, K.J.; Straten, van G.; Spanjers, H.; Meinema, K.

    2001-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the application of the factorial sensitivity analysis methodology in studying the influence of variations in stoichiometric, kinetic and operating parameters on the performance indices of an oxidation ditch simulation model (benchmark). Factorial sensitivity analysis

  5. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process.

  6. WE-G-BRA-05: IROC Houston On-Site Audits and Parameters That Affect Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kry, S; Dromgoole, L; Alvarez, P; Lowenstein, J; Molineu, A; Taylor, P; Followill, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To highlight the IROC Houston on-site dosimetry audit program, and to investigate the impact of clinical conditions on the frequency of errors/recommendations noted by IROC Houston. Methods: The results of IROC Houston on-site audits from 2000-present were abstracted and compared to clinical parameters, this included 409 institutions and 1020 linacs. In particular, we investigated the frequency of recommendations versus year, and the impact of repeat visits on the number of recommendations. We also investigated the impact on the number of recommendations of several clinical parameters: the number and age of the linacs, the linac/TPS combination, and the scope of the QA program. Results: The number of recommendations per institution (3.1 average) has shown decline between 2000 and present, although the number of recommendations per machine (0.89) has not changed. Previous IROC Houston site visits did not Result in fewer recommendations on a repeat visit, but IROC Houston tests have changed substantially during the last 15 years as radiotherapy technology has changed. There was no impact on the number of recommendations based on the number of machines at the institution or the age of a given machine. The fewest recommendations were observed for Varian-Eclipse combinations (0.71 recs/machine), while Elekta- Pinnacle combinations yielded the most (1.62 recs/machine). Finally, in the TG-142 era (post-2010), those institutions that had a QA recommendation (n=77) had significantly more other recommendations (1.83 per institution) than those that had no QA rec (n=12, 1.33 per institution). Conclusion: Establishing and maintaining a successful radiotherapy program is challenging and areas of improvement can routinely be identified. Clinical conditions such as linac-TPS combinations and the establishment of a good QA program impact the frequency of errors/deficiencies identified by IROC Houston during their on-site review process

  7. Effect of Dietary Cysteine Supplementation on Growing Performance, Pelt Quality and Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Young Rex Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tossou Myrlene Carine B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary cysteine, a sulphur containing amino acid supplementation on growth performance, pelt quality and a number of serum biochemical parameters of young Rex Rabbit. One hundred and twenty Rex Rabbits aged 45 days were divided into five dietary treatment groups including one control group and 4 experimental groups. Each group was composed of 24 animals and was fed with different diets for 56 days corresponding to the fattening period. Diet was incorporated with 0% of cysteine (control group and 0,10%, 0,20%, 0,30% and 0,40% respectively for the experimental groups. At the end of the experiment, results showed that cysteine supplementation to the diet affected average daily gain, live weight,skin length, skin area and pelt weight at the late phase of 42 to 56 days (P0.05

  8. Application of Response Surface Methodology (RSM for Optimization of Operating Parameters and Performance Evaluation of Cooling Tower Cold Water Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar RAMAKRISHNAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a cooling tower was analyzed with various operating parameters tofind the minimum cold water temperature. In this study, optimization of operating parameters wasinvestigated. An experimental design was carried out based on central composite design (CCD withresponse surface methodology (RSM. This paper presents optimum operating parameters and theminimum cold water temperature using the RSM method. The RSM was used to evaluate the effectsof operating variables and their interaction towards the attainment of their optimum conditions.Based on the analysis, air flow, hot water temperature and packing height were high significanteffect on cold water temperature. The optimum operating parameters were predicted using the RSMmethod and confirmed through experiment.

  9. The Chaotic Prediction for Aero-Engine Performance Parameters Based on Nonlinear PLS Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of the aero-engine performance parameters is very important for aero-engine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. In this paper, the chaotic phase space of engine exhaust temperature (EGT time series which come from actual air-borne ACARS data is reconstructed through selecting some suitable nearby points. The partial least square (PLS based on the cubic spline function or the kernel function transformation is adopted to obtain chaotic predictive function of EGT series. The experiment results indicate that the proposed PLS chaotic prediction algorithm based on biweight kernel function transformation has significant advantage in overcoming multicollinearity of the independent variables and solve the stability of regression model. Our predictive NMSE is 16.5 percent less than that of the traditional linear least squares (OLS method and 10.38 percent less than that of the linear PLS approach. At the same time, the forecast error is less than that of nonlinear PLS algorithm through bootstrap test screening.

  10. Fiber heart valve prosthesis: influence of the fabric construction parameters on the valve fatigue performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaesken, Antoine; Heim, Frederic; Chakfe, Nabil

    2014-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has become today a largely considered alternative technique to surgical valve replacement in patients who are not operable or patients with high risk for open chest surgery. However, the biological valve tissue used in the devices implanted clinically appears to be fragile material when folded for low diameter catheter insertion purpose and released in calcified environment with irregular geometry. Textile polyester material is characterized by outstanding folding and strength properties combined with proven biocompatibility. It could thereof be considered to replace biological valve leaflets in the TAVR procedure. The textile construction parameters must however be tuned to obtain a material compatible with the valve requested durability. In that context, one issue to be addressed is the friction effect that occurs between filaments and between yarns within a fabric under flexure loading. This phenomenon could be critical for the resistance of the material on the long term. The purpose of the present work is to assess the fatigue performances of textile valve prototypes made from different fabric constructions (monofilament, multifilament, calendered mutifilament) under accelerated cyclic loading. The goal is to identify, which construction is the best suited to long term fatigue stress. Results show that calendered multifilament and monofilament fabric constructions undergo strong ruptures already from 40 Mio cycles, while non calendered multifilament appears more durable. The rupture patterns observed point out that durability is directly related to the flexure stiffness level of the fibrous elements in the construction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Positioning performance of the NTCM model driven by GPS Klobuchar model parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Mohammed Mainul; Jakowski, Norbert; Berdermann, Jens

    2018-03-01

    Users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) utilize the Ionospheric Correction Algorithm (ICA) also known as Klobuchar model for correcting ionospheric signal delay or range error. Recently, we developed an ionosphere correction algorithm called NTCM-Klobpar model for single frequency GNSS applications. The model is driven by a parameter computed from GPS Klobuchar model and consecutively can be used instead of the GPS Klobuchar model for ionospheric corrections. In the presented work we compare the positioning solutions obtained using NTCM-Klobpar with those using the Klobuchar model. Our investigation using worldwide ground GPS data from a quiet and a perturbed ionospheric and geomagnetic activity period of 17 days each shows that the 24-hour prediction performance of the NTCM-Klobpar is better than the GPS Klobuchar model in global average. The root mean squared deviation of the 3D position errors are found to be about 0.24 and 0.45 m less for the NTCM-Klobpar compared to the GPS Klobuchar model during quiet and perturbed condition, respectively. The presented algorithm has the potential to continuously improve the accuracy of GPS single frequency mass market devices with only little software modification.

  12. Effects of Flux Precoating and Process Parameter on Welding Performance of Inconel 718 Alloy TIG Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsuan-Liang; Wu, Tong-Min; Cheng, Ching-Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of activating flux on the depth-to-width ratio (DWR) and hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy tungsten inert gas (TIG) welds. The Taguchi method is employed to investigate the welding parameters that affect the DWR of weld bead and to achieve optimal conditions in the TIG welds that are coated with activating flux in TIG (A-TIG) process. There are eight single-component fluxes used in the initial experiment to evaluate the penetration capability of A-TIG welds. The experimental results show that the Inconel 718 alloy welds precoated with 50% SiO2 and 50% MoO3 flux were provided with better welding performance such as DWR and hot cracking susceptibility. The experimental procedure of TIG welding process using mixed-component flux and optimal conditions not only produces a significant increase in DWR of weld bead, but also decreases the hot cracking susceptibility of Inconel 718 alloy welds.

  13. Influence of the layer parameters on the performance of the CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddout, Assiya; Raidou, Abderrahim; Fahoume, Mounir

    2018-03-01

    Influence of the layer parameters on the performances of the CdTe solar cells is analyzed by SCAPS-1D. The ZnO: Al film shows a high efficiency than SnO2:F. Moreover, the thinner window layer and lower defect density of CdS films are the factor in the enhancement of the short-circuit current density. As well, to increase the open-circuit voltage, the responsible factors are low defect density of the absorbing layer CdTe and high metal work function. For the low cost of cell production, ultrathin film CdTe cells are used with a back surface field (BSF) between CdTe and back contact, such as PbTe. Further, the simulation results show that the conversion efficiency of 19.28% can be obtained for the cell with 1-μm-thick CdTe, 0.1-μm-thick PbTe and 30-nm-thick CdS.

  14. Impact of droplet evaporation rate on resulting in vitro performance parameters of pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Poonam; Grimes, Matthew R; Stein, Stephen W; Myrdal, Paul B

    2017-08-07

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are widely used for the treatment of pulmonary diseases. The overall efficiency of pMDI drug delivery may be defined by in vitro parameters such as the amount of drug that deposits on the model throat and the proportion of the emitted dose that has particles that are sufficiently small to deposit in the lung (i.e., fine particle fraction, FPF). The study presented examines product performance of ten solution pMDI formulations containing a variety of cosolvents with diverse chemical characteristics by cascade impaction with three inlets (USP induction port, Alberta Idealized Throat, and a large volume chamber). Through the data generated in support of this study, it was demonstrated that throat deposition, cascade impactor deposition, FPF, and mass median aerodynamic diameter of solution pMDIs depend on the concentration and vapor pressure of the cosolvent, and the selection of model throat. Theoretical droplet lifetimes were calculated for each formulation using a discrete two-stage evaporation process model and it was determined that the droplet lifetime is highly correlated to throat deposition and FPF indicating that evaporation kinetics significantly influences pMDI drug delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of stocking density on growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, L Y; Wang, Z Y; Yang, H M; Xu, L; Zhang, J; Xing, H

    2017-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking density on the growth performance, feather growth, intestinal development, and serum parameters of geese. In total, 336 healthy, 28-day-old, male Yangzhou goslings were randomly allotted to 30 plastic wire-floor pens according to 5 stocking densities (2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 birds/m2). The results showed that with the stocking density increased from 2 birds/m2 to 6 birds/m2, the body weights of geese at 42 d (P density was increased to 6 birds/m2. Serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (P = 0.013) and triiodothyronine (P density increased. The serum thyroxine concentration of geese from the 6 birds/m2 group was lower than that of geese from the other groups (P density will adversely influence thyroid function and the developments of the body weight, body size, feathers, and small intestine. Under our experimental conditions, we recommend that the stocking density of geese should be kept to 5 or fewer birds/m2 to avoid the negative effects of high stocking density on geese. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  16. Optimizing Performance Parameters of Chemically-Derived Graphene/p-Si Heterojunction Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Kamal; Nayak, Sasmita; Behura, Sanjay K; Jani, Omkar

    2015-07-01

    Chemically-derived graphene have been synthesized by modified Hummers method and reduced using sodium borohydride. To explore the potential for photovoltaic applications, graphene/p-silicon (Si) heterojunction devices were fabricated using a simple and cost effective technique called spin coating. The SEM analysis shows the formation of graphene oxide (GO) flakes which become smooth after reduction. The absence of oxygen containing functional groups, as observed in FT-IR spectra, reveals the reduction of GO, i.e., reduced graphene oxide (rGO). It was further confirmed by Raman analysis, which shows slight reduction in G-band intensity with respect to D-band. Hall effect measurement confirmed n-type nature of rGO. Therefore, an effort has been made to simu- late rGO/p-Si heterojunction device by using the one-dimensional solar cell capacitance software, considering the experimentally derived parameters. The detail analysis of the effects of Si thickness, graphene thickness and temperature on the performance of the device has been presented.

  17. Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immune competence-related parameters and performance in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Torki, M; Schokker, D

    2017-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 d of age on immune competence-related parameters and performance of broilers. A total of 960 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly allocated to 24 pens (40 birds per pen), and the birds in every 8 replicate pens were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets including graded levels, 0%, 5%, and 10% of rye. Tested immune competence-related parameters were composition of the intestinal microbiota, genes expression in gut tissue, and gut morphology. The inclusion of 5% or 10% rye in the diet (d 14 to 28) resulted in decreased performance and litter quality, but in increased villus height and crypt depth in the small intestine (jejunum) of the broilers. Relative bursa and spleen weights were not affected by dietary inclusion of rye. In the jejunum, no effects on number and size of goblet cells, and only trends on microbiota composition in the digesta were observed. Dietary inclusion of rye affected expression of genes involved in cell cycle processes of the jejunal enterocyte cells, thereby influencing cell growth, cell differentiation and cell survival, which in turn were consistent with the observed differences in the morphology of the gut wall. In addition, providing rye-rich diets to broilers affected the complement and coagulation pathways, which among others are parts of the innate immune system. These pathways are involved in eradicating invasive pathogens. Overall, it can be concluded that inclusion of 5% or 10% rye to the grower diet of broilers had limited effects on performance. Ileal gut morphology, microbiota composition of jejunal digesta, and gene expression profiles of jejunal tissue, however, were affected by dietary rye inclusion level, indicating that rye supplementation to broiler diets might affect immune competence of the birds. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. Cosmological parameter analysis including SDSS Lyα forest and galaxy bias: Constraints on the primordial spectrum of fluctuations, neutrino mass, and dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, Uros; Makarov, Alexey; McDonald, Patrick; Anderson, Scott F.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Cen, Renyue; Gunn, James E.; Lupton, Robert H.; Schlegel, David J.; Brinkmann, J.; Burles, Scott; Doi, Mamoru; Ivezic, Zeljko; Kent, Stephen; Loveday, Jon; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Nichol, Robert C.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Berk, Daniel E. Vanden

    2005-01-01

    We combine the constraints from the recent Lyα forest analysis of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the SDSS galaxy bias analysis with previous constraints from SDSS galaxy clustering, the latest supernovae, and 1st year WMAP cosmic microwave background anisotropies. We find significant improvements on all of the cosmological parameters compared to previous constraints, which highlights the importance of combining Lyα forest constraints with other probes. Combining WMAP and the Lyα forest we find for the primordial slope n s =0.98±0.02. We see no evidence of running, dn/dlnk=-0.003±0.010, a factor of 3 improvement over previous constraints. We also find no evidence of tensors, r 2 model is within the 2-sigma contour, V∝φ 4 is outside the 3-sigma contour. For the amplitude we find σ 8 =0.90±0.03 from the Lyα forest and WMAP alone. We find no evidence of neutrino mass: for the case of 3 massive neutrino families with an inflationary prior, eV and the mass of lightest neutrino is m 1 ν λ =0.72±0.02, w(z=0.3)=-0.98 -0.12 +0.10 , the latter changing to w(z=0.3)=-0.92 -0.10 +0.09 if tensors are allowed. We find no evidence for variation of the equation of state with redshift, w(z=1)=-1.03 -0.28 +0.21 . These results rely on the current understanding of the Lyα forest and other probes, which need to be explored further both observationally and theoretically, but extensive tests reveal no evidence of inconsistency among different data sets used here

  19. Ranking Of The Performance Of Some Climatological Parameters In The Easement Of Solar Radiation In The Mina Environment Central Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abubakar, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Four models each based on a single climatological factors were proposed to evaluate the strength of the performance of each parameter in estimating solar radiation in Minna. The climatological parameters are percentage of sunshine hours, temperature ratio, humidity and cloud cover. Based on the MAB and RMSE method the sunshine hours duration was found to be the most efficient parameter for predicting the monthly and annual performance of models compared with the model based on the temperature ratio closely follow the model based on sunshine data while model based on the cloud cover was found to have the worst performance. Generally the model based on the sunshine hours performed better than the rest during the rainy season while the model based on the temperature ratio outperformed the rest of the models during the harmattan season. However both models based on the sunshine hours and temperature ratio were equally found to have good performance during the dry season

  20. Analysis Of Impact Of Various Parameters On BER Performance For IEEE 802.11b

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh B. Kalani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper discusses about IEEE 802.11b simulation model implemented using LabVIEW software and its analyses for impact on bit error rate BER for different parameters as channel type channel number data transmission rate and packet size. Audio file is being transmitted processed and analyzed using the model for various parameters. This paper gives analysis of BER verses ESN0 for various parameter like data rate packet size and communication channel for the IEEE 802.11b simulation model generated using LabVIEW. It is proved that BER can be optimized by tweaking different parameters of wireless communication system.

  1. Investigation on the effect of the reservoir variables and operational parameters on SAGD performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemi Kiasari, H.; Naderifar, A. [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Petroleum Engineering Dept.; Sedaee Sola, B. [University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Faculty of Engineering. Inst. of Petroleum Engineering], e-mail: sedaeesola@yahoo.com

    2010-04-15

    Steam injection is the most important thermal enhanced oil recovery method. One typical procedure is Steam- Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD), which is a promising recovery process to produce heavy oil and bitumen. The method ensures a stable displacement of steam at economical rates by using gravity as the driving force and a pair of horizontal wells for injection/production. There are numerous studies done on SAGD in conventional reservoirs, but the majority of them focus on the investigation of the process in microscopic scale. In this study, we investigate the SAGD process with a preheating period, using steam circulation in well pair on a field scale. The synthetic homogenous model was constructed by CMG and simulated using the STARS module. The effects of operational parameters, such as preheating period, vertical well spacing, well pair length, steam quality and production pressure, and reservoir variables, such as rock porosity and permeability, vertical-to-horizontal permeability ratio, thermal conductivity of the formation and rock heat capacity, on the SAGD performance were investigated. The results show that the preheating period affects mainly the initial stages of production. Due to preheating, the well pair communication with the higher vertical distances is also established; therefore, there was no considerable difference between oil productions in various well spacing cases. As steam quality increases, the oil production in later production times also increases. At shorter well pair, more steam can be injected per unit length of well, but, on the other hand, the production well recovers less heated oil area; therefore the well pair length should be optimized in all cases. By decreasing the production well bottom-hole pressure, more heated oil in near well region is produced; therefore, the injected steam raises more in the depleted area. The results of the simulations show that very low permeability leads to a fully unsuccessful SAGD process. In the

  2. Genetic parameters of performance traits in Sul-Mato-Grossenses naturalized sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Portela de Oliveira

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of genetic parameters are important to study characteristics that are to be included in a breeding program of a genetic group. The information of 594 weights from 211 lambs of a genetic group of naturalized Sul-mato-grossenses sheep belonging to Manoel de Barros Foundation and breeding at Centro Tecnologico de Ovinos from Anhanguera-Uniderp University was used. The estimation of variance components in unicaracter and bicaracter analysis were carried out through Bayesian inference. Estimates of heritability ranged from unicaracter analyses (0.22 to 0.47 and the bicaracter analyses (0.13 to 0.78. The maternal environmental permanent effect was higher in birth weight and average daily gain from birth to 50 days in 24.2% and 19.5%, respectively, in the observed variation. Estimates of heritability, maternal environmental permanent effect participation, phenotypic and genetic correlations indicate that selection for average daily gain from birth to 90 days would imply increases in weight at 50 days, weight at 90 days and average daily gain from 50 to 90 days of lambs with no significant increase in birth weight and average daily gain birth at 50 days.

  3. Technical Approach for Determining Key Parameters Needed for Modeling the Performance of Cast Stone for the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabusaki, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Serne, R. Jeffrey [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Westsik, Joseph H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-30

    the critical link between the short-term understanding from laboratory and field tests, and the prediction of repository performance over repository time frames and scales. One common recommendation is that experiments be designed to permit the appropriate scaling in the models. There is a large contrast in the physical and chemical properties between the Cast Stone waste package and the IDF backfill and surrounding sediments. Cast Stone exhibits low permeability, high tortuosity, low carbonate, high pH, and low Eh whereas the backfill and native sediments have high permeability, low tortuosity, high carbonate, circumneutral pH, and high Eh. These contrasts have important implications for flow, transport, and reactions across the Cast Stone – backfill interface. Over time with transport across the interface and subsequent reactions, the sharp geochemical contrast will blur and there will be a range of spatially-distributed conditions. In general, COC mobility and transport will be sensitive to these geochemical variations, which also include physical changes in porosity and permeability from mineral reactions. Therefore, PA modeling must address processes, properties, and conditions that alter the physical and chemical controls on COC transport in the cementitious waste forms over time. Section 2 of this document reviews past Hanford PAs and SRS Saltstone PAs, which to date have mostly relied on the lumped parameter COC release conceptual models for TSPA predictions, and provides some details on the chosen values for the lumped parameters. Section 3 provides more details on the hierarchical modeling strategy and processes and mechanisms that control COC release. Section 4 summarizes and lists the key parameters for which numerical values are needed to perform PAs. Section 5 provides brief summaries of the methods used to measure the needed parameters and references to get more details.

  4. Performance of Transuranic-Loaded Fully Ceramic Micro-Encapsulated Fuel in LWRs Final Report, Including Void Reactivity Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Michael A.; Sen, R. Sonat; Boer, Brian; Ougouag, Abderrafi M.; Youinou, Gilles

    2011-01-01

    The current focus of the Deep Burn Project is on once-through burning of transuranics (TRU) in light-water reactors (LWRs). The fuel form is called Fully-Ceramic Micro-encapsulated (FCM) fuel, a concept that borrows the tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle design from high-temperature reactor technology. In the Deep Burn LWR (DB-LWR) concept, these fuel particles are pressed into compacts using SiC matrix material and loaded into fuel pins for use in conventional LWRs. The TRU loading comes from the spent fuel of a conventional LWR after 5 years of cooling. Unit cell and assembly calculations have been performed using the DRAGON-4 code to assess the physics attributes of TRU-only FCM fuel in an LWR lattice. Depletion calculations assuming an infinite lattice condition were performed with calculations of various reactivity coefficients performed at each step. Unit cells and assemblies containing typical UO2 and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel were analyzed in the same way to provide a baseline against which to compare the TRU-only FCM fuel. Then, assembly calculations were performed evaluating the performance of heterogeneous arrangements of TRU-only FCM fuel pins along with UO2 pins.

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Organohalogens, Including Brominated Flame Retardants, Influences Motor, Cognitive, and Behavioral Performance at School Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roze, Elise; Meijer, Lisethe; Bakker, Attie; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organohalogen compounds (OHCs) are known to have neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the influence of prenatal exposure to OHCs, including brominated flame retardants, on motor, cognitive, and behavioral outcome in healthy children of school age.

  6. Effects of Graded Levels of Montmorillonite on Performance, Hematological Parameters and Bone Mineralization in Weaned Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. W. Duan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of graded levels of montmorillonite, a constituent of clay, on performance, hematological parameters and bone mineralization in weaned pigs. One hundred and twenty, 35-d-old crossbred pigs (Duroc×Large White×Landrace, 10.50±1.20 kg were used in a 28-d experiment and fed either an unsupplemented corn-soybean meal basal diet or similar diets supplemented with 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 or 5.0% montmorillonite added at the expense of wheat bran. Each treatment was replicated six times with four pigs (two barrows and two gilts per replicate. Feed intake declined (linear and quadratic effect, p< 0.01 with increasing level of montmorillonite while feed conversion was improved (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01. Daily gain was unaffected by dietary treatment. Plasma myeloperoxidase declined linearly (p = 0.03 with increasing dietary level of montmorillonite. Plasma malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels were quadratically affected (p<0.01 by montmorillonite with increases observed for pigs fed the 0.5 and 1.0% levels which then declined for pigs fed the 2.5 and 5.0% treatments. In bone, the content of potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese and magnesium were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, p<0.01 in response to an increase of dietary montmorillonite. These results suggest that dietary inclusion of montmorillonite at levels as high as 5.0% does not result in overt toxicity but could induce potential oxidative damage and reduce bone mineralization in pigs.

  7. Genetic parameters and genetic and phenotypic trends of performance traits of equines from the Brazilian Army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Dornelles

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the magnitude of genetic parameters (coefficients of heritability and genetic correlation as estimated by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML method and Bayesian Inference, and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic trends to the traits height at the withers (HW24 and weight at 24 months of age (W24. The average heritability estimated by Bayesian Inference to HW24 was 0.47, and it was lower than that obtained by REML bi-trait analysis (0.52; however, the value estimated to W24 (0.39 was higher than that obtained by REML bi-trait analysis (0.38. The genetic correlation estimate between W24 and HW24 traits obtained by the REML method (0.66 was lower than that obtained by the Bayesian Inference Method (0.72. From the regression of the average additive genetic merit in the year of birth of the animals, it was found that the averaged genetic values of the animals for HW24 showed a genetic trend near zero (-0.0008cm/year, and the averaged genetic values for W24 showed a negative trend of -0.38 kg/year. The values to the direct heritability estimated for HW24 and W24 suggest that the direct selection for these traits can provide genetic gain in this population. The genetic correlation between the traits, high and positive, suggests that the selection for HW24 should promote increase in W24 at this age. The genetic trends obtained for the traits studied, near zero, indicate that the selection performed produced a slight reduction of the weight of the animals at 24 months of age; however, it did not promote increase in height at the wither at this same age, in this population.

  8. Sensitivity of Key Parameters in Aerodynamic Wind Turbine Rotor Design on Power and Energy Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the influence of different key parameters in aerodynamic wind turbine rotor design on the power efficiency, C p , and energy production has been investigated. The work was divided into an analysis of 2D airfoils/blade sections and of entire rotors. In the analysis of the 2D airfoils it was seen that there was a maximum of the local C p for airfoils with finite maximum C l /C d values. The local speed ratio should be between 2.4 and 3.8 for airfoils with maximum c l /c d between 50 and 200, respectively, to obtain maximum local C p . Also, the investigation showed that Re had a significant impact on CP and especially for Re p for rotors was made with three blades and showed that with the assumption of constant maximum c l /c d along the entire blade, the design tip speed ratio changed from X=6 to X=12 for c l /cd=50 and c l /c d =200, respectively, with corresponding values of maximum c p of 0.46 and 0.525. An analysis of existing rotors re-designed with new airfoils but maintaining the absolute thickness distribution to maintain the stiffness showed that big rotors are more aerodynamic efficient than small rotors caused by higher Re. It also showed that the design tip speed ratio was very dependent on the rotor size and on the assumptions of the airfoil flow being fully turbulent (contaminated airfoil) or free transitional (clean airfoil). The investigations showed that rotors with diameter D=1.75m, should be designed for X around 5.5, whereas rotors with diameter D=126m, should be designed for Xbetween 6.5 and 8.5, depending on the airfoil performance

  9. Physical activity and performance at school A systematic review of the literature including a methodological quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, A.S.; Uijtdewilligen, L.; Twisk, J.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prospective relationship between physical activity and academic performance. Data Sources: Prospective studies were identified from searches in PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central, and Sportdiscus from 1990 through 2010. Study Selection: We screened the titles and abstracts

  10. A mathematical model of the accumulation of radionuclides by oysters (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor to include major biological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, C.T.; Smith, C.W.; Price, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake, accumulation and loss of radionuclides by the American oyster (C. virginica) aquacultured in the effluent of a nuclear power reactor has been measured monthly for 3 yr at four field stations in the Montsweag Estuary of the Sheepscot River and at a control station in the nearby Damariscotta River Estuary, southern central coastal Maine, U.S.A. A mathematical model for the time variation of the specific activity of the oysters has been developed to include the physical half-lives of the various radionuclides, the biological half-lives of the various radionuclides (biological depuration), the water temperature (oyster hibernation) and shell growth. The resulting first order linear differential equation incorporating these phenomena is driven by the liquid radionuclide effluent release of the Maine Yankee Nuclear Reactor. Comparison of the monthly measurements of the specific activity for 58 Co, 60 Co, 54 Mn, 134 Cs and 137 Cs in oysters with model calculations show close agreement over all ranges of variation observed. A special feature of this mathematical model is its ability to describe the non-chemostatic field situation. (author)

  11. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records Package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  12. Guidebook for performance assessment parameters used in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance certification application. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, S.M.; Martell, M.A.; Weiner, R.; Lattier, C.

    1998-06-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) Parameter Database and its ties to supporting information evolved over the course of two years. When the CCA was submitted to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996, information such as identification of parameter value or distribution source was documented using processes established by Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Quality Assurance Procedures. Reviewers later requested additional supporting documentation, links to supporting information, and/or clarification for many parameters. This guidebook is designed to document a pathway through the complex parameter process and help delineate flow paths to supporting information for all WIPP CCA parameters. In addition, this report is an aid for understanding how model parameters used in the WIPP CCA were developed and qualified. To trace the source information for a particular parameter, a dual-route system was established. The first route uses information from the Parameter Records package as it existed when the CCA calculations were run. The second route leads from the EPA Parameter Database to additional supporting information

  13. The performance of simulated annealing in parameter estimation for vapor-liquid equilibrium modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bonilla-Petriciolet

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the application and evaluation of the simulated annealing (SA optimization method in parameter estimation for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE modeling. We tested this optimization method using the classical least squares and error-in-variable approaches. The reliability and efficiency of the data-fitting procedure are also considered using different values for algorithm parameters of the SA method. Our results indicate that this method, when properly implemented, is a robust procedure for nonlinear parameter estimation in thermodynamic models. However, in difficult problems it still can converge to local optimums of the objective function.

  14. The influence of operational parameters on the performance of an undivided zinc–cerium flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.K.; Ponce de Leon, C.; Walsh, F.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The performance of an undivided zinc–cerium flow battery under different conditions of temperature, concentration and electrolyte flow rate, was evaluated. ► Mixed electrolytes were considered; methanesulfonate and sulfate anions were tested. ► In a 30 min charge/discharge at 20 mA cm −2 , charge and energy efficiencies were 82% and 72%, respectively. ► After 4 h charge, the conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) became less efficient with the oxygen evolution reaction becoming more favored. ► After a larger number of cycles the carbon felt electrode was electro- and chemically-oxidized by Ce(IV) leading to degradation of the positive electrode. - Abstract: An undivided zinc–cerium redox flow battery was studied under a wide range of operational conditions, including: (i) electrolyte composition; the concentrations of ([Zn 2+ ], [Ce 3+ ] and [H + ]), (ii) current density (0–80 mA cm −2 ), (iii) electrolyte flow linear velocity (0.64–7.0 cm s −1 ) and (iv) temperature (20–60 °C). The charge efficiency increased at higher current densities and at higher electrolyte flow velocities. Unlike the divided zinc–cerium system, the charge–discharge performance decreased at higher temperature, since oxygen evolution became increasingly favored at the positive electrode. The use of a low acid concentration led to a poor conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) ions during the discharge cycle. Mixed electrolytes containing methanesulfonate and sulfate anions have been evaluated at a high Ce(III) ion concentration, e.g. 0.4 mol dm −3 . After charging the battery for 4 h, the conversion of Ce(III) to Ce(IV) ions became less efficient over time due to a greater fraction of the current being used in oxygen evolution. Critical aspects for improvements in the battery performance are considered.

  15. Estimating Parameters for the PVsyst Version 6 Photovoltaic Module Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We present an algorithm to determine parameters for the photovoltaic module perf ormance model encoded in the software package PVsyst(TM) version 6. Our method operates on current - voltage (I - V) measured over a range of irradiance and temperature conditions. We describe the method and illustrate its steps using data for a 36 cell crystalli ne silicon module. We qualitatively compare our method with one other technique for estimating parameters for the PVsyst(TM) version 6 model .

  16. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yun-Su Kim; Il-Yop Chung; Seung-Il Moon

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI con...

  17. Investigation of Dip-Coating Parameters Effect on The Performance of Alumina-Polydimethylsiloxane Nanofiltration Membranes for Desalination

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hadi Yousefi; Mohamad Mehdi Zerafat; Majid Shokri Doodeji; Samad Sabbaghi

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of dip-coating parameters on the performance of Alumina-PDMS hybrid nanofiltration membranes for water desalination. Ceramic supports used in this work were prepared with a 340 nm average pore size and 34% total porosity. The aim is to determine optimum conditions of dipping time, PDMS concentration, and withdrawal speed in order to achieve high rejection and flux values. Dip-coating parameters were considered as dipping time (60 - 120 s...

  18. Artificial neural network approach to predicting engine-out emissions and performance parameters of a turbo charged diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özener Orkun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study details the artificial neural network (ANN modelling of a diesel engine to predict the torque, power, brake-specific fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, total hydrocarbons and filter smoke number. To collect data for training and testing the neural network, experiments were performed on a four cylinder, four stroke compression ignition engine. A total of 108 test points were run on a dynamometer. For the first part of this work, a parameter packet was used as the inputs for the neural network, and satisfactory regression was found with the outputs (over ~95%, excluding total hydrocarbons. The second stage of this work addressed developing new networks with additional inputs for predicting the total hydrocarbons, and the regression was raised from 75 % to 90 %. This study shows that the ANN approach can be used for accurately predicting characteristic values of an internal combustion engine and that the neural network performance can be increased using additional related input data.

  19. Safety evaluation of zinc methionine in laying hens: Effects on laying performance, clinical blood parameters, organ development, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, N N; Liu, B; Xiong, P W; Guo, Y; He, J N; Hou, C C; Ma, L X; Yu, D Y

    2018-04-01

    The study was conducted to investigate whether high-dose zinc methionine (Zn-Met) affected the safety of laying hens, including laying performance, hematological parameters, serum chemical parameters, organ index, and histopathology. A total of 540 20-week-old Hy-Line White laying hens was randomly allocated to 6 groups with 6 replicates of 15 birds each. Birds were fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 70, 140, 350, 700, or 1,400 mg Zn/kg diet as Zn-Met. The experiment lasted for 8 wk after a 2-week acclimation period. Results showed that dietary supplementation with 70 or 140 mg Zn/kg diet as Zn-Met significantly increased average daily egg mass (ADEM), laying rate (LR), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P hens fed with 0, 350, or 700 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met (P > 0.05); hens administered 1,400 mg Zn/kg showed a significant increase in BSER and remarkable decreases in ADEM, LR, and FCR (P hens receiving 0, 70, 140, 350, or 700 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met in serum chemical parameters (P > 0.05); supplementation with 1,400 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met remarkably elevated the concentrations of serum total bilirubin (TBILI), glucose (GLU), uric acid (UA), and creatinine (CRE) (P hens administered 0, 70, 140, 350, or 700 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met, while significant histological lesions were observed in the heart, liver, lung, and kidney tissues of hens receiving 1,400 mg Zn/kg as Zn-Met. No significant differences were detected in hematological parameters or organ index (P > 0.05). In conclusion, a nominal Zn concentration of 700 mg/kg as Zn-Met is considered to be no-observed-adverse-effect level following daily administration to hens for 56 days.

  20. Reserve, thin form-factor, hypochlorite-based cells for powering portable systems: Manufacture (including MEMS processes), performance and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas-Valencia, Andres M.; Langebrake, Larry [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Biver, Carl J. [Center for Ocean Technology, University of South Florida, 140 Seventh Ave. S., St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, FL (United States)

    2007-03-30

    This work focuses on fabrication routes and performance evaluation of thin form-factors, reserve cells, as a powering alternative for expendable and/or remotely operated systems. The catalytic decomposition of sodium hypochlorite solutions is revisited herein with two cost-effective anodes: zinc and aluminum. Aluminum, even though the most expensive of the utilized anodes, constituted cells with double the energy content (up to 55 Wh kg{sup -1}) than those fabricated with zinc. Even though the hypochlorite concentration in the solution limits the cells' operational life, attractive performances (1.0 V with a current of 10 mA) for the manufactured cells are obtained. It is shown that micro fabrication processes, allowing for close electrodes interspacing, provided high faradic and columbic efficiencies of up to 70 and 100%, respectively. Obtained specific energies (50-120 Wh kg{sup -1}) are in the same order of magnitude than batteries currently used for powering deployable systems. Experimental results show that a simple model that linearly relates over potentials and the electrical load, adequately describe all the cell designs. A mathematical model based on a kinetic-mechanistic scheme that relates the current output as a function of time agrees fairly well with results obtained activating cells with various concentrations of NaOCl solutions. (author)

  1. Workshop on spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters, Lidingoe 2008: Overview and evaluation of recent SKB procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinrath, Guenther; Stenhouse, Mike; Brown, Paul; Ekberg, Christian; Jegou, Christophe; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-08-01

    The safety assessment for disposal of spent nuclear fuel canister in the Swedish bedrock should thoroughly address the time period after a containment failure. Such a failure could be expected as a result of corrosion damage or mechanical failure due to rock movement. This report mainly covers some issues connected to parameters used for radionuclide transport calculations in the areas of spent fuel performance (for fuel in contact with groundwater), radionuclide chemistry, and sorption and geosphere transport parameters. Some examples of topics that are elaborated in some detail include statistical treatment of measurement data (for sorption measurements), handling of uncertainties in speciation calculations, use of triangular distributions in safety assessment and physical processes in connection with spent fuel aging. The results emerged from discussions among international experts at a workshop in May 2008. The purpose of this work is providing an overview of ongoing work within the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), to provide ideas and suggestions for methodology development and to develop review capability within the SSM. The authors conclude that SKB's treatment of uncertainty in speciation calculations has improved, but that additional efforts in the area of error propagation are recommended. In efforts to condense the scope of utilised thermodynamic databases, the authors recommend that exclusion criteria should be explicitly stated. In the area of sorption, there is a need for more thorough analysis of errors in order to establish uncertainty ranges. The most essential improvements concern dose-limiting nuclides (e.g. Ra-226). Triangular distributions are often featured in SKB safety assessment, but it is not clear that the use of such distributions is based on a firm understanding of its properties. Regarding fuel performance, while safety assessment parameters are supported by measurement data there is still a need for better

  2. Comparison of the diagnostic performances of diffusion parameters in diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Ozgur; Arslan, Arzu; Inan, Nagihan; Anık, Yonca; Sarısoy, Tahsin; Gumustas, Sevtap; Akansel, Gur

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the diffusion parameters measured by conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for discrimination of malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and the normal breast. Materials and methods: The study included 52 women with 55 breast lesions (30 malignant, 25 benign). DTI and DWI were performed complementary to dynamic contrast MRI at 3T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of DWI, mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of DTI were measured for lesions and contralateral breast parenchyma in each patient. We used b factors of 0, 50, 850, 1000 and 1500 s/mm 2 for DWI and b 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 for DTI. ADC, MD and FA values were compared between malignant and benign lesions, and the normal parenchyma by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Diffusion parameters showed no difference according to menopausal status in the normal breast. ADC and MD values of the malignant lesions were significantly lower than benign lesions and normal parenchyma (p = 0.001). The FA showed no statistical significance. With the cut-off values of ≤1.23 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (b 0–1000 s/mm 2 ) and ≤1.12 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (b 0–1500 s/mm 2 ), ADC showed 92.85% and 96.15% sensitivity; 72.22% and 73.52% PPV, respectively. With a cut-off value of ≤1.27 × 10 −3 mm 2 /s (b 1000 s/mm 2 ), MD was 100% sensitive with a PPV of 65.90%. Comparing the diagnostic performance of the parameters in DTI with DWI, we obtained similar efficiency of ADC with b values of 0,1000 and 0,1500 s/mm 2 and MD with a b value of 0, 1000 s/mm 2 (AUC = 0.82 ± 0.07). Conclusion: ADC of DWI and MD of DTI values provide significant discriminative factors for benign and malignant breast lesions. FA measurement was not discriminative. Supported with clinical and dynamic contrast MRI findings, DWI and DTI findings provide significant contribution to the final radiologic decision

  3. Comparison of the diagnostic performances of diffusion parameters in diffusion weighted imaging and diffusion tensor imaging of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Ozgur, E-mail: cakirozgur@hotmail.com; Arslan, Arzu, E-mail: arzu.s.arslan@gmail.com; Inan, Nagihan, E-mail: nagihaninan@yahoo.com.tr; Anık, Yonca, E-mail: yoncaanik@yahoo.com; Sarısoy, Tahsin, E-mail: htsarisoy@yahoo.com; Gumustas, Sevtap, E-mail: svtgumustas@yahoo.com; Akansel, Gur, E-mail: gakansel@gmail.com

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of the diffusion parameters measured by conventional diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for discrimination of malignant breast lesions from benign lesions and the normal breast. Materials and methods: The study included 52 women with 55 breast lesions (30 malignant, 25 benign). DTI and DWI were performed complementary to dynamic contrast MRI at 3T. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of DWI, mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of DTI were measured for lesions and contralateral breast parenchyma in each patient. We used b factors of 0, 50, 850, 1000 and 1500 s/mm{sup 2} for DWI and b 0 and 1000 s/mm{sup 2} for DTI. ADC, MD and FA values were compared between malignant and benign lesions, and the normal parenchyma by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Diffusion parameters showed no difference according to menopausal status in the normal breast. ADC and MD values of the malignant lesions were significantly lower than benign lesions and normal parenchyma (p = 0.001). The FA showed no statistical significance. With the cut-off values of ≤1.23 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 0–1000 s/mm{sup 2}) and ≤1.12 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 0–1500 s/mm{sup 2}), ADC showed 92.85% and 96.15% sensitivity; 72.22% and 73.52% PPV, respectively. With a cut-off value of ≤1.27 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s (b 1000 s/mm{sup 2}), MD was 100% sensitive with a PPV of 65.90%. Comparing the diagnostic performance of the parameters in DTI with DWI, we obtained similar efficiency of ADC with b values of 0,1000 and 0,1500 s/mm{sup 2} and MD with a b value of 0, 1000 s/mm{sup 2} (AUC = 0.82 ± 0.07). Conclusion: ADC of DWI and MD of DTI values provide significant discriminative factors for benign and malignant breast lesions. FA measurement was not discriminative. Supported with clinical and dynamic contrast MRI findings, DWI and DTI findings provide significant

  4. Workshop on spent fuel performance, radionuclide chemistry and geosphere transport parameters, Lidingoe 2008: Overview and evaluation of recent SKB procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinrath, Guenther; Stenhouse, Mike; Brown, Paul; Ekberg, Christian; Jegou, Christophe; Nitsche, Heino

    2009-08-15

    The safety assessment for disposal of spent nuclear fuel canister in the Swedish bedrock should thoroughly address the time period after a containment failure. Such a failure could be expected as a result of corrosion damage or mechanical failure due to rock movement. This report mainly covers some issues connected to parameters used for radionuclide transport calculations in the areas of spent fuel performance (for fuel in contact with groundwater), radionuclide chemistry, and sorption and geosphere transport parameters. Some examples of topics that are elaborated in some detail include statistical treatment of measurement data (for sorption measurements), handling of uncertainties in speciation calculations, use of triangular distributions in safety assessment and physical processes in connection with spent fuel aging. The results emerged from discussions among international experts at a workshop in May 2008. The purpose of this work is providing an overview of ongoing work within the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB), to provide ideas and suggestions for methodology development and to develop review capability within the SSM. The authors conclude that SKB's treatment of uncertainty in speciation calculations has improved, but that additional efforts in the area of error propagation are recommended. In efforts to condense the scope of utilised thermodynamic databases, the authors recommend that exclusion criteria should be explicitly stated. In the area of sorption, there is a need for more thorough analysis of errors in order to establish uncertainty ranges. The most essential improvements concern dose-limiting nuclides (e.g. Ra-226). Triangular distributions are often featured in SKB safety assessment, but it is not clear that the use of such distributions is based on a firm understanding of its properties. Regarding fuel performance, while safety assessment parameters are supported by measurement data there is still a need for better

  5. Tuning of the PI Controller Parameters of a PMSG Wind Turbine to Improve Control Performance under Various Wind Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Su Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method to seek the PI controller parameters of a PMSG wind turbine to improve control performance. Since operating conditions vary with the wind speed, therefore the PI controller parameters should be determined as a function of the wind speed. Small-signal modeling of a PMSG WT is implemented to analyze the stability under various operating conditions and with eigenvalues obtained from the small-signal model of the PMSG WT, which are coordinated by adjusting the PI controller parameters. The parameters to be tuned are chosen by investigating participation factors of state variables, which simplifies the problem by reducing the number of parameters to be tuned. The process of adjusting these PI controller parameters is carried out using particle swarm optimization (PSO. To characterize the improvements in the control method due to the PSO method of tuning the PI controller parameters, the PMSG WT is modeled using the MATLAB/SimPowerSystems libraries with the obtained PI controller parameters.

  6. Design Parameter Optimization of a Silicon-Based Grating Waveguide for Performance Improvement in Biochemical Sensor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yoo-Seung; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Sung, Hyuk-Kee

    2018-03-05

    We performed numerical analysis and design parameter optimization of a silicon-based grating waveguide refractive index (RI) sensor. The performance of the grating waveguide RI sensor was determined by the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the shift in the resonance wavelength in the transmission spectrum. The transmission extinction, a major figure-of-merit of an RI sensor that reflects both FWHM and resonance shift performance, could be significantly improved by the proper determination of three major grating waveguide parameters: duty ratio, grating period, and etching depth. We analyzed the transmission characteristics of the grating waveguide under various design parameter conditions using a finite-difference time domain method. We achieved a transmission extinction improvement of >26 dB under a given bioenvironmental target change by the proper choice of the design procedure and parameters. This design procedure and choice of appropriate parameters would enable the widespread application of silicon-based grating waveguide in high-performance RI biochemical sensor.

  7. Effect Of Pyridoxine Injection In Japanese Quail Eggs On HATCHABILITY, Performance And Some Physiological Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; MAHROSE, KH.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out at the poultry farm found in the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Sharkia Governorate, Egypt, during January 2009. A total number of two hundreds and seventy five quail eggs were used in an experiment of a completely randomized design to estimate hatchability percentage, chick weight at hatch, growth performance, some blood parameters and carcass traits of Japanese quails as affected by injecting their eggs with pyridoxine. Eggs were divided into 5 groups (55 eggs each); the first group (without injection) was served as control while the second group was injected in the width end of the egg with 500 μl saline. The third, fourth and fifth groups were injected in the width end of the Japanese quail eggs with 40, 80 and 120 μg pyridoxine, respectively, dissolved in 500 μl saline. Hatchability percentage, live body weight, daily body weight gain and some organ weights (liver, gizzard and heart) were studied. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for analyses. It was observed that the groups of quail eggs received 120 μg pyridoxine injection recorded the highest hatchability percent. Chick weight at hatch was non-significantly affected by saline solution injection. The birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine recorded the highest live body weight, especially during the 2 nd and 3 rd weeks of age. The daily body weight gain was significantly affected by pyridoxine injection only during the intervals of 1 to 2, 3 to 4 and from 1 to 6 weeks of age. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin concentrations were highly significantly elevated in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 120μg pyridoxine than other groups. Serum AST activity was highly significantly increased in the birds hatched from the groups of quail eggs received 40 μg pyridoxine than other groups while serum ALT activity and calcium concentration were non

  8. Input parameters and scenarios, including economic inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2012-01-01

    scenarios, we excluded hobby-type farms1 In the vaccination scenarios, herds within the vaccination zone were simulated to be vaccinated 14 days after detection of the first herd or when 10, 20, 30 or 50 herds were infected. All herds within the zones were simulated to be vaccinated. We used vaccination...... zones of either a 1, 2, 3 or 5 km. In some scenarios, hobby herds were not vaccinated. In one scenario, no sheep were vaccinated, and in another scenario no swine were vaccinated. from depopulation in zones. The resources for depopulation were estimated to 4,800 swine and 2,000 ruminants a day...

  9. CRISPRCasFinder, an update of CRISRFinder, includes a portable version, enhanced performance and integrates search for Cas proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvin, David; Bernheim, Aude; Toffano-Nioche, Claire; Touchon, Marie; Michalik, Juraj; Néron, Bertrand; C Rocha, Eduardo P; Vergnaud, Gilles; Gautheret, Daniel; Pourcel, Christine

    2018-05-22

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) arrays and their associated (Cas) proteins confer bacteria and archaea adaptive immunity against exogenous mobile genetic elements, such as phages or plasmids. CRISPRCasFinder allows the identification of both CRISPR arrays and Cas proteins. The program includes: (i) an improved CRISPR array detection tool facilitating expert validation based on a rating system, (ii) prediction of CRISPR orientation and (iii) a Cas protein detection and typing tool updated to match the latest classification scheme of these systems. CRISPRCasFinder can either be used online or as a standalone tool compatible with Linux operating system. All third-party software packages employed by the program are freely available. CRISPRCasFinder is available at https://crisprcas.i2bc.paris-saclay.fr.

  10. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  11. Optimization of machining parameters of turning operations based on multi performance criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K.Mandal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The selection of optimum machining parameters plays a significant role to ensure quality of product, to reduce the manufacturing cost and to increase productivity in computer controlled manufacturing process. For many years, multi-objective optimization of turning based on inherent complexity of process is a competitive engineering issue. This study investigates multi-response optimization of turning process for an optimal parametric combination to yield the minimum power consumption, surface roughness and frequency of tool vibration using a combination of a Grey relational analysis (GRA. Confirmation test is conducted for the optimal machining parameters to validate the test result. Various turning parameters, such as spindle speed, feed and depth of cut are considered. Experiments are designed and conducted based on full factorial design of experiment.

  12. A review on the performance of glycerol carbonate production via catalytic transesterification: Effects of influencing parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Wai Keng; Ngoh, Gek Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Utilization of glycerol to synthesize glycerol carbonate through various routes. • Different types of carbonates and catalysts used for glycerol carbonate production via transesterification are elucidated. • Important factors influencing glycerol carbonate production performances are detailed. • Future research needs of glycerol carbonate production are proposed. - Abstract: Driven by high energy demand and environmental concerns, biodiesel as a substitute for fossil fuels is recognized to be promising renewable and clean energy. The increase in the biodiesel plant dramatically leads to the oversupply of its by-product glycerol in the biodiesel industries. Developing new industrial uses for glycerol is essential to increase the net energy and sustainability of biodiesel. Moreover, glycerol has great potential to be converted into marketable and valuable chemicals. The conversion of glycerol to glycerol carbonate (GC) has been extensively studied and transesterification of glycerol to GC has been proven to be the most promising route. Aimed to reveal the underlying mechanism of this successful conversion path, this paper reviews the chemo- and biocatalytic transesterification of glycerol with different carbonates sources. Also, a detail elucidation of the influence of the catalysts and operating conditions on the GC yield is included to provide an insight into the process. In addition, the future direction of glycerol carbonate production via catalytic transesterification is provided in this review

  13. Post Construction Green Infrastructure Performance Monitoring Parameters and Their Functional Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thewodros K. Geberemariam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drainage system infrastructures in most urbanized cities have reached or exceeded their design life cycle and are characterized by running with inadequate capacity. These highly degraded infrastructures are already overwhelmed and continued to impose a significant challenge to the quality of water and ecological systems. With predicted urban growth and climate change the situation is only going to get worse. As a result, municipalities are increasingly considering the concept of retrofitting existing stormwater drainage systems with green infrastructure practices as the first and an important step to reduce stormwater runoff volume and pollutant load inputs into combined sewer systems (CSO and wastewater facilities. Green infrastructure practices include an open green space that can absorb stormwater runoff, ranging from small-scale naturally existing pocket of lands, right-of-way bioswales, and trees planted along the sidewalk as well as large-scale public parks. Despite the growing municipalities’ interest to retrofit existing stormwater drainage systems with green infrastructure, few studies and relevant information are available on their performance and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, this paper aims to help professionals learn about and become familiar with green infrastructure, decrease implementation barriers, and provide guidance for monitoring green infrastructure using the combination of survey questionnaires, meta-narrative and systematic literature review techniques.

  14. Performance evaluation of alternative fuel/engine concepts 1990- 1995. Final report including addendum of diesel vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylund, N.O.; Ikonen, M.; Kytoe, M.; Lappi, M.; Westerholm, M.; Laurikko, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Use

    1996-12-31

    Annex V within the IEA Agreement on Alternative Motor Fuels is the first subtask to generate new experimental data. The objective of the task is to generate information on the emission potential of alternative fuels in severe operating conditions and to evaluate new emission measurement methods. The work was carried out in three phases, Engine Tests, Vehicle Tests and Addendum of Diesel Vehicles. The work was carried out at VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland) as a cost shared operation. Participants were Belgium (Parts Two and Three), Canada (Parts One and Two), Finland, Italy (Part One), Japan, the Netherlands Sweden and USA. The United Kingdom also joined at the end of the Annex. The work included 143 different vehicle/fuel/temperature combinations. FTP type emission tests were run on 14 vehicles powered with different gasoline compositions, methanol (M50 and M85), ethanol (E85), LPG, CNG and diesel. Both regulated and unregulated emission components were measured using the most up-to-date emissions measurement technology. The results indicated, that today`s advanced gasoline vehicles must be considered rather clean. Diesel is comparable with gasoline in the case of CO and HC. M85 gives low emissions in warm conditions, but unburned methanol must be controlled. Natural gas and LPG are inherently clean fuels which, using up-to-date engine technology, give low emissions in all conditions. (orig.) (29 refs.)

  15. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24% and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole, for 98 days (77 days of data collection and 21 days of adaptation. The intakes and digestibility coefficients of the dry matter (DM and nutrients were determined. There were no significant interaction effects of the BMB inclusion level and the form of corn used on the performance and digestibility variables. The intakes of DM, crude protein (CP, and neutral detergent fibre (NDF increased with the inclusion of BMB in the diets. However, the inclusion of BMB in the diets decreased the ether extract intake, the NDF apparent digestibility, and the feed efficiency of DM and CP. Dry matter and NDF intakes also increased with the use of ground corn in the diet, which promoted an increase in the intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN, digestibility of non-fibrous carbohydrates, and average daily gain. However, the supply of ground corn reduced the feed efficiency of TDN. The remaining measured variables did not vary with the tested diets. The levels of plasma protein and albumin remained normal, but glucose concentrations were always high, irrespective of the tested diet. The form of corn supplied and the level of BMB inclusion had a significant interaction effect on the levels of triglycerides, urea, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Babassu mesocarp bran can be included up to 41.24% in the diet of confined bulls without a negative effect on the animal weight gain. Corn should be supplied ground because this form improves the performance of crossbred bulls

  16. Low-dose cone-beam CT via raw counts domain low-signal correction schemes: Performance assessment and task-based parameter optimization (Part II. Task-based parameter optimization).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Hayes, John W; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ke; Cruz-Bastida, Juan Pablo; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2018-05-01

    Different low-signal correction (LSC) methods have been shown to efficiently reduce noise streaks and noise level in CT to provide acceptable images at low-radiation dose levels. These methods usually result in CT images with highly shift-variant and anisotropic spatial resolution and noise, which makes the parameter optimization process highly nontrivial. The purpose of this work was to develop a local task-based parameter optimization framework for LSC methods. Two well-known LSC methods, the adaptive trimmed mean (ATM) filter and the anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, were used as examples to demonstrate how to use the task-based framework to optimize filter parameter selection. Two parameters, denoted by the set P, for each LSC method were included in the optimization problem. For the ATM filter, these parameters are the low- and high-signal threshold levels p l and p h ; for the AD filter, the parameters are the exponents δ and γ in the brightness gradient function. The detectability index d' under the non-prewhitening (NPW) mathematical observer model was selected as the metric for parameter optimization. The optimization problem was formulated as an unconstrained optimization problem that consisted of maximizing an objective function d'(P), where i and j correspond to the i-th imaging task and j-th spatial location, respectively. Since there is no explicit mathematical function to describe the dependence of d' on the set of parameters P for each LSC method, the optimization problem was solved via an experimentally measured d' map over a densely sampled parameter space. In this work, three high-contrast-high-frequency discrimination imaging tasks were defined to explore the parameter space of each of the LSC methods: a vertical bar pattern (task I), a horizontal bar pattern (task II), and a multidirectional feature (task III). Two spatial locations were considered for the analysis, a posterior region-of-interest (ROI) located within the noise streaks region

  17. Effects of different concentrations of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics of goat kids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froutan, Eisa; Azizi, Osman; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of ground oak acorn on growth performance, blood parameters and carcass characteristics. Twenty-four goat kids averaging 16.93 1.25 kg initial bodyweight were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a comple...... without any adverse effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. At this level of acorns, the goats received low concentrations of hydrolysable tannins (11 g/kg DM) in their diet....

  18. Effects of rye inclusion in grower diets on immune competence-related parameters and performance in broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Torki, M.; Schokker, D.

    2017-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary inclusion of rye, a model ingredient to increase gut viscosity, between 14 and 28 d of age on immune competence-related parameters and performance of broilers. A total of 960 day-old male Ross 308 chicks were weighed and randomly

  19. Performance Evaluation and Parameter Optimization of SoftCast Wireless Video Broadcast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongxue Yang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wireless video broadcast plays an imp ortant role in multimedia communication with the emergence of mobile video applications. However, conventional video broadcast designs suffer from a cliff effect due to separated source and channel encoding. The newly prop osed SoftCast scheme employs a cross-layer design, whose reconstructed video quality is prop ortional to the channel condition. In this pap er, we provide the p erformance evaluation and the parameter optimization of the SoftCast system. Optimization principles on parameter selection are suggested to obtain a b etter video quality, o ccupy less bandwidth and/or utilize lower complexity. In addition, we compare SoftCast with H.264 in the LTE EPA scenario. The simulation results show that SoftCast provides a b etter p erformance in the scalability to channel conditions and the robustness to packet losses.

  20. Sensitivity analysis of coupled processes and parameters on the performance of enhanced geothermal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, S N; Vishal, Vikram

    2017-12-06

    3-D modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in enhanced geothermal systems using the control volume finite element code was done. In a first, a comparative analysis on the effects of coupled processes, operational parameters and reservoir parameters on heat extraction was conducted. We found that significant temperature drop and fluid overpressure occurred inside the reservoirs/fracture that affected the transport behavior of the fracture. The spatio-temporal variations of fracture aperture greatly impacted the thermal drawdown and consequently the net energy output. The results showed that maximum aperture evolution occurred near the injection zone instead of the production zone. Opening of the fracture reduced the injection pressure required to circulate a fixed mass of water. The thermal breakthrough and heat extraction strongly depend on the injection mass flow rate, well distances, reservoir permeability and geothermal gradients. High permeability caused higher water loss, leading to reduced heat extraction. From the results of TH vs THM process simulations, we conclude that appropriate coupling is vital and can impact the estimates of net heat extraction. This study can help in identifying the critical operational parameters, and process optimization for enhanced energy extraction from a geothermal system.

  1. Graded levels of sugar syrup in broiler rations and its effect on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy for chickens normally includes cereal grains and fat. This innovative study investigated the effect of replacing part of the corn and fat in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of sugar syrup on growth performance and biochemical parameters. Experimental treatments consisted of feeding a corn-soy basal diet alone, or with graded levels of sugar syrup in increments of 5%, 10% and 15%. All starter diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Body weight gain and efficiency of feed utilization of chicks fed the control diet alone were not significantly (P < 0.05 different from chicks fed diets supplemented with either 5% or 15% sugar syrup. Supplementation of sugar syrup to broiler diets had no significant effect on blood glucose, creatinine, total protein, or liver enzymes. Adding 5% sugar syrup to broiler rations significantly decreased blood cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens fed the sugar syrup diet compared with birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, the results shows sugar syrup can be used in poultry ration to replace part of the corn as a source of energy. These results allowed the authors to recommend the safe usage of sugar syrup in broiler rations.

  2. Optimization of performance parameters for large area silicon photomultipliers for use in the GlueX experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Kathryn Louise

    Largely because of their resistance to magnetic fields, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are being considered as the readout for the GlueX Barrel Calorimeter, a key component of the GlueX detector located immediately inside a 2.2 T superconducting solenoid. SiPMs with active area 1 x 1 mm2 have been investigated for use in other experiments, but detectors with larger active areas are required for the GlueX BCAL. This puts the GlueX collaboration in the unique position of being pioneers in the use of this frontend detection revolution by driving the technology for larger area sensors. SensL, a photonics research and development company in Ireland, has been collaborating with the University of Regina GlueX group to develop prototype large area SiPMs comprising 16 - 3x3 mm2 cells assembled in a close-packed matrix. Performance parameters of individual SensL 1x1 mm2 and 3x3 mm2 SiPMs along with prototype SensL SiPM arrays are tested, including current versus voltage characteristics, photon detection efficiency, and gain uniformity, in an effort to determine the suitability of these detectors to the GlueX BCAL readout.

  3. A Discussion of Oxygen Recovery Definitions and Key Performance Parameters for Closed-Loop Atmosphere Revitalization Life Support Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Perry, Jay L.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 55 years, NASA has evolved life support for crewed space exploration vehicles from simple resupply during Project Mercury to the complex and highly integrated system of systems aboard the International Space Station. As NASA targets exploration destinations farther from low Earth orbit and mission durations of 500 to 1000 days, life support systems must evolve to meet new requirements. In addition to having more robust, reliable, and maintainable hardware, limiting resupply becomes critical for managing mission logistics and cost. Supplying a crew with the basics of food, water, and oxygen become more challenging as the destination ventures further from Earth. Aboard ISS the Atmosphere Revitalization Subsystem (ARS) supplies the crew's oxygen demand by electrolyzing water. This approach makes water a primary logistics commodity that must be managed carefully. Chemical reduction of metabolic carbon dioxide (CO2) provides a method of recycling oxygen thereby reducing the net ARS water demand and therefore minimizing logistics needs. Multiple methods have been proposed to achieve this recovery and have been reported in the literature. However, depending on the architecture and the technology approach, "oxygen recovery" can be defined in various ways. This discontinuity makes it difficult to compare technologies directly. In an effort to clarify community discussions of Oxygen Recovery, we propose specific definitions and describe the methodology used to arrive at those definitions. Additionally, we discuss key performance parameters for Oxygen Recovery technology development including challenges with comparisons to state-of-the-art.

  4. Diagnostic performance of PWI/DWI MRI parameters in discriminating hyperacute versus acute ischaemic stroke: Finding the best thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldan-Valadez, E.; Gonzalez-Gutierrez, O.; Martinez-Lopez, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To determine the accuracy of the perfusion/diffusion-weighted imaging (PWI/DWI) parameters [time to peak (TTP), mean time to peak (MTT), relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), and relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) maps]; in the evaluation of acute versus hyperacute ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods: Fifty-five patients with symptomatic hyperacute (first 6 h) or acute (7–24 h) ischaemic stroke underwent diffusion and perfusion evaluation. Statistical analysis included Student’s t-test, receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), TTP, MTT, CBV, and CBF; correlation, linear, and logistic regression analysis. Results: Area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) analysis identified the ADC cut-off value 385 × 10 −6 mm 2 /s, MTT at 109.5%, TTP at 3.05 s, CBV at 129%, and CBF at 98.5% (the record of the time of onset was considered the reference standard). The best performance corresponded to TTP, which showed a sensitivity of 0.94 and specificity of 0.88 (p 3 s with no visible changes in diffusion. ADC, rCBF, and rCBV are not useful for discriminating between acute and hyperacute ischaemic stroke.

  5. Diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses: determination of the most discriminatory parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Frederick Wing-Fai; Ghai, Sandeep; Moshonov, Hadas; Kahn, Harriette; Brennan, Cressida; Dua, Hemi; Crystal, Pavel

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic performance of quantitative shear wave elastography in the evaluation of solid breast masses and to determine the most discriminatory parameter. B-mode ultrasound and shear wave elastography were performed before core biopsy of 123 masses in 112 women. The diagnostic performance of ultrasound and quantitative shear wave elastography parameters (mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio) were compared. The added effect of shear wave elastography on the performance of ultrasound was determined. The mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, and elasticity ratio were 24.8 kPa, 30.3 kPa, and 1.90, respectively, for 79 benign masses and 130.7 kPa, 154.9 kPa, and 11.52, respectively, for 44 malignant masses (p shear wave elastography parameter was higher than that of ultrasound (p shear wave elastography parameters to the evaluation of BI-RADS category 4a masses, about 90% of masses could be downgraded to BI-RADS category 3. The numbers of downgraded masses were 40 of 44 (91%) for mean elasticity, 39 of 44 (89%) for maximum elasticity, and 42 of 44 (95%) for elasticity ratio. The numbers of correctly downgraded masses were 39 of 40 (98%) for mean elasticity, 38 of 39 (97%) for maximum elasticity, and 41 of 42 (98%) for elasticity ratio. There was improvement in the diagnostic performance of ultrasound of mass assessment with shear wave elastography parameters added to BI-RADS category 4a masses compared with ultrasound alone. Combined ultrasound and elasticity ratio had the highest improvement, from 35.44% to 87.34% for specificity, from 45.74% to 80.77% for positive predictive value, and from 57.72% to 90.24% for accuracy (p shear wave elastography parameters of benign and malignant solid breast masses. By adding shear wave elastography parameters to BI-RADS category 4a masses, we found that about 90% of them could be correctly downgraded to BI-RADS category 3, thereby avoiding biopsy. Elasticity ratio

  6. THE EFFICACY OF ANGLE-MATCHED ISOKINETIC KNEE FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR STRENGTH PARAMETERS IN PREDICTING AGILITY TEST PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Matt; Naylor, James

    2017-10-01

    Agility is a fundamental performance element in many sports, but poses a high risk of injury. Hierarchical modelling has shown that eccentric hamstring strength is the primary determinant of agility performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knee flexor and extensor strength parameters and a battery of agility tests. Controlled laboratory study. Nineteen recreational intermittent games players completed an agility battery and isokinetic testing of the eccentric knee flexors (eccH) and concentric knee extensors (conQ) at 60, 180 and 300°·s -1 . Peak torque and the angle at which peak torque occurred were calculated for eccH and conQ at each speed. Dynamic control ratios (eccH:conQ) and fast:slow ratios (300:60) were calculated using peak torque values, and again using angle-matched data, for eccH and conQ. The agility test battery differentiated linear vs directional changes and prescriptive vs reactive tasks. Linear regression showed that eccH parameters were generally a better predictor of agility performance than conQ parameters. Stepwise regression showed that only angle-matched strength ratios contributed to the prediction of each agility test. Trdaitionally calculated strength ratios using peak torque values failed to predict performance. Angle-matched strength parameters were able to account for 80% of the variation in T-test performance, 70% of deceleration distance, 55% of 10m sprint performance, and 44% of reactive change of direction speed. Traditionally calculated strength ratios failed to predict agility performance, whereas angle-matched strength ratios had better predictive ability and featured in a predictive stepwise model for each agility task. 2c.

  7. Effect of Barley and Enzyme on Performance, Carcass, Enzyme Activity and Digestion Parameters of Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid kalantar

    2016-04-01

    Ross-308 broiler chickens were allocated randomly to 3 treatments with 5 replicates using a CRD statistical design. Treatments were included control, barley and barley+ enzyme. The experimental diets were formulated to have similar contents of crude protein, metabolizable energy, total non-starch polysaccharides (NSP. Results and Discussion According to the results, effect of barley with or without enzyme on growth performance at starter, grower and the entire period and also on carcass characteristics, pancreas enzyme activity and measures of ileal acidity and viscosity at the age of 42 were significant (P

  8. New techniques for improved performance in surface blasting operation and optimisation of blast design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, P.P. [Central Mining Research Institute, Dhanbad (India). Blasting Dept.

    1999-02-01

    Experimental blasts were conducted for optimisation of blasting parameters using separate technologies involving non-electric initiation systems, air decking accessories in conjunction with different explosive products like emulsion (cartridge and site-mixed), slurries (cartridge and site-mixed) and ANFO. The cost associated with each such technology was then compared with the conventional methods of drilling and blasting operations. The results of cost analyses are given. Theoretical and practical aspects of such technologies and their best possible usage in order to establish the desired fragmentation, muck profile, wall control and ultimately the accepted level of costs are mentioned in subsequent sections. 16 refs., 17 figs., 8 plates, 11 tabs.

  9. Influence of Fabric Parameters on Thermal Comfort Performance of Double Layer Knitted Interlock Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afzal Ali

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of various fabric parameters on the thermal resistance, thermal conductivity, thermal transmittance, thermal absorptivity and thermal insulation of polyester/cotton double layer knitted interlock fabrics. It was found that by increasing fibre content with higher specific heat increases the thermal insulation while decreases the thermal transmittance and absorptivity of the fabric. It was concluded that double layer knitted fabrics developed with higher specific heat fibres, coarser yarn linear densities, higher knitting loop length and fabric thickness could be adequately used for winter clothing purposes.

  10. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  11. Genetic parameters and genetic and phenotypic trends of performance traits of equines from the Brazilian Army

    OpenAIRE

    Dornelles, Mariana de Almeida; Araújo, Ronyere Olegário de; Everling, Dionéia Magda; Weber, Tomás; Lopes, Jader Silva; Pacheco, Paulo Santana; Breda, Fernanda Cristina; Rorato, Paulo Roberto Nogara

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the magnitude of genetic parameters (coefficients of heritability and genetic correlation) as estimated by the Restricted Maximum Likelihood (REML) method and Bayesian Inference, and to estimate the genetic and phenotypic trends to the traits height at the withers (HW24) and weight at 24 months of age (W24). The average heritability estimated by Bayesian Inference to HW24 was 0.47, and it was lower than that obtained by REML bi-trait analysis (0.5...

  12. Comparison of effects of machine performance parameters and energy indices of soybean production in conservation and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, agricultural systems are seeking economic, ecological and bioenvironmental goals for production of agricultural crops with protection and sustainability of the environment. Therefore, there is need to extend sustainable agricultural systems such as conservation agriculture. One of the principles of conservation agriculture is conservation tillage. Conservation tillage is a kind of tillage that retains crop residues on the soil surface or mixes it with soil using related machines. It could also affect on machine performance parameters. Energy consumption for producing one kilogram crop could be studied for conservation tillage. Several researchers have conducted studies on this issue for production of different crops including wheat, sunflower and forage crops. This study conducted to assess machine performance parameters and energy indices of conservation tillage systems for soybean cultivation in Golestan province. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to investigate the effects of conservation tillage systems on machine performance and energy indices in soybean production at the Gorgan research station of Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center in 2012. The precipitation was 450 mm. Soil texture was silty clay loam. Treatments were four tillage methods, including no-till using row crop direct planter, no-till using grain direct drill, conventional tillage usin a disk harrow with working depth of 10-15 cm and minimum tillage using chisel packer with a working depth of 20 cm. Machine performance parameters and energy indices studied in a farm covered by wheat residues in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four treatments and four replications. Machine performance parameters consisted of field efficiency, field capacity, total field capacity and planting uniformity index were measured. Energy indices such as energy ratio, energy productivity, energy intensity and net energy gain were

  13. Experimental hydrophobicity parameters of perfluorinated alkylated substances from reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, P.; Zurano, L.; Serné, P.; Haftka, J.J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Capacity factors of perfluorinated alkylated substances were obtained from isocratic reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry experiments at different organic modifier strengths of the mobile phase. The resulting capacity factor v. modifier strengths plots were

  14. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of key parameters on the performance of parabolic trough solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlen, Luis S. W.; Najafi, Behzad; Rinaldi, Fabio; Marchesi, Renzo

    2014-04-01

    Solar troughs are amongst the most commonly used technologies for collecting solar thermal energy and any attempt to increase the performance of these systems is welcomed. In the present study a parabolic solar trough is simulated using a one dimensional finite element model in which the energy balances for the fluid, the absorber and the envelope in each element are performed. The developed model is then validated using the available experimental data . A sensitivity analysis is performed in the next step in order to study the effect of changing the type of the working fluid and the corresponding Reynolds number on the overall performance of the system. The potential improvement due to the addition of a shield on the upper half of the annulus and enhancing the convection coefficient of the heat transfer fluid is also studied.

  15. Sensitivity analysis on the effect of key parameters on the performance of parabolic trough solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlen, Luis S W; Najafi, Behzad; Rinaldi, Fabio; Marchesi, Renzo

    2014-01-01

    Solar troughs are amongst the most commonly used technologies for collecting solar thermal energy and any attempt to increase the performance of these systems is welcomed. In the present study a parabolic solar trough is simulated using a one dimensional finite element model in which the energy balances for the fluid, the absorber and the envelope in each element are performed. The developed model is then validated using the available experimental data . A sensitivity analysis is performed in the next step in order to study the effect of changing the type of the working fluid and the corresponding Reynolds number on the overall performance of the system. The potential improvement due to the addition of a shield on the upper half of the annulus and enhancing the convection coefficient of the heat transfer fluid is also studied.

  16. Parameters Analysis of Hydraulic-Electrical Energy Regenerative Absorber on Suspension Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available To recycle the vibration energy of vehicles over rough roads, a hydraulic-electricity energy regenerative suspension (HEERS was designed in the present work, and simulations were performed with focus on its performance. On the basis of the system principle, the mathematical model of hydraulic-electrical energy regenerative absorber (HEERA and two degrees of freedom (DOF suspension dynamic model were constructed. Using the model of HEERA, simulations on force-displacement and force-velocity characteristics were performed with a 1.67 Hz frequency and a sinusoidal input adopted. And then in combination with HEERA model and two DOF suspension models, simulations on the performance of HEERS also were carried out. Finally, the influences of charging pressure and volume of the accumulator, hydraulic motor displacement, orifice area of check valve, and inner diameter of hydraulic pipelines on the performance of HEERA and HEERS were investigated in depth. The simulation results indicated that (i the damping characteristic of HEERA was coincident with the damping characteristics of traditional absorber; (ii the most remarkable influencing factor on the performance of HEERS was the hydraulic motor displacement, followed by orifice area of check valve, inner diameter of pipelines, and charging pressure of accumulator, while the effects of charging volume of accumulator were quite limited.

  17. The effects of precompetition massage on the kinematic parameters of 20-m sprint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Iain M

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect precompetition massage has on short-term sprint performance. Twenty male collegiate games players, with a minimum training/playing background of 3 sessions per week, were assigned to a randomized, counter-balanced, repeated-measures designed experiment used to analyze 20-m sprints performance. Three discrete warm-up modalities, consisting of precompetition massage, a traditional warm-up, and a precompetition massage combined with a traditional warm-up were used. Massage consisted of fast, superficial techniques designed to stimulate the main muscle groups associated with sprint running. Twenty-meter sprint performance and core temperature were assessed post warm-up interventions. Kinematic differences between sprints were assessed through a 2-dimensional computerized motion analysis system (alpha level p velocity were found to be significantly greater in the warm-up and massage combined with warm-up modalities when compared to massage alone. No significant differences were demonstrated in any measures when the warm-up and massage and warm-up combined conditions were compared. Massage as a preperformance preparation strategy seems to decrease 20-m sprint performance when compared to a traditional warm-up, although its combination with a normal active warm-up seems to have no greater benefit then active warm-up alone. Therefore, massage use prior to competition is questionable because it appears to have no effective role in improving sprint performance.

  18. Impact of the digitalisation of mammography on performance parameters and breast dose in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lore; De Hauwere, An; Bacher, Klaus; Bosmans, Hilde; Lemmens, Kim; Bleyen, Luc; Van Limbergen, Erik; Martens, Patrick; Van Steen, Andre; Mortier, Griet; Van Herck, Koen; Thierens, Hubert

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the impact of digitalisation on performance parameters and breast dose of the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme. Both computed (CR) and direct radiography (DR) are compared with screen-film mammography (SFM). Data from 975,673 mammographic examinations were collected from units which underwent digitalisation from SFM to CR (41 units) or DR (72 units) in the period 2005-2011. Performance indicators were obtained by consulting the Screening Programme database. Phantom and patient dosimetry data were acquired from the physical technical quality assurance of the programme. Digitalisation induced no significant change in cancer detection rate (CDR), percentage of ductal carcinomas in situ and percentage of breast cancers smaller than 1 cm. A decrease in false-positive results and third readings was observed, which was a time-related observation. After digitalisation, positive predictive value (PPV) increased and recall rates decreased. Compared with SFM, an increase of 30% in mean glandular dose (MGD) was found for CR, while a similar change in the opposite direction was found for DR. No major differences in performance parameters after digitalisation were found. Transition of SFM to CR resulted in a higher MGD and associated lower detection-over-induction ratio (DIR), while the change to DR induced an improvement of DIR. • Performance parameters showed no major differences after digitalisation to CR or DR. • Transition from SFM to CR results in a higher mean glandular dose. • Transition from SFM to DR results in a lower mean glandular dose.

  19. Electrical parameters of silicon on sapphire; influence on aluminium gate MOS devices performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suat, J.P.; Borel, J.

    1976-01-01

    The question is the quality level of the substrate obtained with MOS technologies on silicon on an insulating substrate. Experimental results are presented on the main electrical parameters of MOS transistors made on silicon on sapphire, e.g. mean values and spreads of: threhold voltage and surface mobilities of transistors, breakdown voltages, and leakage currents of diodes. These devices have been made in three different technologies: enhancement P. channel technology, depletion-enhancement P. channel technology, and complementary MOS technology. These technologies are all aluminium gate processes with standard design rules and 5μm channel length. Measurements show that presently available silicon on sapphire can be considered as a very suitable substrate for many MOS digital applications (but not for dynamic circuits) [fr

  20. The effects of design parameters on vortex diode pump performance, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitomi, Hideki; Koizumi, Tadao; Muroyama, Kenichi; Wada, Tsutomu.

    1989-01-01

    A fluidic pump with two vortex diodes is a new technology for transporting dangerous corrosive fluids without the use of moving parts. The pump can be connected with the discharge tank through series and cascade connections. In the previous report, we described the fundamentals and design criteria of the pump for the series connection case. This study has been performed with the same object as the previous work for the case of cascade connection. First, we present the basic pump characteristics with some dimensionless performance factors by analyzing the pump model. Then, the effects of the cylinder volumetric coefficient, driving pressure, suction-diode-to-delivery-diode-passage-area ratio and reverse-flow-to-forward-flow-resistance ratio of the vortex diode are investigated. As a result, the characteristic difference between series and cascade connections is clarified. Basic ways to decide the value of each performance factor are suggested. (author)

  1. Production of aerosols by optical catapulting: Imaging, performance parameters and laser-induced plasma sampling rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelhamid, M.; Fortes, F.J.; Fernández-Bravo, A.; Harith, M.A.; Laserna, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Optical catapulting (OC) is a sampling and manipulation method that has been extensively studied in applications ranging from single cells in heterogeneous tissue samples to analysis of explosive residues in human fingerprints. Specifically, analysis of the catapulted material by means of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) offers a promising approach for the inspection of solid particulate matter. In this work, we focus our attention in the experimental parameters to be optimized for a proper aerosol generation while increasing the particle density in the focal region sampled by LIBS. For this purpose we use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. Shadowgraphic images were acquired for studying the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. Aluminum silicate particles (0.2–8 μm) were ejected from the substrate using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, while time-resolved images recorded the propagation of the generated aerosol. For LIBS analysis and shadowgraphy visualization, a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm and 532 nm was employed, respectively. Several parameters such as the time delay between pulses and the effect of laser fluence on the aerosol production have been also investigated. After optimization, the particle density in the sampling focal volume increases while improving the aerosol sampling rate till ca. 90%. - Highlights: • Aerosol generation by optical catapulting has been successfully optimized. • We study the evolution and dynamics of solid aerosols produced by OC. • We use shadowgraphy visualization as a diagnostic tool. • Effects of temporal conditions and laser fluence on the elevation of the aerosol cloud have been investigated. • The observed LIBS sampling rate increased from 50% reported before to approximately 90%

  2. Piezoelectric Performance and Hydrostatic Parameters of Novel 2-2-Type Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolov, Vitaly Yu; Bowen, Christopher R; Krivoruchko, Andrey V

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed study of the structure-piezoelectric property relationships and the hydrostatic response of 2-2-Type composites based on relaxor-ferroelectric 0.72 Pb (Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.28PbTiO 3 single crystal (SC) material. Type I layers in the composite system are represented by a single-domain [111]-poled SC. Changes in the orientation of the crystallographic axes in the Type I layer are undertaken to determine the maximum values of the hydrostatic piezoelectric coefficients d h ∗ , g h ∗ , and e h ∗ , and squared figure of merit d h ∗ g h ∗ of the composite. The Type II layers are a 0-3 composite whereby inclusions of modified PbTiO 3 ceramic are distributed in a polymer matrix. A new effect is described for the first time due to the impact of anisotropic elastic properties of the Type II layers on the hydrostatic piezoelectric response that is coupled with the polarization orientation effect in the Type I layers. Large hydrostatic parameters g h ∗ ≈ 300 -400 mV · m/N, e h ∗ ≈ 40 -45 C/ [Formula: see text], and d h ∗ g h ∗  ∼ 10 -11 Pa -1 are achieved in the composite based on the 0.72 Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3 )O 3 -0.28PbTiO 3 SC. Examples of the large piezoelectric anisotropy ( |d 33 ∗ /d 3f ∗ | ≥ 5 or | g 33 ∗ /g 3f ∗ | ≥ 5 ) are discussed. The hydrostatic parameters of this novel compositesystem are compared to those of conventional 2-2 piezocomposites.

  3. Characterization of aerodynamic performance of vertical axis wind turbines : impact of operational parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaeiha, Abdolrahim; Montazeri, Hamid; Blocken, Bert

    2018-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) have received growing interest for off-shore application and in the urban environments mainly due to their omni-directional capability, scalability, robustness, low noise and costs. However, their aerodynamic performance is still not comparable with their

  4. Impact of design-parameters on the optical performance of a highpower adaptive mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Nijkerk, M.D.; Smeltink, J.A.; Dool, T.C. van den; Zwet, E.J. van; Baars, G.E. van

    2017-01-01

    TNO is developing a High Power Adaptive Mirror (HPAM) to be used in the CO2 laser beam path of an Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) light source for next-generation lithography. In this paper we report on a developed methodology, and the necessary simulation tools, to assess the performance and associated

  5. Site specificity of biosphere parameter values in performance assessments of near-surface repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, Th.; Volckaert, G.; Vandecasleele

    1993-01-01

    The contribution is dealing with the performance assessment model for near surface repositories in Belgium. It consists of four submodels called: site, aquifer, biosphere and dose. For some characteristic radionuclides, results of the study are shown for a typical site, and differences in doses assessed with the generic approach discussed. Shortcomings are indicated

  6. Confocal Microscopy and Flow Cytometry System Performance: Assessment of QA Parameters that affect data Quanitification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flow and image cytometers can provide useful quantitative fluorescence data. We have devised QA tests to be used on both a flow cytometer and a confocal microscope to assure that the data is accurate, reproducible and precise. Flow Cytometry: We have provided two simple perform...

  7. Parameter design and performance simulation of a 10 kV voltage compensation type active superconducting fault current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Tang, Y.J.; Song, M.; Shi, J.; Ren, L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •For a practical 10 kV system, the 10 kV active SFCL’s basic parameters are designed. •Under different fault conditions, the 10 kV active SFCL’s performances are simulated. •The designed 10 kV active SFCL’s engineering feasibility is discussed preliminarily. -- Abstract: Since the introduction of superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) into electrical distribution system may be a good choice with economy and practicability, the parameter design and current-limiting characteristics of a 10 kV voltage compensation type active SFCL are studied in this paper. Firstly, the SFCL’s circuit structure and operation principle are presented. Then, taking a practical 10 kV distribution system as its application object, the SFCL’s basic parameters are designed to meet the system requirements. Further, using MATLAB, the detailed current-limiting performances of the 10 kV active SFCL are simulated under different fault conditions. The simulation results show that the active SFCL can deal well with the faults, and the parameter design’s suitability can be testified. At the end, in view of the engineering feasibility of the 10 kV active SFCL, some preliminary discussions are carried out

  8. Improved performance of photosynthetic light response equations with unified parameters for rice leaves with different SPAD values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Peng, S.; Kong, W.

    2015-01-01

    The rectangular hyperbola (RH), Mitscherlich (M) and YE equation were applied to describe the photosynthetic light response (PLR) curves measured from rice leaves with different SPAD values, to reveal the relationship between SPAD values and parameters in different equations, and to establish the modified PLR equations. The parameters in PLR equations are largely varied. SPAD value, as an indicator of leaf N contents, was highly correlated to the parameter of Pnmax in RH, M and YE equations. Incorporating the factor SPAD into PLR equations, the modified equations (MRH, MM, and MYE) were established which were feasible to describing the PLR curves for leaves with different SPAD values using the identical parameters for the ten PLR curves as a whole, and perform much better than the general PLR equations (GRH, GM, and GYE). It indicated that incorporating easy available indicators of leaf physiological and morphological traits in the PLR equations, such as SPAD as an indicator of leaf N or Chlorophyll contents, is an easy way to overcome the shortcoming of parameters variation in PLR equations between individuals of the same specie growing in different environments. Further validation should be done for different crops with both SPAD and other possible factors. (author)

  9. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Comparison of growth performance and immune parameters of three commercial chicken lines used in organic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjærup, R B; Juul-Madsen, H R; Norup, L R; Sørensen, P; Dalgaard, T S

    2017-05-01

    Owing to the higher demands for avoiding medication and antibiotics, health status of the production animals plays an important role in the poultry industry, especially in organic poultry systems. Immunity plays a major role in keeping the host free from disease, and it is evident that the host's genetic make-up influences immunity and disease resistance/susceptibility in chickens. Previously, breeding strategies aimed at selection for resistance against specific diseases with the risk of creating less disease resistance against other pathogens. Changing breeding strategies towards selection of chickens with a more general and broad disease resistance or robustness may therefore improve the overall health status, animal welfare, and food security in the poultry production. The aim of this study was therefore to compare the immunocompetence of the presumed "robust" Hellevad chickens with two chicken lines widely used in organic production, Bovans Brown (Bovans) and Hisex White (Hisex). The chickens were subjected to a routine vaccination program comprising one parasite and four viral vaccines. The current study indicates that considerable differences in immunocompetence may exist between commercial layer lines used in organic production. The Hellevad chickens were found to have higher body weight at the end of the experiment (17 weeks of age) than the other two lines. Furthermore, Hellevad and Hisex chickens were found to have higher levels of humoral innate immunity with regard to sample to positive ratio of natural antibodies in serum and concentration of mannose-binding lectin in serum as compared to Bovans. Moreover, indications of an inflammatory response were observed in the Bovans at week 5, corresponding to 1 week after vaccination with live infectious bursal disease virus. With regard to adaptive immune parameters such as IgY concentration in blood and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV)-specific antibody titres, the Hellevad and Hisex chickens had lower

  11. Discriminating performance parameters for 50 amp-hour and 60 amp-hour nickel-cadmium plates and battery cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toft, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    This is a follow-up of studies of the NASA standard 50 AH cell presented at the NASA battery workshop each of the last two years. This is a dynamic study. Data trends continue to be developed and analyzed for their utility in judging NiCd performance. The trends and parameters presented here may bear relevance to many designs of conventional NiCd batteries, not just the 50 AH and 60 AH sizes.

  12. Comparative Impacts of Scala Vestibuli Versus Scala Tympani Cochlear Implantation on Auditory Performances and Programming Parameters in Partially Ossified Cochleae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudel, Mathieu; Côté, Mathieu; Philippon, Daniel; Simonyan, David; Villemure-Poliquin, Noémie; Bussières, Richard

    2018-07-01

    To compare scala vestibuli versus scala tympani cochlear implantation in terms of postoperative auditory performances and programming parameters in patients with severe scala tympani ossification. Retrospective case-control study. Tertiary referral center. One hundred three pediatric and adult patients who underwent cochlear implant surgery between 2000 and 2016. Three groups were formed: a scala vestibuli group, a scala tympani with ossification group, and a scala tympani without ossification group. Patients were matched based on their age, sex, duration of deafness, and side of implantation (ratio of 1:2:2). Postoperative evaluation of auditory performances and programming parameters following intensive functional rehabilitation program completion. Multimedia adaptive test (MAT), hearing in noise test (HINT SNR +10 dB, HINT SNR +5 dB, and HINT SNR +0 dB), impedances, neural response telemetry thresholds (NRT), neural response imaging thresholds (NRI), comfortable levels (C-levels), and threshold levels (T-levels) were compared between groups. Twenty-one patients underwent scala vestibuli cochlear implantation: 19 adults and two children. Auditory performances were similar between groups, although sentence recognition in a noisy environment was slightly higher in the scala vestibuli group. Impedance values were also higher in the scala vestibuli group, but all other programming parameters were similar between groups. We present the largest series of patients with scala vestibuli cochlear implantation. This approach provides at least comparable auditory performances without having any deleterious effects on programming parameters. This viable and useful insertion route might be the primary surgical alternative when facing partial cochlear ossification.

  13. Changes in physical performance parameters during and after moderate altitude training in elite cross country skiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Höög, Martina; Willis, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Olympic cross country skiing competitions in 2014 will be held in Sochi, Russia at an altitude of approximately 1500m. Although moderate, this altitude is known to reduce performance in highly trained endurance athletes. It is also known that individuals react differently during...... altitude exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate performance changes during and after three weeks of training in moderate altitude in elite skiers. METHOD: Four male and three female skiers were tested on a roller skiing treadmill using the classic technique at sea level (NORM1), after 3 and 20...... and the WVO2max decreased 8.9% and 9.1%, respectively (P0.05). In contrast, the average power output (322±87W) during the “all out” test increased 3.4±2.7% 10 days after the altitude training (P

  14. Sea wind parameters retrieval using Y-configured Doppler navigation system data. Performance and accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khachaturian, A. B.; Nekrasov, A. V.; Bogachev, M. I.

    2018-05-01

    The authors report the results of the computer simulations of the performance and accuracy of the sea wind speed and direction retrieval. The analyzed measurements over the sea surface are made by the airborne microwave Doppler navigation system (DNS) with three Y-configured beams operated as a scatterometer enhancing its functionality. Single- and double-stage wind measurement procedures are proposed and recommendations for their implementation are described.

  15. Influence of constructive parameters on the performance of two indirect evaporative cooler prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero-González, Ana; Andrés-Chicote, Manuel; Velasco-Gómez, Eloy; Rey-Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2013-01-01

    Two equally-sized cross-flow heat-exchanger prototypes have been designed with a total heat exchange area of 6 m 2 and 3 m 2 respectively, constructed with polycarbonate hollow panels of different cross section. They are connected into a heat-recovery cycle within the whole experimental setup constructed for the tests, which mainly consists of: an Air Handling Unit to simulate the outdoor airstream conditions, a conditioned climate chamber, and a water circuit to provide the water supply required. They have been experimentally characterised in two operating modes in order to determine how evaporative cooling improves heat recovery in each case, focussing on the influence of modifying the constructive characteristics. To perform the evaporative cooling process, water is supplied to the exhaust airstream. Results are studied considering how constructive issues, outdoor air volume flow rate and temperature, as well as operating mode influence on the performance obtained. An Analysis of Variance shows how outdoor airflow has a key role in the performance of the systems; whereas entering outdoor air temperature determines cooling capacities. Improvements introduced by larger heat exchange areas compensate with their corresponding smaller cross sections, which hinder water – air distribution on the exhaust air side of the heat exchanger. Finally, these small devices achieve cooling capacities of up to 800 W, being able to partly support ventilation load and achieving around 50% of energy saving in ventilation cooling. -- Highlights: ► Two indirect evaporative cooler prototypes are experimentally characterised. ► Evaporative cooling improves heat recovery. ► Influence on performance of different heat exchange area and cross section is studied. ► Larger cross section favours evaporative cooling process. ► Effect of smaller heat exchange area is compensated by that of larger cross section

  16. Geochemical sensitivity analysis: Identification of important geochemical parameters for performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.; Guzowski, R.; Rechard, R.; Erickson, K.

    1986-01-01

    The EPA Standard for geologic disposal of high level waste requires demonstration that the cumulative discharge of individual radioisotopes over a 10,000 year period at points 5 kilometers from the engineered barrier system will not exceed the limits prescribed in 40 CFR Part 191. The roles of the waste package, engineered facility, hydrogeology and geochemical processes in limiting radionuclide releases all must be considered in calculations designed to assess compliance of candidate repositories with the EPA Standard. In this talk, they will discuss the geochemical requirements of calculations used in these compliance assessments. In addition, they will describe the complementary roles of (1) simple models designed to bound the radionuclide discharge over the widest reasonable range of geochemical conditions and scenarios and (2) detailed geochemical models which can provide insights into the actual behavior of the radionuclides in the ground water. Finally, they will discuss development of sensitivity/uncertainty techniques designed to identify important site-specific geochemical parameters and processes using data from a basalt formation

  17. One-and-Two-Dimensional Simulations of Liner Performance at Atlas Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinigs, R.K.; Atchison, W.L.; Faehl, R.J.; Mclenithan, K.D.; Trainor, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The authors report results of one-and-two-dimensional MHD simulations of an imploding heavy liner in Z-pinch geometry. The driving current has a pulse shape and peak current characteristic of the Atlas pulsed-power facility being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. One-dimensional simulations of heavy composite liners driven by 30 MA currents can achieve velocities on the order of 14 km/sec. Used to impact a tungsten target, the liner produces shock pressures of ∼ fourteen megabars. The first 2-D simulations of imploding liners driven at Atlas current parameters are also described. These simulations have focused on the interaction of the liner with the glide planes, and the effect of realistic surface perturbations on the dynamics of the pinch. It is found that the former interaction does not seriously affect the inner liner surface. Results from the second problem indicate that a surface perturbation having amplitude as small as 0.2 microm can have a significant effect on the implosion dynamics

  18. Influence of process parameters to composite interface organization and performance of liquid/solid bimetal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong, S F; Zhu, Y C; Wu, Y H; Yang, P H; Duan, X L; Zhou, H T

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-solid composite technique was used to prepare the high carbon high chromium steel (HCHCS) and low alloy steel (LCS) bimetal composite materials by means of insert casting method. The influence of some process parameters such as liquid-solid ratio, preheat temperature, pouring temperature on the interface microstructure and mechanical properties were studied. Interface microstructure and element distribution were analyzed. The results show that the interface microstructure becomes better, and bonding area becomes thicker with the increase of the volume of liquid to solid ratio, preheating temperature and pouring temperature. When the liquid-solid ratio is 8:1, the preheating temperature is 300 °C and the pouring temperature is 1565 °C, a good metallurgical bonding area without any hole can be obtained with the interface combination of diffusion and fusion. The composite interface structure was composed of a core material diffusion layer, a cooling solidification layer, a direction growth layer and some cell particles. The elements of C, Cr and Mn diffuse from the HCHCS side to the alloy steel side. The microhardness increased in the gradient from the LCS side to the HCHCS. The microhardness of the interface is significantly higher than that of LCS. (paper)

  19. High performance EUV multilayer structures insensitive to capping layer optical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelizzo, Maria Guglielmina; Suman, Michele; Monaco, Gianni; Nicolosi, Piergiorgio; Windt, David L

    2008-09-15

    We have designed and tested a-periodic multilayer structures containing protective capping layers in order to obtain improved stability with respect to any possible changes of the capping layer optical properties (due to oxidation and contamination, for example)-while simultaneously maximizing the EUV reflection efficiency for specific applications, and in particular for EUV lithography. Such coatings may be particularly useful in EUV lithographic apparatus, because they provide both high integrated photon flux and higher stability to the harsh operating environment, which can affect seriously the performance of the multilayer-coated projector system optics. In this work, an evolutive algorithm has been developed in order to design these a-periodic structures, which have been proven to have also the property of stable performance with respect to random layer thickness errors that might occur during coating deposition. Prototypes have been fabricated, and tested with EUV and X-ray reflectometry, and secondary electron spectroscopy. The experimental results clearly show improved performance of our new a-periodic coatings design compared with standard periodic multilayer structures.

  20. Elucidating the Performance Limitations of Lithium-ion Batteries due to Species and Charge Transport through Five Characteristic Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Fangming; Peng, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Underutilization due to performance limitations imposed by species and charge transports is one of the key issues that persist with various lithium-ion batteries. To elucidate the relevant mechanisms, two groups of characteristic parameters were proposed. The first group contains three characteristic time parameters, namely: (1) te, which characterizes the Li-ion transport rate in the electrolyte phase, (2) ts, characterizing the lithium diffusion rate in the solid active materials, and (3) tc, describing the local Li-ion depletion rate in electrolyte phase at the electrolyte/electrode interface due to electrochemical reactions. The second group contains two electric resistance parameters: Re and Rs, which represent respectively, the equivalent ionic transport resistance and the effective electronic transport resistance in the electrode. Electrochemical modeling and simulations to the discharge process of LiCoO2 cells reveal that: (1) if te, ts and tc are on the same order of magnitude, the species transports may not cause any performance limitations to the battery; (2) the underlying mechanisms of performance limitations due to thick electrode, high-rate operation, and large-sized active material particles as well as effects of charge transports are revealed. The findings may be used as quantitative guidelines in the development and design of more advanced Li-ion batteries. PMID:27599870

  1. Applying probabilistic well-performance parameters to assessments of shale-gas resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy

    2010-01-01

    In assessing continuous oil and gas resources, such as shale gas, it is important to describe not only the ultimately producible volumes, but also the expected well performance. This description is critical to any cost analysis or production scheduling. A probabilistic approach facilitates (1) the inclusion of variability in well performance within a continuous accumulation, and (2) the use of data from developed accumulations as analogs for the assessment of undeveloped accumulations. In assessing continuous oil and gas resources of the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey analyzed production data from many shale-gas accumulations. Analyses of four of these accumulations (the Barnett, Woodford, Fayetteville, and Haynesville shales) are presented here as examples of the variability of well performance. For example, the distribution of initial monthly production rates for Barnett vertical wells shows a noticeable change with time, first increasing because of improved completion practices, then decreasing from a combination of decreased reservoir pressure (in infill wells) and drilling in less productive areas. Within a partially developed accumulation, historical production data from that accumulation can be used to estimate production characteristics of undrilled areas. An understanding of the probabilistic relations between variables, such as between initial production and decline rates, can improve estimates of ultimate production. Time trends or spatial trends in production data can be clarified by plots and maps. The data can also be divided into subsets depending on well-drilling or well-completion techniques, such as vertical in relation to horizontal wells. For hypothetical or lightly developed accumulations, one can either make comparisons to a specific well-developed accumulation or to the entire range of available developed accumulations. Comparison of the distributions of initial monthly production rates of the four shale-gas accumulations that were

  2. Effects of variations in structural parameters on performance of switched parasitic arrays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mofolo, MRO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available , analysis of random errors on the antenna performance attributes are introduced. Section IV Mofolo R.O. Mofolo1,2, Albert A. Lysko1, Willem A. Clarke2 and Thomas O. Olwal1 Wireless Computing & Networking Research Group Council of Scientific...), Spier Estate, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2010, pp. 5-8. [11] M. Grabe, Generalized Gaussian Error Calculus. Springer, 2010. [12] C. Balanis, Antenna theory, 3rd ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005. [13] R. O. M. Mofolo, ?Enhanced Beam Steering...

  3. Spectral and parameter estimation problems arising in the metrology of high performance mirror surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, E.L.; Takacs, P.Z.

    1986-04-01

    The accurate characterization of mirror surfaces requires the estimation of two-dimensional distribution functions and power spectra from trend-contaminated profile measurements. The rationale behind this, and our measurement and processing procedures, are described. The distinction between profile and area spectra is indicated, and since measurements often suggest inverse-power-law forms, a discussion of classical and fractal models of processes leading to these forms is included. 9 refs

  4. Performance of an improved logarithmic phase mask with optimized parameters in a wavefront-coding system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Yingcai

    2010-01-10

    In two papers [Proc. SPIE 4471, 272-280 (2001) and Appl. Opt. 43, 2709-2721 (2004)], a logarithmic phase mask was proposed and proved to be effective in extending the depth of field; however, according to our research, this mask is not that perfect because the corresponding defocused modulation transfer function has large oscillations in the low-frequency region, even when the mask is optimized. So, in a previously published paper [Opt. Lett. 33, 1171-1173 (2008)], we proposed an improved logarithmic phase mask by making a small modification. The new mask can not only eliminate the drawbacks to a certain extent but can also be even less sensitive to focus errors according to Fisher information criteria. However, the performance comparison was carried out with the modified mask not being optimized, which was not reasonable. In this manuscript, we optimize the modified logarithmic phase mask first before analyzing its performance and more convincing results have been obtained based on the analysis of several frequently used metrics.

  5. Thioether profragrances: parameters influencing the performance of precursor-based fragrance delivery in functional perfumery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddalena, Umberto; Trachsel, Alain; Fankhauser, Peter; Berthier, Damien L; Benczédi, Daniel; Wang, Wei; Xi, Xiujuan; Shen, Youqing; Herrmann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    A series of thioether profragrances was prepared by reaction of different sulfanylalkanoates with δ-damascone and tested for their release efficiencies in a fabric-softener and an all-purpose cleaner application. Dynamic headspace analysis on dry cotton and on a ceramic plate revealed that the performance of the different precursors depended on the structure, but also on the particular conditions encountered in different applications. Moreover, profragrances derived from other α,β-unsaturated fragrance aldehydes and ketones were synthesized analogously and evaluated using the same test protocol. Thioethers were found to be suitable precursors to release the corresponding fragrances, but neither the quantity of profragrance deposited from an aqueous environment onto the target surface, nor the amount of fragrance released after deposition could be linearly correlated to the hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity of the compounds. Different sets of compounds were found to be the best performers for different types of applications. Only one of the compounds evaluated in the present work, namely the thiolactic acid derivative of δ-damascone, efficiently released the corresponding fragrance in both of the tested applications. Profragrance development for functional perfumery thus remains a partially empirical endeavour. More knowledge (and control) of the various application conditions are required for an efficient profragrance design. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. A measurement-driven approach to assess power line telecommunication (PLT) network quality of service (QoS) performance parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betta, G; Capriglione, D; Ferrigno, L; Laracca, M

    2009-01-01

    Power line telecommunication (PLT) technology offers cheap and fast ways for providing in-home broadband services and local area networking. Its main advantage is due to the possibility of using the pre-existing electrical grid as a communication channel. Nevertheless, technical challenges arise from the difficulty of operating on a hostile medium, not designed for communication purposes, characterized by complex channel modeling and by varying time response. These aspects put practical problems for designers and testers in the assessment of network quality of service performance parameters such as the throughput, the latency, the jitter, and the reliability. The measurement of these parameters has not yet been standardized so that there do not exist reference test set-ups and measurement methodologies (i.e. the type of isolation from the ac main, the observation time and the number of experiments, the measurement uncertainty and so on). Consequently, experiments executed by adopting different methods may lead to incompatible measurement results, thus making it also impossible to have reliable comparisons of different PLT modems. Really, the development of standard procedures is a very difficult task because the scenarios in which the PLT modems can work are very wide and then the application of an exhaustive approach (in which all the parameters influencing the PLT performance should be considered) would be very complex and time consuming, thus making the modem characterization very expensive. In this paper, the authors propose a methodological approach to develop an efficient measurement procedure able to reliably assess the performance of PLT modems (in terms of network quality of service parameters) with a minimum number of experiments. It is based on both creating a reconfigurable grid to which real disturbing loads are connected and implementing an original design of the experiment technique based on the effects of the uncertainty of the measurement results

  7. Quantifying the performance of in vivo portal dosimetry in detecting four types of treatment parameter variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojechko, C.; Ford, E. C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the ability of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry used during treatment (in vivo) in detecting variations that can occur in the course of patient treatment. Methods: Images of transmitted radiation from in vivo EPID measurements were converted to a 2D planar dose at isocenter and compared to the treatment planning dose using a prototype software system. Using the treatment planning system (TPS), four different types of variability were modeled: overall dose scaling, shifting the positions of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, shifting of the patient position, and changes in the patient body contour. The gamma pass rate was calculated for the modified and unmodified plans and used to construct a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the detectability of the different parameter variations. The detectability is given by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The TPS was also used to calculate the impact of the variations on the target dose–volume histogram. Results: Nine intensity modulation radiation therapy plans were measured for four different anatomical sites consisting of 70 separate fields. Results show that in vivo EPID dosimetry was most sensitive to variations in the machine output, AUC = 0.70 − 0.94, changes in patient body habitus, AUC = 0.67 − 0.88, and systematic shifts in the MLC bank positions, AUC = 0.59 − 0.82. These deviations are expected to have a relatively small clinical impact [planning target volume (PTV) D 99 change <7%]. Larger variations have even higher detectability. Displacements in the patient’s position and random variations in MLC leaf positions were not readily detectable, AUC < 0.64. The D 99 of the PTV changed by up to 57% for the patient position shifts considered here. Conclusions: In vivo EPID dosimetry is able to detect relatively small variations in overall dose, systematic shifts of the MLC’s, and changes in the patient habitus. Shifts in the patient

  8. EXTERIOR PHENOTYPICAL PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS AT ROSO SL EGGS HYBRID AT 45 WEEKS OF AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA PASCALĂU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The biological material which was studied has been represented by 34 ROSO SL hybrid that lay eggs, of 45 weeks of age. We have analyzed the 45 weeks age as a middle age for the intensity of egg laying on the level of over 80%. Measurements have been made for the following conformation traits: body weight, body length, former depth, former width, pelvis width, length of the breast-bone careen, thoracic perimeter, shin perimeter and length. The measurements have been made according to the methodology and the known speciality instruments. The observation data have been overworked, this way we have established the average values and the variability parameters for the traits we followed, which fit the values presented in the specialty literature and are even over these for the age group chosen for studies. The body weight of 2058.82 ± 38.49 g, superior to the one mentioned in the technological guide, confirms a proper unrolling of the body weight deposits and shows that the Roso SL hybrid will properly support both the body growth in weight and also egg production in parallel, respectively this double effort, fact that gives the hybrid a higher quality. Other registered values are of 18.06 ± 0.15 for the body length, of 10.85 ± 0.11 cm for the length of the breastbone careen, together with the sizes which maintain a proper egg production, such as the width of the pelvis of 9.75 ± 0.14, the former width of 6.78 ± 0.10 cm and, why not, even the former depth of 10.72 ± 0.12. We would also notice an appreciable uniformity of these values, the limits of the variation factor being between 4.66 (length of the shin and 8.36 (former width. The values that the biological material represent for the characters we studied, convince us about the hybrid’s availability for being exploited in the egg production.

  9. Quantifying the performance of in vivo portal dosimetry in detecting four types of treatment parameter variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojechko, C.; Ford, E. C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: To quantify the ability of electronic portal imaging device (EPID) dosimetry used during treatment (in vivo) in detecting variations that can occur in the course of patient treatment. Methods: Images of transmitted radiation from in vivo EPID measurements were converted to a 2D planar dose at isocenter and compared to the treatment planning dose using a prototype software system. Using the treatment planning system (TPS), four different types of variability were modeled: overall dose scaling, shifting the positions of the multileaf collimator (MLC) leaves, shifting of the patient position, and changes in the patient body contour. The gamma pass rate was calculated for the modified and unmodified plans and used to construct a receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve to assess the detectability of the different parameter variations. The detectability is given by the area under the ROC curve (AUC). The TPS was also used to calculate the impact of the variations on the target dose–volume histogram. Results: Nine intensity modulation radiation therapy plans were measured for four different anatomical sites consisting of 70 separate fields. Results show that in vivo EPID dosimetry was most sensitive to variations in the machine output, AUC = 0.70 − 0.94, changes in patient body habitus, AUC = 0.67 − 0.88, and systematic shifts in the MLC bank positions, AUC = 0.59 − 0.82. These deviations are expected to have a relatively small clinical impact [planning target volume (PTV) D{sub 99} change <7%]. Larger variations have even higher detectability. Displacements in the patient’s position and random variations in MLC leaf positions were not readily detectable, AUC < 0.64. The D{sub 99} of the PTV changed by up to 57% for the patient position shifts considered here. Conclusions: In vivo EPID dosimetry is able to detect relatively small variations in overall dose, systematic shifts of the MLC’s, and changes in the patient habitus. Shifts in the

  10. A study on performance characteristic: The effect of different parameter of renewable energy application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajudin Nadia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia government still identify the best system in giving people solution on renewable energy. This study will focus on the performance of PV module. The characteristic of PV module still can be argued especially in absorbing the direct effect of sun light energy. The previous authors were not having a specific solution on the problem of the PV module implication after received the direct effect of sun light. This study will suggesting on the innovation of the process and system of PV module and restructuring the characteristic and provides information. The tools of quality PDCA and (OEE will be used to identify the best solution using the different type of cooling system. From this information, the stake holder can decrease the cost of using this type of technology.

  11. Effect of geometric parameters of liquid-gas separator units on phase separation performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Songping; Chen, Xueqing; Chen, Ying [Guangdong University of Technology, Seoul (China); Yang, Zhen [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-07-15

    Five liquid-gas separator units were designed and constructed based on a new concept of a validated high-performance condenser. Each separator unit consists of two united T-junctions and an apertured baffle. The separator units have different header diameters or different baffles with different diameters of the liquid-gas separation hole. The phase separation characteristics of the units were investigated at inlet air superficial velocities from 1.0m/s to 33.0m/s and water superficial velocities from 0.0015 m/s to 0..50 m/s. The experimental results showed that the liquid height, liquid flow rate through the separation hole, and liquid separation efficiency increased with increased header diameter and decreased diameter of the separation hole. The geometric structures of the separator units affected the phase separation characteristics by influencing the liquid height in the header and the liquid flow rate through the separation hole.

  12. Parameters influencing the aerosol capture performance of the Submerged-Bed Scrubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruecker, C.M.; Scott, P.A.

    1987-04-01

    The Submerged-Bed Scrubber (SBS) is a novel air cleaning device that has been investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for scrubbing off gases from liquid-fed ceramic melters used to vitrify high-level waste (HLW). The concept for the SBS was originally conceived at Hanford for emergency venting of a reactor containment building. The SBS was adapted for use as a quenching scrubber at PNL because it can cool the hot melter off gas as well as remove over 90% of the airborne particles, thus meeting the minimum particulate decontamination factor (DF) of 10 required of a primary scrubber. The experiments in this study showed that the submicron aerosol DF for the SBS can exceed 100 under certain conditions. A conventional device, the ejector-venturi scrubber (EVS), has been previously used in this application. The EVS also adequately cools the hot gases from the melter while exhibiting aerosol removal DFs in the range of 5 to 30. In addition to achieving higher DFs than the EVS, however, the SBS has the advantage of being a passive system, better suited to the remote environment of an HLW processing system. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of the SBS and to improve the aerosol capture efficiency by modifying the operating procedure or the design. A partial factorial experimental matrix was completed to determine the main effects of aerosol solubility, inlet off-gas temperature, inlet off-gas flow rate, steam-to-air ratio, bed diameter and packing diameter on the particulate removal efficiency of the SBS. Several additional experiments were conducted to measure the influence of the inlet aerosol concentration and scrubbing-water concentration on aerosol-removal performance. 33 refs., 17 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Influence of process parameters on coal combustion performance. Review, experiments and engineering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lans, R.P. van der

    1997-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of nitrogen oxide formation and carbon burnout during the combustion of pulverized coal, and to contribute to addressing the potential of chemical engineering models for the prediction of furnace temperatures, NO emissions and the amount of carbon in ash. To this purpose, the effect of coal quality on NO and burnout has been investigated experimentally, a radiation heat balance has been developed based on a simple chemical engineering methodology, and a mixing study has been conducted in order to describe the near burner macro mixing in terms of a reactor configuration. The influence of coal type and process conditions on NO formation and carbon burnout has been investigated experimentally in a 400 MW{sub e} corner fired boiler with over fire air, a 350 MW{sub e} opposed fired boiler, and in a 160 kW{sub t} pilot scale test rig. Three different coals were fired in each of the furnaces as part of the activities in group 3 of the European Union JOULE 2 Extension project `Atmospheric Pressure Combustion of Pulverized Coal and Coal Based Blends for Power Generation`. On the pilot scale test both single stage and air staged tests were performed. A simple, one-dimensional combustion and radiation heat transfer model has been developed for the furnace of full scale boilers. The model has been applied to the two boilers mentioned above, and is validated against measured temperatures and carbon in ash concentrations. A mixing study has been performed in order to initiate an investigation of the potential of chemical engineering models to predict NO from pulverized fuel burners. (EG) 11 refs.

  14. Application of dragonfly algorithm for optimal performance analysis of process parameters in turn-mill operations- A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikram, K. Arun; Ratnam, Ch; Lakshmi, VVK; Kumar, A. Sunny; Ramakanth, RT

    2018-02-01

    Meta-heuristic multi-response optimization methods are widely in use to solve multi-objective problems to obtain Pareto optimal solutions during optimization. This work focuses on optimal multi-response evaluation of process parameters in generating responses like surface roughness (Ra), surface hardness (H) and tool vibration displacement amplitude (Vib) while performing operations like tangential and orthogonal turn-mill processes on A-axis Computer Numerical Control vertical milling center. Process parameters like tool speed, feed rate and depth of cut are considered as process parameters machined over brass material under dry condition with high speed steel end milling cutters using Taguchi design of experiments (DOE). Meta-heuristic like Dragonfly algorithm is used to optimize the multi-objectives like ‘Ra’, ‘H’ and ‘Vib’ to identify the optimal multi-response process parameters combination. Later, the results thus obtained from multi-objective dragonfly algorithm (MODA) are compared with another multi-response optimization technique Viz. Grey relational analysis (GRA).

  15. Effects of different rearing systems on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum biochemical parameters of Chaohu ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Ah Kan Razafindrabe, Richard-Hermann; Chen, Kaikai; Zhao, Xiaohui; Yang, Lei; Wang, Li; Chen, Xingyong; Jin, Sihua; Geng, Zhaoyu

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted using a total of 360 22-day-old Chaohu ducks to evaluate the effect of rearing system on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and serum parameters of male and female Chaohu ducks. The birds were divided and raised in separate pens according to sex and rearing system, with three replicate pens of 30 male or 30 female ducks per pen for each rearing system. The rearing systems consisted of a floor rearing system (FRS) and a net rearing system (NRS). Results showed that ducks raised in NRS had better growth performance, whereas, ducks raised in FRS exhibited better carcass traits and meat color, and lower intramuscular fat. For the serum parameters, NRS significantly decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content, and enhanced total protein and triacylglycerol contents. Male ducks had lower abdominal fat percentage, and higher growth performance and shear force, but there were no other significant differences between sexes. No rearing system × sex interaction was observed in the present study, revealing that rearing system had the same effect on both sexes. In conclusion, NRS was beneficial to the growth performance of Chaohu ducks, whereas this system had some negative effects on carcass traits, meat quality and serum profiles. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  16. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  17. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  18. The Sensitivity of Precooled Air-Breathing Engine Performance to Heat Exchanger Design Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, H.; Bond, A.; Hempsell, M.

    The issues relevant to propulsion design for Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) vehicles are considered. In particular two air- breathing engine concepts involving precooling are compared; SABRE (Synergetic Air-Breathing and Rocket Engine) as designed for the Skylon SSTO launch vehicle, and a LACE (Liquid Air Cycle Engine) considered in the 1960's by the Americans for an early generation spaceplane. It is shown that through entropy minimisation the SABRE has made substantial gains in performance over the traditional LACE precooled engine concept, and has shown itself as the basis of a viable means of realising a SSTO vehicle. Further, it is demonstrated that the precooler is a major source of thermodynamic irreversibility within the engine cycle and that further reduction in entropy can be realised by increasing the heat transfer coefficient on the air side of the precooler. If this were to be achieved, it would improve the payload mass delivered to orbit by the Skylon launch vehicle by between 5 and 10%.

  19. Application of artificial neural networks for the prediction of traction performance parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Taghavifar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study handles artificial neural networks (ANN modeling to predict tire contact area and rolling resistance due to the complex and nonlinear interactions between soil and wheel that mathematical, numerical and conventional models fail to investigate multivariate input and output relationships with nonlinear and complex characteristics. Experimental data acquisitioning was carried out using a soil bin facility with single-wheel tester at seven inflation pressures of tire (i.e. 100–700 kPa and seven different wheel loads (1–7 KN with two soil textures and two tire types. The experimental datasets were used to develop a feed-forward with back propagation ANN model. Four criteria (i.e. R-value, T value, mean squared error, and model simplicity were used to evaluate model’s performance. A well-trained optimum 4-6-2 ANN provided the best accuracy in modeling contact area and rolling resistance with regression coefficients of 0.998 and 0.999 and T value and MSE of 0.996 and 2.55 × 10−12, respectively. It was found that ANNs due to faster, more precise, and considerably reliable computation of multivariable, nonlinear, and complex computations are highly appropriate for soil–wheel interaction modeling.

  20. Effect of processing parameters on the electrochemical performance of graphene/ nickel ferrite (G-NF nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kamali Heidari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fuel cells, secondary batteries and capacitors are among many promising energy storage devices. In particular, supercapacitors have attracted much attention because of their long life cycle and high power density. Graphene/nickel ferrite(G-NF based supercapacitors were successfully fabricated through a one-step facile solvothermal route. Effects of synthesis conditions i.e. solvothermal time and temperature, on the powder particle characteristics were evaluated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. Fast Fourier transformation (FFT patterns were also recorded on the HRTEM microscope to determine the lattice and crystallinity of the nanocomposites. Structural and chemical studies proved that increasing the solvothermal duration and temperature leads to improved crystallinity of NiFe2O4phase as well as higher degree of reduction of graphene oxide to graphene. The electrochemical measurements showed that solvothermal conditions of 180°C and 10h produces the highest specific capacity of 312 and 196 F g-1 at current densities of 1 and 5 A g-1, respectively calculated from charge-discharge test. This G-NF electrode material, also showed a capacity of 105 F g-1 after 1500 cycles at current density of 10 A g-1 which makes it an outstanding supercapacitor material with promising long cycle electrochemical stability and performance.

  1. An empirical method for calculating thermodynamic parameters for U(6) phases, applications to performance assessment calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.; Chen, F.; Clark, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Uranyl minerals form by oxidation and alteration of uraninite, UO 2+x , and the UO 2 in used nuclear fuels. The thermodynamic database for these phases is extremely limited. However, the Gibbs free energies and enthalpies for uranyl phases may be estimated based on a method that sums polyhedral contributions. The molar contributions of the structural components to Δ f G m 0 and Δ f H m 0 are derived by multiple regression using the thermodynamic data of phases for which the crystal structures are known. In comparison with experimentally determined values, the average residuals associated with the predicted Δ f G m 0 and Δ f H m 0 for the uranyl phases used in the model are 0.08 and 0.10%, respectively. There is also good agreement between the predicted mineral stability relations and field occurrences, thus providing confidence in this method for the estimation of Δ f G m 0 and Δ f H m 0 of the U(VI) phases. This approach provides a means of generating estimated thermodynamic data for performance assessment calcination and a basic for making bounding calcination of phase stabilities and solubilities. (author)

  2. The effect of ramadan fasting on biochemical and performance parameters in collegiate wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Bahman; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Moghadam, Mahdi Ghahremani; Ziyaolhagh, Seyed Javad; Rezaei, Abolfazl

    2012-11-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body composition, aerobic and anaerobic power, strength, plasma lipids profile and serum glucose among collegiate wrestlers. Fourteen male collegiate wrestlers (age, 20.12±2.5 yrs) volunteered as subjects for the study. Subjects were tested one week before the beginning of Ramadan, the last two days of Ramadan and the last two days of the 4th week after the end of Ramadan. The paired sample t-test was used to assess the differences in pre and post-performance tests and repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test to determine differences between three blood samplings. The results showed that except for anaerobic power and strength, body weight, body fat percentage and aerobic power at 4th week of Ramadan were significantly lower than pre-Ramadan values (P=0.05). Total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels decreased after Ramadan compared to pre-Ramadan (P= 0.011, P=0.001), however, a month after Ramadan, it reached to higher levels compared to pre-Ramadan period, which were not statistically significant. Similarly, significant decrease and increase were consequently observed in glucose and high density lipoprotein (P=0.001, P=0.045). Triacylglycerol and VLDL increased at the end of Ramadan compared to the period of time before Ramadan, and after Ramadan, it reached the lower levels compared to concentrations before Ramadan (P=0.133, P=0.133). This study also indicated that Ramadan fasting appears to have significant effect on body composition, aerobic power and lipid profile.

  3. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  4. Parameters controlling the performance of AA319-type alloys Part II. Impact properties and fractography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Z.; Samuel, A.M.; Samuel, F.H.; Ravindran, C.; Doty, H.W.; Valtierra, S.

    2004-01-01

    The Charpy impact energy of Al-Si-Cu AA319-type alloys was measured in terms of the total absorbed energy. The Charpy specimens were machined from end-chilled castings to incorporate the effect of cooling rate on the impact properties. Unnotched specimens were used to increase the accuracy of the measurements, and to emphasize the effect of microstructure. The influence of the microconstituents on the impact strength was investigated by adding various alloying elements (i.e. Sr, Fe, and P) to the AA319 base alloy, and applying two different heat treatments (T5, and T6). The results show that strontium-modification enhances the impact properties, so that the Sr-modified AA319 alloy exhibits the highest impact properties compared to the base, and other alloys at any given dendrite arm spacing (DAS). The impact energy increases with increase in cooling rate, while iron, and phosphorus additions have a detrimental influence due, respectively, to the formation of β-Al 5 FeSi, and phosphorus oxide particles during solidification. T6 treatment assists in the even distribution, and dissolution of the microconstituents (including the block-like CuAl 2 particles) into the aluminum matrix. With more Cu available for strengthening during aging, the impact toughness is greatly enhanced. In the unmodified AA319 base alloy, crack initiation, and propagation occur mainly through Si-particle fracture, and the mechanism of void coalescence. In the Sr-modified, 1.2% Fe-containing 319 alloys, however, crack initiation takes place through fragmentation of β-Al 5 FeSi, Si, and CuAl 2 or Cu 2 FeAl 7 particles. Crack propagation occurs through cleavage of the β-Fe platelets, and fracture of the Cu-intermetallics, and brittle Si particles. Such samples exhibit very low impact energies

  5. Impact of the digitalisation of mammography on performance parameters and breast dose in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, Lore; Hauwere, An de; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, QCC-Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Bosmans, Hilde; Lemmens, Kim; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Bleyen, Luc; Mortier, Griet; Herck, Koen van [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Ghent (Belgium); Limbergen, Erik van [Leuvens Universitair Centrum voor Kankerpreventie, Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Borstklierkanker vzw, Bruges (Belgium)

    2014-08-15

    To investigate the impact of digitalisation on performance parameters and breast dose of the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme. Both computed (CR) and direct radiography (DR) are compared with screen-film mammography (SFM). Data from 975,673 mammographic examinations were collected from units which underwent digitalisation from SFM to CR (41 units) or DR (72 units) in the period 2005-2011. Performance indicators were obtained by consulting the Screening Programme database. Phantom and patient dosimetry data were acquired from the physical technical quality assurance of the programme. Digitalisation induced no significant change in cancer detection rate (CDR), percentage of ductal carcinomas in situ and percentage of breast cancers smaller than 1 cm. A decrease in false-positive results and third readings was observed, which was a time-related observation. After digitalisation, positive predictive value (PPV) increased and recall rates decreased. Compared with SFM, an increase of 30 % in mean glandular dose (MGD) was found for CR, while a similar change in the opposite direction was found for DR. No major differences in performance parameters after digitalisation were found. Transition of SFM to CR resulted in a higher MGD and associated lower detection-over-induction ratio (DIR), while the change to DR induced an improvement of DIR. (orig.)

  6. Impact of the digitalisation of mammography on performance parameters and breast dose in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Lore; Hauwere, An de; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert; Bosmans, Hilde; Lemmens, Kim; Steen, Andre van; Bleyen, Luc; Mortier, Griet; Herck, Koen van; Limbergen, Erik van; Martens, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the impact of digitalisation on performance parameters and breast dose of the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme. Both computed (CR) and direct radiography (DR) are compared with screen-film mammography (SFM). Data from 975,673 mammographic examinations were collected from units which underwent digitalisation from SFM to CR (41 units) or DR (72 units) in the period 2005-2011. Performance indicators were obtained by consulting the Screening Programme database. Phantom and patient dosimetry data were acquired from the physical technical quality assurance of the programme. Digitalisation induced no significant change in cancer detection rate (CDR), percentage of ductal carcinomas in situ and percentage of breast cancers smaller than 1 cm. A decrease in false-positive results and third readings was observed, which was a time-related observation. After digitalisation, positive predictive value (PPV) increased and recall rates decreased. Compared with SFM, an increase of 30 % in mean glandular dose (MGD) was found for CR, while a similar change in the opposite direction was found for DR. No major differences in performance parameters after digitalisation were found. Transition of SFM to CR resulted in a higher MGD and associated lower detection-over-induction ratio (DIR), while the change to DR induced an improvement of DIR. (orig.)

  7. A Weibull statistics-based lignocellulose saccharification model and a built-in parameter accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingyu; Han, Lijuan; Liu, Shasha; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Jinghua; Loh, Soh Kheang; Sun, Xiaomin; Zhang, Chenxi; Fang, Xu

    2015-09-01

    Renewable energy from lignocellulosic biomass has been deemed an alternative to depleting fossil fuels. In order to improve this technology, we aim to develop robust mathematical models for the enzymatic lignocellulose degradation process. By analyzing 96 groups of previously published and newly obtained lignocellulose saccharification results and fitting them to Weibull distribution, we discovered Weibull statistics can accurately predict lignocellulose saccharification data, regardless of the type of substrates, enzymes and saccharification conditions. A mathematical model for enzymatic lignocellulose degradation was subsequently constructed based on Weibull statistics. Further analysis of the mathematical structure of the model and experimental saccharification data showed the significance of the two parameters in this model. In particular, the λ value, defined the characteristic time, represents the overall performance of the saccharification system. This suggestion was further supported by statistical analysis of experimental saccharification data and analysis of the glucose production levels when λ and n values change. In conclusion, the constructed Weibull statistics-based model can accurately predict lignocellulose hydrolysis behavior and we can use the λ parameter to assess the overall performance of enzymatic lignocellulose degradation. Advantages and potential applications of the model and the λ value in saccharification performance assessment were discussed. Copyright © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Investigation of Dip-Coating Parameters Effect on The Performance of Alumina-Polydimethylsiloxane Nanofiltration Membranes for Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Yousefi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to investigate the effect of dip-coating parameters on the performance of Alumina-PDMS hybrid nanofiltration membranes for water desalination. Ceramic supports used in this work were prepared with a 340 nm average pore size and 34% total porosity. The aim is to determine optimum conditions of dipping time, PDMS concentration, and withdrawal speed in order to achieve high rejection and flux values. Dip-coating parameters were considered as dipping time (60 - 120 s, withdrawal speed (5 - 15 mm/s and PDMS concentration (10 - 20 wt. %. Hybrid membranes were characterized using FE-SEM and FTIR analysis techniques. Pure water flux and salt rejection were also measured to evaluate the rejection performance. Alumina-PDMS hybrid nanofiltration membranes fabricated with dipping time = 120 s, withdrawal speed = 15 mm/s and 10 wt. % PDMS exhibited the best performance giving 30.5% rejection for NaCl and 53.8% for Na2SO4.

  9. Effects of Dietary Zinc Oxide and a Blend of Organic Acids on Broiler Live Performance, Carcass Traits, and Serum Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BG Sarvari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary supplementation levels of zinc oxide and of an organic acid blend on broiler performance, carcass traits, and serum parameters. A total of 2400 one-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks, with average initial body weight 44.21±0.19g, was distributed according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. Six treatments, consisting of diets containing two zinc oxide levels (0 and 0.01% of the diet and three organic acid blend levels (0, 0.15, and 0.30% were applied, with eight replicates of 50 birds each. The experimental diets were supplied ad libitum for 42 days. There were significant performance differences among birds fed the different zinc oxide and organic acid blend levels until 42 d of age (p<0.01. The result of this experiment showed that the organic acid blend did not affect feed intake, but zinc oxide increased feed intake. Carcass traits were not influenced by the experimental supplements. Zinc oxide supplementation increased serum alkaline phosphatase level (p<0.01. The organic acid blend reduced serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels (p<0.05. No interactions were found between zinc oxide and the organic acid blend for none of the evaluated parameters. We concluded that zinc oxide and the evaluated organic acid blend improve broiler performance.

  10. The effects of apple pulp and probiotic on performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabaz Noranian

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Apple is one of the most important fruits that is produced in the large amount in Iran. It is a good source of vitamins and minerals and active fiber. Most of the apples that product in Iran are use in food industry for producing different kinds of apple juices. After Juicing, more than 20% of apple, remain as waste. The remained matter contain considerable amount of vitamins and minerals that usually found in fresh apple, moreover it is rich source of pectin and crude fiber. Generally this byproduct discharge to environment and cause some serious environmental problems. It is thought that use of apple pulp as a part of apple waste in laying hens diets not only prevent some environmental problems, but also can improve their performance, egg quality traits, and blood biochemical parameters and reduce the production cost. The current study has been designed to investigate these traits. Materials and Methods This experiment was carried out on 192 Hi-line (W36 laying hens in a completely randomized design as (2*2 factorial arrangement with two levels of apple pulp (0 and 4% and two levels of probiotic (protexin (0 and 0.005% in 4 treatments, 4 replicates and 12 birds per replicate for 12 weeks (65-76 weeks. Results and Discussion Using apple pulp and probiotic in diets improved the egg production performance, egg quality traits and blood parameters of laying hens (P0.05. Probiotic improved egg weight, egg production percentage, egg mass, feed conversion ratio and Haugh unit. In interaction effects, using apple pulp and probiotic improved the performance and egg quality traits of laying hens. The highest egg weight, egg production, egg mass and the best feed conversion were obtained with diet containing 4% apple pulp and 0.005% probiotic. Also the highest amount of albumin, eggshell thickness and Haugh unit were observed with 4% apple pulp and 0.05% probiotic. Apple pulp decreased the blood levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and albumin

  11. Multilayer insulation (MLI) in the Superconducting Super Collider: A practical engineering approach to physical parameters governing MLI thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonczy, J.D.; Boroski, W.N.; Niemann, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    Multilayer insulation (MLI) is employed in cryogenic devices to control the heat load of those devices. The physics defining the thermal performance of an MLI system is extremely complex due to the thermal dynamics of numerous interdependent parameters which in themselves contribute differently depending on whether boundary conditions are transient or steady-state. The Multilayer Insulation system for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) consists of full cryostat length assemblies of aluminized polyester film, fabricated in the form of blankets, and installed as blankets to the 4.5K cold mass, and the 20K and 80K thermal radiation shields. Approximately 40,000 blankets will be required in the 10,000 cryogenic devices comprising the SSC accelerator. Each blanket will be nearly 56 feet long by 6 feet wide and will consist of as many as 32 reflective and 31 spacer layers of material. Discussed are MLI material choices, and the physical parameters which contribute to the operational performance of MLI systems. Disclosed is a method for fabricating MLI blankets by employing a large diameter winding mandrel having a circumference sufficient for the required blanket length. The blanket fabrication method assures consistency in mass produced MLI blankets by providing positive control of the dimensional parameters which contribute to the MLI blanket thermal performance. The fabrication method can be used to mass produce prefabricated MLI blankets that by virtue of the product have inherent features of dimensional stability, three-dimensional uniformity, controlled layer density, layer-to-layer registration, interlayer cleanliness, and interlayer material to accommodate thermal contraction differences. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  12. INVESTIGATING OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SPRINT AND JUMP PERFORMANCE WITH POWER PARAMETERS DURING PROPULSIVE PHASE OF FULL BACK SQUAT EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    İbrahim; Hamit

    2015-01-01

    The basic purpose of this study was to investigate of the relationships with sprint and jump performance of power parameters during propulsive phase of full back squat exercise and to determine which variable was associated with which loading loading. For this purpose, thirty-two men amateur athletes (age: 20.4 ± 1.98 years; height: 179.3 ± 7.23 cm; weight: 73.5 ± 9.85 kg) who actively involved in sports and have a basic level of force participated in voluntarily to this study. In the study, ...

  13. Short communication: Growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs fed diet replacing corn with orange pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lashkari, Saman; Taghizadeh, Akbar; Paya, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of replacing corn with orange pulp (OP) on growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility and blood parameters of fattening lambs. Twenty male lambs were placed in individual pens and fed with four levels of replacement...... fiber showed a quadratic effect with the level of replacement. The results of the present study showed that replacement of corn by OP improves DMI of fattening lambs, leading to an enhancement in ADG at the replacement level of 40.3%. Also, total replacement of corn by OP did not have any adverse effect...

  14. Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance, mortality rate and clinical blood parameters in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, B.M.; Clausen, T.N.; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    1998-01-01

    Effects of dietary protein levels ranging from 35% to 15% of metabolizable energy (ME) and dietary fat levels ranging in a reciprocal fashion from 47% to 67% of ME, and a constant dietary carbohydrate level of 18% of ME were investigated in male mink kits in the growing-furring period. Growth...... performance, mortality rate, hepatic fatty infiltration, weights of body and liver, relative weight of liver, haematocrit values, plasma activities of alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT) and creatine-kinase (CK), and plasma concentrations of chemical parameters were studied...

  15. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, C.H.; Fernandes, D.C.; Lavínia, N.C.; Caldas, L.V.E; Pires, S.R; Medeiros, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  16. The effects of the sequential addition of synthesis parameters on the performance of alkali activated fly ash mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Mawulé Dassekpo

    Full Text Available Geopolymer is an energy efficient and sustainable material that is currently used in construction industry as an alternative for Portland cement. As a new material, specific mix design method is essential and efforts have been made to develop a mix design procedure with the main focus on achieving better compressive strength and economy. In this paper, a sequential addition of synthesis parameters such as fly ash-sand, alkaline liquids, plasticizer and additional water at well-defined time intervals was investigated. A total of 4 mix procedures were used to study the compressive performance on fly ash-based geopolymer mortar and the results of each method were analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH, sodium silicate (Na2SiO3, plasticizer (PL, followed by adding water (WA increases considerably the compressive strengths of the geopolymer-based mortar. These results clearly demonstrate the high significant influence of sequential addition of synthesis parameters on geopolymer materials compressive properties, and also provide a new mixing method for the preparation of geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete. Keywords: Mixing method, Sequential addition, Synthesis parameters, Fly ash-based geopolymer mortar, Compressive properties

  17. Impact of parameter fluctuations on the performance of ethanol precipitation in production of Re Du Ning Injections, based on HPLC fingerprints and principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Qiong; Wang, Shu-Yao; Li, Yan-Jing; Wang, Yong-Xiang; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Huang, Wen-Zhe; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Bi, Yu-An; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the relationships between the performance of ethanol precipitation and seven process parameters in the ethanol precipitation process of Re Du Ning Injections, including concentrate density, concentrate temperature, ethanol content, flow rate and stir rate in the addition of ethanol, precipitation time, and precipitation temperature. Under the experimental and simulated production conditions, a series of precipitated resultants were prepared by changing these variables one by one, and then examined by HPLC fingerprint analyses. Different from the traditional evaluation model based on single or a few constituents, the fingerprint data of every parameter fluctuation test was processed with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to comprehensively assess the performance of ethanol precipitation. Our results showed that concentrate density, ethanol content, and precipitation time were the most important parameters that influence the recovery of active compounds in precipitation resultants. The present study would provide some reference for pharmaceutical scientists engaged in research on pharmaceutical process optimization and help pharmaceutical enterprises adapt a scientific and reasonable cost-effective approach to ensure the batch-to-batch quality consistency of the final products. Copyright © 2016 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance and main characteristic parameters of the Cairo fourier diffractometer facility at the ET-RR-1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Latif, I.; El-Kady, A.; El-Shafey, A.; Khalil, M.; El-Shaer, Y.

    1997-05-01

    This report represents the results of measurements performed recently with the Cairo Fourier diffractometer facility (CFDF). The main components of the CFDF were supplied by the IAEA according to the technical assistance project EGY/1/022. The CFDF performance is assessed and the main parameters are given. The neutron guide system attached to the CFDF provides a thermal neutron flux ∼ 10 6 n/cm 2 .sec at the sample position; free from fast neutrons and gamma rays background. It has been found, from measurements with different powder samples, that such value of the thermal neutron flux is adequate for neutron diffraction measurements, at scattering angle 2θ 90 deg. and D values between 0.7A and 2.5A; with 52% resolution. (author). 26 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Effect of hydrogen-diesel combustion on the performance and combustion parameters of a dual fuelled diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, P.K.; Banerjee, Rahul; Deb, Madhujit [Mechanical Engineering Department, National Institute of Technology, Agartala, Tripura-799055 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Petroleum crude is expected to remain main source of transport fuels at least for the next 20 to 30 years. The petroleum crude reserves however, are declining and consumption of transport fuels particularly in the developing countries is increasing at high rates. Severe shortage of liquid fuels derived from petroleum may be faced in the second half of this century. In this paper, experiments are performed in a fur stroke, single cylinder, compression ignition diesel engine with dual fuel mode. Diesel and hydrogen are used as pilot liquid and primary gaseous fuel, respectively. The objective of this study is to find out the effects on combustion and performance parameters observed at diesel hydrogen fuel mixture for all the different loadings (2kg,4kg,6kg,8kg,10kg and 12kg) in the engine.

  20. The performance of a prototype device designed to evaluate general quality parameters of X-ray equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, C. H.; Fernandes, D. C.; Lavínia, N. C.; Caldas, L. V. E.; Pires, S. R.; Medeiros, R. B.

    2014-02-01

    The performance of radiological equipment can be assessed using non-invasive methods and portable instruments that can analyze an X-ray beam with just one exposure. These instruments use either an ionization chamber or a state solid detector (SSD) to evaluate X-ray beam parameters. In Brazil, no such instruments are currently being manufactured; consequently, these instruments come at a higher cost to users due to importation taxes. Additionally, quality control tests are time consuming and impose a high workload on the X-ray tubes when evaluating their performance parameters. The assessment of some parameters, such as the half-value layer (HVL), requires several exposures; however, this can be reduced by using a SSD that requires only a single exposure. One such SSD uses photodiodes designed for high X-ray sensitivity without the use of scintillation crystals. This sensitivity allows one electron-hole pair to be created per 3.63 eV of incident energy, resulting in extremely high and stable quantum efficiencies. These silicon photodiodes operate by absorbing photons and generating a flow of current that is proportional to the incident power. The aim of this study was to show the response of the solid sensor PIN RD100A detector in a multifunctional X-ray analysis system that is designed to evaluate the average peak voltage (kVp), exposure time, and HVL of radiological equipment. For this purpose, a prototype board that uses four SSDs was developed to measure kVp, exposure time, and HVL using a single exposure. The reproducibility and accuracy of the results were compared to that of different X-ray beam analysis instruments. The kVp reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 3%, respectively; the exposure time reproducibility and accuracy results were 2% and 1%, respectively; and the HVL accuracy was ±2%. The prototype's methodology was able to calculate these parameters with appropriate reproducibility and accuracy. Therefore, the prototype can be considered

  1. Parametric Analysis of Design Parameter Effects on the Performance of a Solar Desiccant Evaporative Cooling System in Brisbane, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Ma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar desiccant cooling is widely considered as an attractive replacement for conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems because of its environmental friendliness and energy efficiency advantages. The system performance of solar desiccant cooling strongly depends on the input parameters associated with the system components, such as the solar collector, storage tank and backup heater, etc. In order to understand the implications of different design parameters on the system performance, this study has conducted a parametric analysis on the solar collector area, storage tank volume, and backup heater capacity of a solid solar desiccant cooling system for an office building in Brisbane, Australia climate. In addition, a parametric analysis on the outdoor air humidity ratio control set-point which triggers the operation of the desiccant wheel has also been investigated. The simulation results have shown that either increasing the storage tank volume or increasing solar collector area would result in both increased solar fraction (SF and system coefficient of performance (COP, while at the same time reduce the backup heater energy consumption. However, the storage tank volume is more sensitive to the system performance than the collector area. From the economic aspect, a storage capacity of 30 m3/576 m2 has the lowest life cycle cost (LCC of $405,954 for the solar subsystem. In addition, 100 kW backup heater capacity is preferable for the satisfaction of the design regeneration heating coil hot water inlet temperature set-point with relatively low backup heater energy consumption. Moreover, an outdoor air humidity ratio control set-point of 0.008 kgWater/kgDryAir is more reasonable, as it could both guarantee the indoor design conditions and achieve low backup heater energy consumption.

  2. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Christer [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Aasa [SWECO, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours.

  3. Boring of full scale deposition holes at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Operational experiences including boring performance and a work time analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Christer; Johansson, Aasa

    2002-12-01

    Thirteen experimental deposition holes similar to those in the present KBS-3 design have been bored at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, Oskarshamn, Sweden. The objective with the boring program was to test and demonstrate the current technique for boring of large vertical holes in granitic rock. Conclusions and results from this project is used in the planning process for the deposition holes that will be bored in the real repository for spent nuclear fuel. The boreholes are also important for three major projects. The Prototype Repository, the Canister Retrieval Test and the Demonstration project will all need full-scale deposition holes for their commissioning. The holes are bored in full scale and have a radius of 1.75 m and a depth of 8.5 m. To bore the holes an existing TBM design was modified to produce a novel type Shaft Boring Machine (SBM) suitable for boring 1.75 m diameter holes from a relatively small tunnel. The cutter head was equipped with two types of roller cutters: two row carbide button cutters and disc cutters. Removal of the cuttings was made with a vacuum suction system. The boring was monitored and boring parameters recorded by a computerised system for the evaluation of the boring performance. During boring of four of the holes temperature, stress and strain measurements were performed. Acoustic emission measurements were also performed during boring of these four holes. The results of these activities will not be discussed in this report since they are reported separately. Criteria regarding nominal borehole diameter, deviation of start and end centre point, surface roughness and performance of the machine were set up according to the KBS-3 design and were fulfilled with a fair margin. The average total time for boring one deposition hole during this project was 105 hours

  4. Association between functional performance and executive cognitive functions in an elderly population including patients with low ankle–brachial index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira NV

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Naomi Vidal Ferreira,1 Paulo Jannuzzi Cunha,2 Danielle Irigoyen da Costa,3 Fernando dos Santos,1 Fernando Oliveira Costa,1 Fernanda Consolim-Colombo,4 Maria Cláudia Irigoyen1 1Heart Institute, Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Neuroimaging in Psychiatry Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 3Rio Grande do Sul Cardiology Institute, Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil; 4Medical School, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP, Brazil Introduction: Peripheral arterial disease, as measured by the ankle–brachial index (ABI, is prevalent among the elderly, and is associated with functional performance, assessed by the 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Executive cognitive function (ECF impairments are also prevalent in this population, but no existing study has investigated the association between ECF and functional performance in an elderly population including individuals with low ABI.Aim: To investigate the association between functional performance, as measured by the 6MWT, and loss in ECF, in an elderly sample including individuals with low ABI.Method: The ABI group was formed by 26 elderly individuals with low ABI (mean ABI: 0.63±0.19, and the control group was formed by 40 elderly individuals with normal ABI (mean ABI: 1.08±0.07. We analyzed functional performance using the 6MWT, global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and ECF using the Digit Span for assessing attention span and working memory, the Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT for assessing information processing speed and inhibitory control/impulsivity, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT for assessing semantic verbal fluency and phonemic verbal fluency. We also used a factor analysis on all of the ECF tests (global ECF.Results: Before adjustment, the ABI group performed worse on global cognition, attention span, working

  5. Effects of zeolite supplementation on parameters of intestinal barrier integrity, inflammation, redoxbiology and performance in aerobically trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, Manfred; Bogner, Simon; Steinbauer, Kurt; Schuetz, Burkhard; Greilberger, Joachim F; Leber, Bettina; Wagner, Bernhard; Zinser, Erwin; Petek, Thomas; Wallner-Liebmann, Sandra; Oberwinkler, Tanja; Bachl, Norbert; Schippinger, Gert

    2015-01-01

    Zeolites are crystalline compounds with microporous structures of Si-tetrahedrons. In the gut, these silicates could act as adsorbents, ion-exchangers, catalysts, detergents or anti-diarrheic agents. This study evaluated whether zeolite supplementation affects biomarkers of intestinal wall permeability and parameters of oxidation and inflammation in aerobically trained individuals, and whether it could improve their performance. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial, 52 endurance trained men and women, similar in body fat, non-smokers, 20-50 years, received 1.85 g of zeolite per day for 12 weeks. Stool samples for determination of intestinal wall integrity biomarkers were collected. From blood, markers of redox biology, inflammation, and DNA damage were determined at the beginning and the end of the study. In addition, VO2max and maximum performance were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. For statistical analyses a 2-factor ANOVA was used. At baseline both groups showed slightly increased stool zonulin concentrations above normal. After 12 weeks with zeolite zonulin was significantly (p zeolite group. There were no significant changes observed in the other measured parameters. Twelve weeks of zeolite supplementation exerted beneficial effects on intestinal wall integrity as indicated via decreased concentrations of the tight junction modulator zonulin. This was accompanied by mild anti-inflammatory effects in this cohort of aerobically trained subjects. Further research is needed to explore mechanistic explanations for the observations in this study.

  6. The influences of ambient temperature and crude protein levels on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q W; Feng, J H; Chao, Z; Chen, Y; Wei, L M; Wang, F; Sun, R P; Zhang, M H

    2016-04-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of ambient temperature, crude protein levels and their interaction on performance and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens. A total of 216 Arbor Acre broiler chickens (108 males and 108 females) were used in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement and randomly reared at two temperatures (normal temperature: 23 °C; daily cyclic high temperature: 28-32 °C) and fed on three diets with different crude protein levels (153.3, 183.3 or 213.3 g/kg, with constant essential amino acids) from 28 to 42 days of age. Daily cyclic high ambient temperature decreased final body weight, average daily weight gain, average daily feed intake and serum total protein contents (p chickens was interacted by daily cyclic high ambient temperature and dietary crude protein levels (p = 0.003). These results indicated that daily cyclic high ambient temperature had a great effect on performance and serum biochemical parameters in broiler chickens, whereas dietary crude protein levels affected them partially. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Cardiac MRI assessment of right ventricular function: impact of right bundle branch block on the evaluation of cardiac performance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marterer, Robert; Tschauner, Sebastian; Sorantin, Erich [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Zeng, Hongchun [First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Department of Ultrasonography, Urumqi (China); Koestenberger, Martin [Medical University of Graz, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Graz (Austria)

    2015-12-15

    Right ventricular (RV) function represents a prognostic marker in patients with corrected congenital heart disease. In up to 80 % of these patients, right branch bundle block (RBBB) exists and leads to asynchronous ventricular contraction. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the change of RV performance parameters considering delayed RV end-systolic contraction. RV volumes of 33 patients were assessed twice: 1) not taking account of RBBB (group I), and 2) considering RBBB (group II). According to the RV ejection fraction (EF) for both groups, RV function was classified in different categories (>50 % = normal, 40-50 % = mildly-, 30-40 % = moderately-, <30 % = severely-reduced). The mean time difference between maximal systolic contraction of the septum and RV free wall was 90.7 ms ± 42.6. Consequently, RV end-systolic volume was significantly decreased in group II (p < 0.001). Accordingly, RV stroke volume and RV EF were significantly higher in group II (p < 0.001). There was also a significant change in the assessment of RV function (p < 0.02). RBBB induced delayed RV contraction can be detected at CMR. Ignoring the RV physiology in RBBB patients leads to a statistically significant underscoring of RV performance parameters. (orig.)

  8. Alternatives to conventional evaluation of rideability in horse performance tests: suitability of rein tension and behavioural parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König von Borstel, Uta; Glißman, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Rideability, i.e. the ease and comfort with which a horse can be ridden, is considered to be one of the most important traits in riding horses. However, at present rideability is evaluated rather subjectively in breeding horse performance tests. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role horse behaviour as well as degree and quality of rein tension might play in judges' evaluation of horses' rideability. Mares (n=33) and stallions (n=13) from two different mare- and one stallion-testing station were observed twice during their performance test dressage training. During these rides, rein tension was measured continuously, and frequency of behaviour patterns such as head-tossing, tail swishing, and snorting was recorded. Rein tension parameters showed reasonable repeatabilities within horse-rider pairs (e.g. mean rein tension: r(2)=0.61 ± 0.11; variance of rein tension: r(2)=0.52 ± 0.14). Regression analysis revealed that a larger proportion of variance in rideability scores could be explained by maximum (17%), mean (16%) and variance (15%) of rein tension compared to horses' or riders' behavioural parameters (tail-swishing: 5% and rider's use of hands: 5%, respectively). According to mixed model analysis, rideability scores dropped (all Prein tension (e.g. -0.37 ± 0.14 scores per additional 10 Newton in mean tension). However, mean rein tension differed between testing stations (Prein tension is either directly or indirectly an important factor for judges to derive rideability scores. Given the importance of rein tension parameters to both rider comfort and horse welfare, potentially, measurements of rein tension along with behaviour observations assessing the quality of rein contact (e.g. distinguishing a light contact from attempts to evade contact) might be used to make the assessment of rideability more impartial.

  9. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  10. Histogram analysis parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging can predict histopathological findings including proliferation potential, cellularity, and nucleic areas in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Leifels, Leonard; Höhn, Anne-Kathrin; Richter, Cindy; Winter, Karsten

    2018-04-20

    Our purpose was to analyze possible associations between histogram analysis parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging DCE MRI and histopathological findings like proliferation index, cell count and nucleic areas in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). 30 patients (mean age 57.0 years) with primary HNSCC were included in the study. In every case, histogram analysis parameters of K trans , V e , and K ep were estimated using a mathlab based software. Tumor proliferation index, cell count, and nucleic areas were estimated on Ki 67 antigen stained specimens. Spearman's non-parametric rank sum correlation coefficients were calculated between DCE and different histopathological parameters. KI 67 correlated with K trans min ( p = -0.386, P = 0.043) and s K trans skewness ( p = 0.382, P = 0.045), V e min ( p = -0.473, P = 0.011), Ve entropy ( p = 0.424, P = 0.025), and K ep entropy ( p = 0.464, P = 0.013). Cell count correlated with K trans kurtosis ( p = 0.40, P = 0.034), V e entropy ( p = 0.475, P = 0.011). Total nucleic area correlated with V e max ( p = 0.386, P = 0.042) and V e entropy ( p = 0.411, P = 0.030). In G1/2 tumors, only K trans entropy correlated well with total ( P =0.78, P =0.013) and average nucleic areas ( p = 0.655, P = 0.006). In G3 tumors, KI 67 correlated with Ve min ( p = -0.552, P = 0.022) and V e entropy ( p = 0.524, P = 0.031). Ve max correlated with total nucleic area ( p = 0.483, P = 0.049). Kep max correlated with total area ( p = -0.51, P = 0.037), and K ep entropy with KI 67 ( p = 0.567, P = 0.018). We concluded that histogram-based parameters skewness, kurtosis and entropy of K trans , V e , and K ep can be used as markers for proliferation activity, cellularity and nucleic content in HNSCC. Tumor grading influences significantly associations between perfusion and histopathological parameters.

  11. Effect of Different Levels of Surplus Date on Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Parameters in Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.J Hosseini Vashan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty-four 26-wk-old white Hy-Line layers (W-36 were fed commercial diets containing 0, 1.5, 3 and 5% surplus date for three period of 28 days each to study the effects of dietary surplus date on hen performance (egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ‘FCR’ and body weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density. The yolk of eggs extracted and cholesterol content were determined on one egg of each replicate hens in each period. Blood samples were collected in non-heparin zed tubes from six hens in each treatment through brachial vein at the end of experiment. Serum was separated after 8-10 hrs and was stored at – 20 oC for subsequent analysis. Hen performance (egg production, egg mass, feed intake, FCR and weight gain and egg quality parameters (Haugh unit score, yolk colour index, yolk index, egg shape, shell weight, shell thickness and density were not significantly different among treatments (P>0.05; However in all traits, the control group had numerically lower value, except egg weight that was significantly increased with supplementation of surplus date in diet. The dietary surplus date did not significantly affect egg cholesterol, ND and IBD titre, but the serum cholesterol was significantly reduced in hens fed diets contained 5% surplus date. This study suggested that the surplus date may be used up to 5% in the diet of laying hens to reduce blood cholesterol without any significant adverse effect on performance.

  12. Theoretical analysis of the influence of defect parameters on photovoltaic performances of composition graded InGaN solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorge, V.; Migan-Dubois, A.; Djebbour, Z.; Pantzas, K.; Gautier, S.; Moudakir, T.; Suresh, S.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We have modeled a p–i–n InGaN-based solar cell with gradual bandgap layers. ► InGaN defects have been modeled by two band tails and one localized energy level. ► Energetic position and band tail widths have a low effect on device efficiency. ► The localized defect FWHM has a significant impact on performance. ► The efficiency drops radically when the defect density is higher than the P-doping. - Abstract: In this paper, we have used simulations to evaluate the impact of the distribution of electrically active defects on the photovoltaic performances of InGaN-based solar cell. The simulations were carried out using Silvaco's ATLAS software. We have modeled a P-GaN/Grad-InGaN/i-In 0.53 Ga 0.47 N/Grad-InGaN/N-ZnO where Grad-InGaN corresponds to an InGaN layer with a graded composition. This layer is inserted to eliminate the band discontinuities at the interface between InGaN and the GaN and ZnO layers. The defects were modeled through the introduction of band tails and a Gaussian distribution of defects in i-InGaN material. We have evaluated the influence of band tail widths as well as the parameters of the Gaussian distribution (i.e. defect density, mean position and standard deviation) on the short-circuit current, the open-circuit voltage and the fill-factor (efficiency) of the solar cell. These results have allowed us to identify key structural parameters useful for the optimization of InGaN solar cells, as well as to give realistic estimates of the performances of such cells.

  13. Theoretical analysis of the influence of defect parameters on photovoltaic performances of composition graded InGaN solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorge, V.; Migan-Dubois, A. [LGEP, UMR 8507, CNRS, SUPELEC, UPMC, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Djebbour, Z., E-mail: zakaria.djebbour@uvsq.fr [LGEP, UMR 8507, CNRS, SUPELEC, UPMC, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Department of Physics and Engineering Science, University of Versailles UVSQ, 45 Av. Des Etats Unis, 78035 Versailles (France); Pantzas, K. [Georgia Institute of Technology, GT-Lorraine, 2 rue Marconi, 57 070 Metz (France); UMI 2958 Georgia Tech, CNRS, 2 rue Marconi, 57 070 Metz (France); Gautier, S. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech, CNRS, 2 rue Marconi, 57 070 Metz (France); LMOPS, UMR 7132, CNRS, University of Metz, Supelec, 2 rue E. Belin, 57 070 Metz (France); Moudakir, T.; Suresh, S. [UMI 2958 Georgia Tech, CNRS, 2 rue Marconi, 57 070 Metz (France); Ougazzaden, A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, GT-Lorraine, 2 rue Marconi, 57 070 Metz (France); UMI 2958 Georgia Tech, CNRS, 2 rue Marconi, 57 070 Metz (France)

    2013-02-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have modeled a p-i-n InGaN-based solar cell with gradual bandgap layers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InGaN defects have been modeled by two band tails and one localized energy level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energetic position and band tail widths have a low effect on device efficiency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The localized defect FWHM has a significant impact on performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The efficiency drops radically when the defect density is higher than the P-doping. - Abstract: In this paper, we have used simulations to evaluate the impact of the distribution of electrically active defects on the photovoltaic performances of InGaN-based solar cell. The simulations were carried out using Silvaco's ATLAS software. We have modeled a P-GaN/Grad-InGaN/i-In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}N/Grad-InGaN/N-ZnO where Grad-InGaN corresponds to an InGaN layer with a graded composition. This layer is inserted to eliminate the band discontinuities at the interface between InGaN and the GaN and ZnO layers. The defects were modeled through the introduction of band tails and a Gaussian distribution of defects in i-InGaN material. We have evaluated the influence of band tail widths as well as the parameters of the Gaussian distribution (i.e. defect density, mean position and standard deviation) on the short-circuit current, the open-circuit voltage and the fill-factor (efficiency) of the solar cell. These results have allowed us to identify key structural parameters useful for the optimization of InGaN solar cells, as well as to give realistic estimates of the performances of such cells.

  14. SITE-94. Discrete-feature modelling of the Aespoe Site: 3. Predictions of hydrogeological parameters for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.E.

    1996-12-01

    A 3-dimensional, discrete-feature hydrological model is developed. The model integrates structural and hydrologic data for the Aespoe site, on scales ranging from semi regional fracture zones to individual fractures in the vicinity of the nuclear waste canisters. Predicted parameters for the near field include fracture spacing, fracture aperture, and Darcy velocity at each of forty canister deposition holes. Parameters for the far field include discharge location, Darcy velocity, effective longitudinal dispersion coefficient and head gradient, flow porosity, and flow wetted surface, for each canister source that discharges to the biosphere. Results are presented in the form of statistical summaries for a total of 42 calculation cases, which treat a set of 25 model variants in various combinations. The variants for the SITE-94 Reference Case model address conceptual and parametric uncertainty related to the site-scale hydrogeologic model and its properties, the fracture network within the repository, effective semi regional boundary conditions for the model, and the disturbed-rock zone around the repository tunnels and shafts. Two calculation cases simulate hydrologic conditions that are predicted to occur during future glacial episodes. 30 refs

  15. Effects of ZnO nanowire synthesis parameters on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Juneui; Myoung, Jihyun; Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr

    2012-06-30

    Determination of the effects of ZnO nanowires on the efficiency of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) is important. In this study, we determined the effects of different OH{sup -} precursors, concentrations, the ratio of zinc nitrate to hexamethylene tetramine (HMT), and the hydrothermal synthesis temperature on the physical, crystal, and optical properties of ZnO nanowires and investigated the performance of the resulting DSSCs. We observed that ZnO nanowires synthesized using an equimolar ratio of HMT to zinc nitrate yielded a DSSC with high incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE), cell efficiency, short circuit current density (J{sub sc}), and fill factor (FF), and low ZnO-dye-electrolyte interface resistance due to an increased amount of dye and a decreased density of defects. Furthermore, ZnO nanowires made using optimal concentrations and ratios of zinc nitrate to HMT had a high surface area and low defect density. All the photovoltaic performance parameters of DSSCs assessed such as IPCE, cell efficiency, J{sub sc}, open circuit potential (V{sub oc}), and FF increased with synthesis temperature, which was related to a decrease in the resistance at the ZnO-dye-electrolyte interface. We attributed these results to an increased amount of dye facilitated by a large nanowire surface area and fast electron transfer because of the improved crystalline structure of the ZnO nanowires and their low defect density. By optimizing the ZnO nanowires, we increased DSSC efficiency to 0.26% using ZnO nanowires synthesized with 25 mM of both zinc nitrate and HMT at 90 Degree-Sign C, while only a 0.02% increase in efficiency was obtained when NH{sub 4}OH was used as OH{sup -} precursor. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fabrication of ZnO nanowire-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Correlation of synthesis parameters with ZnO nanowires' properties and DSSC performance Black

  16. A neutronics study for improving the safety and performance parameters of a 3600 MWth Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kaichao; Krepel, Jiri; Mikityuk, Konstantin; Chawla, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The potential for neutronics design optimization is assessed for a large SFR core. ► Both beginning-of-life and equilibrium fuel cycle conditions are considered. ► The sodium void effect is decomposed via a neutron balance based methodology. ► The optimized core options adopt an appropriate sodium plenum design to reduce the void effect. ► The introduction of moderator pins is considered for enhancing the Doppler effect. - Abstract: The Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the most promising Generation IV systems with many performance advantages, but has one dominating neutronics drawback – a positive sodium void reactivity. The starting point for the present study is an SFR core design considered in the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). The aim is to analyze, for this reference core, four safety and performance parameters from the viewpoint of four different optimization options, and to propose possible optimized core designs. In doing so, the study focuses not only on the beginning-of-life state of the core, but also on the beginning of equilibrium closed fuel cycle. The four studied optimization options are: (a) introducing an upper sodium plenum and boron layer, (b) varying the core height-to-diameter (H/D) ratio, (c) introducing moderator pins into the fuel assembly, and (d) modifying the initial plutonium content. The sensitivity of the void reactivity, Doppler constant, nominal reactivity and breeding gain has been evaluated. In particular, the void reactivity, which is the most crucial safety parameter for the SFR, has been decomposed into its reaction-wise, isotope-wise and energy-group-wise components using a methodology based on the neutron balance equation. Extended voiding in the upper sodium plenum region – in conjunction with the effect of a boron layer introduced above the plenum – is found to be particularly effective in the void effect reduction while, at the same time

  17. Effects of dietary administration of yarrow extract on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nafisi Bahabadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the clinical effects and possible side effects of yarrow extract (Achillea millefolium L. as feed additive on biochemical blood parameters and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fishes were treated with 0 (control, 0.1, 0.5 and 1% of yarrow extract for 30 days. Plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, creatine kinase (CK, peroxidase activity, total complement and lysozyme activity, glucose, total protein, triglyceride and cholesterol were measured after 15 and 30 days of yarrow treatment. There were no significant changes in the lysozyme activity and glucose levels. Total protein and globulin levels were significantly higher in the fish fed with diets enriched with 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels was significantly decreased in the fish fed with diets containing 0.5% and 1% yarrow extract on day 30 (P<0.05. LDH, CK and peroxidase activities in the fish fed with diets having 1% yarrow extract were significantly decreased at the end of the experiment (P<0.05. In contrast, a significant increase in AST, ALP and total complement activity was observed in the fish fed with 1% yarrow extract diet, on day 15 (P<0.05. The weight gain and specific growth rate increased and food conversion ratio decreased in in the fish fed 1% yarrow extract on day 30. Condition factor in the fish fed with yarrow extract was significantly higher than control group on 30 day. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of yarrow extract up to 0.5% have not side effect on blood biochemical and clinical parameters of fishes. However, oral administration of 1% of yarrow extract caused cytotoxicity and modifications in blood biochemical parameters of fish.

  18. Effect of operating parameters and membrane characteristics on air gap membrane distillation performance for the treatment of highly saline water

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2016-04-07

    In this study, ten different commercially available PTFE, PP and PVDF membranes were tested in desalination of highly saline water by air gap membrane distillation (AGMD). Process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperatures, feed flow velocities and salt concentrations reaching 120 g/L, and different membrane characteristics, such as membrane material, thickness, pore size and support layer, using a locally designed and fabricatd AGMD module and spacer. Results showed that increasing feed temperature increases permeate flux regardless of the feed concentration. However, feed flow velocity does not significantly affect the flux, especially at low feed temperatures. The PP membrane showed a better performance than the PVDF and PTFE membranes. Permeate flux decreases with the increase of salt concentration of feed solution, especially at higher concentrations above 90 g/L. The existence of membrane support layer led to a slight decrease of permeate flux. Membranes with pore sizes of 0.2 and 0.45 μm gave the best performance. Smaller pore size led to lower flux and larger pore size led to pore wetting due to lower LEP values. The effect of concentration polarization and temperature polarization has also been studied and compared.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Operating Parameters on Thermal Performance of an Integrated Starter Generator in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo-Yeon Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The belt-driven-type integrated starter generator motor in a hybrid electric vehicle is vulnerable to thermal problems owing to its high output power and proximity to the engine. These problems may cause demagnetization and insulation breakdown, reducing the performance and durability of the motor. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the thermal performance and enhance the cooling capacity of the belt-driven type Integrated Starter Generator. In this study, the internal temperature variations of the motor were investigated with respect to the operating parameters, particularly the rotation speed and environment temperature. At a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 4500 rpm, the coil of the motor was heated to approximately 189 °C in generating mode. The harsh conditions of the starting mode were analyzed by assuming that the motor operates during the start-up time at a maximum ambient temperature of 105 °C and rotation speed (motor design point of 800 rpm; the coil was heated to approximately 200 °C, which is close to the insulation temperature limit. The model for analyzing the thermal performance of the ISG was verified by comparing its results with those obtained through a generating-mode-based experiment

  20. Effect of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters in laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Hussein

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary inclusion of sugar syrup on quality of egg, cholesterol level, production performance, serum total protein and blood biochemical parameters were evaluated in laying hens. A total of 300 commercial Lohmann LSL hens (30 weeks of age were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments which consisted of a normal corn diet containing corn–soy and 2 diets containing 5% and 10% sugar syrup. Each treatment was replicated 5 times (n = 20. Egg production, feed intake, body weight and egg weight of laying hens fed different diets were recorded. The experiment lasted for 20 weeks. The Haugh unit scores of hens fed diets with sugar syrup were significantly increased (P < 0.05 compared with the control treatment. The sugar syrup had no significant effect on liver enzymes, total protein, blood glucose and creatinine in all treatments. The eggs laid by hens fed sugar syrup diets had lower cholesterol level (P < 0.05 compared with those laid by hens fed the control diet. Electrophoresis analysis showed that comparable electrophoretic patterns were noticed between serum proteins of treatment groups. From the results, it can be concluded that sugar syrup diets and corn diets have similar effects on feed intake, body weight, production of eggs and blood biochemical parameters in layer hens, which suggests sugar syrup can be used as an energy source for replacing part of corn in poultry layer diets. Keywords: Cholesterol, Sugar syrup diet, Egg, Egg quality, Protein

  1. The effects of the sequential addition of synthesis parameters on the performance of alkali activated fly ash mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassekpo, Jean-Baptiste Mawulé; Zha, Xiaoxiong; Zhan, Jiapeng; Ning, Jiaqian

    Geopolymer is an energy efficient and sustainable material that is currently used in construction industry as an alternative for Portland cement. As a new material, specific mix design method is essential and efforts have been made to develop a mix design procedure with the main focus on achieving better compressive strength and economy. In this paper, a sequential addition of synthesis parameters such as fly ash-sand, alkaline liquids, plasticizer and additional water at well-defined time intervals was investigated. A total of 4 mix procedures were used to study the compressive performance on fly ash-based geopolymer mortar and the results of each method were analyzed and discussed. Experimental results show that the sequential addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), sodium silicate (Na2SiO3), plasticizer (PL), followed by adding water (WA) increases considerably the compressive strengths of the geopolymer-based mortar. These results clearly demonstrate the high significant influence of sequential addition of synthesis parameters on geopolymer materials compressive properties, and also provide a new mixing method for the preparation of geopolymer paste, mortar and concrete.

  2. Performance Parameters Analysis of an XD3P Peugeot Engine Using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) Concept in MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, T.; Vidhyashankar, S.; Madhusudan, M.; Bharath Shekar, H. R.

    2015-04-01

    The current trends of engineering follow the basic rule of innovation in mechanical engineering aspects. For the engineers to be efficient, problem solving aspects need to be viewed in a multidimensional perspective. One such methodology implemented is the fusion of technologies from other disciplines in order to solve the problems. This paper mainly deals with the application of Neural Networks in order to analyze the performance parameters of an XD3P Peugeot engine (used in Ministry of Defence). The basic propaganda of the work is divided into two main working stages. In the former stage, experimentation of an IC engine is carried out in order to obtain the primary data. In the latter stage the primary database formed is used to design and implement a predictive neural network in order to analyze the output parameters variation with respect to each other. A mathematical governing equation for the neural network is obtained. The obtained polynomial equation describes the characteristic behavior of the built neural network system. Finally, a comparative study of the results is carried out.

  3. Electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source: operating parameters vs. analytical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bunert

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatographs with electron capture detectors are widely used for the analysis of electron affine substances such as pesticides or chlorofluorocarbons. With detection limits in the low pptv range, electron capture detectors are the most sensitive detectors available for such compounds. Based on their operating principle, they require free electrons at atmospheric pressure, which are usually generated by a β− decay. However, the use of radioactive materials leads to regulatory restrictions regarding purchase, operation, and disposal. Here, we present a novel electron capture detector based on a non-radioactive electron source that shows similar detection limits compared to radioactive detectors but that is not subject to these limitations and offers further advantages such as adjustable electron densities and energies. In this work we show first experimental results using 1,1,2-trichloroethane and sevoflurane, and investigate the effect of several operating parameters on the analytical performance of this new non-radioactive electron capture detector (ECD.

  4. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING WEIBULL PARAMETERS FOR WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION IN THE DISTRICT OF MAROUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kidmo Kaoga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five numerical Weibull distribution methods, namely, the maximum likelihood method, the modified maximum likelihood method (MLM, the energy pattern factor method (EPF, the graphical method (GM, and the empirical method (EM were explored using hourly synoptic data collected from 1985 to 2013 in the district of Maroua in Cameroon. The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average compared to -11.67% on average for the EPF and -8.86% on average for the GM. As a result, the MLM was precisely recommended to estimate the scale and shape parameters for an accurate and efficient wind energy potential evaluation.

  5. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF METHODS FOR ESTIMATING WEIBULL PARAMETERS FOR WIND SPEED DISTRIBUTION IN THE DISTRICT OF MAROUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kidmo Kaoga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five numerical Weibull distribution methods, namely, the maximum likelihood method, the modified maximum likelihood method (MLM, the energy pattern factor method (EPF, the graphical method (GM, and the empirical method (EM were explored using hourly synoptic data collected from 1985 to 2013 in the district of Maroua in Cameroon. The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average compared to -11.67% on average for the EPF and -8.86% on average for the GM. As a result, the MLM was precisely recommended to estimate the scale and shape parameters for an accurate and efficient wind energy potential evaluation.

  6. Effects of Dietary Electrolyte Balance on Growth Performance, Nitrogen Metabolism and Some Blood Biochemical Parameters of Growing Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different dietary electrolyte balance (DEB on growth performance, nitrogen (N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters were investigated in 2 to 3 months old growing rabbits. A total of 150 growing rabbits of 2 months age were randomly divided into five groups according to average body weight, with 30 rabbits in each group. The DEB levels of the five experimental diets were −154, −3.16, +201, +347, and +500 meq/kg of dry matter (DM, respectively. There was a 7-d adaptation period and a 23-d experimental period. The results showed that the DEB levels had a quadratic affect on the average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.001. The greatest ADFI was achieved when the DEB level was +201 meq/kg DM. Fecal N (FN content linearly decreased (0.047, while digestible N (DN, retained N (RN, efficiency of intake N converted into digestible N (DN/IN and the efficiency of intake N converted into retained N (RN/IN linearly increased with the DEB increase (0.020, 0.004, 0.021, and 0.049, respectively. Serum phosphorus (P ion content linearly increased with the DEB increase (p = 0.036. The DEB had a quadratic relationship with serum anion gap (AG (p = 0.002 and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH content (p = 0.016. The DEB levels quadratically affected base excess (BE in the plasma (p<0.001. In conclusion, the DEB unaffected growth performance but affected feed intake, N metabolism and some blood biochemical parameters of growing rabbits.

  7. Can the learning of laparoscopic skills be quantified by the measurements of skill parameters performed in a virtual reality simulator?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natascha Silva Sandy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To ensure patient safety and surgical efficiency, much emphasis has been placed on the training of laparoscopic skills using virtual reality simulators. The purpose of this study was to determine whether laparoscopic skills can be objectively quantified by measuring specific skill parameters during training in a virtual reality surgical simulator (VRSS. Materials and Methods Ten medical students (with no laparoscopic experience and ten urology residents (PGY3-5 with limited laparoscopic experience were recruited to participate in a ten-week training course in basic laparoscopic skills (camera, cutting, peg transfer and clipping skills on a VRSS. Data were collected from the training sessions. The time that individuals took to complete each task and the errors that they made were analyzed independently. Results The mean time that individuals took to complete tasks was significantly different between the groups (p < 0.05, with the residents being faster than the medical students. The residents' group also completed the tasks with fewer errors. The majority of the subjects in both groups exhibited a significant improvement in their task completion time and error rate. Conclusion The findings in this study demonstrate that laparoscopic skills can be objectively measured in a VRSS based on quantified skill parameters, including the time spent to complete skill tasks and the associated error rate. We conclude that a VRSS is a feasible tool for training and assessing basic laparoscopic skills.

  8. Overview of solutions and analysis of the ability to evaluate the performance parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of aircraft engines development is the propulsion which is characterized by high power-to-mass ratio. Therefore, the alternative solutions that provide the required power by the low weight propulsion are sought after. The main advantage of these solutions is improvement of environmental and economic properties. This paper presents the overview of solutions and studies conducted for the unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion. For the purposes of studies a test bench was prepared. Its enables the comparison of the propulsion operating parameters taking into account changes in the values of thrust and propulsion power. The summary includes a proposal to improve the environmental indicators of propulsion systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  9. Audiovisual synchrony enhances BOLD responses in a brain network including multisensory STS while also enhancing target-detection performance for both modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Jennifer L; Ruff, Christian C; Driver, Jon

    2012-01-01

    The brain seeks to combine related inputs from different senses (e.g., hearing and vision), via multisensory integration. Temporal information can indicate whether stimuli in different senses are related or not. A recent human fMRI study (Noesselt et al. [2007]: J Neurosci 27:11431–11441) used auditory and visual trains of beeps and flashes with erratic timing, manipulating whether auditory and visual trains were synchronous or unrelated in temporal pattern. A region of superior temporal sulcus (STS) showed higher BOLD signal for the synchronous condition. But this could not be related to performance, and it remained unclear if the erratic, unpredictable nature of the stimulus trains was important. Here we compared synchronous audiovisual trains to asynchronous trains, while using a behavioral task requiring detection of higher-intensity target events in either modality. We further varied whether the stimulus trains had predictable temporal pattern or not. Synchrony (versus lag) between auditory and visual trains enhanced behavioral sensitivity (d') to intensity targets in either modality, regardless of predictable versus unpredictable patterning. The analogous contrast in fMRI revealed BOLD increases in several brain areas, including the left STS region reported by Noesselt et al. [2007: J Neurosci 27:11431–11441]. The synchrony effect on BOLD here correlated with the subject-by-subject impact on performance. Predictability of temporal pattern did not affect target detection performance or STS activity, but did lead to an interaction with audiovisual synchrony for BOLD in inferior parietal cortex. PMID:21953980

  10. High thermal performance lithium-ion battery pack including hybrid active–passive thermal management system for using in hybrid/electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a novel Li-ion battery pack design including hybrid active–passive thermal management system is presented. The battery pack is suitable for using in hybrid/electric vehicles. Active part of the hybrid thermal management system uses distributed thin ducts, air flow and natural convection as cooling media while the passive part utilizes phase change material/expanded graphite composite (PCM/EG) as cooling/heating component to optimize the thermal performance of the proposed battery pack. High melting enthalpy of PCM/EG composite together with melting of PCM/EG composite at the temperature of 58.9 °C remains the temperature distribution of the battery units in the desired temperature range (below 60 °C). The temperature and voltage distributions in the proposed battery pack design consisting of battery units, distributed thin ducts and PCM/EG composite are calculated by numerical solving of the related partial differential equations. Simulation results obtained by writing M-files code in Matlab environment and plotting the numerical data are presented to validate the theoretical results. A comparison between the thermal and physical characteristics of the proposed battery pack and other latest works is presented that explicitly proves the battery pack performance. - Highlights: • Novel Li-ion battery pack including active and passive thermal management systems. • The battery pack has high thermal performance for ambient temperatures until 55 °C. • Uniform temperature and voltage distributions. • The maximum observed temperature in each battery unit is less than other works. • The maximum temperature dispersion in each battery is less than other works

  11. An Improved Cognitive Model of the Iowa and Soochow Gambling Tasks With Regard to Model Fitting Performance and Tests of Parameter Consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi eDai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT and the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT are two experience-based risky decision-making tasks for examining decision-making deficits in clinical populations. Several cognitive models, including the expectancy-valence learning model (EVL and the prospect valence learning model (PVL, have been developed to disentangle the motivational, cognitive, and response processes underlying the explicit choices in these tasks. The purpose of the current study was to develop an improved model that can fit empirical data better than the EVL and PVL models and, in addition, produce more consistent parameter estimates across the IGT and SGT. Twenty-six opiate users (mean age 34.23; SD 8.79 and 27 control participants (mean age 35; SD 10.44 completed both tasks. Eighteen cognitive models varying in evaluation, updating, and choice rules were fit to individual data and their performances were compared to that of a statistical baseline model to find a best fitting model. The results showed that the model combining the prospect utility function treating gains and losses separately, the decay-reinforcement updating rule, and the trial-independent choice rule performed the best in both tasks. Furthermore, the winning model produced more consistent individual parameter estimates across the two tasks than any of the other models.

  12. Determination of quantitative retention-activity relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and biological effectiveness fingerprints of Salvia miltiorrhiza constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Haoshi; Huang, Hongzhang; Zheng, Aini; Yu, Nuojun; Li, Ning

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we analyzed danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) constituents using biopartitioning and microemulsion high-performance liquid chromatography (MELC). The quantitative retention-activity relationships (QRARs) of the constituents were established to model their pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and chromatographic retention data, and generate their biological effectiveness fingerprints. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established to determine the abundance of the extracted danshen constituents, such as sodium danshensu, rosmarinic acid, salvianolic acid B, protocatechuic aldehyde, cryptotanshinone, and tanshinone IIA. And another HPLC protocol was established to determine the abundance of those constituents in rat plasma samples. An experimental model was built in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats, and calculated the corresponding PK parameterst with 3P97 software package. Thirty-five model drugs were selected to test the PK parameter prediction capacities of the various MELC systems and to optimize the chromatographic protocols. QRARs and generated PK fingerprints were established. The test included water/oil-soluble danshen constituents and the prediction capacity of the regression model was validated. The results showed that the model had good predictability. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. How do geometry-related parameters influence the clinical performance of orthodontic mini-implants? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, A C; da Veiga, A M A; Masterson, D; Mattos, C T; Nojima, L I; Nojima, M C G; Maia, L C

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate how parameters related to geometry influence the clinical performance of orthodontic mini-implants (MIs). Systematic searches were performed in electronic databases including MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Virtual Health Library, and Cochrane Library and reference lists up to March 2016. Eligibility criteria comprised clinical studies involving patients who received MIs for orthodontic anchorage, with data for categories of MI dimension, shape, and thread design and insertion site, and evaluated by assessment of primary and secondary stability. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and a meta-analysis were carried out. Twenty-seven studies were included in the qualitative synthesis: five randomized, eight prospective, and 14 retrospective clinical studies. One study with a serious risk of bias was later excluded. Medium and short MIs (1.4-1.9mm diameter and 5-8mm length) presented the highest success rates (0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.92). A maximum insertion torque of 13.28Ncm (standard error 0.34) was observed for tapered self-drilling MIs in the mandible, whereas cylindrical MIs in the maxilla presented a maximum removal torque of 10.01Ncm (standard error 0.17). Moderate evidence indicates that the clinical performance of MIs is influenced by implant geometry parameters and is also related to properties of the insertion site. However, further research is necessary to support these associations. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The professional methodological teaching performance of the professor of Physical education. Set of parameters for its measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Pedro Suárez Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work was developed due to the need to attend to the difficulties found in the Physical Education teachers of the municipality of San Juan and Martínez during the development of the teaching-learning process of Basketball, which threaten the quality of the classes, sports results and preparation of the School for life. The objective is to propose parameters that allow measuring the professional teaching methodological performance of these teachers. The customized behavior of the research made possible the diagnosis of the 26 professors taken as a sample, expressing the traits that distinguish their efficiency, determining their potentialities and deficiencies. During the research process, theoretical, empirical and statistical methods were used, which permitted to corroborate the real existence of the problem, as well as the evaluation of its impact, which revealed a positive transformation in pedagogical practice. The results provide a concrete and viable answer for the improvement of the evaluation of the teaching-methodological component of the Physical Education teacher, which constitutes an important material of guidance for methodologists and managers related to the instrumental cognitive, procedural and attitudinal performance , In order to conduct from the precedent knowledge, the new knowledge and lead to a formative process, with a contemporary vision, offering methodological resources to control the quality of Physical Education lessons.

  15. Parameter design and performance analysis of shift actuator for a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Hu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments of pure electric vehicles have shown that pure electric vehicles equipped with two-speed or multi-speed gearbox possess higher energy efficiency by ensuring the drive motor operates at its peak performance range. This article presents the design, analysis, and control of a two-speed automatic mechanical transmission for pure electric vehicles. The shift actuator is based on a motor-controlled camshaft where a special geometric groove is machined, and the camshaft realizes the axial positions of the synchronizer sleeve for gear engaging, disengaging, and speed control of the drive motor. Based on the force analysis of shift process, the parameters of shift actuator and shift motor are designed. The drive motor’s torque control strategy before shifting, speed governing control strategy before engaging, shift actuator’s control strategy during gear engaging, and drive motor’s torque recovery strategy after shift process are proposed and implemented with a prototype. To validate the performance of the two-speed gearbox, a test bed was developed based on dSPACE that emulates various operation conditions. The experimental results indicate that the shift process with the proposed shift actuator and control strategy could be accomplished within 1 s under various operation conditions, with shift smoothness up to passenger car standard.

  16. Analytical Assessment of the Relationship between 100MWp Large-scale Grid-connected Photovoltaic Plant Performance and Meteorological Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jie; Zhu, Qiaoming; Cao, Shijie; You, Yang

    2017-05-01

    This paper helps in study of the relationship between the photovoltaic power generation of large scale “fishing and PV complementary” grid-tied photovoltaic system and meteorological parameters, with multi-time scale power data from the photovoltaic power station and meteorological data over the same period of a whole year. The result indicates that, the PV power generation has the most significant correlation with global solar irradiation, followed by diurnal temperature range, sunshine hours, daily maximum temperature and daily average temperature. In different months, the maximum monthly average power generation appears in August, which related to the more global solar irradiation and longer sunshine hours in this month. However, the maximum daily average power generation appears in October, this is due to the drop in temperature brings about the improvement of the efficiency of PV panels. Through the contrast of monthly average performance ratio (PR) and monthly average temperature, it is shown that, the larger values of monthly average PR appears in April and October, while it is smaller in summer with higher temperature. The results concluded that temperature has a great influence on the performance ratio of large scale grid-tied PV power system, and it is important to adopt effective measures to decrease the temperature of PV plant properly.

  17. The comparison of dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of holstein cows imported from Sweden and their Polish age mates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Czerniawska-Piątkowska

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The general aim of the present work was to compare dairy performance and some reproductive parameters of Holstein-Friesian (HF cows imported from Sweden as an in-calf heifers, and their age mates in Poland. The animals were kept freely on the deep litter on the farm owned by Agro-company “Witkowo” and feeding was based on TMR (total mixed ration system during whole year. All ration’s ingredients (bulky feed, concentrate, miscellaneous additives were mixed and fed as all-mash. The feed ration depended from the physiological condition of a cow and it was composed of corn and grass ensilage, mash concentrate, crushed corn meal, brewer’s grains and beet pulp.Cows imported from Sweden as in-calf heifers obtained higher milk, fat and protein yield in both lactations comparing to home cows. Significant statistical differences were observed for kg of milk, kg of protein, for FCM (P<0.01 and for kg of fat (P<0.05 in 2nd lactation. Fat and protein content in milk was in average higher for home cows (P<0.01. Big differences (P<0.01 were observed in SBT (proportion of protein to fat content and RTB (difference between concentration of fat and protein at imported cows in 2nd lactation. As far as reproduction parameters (gestation interval, calving interval, insemination index are concerned was cows from Sweden better too. Heifers from Sweden calved earlier. The usage of high genetic potential of imported cows is possible only with providing them optimum living conditions suitable to their needs.

  18. A Sensitivity Study of the Impact of Installation Parameters and System Configuration on the Performance of Bifacial PV Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marion, William F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Deline, Christopher A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Asgharzadeh, Amir [University of Iowa; Hansen, Clifford [Sandia National Laboratories; Stein, Joshua S. [Sandia National Laboratories; Toor, Fatima [University of Iowa

    2018-04-19

    In this paper, we present the effect of installation parameters (tilt angle, height above ground, and albedo) on the bifacial gain and energy yield of three south-facing photovoltaic (PV) system configurations: a single module, a row of five modules, and five rows of five modules utilizing RADIANCE-based ray tracing model. We show that height and albedo have a direct impact on the performance of bifacial systems. However, the impact of the tilt angle is more complicated. Seasonal optimum tilt angles are dependent on parameters such as height, albedo, size of the system, weather conditions, and time of the year. For a single bifacial module installed in Albuquerque, NM, USA (35 degrees N) with a reasonable clearance (~1 m) from the ground, the seasonal optimum tilt angle is lowest (~5 degrees) for the summer solstice and highest (~65 degrees) for the winter solstice. For larger systems, seasonal optimum tilt angles are usually higher and can be up to 20 degrees greater than that for a single module system. Annual simulations also indicate that for larger fixed-tilt systems installed on a highly reflective ground (such as snow or a white roofing material with an albedo of ~81%), the optimum tilt angle is higher than the optimum angle of the smaller size systems. We also show that modules in larger scale systems generate lower energy due to horizon blocking and large shadowing area cast by the modules on the ground. For albedo of 21%, the center module in a large array generates up to 7% less energy than a single bifacial module. To validate our model, we utilize measured data from Sandia National Laboratories' fixed-tilt bifacial PV testbed and compare it with our simulations.

  19. Effects of U.S. Navy Diver Training on Physiological Parameters, Time of Useful Consciousness and Cognitive Performance During Periods of Normobaric Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    TRAINING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS, TIME OF USEFULL CONSCIOUSNESS, AND COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE DURING PERIODS OF NORMOBARIC HYPOXIA...Sato, Y. Watanabe, "Time of Usefull Consciousness Determination in Aircrew Members with Rerference to Prior Altitude Chamber Experience and Age

  20. Effectiveness of maximal safe resection for glioblastoma including elderly and low karnofsky performance status patients. Retrospective review at a single institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uzuka, Takeo; Takahashi, Hideaki; Aoki, Hiroshi; Natsumeda, Manabu; Fujii, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    Elderly and low Karnofsky performance status (KPS) patients have been excluded from most prospective trials. This retrospective study investigated glioblastoma treatment outcomes, including those of elderly and low KPS patients, and analyzed the prognostic factors using the medical records of 107 consecutive patients, 59 men and 48 women aged from 21 to 85 years (median 65 years), with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated at our institute. There were 71 high-risk patients with age >70 years and/or KPS 6 -methylguanine-deoxyribonucleic acid methyltransferase-negative (p=0.027), and more than subtotal removal (p=0.003) were significant prognostic factors. The median postoperative KPS score tended to be better than the preoperative score, even in the high-risk group. We recommend maximal safe resection for glioblastoma patients, even those with advanced age and/or with low KPS scores. (author)

  1. Cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heats ratio and duration of combustion for spark ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehata, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental work were conducted for investigating cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heat ratio and duration of combustion for multi cylinder spark ignition engine (SIE). Ccylinder pressure was measured for gasoline, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) separately as a fuel for SIE. Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) was used to cylinder pressure data transform from time domain into frequency domain to develop empirical correlation for calculating cylinder pressures at different engine speeds and different fuels. In addition, Inverse Fast Fourier Transformations (IFFT) was used to cylinder pressure reconstruct into time domain. The results gave good agreement between the measured cylinder pressure and the reconstructed cylinder pressure in time domain with different engine speeds and different fuels. The measured cylinder pressure and hydraulic dynamotor were the sours of data for calculating engine performance parameters. First law of thermodynamics and single zone heat release model with temperature dependant specific heat ratio γ(T) were the main tools for calculating heat release and heat transfer to cylinder walls. Third order empirical correlation for calculating γ(T) was one of the main gains of the present study. The correlation gave good agreement with other researchers with wide temperatures range. For kerosene, cylinder pressure is higher than for gasoline and LPG due to high volumetric efficiency where kerosene density (mass/volume ratio) is higher than gasoline and LPG. In addition, kerosene heating value is higher than gasoline that contributes in heat release rate and pressure increases. Duration of combustion for different engine speeds was determined using four different methods: (I) Mass fuel burnt, (II) Entropy change, (III) Temperature dependant specific heat ratio γ(T), and (IV) Logarithmic scale of (P and V). The duration of combustion for kerosene is smaller than for gasoline and LPG due to high

  2. Comparison of Temporal Parameters of Swimming Rescue Elements When Performed Using Dolphin and Flutter Kick with Fins - Didactical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejman, Marek; Wiesner, Wojciech; Silakiewicz, Piotr; Klarowicz, Andrzej; Abraldes, J. Arturo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was an analysis of the time required to swim to a victim and tow them back to shore, while perfoming the flutter-kick and the dolphin-kick using fins. It has been hypothesized that using fins while using the dolphin-kick when swimming leads to reduced rescue time. Sixteen lifeguards took part in the study. The main tasks performed by them, were to approach and tow (double armpit) a dummy a distance of 50m while applying either the flutter-kick, or the dolphin-kick with fins. The analysis of the temporal parameters of both techniques of kicking demonstrates that, during the approach to the victim, neither the dolphin (tmean = 32.9s) or the flutter kick (tmean = 33.0s) were significantly faster than the other. However, when used for towing a victim the flutter kick (tmean = 47.1s) was significantly faster when compared to the dolphin-kick (tmean = 52.8s). An assessment of the level of technical skills in competitive swimming, and in approaching and towing the victim, were also conducted. Towing time was significantly correlated with the parameter that linked the temporal and technical dimensions of towing and swimming (difference between flutter kick towing time and dolphin-kick towing time, 100m medley time and the four swimming strokes evaluation). No similar interdependency has been discovered in flutter kick towing time. These findings suggest that the dolphin-kick is a more difficult skill to perform when towing the victim than the flutter-kick. Since the hypothesis stated was not confirmed, postulates were formulated on how to improve dolphin-kick technique with fins, in order to reduce swimming rescue time. Key points The source of reduction of swimming rescue time was researched. Time required to approach and to tow the victim while doing the flutter kick and the dolphin-kick with fins was analyzed. The propulsion generated by dolphin-kick did not make the approach and tow faster than the flutter kick. More difficult skill to realize of

  3. Cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heats ratio and duration of combustion for spark ignition engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shehata, M.S. [Mechanical Engineering Technology Department, Higher Institute of Technology, Banha University, 4Zagalol Street, Benha, Galubia 1235 Z (Egypt)

    2010-12-15

    An experimental work were conducted for investigating cylinder pressure, performance parameters, heat release, specific heat ratio and duration of combustion for multi cylinder spark ignition engine (SIE). Ccylinder pressure was measured for gasoline, kerosene and Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) separately as a fuel for SIE. Fast Fourier Transformations (FFT) was used to cylinder pressure data transform from time domain into frequency domain to develop empirical correlation for calculating cylinder pressures at different engine speeds and different fuels. In addition, Inverse Fast Fourier Transformations (IFFT) was used to cylinder pressure reconstruct into time domain. The results gave good agreement between the measured cylinder pressure and the reconstructed cylinder pressure in time domain with different engine speeds and different fuels. The measured cylinder pressure and hydraulic dynamotor were the source of data for calculating engine performance parameters. First law of thermodynamics and single zone heat release model with temperature dependant specific heat ratio {gamma}(T) were the main tools for calculating heat release and heat transfer to cylinder walls. Third order empirical correlation for calculating {gamma}(T) was one of the main gains of the present study. The correlation gave good agreement with other researchers with wide temperatures range. For kerosene, cylinder pressure is higher than for gasoline and LPG due to high volumetric efficiency where kerosene density (mass/volume ratio) is higher than gasoline and LPG. In addition, kerosene heating value is higher than gasoline that contributes in heat release rate and pressure increases. Duration of combustion for different engine speeds was determined using four different methods: (I) Mass fuel burnt, (II) Entropy change, (III) Temperature dependant specific heat ratio {gamma}(T), and (IV) Logarithmic scale of (P and V). The duration of combustion for kerosene is smaller than for gasoline and

  4. Investigation of the performance of fermentation processes using a mathematical model including effects of metabolic bottleneck and toxic product on cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Shiraishi, Fumihide

    2010-11-01

    A number of recent research studies have focused on theoretical and experimental investigation of a bottleneck in a metabolic reaction network. However, there is no study on how the bottleneck affects the performance of a fermentation process when a product is highly toxic and remarkably influences the growth and death of cells. The present work therefore studies the effect of bottleneck on product concentrations under different product toxicity conditions. A generalized bottleneck model in a fed-batch fermentation is constructed including both the bottleneck and the product influences on cell growth and death. The simulation result reveals that when the toxic product strongly influences the cell growth and death, the final product concentration is hardly changed even if the bottleneck is removed, whereas it is markedly changed by the degree of product toxicity. The performance of an ethanol fermentation process is also discussed as a case example to validate this result. In conclusion, when the product is highly toxic, one cannot expect a significant increase in the final product concentration even if removing the bottleneck; rather, it may be more effective to somehow protect the cells so that they can continuously produce the product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of 4 Weeks of β-Alanine Supplementation on Swim-Performance Parameters in Water Polo Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisola, Gabriel Motta Pinheiro; Milioni, Fabio; Papoti, Marcelo; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura

    2017-08-01

    In water polo, several high-intensity efforts are performed, leading to the fatigue process due to accumulation of hydrogen ions, and thus β-alanine supplementation could be an efficient strategy to increase the intramuscular acid buffer. Purpose To investigate whether 4 wk of β-alanine supplementation enhances parameters related to water polo performance. Methods Twenty-two highly trained male water polo players of national level were randomly assigned to receive 28 d of either β-alanine or a placebo (4.8 g/d of the supplement in the first 10 d and 6.4 g/d in the final 18 d). The participants performed 30-s maximal tethered swimming (30TS), 200-m swimming (P200m), and 30-s crossbar jumps (30CJ) before and after the supplementation period. Results The β-alanine group presented significant increases in 30TS for mean force (P = .04; Δ = 30.5% ± 40.4%) and integral of force (P = .05; Δ = 28.0% ± 38.0%), as well as P200m (P = .05; Δ = -2.2% ± 2.6%), while the placebo group did not significantly differ for mean force (P = .13; Δ = 24.1% ± 33.7%), integral of force (P = .12; Δ = 24.3% ± 35.1%), or P200m (P = .10; Δ = -1.6% ± 3.8%). However, there was no significant group effect for any variable, and the magnitude-based-inference analysis showed unclear outcomes between groups (Cohen d ± 95%CL mean force = 0.16 ± 0.83, integral of force = 0.12 ± 0.84, and P200m = 0.05 ± 0.30). For 30CJ the results were similar, with improvements in both groups (placebo, Δ = 14.9% ± 14.1%; β-alanine, Δ = 16.9% ± 18.5%) but with no significant interaction effect between groups and an unclear effect (0.14 ± 0.75). Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation does not substantially improve performance of 30TS, P200m, or 30CJ in highly trained water polo athletes compared with a control group.

  6. Impact of skin capsular distance on the performance of controlled attenuation parameter in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Feng; Zheng, Rui-Dan; Shi, Jun-Ping; Mi, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Guo-Feng; Hu, Xiqi; Liu, Yong-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Pan, Qin; Chen, Guang-Yu; Chen, Jian-Neng; Xu, Liang; Zhang, Rui-Nan; Xu, Lei-Ming; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2015-11-01

    Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) is a non-invasive method for evaluating hepatic steatosis. However, larger skin capsular distance (SCD) can affect the accuracy. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of SCD on the diagnostic performance of CAP and liver stiffness measurement (LSM). Of 101 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and 280 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who underwent liver biopsy were prospectively recruited. CAP, LSM and SCD were performed using FibroScan with M probe. The areas under receiver operating characteristics curves (AUROCs) were calculated to determine the diagnostic efficacy. The optimal thresholds were defined by the maximum Youden index. SCD (B 30.34, P 33% (0.90 vs. 0.85) and >66% (0.84 vs. 0.72). For SCD 33% and >66% were 255.0 dB/m, 283.5 dB/m and 293.5 dB/m. However, cut-offs were elevated by approximately 60-70 dB/m for SCD ≥25 mm. When stratified by fibrosis grade, LSM was significantly affected by SCD ≥25 mm for advanced fibrosis (≥F3) in NAFLD, but not in CHB. CAP is a promising tool for detecting and quantifying hepatic steatosis. SCD ≥25 mm may cause overestimation of steatosis. Similarly, SCD ≥25 mm affects the detection of advanced fibrosis by LSM in NAFLD patients. © 2015 The Authors. Liver International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Physical effects of mechanical design parameters on photon sensitivity and spatial resolution performance of a breast-dedicated PET system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoudaki, V C; Lau, F W Y; Vandenbroucke, A; Levin, C S

    2010-11-01

    This study aims to address design considerations of a high resolution, high sensitivity positron emission tomography scanner dedicated to breast imaging. The methodology uses a detailed Monte Carlo model of the system structures to obtain a quantitative evaluation of several performance parameters. Special focus was given to the effect of dense mechanical structures designed to provide mechanical robustness and thermal regulation to the minuscule and temperature sensitive detectors. For the energies of interest around the photopeak (450-700 keV energy window), the simulation results predict a 6.5% reduction in the single photon detection efficiency and a 12.5% reduction in the coincidence photon detection efficiency in the case that the mechanical structures are interspersed between the detectors. However for lower energies, a substantial increase in the number of detected events (approximately 14% and 7% for singles at a 100-200 keV energy window and coincidences at a lower energy threshold of 100 keV, respectively) was observed with the presence of these structures due to backscatter. The number of photon events that involve multiple interactions in various crystal elements is also affected by the presence of the structures. For photon events involving multiple interactions among various crystal elements, the coincidence photon sensitivity is reduced by as much as 20% for a point source at the center of the field of view. There is no observable effect on the intrinsic and the reconstructed spatial resolution and spatial resolution uniformity. Mechanical structures can have a considerable effect on system sensitivity, especially for systems processing multi-interaction photon events. This effect, however, does not impact the spatial resolution. Various mechanical structure designs are currently under evaluation in order to achieve optimum trade-off between temperature stability, accurate detector positioning, and minimum influence on system performance.

  8. In vitro⿿in vivo performance of bare and drug loaded silica gel synthesized via optimized process parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suparna; Biswas, Supratim

    2016-01-01

    Silica xerogel as a potential drug carrier system for the in vivo as well as in vitro delivery of andrographolide was tested. The present study aims to optimize the effective experimental parameters; volume of ethanol, volume of water and drying temperature by applying response surface methodology coupled with Box⿿Behnken experimental design. The in vitro drug release in simulated body fluid at 37 οC from the selected formulation was significantly highest (44.83 ± 0.9%) among rest of the formulations. Results indicate that sol⿿gel method is useful for entrapping andrographolide in the silica gel and for releasing the same via diffusion through the porous matrix under the in vitro/in vivo conditions. Silica gel exhibited slow matrix degradation as well as sustained release of andrographolide within the experimental time frame of 168 h. In vivo study was performed with three increasing doses [2 mg (S1), 8 mg (S2), and 16 mg (S3)] of silica. Histological fates of different organs were executed with those doses.

  9. Modelling on c-Si/a-Si:H wire solar cells: some key parameters to optimize the photovoltaic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez J.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Solar cells based on silicon nano- or micro-wires have attracted much attention as a promising path for low cost photovoltaic technology. The key point of this structure is the decoupling of the light absorption from the carriers collection. In order to predict and optimize the performance potential of p- (or n- doped c-Si/ n-(or p- doped a-Si:H nanowire-based solar cells, we have used the Silvaco-Atlas software to model a single-wire device. In particular, we have noticed a drastic decrease of the open-circuit voltage (Voc when increasing the doping density of the silicon core beyond an optimum value. We present here a detailed study of the parameters that can alter the Voc of c-Si(p/a-Si:H (n wires according to the doping density in c-Si. A comparison with simulation results obtained on planar c-Si/a-Si:H heterojunctions shows that the drop in Voc, linked to an increase of the dark current in both structures, is more pronounced for radial junctions due to geometric criteria. These numerical modelling results have lead to a better understanding of transport phenomena within the wire.

  10. The effect of the humic acid and garlic (Allium sativum L. on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika PISTOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and humic acids and garlic powder (Allium sativum L. combination on performance parameters and carcass characteristic of broiler chickens were studied. A total of 120 Ross 308 broiler chickens were divided into 3 treatments (n=40. The control group of chickens was fed complete feed mixtures without any additives. Treatment T1 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1% of humic acid. Treatment T2 was fed complete feed mixtures containing 1.8% of humic acid and 0.2% of garlic powder (Allium sativum L.. At the end of the experiment was average body weight (values in the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 1999.1±355.8 and 1958.6±201.2 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 in both treatments groups compared to control group. In T1 was weight of gizzard (values in the order of the groups: 34.9±5.2; 43.1±9.4 and 38.9±7.0 g±SD significantly higher (P≤0.05 compared to control group. Carcass weight, weight of heart weight of liver and carcass yield of treatments groups was higher, but differences in these indicators were not statistically significant (P≥0.05. The results of this experiment indicate that humic acids may by an alternative replacement of feed antibiotics.

  11. Effects of dietary energy levels on physiological parameters and reproductive performance of gestating sows over three consecutive parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S S; Jin, Y H; Jang, J C; Hong, J S; Jung, S W; Kim, Y Y

    2018-03-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effects of the dietary energy levels on the physiological parameters and reproductive performance during gestation over three parities in sows. A total of 52 F1 gilts (Yorkshire×Landrace) were allotted to one of four dietary treatments using a completely randomized design. The treatments contained 3,100, 3,200, 3,300, or 3,400 kcal of metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet but feed was provided at 2.0, 2.2, and 2.4 kg/d in the first, second and third parity, respectively. The body weight and body weight gain during gestation increased as the dietary energy level increased (penergy level increased (penergy treatment diet (p = 0.08) and the body weight, body weight gain were increased by dietary energy level during gestation (penergy level increased at the first parity (penergy intake of gestating sows should be 6,400 or 6,600 kcal of ME/d, 7,040 or 7,260 kcal of ME/d, and 7,680 or 7,920 kcal of ME/d for parity 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

  12. Multi-objective optimization of combustion, performance and emission parameters in a jatropha biodiesel engine using Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhingra, Sunil; Bhushan, Gian; Dubey, Kashyap Kumar

    2014-03-01

    The present work studies and identifies the different variables that affect the output parameters involved in a single cylinder direct injection compression ignition (CI) engine using jatropha biodiesel. Response surface methodology based on Central composite design (CCD) is used to design the experiments. Mathematical models are developed for combustion parameters (Brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and peak cylinder pressure (Pmax)), performance parameter brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and emission parameters (CO, NO x , unburnt HC and smoke) using regression techniques. These regression equations are further utilized for simultaneous optimization of combustion (BSFC, Pmax), performance (BTE) and emission (CO, NO x , HC, smoke) parameters. As the objective is to maximize BTE and minimize BSFC, Pmax, CO, NO x , HC, smoke, a multiobjective optimization problem is formulated. Nondominated sorting genetic algorithm-II is used in predicting the Pareto optimal sets of solution. Experiments are performed at suitable optimal solutions for predicting the combustion, performance and emission parameters to check the adequacy of the proposed model. The Pareto optimal sets of solution can be used as guidelines for the end users to select optimal combination of engine output and emission parameters depending upon their own requirements.

  13. Comparing the Performance of Artificial Intelligence Models in Estimating Water Quality Parameters in Periods of Low and High Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    majid montaseri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A total dissolved solid (TDS is an important indicator for water quality assesment. Since the composition of mineral salts and discharge affects the TDS of water, it is important to understand the relationships of mineral salts composition with TDS. Materials and Methods: In this study, methods of artificial neural networks with five different training algorithm,Levenberg-Marquardt (LM, Scaled Conjugate Gradient (SCG, Fletcher Conjugate Gradient (CGF, One Step Secant (OSS and Gradient descent with adaptive learning rate backpropagation(GDAalgorithm and adaptive Neurofuzzy inference system based on Subtractive Clustering were used to model water quality properties of Zarrineh River Basin, to be developed in total dissolved solids prediction. ANN and ANFIS program code were written in MATLAB language. Here, the ANN with one hidden layer was used and the hidden nodes’ number was determined using trial and error. Different activation functions (logarithm sigmoid, tangent sigmoid and linear were tried for the hidden and output nodes. Therefore, water quality data from seven hydrometer stationswere used during the statistical period of 18years (1993-2010.In this research, the study period was divided into two periods of dry and wet flow, and then in a preliminary statistical analysis, the main parameters affecting the estimation of the TDS are determined and isused for modeling. 75% of data are used for remaining and 25% of the data are used for evaluation of the model, randomly. In this paper, three statistical evaluation criteria, correlation coefficient (R, the root mean square error (RMSE and mean absolute error (MAE were used to assess models’ performances. Results and Discussion: By applying correlation coefficients method between the parameters of water quality and discharge with total dissolved solid in two periods, wet and dry periods, the significant (at 95% level variables entered into the model were Q, HCO3., Cl, So4, Ca

  14. Effect of dietary supplementation of organic zinc on laying performance, egg quality and some biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, M E; Alagawany, M; Amer, S A; Arif, M; Wahdan, K M M; El-Kholy, M S

    2018-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on the performance, egg quality, antioxidant status and some biochemical parameters of blood serum in laying hens from 22 to 34 weeks of age. A total of 120 Hisex Brown laying hens of 22-week-old were randomly allocated into five treatments with six cage replicates for each (four hens/replicate). Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet with no Zn-Met supplementation (control group) and basal diet supplemented with 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. No significant differences were observed on body weight, body weight gain or feed conversion ratio due to dietary Zn-Met supplementation. However, highly significant impact was observed on daily feed intake. Egg number, egg weight and egg mass were increased in the group fed diet supplemented with the highest level of Zn-Met (100 mg/kg of diet) as compared to other groups. All egg quality traits were statistically (p > .05 or .01) affected as a response to dietary Zn-Met supplementation except egg shape index, shell percentage and yolk index. In comparison with the control group, dietary supplementation of 25, 50, 75 or 100 mg Zn-Met/kg decreased serum triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels. Serum cholesterol level was increased with all dietary levels of Zn-Met in comparison with the control group. Dietary Zn-Met supplementation increased the serum content of zinc, where the highest values were recorded with 50 and 100 mg Zn-Met/kg diet. Dietary Zn-Met levels did not affect the antioxidant indices in blood serum except for the activity of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD). The activity of Cu-Zn-SOD was increased with Zn-Met supplementations with no differences among supplemental zinc levels. It is concluded that dietary Zn-Met supplementation reduced serum triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and increased Zn status and resulted in promoting antioxidant ability of laying hens, and the addition of 100 mg Zn

  15. Effects of including NaOH-treated corn straw as a substitute for wheat hay in the ration of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jami, E; Shterzer, N; Yosef, E; Nikbachat, M; Miron, J; Mizrahi, I

    2014-03-01

    This study measured the effects of including 5% NaOH-treated corn straw (T-CS) as a substitute for 15% wheat hay in the control total mixed ration (TMR) of lactating cows on performance, digestibility, and rumen microbial profile. Two groups of 21 cows each, similar in initial performance, were fed individually 1 of the 2 TMR examined. Voluntary dry matter intake of cows fed the control TMR was 4.3% higher than that of the T-CS cows, but in vivo dry matter and organic matter digestibilities of both groups were similar. Crude protein digestibility was higher in the control cows but digestibility of neutral detergent fiber polysaccharides (cellulose and hemicelluloses) was higher in the T-CS TMR. This was followed by 4.6% reduction in rumination time of the T-CS group. A slightly higher milk yield was observed in the control cows compared with the T-CS group; however, milk fat and milk protein content were higher in cows fed the T-CS TMR. This was reflected in 1.3% increase in energy-corrected milk yield and 5.34% increase in production efficiency (energy-corrected milk yield/intake) of the T-CS cows compared with the control. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was improved by feeding the T-CS TMR relative to the control group. As a whole, the rumen bacterial community was significantly modulated in the T-CS group in the experimental period compared with the preexperimental period, whereas the bacterial community of the control group remained unchanged during this period. Out of the 8 bacterial species that were quantified using real-time PCR, a notable decrease in cellulolytic bacteria was observed in the T-CS group, as well as an increase in lactic acid-utilizing bacteria. These results illustrate the effect of T-CS on the composition of rumen microbiota, which may play a role in improving the performance of the lactating cow. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO₂ Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I

    2016-08-22

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO₂), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young's modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L₉ orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO₂, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO₂ nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO₂ nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process.

  17. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hifsa Pervez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2, barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process.

  18. Optimization of Injection Molding Parameters for HDPE/TiO2 Nanocomposites Fabrication with Multiple Performance Characteristics Using the Taguchi Method and Grey Relational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Hifsa; Mozumder, Mohammad S.; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I.

    2016-01-01

    The current study presents an investigation on the optimization of injection molding parameters of HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites using grey relational analysis with the Taguchi method. Four control factors, including filler concentration (i.e., TiO2), barrel temperature, residence time and holding time, were chosen at three different levels of each. Mechanical properties, such as yield strength, Young’s modulus and elongation, were selected as the performance targets. Nine experimental runs were carried out based on the Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, and the data were processed according to the grey relational steps. The optimal process parameters were found based on the average responses of the grey relational grades, and the ideal operating conditions were found to be a filler concentration of 5 wt % TiO2, a barrel temperature of 225 °C, a residence time of 30 min and a holding time of 20 s. Moreover, analysis of variance (ANOVA) has also been applied to identify the most significant factor, and the percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to have the most significant effect on the properties of the HDPE/TiO2 nanocomposites fabricated through the injection molding process. PMID:28773830

  19. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Simultaneous analysis of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances including ultrashort-chain C2 and C3 compounds in rain and river water samples by ultra performance convergence chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Leo W Y; Stadey, Christopher; Mabury, Scott A

    2017-11-03

    An analytical method using ultra performance convergence chromatography (UPC 2 ) coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer operated in negative electrospray mode was developed to measure perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) including the ultrashort-chain PFASs (C2-C3). Compared to the existing liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using an ion exchange column, the new method has a lower detection limit (0.4pg trifluoroacetate (TFA) on-column), narrower peak width (3-6s), and a shorter run time (8min). Using the same method, different classes of PFASs (e.g., perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) and perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), perfluorinated phosphonates (PFPAs) and phosphinates (PFPiAs), polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters (diPAPs)) can be measured in a single analysis. Rain (n=2) and river water (n=2) samples collected in Toronto, ON, were used for method validation and application. Results showed that short-chain PFAS (C2-C7 PFCAs and C4 PFSA) contributed to over 80% of the detectable PFASs in rain samples and the C2-C3 PFASs alone accounted for over 40% of the total. Reports on environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs are relatively scarce. Relatively large contribution of these ultrashort-chain PFASs to the total PFASs indicate the need to include the measurement of short-chain PFASs, especially C2 and C3 PFASs, in environmental monitoring. The sources of TFA and other short-chain PFASs in the environment are not entirely clear. The newly developed analytical method may help further investigation on the sources and the environmental levels of these ultrashort-chain PFASs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Process performance assessment of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Patricio; Barriga, Felipe; Álvarez, Claudia; González, Zenón; Vidal, Gladys

    2018-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and digestate quality of advanced anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge including sequential ultrasound-thermal (55 °C) pre-treatment. Both stages of pre-treatment contributed to chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilization, with an overall factor of 11.4 ± 2.2%. Pre-treatment led to 19.1, 24.0 and 29.9% increased methane yields at 30, 15 and 7.5 days solid retention times (SRT), respectively, without affecting process stability or accumulation of intermediates. Pre-treatment decreased up to 4.2% water recovery from the digestate, but SRT was a more relevant factor controlling dewatering. Advanced digestion showed 2.4-3.1 and 1.5 logarithmic removals of coliforms and coliphages, respectively, and up to a 58% increase in the concentration of inorganics in the digestate solids compared to conventional digestion. The COD balance of the process showed that the observed increase in methane production was proportional to the pre-treatment solubilization efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of critical parameters for PEMFC stack performance characterization and control strategies for reliable and comparable stack benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Gülzow, Erich; Kabza, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the identification of critical parameters and on the development of reliable methodologies to achieve comparable benchmark results. Possibilities for control sensor positioning and for parameter variation in sensitivity tests are discussed and recommended options for the ...

  3. Predictive performance of the 'Minto' remifentanil pharmacokinetic parameter set in morbidly obese patients ensuing from a new method for calculating lean body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Colla, Luca; Albertin, Andrea; La Colla, Giorgio; Porta, Andrea; Aldegheri, Giorgio; Di Candia, Domenico; Gigli, Fausto

    2010-01-01

    In a previous article, we showed that the pharmacokinetic set of remifentanil used for target-controlled infusion (TCI) might be biased in obese patients because it incorporates flawed equations for the calculation of lean body mass (LBM), which is a covariate of several pharmacokinetic parameters in this set. The objectives of this study were to determine the predictive performance of the original pharmacokinetic set, which incorporates the James equation for LBM calculation, and to determine the predictive performance of the pharmacokinetic set when a new method to calculate LBM was used (the Janmahasatian equations). This was an observational study with intraoperative observations and no follow-up. Fifteen morbidly obese inpatients scheduled for bariatric surgery were included in the study. The intervention included manually controlled continuous infusion of remifentanil during the surgery and analysis of arterial blood samples to determine the arterial remifentanil concentration, to be compared with concentrations predicted by either the unadjusted or the adjusted pharmacokinetic set. The statistical analysis included parametric and non-parametric tests on continuous variables and determination of the median performance error (MDPE), median absolute performance error (MDAPE), divergence and wobble. The median values (interquartile ranges) of the MDPE, MDAPE, divergence and wobble for the James equations during maintenance were -53.4% (-58.7% to -49.2%), 53.4% (49.0-58.7%), 3.3% (2.9-4.7%) and 1.4% h(-1) (1.1-2.5% h(-1)), respectively. The respective values for the Janmahasatian equations were -18.9% (-24.2% to -10.4%), 20.5% (13.3-24.8%), 2.6% (-0.7% to 4.5%) and 1.9% h(-1) (1.4-3.0% h(-1)). The performance (in terms of the MDPE and MDAPE) of the corrected pharmacokinetic set was better than that of the uncorrected one. The predictive performance of the original pharmacokinetic set is not clinically acceptable. Use of a corrected LBM value in morbidly obese

  4. [Study on the Effects and Compensation Effect of Recording Parameters Error on Imaging Performance of Holographic Grating in On-Line Spectral Diagnose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-xiu; Bayanheshig; Yang, Shuo; Zhao, Xu-long; Wu, Na; Li, Wen-hao

    2016-03-01

    To making the high resolution grating, a numerical calculation was used to analyze the effect of recording parameters on groove density, focal curve and imaging performance of the grating and their compensation. Based on Fermat' s principle, light path function and aberration, the effect on imaging performance of the grating was analyzed. In the case of fixed using parameters, the error of the recording angle has a greater influence on imaging performance, therefore the gain of the weight of recording angle can improve the accuracy of the recording angle values in the optimization; recording distance has little influence on imaging performance; the relative errors of recording parameters cause the change of imaging performance of the grating; the results indicate that recording parameter errors can be compensated by adjusting its corresponding parameter. The study can give theoretical guidance to the fabrication for high resolution varied-line-space plane holographic grating in on-line spectral diagnostic and reduce the alignment difficulty by analyze the main error effect the imaging performance and propose the compensation method.

  5. Effects of Garlic (Alliumsativum and chloramphenicol on growth performance, physiological parameters and survival of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Shalaby

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied and compared the effects of chloramphenicol antibiotic and garlic (Allium sativum, used as immunostimulants and growth promoters, on some physiological parameters, growth performance, survival rate, and bacteriological characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Fish (7±1g/fish were assigned to eight treatments, with three replicates each. Treatment groups had a different level of Allium sativum (10, 20, 30, and 40g/kg diet and chloramphenicol (15, 30, and 45mg/kg diet added to their diets; the control group diet was free from garlic and antibiotic. Diets also contained 32% crude protein (CP and were administered at a rate of 3% live body weight twice daily for 90 days. Results showed that the final weight and specific growth rate (SGR of O. niloticus increased significantly with increasing levels of Allium sativum and chloramphenicol. The highest growth performance was verified with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. The lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed with 30g Allium sativum / kg diet and 30mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER with all treatments, except with 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. No changes in the hepatosomatic index and survival rate were observed. Crude protein content in whole fish increased significantly in the group fed on 30g Allium sativum / kg diet, while total lipids decreased significantly in the same group. Ash of whole fish showed significantly high values with 30g Allium sativum and 15mg chloramphenicol / kg diet while the lowest value was observed in the control group. Blood parameters, erythrocyte count (RBC, and hemoglobin content in fish fed on diets containing 40g Allium sativum and all levels of chloramphenicol were significantly higher than in control. Significantly higher hematocrit values were seen with 30 and 45mg chloramphenicol / kg diet. There were no significant differences

  6. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  7. Effects of Increasing Levels of Dietary Cooked and Uncooked Banana Meal on Growth Performance and Carcass Parameters of Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S.B.M Atapattu* and T.S.M.S. Senevirathne

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Discarded banana is a valuable feed ingredient for poultry feed formulations. However, due to the presence of resistant starches, inclusion of more than 10% banana meal in poultry rations reduces the growth performance. The objective of this study was to determine whether higher levels of banana meal could be included in broiler diets if raw banana is cooked before being processed into meal. Discarded banana (Cavendish collected at harvesting was processed into two types of banana meals. Cooked banana meal was prepared by cooking banana at 100oC for 15 minutes and subsequent drying. Uncooked banana meal was prepared by drying at 800C for three days. Giving a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement, 144 broiler chicks in 48 cages received one of the eight experimental diets containing either cooked or uncooked banana meal at 0, 10, 20 or 30% ad libitum from day 21-42. Birds fed cooked banana meal were significantly heavier on day 28 and 35. Live weight on day 42, weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion efficiency were not affected either by the type or level of banana meal and their interaction. Cooked banana meal increased the weights of the crop and liver significantly. Weight of the small intestine, proventriculus, gizzard abdominal fat pad and the fat free tibia ash contents were not affected by the dietary treatments. It was concluded that uncooked banana meal produced using peeled raw banana can be included up to 30% in nutritionally balanced broiler finisher diets without any adverse effects on performance.

  8. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  9. A numerical study on the effect of various combustion bowl parameters on the performance, combustion, and emission behavior on a single cylinder diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Dhinesh; Sokkalingam Arumugam, Sabari Rajan; Subramani, Lingesan; Joshua Stephen Chellakumar, Isaac JoshuaRamesh Lalvani; Mani, Annamalai

    2018-01-01

    A numerical study was carried out to study the effect of various combustion bowl parameters on the performance behavior, combustion characteristics, and emission magnitude on a single cylinder diesel engine. A base combustion bowl and 11 different combustion bowls were created by varying the aspect ratio, reentrancy ratio, and bore to bowl ratio. The study was carried out at engine rated speed and a full throttle performance condition, without altering the compression ratio. The results revealed that the combustion bowl parameters could have a huge impact on the performance behavior, combustion characteristics, and emission magnitude of the engine. The bowl parameters, namely throat diameter and toroidal radius, played a crucial role in determining the performance behavior of the combustion bowls. It was observed that the combustion bowl parameters, namely central pip distance, throat diameter, and bowl depth, also could have an impact on the combustion characteristics. And throat diameter and toroidal radius, central pip distance, and toroidal corner radius could have a consequent effect on the emission magnitude of the engine. Of the different combustion bowls tested, combustion bowl 4 was preferable to others owing to the superior performance of 3% of higher indicated mean effective pressure and lower fuel consumption. Interestingly, trade-off for NO x emission was higher only by 2.85% compared with the base bowl. The sensitivity analysis proved that bowl depth, bowl diameter, toroidal radius, and throat diameter played a vital role in the fuel consumption parameter and emission characteristics even at the manufacturing tolerance variations.

  10. A Design Study of the Inflated Sphere Landing Vehicle, Including the Landing Performance and the Effects of Deviations from Design Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. Dale

    1961-01-01

    The impact motion of the inflated sphere landing vehicle with a payload centrally supported from the spherical skin by numerous cords has been determined on the assumption of uniform isentropic gas compression during impact. The landing capabilities are determined for a system containing suspension cords of constant cross section. The effects of deviations in impact velocity and initial gas temperature from the design conditions are studied. Also discussed are the effects of errors in the time at which the skin is ruptured. These studies indicate how the design parameters should be chosen to insure reliability of the landing system. Calculations have been made and results are presented for a sphere inflated with hydrogen, landing on the moon in the absence of an atmosphere. The results are presented for one value of the skin-strength parameter.

  11. Comparison between parameters of muscle performance and inflammatory biomarkers of non-sarcopenic and sarcopenic elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lustosa LP

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lygia Paccini Lustosa,1 Patrícia Parreira Batista,1 Daniele Sirineu Pereira,2 Leani Souza Máximo Pereira,1 Aline Scianni,1 Giane Amorim Ribeiro-Samora1 1Physical Therapy Department, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, 2Physical Therapy Department, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas, Brazil Background: Sarcopenia is a multifactorial geriatric syndrome with complex interrelationships. Increased plasma levels of inflammatory mediators increase the catabolic stimuli of the musculature, thereby causing a decrease in mass and muscular function. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the performance of the knee extensors test (by isokinetic dynamometer and plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and soluble receptors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (sTNFR1 between sarcopenics and non-sarcopenics community-dwelling elderly women residents of Brazil. Material and methods: The diagnosis of sarcopenia included measurements of body composition (by densitometry with dual energy source of X-ray, handgrip strength (by Jamar® dynamometer, and the usual gait velocity according to the recommendations of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. In both sarcopenics and non-sarcopenics elderly women, we evaluated the muscle function by knee extensors test (using an isokinetic dynamometer Byodex System 4 Pro® at angular speeds of 60°/s and 180°/s and also we evaluated the plasma concentrations of IL-6 and sTNFR1. Comparisons of muscle performance between groups were carried out using mixed factorial ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni test; sTNFR1 and IL-6 variables were analyzed by applying Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Statistical differences were observed between groups regarding muscle power (P=0.01, total work adjusted to body weight (P=0.01 at a rate of 180°/s, and plasma levels of sTNFR1 (P=0.01. Conclusion: Sarcopenic elder women showed lower performance of the lower limbs, especially at a higher speed

  12. Evaluation of biochemical parameters and productive performance of japanese quail in response to the replacement of soybean meal with canola meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Saki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to evaluation the different levels canola meal (CM replacement by soybean meal (SBM in Japanese quails diets on productive performance, egg quality trails and blood parameters including blood protein, minerals concentration, liver enzymes and thyroid hormones. In this study, 160 of Japanese quails in second laying phase from 46 to 56 weeks of age were divided in four treatments with four replicates and 10 quail in each per replicate, on a completely randomized design (CRD.Treatments consisted:T1 control (without CM, T2, T3 and T4 replacing 30, 60 and 90% of SBM with CM respectively. The results were shown no significant variation in body weight between treatments in initial and end of the experiment (p > 0.05. There was significant decrease in feed intake by increasing level of CM (p 0.05. However, the egg shell thickness showed significantly decreased with increasing levels of canola meal in the diet  (p < 0.05. According to this study results, 30% replacement of SBM by CM in the diet (contained 10% CM has no adverse effect on quail’s performance.

  13. Adjusting the specificity of an engine map based on the sensitivity of an engine control parameter relative to a performance variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Lee, Donghoon; Yilmaz, Hakan; Stefanopoulou, Anna

    2014-10-28

    Methods and systems for engine control optimization are provided. A first and a second operating condition of a vehicle engine are detected. An initial value is identified for a first and a second engine control parameter corresponding to a combination of the detected operating conditions according to a first and a second engine map look-up table. The initial values for the engine control parameters are adjusted based on a detected engine performance variable to cause the engine performance variable to approach a target value. A first and a second sensitivity of the engine performance variable are determined in response to changes in the engine control parameters. The first engine map look-up table is adjusted when the first sensitivity is greater than a threshold, and the second engine map look-up table is adjusted when the second sensitivity is greater than a threshold.

  14. Parameter analysis and optimization of the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling system under different climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Ronghui; Lu, Lin; Huang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation conditions significantly affect energy & economic performance of SLDCS. • Control parameters in three areas were optimized by Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm. • Solar collector area showed the greatest effect on system performance for humid areas. • Desiccant concentration showed greatest effect on system performance for dry areas. • Requirement of collector area, heating water and desiccant flow rates for humid areas is highest. - Abstract: Operation conditions significantly affect the energy and economic performance of solar-assisted liquid desiccant cooling systems. This study optimized the system control parameters for buildings in different climates, i.e., Singapore (hot and humid), Beijing (moderate) and Boulder (hot and dry), with a multi-parameter optimization based on the Multi-Population Genetic Algorithm to obtain optimal system performance in terms of relatively maximum electricity saving rate with a minimum cost payback period. The results indicated that the selection of operation parameters is significantly influenced by climatic conditions. The solar collector installation area exhibited the greatest effect on both energy and economic performance in humid areas, and the heating water flow rate was also important. For dry areas, a change in desiccant concentration had the largest effect on system performance. Although the effect of the desiccant flow rate was significant in humid cities, it appeared to have little influence over buildings in dry areas. Furthermore, the requirements of the solar collector installation area in humid areas were much higher. The optimized area was up to 70 m"2 in Singapore compared with 27.5 m"2 in Boulder. Similar results were found for the flow rates of heating water and the desiccant solution. Applying the optimization, humid cities could achieve an electricity saving of more than 40% with a six-year payback period. The optimal performance for hot and dry areas of a 38% electricity

  15. Sensitivity analysis of system parameters on the performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle system for binary-cycle geothermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Zhang, Chuhua

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyze the sensitivity of system parameters to the performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system quantitatively. A thermodynamic model of the ORC system for binary-cycle geothermal power plants has been developed and verified. The system parameters, such as working fluid, superheat temperature, pinch temperature difference in evaporator and condenser, evaporating temperature, the isentropic efficiencies of the cycle pump and radial inflow turbine are selected as six factors for orthogonal design. The order of factors sensitivity on performance indices of the net power output of the ORC system, the thermal efficiency, the size parameter of radial inflow turbine, the power decrease factor of the pump and the total heat transfer capacity are determined by the range obtained from the orthogonal design. At different geothermal temperatures, the ranges of the six factors corresponding to performance indices are analyzed respectively. The results show that the geothermal temperature influences the range of the factors to the net power output, SP factor of radial inflow turbine, and the total heat transfer capacity, but it has no effect for the range of the factors for the thermal efficiency and the power decrease factor of the pump. The evaporating temperature is always the primary or secondary factor that influence the thermodynamic and economic performance of the ORC system. This study would provide useful references for determining the proper design variables in the performance optimization of the ORC system at different geothermal temperatures. - Highlights: • Evaporating temperature has significant effect on performance of ORC system. • Order of system parameters' sensitivity to the performance of ORC is revealed. • Effect of system parameters on performance indices vary with geothermal temperature. • Geothermal temperature has no effect on range of six factors to the size of turbine

  16. Effects of Dietary Fermented Seaweed and Seaweed Fusiforme on Growth Performance, Carcass Parameters and Immunoglobulin Concentration in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. J. Choi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida by-product and seaweed fusiforme (Hizikia fusiformis by-product supplementation on growth performance and blood profiles including serum immunoglobulin (Ig in broilers. Fermentation of seaweeds was conducted by Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus oryzae. In a 5-wk feeding trial, 750 one-d-old broiler chicks were divided into 5 groups, and were assigned to the control diet or experimental diets including control+0.5% brown seaweed (BS by-product, control+0.5% seaweed fusiforme (SF by-product, control+0.5% fermented brown seaweed (FBS by-product, and control+0.5% fermented seaweed fusiforme (FSF by-product. As a consequence, body weight gain (BWG and gain:feed of seaweed by-product groups were clearly higher, when compared to those of control diet group from d 18 to 35 and the entire experimental period (p<0.05. In mortality rate, seaweed by-product groups were significantly lower when compared to control diet group during entire experimental period (p<0.05. However, Feed Intake of experimental diets group was not different from that of the control group during the entire experimental period. Whereas, Feed Intake of fermented seaweed by-product groups was lower than that of non-fermented seaweed groups (p<0.05. Total organ weights, lipids, and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT of all treatment groups were not different from those of control group. However, glutamic pyruvate transaminase (GPT of all treatment groups was higher than that of control group at d 17 (p<0.05. In case of serum Igs concentration, the concentration of IgA antibody in BS, SF, FSF treatment groups was significantly higher than in control group at d 35 (p<0.01. IgA concentration in FBS supplementation groups was negligibly decreased when compared to the control group. IgM concentration in the serums of all treatment groups was significantly h